Sample records for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid acc

  1. Accumulation and Transport of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid (ACC) in Plants: Current Status, Considerations for Future Research and Agronomic Applications.

    Vanderstraeten, Lisa; Van Der Straeten, Dominique


    1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is a non-protein amino acid acting as the direct precursor of ethylene, a plant hormone regulating a wide variety of vegetative and developmental processes. ACC is the central molecule of ethylene biosynthesis. The rate of ACC formation differs in response to developmental, hormonal and environmental cues. ACC can be conjugated to three derivatives, metabolized in planta or by rhizobacteria using ACC deaminase, and is transported throughout the plant over short and long distances, remotely leading to ethylene responses. This review highlights some recent advances related to ACC. These include the regulation of ACC synthesis, conjugation and deamination, evidence for a role of ACC as an ethylene-independent signal, short and long range ACC transport, and the identification of a first ACC transporter. Although unraveling the complex mechanism of ACC transport is in its infancy, new questions emerge together with the identification of a first transporter. In the light of the future quest for additional ACC transporters, this review presents perspectives of the novel findings and includes considerations for future research toward applications in agronomy.

  2. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-induced reorientation of cortical microtubules is accompanied by a transient increase in the transcript levels of gamma-tubulin complex and katanin genes in azuki bean epicotyls.

    Soga, Kouichi; Yamaguchi, Aya; Kotake, Toshihisa; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hoson, Takayuki


    The effects of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the immediate precursor of ethylene, on growth, orientation of cortical microtubules, and the transcript levels of gamma-tubulin complex (VaTUG and VaGCP3) and katanin (VaKTN1) genes in azuki bean (Vigna angularis) epicotyls were examined. ACC inhibited elongation growth and stimulated lateral growth of epicotyls dose dependently. It also reduced the percentage of cells with transverse microtubules and increased the percentage of cells with longitudinal microtubules. A significant change in elongation and lateral growth was detected within 1 and 1.5 h after the start of 10(-5) M ACC treatment, respectively. On the other hand, the reorientation of cortical microtubules from transverse to longitudinal direction began within 0.5 h, and continued until 2 h after the start of ACC treatment. ACC at 10(-5) M increased the transcript level of VaTUG, VaGCP3 and VaKTN1 within 0.5 h, and the levels of VaTUG and VaGCP3 became maximum at 1h and that of VaKTN1 at 1.5 h, followed by a decrease to the control level. These results suggest that ACC transiently increases the transcript levels of gamma-tubulin complex and katanin genes, which may facilitate reorientation of cortical microtubules and modification of growth anisotropy from elongation to lateral growth in azuki bean epicotyls.

  3. Characterization of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate (ACC) Deaminase-Containing Pseudomonas spp. in the Rhizosphere of Salt-Stressed Canola

    Akhgar, A.; Arzanlou, M.; Bakker, Peter; Hamidpour, M.


    When exposed to biotic or abiotic stress conditions, plants produce ethylene from its immediate precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1- carboxylate (ACC), leading to retarded root growth and senescence. Many plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria contain the enzyme ACC deaminase and this enzyme can cleave AC

  4. New insights into 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase phylogeny, evolution and ecological significance.

    Francisco X Nascimento

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is the study of the phylogeny, evolution and ecological importance of the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase, the activity of which represents one of the most important and studied mechanisms used by plant growth-promoting microorganisms. The ACC deaminase gene and its regulatory elements presence in completely sequenced organisms was verified by multiple searches in diverse databases, and based on the data obtained a comprehensive analysis was conducted. Strain habitat, origin and ACC deaminase activity were taken into account when analyzing the results. In order to unveil ACC deaminase origin, evolution and relationships with other closely related pyridoxal phosphate (PLP dependent enzymes a phylogenetic analysis was also performed. The data obtained show that ACC deaminase is mostly prevalent in some Bacteria, Fungi and members of Stramenopiles. Contrary to previous reports, we show that ACC deaminase genes are predominantly vertically inherited in various bacterial and fungal classes. Still, results suggest a considerable degree of horizontal gene transfer events, including interkingdom transfer events. A model for ACC deaminase origin and evolution is also proposed. This study also confirms the previous reports suggesting that the Lrp-like regulatory protein AcdR is a common mechanism regulating ACC deaminase expression in Proteobacteria, however, we also show that other regulatory mechanisms may be present in some Proteobacteria and other bacterial phyla. In this study we provide a more complete view of the role for ACC deaminase than was previously available. The results show that ACC deaminase may not only be related to plant growth promotion abilities, but may also play multiple roles in microorganism's developmental processes. Hence, exploring the origin and functioning of this enzyme may be the key in a variety of important agricultural and biotechnological applications.

  5. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase Genes in Hevea brasiliensis

    Jia-Hong Zhu


    Full Text Available Ethylene is an important factor that stimulates Hevea brasiliensis to produce natural rubber. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS is a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. However, knowledge of the ACS gene family of H. brasiliensis is limited. In this study, nine ACS-like genes were identified in H. brasiliensis. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis results confirmed that seven isozymes (HbACS1–7 of these nine ACS-like genes were similar to ACS isozymes with ACS activity in other plants. Expression analysis results showed that seven ACS genes were differentially expressed in roots, barks, flowers, and leaves of H. brasiliensis. However, no or low ACS gene expression was detected in the latex of H. brasiliensis. Moreover, seven genes were differentially up-regulated by ethylene treatment. These results provided relevant information to help determine the functions of the ACS gene in H. brasiliensis, particularly the functions in regulating ethylene stimulation of latex production.

  6. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminases from Methylobacterium radiotolerans and Methylobacterium nodulans with higher specificity for ACC.

    Fedorov, Dmitry N; Ekimova, Galina A; Doronina, Nina V; Trotsenko, Yuri A


    The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminases (EC, the key enzymes of degradation of the precursor of the phytohormone ethylene, have not been well studied despite their great importance for plant-bacterial interactions. Using blast, the open reading frames encoding ACC deaminases were found in the genomes of epiphytic methylotroph Methylobacterium radiotolerans JCM2831 and nodule-forming endosymbiont Methylobacterium nodulans ORS2060. These genes were named acdS and cloned; recombinant proteins were expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. The enzyme from M. nodulans displayed the highest substrate specificity among all of the characterized ACC deaminases (Km 0.80 ± 0.04 mM), whereas the enzyme from M. radiotolerans had Km 1.8 ± 0.3 mM. The kcat values were 111.8 ± 0.2 and 65.8 ± 2.8 min(-1) for the enzymes of M. nodulans and M. radiotolerans, respectively. Both enzymes are homotetramers with a molecular mass of 144 kDa, as was demonstrated by size exclusion chromatography and native PAGE. The purified enzymes displayed the maximum activity at 45-50 °C and pH 8.0. Thus, the priority data have been obtained, extending the knowledge of biochemical properties of bacterial ACC deaminases.

  7. Studies of 1-Amino-2,2-difluorocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid: Mechanism of Decomposition and Inhibition of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Deaminase.

    Liu, Cheng-Hao; Wang, Shao-An; Ruszczycky, Mark W; Chen, Huawei; Li, Keqiang; Murakami, Kazuo; Liu, Hung-wen


    1-Amino-2,2-difluorocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (DFACC) is of interest in the study of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase due to the increased reactivity of its cyclopropyl functionality. It is shown that DFACC is unstable under near-physiological conditions where it primarily decomposes via specific-base catalysis to 3-fluoro-2-oxobut-3-enoic acid with a rate constant of 0.18 ± 0.01 min(-1). Upon incubation with ACC deaminase, DFACC is found to be a slow-dissociating inhibitor of ACC deaminase with submicromolar affinity.

  8. Expression of the 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Deaminase Gene Requires Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Regulator Gene nifA2 in Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099

    Nukui, Noriyuki; MINAMISAWA, KIWAMU; Ayabe, Shin-Ichi; Aoki, Toshio


    Many soil bacteria contain 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, which degrades ACC, a precursor of the phytohormone ethylene. In order to examine the regulation of the acdS gene encoding ACC deaminase in Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 during symbiosis with the host legume Lotus japonicus, we introduced the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene into acdS so that GUS was expressed under control of the acdS promoter, and we also generated disruption mutants with mutations in a nitrogen fix...

  9. Biosynthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and ethylene from delta-aminolevulinic acid in ripening tomato fruits

    El-Rayes, D.E.D.A.


    A new pathway for ethylene (C/sub 2/H/sub 4/) biosynthesis, which utilizes delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) as a precursor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the immediate precursor of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, is presented. ALA enhanced ACC accumulation to 410% and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production to 232% of the control. The C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate varied with the ALA concentration and the stage of tomato fruit development. As the ALA concentration increased from zero to 40 mM, the C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate increased. Both treated and untreated pericarp discs from fruits at the pink stage of development yielded the largest C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate. Radioactivity from (2,3-/sup 3/H)ALA was detected in both ACC and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, and radioactivity from (4-/sup 14/C)ALA was detected in ACC and CO/sub 2/ but not in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/. However, radioactivity from (5-/sup 14/C)ALA was detected in CO/sub 2/, and its amount was greater than that obtained from (4-/sup 14/C)ALA. Neither ACC nor C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ showed any radioactivity when (5-/sup 14/C)ALA was supplied to the fruit discs. In addition, when (2,3-/sup 3/H)ALA or (4-/sup 14/C)ALA was supplied to the fruit discs, radioactivity was detected in other metabolites such as fumarate, succinate, malate, glutamate, glutamine, ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, and methionine, but the amount of radioactivity was insignificant as compared with the amount of radioactivity found in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and ACC.

  10. Study the effect of bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACC deaminase on resistance to salt stress in tomato plant

    Maryam SADRNIA


    Full Text Available 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACC deaminase produced by rhizobacteria could be remove theethylene precursor and stimulate plant growth. Aim of the work was investigation on effect of rhizosphere bacteria Pseudomonasmendocina containing plasmid carrying gene encoding ACC deaminase on resistance of tomato plant to salinity. Amplification ofacds gene in selected Pseudomonas was performed; the g e n e w a s c l o n e d i n Escherichia coli and was cloned subsequently in P.mendocina. Enzyme activity was determined in cloned Escherichia coli and cloned P. mendocina for confirmation of geneexpression. Effect of bacterial ACC deaminase on resistance of tomato plants to NaCl was studied in Pot and Greenhouse. In potexperiment, tomato plant treated by cloned P. mendocina was compared with plants treated by P. mendocina (without plasmid andcontrol group. Salinity were established by adding 172 and 207 mM of NaCl to irrigated water. Greenhouse experiments wereconducted in similar groups of bacteria in 207 mM of NaCl. Results obtained from pot experiment revealed that plants treated bycloned P. mendocina in 172 mM of NaCl was showed increasing content of growth than ones treated by P. mendocina and controlas 11%, 18.4% growth for the shoot, 16.6%, 3.7% for roots and 9.6%, 27.5% for wet weight after five weeks, respectively. In 207mM of NaCl, the results were as 14.9 %, 9.7% for shoot, 94.3%, 15.7% for roots and 96.4%, 50.6% for wet weight, respectively. Ingreenhouse experiment, results in same parameter in 207 mM of NaCl were revealed as 63.7%, 7 times for shoot, 2.8, 14 times forroots and 66.1%, 154 times for wet weight, respectively. We concluded that recombinant P. mendocina producing ACC deaminaseby reduction of ethylene content of tomato plant in high salt concentrations could result in improvement of plant resistance tosalinity.

  11. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Transported from Roots to Shoots Promotes Leaf Abscission in Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) Seedlings Rehydrated after Water Stress.

    Tudela, D; Primo-Millo, E


    The effect of water stress and subsequent rehydration on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content, ACC synthase activity, ethylene production, and leaf abscission was studied in Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) seedlings. Leaf abscission occurred when drought-stressed plants were allowed to rehydrate, whereas no abscission was observed in plants under water stress conditions. In roots of water-stressed plants, a high ACC accumulation and an increase in ACC synthase activity were observed. Neither increase in ACC content nor significant ethylene production were detected in leaves of water-stressed plants. After rehydration, a sharp rise in ACC content and ethylene production was observed in leaves of water-stressed plants. Content of ACC in xylem fluid was 10-fold higher in plants rehydrated for 2 h after water stress than in nonstressed plants. Leaf abscission induced by rehydration after drought stress was inhibited when roots or shoots were treated before water stress with aminooxyacetic acid (AOA, inhibitor of ACC synthase) or cobalt ion (inhibitor of ethylene-forming enzyme), respectively. However, AOA treatments to shoots did not suppress leaf abscission. The data indicate that water stress promotes ACC synthesis in roots of Cleopatra mandarin seedlings. Rehydration of plants results in ACC transport to the shoots, where it is oxidized to ethylene. Subsequently, this ethylene induces leaf abscission.

  12. The Influence of Co-Suppressing Tomato 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase Ⅰ on the Expression of Fruit Ripening-Related and Pathogenesis-Related Protein Genes

    HU Zong-li; CHEN Xu-qing; CHEN Guo-ping; L(U) Li-juan; Grierson Donald


    The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of co-suppressing tomato ACC oxidase I on the expression of fruit ripening-related and pathogenesis-related protein genes, and on the biosynthesis of endogenous ethylene and storage ability of fruits. Specific fragments of several fruit ripening-related and pathogenesis-related protein genes from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were cloned, such as the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase 1 gene (LeACO1), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase 3 gene (LeAC03), EIN3-binding F-box 1 gene (LeEBF1), pathogenesisrelated protein 1 gene (LePR1), pathogenesis-related protein 5 gene (LePR5), and pathogenesis-related protein osmotin precursor gene (LeNP24) by PCR or RT-PCR. Then these specific DNA fragments were used as probes to hybridize with the total RNAs extracted from the wild type tomato Ailsa Craig (AC++) and the LeACO1 co-suppression tomatoes (V1187 and T4B), respectively. At the same time, ethylene production measurement and storage experiment of tomato fruits were carried out. The hybridization results indicated that the expression of fruit ripening-related genes such as LeACO3 and LeEBF1, and pathogenesis-related protein genes such as LePR1, LePR5, and LeNP24, were reduced sharply, and the ethylene production in the fruits, wounded leaves decreased and the storage time of ripening fruits was prolonged, when the expression of LeACO1 gene in the transgenic tomato was suppressed. In the co-suppression tomatoes, the expression of fruit ripening-related and pathogenesis-related protein genes were restrained at different degrees, the biosynthesis of endogenous ethylene decreased and the storage ability of tomato fruits increased.

  13. Deletion of the carboxyl-terminal region of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, a key protein in the biosynthesis of ethylene, results in catalytically hyperactive, monomeric enzyme.

    Li, N; Mattoo, A K


    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase is a key enzyme regulating biosynthesis of the plant hormone ethylene. The expression of an enzymatically active, wound-inducible tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv Pik-Red) ACC synthase (485 amino acids long) in a heterologous Escherichia coli system allowed us to study the importance of hypervariable COOH terminus in enzymatic activity and protein conformation. We constructed several deletion mutants of the gene, expressed these in E. coli, purified the protein products to apparent homogeneity, and analyzed both conformation and enzyme kinetic parameters of the wild-type and truncated ACC syntheses. Deletion of the COOH terminus through Arg429 results in complete inactivation of the enzyme. Deletion of 46-52 amino acids from the COOH terminus results in an enzyme that has nine times higher affinity for the substrate S-adenosylmethionine than the wild-type enzyme. The highly efficient, truncated ACC synthase was found to be a monomer of 52 +/- 1.8 kDa as determined by gel filtration, whereas the wild-type ACC synthase, analyzed under similar conditions, is a dimer. These results demonstrate that the non-conserved COOH terminus of ACC synthase affects its enzymatic function as well as dimerization.

  14. Simultaneous analysis of apolar phytohormones and 1-aminocyclopropan-1-carboxylic acid by high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray negative ion tandem mass spectrometry via 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride derivatization.

    Ziegler, Jörg; Qwegwer, Jakob; Schubert, Melvin; Erickson, Jessica L; Schattat, Martin; Bürstenbinder, Katharina; Grubb, C Douglas; Abel, Steffen


    A strategy to detect and quantify the polar ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropan-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) along with the more apolar phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), jasmonic acid-isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile), 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), trans-zeatin, and trans-zeatin 9-riboside using a single extraction is presented. Solid phase resins commonly employed for extraction of phytohormones do not allow the recovery of ACC. We circumvent this problem by attaching an apolar group to ACC via derivatization with the amino group specific reagent 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride (Fmoc-Cl). Derivatization in the methanolic crude extract does not modify other phytohormones. The derivatized ACC could be purified and detected together with the more apolar phytohormones using common solid phase extraction resins and reverse phase HPLC/electrospray negative ion tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was in the low nanomolar range for all phytohormones, a sensitivity sufficient to accurately determine the phytohormone levels from less than 50mg (fresh weight) of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana tissues. Comparison with previously published phytohormone levels and the reported changes in phytohormone levels after stress treatments confirmed the accuracy of the method.

  15. The cloned 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase gene from Sinorhizobium sp. strain BL3 in Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 promotes nodulation and growth of Leucaena leucocephala.

    Tittabutr, Panlada; Awaya, Jonathan D; Li, Qing X; Borthakur, Dulal


    The objective of this study was to determine the role of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase of symbionts in nodulation and growth of Leucaena leucocephala. The acdS genes encoding ACC deaminase were cloned from Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 and Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 in multicopy plasmids, and transferred to TAL1145. The BL3-acdS gene greatly enhanced ACC deaminase activity in TAL1145 compared to the native acdS gene. The transconjugants of TAL1145 containing the native or BL3 acdS gene could grow in minimal media containing 1.5mM ACC, whereas BL3 could tolerate up to 3mM ACC. The TAL1145 acdS gene was inducible by mimosine and not by ACC, while the BL3 acdS gene was highly inducible by ACC and not by mimosine. The transconjugants of TAL1145 containing the native- and BL3-acdS genes formed nodules with greater number and sizes, and produced higher root mass on L. leucocephala than by TAL1145. This study shows that the introduction of multiple copies of the acdS gene increased ACC deaminase activities of TAL1145 and enhanced its symbiotic efficiency on L. leucocephala.

  16. Silicon-mediated changes in polyamine and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid are involved in silicon-induced drought resistance in Sorghum bicolor L.

    Yin, Lina; Wang, Shiwen; Liu, Peng; Wang, Wenhua; Cao, Dan; Deng, Xiping; Zhang, Suiqi


    The fact that silicon application alleviates drought stress has been widely reported, but the mechanism it underlying remains unclear. Here, morphologic and physiological changes were investigated in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) seedlings treated with silicon and exposed to PEG-simulated drought stress for seven days. Drought stress dramatically decreased growth parameters (biomass, root/shoot ratio, leaf area, chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic rate), while silicon application reduced the drought-induced decreases in those parameters. Leaf relative water content and transpiration rate were maintained at high levels compared to those in seedlings without silicon. The soluble sugar contents were increased, but the proline contents and the osmotic potential were decreased, showing that osmotic adjustment did not contribute to the silicon induced-drought resistance. Furthermore, levels of both free and conjugated polyamines (PAs) levels, including putrescine, spermidine and spermine, were all found to be increased by silicon under drought stress both in leaf and root. Meanwhile, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the precursor of ethylene, was markedly decreased by supplemental silicon. Several key PA synthesis genes were upregulated by silicon under drought stress. These results suggest that silicon improves sorghum drought resistance by mediating the balance of PAs and ethylene levels. In leaf, the increased PAs and decreased ACC help to retard leaf senescence. In root, the balance between PAs and ACC participates in the modulation of root plasticity, increases the root/shoot ratio, and contributes to an increase in water uptake. These results suggest that silicon increases drought resistance through regulating several important physiological processes in plants.

  17. RNA interference of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) genes expression prolongs the shelf life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) papaya fruit.

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants.

  18. RNA Interference of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2 Genes Expression Prolongs the Shelf Life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L. Papaya Fruit

    Rogayah Sekeli


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6. Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants.

  19. Gibberellic Acid, Synthetic Auxins, and Ethylene Differentially Modulate α-l-Arabinofuranosidase Activities in Antisense 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Synthase Tomato Pericarp Discs1

    Sozzi, Gabriel O.; Greve, L. Carl; Prody, Gerry A.; Labavitch, John M.


    α-l-Arabinofuranosidases (α-Afs) are plant enzymes capable of releasing terminal arabinofuranosyl residues from cell wall matrix polymers, as well as from different glycoconjugates. Three different α-Af isoforms were distinguished by size exclusion chromatography of protein extracts from control tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) and an ethylene synthesis-suppressed (ESS) line expressing an antisense 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic synthase transgene. α-Af I and II are active throughout fruit ontogeny. α-Af I is the first Zn-dependent cell wall enzyme isolated from tomato pericarp tissues, thus suggesting the involvement of zinc in fruit cell wall metabolism. This isoform is inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline, but remains stable in the presence of NaCl and sucrose. α-Af II activity accounts for over 80% of the total α-Af activity in 10-d-old fruit, but activity drops during ripening. In contrast, α-Af III is ethylene dependent and specifically active during ripening. α-Af I released monosaccharide arabinose from KOH-soluble polysaccharides from tomato cell walls, whereas α-Af II and III acted on Na2CO3-soluble pectins. Different α-Af isoform responses to gibberellic acid, synthetic auxins, and ethylene were followed by using a novel ESS mature-green tomato pericarp disc system. α-Af I and II activity increased when gibberellic acid or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was applied, whereas ethylene treatment enhanced only α-Af III activity. Results suggest that tomato α-Afs are encoded by a gene family under differential hormonal controls, and probably have different in vivo functions. The ESS pericarp explant system allows comprehensive studies involving effects of physiological levels of different growth regulators on gene expression and enzyme activity with negligible wound-induced ethylene production. PMID:12114586

  20. The Effect of Ethylene and Propylene Pulses on Respiration, Ripening Advancement, Ethylene-Forming Enzyme, and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase Activity in Avocado Fruit.

    Starrett, D A; Laties, G G


    When early-season avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) were treated with ethylene or propylene for 24 hours immediately on picking, the time to the onset of the respiratory climacteric, i.e. the lag period, remained unchanged compared with that in untreated fruit. When fruit were pulsed 24 hours after picking, on the other hand, the lag period was shortened. In both cases, however, a 24 hour ethylene or propylene pulse induced a transient increase in respiration, called the pulse-peak, unaccompanied by ethylene production (IL Eaks [1980] Am Soc Hortic Sci 105: 744-747). The pulse also caused a sharp rise in ethylene-forming enzyme activity in both cases, without any increase in the low level of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase activity. Thus, the shortening of the lag period by an ethylene pulse is not due to an effect of ethylene on either of the two key enzymes in ethylene biosynthesis. A comparison of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis polypeptide profiles of in vitro translation products of poly(A(+)) mRNA from control and ethylene-pulsed fruit showed both up- and down-regulation in response to ethylene pulsing of a number of genes expressed during the ripening syndrome. It is proposed that the pulse-peak or its underlying events reflect an intrinsic element in the ripening process that in late-season or continuously ethylene-treated fruit may be subsumed in the overall climacteric response. A computerized system that allows continuous readout of multiple samples has established that the continued presentation of exogeneous ethylene or propylene to preclimacteric fruit elicits a dual respiration response comprising the merged pulse-peak and climacteric peak in series. The sequential removal of cores from a single fruit has proven an unsatisfactory sampling procedure inasmuch as coring induces wound ethylene, evokes a positive respiration response, and advances ripening.

  1. Differential expression of two genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase in tomato fruits

    Olson, D.C.; White, J.A.; Edelman, L.; Kende, H. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States)); Harkins, R.N. (Berlex Biosciences, Alameda, CA (United States))


    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase is the regulated enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of the plant hormone ethylene. A full-length cDNA encoding this enzyme has been cloned from tomato fruits. The authors report here the complete nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences of a cDNA encoding a second isoform of ACC synthase from tomato fruits. The cDNAs coding for both isoforms contain highly conserved regions that are surrounded by regions of low homology, especially at the 5{prime} and 3{prime} ends. Gene-specific probes were constructed to examine the expression of transcripts encoding the two ACC synthase isoforms under two conditions of enhanced ethylene formation--namely, during fruit ripening and in response to mechanical stress (wounding). The level of mRNA encoding both isoforms, ACC synthase 1 and 2, increased during ripening. In contrast, wounding caused an increase in only the level of mRNA coding for ACC synthase 1. Blot analysis of genomic DNA digested with restriction enzymes confirmed that ACC synthase 1 and 2 are encoded by different genes.

  2. Identification and characterization of a full-length cDNA encoding for an auxin-induced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase from etiolated mung bean hypocotyl segments and expression of its mRNA in response to indole-3-acetic acid.

    Botella, J R; Arteca, J M; Schlagnhaufer, C D; Arteca, R N; Phillips, A T


    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (EC is the key regulatory enzyme in the ethylene biosynthetic pathway. The identification and characterization of a full-length cDNA (pAIM-1) 1941 bp in length for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-induced ACC synthase is described in this paper. The pAIM-1 clone has an 87 bp leader and a 402 bp trailing sequence. The open reading frame is 1452 bp long encoding for a 54.6 kDa polypeptide (484 amino acids) which has a calculated isoelectric point of 6.0. In vitro transcription and translation experiments support the calculated molecular weight and show that the enzyme does not undergo processing. Eleven of the twelve amino acid residues which are conserved in aminotransferases are found in pAIM-1. The sequence for pMAC-1 which is one of the 5 genes we have identified in mung bean is contained in pAIM-1. pAIM-1 shares between 52 to 65% homology with previously reported sequences for ACC synthase at the protein level. There is little detectable pAIM-1 message found in untreated mung bean tissues; however, expression is apparent within 30 min following the addition of 10 microM IAA reaching a peak after approximately 5 h with a slight decrease in message after 12 h. These changes in message correlate with changes in ACC levels found in these tissues following treatment with 10 microM IAA.

  3. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties of banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 1 and study of its interaction with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and aminoethoxyvinylglycine.

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N


    In banana, ethylene production for ripening is accompanied by a dramatic increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) content, transcript level of Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1 (MA-ACS1) and the enzymatic activity of ACC synthase 1 at the onset of the climacteric period. MA-ACS1 catalyses the conversion of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to ACC, the key regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis. Multiple sequence alignments of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) amino acid sequences based on database searches have indicated that MA-ACS1 is a highly conserved protein across the plant kingdom. This report describes an in silico analysis to provide the first important insightful information about the sequential, structural and phylogenetic characteristics of MA-ACS1. The three-dimensional structure of MA-ACS1, constructed based on homology modelling, in combination with the available data enabled a comparative mechanistic analysis of MA-ACS1 to explain the catalytic roles of the conserved and non-conserved active site residues. We have further demonstrated that, as in apple and tomato, banana- ACS1 (MA-ACS1) forms a homodimer and a complex with cofactor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) and inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). We have also predicted that the residues from the PLP-binding pocket, essential for ligand binding, are mostly conserved across the MA-ACS1 structure and the competitive inhibitor AVG binds at a location adjacent to PLP.

  4. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties of banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 1 and study of its interaction with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and aminoethoxyvinylglycine

    Swarup Roy Choudhury; Sanjay Kumar Singh; Sujit Roy; Dibyendu N Sengupta


    In banana, ethylene production for ripening is accompanied by a dramatic increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) content, transcript level of Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1 (MA-ACS1) and the enzymatic activity of ACC synthase 1 at the onset of the climacteric period. MA-ACS1 catalyses the conversion of -adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to ACC, the key regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis. Multiple sequence alignments of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) amino acid sequences based on database searches have indicated that MA-ACS1 is a highly conserved protein across the plant kingdom. This report describes an in silico analysis to provide the first important insightful information about the sequential, structural and phylogenetic characteristics of MA-ACS1. The three-dimensional structure of MA-ACS1, constructed based on homology modelling, in combination with the available data enabled a comparative mechanistic analysis of MA-ACS1 to explain the catalytic roles of the conserved and non-conserved active site residues. We have further demonstrated that, as in apple and tomato, banana-ACS1 (MA-ACS1) forms a homodimer and a complex with cofactor pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) and inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). We have also predicted that the residues from the PLP-binding pocket, essential for ligand binding, are mostly conserved across the MA-ACS1 structure and the competitive inhibitor AVG binds at a location adjacent to PLP.


    Edi Husen


    Full Text Available Pseudomonad producing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase (E.C. has been known to promote plant growth by lowering ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants, which can be induced by indole-3-acetic acid (IAA production. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of IAAproducing Pseudomonas isolated from local soil environment (rhizosphere of soybean grown in Plumbon's agricultural areain Cirebon, West Java, Indonesia to promote soybean root growth in relation to their ACC deaminase activities. The experiments were conducted in growth room and Laboratory of Soil Biology Research, Indonesian Soil Research Institute, Bogor, from January to August 2008. Soybean seeds were inoculated by immersing the seeds for 1 hour in bacterial cell suspension containing approximately 108-109 cells ml-1. The seeds were then germinatedfor 2 days before planting in growth pouches containing sterilized distilled water. All treated and untreated seeds were grown for 7 days in growth room at 24°C with 1300 lux of light intensity for 12-hour followed by a 12-hour dark period at 22°C. ACC deaminase activity of the isolates was assayed based on their ability to grow in Dworkin-Foster’s salt minimal medium containing ammonium sulfate or ACC as a source of nitrogen. Thirteen out of 81 isolates tested significantly increased soybean root length and weight, up to 50% from untreated plants. Of 13 isolates, 11 demonstrated ACC deaminase activities. Two isolates that did not show ACC deaminase activities had lower capacity to produce IAA. The results suggest that the effectiveness of IAA producing Pseudomonas in promoting the growth of the soybean seedlings is associated with their ACC deaminase activities or they produce IAA at low levels.

  6. Arabidopsis ETO1 specifically interacts with and negatively regulates type 2 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases

    Saito Koji


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Arabidopsis, ETO1 (ETHYLENE-OVERPRODUCER1 is a negative regulator of ethylene evolution by interacting with AtACS5, an isoform of the rate-limiting enzyme, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases (ACC synthase or ACS, in ethylene biosynthetic pathway. ETO1 directly inhibits the enzymatic activity of AtACS5. In addition, a specific interaction between ETO1 and AtCUL3, a constituent of a new type of E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, suggests the molecular mechanism in promoting AtACS5 degradation by the proteasome-dependent pathway. Because orthologous sequences to ETO1 are found in many plant species including tomato, we transformed tomato with Arabidopsis ETO1 to evaluate its ability to suppress ethylene production in tomato fruits. Results Transgenic tomato lines that overexpress Arabidopsis ETO1 (ETO1-OE did not show a significant delay of fruit ripening. So, we performed yeast two-hybrid assays to investigate potential heterologous interaction between ETO1 and three isozymes of ACC synthases from tomato. In the yeast two-hybrid system, ETO1 interacts with LE-ACS3 as well as AtACS5 but not with LE-ACS2 or LE-ACS4, two major isozymes whose gene expression is induced markedly in ripening fruits. According to the classification of ACC synthases, which is based on the C-terminal amino acid sequences, both LE-ACS3 and AtACS5 are categorized as type 2 isozymes and possess a consensus C-terminal sequence. In contrast, LE-ACS2 and LE-ACS4 are type 1 and type 3 isozymes, respectively, both of which do not possess this specific C-terminal sequence. Yeast two-hybrid analysis using chimeric constructs between LE-ACS2 and LE-ACS3 revealed that the type-2-ACS-specific C-terminal tail is required for interaction with ETO1. When treated with auxin to induce LE-ACS3, seedlings of ETO1-OE produced less ethylene than the wild type, despite comparable expression of the LE-ACS3 gene in the wild type. Conclusion These results suggest that ETO1

  7. 应用1-氨基环丙烷-1-羧酸脱氨酶产生菌提高双孢蘑菇产量%Application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Deaminase Producing Bacterium for Increasing the Yield of the Button Mushroom

    程雁; 王景冒; 张岩; 杨潜龙; 邱立友


    比较了6种覆土处理对双孢蘑菇产量的影响. 6种覆土处理分别是常规覆土、常规覆土+恶臭假单胞菌UW4菌剂(用量为覆土干重的2%)、灭菌常规覆土、灭菌常规覆土+UW4菌剂(用量为覆土干重的2%)、灭菌蛭石和灭菌蛭石+UW4菌剂(用量为蛭石干重的2%). UW4是常用的植物根际促生细菌1-氨基环丙烷-1-羧酸(ACC)脱氨酶产生菌. 结果表明,灭菌蛭石+UW4菌剂处理出菇最早,产量最高,无杂菌污染,出菇比其他处理提早1~8 d,比常规覆土提早3 d,第一潮和第二潮菇产量之和比其他处理提高19.8%~115%,比常规覆土提高35.1%. 采收二潮菇后,不同处理覆土材料中细菌和ACC脱氨酶产生菌的数量均与菇产量呈显著的正相关. 本研究结果提示,灭菌蛭石中添加ACC脱氨酶产生菌剂替代传统覆土是实现双孢蘑菇绿色、高效生产的有效方式.%In this study,the effects of the six casing treatments on the yield of the button mushroom were compared. The six casing treatments were that soil casing,soil+Pseudomonas putida UW4 bacterial agent(2%of the soil dry weight),sterilized soil,sterilized soil+UW4 bacterial agent(2% of the soil dry weight),sterilized vermiculite,and sterilized vermiculite+UW4 bacterial agent(2% of the vermiculite dry weight),respectively. Pseudomonas putida UW4 is commonly used as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid(ACC)deaminase producing bacteria. The results showed that the fruiting bodies emerged earliest (the duration from casing to primordium initiation was earlier 1-8 d)and the yield of the first and second crops was the highest(higher 19.8%to 115%)with not any contamination by casing sterilized vermiculite+UW4 compared to the other casing treatments. In details,casing of sterilized vermiculite+UW4 the fruiting bodies emerged earlier 3 d and the yield of the first and second crops was higher 35.1%than that of soil casing. The number of bacteria

  8. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Oxidase Activity Limits Ethylene Biosynthesis in Rumex palustris during Submergence

    Vriezen, Wim H.; Hulzink, Raymond; Mariani, Celestina; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J.


    Submergence strongly stimulates petiole elongation in Rumex palustris, and ethylene accumulation initiates and maintains this response in submerged tissues. cDNAs from R. palustris corresponding to a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase gene (RP-ACO1) were isolated from elongating petioles and used to study the expression of the corresponding gene. An increase in RP-ACO1 messenger was observed in the petioles and lamina of elongating leaves 2 h after the start of submergence. ACC oxidase enzyme activity was measured in homogenates of R. palustris shoots, and a relevant increase was observed within 12 h under water with a maximum after 24 h. We have shown previously that the ethylene production rate of submerged shoots does not increase significantly during the first 24 h of submergence (L.A.C.J. Voesenek, M. Banga, R.H. Thier, C.M. Mudde, F.M. Harren, G.W.M. Barendse, C.W.P.M. Blom [1993] Plant Physiol 103: 783–791), suggesting that under these conditions ACC oxidase activity is inhibited in vivo. We found evidence that this inhibition is caused by a reduction of oxygen levels. We hypothesize that an increased ACC oxidase enzyme concentration counterbalances the reduced enzyme activity caused by low oxygen concentration during submergence, thus sustaining ethylene production under these conditions. Therefore, ethylene biosynthesis seems to be limited at the level of ACC oxidase activity rather than by ACC synthase in R. palustris during submergence. PMID:10482674

  9. Isolation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene from Oncidium Gower Ramsey.

    Yang, G H; Liu, J P


    A full-length cDNA of a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) family member from Oncidium, named OnACS1 (GenBank accession No. JQ822087) was cloned and characterized by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends technology. The full-length cDNA was 1586 bp, including a 1308-bp open reading frame, a 105-bp 5' untranslated region (UTR), and 173-bp 3' UTR, encoding 436 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of OnACS1 shares 85, 84, and 83% homology with ACS proteins of Cattleya bicolor, Dendrobium crumenatum, and Phalaenopsis hybrid, respectively. Prokaryotic expression and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that a specific band was produced and was consistent with the predicted protein size. A tissue-specific manner of OnACS1 expression was observed, and it was predominantly expressed in the gynostemium. The OnACS1 expression in the sepals and gynandria was upregulated by 1% ethephon treatment.

  10. Dynamic 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate-Synthase and -Oxidase Transcript Accumulation Patterns during Pollen Tube Growth in Tobacco Styles1

    Weterings, Koen; Pezzotti, Mario; Cornelissen, Marc; Mariani, Celestina


    In flowering plants, pollination of the stigma sets off a cascade of responses in the distal flower organs. Ethylene and its biosynthetic precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) play an important role in regulating these responses. Because exogenous application of ethylene or ACC does not invoke the full postpollination syndrome, the pollination signal probably consists of a more complex set of stimuli. We set out to study how and when the pollination signal moves through the style of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) by analyzing the expression patterns of pistil-expressed ACC-synthase and -oxidase genes. Results from this analysis showed that pollination induces high ACC-oxidase transcript levels in all cells of the transmitting tissue. ACC-synthase mRNA accumulated only in a subset of transmitting tract cells and to lower levels as compared with ACC-oxidase. More significantly, we found that although ACC-oxidase transcripts accumulate to uniform high levels, the ACC-synthase transcripts accumulate in a wave-like pattern in which the peak coincides with the front of the ingrowing pollen tube tips. This wave of ACC-synthase expression can also be induced by incongruous pollination and (partially) by wounding. This indicates that wounding-like features of pollen tube invasion might be part of the stimuli evoking the postpollination response and that these stimuli are interpreted differently by the regulatory mechanisms of the ACC-synthase and -oxidase genes. PMID:12427986

  11. Glutathione Regulates 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Synthase Transcription via WRKY33 and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Oxidase by Modulating Messenger RNA Stability to Induce Ethylene Synthesis during Stress.

    Datta, Riddhi; Kumar, Deepak; Sultana, Asma; Hazra, Saptarshi; Bhattacharyya, Dipto; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila


    Glutathione (GSH) plays a fundamental role in plant defense-signaling network. Recently, we have established the involvement of GSH with ethylene (ET) to combat environmental stress. However, the mechanism of GSH-ET interplay still remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that GSH induces ET biosynthesis by modulating the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulations of its key enzymes, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO). Transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants with enhanced GSH content (AtECS) exhibited remarkable up-regulation of ACS2, ACS6, and ACO1 at transcript as well as protein levels, while they were down-regulated in the GSH-depleted phytoalexin deficient2-1 (pad2-1) mutant. We further observed that GSH induced ACS2 and ACS6 transcription in a WRKY33-dependent manner, while ACO1 transcription remained unaffected. On the other hand, the messenger RNA stability for ACO1 was found to be increased by GSH, which explains our above observations. In addition, we also identified the ACO1 protein to be a subject for S-glutathionylation, which is consistent with our in silico data. However, S-glutathionylation of ACS2 and ACS6 proteins was not detected. Further, the AtECS plants exhibited resistance to necrotrophic infection and salt stress, while the pad2-1 mutant was sensitive. Exogenously applied GSH could improve stress tolerance in wild-type plants but not in the ET-signaling mutant ethylene insensitive2-1, indicating that GSH-mediated resistance to these stresses occurs via an ET-mediated pathway. Together, our investigation reveals a dual-level regulation of ET biosynthesis by GSH during stress.

  12. Isolation of a Tomato Protease that May Be Involved in Proteolysis of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Synthase

    Jian-Feng LI; Liang-Hu QU; Ning LI


    1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase is a principal enzyme that catalyses the committed step in phytohormone ethylene biosynthesis. Previous evidence indicates that the hypervariable C-terminus of ACC synthase is most likely to be processed proteolytically in vivo. However, the protease responsible has not been identified thus far. In the present study, we detected proteolytic activity against ACC synthase (LeACS2) in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit extract based on a newly established in vitro assay system. Purification of the protease through DEAE, gel filtration and MonoQ chromatography resulted in considerable enrichment of a 64-kDa protein species. Subsequent biochemical analysis of the purified tomato protease revealed that the optimal conditions for its proteolytic activity were at pH 8.0 and at 37 ℃. In addition, the protease activity was blocked completely by the metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline. The present study represents the first report on the isolation of an ACC synthaseprocessing protease from plant tissues.

  13. Inhibition by 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylate of the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase obtained from senescing petals of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers.

    Kosugi, Y; Oyamada, N; Satoh, S; Yoshioka, T; Onodera, E; Yamada, Y


    We partially purified 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase from senescing petals of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Nora) flowers and investigated its general characteristics, and, in particular, the inhibition of its activity by ACC analogs. The enzyme had an optimum pH at 7-7.5 and required Fe2+, ascorbate and NaHCO3 for its maximal activity. The Km for ACC was calculated as 111-125 microM in the presence of NaHCO3. Its M(r) was estimated to be 35 and 36 kDa by gel-filtration chromatography on HPLC and SDS-PAGE, respectively, indicating that the enzyme exists in a monomeric form. These properties were in agreement with those reported previously with ACC oxidases from different plant tissues including senescing carnation petals. Among six ACC analogs tested, 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylate (ACBC) inhibited most severely the activity of ACC oxidase from carnation petals. ACBC acted as a competitive inhibitor with the Ki of 20-30 microM. The comparison between the Km for ACC and the Ki for ACBC indicated that ACBC had an affinity which was ca. 5-fold higher than that of ACC. Whereas ACC inactivated carnation ACC oxidase in a time-dependent manner during incubation, ACBC did not cause the inactivation of the enzyme. Preliminary experiments showed that ACBC and its N-substituted derivatives delayed the onset of senescence in cut carnation flowers.

  14. Characterization and optimization of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase (ACCD activity in different rhizospheric PGPR along with Microbacterium sp. strain ECI-12A

    Ashok Kumar


    Full Text Available A total of nine strains of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria were analyzed for ACC deaminase activity, where highest ACC deaminase activity was found in Klebsiella sp strain ECI-10A (539.1 nmol α-keto butyrate/ mg protein/ h and lowest in Microbacterium sp strain ECI-12A (122.0 nmol α-keto butyrate/ mg protein/ h. Although Microbacterium sp strain ECI-12A showed lowest level of ACC deaminase activity, but, the species of Microbacterium isolated from rhizosphere is the first report. Microbacterium sp strain ECI-12A was also analyzed under varying conditions of time, amount of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1- carboxylate (ACC, and temperature for optimization of the ACC deaminase activity. The optimum activity was recorded with the supplementation of 5mM ACC at 30oC temperature after 24h of culture growth. All the nine strains showed acdS gene in the PCR amplification of that gene. No any rhizospheric Microbacterium species showing ACC deaminase activity have been reported earlier, therefore, we report here ACC deaminase activity in Microbacterium sp ECI-12A isolated from rice rhizosphere is a novel finding.

  15. Novel Rhizosphere Soil Alleles for the Enzyme 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase Queried for Function with an In Vivo Competition Assay.

    Jin, Zhao; Di Rienzi, Sara C; Janzon, Anders; Werner, Jeff J; Angenent, Largus T; Dangl, Jeffrey L; Fowler, Douglas M; Ley, Ruth E


    Metagenomes derived from environmental microbiota encode a vast diversity of protein homologs. How this diversity impacts protein function can be explored through selection assays aimed to optimize function. While artificially generated gene sequence pools are typically used in selection assays, their usage may be limited because of technical or ethical reasons. Here, we investigate an alternative strategy, the use of soil microbial DNA as a starting point. We demonstrate this approach by optimizing the function of a widely occurring soil bacterial enzyme, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. We identified a specific ACC deaminase domain region (ACCD-DR) that, when PCR amplified from the soil, produced a variant pool that we could swap into functional plasmids carrying ACC deaminase-encoding genes. Functional clones of ACC deaminase were selected for in a competition assay based on their capacity to provide nitrogen to Escherichia coli in vitro. The most successful ACCD-DR variants were identified after multiple rounds of selection by sequence analysis. We observed that previously identified essential active-site residues were fixed in the original unselected library and that additional residues went to fixation after selection. We identified a divergent essential residue whose presence hints at the possible use of alternative substrates and a cluster of neutral residues that did not influence ACCD performance. Using an artificial ACCD-DR variant library generated by DNA oligomer synthesis, we validated the same fixation patterns. Our study demonstrates that soil metagenomes are useful starting pools of protein-coding-gene diversity that can be utilized for protein optimization and functional characterization when synthetic libraries are not appropriate.

  16. Screening and identification of an endophytic bacterium with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity from Panax ginseng and its effect on host growth%一株人参内生1-氨基环丙烷-1-1羧酸(ACC)脱氨酶活性细菌的筛选、鉴定及其对宿主生长的影响

    田磊; 姜云; 陈长卿; 张冠军; 李桐; 佟斌; 许朋


    [目的]从人参内生细菌中获得具有1-氨基环丙烷1-羧酸(ACC)脱氨酶活性的菌株,并进行促生效果的验证.[方法]结合初筛和复筛的方法筛选具有ACC脱氨酶活性的人参内生菌株;采用Ashby培养基和固氮酶基因验证其固氮潜能;菌碟法及钼锑抗比色法测定其解磷能力;CAS方法检测产生铁载体能力;通过室内及田间试验测定菌株对人参生长的促进作用.通过形态学、生理生化测定及16S rRNA序列分析明确菌株的分类地位.[结果]从120株人参内生菌中获得了一株具有较高ACC脱氨酶活性的菌株JJ8-3,其酶活性为仅-酮丁酸6.7 μmol/(mg·h);且具有解磷特性、固氮潜能和产生铁载体能力;能明显促进人参种子及根部的生长;经鉴定菌株J J8-3为荧光假单胞菌(Pseudomonas fluorescens).[结论]获得了一株具有ACC脱氨酶活性的人参内生细菌,将为其在促进植物生长中的应用和研究奠定基础.

  17. Identification and characterization of three putative genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase from etiolated mung bean hypocotyl segments.

    Botella, J R; Schlagnhaufer, C D; Arteca, R N; Phillips, A T


    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to produce 3 putative clones for ACC synthase from etiolated mung bean (Vigna radiata Rwilcz cv. Berken) hypocotyls. This was accomplished by utilizing genomic DNA from mung bean and degenerate primers made from information derived from highly conserved regions of ACC synthase from different plant tissues. The total length of pMAC-1, pMAC-2 and pMAC-3 are 308, 321, and 326 bp, respectively, all of which code for 68 amino acids. The introns for pMAC-1, pMAC-2 and pMAC-3 are 92, 105, and 110 bp, respectively. The degrees of homology at the DNA level for each of these clones is ca. 80% in their coding region and ca. 50% in their respective introns. This is the first report providing evidence that there are at least 3 genes for ACC synthase in etiolated mung bean.

  18. Inoculation of soil with plant growth promoting bacteria producing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase or expression the corresponding acdS gene in transgenic plants increases salinity tolerance in Camelina sativa.

    Zohreh Heydarian


    Full Text Available Camelina sativa (camelina is an oilseed crop touted for use on marginal lands; however, it is no more tolerant of soil salinity than traditional crops, such as canola. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB that produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACC deaminase facilitate plant growth in the presence of abiotic stresses by reducing stress ethylene. Rhizospheric and endophytic PGPB and the corresponding acdS- mutants of the latter were examined for their ability to enhance tolerance to salt in camelina. Stimulation of growth and tolerance to salt was correlated with ACC deaminase production. Inoculation of soil with wild-type PGPB led to increased shoot length in the absence of salt, and increased seed production by approximately 30-50 percent under moderately saline conditions. The effect of ACC deaminase was further examined in transgenic camelina expressing a bacterial gene encoding ACC deaminase (acdS under the regulation of the CaMV 35S promoter or the root-specific rolD promoter. Lines expressing acdS, in particular those using the rolD promoter, showed less decline in root length and weight, increased seed production, better seed quality and higher levels of seed oil production under salt stress. This study clearly demonstrates the potential benefit of using either PGPB that produce ACC deaminase or transgenic plants expressing the acdS gene under the control of a root-specific promoter to facilitate plant growth, seed production and seed quality on land that is not normally suitable for the majority of crops due to high salt content.

  19. Inoculation of Soil with Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Producing 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase or Expression of the Corresponding acdS Gene in Transgenic Plants Increases Salinity Tolerance in Camelina sativa.

    Heydarian, Zohreh; Yu, Min; Gruber, Margaret; Glick, Bernard R; Zhou, Rong; Hegedus, Dwayne D


    Camelina sativa (camelina) is an oilseed crop touted for use on marginal lands; however, it is no more tolerant of soil salinity than traditional crops, such as canola. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) that produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACC deaminase) facilitate plant growth in the presence of abiotic stresses by reducing stress ethylene. Rhizospheric and endophytic PGPB and the corresponding acdS- mutants of the latter were examined for their ability to enhance tolerance to salt in camelina. Stimulation of growth and tolerance to salt was correlated with ACC deaminase production. Inoculation of soil with wild-type PGPB led to increased shoot length in the absence of salt, and increased seed production by approximately 30-50% under moderately saline conditions. The effect of ACC deaminase was further examined in transgenic camelina expressing a bacterial gene encoding ACC deaminase (acdS) under the regulation of the CaMV 35S promoter or the root-specific rolD promoter. Lines expressing acdS, in particular those using the rolD promoter, showed less decline in root length and weight, increased seed production, better seed quality and higher levels of seed oil production under salt stress. This study clearly demonstrates the potential benefit of using either PGPB that produce ACC deaminase or transgenic plants expressing the acdS gene under the control of a root-specific promoter to facilitate plant growth, seed production and seed quality on land that is not normally suitable for the majority of crops due to high salt content.

  20. Inoculation of Soil with Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Producing 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase or Expression of the Corresponding acdS Gene in Transgenic Plants Increases Salinity Tolerance in Camelina sativa

    Heydarian, Zohreh; Yu, Min; Gruber, Margaret; Glick, Bernard R.; Zhou, Rong; Hegedus, Dwayne D.


    Camelina sativa (camelina) is an oilseed crop touted for use on marginal lands; however, it is no more tolerant of soil salinity than traditional crops, such as canola. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) that produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACC deaminase) facilitate plant growth in the presence of abiotic stresses by reducing stress ethylene. Rhizospheric and endophytic PGPB and the corresponding acdS- mutants of the latter were examined for their ability to enhance tolerance to salt in camelina. Stimulation of growth and tolerance to salt was correlated with ACC deaminase production. Inoculation of soil with wild-type PGPB led to increased shoot length in the absence of salt, and increased seed production by approximately 30–50% under moderately saline conditions. The effect of ACC deaminase was further examined in transgenic camelina expressing a bacterial gene encoding ACC deaminase (acdS) under the regulation of the CaMV 35S promoter or the root-specific rolD promoter. Lines expressing acdS, in particular those using the rolD promoter, showed less decline in root length and weight, increased seed production, better seed quality and higher levels of seed oil production under salt stress. This study clearly demonstrates the potential benefit of using either PGPB that produce ACC deaminase or transgenic plants expressing the acdS gene under the control of a root-specific promoter to facilitate plant growth, seed production and seed quality on land that is not normally suitable for the majority of crops due to high salt content. PMID:28018305

  1. Isolation of Wheat Endophytic Diazotrophs and Determination of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase%小麦内生固氮菌分离及其ACC脱氨酶测定

    秦宝军; 罗琼; 高淼; 胡海燕; 徐晶; 周义清; 孙建光


    [Objective ] The objective of this study is to determine the ammount of wheat endophytic diazotrophs and screen for ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylate) deaminase activity from the diazotrophs, determine the phylogenetic and classiflc position of selected strains and prepare strains for microbial fertilizer production. [ Method] Surface sterilization and nitrogen-free medium were used to isolate diazotroph and ACC was used as sole nitrogen source to screen strains with ACC deaminase activity. Nitrogenase activity was determined with acetylene reduction assay. 16S rDNA was amplified with PCR and analysed with MEGA software. Strain identification was carried out based on the morphology, physiology, biochemical test results and 16S rDNA analysis. [Result] The ammount of endophytic diazotrophs at jointing stage of wheat was (O.2-17.8)xlO* cfu-g"1 fresh weight Sixty endophytic diazotrophs with nitrogenase activity ranging 1-36 nmol QHt/h-mg protein were isolated from wheat. Nine of the 60 endophytic diazotrophs were ACC deaminase positive, the range of enzyme activity is 0.87-9.32 nmol a-ketobutryric acid/hmg protein. New isolate 9136 with nitrogenase activity 1.82 nmol C2Ei/h-mg protein and ACC deaminase activity 9.32 umol a-ketobutryric acid/h-mg protein was identified as Pseudomonas sp.. [Conclusion] About 10s cfu-g'1 (fresh weight) endophytic diazotrophs naturally colonized field grown wheat, some of these endophytic diazotrophs could produce ACC deaminase. A few strains showed relatively high ACC deaminase activity, and they might play a role in crop resistance to enviromental stress.%[目的]了解小麦内生固氮菌数量,筛选具有ACC(1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate,1-氨基环丙烷-1-羧酸)脱氨酶活性的小麦内生固氮菌,确定筛选菌株的系统发育地位与分类地位,为微生物肥料生产收集菌种资源.[方法]样品表面灭菌后采用无氮培养法筛选内生固氮菌,乙炔还原法测定菌株固氮酶活性;采用ACC

  2. Structural analysis of the promoter of tomato 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 6 gene(Le-ACS6)

    LIN JingYu; FAN Rong; WAN XiaoRong; CHARNG Yeeyung; WANG NingNing


    Ethylene plays an important role in the regulation of many growth and developmental processes of higher plants. In tomato, Le-ACS6, a member of the ACC synthase multigene family involved in system 1 ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening, is subject to negative feedback regulation by ethylene. To identify the cis-elements that are responsible for the negative feedback control, we established an in vitro transient assay system employing particle bombardment on mature-green tomato fruit pericarp to examine the expression of a luciferase (LUC) reporter gene driven by a 5'-serially deleted Le-ACS6 promoter. The results localized putative cis-elements required for negative ethylene-response between -347 and -266 upstream from the translational start site ATG. Several lines of stable transformation of the Le-ACS6 promoter and GUS reporter fusion gene containing internal deletion from -347 to -266 were generated. The expression pattern of the GUS reporter showed that removal of the nucleotides from -347 to -266 completely eliminated the response of the Le-ACS6 promoter to exogenous ethylene.

  3. Accumulation of wound-inducible ACC synthase transcript in tomato fruit is inhibited by salicylic acid and polyamines.

    Li, N; Parsons, B L; Liu, D R; Mattoo, A K


    Regulation of wound-inducible 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase expression was studied in tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Pik-Red). A 70 base oligonucleotide probe homologous to published ACC synthase cDNA sequences was successfully used to identify and analyze regulation of a wound-inducible transcript. The 1.8 kb ACC synthase transcript increased upon wounding the fruit as well as during fruit ripening. Salicylic acid, an inhibitor of wound-responsive genes in tomato, inhibited the wound-induced accumulation of the ACC synthase transcript. Further, polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) that have anti-senescence properties and have been shown to inhibit the development of ACC synthase activity, inhibited the accumulation of the wound-inducible ACC synthase transcript. The inhibition by spermine was greater than that caused by putrescine or spermidine. The transcript level of a wound-repressible glycine-rich protein gene and that of the constitutively expressed rRNA were not affected as markedly by either salicylic acid or polyamines. These data suggest that salicylic acid and polyamines may specifically regulate ethylene biosynthesis at the level of ACC synthase transcript accumulation.

  4. Cloning and expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase cDNA induced by thidiazuron during somatic embryogenesis of alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Feng, Bi-Hong; Wu, Bei; Zhang, Chun-Rong; Huang, Xia; Chen, Yun-Feng; Huang, Xue-Lin


    Embryogenic callus (EC) induced from petioles of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Jinnan) on B5h medium turned green, compact and non-embryogenic when the kinetin (KN) in the medium was replaced partially or completely by thidiazuron (TDZ). The application of CoCl₂, which is an inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO), counteracted the effect of TDZ. Ethylene has been shown to be involved in the modulation of TDZ-induced morphogenesis responses. However, very little is known about the genes involved in ethylene formation during somatic embryogenesis (SE). To investigate whether ethylene mediated by ACO is involved in the effect of TDZ on inhibition of embryogenic competence of the alfalfa callus. In this study we cloned full-length ACO cDNA from the alfalfa callus, named MsACO, and observed changes in this gene expression during callus formation and induction of SE under treatment with TDZ or TDZ plus CoCl₂. RNA blot analysis showed that during the EC subcultural period, the expression level of MsACO in EC was significantly increased on the 2nd day, rose to the highest level on the 8th day and remained at this high level until the 21st day. However, the ACO expression in the TDZ (0.93 μM)-treated callus was higher than in the EC especially on the 8th day. Moreover the ACO expression level increased with increasing TDZ concentration during the subcultural/maintenance period of the callus. It is worth noting that comparing the treatment with TDZ alone, the treatment with 0.93 μM TDZ plus 50 μM CoCl₂ reduced both of the ACO gene expressions and ACO activity in the treated callus. These results indicate that the effect of TDZ could be counteracted by CoCl₂ either on the ACO gene expression level or ACO activity. Thus, a TDZ inhibitory effect on embryogenic competence of alfalfa callus could be mediated by ACO gene expression.

  5. Analysis of genomic DNA of DcACS1, a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene, expressed in senescing petals of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) and its orthologous genes in D. superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Harada, Taro; Murakoshi, Yuino; Torii, Yuka; Tanase, Koji; Onozaki, Takashi; Morita, Shigeto; Masumura, Takehiro; Satoh, Shigeru


    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers exhibit climacteric ethylene production followed by petal wilting, a senescence symptom. DcACS1, which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), is a gene involved in this phenomenon. We determined the genomic DNA structure of DcACS1 by genomic PCR. In the genome of 'Light Pink Barbara', we found two distinct nucleotide sequences: one corresponding to the gene previously shown as DcACS1, designated here as DcACS1a, and the other novel one designated as DcACS1b. It was revealed that both DcACS1a and DcACS1b have five exons and four introns. These two genes had almost identical nucleotide sequences in exons, but not in some introns and 3'-UTR. Analysis of transcript accumulation revealed that DcACS1b is expressed in senescing petals as well as DcACS1a. Genomic PCR analysis of 32 carnation cultivars showed that most cultivars have only DcACS1a and some have both DcACS1a and DcACS1b. Moreover, we found two DcACS1 orthologous genes with different nucleotide sequences from D. superbus var. longicalycinus, and designated them as DsuACS1a and DsuACS1b. Petals of D. superbus var. longicalycinus produced ethylene in response to exogenous ethylene, accompanying accumulation of DsuACS1 transcripts. These data suggest that climacteric ethylene production in flowers was genetically established before the cultivation of carnation.

  6. Cloning and Differential Expression of a 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Synthase cDNA from Peach%桃ACC合酶基因的分离及其差异表达

    金勇丰; 朱立成; 张耀洲; 张上隆


    The ACC synthase is the key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening. To study the mechanism of ACC synthase in peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) fruit ripening, we cloned a full-length cDNA of ACC synthase pacs from peach using 5′/3′ RACE PCR. The nucleic acid sequence of pacs was 1 848 bp, containing 177 bp of 5′untranslated sequence, 1 449 bp of an open reading frame, and 219 bp of 3′untranslated sequence (excluding the stop codon TAA). The pacs open reading frame encoded a 483-amino acid polypeptide with a predicted size of 54 kD and a calculated PI of 6.43. The deduced protein from ACC synthase cDNA pacs had 65%, 70%, 75%, and 90% homology with the other deduced proteins from tomato (S19677), plum (AB031026), papaya (U68216) and apple (AB034993), which contained the active site of ACC synthase SLSKDMGFPGFR conserved among these plant ACC synthases. RNA-based PCR amplification combined with hybridization analysis with pacs and another ACC synthase cDNA pacs12 (AF467782) cloned by us before as probes, indicated that expression patterns of both clones were very similar. mRNAs of both clones expressed in the alabastrum and petal, and were induced after ethylene treatment. Wounding and IAA treatments could induce ACC synthase expression of both clones in the leaves. However, the wounding treatment of leaves has induced more abundant pacs ACC synthase expression than that of pacs12. Pacs mRNA expressed in both green mature and ripening fruit, while pacs12 mRNA was little or undetectable in green mature fruit, but apparent in ripening fruit. Both clone mRNAs accumulated more in leaves (following wounding and IAA treatments) and flowers than in fruits.%利用5′/3′RACE PCR技术,从桃(Prunus persica (L.) Batsch)果实中克隆了植物乙烯生物合成的关键酶--ACC合酶的全长cDNA pacs,对pacs基因进行全序列测定表明,该基因全长1 848个碱基,编码区为1 449个碱基,5′端有177个碱基的非编码区序列,3

  7. Pollinia-borne chemicals that induce early postpollination effects in Dendrobium flowers move rapidly into agar blocks and include ACC and compounds with auxin activity.

    Promyou, Surassawadee; Ketsa, Saichol; van Doorn, Wouter G


    The early visible effects of pollination in orchids are likely due to pollinia-borne chemicals. In Dendrobium we tested whether such compounds were water soluble and would diffuse in solid-aqueous phase, and determined both 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentrations and auxin activity. Following pollination, the flower peduncle showed epinastic movement, followed by yellowing of the flower lip, flower senescence and ovary growth. Placing pollinia on agar blocks for 3, 6, 9 or 12h, prior to transferring them to the stigma, increased the time to these early postpollination effects or prevented them. Placing agar blocks that had been used for contact with the pollinia on the stigma also induced the early postpollination effects. The concentrations of ACC, the direct precursor of ethylene, in pollinia was lower the longer the pollinia had been in contact with the agar blocks, whilst the ACC content in the agar blocks increased with the period of contact. The auxin activity of the agar blocks also increased with the time of contact with pollinia. It is concluded that chemicals in the pollinia are responsible for the early visible postpollination effects, and that these (a) rapidly diffuse in aqueous media, and (b) comprise at least ACC and compounds with auxin activity. The idea is discussed that ACC plus auxin is adequate for the production of the early postpollination effects.

  8. Selection of efficient salt-tolerant bacteria containing ACC deaminase for promotion of tomato growth under salinity stress

    Kannika Chookietwattana* and Kedsukon Maneewan


    Full Text Available For successful application of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB in salt-affected soil, bioinoculant with salt-tolerant property is required in order to provide better survival and perform well in the field. The present study aimed to select the most efficient salt-tolerant bacterium containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase from eighty four bacterial strains and to investigate the effects of the selected bacterium on the germination and growth of tomato (Licopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Seeda under saline conditions. The Bacillus licheniformis B2r was selected for its ability to utilize ACC as a sole nitrogen source under salinity stress. It also showed a high ACC deaminase activity at 0.6 M NaCl salinity. Tomato plants inoculated with the selected bacterium under various saline conditions (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM NaCl revealed a significant increase in the germination percentage, germination index, root length, and seedling dry weight especially at salinity levels ranging from 30-90 mM NaCl. The work described in this report is an important step in developing an efficient salt-tolerant bioinoculant to facilitate plant growth in saline soil.

  9. Leaf Abscission Induced by Ethylene in Water-Stressed Intact Seedlings of Cleopatra Mandarin Requires Previous Abscisic Acid Accumulation in Roots.

    Gomez-Cadenas, A.; Tadeo, F. R.; Talon, M.; Primo-Millo, E.


    The involvement of abscisic acid (ABA) in the process of leaf abscission induced by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) transported from roots to shoots in Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) seedlings grown under water stress was studied using norflurazon (NF). Water stress induced both ABA (24-fold) and ACC (16-fold) accumulation in roots and arrested xylem flow. Leaf bulk ABA also increased (8-fold), although leaf abscission did not occur. Shortly after rehydration, root ABA and ACC returned to their prestress levels, whereas sharp and transitory increases of ACC (17-fold) and ethylene (10-fold) in leaves and high percentages of abscission (up to 47%) were observed. NF suppressed the ABA and ACC accumulation induced by water stress in roots and the sharp increases of ACC and ethylene observed after rewatering in leaves. NF also reduced leaf abscission (7-10%). These results indicate that water stress induces root ABA accumulation and that this is required for the process of leaf abscission to occur. It was also shown that exogenous ABA increases ACC levels in roots but not in leaves. Collectively, the data suggest that ABA, the primary sensitive signal to water stress, modulates the levels of ethylene, which is the hormonal activator of leaf abscission. This assumption implies that root ACC levels are correlated with root ABA amounts in a dependent way, which eventually links water status to an adequate, protective response such as leaf abscission.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Cucumber ACC Oxidase Gene and Its Upstream

    CHEN Yin-hua; OUYANG Bo; LI Han-xia; ZHANG Jun-hong; YE Zhi-biao


    Ethylene has been implicated as a sex-determining hormone in cucumber. Its exogenous application increases femaleness,and gynoecious genotypes were reported to produce more ethylene. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase (ACO) is the key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. In this study, a 1 200 base pair (bp) candidate fragment was amplified from the cucumber genome with degenerated primers derived from the ACO amino acid consensus sequence among different plant species. The coding region and its upstream (1 155 bp) were obtained by vector-mediated inverse PCR. The novel gene was analyzed by bioinformatics tools. Four exons and three introns were identified in the coding sequence.The spliced length of mRNA was 933 nucleotides (nts) and it encoded 311 amino acids. Phylogenic analysis result of the new gene (CsACO4, GenBank accession number AY450356) was in accordance with the evolution relationship of genetics among various plant species. Northern blotting showed that the gene expressed among female flowers of gynoecious and monoecious genotypes, it could not express in other organs. This implied that the gene might be correlated with the female behavior positively. Further work is on the way to demonstrate the complexity of the relationship between the endogenous ethylene and the sex determination.

  11. Characterization of ACC deaminase-producing endophytic bacteria isolated from copper-tolerant plants and their potential in promoting the growth and copper accumulation of Brassica napus.

    Zhang, Yan-Feng; He, Lin-Yan; Chen, Zhao-Jin; Wang, Qing-Ya; Qian, Meng; Sheng, Xia-Fang


    One hundred Cu-resistant-endophytic bacteria were isolated from Cu-tolerant plants grown on Cu mine wasteland, of which, eight Cu-resistant and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase-producing endophytic bacteria were obtained based on the ACC deaminase activity of the bacteria and characterized with respect to metal resistance, production of ACC deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) as well as siderophores and mineral phosphate solubilization. Ralstonia sp. J1-22-2, Pantoea agglomerans Jp3-3, and Pseudomonas thivervalensis Y1-3-9 with higher ACC deaminase activity (ranging from 213 to 370 μM α-ketobutyrate mg(-1)h(-1)) were evaluated for promoting plant growth and Cu uptake of rape grown in quartz sand containing 0, 2.5, and 5 mg kg(-1) of Cu in pot experiments. The eight bacteria were found to exhibit different multiple heavy metal resistance characteristics, to show different levels of ACC deaminase activity and to produce indole acetic acid. Seven bacteria produced siderophores and solubilized inorganic phosphate. Pot experiments showed that inoculation with the strains (J1-22-2, Jp3-3, and Y1-3-9) was found to increase the biomass of rape. Increases in above-ground tissue Cu contents of rape cultivated in 2.5 and 5 mg kg(-1) of Cu-contaminated substrates varied from 9% to 31% and from 3 to 4-fold respectively in inoculated-rape plants compared to the uninoculated control. The maximum Cu uptake of rape was observed after inoculation with P. agglomerans Jp3-3. The results show that metal-resistant and plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria play an important role in plant growth and Cu uptake which may provide a new endophytic bacterial-assisted phytoremediation of Cu-contaminated environment.

  12. Molecular Cloning of Four Members of ACC Synthase Gene Family fromKiwifruit(Actinidia chinensis Planch.)%猕猴桃ACC合成酶基因家族四个成员的克隆

    徐昌杰; 陈昆松; 张上隆


    Four members of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase(ACC synthase)gene family was isolated from Actinidia chinensis with the assigned names:AC-ACS1A,AC-ACS1B,AC-ACS2 and AC-ACS3 by PCR.The amino acid sequence of AC-ACS1A,AC-ACS1B and AC-ACS2 are over 76% identical to some ACC synthase from other plants,while AC-ACS3 shows only 51%~56% nucleotide or amino acid sequence homology to other known kiwifruit ACC synthase genes,and its amino acid sequence is less than 60% identical to all known plant ACC synthases.AC-ACS3 fragment is a little shorter than other kiwifruit ACC synthase genes,and does not contain MSSFGL conserved region.Therefore,it is suggested that AC-ACS3 is a novel member of ACC synthase gene family.%通过PCR方法从中华猕猴桃中分离出ACC合成酶基因家族的四个成员(AC-ACS1A、AC-ACS1B、AC-ACS2和AC-ACS3)的基因组DNA片段。AC-ACS1A、AC-ACS1B和AC-ACS2与其它植物该基因的氨基酸序列同源性最高可达76%以上, 而AC-ACS3与其它植物ACC合成酶基因的氨基酸序列同源性均低于60%,与已知的其它猕猴桃ACC合成酶基因的同源性在51%~56%之间,且不存在MSSFGL保守区,因而属于一个未见报道的新成员。

  13. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    Young Hee Lee


    Full Text Available Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum, black spot (Alternaria brassicicola and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.


    郑宝强; 王雁; 彭镇华; 李晓华


    以卡特兰(Cattleya)花瓣为试材,提取其总RNA,并根据其他兰花的ACC氧化酶(1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase,ACO)基因保守序列设计了一对特异性引物,通过RT-PCR法克隆得到1条967bp的卡特兰ACO cDNA片断,共编码321个氨基酸残基.序列分析结果显示该克隆片断与已发表的其他兰花的ACO基因序列同源性很高,均在85%以上,尤其与原生种和其近亲属的同源性在95%以上.将克隆的卡特兰ACO片段反向连接到植物表达载体pBI121中CaMV35S启动子的下游,构建了卡特兰ACO基因的反义表达载体pBI121ACC,为进一步应用反义技术培养长花期卡特兰新品种奠定了基础,也首次为应用生物技术延长卡特兰花期做出了尝试.

  15. A functional tomato ACC synthase expressed in Escherichia coli demonstrates suicidal inactivation by its substrate S-adenosylmethionine.

    Li, N; Wiesman, Z; Liu, D; Mattoo, A K


    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone, ethylene. We have isolated, sequenced and expressed a functional tomato (cv Pik-Red) ACC synthase gene in Escherichia coli. ACC synthase expressed in E. coli was inactivated by incubation with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the half-time of which was concentration dependent. Mixing the tomato fruit protein extract with the cell-free extract from transformed E. coli did not affect SAM-dependent inactivation of ACC synthase activity. Thus, single isoforms of the ACC synthase enzyme, which demonstrate the biochemical features expected of the tomato fruit enzyme, can be expressed in E. coli and their structure-function relationships investigated.

  16. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Targeted Silencing of Two Paralogous ACC Oxidase Genes in Banana

    Xia, Yan; Kuan, Chi; Chiu, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Xiao-Jing; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling


    Among 18 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase homologous genes existing in the banana genome there are two genes, Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, that participate in banana fruit ripening. To better understand the physiological functions of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, two hairpin-type siRNA expression vectors targeting both the Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 were constructed and incorporated into the banana genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The generation of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. To gain insights into the functional diversity and complexity between Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, transcriptome sequencing of banana fruits using the Illumina next-generation sequencer was performed. A total of 32,093,976 reads, assembled into 88,031 unigenes for 123,617 transcripts were obtained. Significantly enriched Gene Oncology (GO) terms and the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with GO annotation were ‘catalytic activity’ (1327, 56.4%), ‘heme binding’ (65, 2.76%), ‘tetrapyrrole binding’ (66, 2.81%), and ‘oxidoreductase activity’ (287, 12.21%). Real-time RT-PCR was further performed with mRNAs from both peel and pulp of banana fruits in Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic plants. The results showed that expression levels of genes related to ethylene signaling in ripening banana fruits were strongly influenced by the expression of genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis. PMID:27681726

  17. 协同抑制番茄ACO1对果实成熟及病程相关蛋白基因表达的影响%The Influence of Co-suppressing Tomato 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase I on the Expression of Fruit Ripening-Related and Pathogenesis-Related Protein Genes

    胡宗利; 陈国平; 吕丽娟; 陈绪清; GRIERSON Donald


    [目的]探讨协同抑制番茄ACO1基因对果实成熟和病程相关蛋白基因表达、内源乙烯生物合成及果实耐贮性的影响.[方法]采用PCR或RT-PCR方法克隆了番茄ACC氧化酶1、ACC氧化酶3、EBF1、PR1、PR5以及NP24基因片段,并以此制备探针,以协同抑制ACO1的转基因番茄和野生型番茄为研究对象,进行Northern杂交,同时测定了伤害叶片和果实的乙烯释放量,并进行了果实贮藏试验等.[结果]Northern杂交结果表明,番茄ACO1基因表达被抑制后,与果实成熟相关基因LeACO3和LeEBF1,以及病程相关蛋白基因LePR1、LePR5 和LeNP24的表达量急剧降低.乙烯释放量测定试验和果实贮藏试验结果表明,协同抑制LeACO1番茄完整和受伤叶片以及完整果实内源乙烯释放量相对于野生型番茄大大减少,成熟果实贮藏时间延长.[结论]协同抑制番茄ACO1基因表达的同时,与果实成熟相关基因和病程相关蛋白基因的表达也不同程度地受到抑制,而且其内源乙烯生物合成减少,果实耐贮性增强.

  18. Ethylene signalling is involved in regulation of phosphate starvation-induced gene expression and production of acid phosphatases and anthocyanin in Arabidopsis

    Lei, Mingguang


    With the exception of root hair development, the role of the phytohormone ethylene is not clear in other aspects of plant responses to inorganic phosphate (Pi) starvation. The induction of AtPT2 was used as a marker to find novel signalling components involved in plant responses to Pi starvation. Using genetic and chemical approaches, we examined the role of ethylene in the regulation of plant responses to Pi starvation. hps2, an Arabidopsis mutant with enhanced sensitivity to Pi starvation, was identified and found to be a new allele of CTR1 that is a key negative regulator of ethylene responses. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the precursor of ethylene, increases plant sensitivity to Pi starvation, whereas the ethylene perception inhibitor Ag+ suppresses this response. The Pi starvation-induced gene expression and acid phosphatase activity are also enhanced in the hps2 mutant, but suppressed in the ethylene-insensitive mutant ein2-5. By contrast, we found that ethylene signalling plays a negative role in Pi starvation-induced anthocyanin production. These findings extend the roles of ethylene in the regulation of plant responses to Pi starvation and will help us to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying these responses. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Ethylene biosynthesis genes are differentially expressed during carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower senescence.

    ten Have, A.; Woltering, E.J.


    Ethylene production and expression patterns of an 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (CARAO1) and of two ACC synthase (EC genes (CARACC3 and CARAS1) were studied in floral organs of cut carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. White Sim. During the vase life and af

  20. Identification of genes involved in the ACC-mediated control of root cell elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Markakis Marios


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Along the root axis of Arabidopsis thaliana, cells pass through different developmental stages. In the apical meristem repeated cycles of division increase the numbers of cells. Upon leaving the meristem, these cells pass the transition zone where they are physiologically and mechanically prepared to undergo subsequent rapid elongation. During the process of elongation epidermal cells increase their length by 300% in a couple of hours. When elongation ceases, the cells acquire their final size, shape and functions (in the differentiation zone. Ethylene administered as its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC is capable of inhibiting elongation in a concentration-dependent way. Using a microarray analysis, genes and/or processes involved in this elongation arrest are identified. Results Using a CATMA-microarray analysis performed on control and 3h ACC-treated roots, 240 differentially expressed genes were identified. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR analysis of the 10 most up and down regulated genes combined with literature search confirmed the accurateness of the analysis. This revealed that inhibition of cell elongation is, at least partly, caused by restricting the events that under normal growth conditions initiate elongation and by increasing the processes that normally stop cellular elongation at the end of the elongation/onset of differentiation zone. Conclusions ACC interferes with cell elongation in the Arabidopsis thaliana roots by inhibiting cells from entering the elongation process and by immediately stimulating the formation of cross-links in cell wall components, diminishing the remaining elongation capacity. From the analysis of the differentially expressed genes, it becomes clear that many genes identified in this response, are also involved in several other kind of stress responses. This suggests that many responses originate from individual elicitors, but that somewhere in the downstream

  1. Isolation and characterization of ACC deaminase-producing fluorescent pseudomonads, to alleviate salinity stress on canola (Brassica napus L.) growth.

    Jalili, Farzad; Khavazi, Kazem; Pazira, Ebrahim; Nejati, Alireza; Rahmani, Hadi Asadi; Sadaghiani, Hasan Rasuli; Miransari, Mohammad


    Salinity stress is of great importance in arid and semi-arid areas of the world due to its impact in reducing crop yield. Under salinity stress, the amount of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), a precursor for ethylene production in plants, increases. Here, we conducted research under the hypothesis that isolated ACC deaminase-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida can alleviate the stressful effects of salinity on canola (Brassica napus L.) growth. The experiments were conducted in the Soil and Water Research Institute, Tehran, Iran. Seven experimental stages were conducted to isolate and characterize ACC deaminase-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens strains and to determine factors enhancing their growth and, consequently, their effects on the germination of canola seeds. Under salinity stress, in 14% of the isolates, ACC deaminase activity was observed, indicating that they were able to utilize ACC as the sole N-source. Bacterial strains differed in their ability to synthesize auxin and hydrogen cyanide compounds, as well as in their ACC deaminase activity. Under salinity stress, the rate of germinating seeds inoculated with the strains of ACC deaminase-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida, and seedling growth was significantly higher. These results indicate the significance of soil biological activities, including the activities of plant growth-promoting bacteria, in the alleviation of soil stresses such as salinity on plant growth.

  2. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006.

    Gamez, Rocío M; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo


    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds.

  3. Rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase confer salt tolerance in maize grown on salt-affected fields.

    Nadeem, Sajid Mahmood; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Naveed, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad


    Salt stress is one of the major constraints hampering agricultural production owing to its impact on ethylene production and nutritional imbalance. A check on the accelerated ethylene production in plants could be helpful in minimizing the negative effect of salt stress on plant growth and development. Four Pseudomonas, 1 Flavobacterium, and 1 Enterobacter strain of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase were selected and their effects on growth and yield of maize were investigated to improve the salt tolerance of maize grown on salt-affected fields. The selected rhizobacterial isolates reduced or eliminated the classical "triple" response, indicating their ability to reduce stress-induced ethylene levels. Results showed that rhizobacterial strains, particularly Pseudomonas and Enterobacter spp., significantly promoted the growth and yield of maize compared with the non-inoculated control. Pseudomonas fluorescens increased plant height, biomass, cob yield, grain yield, 1000 grain mass, and straw yield of maize up to 29%, 127%, 67%, 60%, 17%, and 166%, respectively, over the control. Under stress conditions, more N, P, and K uptake and high K+-Na+ ratios were recorded in inoculated plants compared with the control. The results imply that inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase could be a useful approach for improving growth and yield of maize under salt-stressed conditions.

  4. Amelioration of high salinity stress damage by plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes that contain ACC deaminase.

    Ali, Shimaila; Charles, Trevor C; Glick, Bernard R


    Plant growth and productivity is negatively affected by soil salinity. However, it is predicted that plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) endophytes that contain 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (E.C. can facilitate plant growth and development in the presence of a number of different stresses. In present study, the ability of ACC deaminase containing PGPB endophytes Pseudomonas fluorescens YsS6, Pseudomonas migulae 8R6, and their ACC deaminase deficient mutants to promote tomato plant growth in the absence of salt and under two different levels of salt stress (165 mM and 185 mM) was assessed. It was evidence that wild-type bacterial endophytes (P. fluorescens YsS6 and P. migulae 8R6) promoted tomato plant growth significantly even in the absence of stress (salinity). Plants pretreated with wild-type ACC deaminase containing endophytic strains were healthier and grew to a much larger size under high salinity stress compared to plants pretreated with the ACC deaminase deficient mutants or no bacterial treatment (control). The plants pretreated with ACC deaminase containing bacterial endophytes exhibit higher fresh and dry biomass, higher chlorophyll contents, and a greater number of flowers and buds than the other treatments. Since the only difference between wild-type and mutant bacterial endophytes was ACC deaminase activity, it is concluded that this enzyme is directly responsible for the different behavior of tomato plants in response to salt stress. The use of PGPB endophytes with ACC deaminase activity has the potential to facilitate plant growth on land that is not normally suitable for the majority of crops due to their high salt contents.

  5. Ethylene emission and PR protein synthesis in ACC deaminase producing Methylobacterium spp. inoculated tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) challenged with Ralstonia solanacearum under greenhouse conditions.

    Yim, Woojong; Seshadri, Sundaram; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Gillseung; Sa, Tongmin


    Bacteria of genus Methylobacterium have been found to promote plant growth and regulate the level of ethylene in crop plants. This work is aimed to test the induction of defense responses in tomato against bacterial wilt by stress ethylene level reduction mediated by the ACC deaminase activity of Methylobacterium strains. Under greenhouse conditions, the disease index value in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated tomato plants was lower than control plants. Plants treated with Methylobacterium sp. challenge inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum (RS) showed significantly reduced disease symptoms and lowered ethylene emission under greenhouse condition. The ACC and ACO (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase) accumulation in tomato leaves were significantly reduced with Methylobacterium strains inoculation. While ACC oxidase gene expression was found higher in plants treated with R. solanacearum than Methylobacterium sp. treatment, PR proteins related to induced systemic resistance like β-1,3-glucanase, PAL, PO and PPO were increased in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated plants. A significant increase in β-1,3-glucanase and PAL gene expression was found in all the Methylobacterium spp. treatments compared to the R. solanacearum treatment. This study confirms the activity of Methylobacterium sp. in increasing the defense enzymes by modulating the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and suggests the use of methylotrophic bacteria as potential biocontrol agents in tomato cultivation.

  6. Cloning and sequencing analysis of cDNA encoding ACC oxidase from Cattleya%卡特兰ACC氧化酶cDNA片断的克隆与序列分析

    郑宝强; 王雁; 彭镇华; 李晓华; 齐靖; 李莉


    以卡特兰(Cattleya)花朵为试材,首先提取总RNA,并根据其它兰花的ACC氧化酶(1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase, ACO)基因保守序列设计1对特异性引物,然后通过RT-PCR法,克隆得到一条卡特兰ACC氧化酶的cDNA片断,该片断长度为967 bp,共编码321个氨基酸残基.序列分析结果显示该克隆片断与已发表的其它兰花的ACC氧化酶基因序列同源性很高,均在85%以上,尤其与其近亲C. bicolor、C. intermedia、Laelia anceps的同源性均在95%以上.

  7. Biochemistry and Genetics of ACC deaminase: A weapon to 'stress ethylene' produced in plants

    Rajnish Prakash Singh


    Full Text Available 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD, a pyridoxal phosphate dependent enzyme, is widespread in diverse bacterial and fungal species. Owing to ACCD activity, certain plant associated bacteria help plant to grow under biotic and abiotic stresses by decreasing level of 'stress ethylene' which is inhibitory to plant growth. ACCD breaks down ACC, an immediate precursor of ethylene, to ammonia and α-ketobutyrate which can be further metabolized by bacteria for their growth. ACC deaminase is an inducible enzyme whose synthesis is induced in presence of its substrate ACC. This enzyme, encoded by gene AcdS, is under tight regulation and regulated differentilly under different environmental conditions. Regulatory elements of gene AcdS are comprised of regulatory gene encoding LRP protein and other regulator elements which are activated differentially under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Role of some additional regulatory genes such as AcdB or LysR may also be required for expression of AcdS. Phylogenetic analysis of AcdS has revealed that distribution of this gene among different bacteria might have resulted from vertical gene transfer with occasional horizontal gene transfer. Application of bacterial AcdS gene has been extended by developing transgenic plants with ACCD gene which showed increased tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Moreover, distribution of ACCD gene or its homologs in wide range of species belonging to all three domains indicate alternative role of ACCD in physiology of an organism. Therefore, this review is an attempt to explore current knowledge of bacterial ACC deaminase mediated physiological effects in plants, mode of enzyme action, genetics, and distribution in different species and ecological role of ACCD and, future research avenues to develop transgenic plants expressing foreign AcdS gene to cope with biotic and abiotic stressors. Systemic identification of regulatory circuits would be highly

  8. Expression of ACC Oxidase Gene from Sugarcane Induced by Hormones and Environmental Force

    WANG Ai-qin; YANG Li-tao; WANG Zi-zhang; WEI Yu-tuo; HE Long-fei; LI Yang-rui


    In the present study, a full-length cDNA encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene has been cloned from sugarcane (named GZ-ACO). Two primers were designed for coding the ORF in the full-length cDNA of GZ-ACO gene from sugarcane. PCR amplification was performed with sugarcane DNA template, and a fragment of 1 104 bp (GZ34)was obtained. GZ34 was labeled with [α-32p] dCTP as the probe and used for hybridization after cloning and sequencing.Southern blotting analysis indicated that there were at least three other sequences, which weakly hybridized with the GZ34. Northern analysis showed that GZ34 was strongly induced by treatment with IAA, BA, ethephon, LiC1 and cold stress, respectively. As a contrast, the mRNA for ACO gene was at lower levels for both the light-grown and dark-grown plants without additional treatment. There were two transcripts in the dark-grown plants and three transcripts in the treatments with IAA, BA and cold stress, but there was only one transcript in ethephon treatment. It showed that GZ-ACO might be a gene connected with ethylene formation and take part in response to the induction of plant hormone and environmental stress.

  9. Isolation of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Produced ACC Ammonialyase and Its Influence on Tall Fescue Growth%产ACC脱氨酶植物根际促生菌的筛选及其对修复植物高羊茅生长的影响

    丁琳琳; 刘五星; 孙剑英; 骆永明; 徐旭士; 李振高


    以1-氨基环丙烷-1-羧酸(ACC)为唯一氮源,从石油污染的土壤中分离得到一株具有ACC脱氨酶活性的菌株D5A.该菌在以ACC为唯一氮源条件下,其ACC脱氨酶比活力为0.084 U/mg.另外,D5A还具有产生吲哚乙酸(IAA)、耐盐以及溶磷的特性.在液体培养条件下该菌株产IAA高达112 mg/L,在90 g/kg盐含量的培养基中仍能够正常生长且具有较强的溶解矿物磷能力.同时该菌对酸碱具有良好的适应性,在初始pH4~10的LB培养基中生长良好.种子发芽试验表明在3 g/kg和6 g/kg浓度NaC1的逆境条件下,该菌株能显著提高高羊茅种子的发芽率和芽长.最后,通过对其进行生理生化特性和16S rDNA序列分析,该菌株初步鉴定为克雷伯氏菌(Klebsiellasp.).%In this study,the strains with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity were isolated from an oil-polluted soil.The ACC deaminase activity of the strain D5A was 0.084 U/mg in minimal medium containing ACC as the sole nitrogen source.In addition,D5A also had properties of producing indole acetic acid (IAA),salt tolerance and dissolving phosphorus.In liquid culture conditions,the strains produced IAA up to 112 mg/L.It was still able to grow normally in the medium of 90 g/kg salt and had a strong ability to dissolve the mineral phosphorus.The strains grew well in LB medium from the initial pH value of 4 to 10,which showed the strains had good adaptability of pH.Seed germination tests showed that the strains could significantly improve seed germination and bud of tall fescue(Festuca arundinacea) at adverse conditions of 3 g/kg and 6 g/kg NaCl.Finally,based on physiological,biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis,the strains was identified as Klebsiella sp.

  10. Real time expression of ACC oxidase and PR-protein genes mediated by Methylobacterium spp. in tomato plants challenged with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.

    Yim, W J; Kim, K Y; Lee, Y W; Sundaram, S P; Lee, Y; Sa, T M


    Biotic stress like pathogenic infection increases ethylene biosynthesis in plants and ethylene inhibitors are known to alleviate the severity of plant disease incidence. This study aimed to reduce the bacterial spot disease incidence in tomato plants caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (XCV) by modulating stress ethylene with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity of Methylobacterium strains. Under greenhouse condition, Methylobacterium strains inoculated and pathogen challenged tomato plants had low ethylene emission compared to pathogen infected ones. ACC accumulation and ACC oxidase (ACO) activity with ACO related gene expression increased in XCV infected tomato plants over Methylobacterium strains inoculated plants. Among the Methylobacterium spp., CBMB12 resulted lowest ACO related gene expression (1.46 Normalized Fold Expression), whereas CBMB20 had high gene expression (3.42 Normalized Fold Expression) in pathogen challenged tomato. But a significant increase in ACO gene expression (7.09 Normalized Fold Expression) was observed in the bacterial pathogen infected plants. In contrast, Methylobacterium strains enhanced β-1,3-glucanase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzyme activities in pathogen challenged tomato plants. The respective increase in β-1,3-glucanase related gene expressions due to CBMB12, CBMB15, and CBMB20 strains were 66.3, 25.5 and 10.4% higher over pathogen infected plants. Similarly, PAL gene expression was high with 0.67 and 0.30 Normalized Fold Expression, in pathogen challenged tomato plants inoculated with CBMB12 and CBMB15 strains. The results suggest that ethylene is a crucial factor in bacterial spot disease incidence and that methylobacteria with ACC deaminase activity can reduce the disease severity with ultimate pathogenesis-related protein increase in tomato.

  11. Effect of precooling and ethylene absorbent on the quality of Dendrobium "Pompadour" flowers

    Ketsa, S.; Imsabai, W.; Doorn, van, A.M.


    We studied the effect of precooling and the use of an ethylene absorbent (based on potassium permanganate) in the flower boxes, on the vase life of Dendrobium `Pompadour` flowers, after simulation of air shipment (3 days at 25°C). Precooling at 10°C (85-95%RH) for 60 minutes reduced ethylene production, ACC activity, and the concentration of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) in the flowers, during shipment. Precooling for 90 minutes or longer did not have a positive effect on the ch...

  12. ACC 220 Tutorials / acc220dotcom



    For more course tutorials visit   ACC 220 Week 1 Checkpoint Career Opportunities ACC 220 Week 1 DQ 1 & DQ 2 ACC 220 Week 2 Checkpoint Proprietorships, Partnerships, and Corporations ACC 220 Week 2 Assignment Financial Statements ACC 220 Week 3 Checkpoint Classified Balance Sheets ACC 220 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 220 Week 4 Checkpoint Cash Management Matrix Appendix B ACC 220 Week 4 Assignment Internal Cash Control ACC 220 Wee...

  13. An auxin-responsive 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase is responsible for differential ethylene production in gravistimulated Antirrhinum majus L. flower stems

    Woltering, E.J.; Balk, P.A.; Nijenhuis-de Vries, M.A.; Faivre, M.; Ruys, G.; Somhorst, B.P.M.; Philosoph-Hadas, S.; Friedman, H.


    The regulation of gravistimulation-induced ethylene production and its role in gravitropic bending was studied in Antirrhinum majus L. cut flower stems. Gravistimulation increased ethylene production in both lower and upper halves of the stems with much higher levels observed in the lower half. Expr

  14. 哈密瓜ACC氧化酶cDNA克隆及其序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of a cDNA Encoding ACC Oxidase from Hamimelon Fruit

    陆璐; 王鸣; 郑学勤; 李小娟


    以哈密瓜(Cucumis melo L.)成熟果实为材料,用改进的异硫氰酸胍一步法提取总RNA,通过RT-PCR方法和DNA序列测定证实获得了甜瓜ACC氧化酶(1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase,ACO)多基因家族中一个与果实后熟有关的基因CM-ACO1的cDNA克隆pCM-ACO1,该cDNA全长1236 bp,编码区957 bp,共编码318个氨基酸残基.序列分析结果表明该序列与国外以罗马甜瓜为材料获得的相同基因的cDNA序列完全相符.推断该基因在甜瓜种内可能是完全或高度保守的,不同类群之间无进化上的分歧.

  15. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of a cDNA Encoding ACC Oxidase from Carnation Flower%康乃馨ACC氧化酶cDNA的克隆及其序列分析

    张树珍; 杨本鹏; 刘飞虎


    以康乃馨(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)花瓣为材料,用改进的异硫氰酸胍一步法提取总RNA,根据已报道的康乃馨ACC氧化酶(1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase,ACO)基因的序列设计并合成一对引物,通过RT-PCR方法获得一约1.2kb特异片段,把该片段连接到PGEM -T easy vector上进行测序,其全长共1 156bp,编码区915 bp,共编码304个氨基酸残基.序列分析结果表明该序列与国外Savin Kw报道的康乃馨ACC氧化酶基因的cDNA序列完全相符.推断该基因在康乃馨种内可能是完全或高度保守的.

  16. Effect of plant growth regulators on leaf anatomy of the has mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Janosević, D; Uzelac, B; Budimir, S


    In this study, the effect of plant growth regulators on leaf morphogenesis of the recessive T-DNA insertion mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was analyzed. The morpho-anatomical analysis revealed that leaves of the has mutant are small and narrow, with lobed blades and disrupted tissue organization. When has plants were grown on the medium supplied with plant growth regulators: benzylaminopurine (BAP) or ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the leaf anatomy was partially restored to the wild type, although plants still exhibited morphological abnormalities.

  17. In Vitro Study on the Anti-Proliferation and Apoptosis of Ursolic Acid in Human ACC 83 cells%熊果酸对ACC-83增殖抑制和诱导凋亡的观察

    米磊; 张斌; 王岩松; 寇玉霞; 贾妮


    目的:探讨熊果酸(ursolic acid,UA)XCX腺样囊性癌ACC-83细胞增殖及凋亡的影响.方法:MTT检测UA对ACC-83细胞体外生长的抑制作用;流式细胞仪测定细胞的周期和凋亡;瑞氏-吉姆萨染色,显示凋亡细胞形态;Western印迹法检测Bcl-2、Bax两个重要的细胞凋亡相关基因和细胞凋亡相天特殊蛋白COX-2表达的变化.结果:UA以剂量和时间依赖的方式抑制ACC-83细胞生长.以剂量依赖的方式使ACC-83细胞周期阻滞在S期,诱导细胞凋亡;染色可见细胞呈明显的凋亡特征:Western印迹法测得UA下调ACC-83细胞的Bcl-2和COX2的蛋白表达,随着药物浓度增加逐渐减少,对Bax的表达并无明显改变.结论:UA能够抑制ACC-83细胞的增殖.并使细胞大量累积于S期.UA可能通过减少COX2和Bcl-2的表达、降低Bcl-2/Bax比例来诱导细胞凋亡.

  18. Role and Regulation of ACC Deaminase Gene in Sinorhizobium meliloti: Is It a Symbiotic, Rhizospheric or Endophytic Gene?

    Checcucci, Alice; Azzarello, Elisa; Bazzicalupo, Marco; De Carlo, Anna; Emiliani, Giovanni; Mancuso, Stefano; Spini, Giulia; Viti, Carlo; Mengoni, Alessio


    Plant-associated bacteria exhibit a number of different strategies and specific genes allow bacteria to communicate and metabolically interact with plant tissues. Among the genes found in the genomes of plant-associated bacteria, the gene encoding the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (acdS) is one of the most diffused. This gene is supposed to be involved in the cleaving of plant-produced ACC, the precursor of the plant stress-hormone ethylene toning down the plant response to infection. However, few reports are present on the actual role in rhizobia, one of the most investigated groups of plant-associated bacteria. In particular, still unclear is the origin and the role of acdS in symbiotic competitiveness and on the selective benefit it may confer to plant symbiotic rhizobia. Here we present a phylogenetic and functional analysis of acdS orthologs in the rhizobium model-species Sinorhizobium meliloti. Results showed that acdS orthologs present in S. meliloti pangenome have polyphyletic origin and likely spread through horizontal gene transfer, mediated by mobile genetic elements. When acdS ortholog from AK83 strain was cloned and assayed in S. meliloti 1021 (lacking acdS), no modulation of plant ethylene levels was detected, as well as no increase in fitness for nodule occupancy was found in the acdS-derivative strain compared to the parental one. Surprisingly, AcdS was shown to confer the ability to utilize formamide and some dipeptides as sole nitrogen source. Finally, acdS was shown to be negatively regulated by a putative leucine-responsive regulator (LrpL) located upstream to acdS sequence (acdR). acdS expression was induced by root exudates of both legumes and non-leguminous plants. We conclude that acdS in S. meliloti is not directly related to symbiotic interaction, but it could likely be involved in the rhizospheric colonization or in the endophytic behavior.

  19. Role and Regulation of ACC Deaminase Gene in Sinorhizobium meliloti: Is It a Symbiotic, Rhizospheric or Endophytic Gene?

    Checcucci, Alice; Azzarello, Elisa; Bazzicalupo, Marco; De Carlo, Anna; Emiliani, Giovanni; Mancuso, Stefano; Spini, Giulia; Viti, Carlo; Mengoni, Alessio


    Plant-associated bacteria exhibit a number of different strategies and specific genes allow bacteria to communicate and metabolically interact with plant tissues. Among the genes found in the genomes of plant-associated bacteria, the gene encoding the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (acdS) is one of the most diffused. This gene is supposed to be involved in the cleaving of plant-produced ACC, the precursor of the plant stress-hormone ethylene toning down the plant response to infection. However, few reports are present on the actual role in rhizobia, one of the most investigated groups of plant-associated bacteria. In particular, still unclear is the origin and the role of acdS in symbiotic competitiveness and on the selective benefit it may confer to plant symbiotic rhizobia. Here we present a phylogenetic and functional analysis of acdS orthologs in the rhizobium model-species Sinorhizobium meliloti. Results showed that acdS orthologs present in S. meliloti pangenome have polyphyletic origin and likely spread through horizontal gene transfer, mediated by mobile genetic elements. When acdS ortholog from AK83 strain was cloned and assayed in S. meliloti 1021 (lacking acdS), no modulation of plant ethylene levels was detected, as well as no increase in fitness for nodule occupancy was found in the acdS-derivative strain compared to the parental one. Surprisingly, AcdS was shown to confer the ability to utilize formamide and some dipeptides as sole nitrogen source. Finally, acdS was shown to be negatively regulated by a putative leucine-responsive regulator (LrpL) located upstream to acdS sequence (acdR). acdS expression was induced by root exudates of both legumes and non-leguminous plants. We conclude that acdS in S. meliloti is not directly related to symbiotic interaction, but it could likely be involved in the rhizospheric colonization or in the endophytic behavior. PMID:28194158

  20. Ethylene is involved in brassinosteroids induced alternative respiratory pathway in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings response to abiotic stress

    Lijie eWei


    Full Text Available Effects of brassinosteroids (BRs on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. abiotic stresses resistance to salt, polyethylene glycol (PEG, cold and the potential mechanisms were investigated in this work. Previous reports have indicated that BRs can induce ethylene production and enhance alternative oxidase (AOX pathway. The mechanisms whether ethylene is involved as a signal molecule which connected BR with AOX in regulating stress tolerance are still unknown. Here, we found that pretreatment with 1 µM brassinolide (BL, the most active BRs relieved stress-caused oxidative damage in cucumber seedlings and clearly enhanced the capacity of AOX and the ethylene biosynthesis. Furthermore, transcription level of ethylene signaling biosynthesis genes including ripening-related ACC synthase1 (CSACS1, ripening-related ACC synthase2 (CSACS2, ripening-related ACC synthase3 (CSACS3, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase1 (CSACO1, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase2 (CSACO2 and CSAOX were increased after BL treatment. Importantly, the application of the salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, AOX inhibitor and ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOA decreased plant resistance to environmental stress by blocking BRs-induced alternative respiration. Taken together, our results demonstrated that ethylene was involved in BRs-induced AOX activity which played important roles in abiotic stresses tolerance in cucumber seedlings.

  1. Bacteria in combination with fertilizers promote root and shoot growth of maize in saline-sodic soil

    Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye


    Full Text Available Salinity is the leading abiotic stress hampering maize (Zea maysL. growth throughout the world, especially in Pakistan. During salinity stress, the endogenous ethylene level in plants increases, which retards proper root growth and consequent shoot growth of the plants. However, certain bacteria contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase, which converts 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (an immediate precursor of ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants into ammonia and α-ketobutyrate instead of ethylene. In the present study, two Pseudomonas bacterial strains containing ACC-deaminase were tested separately and in combinations with mineral fertilizers to determine their potential to minimize/undo the effects of salinity on maize plants grown under saline-sodic field conditions. The data recorded at 30, 50 and 70 days after sowing revealed that both the Pseudomonas bacterial strains improved root and shoot length, root and shoot fresh weight, and root and shoot dry weight up to 34, 43, 35, 71, 55 and 68%, respectively, when applied without chemical fertilizers: these parameter were enhanced up to 108, 95, 100, 131, 100 and 198%, respectively, when the strains were applied along with chemical fertilizers. It can be concluded that ACC-deaminase Pseudomonas bacterial strains applied alone and in conjunction with mineral fertilizers improved the root and shoot growth of maize seedlings grown in saline-sodic soil.

  2. Bacteria in combination with fertilizers promote root and shoot growth of maize in saline-sodic soil.

    Zafar-Ul-Hye, Muhammad; Farooq, Hafiz Muhammad; Hussain, Mubshar


    Salinity is the leading abiotic stress hampering maize ( Zea mays L.) growth throughout the world, especially in Pakistan. During salinity stress, the endogenous ethylene level in plants increases, which retards proper root growth and consequent shoot growth of the plants. However, certain bacteria contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, which converts 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (an immediate precursor of ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants) into ammonia and α-ketobutyrate instead of ethylene. In the present study, two Pseudomonas bacterial strains containing ACC-deaminase were tested separately and in combinations with mineral fertilizers to determine their potential to minimize/undo the effects of salinity on maize plants grown under saline-sodic field conditions. The data recorded at 30, 50 and 70 days after sowing revealed that both the Pseudomonas bacterial strains improved root and shoot length, root and shoot fresh weight, and root and shoot dry weight up to 34, 43, 35, 71, 55 and 68%, respectively, when applied without chemical fertilizers: these parameter were enhanced up to 108, 95, 100, 131, 100 and 198%, respectively, when the strains were applied along with chemical fertilizers. It can be concluded that ACC-deaminase Pseudomonas bacterial strains applied alone and in conjunction with mineral fertilizers improved the root and shoot growth of maize seedlings grown in saline-sodic soil.

  3. pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles induces apoptosis via reduced fatty acid synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells

    Kaliaperumal, Jagatheesh; Hari, Natarajan; Pavankumar, Padarthi; Elangovan, Namasivayam


    The development of formulations with therapeutic peptides has been restricted to poor cell penetration and in this attempt; we developed pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized with FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TEM. In addition, the suitable formulation was evaluated for hemocompatibility, plasma stability and embryo toxicity using Danio rerio embryo model. The results showed that pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles were compatible with plasma. They possess sustained release pattern and also found to be safe up to 300 mg/L in embryo toxicity tests. Cytotoxicity assays with MDA-MB-231 cell lines suggested that, pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles were capable of enhanced cellular penetration and reduced palmitic acid content, which was confirmed by H1 NMR. Hence, these nanoparticles could be employed as excellent adjuvant therapeutics while treating solid tumors with multi-drug resistance.

  4. Role of oxidative stress and the activity of ethylene biosynthetic enzymes on the formation of spongy tissue in 'Alphonso' mango.

    Nagamani, J E; Shivashankara, K S; Roy, T K


    Spongy tissue formation in 'Alphonso' mangoes (Mangifera indica L) is a major national problem leading to loss for farmers and traders. Spongy tissue is whitish sponge like tissue formed near the seed with insipid taste and off odour. Lipid peroxidation of membranes as studied by malondialdehyde formation was significantly higher in spongy tissue. Activities of antioxidative enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were lower in spongy tissue. Among the antioxidative enzymes, activities of catalase and peroxidases were severely reduced leading to membrane damage in spongy tissue. A significant reduction in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase and accumulation of ACC was also observed in spongy tissue. However, ACC synthase activity in spongy tissue was more compared to healthy tissue. Results indicate that the membrane peroxidation leading to lower activity of ACC oxidase might lead to the formation of spongy tissue in 'Alphonso' mango.

  5. Determination and stereochemistry of proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids in Saudi Arabian date fruits.

    Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Alhaj, Omar Amin; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans


    Whereas an abundance of literature is available on the occurrence of common proteinogenic amino acids (AAs) in edible fruits of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), recent reports on non-proteinogenic (non-coded) AAs and amino components are scarce. With emphasis on these components we have analyzed total hydrolysates of twelve cultivars of date fruits using automated ion-exchange chromatography, HPLC employing a fluorescent aminoquinolyl label, and GC-MS of total hydrolysates using the chiral stationary phases Chirasil(®)-L-Val and Lipodex(®) E. Besides common proteinogenic AAs, relatively large amounts of the following non-proteinogenic amino acids were detected: (2S,5R)-5-hydroxypipecolic acid (1.4-4.0 g/kg dry matter, DM), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (1.3-2.6 g/kg DM), γ-amino-n-butyric acid (0.5-1.2 g/kg DM), (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline (130-230 mg/kg DM), L-pipecolic acid (40-140 mg/kg DM), and 2-aminoethanol (40-160 mg/kg DM) as well as low or trace amounts (amino acids in date fruits is briefly addressed.

  6. Co-inoculation with Rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR for inducing salinity tolerance in mung bean under field condition of semi arid climate

    Muhammad Aamir


    Full Text Available Salinity stress severely affects the growth, nodulation and yield of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.. However, its growth can be improved under salinity stress by inoculation/co-inoculation with rhizobia and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR containing 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase enzyme. ACC-deaminase containing bacteria regulate the stress induced ethylene production by hydrolyzing the ACC (immediate precursor of ethylene into ammonia and ketobutyric acid, thus improve plant growth by lowering the ethylene level. A study was conducted under salt affected field conditions where pre-isolated strains of Rhizobium and PGPR were used alone as well as in combination for mitigating the salinity stress on growth, nodulation and yield of mung bean by following the randomized complete block design (RCBD. The data were recorded and analyzed statistically to see the difference among treatments.

  7. Regulation and role of differential ethylene biosynthesis in gravistimulated Antirrhinum majus L. cut flower stems

    Woltering, E.J.; Balk, P.A.; Nijenhuis-de Vries, M.A.; Faivre, M.; Ruys, G.; Somhorst, D.; Philosoph-Hadas, S.; Friedman, H.


    Gravistimulation induced differential ethylene production in Antirrhinum majus L. cut flower stems with highest levels in the lower halves of the gravistimulated stems. Expression levels of three different 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS) genes, an ACC oxidase (ACO) and an ethy

  8. Recycling of 5'-methylthioadenosine-ribose carbon atoms into methionine in tomato tissue in relation to ethylene production.

    Wang, S Y; Adams, D O; Lieberman, M


    The ribose moiety of 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) is metabolized to form the four-carbon unit (2-aminobutyrate) of methionine in tomato tissue (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv. Pik Red). When [U-(14)C-adenosine] MTA was administered to tomato tissue slices, label was recovered in 5-methylthioribose (MTR), methionine, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), C(2)H(4) and other unidentified compounds. However, when [U-(14)C-ribose]MTR was administered, radioactivities were recovered in methionine, ACC and C(2)H(4), but not MTA. This suggests that C(2)H(4) formed in tomato pericarp tissue may be derived from the ribose portion of MTA via MTR, methionine and ACC. The conversion of MTR to methionine is not inhibited by aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), but is O(2) dependent. These data present a new salvage pathway for methionine biosynthesis which may be important in relation to polyamine and ethylene biosynthesis in tomato tissue.

  9. Pear 14-3-3a gene (Pp14-3-3a) is regulated during fruit ripening and senescense, and involved in response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling

    Haiyan Shi; Yuxing Zhang


    14-3-3 proteins play important roles in regulating plant development and phytohormone (abscisic acid, gibberellin and brassinosteroids) signalling. However, their regulation in fruit ripening and senescense, and response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling are yet to be illustrated. One cDNA encoding putative 14-3-3 protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) and designated Pp14-3-3a. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that Pp14-3-3a belonged to -like group of 14-3-3 super-families. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of Pp14-3-3a gene was developmentally regulated in the fruit. Further study demonstrated that Pp14-3-3a expression was inhibited by salicylic acid and induced by ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid in pear fruit. These data suggested that Pp14-3-3a might be involved in response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling during fruit ripening and senescence of pear.

  10. Cloning of a ACC Oxidase Gene from Carnation Flowers and Construction of It's Antisense Plant Expression Vectors%康乃馨ACC氧化酶cDNA的克隆及其反义植物表达载体的构建

    张树珍; 汤火龙; 杨本鹏; 刘飞虎


    以康乃馨(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)花瓣为材料,用改进的异硫氰酸胍一步法提取总RNA,根据已报道的康乃馨ACC氧化酶(1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase,ACO)基因的序列设计并合成一对引物,通过RT-PCR方法获得一约1.2kb特异片段,把该片段连接到pGEM(R)-T easy vector上进行测序,其全长共1156bp,编码区915 bp,共编码304个氨基酸残基.序列分析结果表明该序列与GenBank L35152中的康乃馨ACC氧化酶基因的cDNA序列完全相符,推断该基因在康乃馨种内可能是完全或高度保守的.随后将此片段反向插入植物表达载体pBI121的35S启动子和NOS终止子之间,构建了一反义植物表达载体pBO;又把花特异表达启动子PchsA插入pBI121的HindIII+Xbal位点构建中间载体pCHB,再把康乃馨ACC氧化酶基因反向插入中间载体pCHB的XbaI+Sst1位点构建成另一反义植物表达载体pCBO.

  11. ACC 291 NEW Tutorials / acc291dotcom



    For more course tutorials visit   ACC 291 Final Exam Study Guide Question 207 On January 1, a machine with a useful life of five years and a residual value of $40,000 was purchased for $120,000. What is the depreciation expense for year 2 under the double-declining-balance method of depreciation? IFRS Multiple Choice Question 01 As a recent graduate of State University you're aware that IFRS requires component depreciation for plant assets. ...

  12. ACC 230 UOP TUTORIAL / Uoptutorial

    Justin Bieber


    For more course tutorials visit   ACC 230 Week 1 Checkpoint Financial Statements ACC 230 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 230 Week 2 CheckPoint Differentiating Depreciation Methods ACC 230 Week 2 Assignment Lucent Technologies Case ACC 230 Week 3 CheckPoint Preparing an Income Statement ACC 230 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 230 Week 4 CheckPoint Analyzing an Income Statement ACC 230 Week 4 Assignment Web Sites Search ACC 230 Week 5 Chec...

  13. Caracterização imunoquímica da ACC (ácido 1-carboxílico-1-aminociclopropano oxidase em frutos climatéricos Immunochemical characterization of ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid oxidase in climacteric fruits

    Ana Lúcia CHAVES


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar, por via imunoquímica, a enzima ACC (ácido 1-carboxílico-1-aminociclopropano oxidase em frutos climatéricos, foram preparados anticorpos policlonais específicos para esta proteína. Utilizou-se, como antígeno, uma proteína recombinante, produzida em Escherichia coli K38/pGP1,2, contendo o vetor de expressão pT7-7A4 no qual foi inserido um clone de DNA da ACC oxidase. A especificidade dos anticorpos foi demonstrada pela técnica de "Western blot", a partir de extratos protéicos de maçãs e tomates em diferentes estágios de maturação. Verificou-se que o aumento da produção de etileno, quando os frutos passaram do estágio pré-climatérico para o climatérico, está diretamente correlacionada com o aumento da síntese da ACC oxidase. Em estágios de maturação mais avançados houve uma redução da produção de etileno e da atividade ACC oxidase, mas esta proteína continuava presente. Quando o "Western blot" foi realizado com tomates transgênicos, onde a produção de etileno e a síntese da ACC oxidase foram inibidos em mais de 95%, nenhuma reação imunoquímica foi detectada. O conjunto de resultados obtidos indica que os anticorpos detectam especificamente ACC oxidase.Polyclonal antibodies were prepared to characterize the enzyme ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid oxidase from climateric fruits. The antigen was a recombinant protein obtained from an Escherichia coli K38/pGP1,2, which contained the expression vector pT7-7A4 with one ACC oxidase DNA clone inserted. Antibody specificity was demonstrated by the Western blot technique with protein extracts from apples and tomatoes in different maturation stages. It was observed that the increase in ethylene production which happened when the fruits changed from pre-climateric to climateric stage is directly correlated with an increase in ACC oxidase syntesis. In more advanced maturation stages there was a reduction in ethylene production and

  14. Sensitive and rapid method for amino acid quantitation in malaria biological samples using AccQ.Tag ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-MS/MS with multiple reaction monitoring.

    Armenta, Jenny M; Cortes, Diego F; Pisciotta, John M; Shuman, Joel L; Blakeslee, Kenneth; Rasoloson, Dominique; Ogunbiyi, Oluwatosin; Sullivan, David J; Shulaev, Vladimir


    An AccQ*Tag ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (AccQ*Tag-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for fast, reproducible, and sensitive amino acid quantitation in biological samples, particularly, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is presented. The Waters Acquity TQD UPLC/MS system equipped with a photodiode array (PDA) detector was used for amino acid separation and detection. The method was developed and validated using amino acid standard mixtures containing acidic, neutral, and basic amino acids. For MS analysis, the optimum cone voltage implemented, based on direct infusion analysis of a few selected AccQ*Tag amino acids with multiple reaction monitoring, varied from 29 to 39 V, whereas the collision energy varied from 15 to 35 V. Calibration curves were built using both internal and external standardization. Typically, a linear response for all amino acids was observed at concentration ranges of 3 x 10(-3)-25 pmol/muL. For some amino acids, concentration limits of detection were as low as 1.65 fmol. The coefficients of variation for retention times were within the range of 0.08-1.08%. The coefficients of variation for amino acid quantitation, determined from triplicate UPLC-MS/MS runs, were below 8% on the average. The developed AccQ*Tag-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method revealed good technical and biological reproducibility when applied to P. falciparum and human red blood cells samples. This study should provide a valuable insight into the performance of UPLC-ESI-MS/MS for amino acid quantitation using AccQ*Tag derivatization.

  15. The role of ethylene and l-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (ACC in pollination and senescence of cut flowers of hippeastrum (Hippeastrum x hybridum hort.

    Anna Mareczek


    Full Text Available Pollination of hippeastrum flowers did not affect the corolla life span. Only stigma and style from pollinated flowers wilted sooner than those from the unpollinated ones. Pollination or application of ACC to intact pistil accelerated synthesis of ethylene by the pistil only when stigma was mature. This was not observed when immature stigmas were treated. Various parts of the pistil showed different ability to synthesize ethylene after wounding. Production of this gas was the most intensive in the stigma, whereas decreased amounts of ethylene were emitted successively by the upper, middle and lower parts of the style. Increased amounts of ACC were found in pollinated or wounded pistils. Production of ACC was the highest in the stigma, and smaller in the style; amount of ACT decreased toward the basis of the style. The influence of ethylene and ACC on in vivo germination of pollen was also examined. Germintaion of pollen was accelerated by both ethylene and ACC.

  16. Expression and beta-glucan binding properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) antimicrobial protein (Sp-AMP)

    Sooriyaarachchi, Sanjeewani; Jaber, Emad; Covarrubias, Adrian Suárez


    . Furthermore, the genes were up-regulated after treatment with salicylic acid and an ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid, but neither methyl jasmonate nor H(2)O(2) induced expression, indicating that Sp-AMP gene expression is independent of the jasmonic acid signaling pathways. The c...

  17. Effect of silver ions on ethylene biosynthesis by tomato fruit tissue.

    Atta-Aly, M A; Saltveit, M E; Hobson, G E


    Mature-green tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were treated asymmetrically with 2 millimolar silver thiosulfate (STS) through a cut portion of the peduncle while still attached to the plant. One-half of the fruit received silver and remained green while the other half ripened normally and was silver-free (less than 0.01 parts per billion). Harvested mature-green fruit were also treated with STS through the cut pedicel. Green tissue from silver-treated fruit had levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, the immediate ethylene precursor) slightly less or similar to that of turning or red-ripe tissue from the same fruit, and similar to that of mature-green tissue from control fruit. Ethylene production was higher in green tissue from silver-treated fruit than from either red tissue from the same fruit, or mature-green tissue from control fruit. By inhibiting ACC synthesis with aminoethoxyvinyl glycine, and by applying ACC +/- silver to excised disks of pericarp tissue from control or silver-treated tomatoes, we showed that short-term silver treatment did not affect the biological conversion of ACC to ethylene, while long-term treatment stimulated both the conversion of ACC to ethylene and the synthesis of ACC.

  18. Manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina using AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality

    Ahmad Farhad Talebi


    Full Text Available Advanced generations of biofuels basically revolve around non-agricultural energy crops. Among those, microalgae owing to its unique characteristics i.e. natural tolerance to waste and saline water, sustainable biomass production and high lipid content (LC, is regarded by many as the ultimate choice for the production of various biofuels such as biodiesel. In the present study, manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina was achieved using pGH plasmid harboring AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality. The stability of transformation was confirmed by PCR after several passages. Southern hybridization of AccD probe with genomic DNA revealed stable integration of the cassette in the specific positions in the chloroplast genome with no read through transcription by indigenous promoters. Comparison of the LC and fatty acid profile of the transformed algal cell line and the control revealed the over-expression of the ME/AccD genes in the transformants leading to 12% increase in total LC and significant improvements in biodiesel properties especially by increasing algal oil oxidation stability. The whole process successfully implemented herein for transforming algal cells by genes involved in lipid production pathway could be helpful for large scale biodiesel production from microalgae.

  19. Defense Responses in Aspen with Altered Pectin Methylesterase Activity Reveal the Hormonal Inducers of Tyloses1[OPEN

    Leśniewska, Joanna; Krzesłowska, Magdalena; Kushwah, Sunita; Sundberg, Björn; Moritz, Thomas


    Tyloses are ingrowths of parenchyma cells into the lumen of embolized xylem vessels, thereby protecting the remaining xylem from pathogens. They are found in heartwood, sapwood, and in abscission zones and can be induced by various stresses, but their molecular triggers are unknown. Here, we report that down-regulation of PECTIN METHYLESTERASE1 (PtxtPME1) in aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides) triggers the formation of tyloses and activation of oxidative stress. We tested whether any of the oxidative stress-related hormones could induce tyloses in intact plantlets grown in sterile culture. Jasmonates, including jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate, induced the formation of tyloses, whereas treatments with salicylic acid (SA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) were ineffective. SA abolished the induction of tyloses by JA, whereas ACC was synergistic with JA. The ability of ACC to stimulate tyloses formation when combined with JA depended on ethylene (ET) signaling, as shown by a decrease in the response in ET-insensitive plants. Measurements of internal ACC and JA concentrations in wild-type and ET-insensitive plants treated simultaneously with these two compounds indicated that ACC and JA regulate each other’s concentration in an ET-dependent manner. The findings indicate that jasmonates acting synergistically with ethylene are the key molecular triggers of tyloses. PMID:27923986

  20. After-ripening induced transcriptional changes of hormonal genes in wheat seeds: the cases of brassinosteroids, ethylene, cytokinin and salicylic acid.

    Vijaya R Chitnis

    Full Text Available Maintenance and release of seed dormancy is regulated by plant hormones; their levels and seed sensitivity being the critical factors. This study reports transcriptional regulation of brassinosteroids (BR, ethylene (ET, cytokinin (CK and salicylic acid (SA related wheat genes by after-ripening, a period of dry storage that decays dormancy. Changes in the expression of hormonal genes due to seed after-ripening did not occur in the anhydrobiotic state but rather in the hydrated state. After-ripening induced dormancy decay appears to be associated with imbibition mediated increase in the synthesis and signalling of BR, via transcriptional activation of de-etiolated2, dwarf4 and brassinosteroid signaling kinase, and repression of brassinosteroid insensitive 2. Our analysis is also suggestive of the significance of increased ET production, as reflected by enhanced transcription of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase in after-ripened seeds, and tight regulation of seed response to ET in regulating dormancy decay. Differential transcriptions of lonely guy, zeatin O-glucosyltransferases and cytokinin oxidases, and pseudo-response regulator between dormant and after-ripened seeds implicate CK in the regulation of seed dormancy in wheat. Our analysis also reflects the association of dormancy decay in wheat with seed SA level and NPR independent SA signaling that appear to be regulated transcriptionally by phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and whirly and suppressor of npr1 inducible1 genes, respectively. Co-expression clustering of the hormonal genes implies the significance of synergistic and antagonistic interaction between the different plant hormones in regulating wheat seed dormancy. These results contribute to further our understanding of the molecular features controlling seed dormancy in wheat.

  1. Inhibition of auxin-induced ethylene production by lycoricidinol

    Kang, Bin-G.; Lee, June-S.; Oh, Seung-Eun (Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea)); Horiuchi, Yuko; Imaseki, Hidemasa


    Lycoricidinol, a natural growth inhibitor isolated from bulbs of Lycoris radiata Herb. strongly suppressed auxin-induced ethylene production from the hypocotyl segments of etiolated mung bean (Vigna radiata Wilczek) seedlings. The inhibitor did not significantly inhibit ethylene formation from its immediate precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), during short-term (up to 4h) incubation. The ACC content in tissue treated with IAA was reduced by lycoricidinol in close parallel with the inhibition of ethylene production. Examination of radioactive metabolites in tissues labeled with 3,4-/sup 14/C-methionine indicated that reduction of the ACC content was not due to any possible promotive effect of lycoricidinol on conjugation of ACC with malonate. Lycoricidinol showed no inhibitory effect on the activity of ACC synthase if applied in vitro, but it almost completely abolished the increase in the enzyme activity when applied in vivo during incubation of the tissue with IAA. Lycoricidinol also strongly inhibited incorporation of /sup 14/C-leucine into protein in the tissue. The suppression of the enzyme induction and, in turn, that of ethylene production by lycoricidinol were interpreted as being due to the inhibition of protein synthesis.

  2. Plant-Agrobacterium interaction mediated by ethylene and super-Agrobacterium conferring efficient gene transfer ability

    Satoko eNonaka


    Full Text Available Agrobacterium tumefaciens has a unique ability to transfer genes into plant genomes. This ability has been utilized for plant genetic engineering. However, the efficiency is not sufficient for all plant species. Several studies have shown that ethylene decreased the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation frequency. Thus, A. tumefaciens with an ability to suppress ethylene evolution would increase the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Some studies showed that plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR can reduce ethylene levels in plants through 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase, which cleaves the ethylene precursor ACC into α-ketobutyrate and ammonia, resulting in reduced ethylene production. The whole genome sequence data showed that A. tumefaciens does not possess an ACC deaminase gene in its genome. Therefore, providing ACC deaminase activity to the bacteria would improve gene transfer. As expected, A. tumefaciens with ACC deaminase activity, designated as super-Agrobacterium, could suppress ethylene evolution and increase the gene transfer efficiency in several plant species. In this review, we summarize plant–Agrobacterium interactions and their applications for improving Agrobacterium-mediated genetic engineering techniques via super-Agrobacterium.

  3. Characterization and kinetic parameters of ethylene-forming enzyme from avocado fruit.

    McGarvey, D J; Christoffersen, R E


    Biosynthesis of the phytohormone ethylene in higher plants proceeds via the following pathway: S-adenosylmethionine----1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)----ethylene. Ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE), the enzyme responsible for the oxidation of ACC to ethylene, has been only partially characterized in vitro. We have obtained authentic EFE activity in vitro from extracts of avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass). Ammonium sulfate fractionation revealed the presence of two EFE activities, which we designate as EFE1 and EFE2. EFE1 activity utilizes ACC and O2 as substrates and requires Fe(II) and ascorbate as cofactors. The enzyme has a relatively low Km (32 microM) for ACC, discriminates diastereomers of 1-amino-2-ethyl-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, and is inhibited competitively by 2-aminoisobutyric acid, thus confirming its identity with authentic EFE. Activity is retained in a 100,000 x g supernatant and has a pH optimum of 7.5-8.0, suggesting a cytosolic localization.

  4. Protein (Viridiplantae): 15221544 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB


  5. Role of inoculation with multi-trait rhizobacteria on strawberries under water deficit stress

    Erdogan, Ummugulsum; Cakmakci, Ramazan; Varmazyarı, Atafeh; Turan, Metin; Erdogan, Yasar; Kıtır, Nurgül


    This study was conducted during 2011 and 2012 to evaluate the effect of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase-containing, N2-fixing and P-solubilizing bacteria on the yield and morpho-physiological parameters of strawberry. A total of 8 applications at the trial set, with four water regimes were randomly distributed into the pots. The diminishing water supply caused a gradual decrease in the plant growth, chlorophyll content and berry yield, accompanied by increasing a...

  6. 应用AccQ柱前衍生高效液相色谱法检测黑大麦中的游离氨基酸%Application of AccQ- Tag HPLC method to Detect Black Barley of Free Amino Acids

    申晓蓉; 陈士恩; 郭鹏辉; 李占虎; 李绪伦; 韩霁光; 李振明; 王娟妮


    Objective: AccQ- Tag methods used in this paper, derivatized with 6- arninoquinolyl- N- hydroxysuccinimidyl carbauiate (AQC) as the reagent, isolated and tested samples of black barley types and levels of free amino acids. The results show that: in the detection of nine free amino acids, the lowest was Asp(2.3±0. 031μmol/g), and the highest was phe(347.6 ±8. 052μmol/g) which is 46.67% of total amino acids, And the amino acid concentration and peak area showed a good linear relationship between higher stability; This method is simple, accurate and reliable, high sensitivity, it can be used prospectly in the development and use and quality control of the black Barley.%采用AccQ柱前衍生高效液相色谱法,以6-氨基喳啉-N-羟基琥珀酰亚胺基.氮基甲酸酯(AQC)为衍生试剂。分离并检测了黑大麦样品中游离氨基酸种类及其含量.结果表明:在检测出的9中游离氨基酸中,天冬氨馥含量最低(2.3±0.031μmol/g),苯丙氨酸的含量最高(347.6±8.052μmol/g);占氨基酸总量的46.67%,且氨基酸浓度与峰面积呈良好的线性关系.此方法稳定性较高,操作简单,准确可靠,具有较高的灵敏度,在黑大麦的开发与利用以及质量控制方面具有很好的应用前景.

  7. Native bacterial endophytes promote host growth in a species-specific manner; phytohormone manipulations do not result in common growth responses.

    Hoang Hoa Long

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All plants in nature harbor a diverse community of endophytic bacteria which can positively affect host plant growth. Changes in plant growth frequently reflect alterations in phytohormone homoeostasis by plant-growth-promoting (PGP rhizobacteria which can decrease ethylene (ET levels enzymatically by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase or produce indole acetic acid (IAA. Whether these common PGP mechanisms work similarly for different plant species has not been rigorously tested. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated bacterial endophytes from field-grown Solanum nigrum; characterized PGP traits (ACC deaminase activity, IAA production, phosphate solubilization and seedling colonization; and determined their effects on their host, S. nigrum, as well as on another Solanaceous native plant, Nicotiana attenuata. In S. nigrum, a majority of isolates that promoted root growth were associated with ACC deaminase activity and IAA production. However, in N. attenuata, IAA but not ACC deaminase activity was associated with root growth. Inoculating N. attenuata and S. nigrum with known PGP bacteria from a culture collection (DSMZ reinforced the conclusion that the PGP effects are not highly conserved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that natural endophytic bacteria with PGP traits do not have general and predictable effects on the growth and fitness of all host plants, although the underlying mechanisms are conserved.

  8. Downregulation of Ethylene Production Increases Mycelial Growth and Primordia Formation in the Button Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Agaricomycetes).

    Zhang, Chaohui; Huang, Tao; Shen, Chaohui; Wang, Xiaoting; Qi, Yuancheng; Shen, Jinwen; Song, Andong; Qiu, Liyou; Ai, Yuncan


    Ethylene biosynthesis and function in Agaricus bisporus (the button mushroom) remain uncertain. The enzyme activities of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) were detectable in A. bisporus AS2796 and inhibited by α-aminooxyacetic acid and Co2+. We cloned and sequenced 2 ACS genes (Ab-ACS1 and Ab-ACS2) and 1 ACO gene (Ab-ACO) from the mushroom strain. Ab-ACS1 and Ab-ACS2 demonstrated low amino acid sequence similarity. Ab-ACO demonstrated an amino acid sequence completely identical to that of ACO1_AGABI from A. bisporus. Antisense ACO significantly reduced ACO gene expression level, ACO enzyme activity, and ethylene production in the mushroom transformants. The transformants grew faster than the wild-type strain in sterilized compost and normally formed primordia when cultivated in sterilized compost with the sterilized casing vermiculite, but the wild-type strain did not. Our results show that ethylene is synthesized in button mushrooms via the ACC pathway. Ethylene inhibited button mushroom mycelial growth and development.

  9. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on shelf life, visual quality and nutritional quality of netted melon.

    Shi, Y; Wang, B L; Shui, D J; Cao, L L; Wang, C; Yang, T; Wang, X Y; Ye, H X


    The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on shelf life, fruit visual quality and nutritional quality were investigated. Netted melons were treated with air (control) and 0.6 µl l(-1) 1-MCP at 25 ℃ for 24 h, and then stored at 25 ℃ or 10 ℃ for 10 days. 1-MCP significantly extended the shelf life, inhibited weight loss and delayed firmness decline of melon fruits. Ethylene production was also inhibited and respiration rate was declined. 1-MCP retarded 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) increases and inhibited ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activity. Moreover, 1-MCP treatment reduced the decrease in total soluble solids and titratable acidity, as well as the decrease of the content of sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose). These results indicated that 1-MCP treatment is a good method to extend melon shelf life and maintain fruit quality, and the combination of 1-MCP and low temperature storage resulted in more acceptable fruit quality.

  10. ACC2 is expressed at high levels in human white adipose and has an isoform with a novel N-terminus [corrected].

    John C Castle

    Full Text Available Acetyl-CoA carboxylases ACC1 and ACC2 catalyze the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, regulating fatty-acid synthesis and oxidation, and are potential targets for treatment of metabolic syndrome. Expression of ACC1 in rodent lipogenic tissues and ACC2 in rodent oxidative tissues, coupled with the predicted localization of ACC2 to the mitochondrial membrane, have suggested separate functional roles for ACC1 in lipogenesis and ACC2 in fatty acid oxidation. We find, however, that human adipose tissue, unlike rodent adipose, expresses more ACC2 mRNA relative to the oxidative tissues muscle and heart. Human adipose, along with human liver, expresses more ACC2 than ACC1. Using RT-PCR, real-time PCR, and immunoprecipitation we report a novel isoform of ACC2 (ACC2.v2 that is expressed at significant levels in human adipose. The protein generated by this isoform has enzymatic activity, is endogenously expressed in adipose, and lacks the N-terminal sequence. Both ACC2 isoforms are capable of de novo lipogenesis, suggesting that ACC2, in addition to ACC1, may play a role in lipogenesis. The results demonstrate a significant difference in ACC expression between human and rodents, which may introduce difficulties for the use of rodent models for development of ACC inhibitors.

  11. A randomised feasibility study of EPA and Cox-2 inhibitor (Celebrex versus EPA, Cox-2 inhibitor (Celebrex, Resistance Training followed by ingestion of essential amino acids high in leucine in NSCLC cachectic patients - ACCeRT Study

    Rogers Elaine S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer cachexia is a syndrome of progressive weight loss. Non-small cell lung cancer patients experience a high incidence of cachexia of 61%. Research into methods to combat cancer cachexia in various tumour sites has recently progressed to the combination of agents. The combination of the anti-cachectic agent Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and the cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib has been tested in a small study with some benefit. The use of progressive resistance training (PRT followed by the oral ingestion of essential amino acids (EAA, have shown to be anabolic on skeletal muscle and acceptable in older adults and other cancer groups. The aim of this feasibility study is to evaluate whether a multi-targeted approach encompassing a resistance training and nutritional supplementation element is acceptable for lung cancer patients experiencing cancer cachexia. Methods/Design Auckland's Cancer Cachexia evaluating Resistance Training (ACCeRT is an open label, prospective, randomised controlled feasibility study with two parallel arms. All patients will be treated with EPA and the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib on an outpatient basis at the study site. In the experimental group patients will participate in PRT twice a week, followed by the ingestion of essential amino acids high in leucine. A total of 21 patients are planned to be enrolled. Patients will be randomised using 1:2 ratio with 7 patients enrolled into the control arm, and 14 patients into the treatment arm. The primary endpoint is the acceptability of the above multi-targeted approach, determined by an acceptability questionnaire. Discussion To our knowledge ACCeRT offers for the first time the opportunity to investigate the effect of stimulating the anabolic skeletal muscle pathway with the use of PRT along with EAA alongside the combination of EPA and celecoxib in this population. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: ACTRN12611000870954

  12. Relationship between endogenous hormonal content and somatic organogenesis in callus of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and Prunus persica×Prunus dulcis rootstocks.

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Le-Disquet, Isabel; Guivarc'h, Anne; Cos-Terrer, José


    The relationship between endogenous hormones content and the induction of somatic peach plant was studied. To induce multiple shoots from callus derived from the base of stem explants of the scion cultivars 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach×almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677', propagated plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts augmented with 0.1mgL(-1) of indolebutyric acid, 1mgL(-1) of 6-benzylaminopurine and 3% sucrose. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach×almond rootstocks. Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in the organogenic callus. Lower levels of several hormones, namely Z, ZR, ABA, and ACC were found in the peach×almond rootstock compared to peach cultivars, while IAA and SA presented inconclusive returns. These results suggest that the difference in somatic organogenesis capacity observed in peach and peach×almond hybrids is markedly affected by the endogenous hormonal content of the studied genotypes.

  13. Inhibition of ethylene production by putrescine alleviates aluminium-induced root inhibition in wheat plants.

    Yu, Yan; Jin, Chongwei; Sun, Chengliang; Wang, Jinghong; Ye, Yiquan; Zhou, Weiwei; Lu, Lingli; Lin, Xianyong


    Inhibition of root elongation is one of the most distinct symptoms of aluminium (Al) toxicity. Although putrescine (Put) has been identified as an important signaling molecule involved in Al tolerance, it is yet unknown how Put mitigates Al-induced root inhibition. Here, the possible mechanism was investigated by using two wheat genotypes differing in Al resistance: Al-tolerant Xi Aimai-1 and Al-sensitive Yangmai-5. Aluminium caused more root inhibition in Yangmai-5 and increased ethylene production at the root apices compared to Xi Aimai-1, whereas the effects were significantly reversed by ethylene biosynthesis inhibitors. The simultaneous exposure of wheat seedlings to Al and ethylene donor, ethephon, or ethylene biosynthesis precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), increased ethylene production and aggravated root inhibition, which was more pronounced in Xi Aimai-1. In contrast, Put treatment decreased ethylene production and alleviated Al-induced root inhibition in both genotypes, and the effects were more conspicuous in Yangmai-5. Furthermore, our results indicated that Al-induced ethylene production was mediated by ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase, and that Put decreased ethylene production by inhibiting ACS. Altogether, these findings indicate that ethylene is involved in Al-induced root inhibition and this process could be alleviated by Put through inhibiting ACS activity.

  14. Antioxidative properties of the essential oil from Pinus mugo.

    Grassmann, Johanna; Hippeli, Susanne; Vollmann, Renate; Elstner, Erich F


    The essential oil from Pinus mugo (PMEO) was tested on its antioxidative capacity. For this purpose, several biochemical test systems were chosen (e.g., the Fenton System, the xanthine oxidase assay, or the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)). The results show that there is moderate or weak antioxidative activity when tested in aqueous environments, like in the Fenton system, xanthine oxidase induced superoxide radical formation, or in the HOCl driven fragmentation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In contrast, when tested in more lipophilic environments (e.g., the ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood) the PMEO exhibits good antioxidative activity. PMEO does also show good antioxidative capacity in another lipophilic test system (i.e., the copper induced oxidation of LDL). Some components of PMEO (i.e., Delta(3)-carene, camphene, alpha-pinene, (+)-limonene and terpinolene) were also tested. As the PMEO, they showed weak or no antioxidant activity in aqueous environments, but some of them were effective antioxidants regarding ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood or copper-induced LDL-oxidation. Terpinolene, a minor component of PMEO, exhibited remarkable protection against LDL-oxidation.

  15. Antiphase light and temperature cycles affect PHYTOCHROME B-controlled ethylene sensitivity and biosynthesis, limiting leaf movement and growth of Arabidopsis.

    Bours, Ralph; van Zanten, Martijn; Pierik, Ronald; Bouwmeester, Harro; van der Krol, Alexander


    In the natural environment, days are generally warmer than the night, resulting in a positive day/night temperature difference (+DIF). Plants have adapted to these conditions, and when exposed to antiphase light and temperature cycles (cold photoperiod/warm night [-DIF]), most species exhibit reduced elongation growth. To study the physiological mechanism of how light and temperature cycles affect plant growth, we used infrared imaging to dissect growth dynamics under +DIF and -DIF in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We found that -DIF altered leaf growth patterns, decreasing the amplitude and delaying the phase of leaf movement. Ethylene application restored leaf growth in -DIF conditions, and constitutive ethylene signaling mutants maintain robust leaf movement amplitudes under -DIF, indicating that ethylene signaling becomes limiting under these conditions. In response to -DIF, the phase of ethylene emission advanced 2 h, but total ethylene emission was not reduced. However, expression analysis on members of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase ethylene biosynthesis gene family showed that ACS2 activity is specifically suppressed in the petiole region under -DIF conditions. Indeed, petioles of plants under -DIF had reduced ACC content, and application of ACC to the petiole restored leaf growth patterns. Moreover, acs2 mutants displayed reduced leaf movement under +DIF, similar to wild-type plants under -DIF. In addition, we demonstrate that the photoreceptor PHYTOCHROME B restricts ethylene biosynthesis and constrains the -DIF-induced phase shift in rhythmic growth. Our findings provide a mechanistic insight into how fluctuating temperature cycles regulate plant growth.

  16. Transient increase in the levels of γ-tubulin complex and katanin are responsible for reorientation by ethylene and hypergravity of cortical microtubules.

    Soga, Kouichi; Yamaguchi, Aya; Kotake, Toshihisa; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hoson, Takayuki


    The body shape of a plant is primarily regulated by orientation of cortical microtubules. γ-Tubulin complex and katanin are required for the nucleation and the severing of microtubules, respectively. Here we discuss the role of γ-tubulin complex and katanin during reorientation of cortical microtubules. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the immediate precursor of ethylene, modifies growth anisotropy of azuki bean epicotyls; it inhibits elongation growth and promotes lateral growth. The ACC-induced reorientation of cortical microtubules from transverse to longitudinal directions preceded the modification of growth anisotropy. The transcript level of γ-tubulin complex (VaTUG and VaGCP3) and katanin (VaKTN1) was increased transiently by ACC treatment. During reorientation of cortical microtubules by hypergravity, which also modifies growth anisotropy of shoots, the expression levels of both γ-tubulin complex and katanin genes were increased transiently. The increase in the number of the nucleated microtubule branch as well as the microtubule-severing activity via upregulation of γ-tubulin complex genes and katanin genes may be involved in the reorientation of cortical microtubules, and contribute to the regulation of the shape of plant body.

  17. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José


    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach.

  18. Isolation and characterization of endophytic plant growth-promoting (PGPB) or stress homeostasis-regulating (PSHB) bacteria associated to the halophyte Prosopis strombulifera.

    Sgroy, Verónica; Cassán, Fabricio; Masciarelli, Oscar; Del Papa, María Florencia; Lagares, Antonio; Luna, Virginia


    This study was designed to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from halophyte Prosopis strombulifera grown under extreme salinity and to evaluate in vitro the bacterial mechanisms related to plant growth promotion or stress homeostasis regulation. Isolates obtained from P. strombulifera were compared genotypically by BOX-polymerase chain reaction, grouped according to similarity, and identified by amplification and partial sequences of 16S DNAr. Isolates were grown until exponential growth phase to evaluate the atmospheric nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, siderophores, and phytohormones, such as indole-3-acetic acid, zeatin, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid production, as well as antifungal, protease, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. A total of 29 endophytic strains were grouped into seven according to similarity. All bacteria were able to grow and to produce some phytohormone in chemically defined medium with or without addition of a nitrogen source. Only one was able to produce siderophores, and none of them solubilized phosphate. ACC deaminase activity was positive for six strains. Antifungal and protease activity were confirmed for two of them. In this work, we discuss the possible implications of these bacterial mechanisms on the plant growth promotion or homeostasis regulation in natural conditions.

  19. Isolation and characterization of endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria from date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and their potential role in salinity tolerance.

    Yaish, Mahmoud W; Antony, Irin; Glick, Bernard R


    Endophytic bacteria were isolated from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seedling roots, characterized and tested for their ability to help plants grow under saline conditions. Molecular characterization showed that the majority of these strains belonged to the genera Bacillus and Enterobacter and had different degrees of resistance to various antibiotics. Some of these strains were able to produce the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase and the plant growth regulatory hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Some strains were also able to chelate ferric iron (Fe(3+)) and solubilize potassium (K(+)), phosphorus (PO 4 (3-) ) and zinc (Zn(2+)), and produce ammonia. The results also showed that ACC deaminase activity and IAA production was slightly increased in some strains in response to an increase in NaCl concentration in the growth media. Consistent with these results, selected strains such as PD-R6 (Paenibacillus xylanexedens) and PD-P6 (Enterobacter cloacae) were able to enhance canola root elongation when grown under normal and saline conditions as demonstrated by a gnotobiotic root elongation assay. These results suggest that the isolated and characterized endophytic bacteria can alter ethylene and IAA levels and also facilitate nutrient uptake in roots and therefore have the potential role to promote the growth and development of date palm trees growing under salinity stress.

  20. Relationship between in vitro characterization and comparative efficacy of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for improving cucumber salt tolerance.

    Nadeem, Sajid Mahmood; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Naveed, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Crowley, David E


    Phosphate solubilization, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-deaminase activity and production of siderophores and indole acetic acid (IAA) are well-known traits of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Here we investigated the expression of these traits as affected by salinity for three PGPR strains (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus megaterium and Variovorax paradoxus) at two salinity levels [2 and 5 % NaCl (w/v)]. Among the three strains, growth of B. megaterium was the least affected by high salinity. However, P. fluorescens was the best strain for maintaining ACC-deaminase activity, siderophore and IAA production under stressed conditions. V. paradoxus was the least tolerant to salts and had minimal growth and low PGPR trait expression under salt stress. Results of experiment examining the impact of bacterial inoculation on cucumber growth at three salinity levels [1 (normal), 7 and 10 dS m(-1)] revealed that P. fluorescens also had good rhizosphere competence and was the most effective for alleviating the negative impacts of salinity on cucumber growth. The results suggest that in addition to screening the PGPR regarding their effect on growth under salinity, PGPR trait expression is also an important aspect that may be useful for selecting the most promising PGPR bacterial strains for improving plant tolerance to salinity stress.

  1. Inoculation of plant growth promoting bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain Ax10 for the improvement of copper phytoextraction by Brassica juncea.

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Freitas, Helena


    In this study, a copper-resistant plant growth promoting bacterial (PGPB) strain Ax10 was isolated from a Cu mine soil to assess its plant growth promotion and copper uptake in Brassica juncea. The strain Ax10 tolerated concentrations up to 600 mg CuL(-1) on a Luria-Bertani (LB) agar medium and utilized 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) as a sole N source in DF salts minimal medium. The strain Ax10 was characterized as Achromobacter xylosoxidans based on its 16S rDNA sequence homology (99%). The bacterium A. xylosoxidans Ax10 has also exhibited the capability of producing indole acetic acid (IAA) (6.4 microg mL(-1)), and solubilizing inorganic phosphate (89.6 microg mL(-1)) in specific culture media. In pot experiments, inoculation of A. xylosoxidans Ax10 significantly increased the root length, shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of B. juncea plants compared to the control. This effect can be attributed to the utilization of ACC, production of IAA and solubilization of phosphate. Furthermore, A. xylosoxidans Ax10 inoculation significantly improved Cu uptake by B. juncea. Owing to its wide action spectrum, the Cu-resistant A. xylosoxidans Ax10 could serve as an effective metal sequestering and growth promoting bioinoculant for plants in Cu-stressed soil. The present study has provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of Cu-contaminated soil.

  2. Evaluating Performance Portability of OpenACC

    Sabne, Amit J [ORNL; Sakdhnagool, Putt [ORNL; Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL


    Accelerator-based heterogeneous computing is gaining momentum in High Performance Computing arena. However, the increased complexity of the accelerator architectures demands more generic, high-level programming models. OpenACC is one such attempt to tackle the problem. While the abstraction endowed by OpenACC offers productivity, it raises questions on its portability. This paper evaluates the performance portability obtained by OpenACC on twelve OpenACC programs on NVIDIA CUDA, AMD GCN, and Intel MIC architectures. We study the effects of various compiler optimizations and OpenACC program settings on these architectures to provide insights into the achieved performance portability.

  3. Differential expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes in drupelets and receptacle of raspberry (Rubus idaeus).

    Fuentes, Lida; Monsalve, Liliam; Morales-Quintana, Luis; Valdenegro, Mónika; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Defilippi, Bruno G; González-Agüero, Mauricio


    Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) is traditionally classified as non-climacteric, and the role of ethylene in fruit ripening is not clear. The available information indicates that the receptacle, a modified stem that supports the drupelets, is involved in ethylene production of ripe fruits. In this study, we report receptacle-related ethylene biosynthesis during the ripening of fruits of cv. Heritage. In addition, the expression pattern of ethylene biosynthesis transcripts was evaluated during the ripening process. The major transcript levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (RiACS1) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (RiACO1) were concomitant with ethylene production, increased total soluble solids (TSS) and decreased titratable acidity (TA) and fruit firmness. Moreover, ethylene biosynthesis and transcript levels of RiACS1 and RiACO1 were higher in the receptacle, sustaining the receptacle's role as a source of ethylene in regulating the ripening of raspberry.

  4. Silicon-mediated changes in polyamines participate in silicon-induced salt tolerance in Sorghum bicolor L.

    Yin, Lina; Wang, Shiwen; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Fujihara, Shinsuke; Itai, Akihiro; Den, Xiping; Zhang, Suiqi


    Silicon (Si) is generally considered a beneficial element for the growth of higher plants, especially under stress conditions, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Si improves salt tolerance through mediating important metabolism processes rather than acting as a mere mechanical barrier. Seedlings of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) growing in hydroponic culture were treated with NaCl (100 mm) combined with or without Si (0.83 mm). The result showed that supplemental Si enhanced sorghum salt tolerance by decreasing Na(+) accumulation. Simultaneously, polyamine (PA) levels were increased and ethylene precursor (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid: ACC) concentrations were decreased. Several key PA synthesis genes were up-regulated by Si under salt stress. To further confirm the role of PA in Si-mediated salt tolerance, seedlings were exposed to spermidine (Spd) or a PA synthesis inhibitor (dicyclohexylammonium sulphate, DCHA) combined with salt and Si. Exogenous Spd showed similar effects as Si under salt stress whereas exogenous DCHA eliminated Si-enhanced salt tolerance and the beneficial effect of Si in decreasing Na(+) accumulation. These results indicate that PAs and ACC are involved in Si-induced salt tolerance in sorghum and provide evidence that Si plays an active role in mediating salt tolerance.

  5. Carbon dioxide enhances the development of the ethylene forming enzyme in tobacco leaf discs

    Philosoph-Hadas, S.; Aharoni, N.; Yang, S.F.


    Since CO/sub 2/ is known to stimulate ethylene production by promoting the conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to ethylene, the effect of CO/sub 2/ on the activity and the development of the ethylene forming enzyme (EFE) was studied in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Havana 425 and Xanthi) leaf discs. In addition to previous observations that EFE activity is dependent on CO/sub 2/ concentration and is saturable with 2% CO/sub 2/, present data show two saturation curves at 2% and 10% CO/sub 2/. Promotion of EFE development was dependent also on CO/sub 2/ concentration (saturated at 2% CO/sub 2/) and duration (maximum at 24 in the dark), and was abolished by 20 micromolar cycloheximide. Application of exogenous ethylene (20 microliters per liter) or light treatment further increased the CO/sub 2/-enhanced development of EFE, implying that these two factors can also affect EFE development via interaction with CO/sub 2/. The results suggest that CO/sub 2/ exerts its stimulatory effect on the conversion of ACC to ethylene by enhancing not only the activity but also the synthesis of EFE in leaf discs.

  6. Effects of plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from copper tailings on plants in sterilized and non-sterilized tailings.

    Liu, Weiqiu; Yang, Chao; Shi, Si; Shu, Wensheng


    Ten strains of Cu-tolerant bacteria with potential plant growth-promoting ability were isolated by selecting strains with the ability to use 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate as a sole nitrogen source (designated ACC-B) or fix nitrogen (designated FLN-B) originating from the rhizosphere of plants growing on copper tailings. All 10 strains proved to have intrinsic ability to produce indole acetic acid and siderophores, and most of them could mobilize insoluble phosphate. In addition, a greenhouse study showed that ACC-B, FLN-B and a mixture of both had similar, potent ability to stimulate growth of Pennisetum purpureum, Medicago sativa and Oenothera erythrosepala plants grown on sterilized tailings. For instance, above-ground biomass of P. purpureum was 278-357% greater after 60d growth on sterilized tailings in their presence. They could also significantly promote the growth of the plants grown on non-sterilized tailings, though the growth-promoting effects were much weaker. So, strategies for using of the plant growth-promoting bacteria in the practice of phytoremediation deserve further studies to get higher growth-promoting efficiency.

  7. [Characterization of growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Eucalyptus nitens seedlings].

    Angulo, Violeta C; Sanfuentes, Eugenio A; Rodríguez, Francisco; Sossa, Katherine E


    Rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated from the rizosphere and root tissue of Eucalyptus nitens. The objective of this work was to evaluate their capacity to promote growth in seedlings of the same species under greenhouse conditions. The isolates that improved seedling growth were identified and characterized by their capacity to produce indoleacetic acid (IAA), solubilize phosphates and increase 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. One hundred and five morphologically different strains were isolated, 15 of which promoted E. nitens seedling growth, significantly increasing the height (50%), root length (45%) as well as the aerial and root dry weight (142% and 135% respectively) of the plants. Bacteria belonged to the genus Arthrobacter, Lysinibacillus, Rahnella and Bacillus. Isolates A. phenanthrenivorans 21 and B. cereus 113 improved 3.15 times the emergence of E. nitens after 12 days, compared to control samples. Among isolated R. aquatilis, 78 showed the highest production of IAA (97.5±2.87 μg/ml) in the presence of tryptophan and the highest solubilizer index (2.4) for phosphorus, while B. amyloliquefaciens 60 isolate was positive for ACC deaminase activity. Our results reveal the potential of the studied rhizobacteria as promoters of emergence and seedling growth of E. nitens, and their possible use as PGPR inoculants, since they have more than one mechanism associated with plant growth promotion.

  8. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz


    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  9. Metabolic profiling reveals ethylene mediated metabolic changes and a coordinated adaptive mechanism of 'Jonagold' apple to low oxygen stress.

    Bekele, Elias A; Beshir, Wasiye F; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolai, Bart M; Geeraerd, Annemie H


    Apples are predominantly stored in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage to delay ripening and prolong their storage life. Profiling the dynamics of metabolic changes during ripening and CA storage is vital for understanding the governing molecular mechanism. In this study, the dynamics of the primary metabolism of 'Jonagold' apples during ripening in regular air (RA) storage and initiation of CA storage was profiled. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was exploited to block ethylene receptors and to get insight into ethylene mediated metabolic changes during ripening of the fruit and in response to hypoxic stress. Metabolic changes were quantified in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the Yang cycle and synthesis of the main amino acids branching from these metabolic pathways. Partial least square discriminant analysis of the metabolic profiles of 1-MCP treated and control apples revealed a metabolic divergence in ethylene, organic acid, sugar and amino acid metabolism. During RA storage at 18°C, most amino acids were higher in 1-MCP treated apples, whereas 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) was higher in the control apples. The initial response of the fruit to CA initiation was accompanied by an increase of alanine, succinate and glutamate, but a decline in aspartate. Furthermore, alanine and succinate accumulated to higher levels in control apples than 1-MCP treated apples. The observed metabolic changes in these interlinked metabolites may indicate a coordinated adaptive strategy to maximize energy production.

  10. Tuning OpenACC loop execution

    Feki, Saber


    The purpose of this chapter is to help OpenACC developer who is already familiar with the basic and essential directives to further improve his code performance by adding more descriptive clauses to OpenACC loop constructs. At the end of this chapter the reader will: • Have a better understanding of the purpose of the OpenACC loop construct and its associated clauses illustrated with use cases • Use the acquired knowledge in practice to further improve the performance of OpenACC accelerated codes

  11. Las peroxidasas y la conversión del ácido 1-aminociclopropano-1-carboxílico en etileno

    Vioque, B.


    Full Text Available In this paper the role of peroxidases in the last step of the ethylene biosynthesis pathway, the conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylic acid, is discussed.

    En el trabajo se discute el papel de las peroxidasas en el último paso de la ruta de biosíntesis del etileno, la conversión del ácido 1-aminociclopropano-1-carboxílico en etileno.

  12. Arabidopsis eIF2α kinase GCN2 is essential for growth in stress conditions and is activated by wounding

    Robaglia Christophe


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphorylation of eIF2α provides a key mechanism for down-regulating protein synthesis in response to nutrient starvation or stresses in mammalian and yeast cells. However, this process has not been well characterized in plants Results We show here that in response to amino acid and purine starvations, UV, cold shock and wounding, the Arabidopsis GCN2 kinase (AtGCN2 is activated and phosphorylates eIF2α. We show that AtGCN2 is essential for plant growth in stress situations and that its activity results in a strong reduction in global protein synthesis. Conclusion Our results suggest that a general amino acid control response is conserved between yeast and plants but that the plant enzyme evolved to fulfill a more general function as an upstream sensor and regulator of diverse stress-response pathways. The activation of AtGCN2 following wounding or exposure to methyl jasmonate, the ethylene precursor 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC and salicylic acid, further suggests that this enzyme could play a role in plant defense against insect herbivores.

  13. Preliminary investigations on inducing salt tolerance in maize through inoculation with rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase activity.

    Nadeem, Sajid Mahmood; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Naveed, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad


    Twenty rhizobacterial strains containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase were isolated from the rhizosphere of salt-affected maize fields. They were screened for their growth-promoting activities under axenic conditions at 1, 4, 8, and 12 dS x m-1 salinity levels. Based upon the data of the axenic study, the 6 most effective strains were selected to conduct pot trials in the wire house. Besides one original salinity level (1.6 dS x m-1), 3 other salinity levels (4, 8, and 12 dS x m-1) were maintained in pots and maize seeds inoculated with selected strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, as well as uninoculated controls were sown. Results showed that the increase in salinity level decreased the growth of maize seedlings. However, inoculation with rhizobacterial strains reduced this depression effect and improved the growth and yield at all the salinity levels tested. Selected strains significantly increased plant height, root length, total biomass, cob mass, and grain yield up to 82%, 93%, 51%, 40%, and 50%, respectively, over respective uninoculated controls at the electrical conductivity of 12 dS x m-1. Among various plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial strains, S5 (Pseudomonas syringae), S14 (Enterobacter aerogenes), and S20 (Pseudomonas fluorescens) were the most effective strains for promoting the growth and yield of maize, even at high salt stress. The relatively better salt tolerance of inoculated plants was associated with a high K+/Na+ ratio as well as high relative water and chlorophyll and low proline contents.

  14. Ethylene biosynthetic genes are differentially expressed during carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower senescence.

    ten Have, A; Woltering, E J


    Ethylene production and expression patterns of an 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (CARAO1) and of two ACC synthase (EC genes (CARACC3 and CARAS1) were studied in floral organs of cut carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. White Sim. During the vase life and after treatment of fresh flowers with ethylene, production of ethylene and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes first started in the ovary followed by the styles and the petals. ACC oxidase was expressed in all the floral organs whereas, during the vase life, tissue-specific expression of the two ACC synthase genes was observed. After treatment with a high ethylene concentration, tissue specificity of the two ACC synthase genes was lost and only a temporal difference in expression remained. In styles, poor correlation between ethylene production and ACC synthase (CARAS1) gene expression was observed suggesting that either activity is regulated at the translational level or that the CARAS1 gene product requires an additional factor for activity. Isolated petals showed no increase in ethylene production and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes when excised from the flower before the increase in petal ethylene production (before day 7); showed rapid cessation of ethylene production and gene expression when excised during the early phase of petal ethylene production (day 7) and showed a pattern of ethylene production and gene expression similar to the pattern observed in the attached petals when isolated at day 8. The interorgan regulation of gene expression and ethylene as a signal molecule in flower senescence are discussed.

  15. Targeted systems biology profiling of tomato fruit reveals coordination of the Yang cycle and a distinct regulation of ethylene biosynthesis during postclimacteric ripening.

    Van de Poel, Bram; Bulens, Inge; Markoula, Aikaterina; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Dreesen, Rozemarijn; Wirtz, Markus; Vandoninck, Sandy; Oppermann, Yasmin; Keulemans, Johan; Hell, Ruediger; Waelkens, Etienne; De Proft, Maurice P; Sauter, Margret; Nicolai, Bart M; Geeraerd, Annemie H


    The concept of system 1 and system 2 ethylene biosynthesis during climacteric fruit ripening was initially described four decades ago. Although much is known about fruit development and climacteric ripening, little information is available about how ethylene biosynthesis is regulated during the postclimacteric phase. A targeted systems biology approach revealed a novel regulatory mechanism of ethylene biosynthesis of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) when fruit have reached their maximal ethylene production level and which is characterized by a decline in ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene production is shut down at the level of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase. At the same time, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase activity increases. Analysis of the Yang cycle showed that the Yang cycle genes are regulated in a coordinated way and are highly expressed during postclimacteric ripening. Postclimacteric red tomatoes on the plant showed only a moderate regulation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase and Yang cycle genes compared with the regulation in detached fruit. Treatment of red fruit with 1-methylcyclopropane and ethephon revealed that the shut-down mechanism in ethylene biosynthesis is developmentally programmed and only moderately ethylene sensitive. We propose that the termination of autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis of system 2 in ripe fruit delays senescence and preserves the fruit until seed dispersal.

  16. Lattice Simulations using OpenACC compilers

    Majumdar, Pushan


    OpenACC compilers allow one to use Graphics Processing Units without having to write explicit CUDA codes. Programs can be modified incrementally using OpenMP like directives which causes the compiler to generate CUDA kernels to be run on the GPUs. In this article we look at the performance gain in lattice simulations with dynamical fermions using OpenACC compilers.

  17. Role of the gynoecium in natural senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers.

    Shibuya, K; Yoshioka, T; Hashiba, T; Satoh, S


    Although the role of the gynoecium in natural senescence of the carnation flower has long been suggested, it has remained a matter of dispute because petal senescence in the cut carnation flower was not delayed by the removal of gynoecium. In this study, the gynoecium was snapped off by hand, in contrast to previous investigations where removal was achieved by forceps or scissors. The removal of the gynoecium by hand prevented the onset of ethylene production and prolonged the vase life of the flower, demonstrating a decisive role of the gynoecium in controlling natural senescence of the carnation flower. Abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which induced ethylene production and accelerated petal senescence in carnation flowers, did not stimulate ethylene production in the flowers with gynoecia removed (-Gyn flowers). Application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), the ethylene precursor, induced substantial ethylene production and petal wilting in the flowers with gynoecia left intact, but was less effective at stimulating ethylene production in the -Gyn flowers and negligible petal in-rolling was observed. Exogenous ethylene induced autocatalytic production of the gas and petal wilting in the -Gyn flowers. These results indicated that ethylene generated in the gynoecium triggers the onset of ethylene production in the petals of carnation during natural senescence.

  18. Expression of a nitric oxide degrading enzyme induces a senescence programme in Arabidopsis.

    Mishina, Tatiana E; Lamb, Chris; Zeier, Jürgen


    Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed to act as a factor delaying leaf senescence and fruit maturation in plants. Here we show that expression of a NO degrading dioxygenase (NOD) in Arabidopsis thaliana initiates a senescence-like phenotype, an effect that proved to be more pronounced in older than in younger leaves. This senescence phenotype was preceded by a massive switch in gene expression in which photosynthetic genes were down-regulated, whereas many senescence-associated genes (SAGs) and the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase gene ACS6 involved in ethylene synthesis were up-regulated. External fumigation of NOD plants with NO as well as environmental conditions known to stimulate endogenous NO production attenuated the induced senescence programme. For instance, both high light conditions and nitrate feeding reduced the senescence phenotype and attenuated the down-regulation of photosynthetic genes as well as the up-regulation of SAGs. Treatment of plants with the cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurin (BAP) reduced the down-regulation of photosynthesis, although it had no consistent effect on SAG expression. Metabolic changes during NOD-induced senescence comprehended increases in salicylic acid (SA) levels, accumulation of the phytoalexin camalexin and elevation of leaf gamma-tocopherol contents, all of which occurred during natural senescence in Arabidopsis leaves as well. Moreover, NO fumigation delayed the senescence process induced by darkening individual Arabidopsis Columbia-0 (Col-0) leaves. Our data thus support the notion that NO acts as a negative regulator of leaf senescence.

  19. Native rhizobia from Zn mining soil promote the growth of Leucaena leucocephala on contaminated soil.

    Rangel, Wesley M; Thijs, Sofie; Janssen, Jolien; Oliveira Longatti, Silvia M; Bonaldi, Daiane S; Ribeiro, Paula R A; Jambon, Inge; Eevers, Nele; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Moreira, Fatima M S


    Plants on contaminated mining soils often show a reduced growth due to nutrient depletion as well as trace elements (TEs) toxicity. Since those conditions threat plant's survival, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), such as rhizobia, might be of crucial importance for plant colonization on TE-contaminated soils. Native rhizobia from mining soils are promising candidates for bioaugmented phytoremediation of those soils as they are adapted to the specific conditions. In this work, rhizobia from Zn- and Cd-contaminated mining soils were in vitro screened for their PGP features [organic acids, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and siderophore (SID) production; 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity; and Ca3(PO4)2 solubilization] and Zn and Cd tolerance. In addition, some type and reference rhizobia strains were included in the study as well. The in vitro screening indicated that rhizobia and other native genera have great potential for phytoremediation purposes, by exerting, besides biological N2 fixation, other plant growth-promoting traits. Leucaena leucocephala-Mesorhizobium sp. (UFLA 01-765) showed multielement tolerance and an efficient symbiosis on contaminated soil, decreasing the activities of antioxidative enzymes in shoots. This symbiosis is a promising combination for phytostabilization.

  20. Multiphasic characterization of a plant growth promoting bacterial strain, Burkholderia sp. 7016 and its effect on tomato growth in the ifeld

    GAO Miao; ZHOU Jian-jiao; WANG En-tao; CHEN Qian; XU Jing; SUN Jian-guang


    Aiming at searching for plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), a bacterium strain coded as 7016 was isolated from soybean rhizosphere and was characterized in the present study. It was identiifed as Burkholderia sp. based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, as wel as phenotypic and biochemical characterizations. This bacterium presented nitrogenase activity, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity and phosphate solubilizing ability;inhibited the growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Gibberel a zeae and Verticil ium dahliae;and produced smal quantities of indole acetic acid (IAA). In green house experiments, signiifcant increases in shoot height and weight, root length and weight, and stem diameter were observed on tomato plants in 30 d after inoculation with strain 7016. Result of 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE showed that 7016 survived in the rhizosphere of tomato seedlings. In the ifeld experiments, Burkholderia sp. 7016 enhanced the tomato yield and signiifcantly promoted activities of soil urease, phosphatase, sucrase, and catalase. Al these results demonstrated Burkholderia sp. 7016 as a valuable PGPR and a candidate of biofertilizer.

  1. Ethylene promotes germination of Arabidopsis seed under salinity by decreasing reactive oxygen species: evidence for the involvement of nitric oxide simulated by sodium nitroprusside.

    Lin, Yingchao; Yang, Lei; Paul, Matthew; Zu, Yuangang; Tang, Zhonghua


    Both ethylene and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in modulating seed germination in adverse environments. However, the mechanisms by which they interact and affect germination have not been explained. In this study, the relationship between ethylene and NO during germination of Arabidopsis seed under salinity was analysed. Application of exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC, a precursor of ethylene biosynthesis) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor) largely overcame the inhibition of germination induced by salinity. The effects of ACC and SNP were decreased by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), a specific NO scavenger, or by aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, indicating that ethylene and NO interact during germination under salinity. Further, we demonstrated that ACC increased NO production and that SNP greatly induced the expression of the ACS2 gene involved in ethylene synthesis in Arabidopsis seeds germinating under salinity stress, suggesting that each substance influences the production of the other. Application of exogenous ACC increased germination under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) while SNP had a much smaller effect on wild-type Arabidopsis (Col-0) and no effect on the ethylene insensitive mutant (ein3-1) seeds, respectively. This shows that NO increased germination under salinity indirectly through H2O2 acting via the ethylene pathway. The endogenous concentration of H2O2 was increased by salinity in germinating seeds but was decreased by exogenous ACC, which stimulated germination ultimately. To explain all these results and the regulation of germination of Arabidopsis seed under salinity we propose a model involving ethylene, NO and H2O2 interaction.

  2. A factor linking floral organ identity and growth revealed by characterization of the tomato mutant unfinished flower development (ufd

    Sandra Poyatos-Pertíñez


    Full Text Available Floral organogenesis requires coordinated interactions between genes specifying floral organ identity and those regulating growth and size of developing floral organs. With the aim to isolate regulatory genes linking both developmental processes (i.e. floral organ identity and growth in the tomato model species, a novel mutant altered in the formation of floral organs was further characterized. Under normal growth conditions, floral organ primordia of mutant plants were correctly initiated, however, they were unable to complete their development impeding the formation of mature and fertile flowers. Thus, the growth of floral buds was blocked at an early stage of development; therefore, we named this mutant as unfinished flower development (ufd. Genetic analysis performed in a segregating population of 543 plants showed that the abnormal phenotype was controlled by a single recessive mutation. Global gene expression analysis confirmed that several MADS-box genes regulating floral identity as well as other genes participating in cell division and different hormonal pathways were affected in their expression patterns in ufd mutant plants. Moreover, ufd mutant inflorescences showed higher hormone contents, particularly ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC and strigol compared to wild type. Such results indicate that UFD may have a key function as positive regulator of the development of floral primordia once they have been initiated in the four floral whorls. This function should be performed by affecting the expression of floral organ identity and growth genes, together with hormonal signalling pathways.

  3. Increased growth and root Cu accumulation of Sorghum sudanense by endophytic Enterobacter sp. K3-2: Implications for Sorghum sudanense biomass production and phytostabilization.

    Li, Ya; Wang, Qi; Wang, Lu; He, Lin-Yan; Sheng, Xia-Fang


    Endophytic bacterial strain K3-2 was isolated from the roots of Sorghum sudanense (an bioenergy plant) grown in a Cu mine wasteland soils and characterized. Strain K3-2 was identified as Enterobacter sp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain K3-2 exhibited Cu resistance and produced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, and arginine decarboxylase. Pot experiments showed that strain K3-2 significantly increased the dry weight and root Cu accumulation of Sorghum sudanense grown in the Cu mine wasteland soils. Furthermore, increase in total Cu uptake (ranging from 49% to 95%) of the bacterial inoculated-Sorghum sudanense was observed compared to the control. Notably, most of Cu (83-86%) was accumulated in the roots of Sorghum sudanense. Furthermore, inoculation with strain K3-2 was found to significantly increase Cu bioconcentration factors and the proportions of IAA- and siderophore-producing bacteria in the root interiors and rhizosphere soils of Sorghum sudanense compared with the control. Significant decrease in the available Cu content was also observed in the rhizosphere soils of the bacterial-inoculated Sorghum sudanense. The results suggest that the endophytic bacterial strain K3-2 may be exploited for promoting Sorghum sudanense biomass production and Cu phytostabilization in the Cu mining wasteland soils.

  4. Bioprospecting of Plant Growth Promoting Bacilli and Related Genera Prevalent in Soils of Pristine Sacred Groves: Biochemical and Molecular Approach.

    Lyngwi, Nathaniel A; Nongkhlaw, Macmillan; Kalita, Debajit; Joshi, Santa Ram


    Bacillus spp. and related genera native to soils of the pristine sacred groves from Meghalaya, India were characterized using biochemical and 16S rRNA gene analysis which revealed dominance of Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Viridibacillus in the groves. Biochemical estimation was carried out for in vitro testing of plant growth promoting traits present in these isolates. PCR screening were performed for plant growth-promoting related genes involved in the biosynthesis of acid phosphatase (AcPho), indolepyruvate decarboxylase (ipdC), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (accd) and siderophore biosynthesis protein (asbA). 76% of the sacred grove isolates gave an amplified fragment for AcPho. Three of the isolates gave an amplified fragment for IpdC gene. Apart from 2 isolates, all the other isolates including the reference strains were positive for the amplification of the accd gene indicating their potential to produce ACC deaminase enzyme. 42% of the isolates gave an amplified fragment for asbA gene indicating the potential ability of these isolates to produce the catechol type siderophore, petrobactin. Overall findings indicated multiple PGP genetic traits present in these isolates which suggested that these isolates are capable of expressing multiple PGP traits. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis of accd and asbA genes from the isolates revealed that asbA genes from Paenibacillus taichungiensis SG3 and Paenibacillus tylopili SG24 indicated the occurrence of intergeneric horizontal transfer between Paenibacillus and Bacillus.

  5. A transcriptomics-based kinetic model for ethylene biosynthesis in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit: development, validation and exploration of novel regulatory mechanisms.

    Van de Poel, Bram; Bulens, Inge; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolai, Bart M; Geeraerd, Annemie H


    The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is involved in many physiological processes including climacteric fruit ripening, in which it is a key determinant of fruit quality. A detailed model that describes ethylene biochemistry dynamics is missing. Often, kinetic modeling is used to describe metabolic networks or signaling cascades, mostly ignoring the link with transcriptomic data. We have constructed an elegant kinetic model that describes the transfer of genetic information into abundance and metabolic activity of proteins for the entire ethylene biosynthesis pathway during fruit development and ripening of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Our model was calibrated against a vast amount of transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic data and showed good descriptive qualities. Subsequently it was validated successfully against several ripening mutants previously described in the literature. The model was used as a predictive tool to evaluate novel and existing hypotheses regarding the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis. This bottom-up kinetic network model was used to indicate that a side-branch of the ethylene pathway, the formation of the dead-end product 1-(malonylamino)-1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (MACC), might have a strong effect on eventual ethylene production. Furthermore, our in silico analyses indicated potential (post-) translational regulation of the ethylene-forming enzyme ACC oxidase.

  6. A Factor Linking Floral Organ Identity and Growth Revealed by Characterization of the Tomato Mutant unfinished flower development (ufd).

    Poyatos-Pertíñez, Sandra; Quinet, Muriel; Ortíz-Atienza, Ana; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J; Pons, Clara; Giménez, Estela; Angosto, Trinidad; Granell, Antonio; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael


    Floral organogenesis requires coordinated interactions between genes specifying floral organ identity and those regulating growth and size of developing floral organs. With the aim to isolate regulatory genes linking both developmental processes (i.e., floral organ identity and growth) in the tomato model species, a novel mutant altered in the formation of floral organs was further characterized. Under normal growth conditions, floral organ primordia of mutant plants were correctly initiated, however, they were unable to complete their development impeding the formation of mature and fertile flowers. Thus, the growth of floral buds was blocked at an early stage of development; therefore, we named this mutant as unfinished flower development (ufd). Genetic analysis performed in a segregating population of 543 plants showed that the abnormal phenotype was controlled by a single recessive mutation. Global gene expression analysis confirmed that several MADS-box genes regulating floral identity as well as other genes participating in cell division and different hormonal pathways were affected in their expression patterns in ufd mutant plants. Moreover, ufd mutant inflorescences showed higher hormone contents, particularly ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and strigol compared to wild type. Such results indicate that UFD may have a key function as positive regulator of the development of floral primordia once they have been initiated in the four floral whorls. This function should be performed by affecting the expression of floral organ identity and growth genes, together with hormonal signaling pathways.

  7. [Effect of substrate-dependent microbialy produced ethylene on plant growth].

    Khalid, A; Akhtar, M H; Makhmood, M H; Arshad, M


    Various compounds have been identified as precursors/substrates for the synthesis of ethylene (C2H4) in soil. This study was designed to compare the efficiency of four substrates, namely L-methionine (L-MET), 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid (KMBA), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and calcium carbide (CaC2) for ethylene biosynthesis in a sandy clay loam soil by gas chromatography. The classic "triple" response in etiolated pea seedling was employed as a bioassay to demonstrate the effect of substrate-dependent microbialy produced ethylene on plant growth. Results revealed that an amendment with L-MET, KMBA, ACC (up to 0.10 g/kg soil) and CaC2 (0.20 g/kg soil) significantly stimulated ethylene biosynthesis in soil. Overall, ACC proved to be the most effective substrate for ethylene production (1434 nmol/kg soil), followed by KMBA, L-MET, and CaC2 in descending order. Results further revealed that ethylene accumulation in soil released from these substrates created a classic "triple" response in etiolated pea seedlings with different degrees of efficacy. A more obvious classic "triple" response was observed at 0.15, 0.10, and 0.20 g/kg soil of L-MET, KMBA/ACC, and CaC2, respectively. Similarly, direct exposure of etiolated pea seedlings to commercial ethylene gas also modified the growth pattern in the same way. A significant direct correlation (r = 0.86 to 0.97) between substrate-derived [C2H4] and the classic triple response in etiolated pea seedlings was observed. This study demonstrated that the presence of substrate(s) in soil may lead to increased ethylene concentration in the air of the soil, which may affect plant growth in a desired direction.

  8. Thermoperiodic control of hypocotyl elongation depends on auxin-induced ethylene signaling that controls downstream PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3 activity.

    Bours, Ralph; Kohlen, Wouter; Bouwmeester, Harro J; van der Krol, Alexander


    We show that antiphase light-temperature cycles (negative day-night temperature difference [-DIF]) inhibit hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). This is caused by reduced cell elongation during the cold photoperiod. Cell elongation in the basal part of the hypocotyl under -DIF was restored by both 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC; ethylene precursor) and auxin, indicating limited auxin and ethylene signaling under -DIF. Both auxin biosynthesis and auxin signaling were reduced during -DIF. In addition, expression of several ACC Synthase was reduced under -DIF but could be restored by auxin application. In contrast, the reduced hypocotyl elongation of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling mutants could not be complemented by auxin, indicating that auxin functions upstream of ethylene. The PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs) PIF3, PIF4, and PIF5 were previously shown to be important regulators of hypocotyl elongation. We now show that, in contrast to pif4 and pif5 mutants, the reduced hypocotyl length in pif3 cannot be rescued by either ACC or auxin. In line with this, treatment with ethylene or auxin inhibitors reduced hypocotyl elongation in PIF4 overexpressor (PIF4ox) and PIF5ox but not PIF3ox plants. PIF3 promoter activity was strongly reduced under -DIF but could be restored by auxin application in an ACC Synthase-dependent manner. Combined, these results show that PIF3 regulates hypocotyl length downstream, whereas PIF4 and PIF5 regulate hypocotyl length upstream of an auxin and ethylene cascade. We show that, under -DIF, lower auxin biosynthesis activity limits the signaling in this pathway, resulting in low activity of PIF3 and short hypocotyls.

  9. Responses of Dendrobium 'darrenn glory' and Mokara 'calypso jumbo' orchids to 1-methylcyclopropene and aqueous ozone postharvest treatments

    Parviz Almasi


    Full Text Available AbstractOrchids possess a very special place amongst ornamental plants. But high ethylene sensitivity and early flower senescence of orchid result in a short vase life and rapid quality deterioration which is of great concern for the growers, traders and consumers. An attempt was made to study the influence of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP (0 and 300 nL L–1 and аquеous ozone (0 and 5.2 nL L–1 in prolonging vase life and maintaining quality of two cut orchid hybrids Dendrobium 'Darren Glory' (DDG and Mokara “Calypso Jumbo” (MCJ. Results showed that orchid hybrids exhibited differences in their ethylene sensitivity, vase life, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC content and ACC oxidase activities. Pre-treatment with 1-MCP resulted in reduced ethylene production, vase life, ACC content and ACC oxidase activities, but increased bud opening %. Pre-treatment with аquеous ozone failed to influence all those parameters except bud opening %. Interaction effects of hybrid and 1-MCP were significant for ethylene production, hybrid and ozone for vas life, 1-MCP and ozone for bud opening %, and hybrid, 1-MCP and ozone for ethylene production and vase life. Aqueous ozone markedly contributed to the inhibition of microbial growth in vase solution. Pre-treatment of the cut orchid flowers with 300 nL L–11-MCP, followed by using 5.2 mg L–1 aqueous ozone as the vase solution could be recommended to maintain quality and extend vase life of both the DDG and MCJ orchid hybrids.

  10. The effect of ACC vehicles to mixed traffic flow consisting of manual and ACC vehicles

    Xie Dong-Fan; Gao Zi-You; Zhao Xiao-Mei


    This paper studies the effect of adaptive cruise control (ACC) system on traffic flow by using simulations. The multiple headway and velocity difference (MHVD) model is used to depict the motion of ACC vehicles, and the simulation results are compared with the optimal velocity (OV) model which is used to depict the motion of manual vehicles.Compared the cases between the manual and the ACC vehicle flow, the fundamental diagram can be classified into four regions: I, II, III, IV. In low and high density the flux of the two models is the same; in region Ⅱ the free flow region of the MHVD model is enlarged, and the flux of the MHVD model is larger than that of the OV model; in region Ⅲ serious jams occur in the OV model while the ACC system suppresses the jams in the MHVD model and the traffic flow is in order, but the flux of the OV model is larger than that of the MHVD model. Similar phenomena also appeared in mixed traffic flow which consists of manual and ACC vehicles. The results indicate that ACC vehicles have significant effect on traffic flow. The improvement induced by ACC vehicles decreases with the increasing proportion of ACC vehicles.

  11. Auxin and ethylene induce flavonol accumulation through distinct transcriptional networks.

    Lewis, Daniel R; Ramirez, Melissa V; Miller, Nathan D; Vallabhaneni, Prashanthi; Ray, W Keith; Helm, Richard F; Winkel, Brenda S J; Muday, Gloria K


    Auxin and ethylene are key regulators of plant growth and development, and thus the transcriptional networks that mediate responses to these hormones have been the subject of intense research. This study dissected the hormonal cross talk regulating the synthesis of flavonols and examined their impact on root growth and development. We analyzed the effects of auxin and an ethylene precursor on roots of wild-type and hormone-insensitive Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants at the transcript, protein, and metabolite levels at high spatial and temporal resolution. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) differentially increased flavonol pathway transcripts and flavonol accumulation, altering the relative abundance of quercetin and kaempferol. The IAA, but not ACC, response is lost in the transport inhibitor response1 (tir1) auxin receptor mutant, while ACC responses, but not IAA responses, are lost in ethylene insensitive2 (ein2) and ethylene resistant1 (etr1) ethylene signaling mutants. A kinetic analysis identified increases in transcripts encoding the transcriptional regulators MYB12, Transparent Testa Glabra1, and Production of Anthocyanin Pigment after hormone treatments, which preceded increases in transcripts encoding flavonoid biosynthetic enzymes. In addition, myb12 mutants were insensitive to the effects of auxin and ethylene on flavonol metabolism. The equivalent phenotypes for transparent testa4 (tt4), which makes no flavonols, and tt7, which makes kaempferol but not quercetin, showed that quercetin derivatives are the inhibitors of basipetal root auxin transport, gravitropism, and elongation growth. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate that auxin and ethylene regulate flavonol biosynthesis through distinct signaling networks involving TIR1 and EIN2/ETR1, respectively, both of which converge on MYB12. This study also provides new evidence that quercetin is the flavonol that modulates basipetal auxin transport.

  12. Calcium ion dependency of ethylene production in segments of primary roots of Zea mays

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.


    We investigated the effect of Ca2+ on ethylene production in 2-cm long apical segments from primary roots of corn (Zea mays L., B73 x Missouri 17) seedlings. The seedlings were raised under different conditions of Ca2+ availability. Low-Ca and high-Ca seedlings were raised by soaking the grains and watering the seedlings with distilled water or 10 mM CaCl2, respectively. Segments from high-Ca roots produced more than twice as much ethylene as segments from low-Ca roots. Indoleacetic acid (IAA; 1 micromole) enhanced ethylene production in segments from both low-Ca and high-Ca roots but auxin-induced promotion of ethylene production was consistently higher in segments from high-Ca roots. Addition of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to root segments from low-Ca seedlings doubled total ethylene production and the rate of production remained fairly constant during a 24 h period of monitoring. In segments from high-Ca seedlings ACC also increased total ethylene production but most of the ethylene was produced within the first 6 h. The data suggest that Ca2+ enhances the conversion of ACC to ethylene. The terminal 2 mm of the root tip were found to be especially important to ethylene biosynthesis by apical segments and, experiments using 45Ca2+ as tracer indicated that the apical 2 mm of the root is the region of strongest Ca2+ accumulation. Other cations such as Mn2+, Mg2+, and K+ could largely substitute for Ca2+. The significance of these findings is discussed with respect to recent evidence for gravity-induced Ca2+ redistribution and its relationship to the establishment of asymmetric growth during gravitropic curvature.

  13. Shedding light on ethylene metabolism in higher plants

    Maria Aurineide Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Ethylene metabolism in higher plants is regulated by a wide array of endogenous and environmental factors. During most physiological processes, ethylene levels are mainly determined by a strict control of the rate-limiting biosynthetic steps responsible for the production of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC and its subsequent conversion to ethylene. Responsible for these reactions, the key enzymes ACC synthase and ACC oxidase are encoded by multigene families formed by members that can be differentially regulated at the transcription and post-translational levels by specific developmental and environmental signals. Among the wide variety of environmental cues controlling plant ethylene production, light quality, duration and intensity have consistently been demonstrated to influence the metabolism of this plant hormone in diverse plant tissues, organs and species. Although still not completely elucidated, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between light signal transduction and ethylene evolution appears to involve a complex network that includes central transcription factors connecting multiple signaling pathways, which can be reciprocally modulated by ethylene itself, other phytohormones, and specific light wavelengths. Accumulating evidence has indicated particular photoreceptors as essential mediators in light-induced signaling cascades affecting ethylene levels. Therefore, this review specifically focuses on discussing the current knowledge of the potential molecular mechanisms implicated in the light-induced responses affecting ethylene metabolism during the regulation of developmental and metabolic plant responses. Besides presenting the state of the art in this research field, some overlooked mechanisms and future directions to elucidate the exact nature of the light-ethylene interplay in higher plants will also be compiled and discussed.

  14. Fruit ripening regulation of α-mannosidase expression by the MADS Box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR and ethylene

    Mohammad eIrfan


    Full Text Available α-Mannosidase (α-Man, a fruit ripening-specific N-glycan processing enzyme, is involved in ripening-associated fruit softening process. However, the regulation of fruit-ripening specific expression of α-Man is not well understood. We have identified and functionally characterized the promoter of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum α-Man to provide molecular insights into its transcriptional regulation during fruit ripening. Fruit ripening-specific activation of the α-Man promoter was revealed by analysing promoter driven expression of beta-glucuronidase (GUS reporter in transgenic tomato. We found that RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN, a MADS box family transcription factor acts as positive transcriptional regulator of α-Man during fruit ripening. RIN directly bound to the α-Man promoter sequence and promoter activation/α-Man expression was compromised in rin mutant fruit. Deletion analysis revealed that a promoter fragment (567 bp upstream of translational start site that contained three CArG boxes (binding sites for RIN was sufficient to drive GUS expression in fruits. In addition, α-Man expression was down-regulated in fruits of Nr mutant which is impaired in ethylene perception and promoter activation/α-Man expression was induced in wild type following treatment with a precursor of ethylene biosynthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC. Although, α-Man expression was induced in rin mutant after ACC treatment, the transcript level was less as compared to ACC-treated wild type. Taken together, these results suggest RIN-mediated direct transcriptional regulation of α-Man during fruit ripening and ethylene may acts in RIN-dependent and -independent ways to regulate α-Man expression.

  15. ACC 290new UOP Courses / uoptutorial



    For more course tutorials visit   ACC 290 Finals Question 1 Jackson Company recorded the following cash transactions for the year: Paid $135,000 for salaries. Paid $60,000 to purchase office equipment. Paid $15,000 for utilities. Paid $6,000 in dividends. Collected $245,000 from customers.    Question 2 Which of the following describes the classification and normal balance of the Unearned Rent Revenue accou...

  16. Bacterial Modulation of Plant Ethylene Levels.

    Gamalero, Elisa; Glick, Bernard R


    A focus on the mechanisms by which ACC deaminase-containing bacteria facilitate plant growth.Bacteria that produce the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, when present either on the surface of plant roots (rhizospheric) or within plant tissues (endophytic), play an active role in modulating ethylene levels in plants. This enzyme activity facilitates plant growth especially in the presence of various environmental stresses. Thus, plant growth-promoting bacteria that express ACC deaminase activity protect plants from growth inhibition by flooding and anoxia, drought, high salt, the presence of fungal and bacterial pathogens, nematodes, and the presence of metals and organic contaminants. Bacteria that express ACC deaminase activity also decrease the rate of flower wilting, promote the rooting of cuttings, and facilitate the nodulation of legumes. Here, the mechanisms behind bacterial ACC deaminase facilitation of plant growth and development are discussed, and numerous examples of the use of bacteria with this activity are summarized.

  17. Bioaugmentation with endophytic bacterium E6S homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii enhances metal rhizoaccumulation in host Sedum plumbizincicola

    Ying eMa


    Full Text Available Application of hyperaccumulator–endophyte symbiotic systems is a potential approach to improve phytoremediation efficiency, since some beneficial endophytic bacteria are able to detoxify heavy metals, alter metal solubility in soil and facilitate plant growth. The objective of this study was to isolate multi-metal resistant and plant beneficial endophytic bacteria and to evaluate their role in enhancing plant growth and metal accumulation/translocation. The metal resistant endophytic bacterial strain E6S was isolated from stems of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator plant Sedum plumbizincicola growing in metalliferous mine soils using Dworkin and Foster salts minimal agar medium with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC as the sole nitrogen source, and identified as homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii based on morphological and biochemical characteristics, partial 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Strain E6S showed high level of resistance to various metals (Cd, Zn and Pb. Besides utilizing ACC, strain E6S exhibited plant beneficial traits, such as solubilization of phosphate and production of indole-3-acetic acid. Inoculation with E6S significantly increased the bioavailability of Cd, Zn and Pb in soil. In addition, bacterial cells bound considerable amounts of metal ions in the following order: Zn ˃ Cd ˃ Pb. Inoculation of E6S significantly stimulated plant biomass, uptake and bioaccumulation of Cd, Zn and Pb. However, E6S greatly reduced the root to shoot translocation of Cd and Zn, indicating that bacterial inoculation assisted the host plant to uptake and store heavy metals in its root system. Inoculation with the endophytic bacterium E6S homologous to A. piechaudii can improve phytostabilization of metalliferous soils due to its effective ability to enhance in situ metal rhizoaccumulation in plants.

  18. Bioaugmentation with Endophytic Bacterium E6S Homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii Enhances Metal Rhizoaccumulation in Host Sedum plumbizincicola

    Ma, Ying; Zhang, Chang; Oliveira, Rui S.; Freitas, Helena; Luo, Yongming


    Application of hyperaccumulator-endophyte symbiotic systems is a potential approach to improve phytoremediation efficiency, since some beneficial endophytic bacteria are able to detoxify heavy metals, alter metal solubility in soil, and facilitate plant growth. The objective of this study was to isolate multi-metal resistant and plant beneficial endophytic bacteria and to evaluate their role in enhancing plant growth and metal accumulation/translocation. The metal resistant endophytic bacterial strain E6S was isolated from stems of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator plant Sedum plumbizincicola growing in metalliferous mine soils using Dworkin and Foster salts minimal agar medium with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) as the sole nitrogen source, and identified as homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii based on morphological and biochemical characteristics, partial 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Strain E6S showed high level of resistance to various metals (Cd, Zn, and Pb). Besides utilizing ACC, strain E6S exhibited plant beneficial traits, such as solubilization of phosphate and production of indole-3-acetic acid. Inoculation with E6S significantly increased the bioavailability of Cd, Zn, and Pb in soil. In addition, bacterial cells bound considerable amounts of metal ions in the following order: Zn > Cd >Pb. Inoculation of E6S significantly stimulated plant biomass, uptake and bioaccumulation of Cd, Zn, and Pb. However, E6S greatly reduced the root to shoot translocation of Cd and Zn, indicating that bacterial inoculation assisted the host plant to uptake and store heavy metals in its root system. Inoculation with the endophytic bacterium E6S homologous to A. piechaudii can improve phytostabilization of metalliferous soils due to its effective ability to enhance in situ metal rhizoaccumulation in plants. PMID:26870079

  19. Bioprospecting in potato fields in the Central Andean Highlands: screening of rhizobacteria for plant growth-promoting properties.

    Ghyselinck, Jonas; Velivelli, Siva L S; Heylen, Kim; O'Herlihy, Eileen; Franco, Javier; Rojas, Mercy; De Vos, Paul; Prestwich, Barbara Doyle


    The Central Andean Highlands are the center of origin of the potato plant (Solanum tuberosum). Ages of mutualism between potato plants and soil bacteria in this region support the hypothesis that Andean soils harbor interesting plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate rhizobacteria from Andean ecosystems, and to identify those with PGP properties. A total of 585 bacterial isolates were obtained from eight potato fields in the Andes and they were screened for suppression of Phytophthora infestans and Rhizoctonia solani. Antagonistic mechanisms were determined and antagonistic isolates were further tested for phosphate solubilization, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity, and production of NH3- and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). PGP was studied in healthy and R. solani diseased plantlets under growth room conditions. Performance was compared to the commercial strain B. subtilis FZB24(®) WG. Isolates were dereplicated with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and identified with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multi locus sequence analysis (MLSA). A total of 10% of the isolates were effective antagonists, of which many were able to solubilize phosphate, and produce IAA, ACC deaminase, NH3 and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). During growth room experiments, 23 antagonistic isolates were associated with plant growth-promotion and/or disease suppression. Ten isolates had a statistically significant impact on test parameters compared to the uninoculated control. Three isolates significantly promoted plant growth in healthy plantlets compared to the commercial strain, and seven isolates outperformed the commercial strain in in vitro R. solani diseased plantlets.

  20. Trichoderma-plant root colonization: escaping early plant defense responses and activation of the antioxidant machinery for saline stress tolerance.

    Brotman, Yariv; Landau, Udi; Cuadros-Inostroza, Álvaro; Tohge, Takayuki; Takayuki, Tohge; Fernie, Alisdair R; Chet, Ilan; Viterbo, Ada; Willmitzer, Lothar


    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts which can colonize the apoplast of plant roots. Microarrays analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots inoculated with Trichoderma asperelloides T203, coupled with qPCR analysis of 137 stress responsive genes and transcription factors, revealed wide gene transcript reprogramming, proceeded by a transient repression of the plant immune responses supposedly to allow root colonization. Enhancement in the expression of WRKY18 and WRKY40, which stimulate JA-signaling via suppression of JAZ repressors and negatively regulate the expression of the defense genes FMO1, PAD3 and CYP71A13, was detected in Arabidopsis roots upon Trichoderma colonization. Reduced root colonization was observed in the wrky18/wrky40 double mutant line, while partial phenotypic complementation was achieved by over-expressing WRKY40 in the wrky18 wrky40 background. On the other hand increased colonization rate was found in roots of the FMO1 knockout mutant. Trichoderma spp. stimulate plant growth and resistance to a wide range of adverse environmental conditions. Arabidopsis and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants treated with Trichoderma prior to salt stress imposition show significantly improved seed germination. In addition, Trichoderma treatment affects the expression of several genes related to osmo-protection and general oxidative stress in roots of both plants. The MDAR gene coding for monodehydroascorbate reductase is significantly up-regulated and, accordingly, the pool of reduced ascorbic acid was found to be increased in Trichoderma treated plants. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase silenced Trichoderma mutants were less effective in providing tolerance to salt stress, suggesting that Trichoderma, similarly to ACC deaminase producing bacteria, can ameliorate plant growth under conditions of abiotic stress, by lowering ameliorating increases in ethylene levels as well as promoting an elevated antioxidative capacity.

  1. ACC 291 NEW Tutorial/Uoptutorial




  2. ACC 291 New Tutorial Course/Uoptutorial




  3. Two Novel Flavin-Containing Monooxygenases Involved in Biosynthesis of Aliphatic Glucosinolates

    Wenwen Kong


    Full Text Available Glucosinolates (GSLs, a class of secondary metabolites from cruciferous plants, are derived from amino acids and have diverse biological activities, such as in biotic defense, depending on their side chain modification. The first structural modification step in the synthesis of aliphatic (methionine-derived GSLs—S-oxygenation of methylthioalkyl GSLs to methylsulfinylalkyl GSLs—was found to be catalyzed by five flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs, FMOGS-OX1-5. Here, we report two additional FMOGS-OX enzymes, FMOGS-OX6 and FMOGS-OX7, encoded by At1g12130 and At1g12160, respectively. The overexpression of both FMOGS-OX6 and FMOGS-OX7 decreased the ratio of MT GSL to the sum of MT and MS GSL, suggesting that the introduction of the two genes converted MT GSL into MS GSL. Analysis of expression pattern revealed that the spatial expression of the two genes is quite similar and partially overlapped with the other FMOGS-OX genes, which are primarily expressed in vascular tissue. We further analyzed the responsive expression pattern of all the seven FMOGS-OX genes to exogenous treatment with abscisic acid (ABA, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, and low and high temperatures. Although these genes showed same tendency toward the changing stimulus, the sensitivity of each gene was quite different. The variety in spatial expression among the FMOGS-OX genes while responding to environmental stimulus indicated a complex and finely tuned regulation of GSL modifications. Identification of these two novel FMOGS-OX enzymes will enhance the understanding of GSL modifications and the importance of evolution of these duplicated genes.

  4. Effects of ethylene on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity in Bermuda grass under low temperature.

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Chen, Ke; Amombo, Erick; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin


    The phytohormone ethylene has been reported to mediate plant response to cold stress. However, it is still debated whether the effect of ethylene on plant response to cold stress is negative or positive. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of ethylene in the cold resistance of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L).Pers.). Under control (warm) condition, there was no obvious effect of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or the antagonist Ag(+) of ethylene signaling on electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Under cold stress conditions, ACC-treated plant leaves had a greater level of EL and MDA than the untreated leaves. However, the EL and MDA values were lower in the Ag(+) regime versus the untreated. In addition, after 3 days of cold treatment, ACC remarkably reduced the content of soluble protein and also altered antioxidant enzyme activity. Under control (warm) condition, there was no significant effect of ACC on the performance of photosystem II (PS II) as monitored by chlorophyll α fluorescence transients. However, under cold stress, ACC inhibited the performance of PS II. Under cold condition, ACC remarkably reduced the performance index for energy conservation from excitation to the reduction of intersystem electron acceptors (PI(ABS)), the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP0), the quantum yield of electron transport flux from Q(A) to Q(B) (φE0), and the efficiency/probability of electron transport (ΨE0). Simultaneously, ACC increased the values of specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) and dissipation (DI0/RC) after 3 days of cold treatment. Additionally, under cold condition, exogenous ACC altered the expressions of several related genes implicated in the induction of cold tolerance (LEA, SOD, POD-1 and CBF1, EIN3-1, and EIN3-2). The present study thus suggests that ethylene affects the cold tolerance of Bermuda grass by impacting the antioxidant system

  5. The mechanism of ethylene signaling induced by endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 mediating sesquiterpenoids biosynthesis in Atractylodes lancea

    Jie eYuan


    Full Text Available Ethylene, the first known gaseous phytohormone, is involved in plant growth, development as well as responses to environmental signals. However, limited information is available on the role of ethylene in endophytic fungi induced secondary metabolites biosynthesis. Atractylodes lancea is a traditional Chinese herb, and its quality depends on the main active compounds sesquiterpenoids. This work showed that the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 induced ethylene production in Atractylodes lancea. Pre-treatment of plantlets with ethylene inhibiter aminooxyacetic acid (AOA suppressed endophytic fungi induced accumulation of ethylene and sesquiterpenoids. Plantlets were further treated with AOA, salicylic acid (SA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC, jasmonic acid inhibitor ibuprofen (IBU, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 scavenger catalase (CAT, nitric oxide (NO-specific scavenger 2-(4-Carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO. With endophytic fungi inoculation, IBU or PAC did not inhibit ethylene production, and JA and SA generation were suppressed by AOA, showing that ethylene may act as an upstream signal of JA and SA pathway. With endophytic fungi inoculation, CAT or cPTIO suppressed ethylene production, and H2O2 or NO generation was not affected by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, showing that ethylene may act as a downstream signal of H2O2 and NO pathway. Then, plantlets were treated with ethylene donor ACC, JA, SA, H2O2, NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Exogenous ACC could trigger JA and SA generation, whereas exogenous JA or SA did not affect ethylene production, and the induced sesquiterpenoids accumulation triggered by ACC was partly suppressed by IBU and PAC, showing that ethylene acted as an upstream signal of JA and SA pathway. Exogenous ACC did not affect H2O2 or NO generation, whereas exogenous H2O2 and SNP induced ethylene production, and the induced sesquiterpenoids

  6. Lattice QCD simulations using the OpenACC platform

    Majumdar, Pushan


    In this article we will explore the OpenACC platform for programming Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). The OpenACC platform offers a directive based programming model for GPUs which avoids the detailed data flow control and memory management necessary in a CUDA programming environment. In the OpenACC model, programs can be written in high level languages with OpenMP like directives. We present some examples of QCD simulation codes using OpenACC and discuss their performance on the Fermi and Kepler GPUs.

  7. Role for the banana AGAMOUS-like gene MaMADS7 in regulation of fruit ripening and quality.

    Liu, Juhua; Liu, Lin; Li, Yujia; Jia, Caihong; Zhang, Jianbin; Miao, Hongxia; Hu, Wei; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang


    MADS-box transcription factors play important roles in organ development. In plants, most studies on MADS-box genes have mainly focused on flower development and only a few concerned fruit development and ripening. A new MADS-box gene named MaMADS7 was isolated from banana fruit by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) based on a MADS-box fragment obtained from a banana suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. MaMADS7 is an AGAMOUS-like MADS-box gene that is preferentially expressed in the ovaries and fruits and in tobacco its protein product localizes to the nucleus. This study found that MaMADS7 expression can be induced by exogenous ethylene. Ectopic expression of MaMADS7 in tomato resulted in broad ripening phenotypes. The expression levels of seven ripening and quality-related genes, ACO1, ACS2, E4, E8, PG, CNR and PSY1 in MaMADS7 transgenic tomato fruits were greatly increased while the expression of the AG-like MADS-box gene TAGL1 was suppressed. Compared with the control, the contents of β-carotene, lycopene, ascorbic acid and organic acid in transformed tomato fruits were increased, while the contents of glucose and fructose were slightly decreased. MaMADS7 interacted with banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase gene 1 (MaACO1) and tomato phytoene synthase gene (LePSY1) promoters. Our results indicated that MaMADS7 plays an important role in initiating endogenous ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening.

  8. Ethylene-regulated expression of a carnation cysteine proteinase during flower petal senescence.

    Jones, M L; Larsen, P B; Woodson, W R


    The senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower petals is regulated by the phytohormone ethylene and is associated with considerable catabolic activity including the loss of protein. In this paper we present the molecular cloning of a cysteine proteinase and show that its expression is regulated by ethylene and associated with petal senescence. A 1600 bp cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using a 5'-specific primer and 3'-nonspecific primer designed to amplify a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase cDNA from reverse-transcribed stylar RNA. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned product (pDCCP1) was found to share significant homology to several cysteine proteinases rather than ACC synthase. A single open reading frame of 428 amino acids was shown to share significant homology with other plant cysteine proteinases including greater than 70% identity with a cysteine proteinase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Amino acids in the active site of cysteine proteinases were conserved in the pDCCP1 peptide. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that the expression of pDCCP1 increased substantially with the onset of ethylene production and senescence of petals. Increased pDCCP1 expression was also associated with ethylene production in other senescing floral organs including ovaries and styles. The pDCCP1 transcript accumulated in petals treated with exogenous ethylene within 3 h and treatment of flowers with 2,5-norbornadiene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, prevented the increase in pDCCP1 expression in petals. The temporal and spatial patterns of pDCCP1 expression suggests a role for cysteine proteinase in the loss of protein during floral senescence.

  9. A new insight to adsorption and accumulation of high lead concentration by exopolymer and whole cells of lead-resistant bacterium Acinetobacter junii L. Pb1 isolated from coal mine dump.

    Kushwaha, Anamika; Rani, Radha; Kumar, Sanjay; Thomas, Tarence; David, Arun Alfred; Ahmed, Meraz


    A lead-resistant bacterial strain was isolated from coal mine dump and identified as Acinetobacter junii Pb1 on basis of 16S rRNA (ribosomal ribonucleic acid) gene sequencing. The minimum inhibitory concentration of lead for the strain was 16,000 mg l(-1) and it showed antibiotic and multi metal resistance. In aqueous culture, at an initial lead (Pb(II)) concentration of 100 and 500 mg l(-1), lead adsorption and accumulation by the isolate was 100 and 60%, at pH 7 at 30 °C after 48 and 120 h, respectively. The two fractions of exopolysaccharide (EPS), loosely associated EPS (laEPS) and bound EPS (bEPS), and whole cells (devoid of EPS) showed high binding affinity towards Pb(II). The binding affinity of laEPS towards Pb(II) (1071 mg Pb g(-1)) was three times higher than that of bEPS (321.5 mg Pb g(-1)) and 6.5 times higher than that of whole cells (165 mg Pb g(-1)). The binding affinity of EPS and whole cells with Pb(II), reported in the current study, is considerably higher as compared to that reported in the literature, till date. SEM analysis, showed an increase in thickness of cells on exposure to Pb(II) and TEM analysis, revealed its accumulation (interior of cell) and its adsorption (with the external cell surface). The isolate was also found to be positive for indole acetic acid (IAA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase production which helps in promoting plant growth. Thus, this study provides a new understanding towards Pb(II) uptake by A. junii Pb1, highlighting its potential on the restoration of Pb(II) contaminated repositories.

  10. Acc homoeoloci and the evolution of wheat genomes

    We analyzed the DNA sequences of BACs from many wheat libraries containing the Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci, encoding the plastid and cytosolic forms of the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase, to gain understanding of the evolution of these genes and the origin of the three genomes in modern hexaploid wheat. Mor...

  11. Polyamines inhibit biosynthesis of ethylene in higher plant tissue and fruit protoplasts.

    Apelbaum, A; Burgoon, A C; Anderson, J D; Lieberman, M


    Ethylene production in apple fruit and protoplasts and in leaf tissue was inhibited by spermidine or spermine. These polyamines, as well as putrescine, inhibited auxin-induced ethylene production and the conversion of methionine and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to ethylene. Polyamines were more effective as inhibitors of ethylene synthesis at the early, rather than at the late, stages of fruit ripening. Ca(2+) in the incubation medium reduced the inhibitory effect caused by the amines. A possible mode of action by which polyamines inhibit ethylene production is discussed.

  12. Identification and Characterization of Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria Isolated from Rhizosphere soils of Tea Trees%茶树根际促生菌的筛选与促生特性的研究

    韩丽珍; 邓兆辉; 朱春艳; 梁彩娇; 韦德萍


    从贵州地区的茶树根际土壤中分离筛选出6株根际促生菌,经16S rRNA基因分子鉴定,它们分属于假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas sp.)、芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus sp.)、束村氏菌属(Tsukamurella sp.)、伯克霍尔德氏菌属(Burk ̄holderia sp.)和根瘤菌属(Rhizobium sp.)中。促生特性的研究结果显示,溶磷解钾性能最优的菌株为GD-3菌株,固氮效能最高的KKS-6-N1菌株,此外6个菌株具有溶磷解钾固氮、产IAA、产NH3、产HCN能力、可分泌嗜铁素及具有ACC脱氨酶活性等多种促生性能,可作为研制微生物肥料的优良菌株资源。%Based on sequence conservation of 16S rRNA, six strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria ( PGPR) , which isolated from rhizosphere soils of Guizhou tea trees, were identified as Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Tsukamurel ̄la sp., Burkholderia sp. and Rhizobium sp. GD-3 showed the most efficiency in phosphatesolubilization and potassium de﹣composition, and KKS-6-N1 had the most efficiency in nitrogen fixing. In addition, other growth-promoting characteris﹣tics, e.g. nitrogen fixation,IAA, NH3, HCNproduction,siderophore secretion and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid ( ACC) deaminase activity, were also investigated in these six strains, justifying their potentials for development of﹣biological fertilizer as microbial resources in the future.

  13. 2D-RNA-coupling numbers: a new computational chemistry approach to link secondary structure topology with biological function.

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Agüero-Chapin, Guillermín; Varona, Javier; Molina, Reinaldo; Delogu, Giovanna; Santana, Lourdes; Uriarte, Eugenio; Podda, Gianni


    Methods for prediction of proteins, DNA, or RNA function and mapping it onto sequence often rely on bioinformatics alignment approach instead of chemical structure. Consequently, it is interesting to develop computational chemistry approaches based on molecular descriptors. In this sense, many researchers used sequence-coupling numbers and our group extended them to 2D proteins representations. However, no coupling numbers have been reported for 2D-RNA topology graphs, which are highly branched and contain useful information. Here, we use a computational chemistry scheme: (a) transforming sequences into RNA secondary structures, (b) defining and calculating new 2D-RNA-coupling numbers, (c) seek a structure-function model, and (d) map biological function onto the folded RNA. We studied as example 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidases known as ACO, which control fruit ripening having importance for biotechnology industry. First, we calculated tau(k)(2D-RNA) values to a set of 90-folded RNAs, including 28 transcripts of ACO and control sequences. Afterwards, we compared the classification performance of 10 different classifiers implemented in the software WEKA. In particular, the logistic equation ACO = 23.8 . tau(1)(2D-RNA) + 41.4 predicts ACOs with 98.9%, 98.0%, and 97.8% of accuracy in training, leave-one-out and 10-fold cross-validation, respectively. Afterwards, with this equation we predict ACO function to a sequence isolated in this work from Coffea arabica (GenBank accession DQ218452). The tau(1)(2D-RNA) also favorably compare with other descriptors. This equation allows us to map the codification of ACO activity on different mRNA topology features. The present computational-chemistry approach is general and could be extended to connect RNA secondary structure topology to other functions.

  14. Selection and evaluation of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from grapevine rhizospheres for use as biofertilizers

    Min Liu


    Full Text Available Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB have the ability to solubilize insoluble phosphorus (P and release soluble P. Extensive research has been performed with respect to PSB isolation from the rhizospheres of various plants, but little is known about the prevalence of PSB in the grapevine rhizosphere. In this study, we aimed to isolate and identify PSB from the grapevine rhizosphere in five vineyards of Northwest China, to characterize their plant-growth-promoting (PGP traits, evaluate the effect of stress on their phosphate-solubilizing activity (PSA, and test their ability to stimulate the growth of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. From the vineyard soils, 66 PSB isolates were screened, and 10 strains with high PSA were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed that these 10 strains belonged to 4 genera and 5 species: Bacillus aryabhattai, B. megaterium, Klebsiella variicola, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, and Enterobacter aerogenes. The selected PSB strains JY17 (B. aryabhattai and JY22 (B. aryabhattai were positive for multiple PGP traits, including nitrogen fixation and production of indole acetic acid (IAA, siderophores, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase, chitinase, and protease. JY17 and JY22 showed strong PSA under stress conditions of high pH, high salt, and high temperature. Therefore, these two isolates can be used as biofertilizers in saline-alkaline soils. The inoculation with PSB significantly facilitated the growth of V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon under greenhouse conditions. Use of these PSB as biofertilizers will increase the available P content in soils, minimize P-fertilizer application, reduce environmental pollution, and promote sustainable agriculture.

  15. Alternative rooting induction of semi-hardwood olive cuttings by several auxin-producing bacteria for organic agriculture systems

    M. C. Montero-Calasanz


    Full Text Available Southern Spain is the largest olive oil producer region in the world. In recent years organic agriculture systems have grown exponentially so that new alternative systems to produce organic olive cuttings are needed. Several bacterial isolates, namely Pantoea sp. AG9, Chryseobacterium sp. AG13, Chryseobacterium sp. CT348, Pseudomonas sp. CT364 and Azospirillum brasilense Cd (ATCC 29729, have been used to induce rooting in olive semi-hardwood cuttings of Arbequina, Hojiblanca and Picual cultivars of olive (Olea europea L. The first four strains were previously selected as auxin-producing bacteria and by their ability to promote rooting in model plants. They have been classified on the basis of their 16S rDNA gene sequence. The known auxin producer A. brasilense Cd strain has been used as a reference. The inoculation of olive cuttings was performed in two different ways: (i by dipping cuttings in a liquid bacterial culture or (ii by immersing them in a paste made of solid bacterial inoculant and sterile water. Under nursery conditions all of the tested bacterial strains were able to induce the rooting of olive cuttings to a similar or greater extent than the control cuttings treated with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. The olive cultivars responded differently depending on the bacterial strain and the inoculation method. The strain that consistently gave the best results was Pantoea sp. AG9, the only one of the tested bacterial strains to express the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase. The results are also discussed in terms of potential commercial interest and nursery feasibility performance of these strains.

  16. Melatonin promotes ripening and improves quality of tomato fruit during postharvest life.

    Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Na; Wang, Jinfang; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Dianbo; Shi, Jin; Li, Ren; Weeda, Sarah; Zhao, Bing; Ren, Shuxin; Guo, Yang-Dong


    In this study, the effect of melatonin on the postharvest ripening and quality improvement of tomato fruit was carried out. The tomatoes were immersed in exogenous melatonin for 2h, and then the related physiological indicators and the expression of genes during post-harvest life were evaluated. Compared with control check (CK), the 50 µM melatonin treatment significantly increased lycopene levels by 5.8-fold. Meanwhile, the key genes involved in fruit colour development, including phytoene synthase1 (PSY1) and carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO), showed a 2-fold increase in expression levels. The rate of water loss from tomato fruit also increased 8.3%, and the expression of aquaporin genes, such as SlPIP12Q, SlPIPQ, SlPIP21Q, and SlPIP22, was up-regulated 2- to 3-fold under 50 µM melatonin treatment. In addition, 50 µM melatonin treatment enhanced fruit softening, increased water-soluble pectin by 22.5%, and decreased protopectin by 19.5%. The expression of the cell wall modifying proteins polygalacturonase (PG), pectin esterase1 (PE1), β-galactosidase (TBG4), and expansin1 (Exp1) was up-regulated under 50 µM melatonin treatment. Melatonin increased ethylene production by 27.1%, accelerated the climacteric phase, and influenced the ethylene signalling pathway. Alteration of ethylene production correlated with altered 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS4) expression. The expression of ethylene signal transduction-related genes such as NR, SlETR4, SlEIL1, SlEIL3, and SlERF2, was enhanced by 50 µM melatonin. The effect of melatonin on ethylene biosynthesis, ethylene perception, and ethylene signalling may contribute to fruit ripening and quality improvement in tomato. This research may promote the application of melatonin on postharvest ripening and quality improvement of tomato fruit as well as other horticultural productions in the future.

  17. Delayed ripening and improved fruit processing quality in tomato by RNAi-mediated silencing of three homologs of 1-aminopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene.

    Gupta, Aarti; Pal, Ram Krishna; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat


    The ripening hormone, ethylene is known to initiate, modulate and co-ordinate the expression of various genes involved in the ripening process. The burst in ethylene production is the key event for the onset of ripening in climacteric fruits, including tomatoes. Therefore ethylene is held accountable for the tons of post-harvest losses due to over-ripening and subsequently resulting in fruit rotting. In the present investigation, delayed ripening tomatoes were generated by silencing three homologs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS) gene during the course of ripening using RNAi technology. The chimeric RNAi-ACS construct designed to target ACS homologs, effectively repressed the ethylene production in tomato fruits. Fruits from such lines exhibited delayed ripening and extended shelf life for ∼45 days, with improved juice quality. The ethylene suppression brought about compositional changes in these fruits by enhancing polyamine (PA) levels. Further, decreased levels of ethylene in RNAi-ACS fruits has led to the altered levels of various ripening-specific transcripts, especially the up-regulation of PA biosynthesis and ascorbic acid (AsA) metabolism genes and down-regulation of cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme genes. These results suggest that the down-regulation of ACS homologs using RNAi can be an effective approach for obtaining delayed ripening with longer shelf life and an enhanced processing quality of tomato fruits. Also, the chimeric gene fusion can be used as an effective design for simultaneous silencing of more than one gene. These observations would be useful in better understanding of the ethylene and PA signaling during fruit ripening and molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction of these two molecules in affecting fruit quality traits.

  18. An ethylene-protected Achilles’ heel of etiolated seedlings for arthropod deterrence

    Edouard Boex-Fontvieille


    Full Text Available A small family of Kunitz protease inhibitors exists in Arabidopsis thaliana, a member of which (encoded by At1g72290 accomplishes highly specific roles during plant development. Arabidopsis Kunitz-protease inhibitor 1 (Kunitz-PI;1, as we dubbed this protein here, is operative as cysteine protease inhibitor. Activity measurements revealed that despite the presence of the conserved Kunitz-motif the bacterially expressed Kunitz-PI;1 was unable to inhibit serine proteases such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, but very efficiently inhibited the cysteine protease RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION 21 (RD21. Western blotting and cytolocalization studies using mono-specific antibodies recalled Kunitz-PI;1 protein expression in flowers, young siliques and etiolated seedlings. In dark-grown seedlings, maximum Kunitz-PI;1 promoter activity was detected in the apical hook region and apical parts of the hypocotyls. Immunolocalization confirmed Kunitz-PI;1 expression in these organs and tissues. NO TRANSMITTING TRACT (NTT and HECATE1 (HEC1, two transcription factors previously implicated in the formation of the female reproductive tract in flowers of Arabidopsis, were identified to regulate Kunitz-PI;1 expression in the dark and during greening, with NTT acting negatively and HEC1 acting positively. Laboratory feeding experiments with isopod crustaceans such as Porcellio scaber (woodlouse and Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug pinpointed the apical hook as ethylene-protected Achilles’ heel of etiolated seedlings. Because exogenous application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC and mechanical stress (wounding strongly up-regulated HEC1-dependent Kunitz-PI;1 gene expression, our results identify a new circuit controlling herbivore deterrence of etiolated plants in which Kunitz-PI;1 is involved.

  19. An Ethylene-Protected Achilles’ Heel of Etiolated Seedlings for Arthropod Deterrence

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Pollmann, Stephan; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane


    A small family of Kunitz protease inhibitors exists in Arabidopsis thaliana, a member of which (encoded by At1g72290) accomplishes highly specific roles during plant development. Arabidopsis Kunitz-protease inhibitor 1 (Kunitz-PI;1), as we dubbed this protein here, is operative as cysteine PI. Activity measurements revealed that despite the presence of the conserved Kunitz-motif the bacterially expressed Kunitz-PI;1 was unable to inhibit serine proteases such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, but very efficiently inhibited the cysteine protease RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION 21. Western blotting and cytolocalization studies using mono-specific antibodies recalled Kunitz-PI;1 protein expression in flowers, young siliques and etiolated seedlings. In dark-grown seedlings, maximum Kunitz-PI;1 promoter activity was detected in the apical hook region and apical parts of the hypocotyls. Immunolocalization confirmed Kunitz-PI;1 expression in these organs and tissues. No transmitting tract (NTT) and HECATE 1 (HEC1), two transcription factors previously implicated in the formation of the female reproductive tract in flowers of Arabidopsis, were identified to regulate Kunitz-PI;1 expression in the dark and during greening, with NTT acting negatively and HEC1 acting positively. Laboratory feeding experiments with isopod crustaceans such as Porcellio scaber (woodlouse) and Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug) pinpointed the apical hook as ethylene-protected Achilles’ heel of etiolated seedlings. Because exogenous application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and mechanical stress (wounding) strongly up-regulated HEC1-dependent Kunitz-PI;1 gene expression, our results identify a new circuit controlling herbivore deterrence of etiolated plants in which Kunitz-PI;1 is involved. PMID:27625656

  20. Comparison of the role of gibberellins and ethylene in response to submergence of two lowland rice cultivars, Senia and Bomba.

    Dubois, Vincent; Moritz, Thomas; García-Martínez, José L


    We examined the gibberellin (GA) and ethylene regulation of submergence-induced elongation in seedlings of the submergence-tolerant lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) cvs Senia and Bomba. Elongation was enhanced after germination to facilitate water escape and reach air. We found that submergence-induced elongation depends on GA because it was counteracted by paclobutrazol (an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis), an effect that was negated by GA(3). Moreover, in the cv Senia, submergence increased the content of active GA(1) and its immediate precursors (GA(53), GA(19) and GA(20)) by enhancing expression of several GA biosynthesis genes (OsGA20ox1 and -2, and OsGA3ox2), but not by decreasing expression of several OsGA2ox (GA inactivating genes). Senia seedlings, in contrast to Bomba seedlings, did not elongate in response to ethylene or 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC; an ethylene precursor) application, and submergence-induced elongation was not reduced in the presence of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; an ethylene perception inhibitor). Ethylene emanation was similar in Senia seedlings grown in air and in submerged-grown seedlings following de-submergence, while it increased in Bomba. The expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes (OsACS1, -2 and -3, and OsACO1) was not affected in Senia, but expression of OsACS5 was rapidly enhanced in Bomba upon submergence. Our results support the conclusion that submergence elongation enhancement of lowland rice is due to alteration of GA metabolism leading to an increase in active GA (GA(1)) content. Interestingly, in the cv Senia, in contrast to cv Bomba, this was triggered through an ethylene-independent mechanism.

  1. Overexpression of ACC gene from oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi enhanced the lipid accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with increased levels of glycerol 3-phosphate substrates.

    Wang, Jiancai; Xu, Ronghua; Wang, Ruling; Haque, Mohammad Enamul; Liu, Aizhong


    The conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is the rate-limiting step in fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, a gene coding for ACC was isolated and characterized from an oleaginous yeast, Lipomyces starkeyi. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of L. starkeyi acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene (LsACC1) showed that the expression levels were upregulated with the fast accumulation of lipids. The LsACC1 was co-overexpressed with the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GPD1), which regulates lipids biosynthesis by supplying another substrates glycerol 3-phosphate for storage lipid assembly, in the non-oleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Further, the S. cerevisiae acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ScACC1) was transferred with GPD1 and its function was analyzed in comparison with LsACC1. The results showed that overexpressed LsACC1 and GPD1 resulted in a 63% increase in S. cerevisiae. This study gives new data in understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of fatty acids and lipid biosynthesis in yeasts.

  2. Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) - literature overview and own experience.

    Dworakowska, Dorota; Drabarek, Agata; Wenzel, Ingrid; Babińska, Anna; Świątkowska-Stodulska, Renata; Sworczak, Krzysztof


    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a malignant endocrine tumour. The rarity of the disease has stymied therapeutic development. Age distribution shows two peaks: the first and fifth decades of life, with children and women more frequently affected. Although 60-70% of ACCs are biochemically found to overproduce hormones, it is not clinically apparent in many cases. If present, endocrine symptoms include signs of hypercortisolaemia, virilisation or gynaecomastia. ACC carries a poor prognosis, and a cure can be achieved only by complete surgical resection. Mitotane is used both as an adjuvant treatment and also in non-operative patients. The role of radio- and chemotherapy is still controversial. The post-operative disease free survival is low and oscillates around 30% due to high tumour recurrence rate. The diagnosis is based on tumour histological assessment with the use of the Weiss score, however urinary steroid profiling (if available) can serve to differentiate between ACC and other adrenal tumours. Conventional prognostic markers in ACC include stage and grade of disease, and, as currently reported, the presence of hypercortisolaemia. Molecular analysis has had a significant impact on the understanding of the pathogenetic mechanism of ACC development and the evaluation of prognostic and predictive markers, among which alterations of the IGF system, the Wnt pathway, p53 and molecules involved in cancer cell invasion properties and angiogenesis seem to be very promising. We here summarise our own experience related to the management of ACC and present a literature overview. We have not aimed to include a detailed summary of the molecular alterations biology described in ACC, as this has already been addressed in other papers.

  3. Tolerance of transgenic canola plants (Brassica napus) amended with plant growth-promoting bacteria to flooding stress at a metal-contaminated field site.

    Farwell, Andrea J; Vesely, Susanne; Nero, Vincent; Rodriguez, Hilda; McCormack, Kimberley; Shah, Saleh; Dixon, D George; Glick, Bernard R


    The growth of transgenic canola (Brassica napus) expressing a gene for the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase was compared to non-transformed canola exposed to flooding and elevated soil Ni concentration, in situ. In addition, the ability of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4, which also expresses ACC deaminase, to facilitate the growth of non-transformed and transgenic canola under the above mentioned conditions was examined. Transgenic canola and/or canola treated with P. putida UW4 had greater shoot biomass compared to non-transformed canola under low flood-stress conditions. Under high flood-stress conditions, shoot biomass was reduced and Ni accumulation was increased in all instances relative to low flood-stress conditions. This is the first field study to document the increase in plant tolerance utilizing transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria exposed to multiple stressors.

  4. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes.

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd


    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress.

  5. Obesity Drives Th17 Cell Differentiation by Inducing the Lipid Metabolic Kinase, ACC1

    Yusuke Endo


    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation due to obesity contributes to the development of metabolic diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Reciprocal interactions between metabolic systems and immune cells have pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated diseases, although the mechanisms regulating obesity-associated inflammatory diseases are still unclear. In the present study, we performed transcriptional profiling of memory phenotype CD4 T cells in high-fat-fed mice and identified acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1, the gene product of Acaca as an essential regulator of Th17 cell differentiation in vitro and of the pathogenicity of Th17 cells in vivo. ACC1 modulates the DNA binding of RORγt to target genes in differentiating Th17 cells. In addition, we found a strong correlation between IL-17A-producing CD45RO+CD4 T cells and the expression of ACACA in obese subjects. Thus, ACC1 confers the appropriate function of RORγt through fatty acid synthesis and regulates the obesity-related pathology of Th17 cells.

  6. The hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola harbors metal-resistant endophytic bacteria that improve its phytoextraction capacity in multi-metal contaminated soil.

    Ma, Ying; Oliveira, Rui S; Nai, Fengjiao; Rajkumar, Mani; Luo, Yongming; Rocha, Inês; Freitas, Helena


    Endophyte-assisted phytoremediation has recently been suggested as a successful approach for ecological restoration of metal contaminated soils, however little information is available on the influence of endophytic bacteria on the phytoextraction capacity of metal hyperaccumulating plants in multi-metal polluted soils. The aims of our study were to isolate and characterize metal-resistant and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) utilizing endophytic bacteria from tissues of the newly discovered Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola and to examine if these endophytic bacterial strains could improve the efficiency of phytoextraction of multi-metal contaminated soils. Among a collection of 42 metal resistant bacterial strains isolated from the tissues of S. plumbizincicola grown on Pb/Zn mine tailings, five plant growth promoting endophytic bacterial strains (PGPE) were selected due to their ability to promote plant growth and to utilize ACC as the sole nitrogen source. The five isolates were identified as Bacillus pumilus E2S2, Bacillus sp. E1S2, Bacillus sp. E4S1, Achromobacter sp. E4L5 and Stenotrophomonas sp. E1L and subsequent testing revealed that they all exhibited traits associated with plant growth promotion, such as production of indole-3-acetic acid and siderophores and solubilization of phosphorus. These five strains showed high resistance to heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Pb) and various antibiotics. Further, inoculation of these ACC utilizing strains significantly increased the concentrations of water extractable Cd and Zn in soil. Moreover, a pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of inoculating metal-resistant ACC utilizing strains on the growth of S. plumbizincicola and its uptake of Cd, Zn and Pb in multi-metal contaminated soils. Out of the five strains, B. pumilus E2S2 significantly increased root (146%) and shoot (17%) length, fresh (37%) and dry biomass (32%) of S. plumbizincicola as well as plant Cd uptake (43%), whereas

  7. Regulation of Propylene and 1-Methylcyclopropene on Expressions of ACS and ACO Genes in Persimmon Fruits

    LIU Le; RAO Jing-ping; CHANG Xiao-xiao; YI Shun-chao


    The regulation of postharvest treatment with propylene and 1-MCP on ethylene release rate and expressions of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes in Fuping Janshi persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) fruit were investigated. Fruits were treated with propylene and 1-MCP, then stored at 20℃, ethylene release rate of the treated fruits was measured at regular intervals and RNA was extracted for Northern blotting analysis. The results suggested that treatment with propylene accelerated the expressions of ACS and ACO genes and then enhanced the ethylene biosynthesis, while treatment with 1-MCP inhibited the expressions of two genes and their ethylene biosynthesis. Furthermore, different effects on expressions caused by treatments with propylene and 1-MCP existed in various fruit tissues, the inhibitory effect on ACS and ACO genes by 1-MCP was the strongest in pericarp, followed by pulp and core tissues, in the area near fruit stalk, the inhibitory effect was the weakest. While the enhanced effect on ACS and ACO genes by propylene increased from pulp, core, and pericarp to the area near fruit stalk. Expression of each member of ACS and ACO families in various tissues was also completely different, in control and propylene treatment, DKACS3 gene just expressed in the area near fruit stalk and did not express in other tissues, but DKACS2 gene expressed in four tissues by treatment with propylene.

  8. Improving production of malonyl coenzyme A-derived metabolites by abolishing Snf1-dependent regulation of Acc1.

    Shi, Shuobo; Chen, Yun; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens


    ABSTRACT Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylase (ACCase) plays a central role in carbon metabolism and has been the site of action for the development of therapeutics or herbicides, as its product, malonyl-CoA, is a precursor for production of fatty acids and other compounds. Control of Acc1 activity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae occurs mainly at two levels, i.e., regulation of transcription and repression by Snf1 protein kinase at the protein level. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for improving the activity of ACCase in S. cerevisiae by abolishing posttranslational regulation of Acc1 via site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that introduction of two site mutations in Acc1, Ser659 and Ser1157, resulted in an enhanced activity of Acc1 and increased total fatty acid content. As Snf1 regulation of Acc1 is particularly active under glucose-limited conditions, we evaluated the effect of the two site mutations in chemostat cultures. Finally, we showed that our modifications of Acc1 could enhance the supply of malonyl-CoA and therefore successfully increase the production of two industrially important products derived from malonyl-CoA, fatty acid ethyl esters and 3-hydroxypropionic acid. IMPORTANCE ACCase is responsible for carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA, which is a crucial step in the control of fatty acid metabolism. ACCase opened the door for pharmaceutical treatments of obesity and diabetes as well as the development of new herbicides. ACCase is also recognized as a promising target for developing cell factories, as its malonyl-CoA product serves as a universal precursor for a variety of high-value compounds in white biotechnology. Yeast ACCase is a good model in understanding the enzyme's catalysis, regulation, and inhibition. The present study describes the importance of protein phosphorylation in regulation of yeast ACCase and identifies potential regulation sites. This study led to the generation of a more efficient ACCase, which

  9. A Comparative Study of Ethylene Emanation upon Nitrogen Deficiency in Natural Accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana

    De Gernier, Hugues; De Pessemier, Jérôme; Xu, Jiajia; Cristescu, Simona M.; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Hermans, Christian


    An original approach to develop sustainable agriculture with less nitrogen fertilizer inputs is to tackle the cross-talk between nitrogen nutrition and plant growth regulators. In particular the gaseous hormone, ethylene, is a prime target for that purpose. The variation of ethylene production in natural accessions of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana was explored in response to the nitrate supply. Ethylene was measured with a laser-based photoacoustic detector. First, experimental conditions were established with Columbia-0 (Col-0) accession, which was grown in vitro on horizontal plates across a range of five nitrate concentrations (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, or 10 mM). The concentrations of 1 and 10 mM nitrate were retained for further characterization. Along with a decrease of total dry biomass and higher biomass allocation to the roots, the ethylene production was 50% more important at 1 mM than at 10 mM nitrate. The total transcript levels of 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID SYNTHASES (ACS) in roots and those of ACC OXIDASES (ACO) in shoots increased by 100% between the same treatments. This was mainly due to higher transcript levels of ACS6 and of ACO2 and ACO4 respectively. The assumption was that during nitrogen deficiency, the greater biomass allocation in favor of the roots was controlled by ethylene being released in the shoots after conversion of ACC originating from the roots. Second, biomass and ethylene productions were measured in 20 additional accessions. Across all accessions, the total dry biomass and ethylene production were correlated negatively at 1 mM but positively at 10 mM nitrate. Furthermore, polymorphism was surveyed in ACC and ethylene biosynthesis genes and gene products among accessions. Very few substitutions modifying the amino acids properties in conserved motifs of the enzymes were found in the accessions. Natural variation of ethylene production could be further explored to improve Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE), in particular by

  10. Human Behavior Model Based Control Program for ACC Mobile Robot

    Claudiu Pozna


    Full Text Available Present work is a part of the ACC autonomous car project. This paper will focuson the control program architecture. To design this architecture we will start from thehuman driver behavior model. Using this model we have constructed a three level controlprogram. Preliminary results are presented.

  11. Ervaringen met Advanced Cruise Control (ACC) in een korte praktijkproef.

    Oei, H.-l.


    Experiences with Advanced Cruise Control in traffic; a limited experiment. Advanced Cruise Control (ACC) is an ordinary cruise control in which the desired speed is installed manually, but in which the headway time to the vehicle in front is also taken into account. If the headway time becomes less

  12. CAPS OpenACC Compilers: Performance and Portability

    CERN. Geneva


    The announcement late 2011 of the new OpenACC directive-based programming standard supported by CAPS, CRAY and PGI compilers has open up the door to more scientific applications that can be ported on many-core systems. Following a porting methodology, this talk will first review the principles of programming with OpenACC and then the advanced features available in the CAPS compilers to further optimize OpenACC applications: library integration, tuning directives with auto-tune mechanisms to build applications adaptive to different GPUs. CAPS compilers use hardware vendors' backends such as NVIDIA CUDA and OpenCL making them the only OpenACC compilers supporting various many-core architectures. About the speaker Stéphane Bihan is co-funder and currently Director of Sales and Marketing at CAPS enterprise. He has held several R&D positions in companies such as ARC international plc in London, Canon Research Center France, ACE compiler experts in Amsterdam and the INRIA r...

  13. 日粮α-亚麻酸水平对断奶至2月龄肉兔生长性能、脂肪酸构成及肝脏相关基因mRNA表达的影响%Effects of α-linolenic Acid in Diets on Growth Performance, Fatty Acids Composition of Tissues and ACC and CPTI mRNA Expression of Liver

    杜海涛; 王春阳; 王雪鹏; 麻名文; 李福昌


    本研究探讨了日粮α-亚麻酸(ALA)水平对断奶至2月龄生长肉兔生长性能、血脂、肝脏和肌肉脂肪酸构成及肝脏乙酰辅酶A羧化酶(ACC)和肉碱脂酰转移酶1(CPTl)mRNA表达量的影响.选用断奶体质量无显著差异的生长肉兔200只,随机分成5组,每组40只,分别饲喂不同ALA添加量(0、0.1%、0.2%、0.3%、0.4%)的饲粮.预试7 d,正试23 d.结果表明:日粮ALA水平对平均日采食量(ADI、日增体质量(ADG)、料重比(F/G)和屠宰率影响显著(P<0.05).日粮ALA水平极显著降低血清甘油三酯(TG)(P=0.001 2)、胆固醇(P=0.005 6)和低密度脂蛋白(LDL)水平(P=0.000 4),对血清高密度脂蛋白(HDL)影响不显著(P=0.217 7);日粮ALA水平对肝脏和背最长肌饱和脂肪酸(SPA)影响不显著(P>0.05),但能显著降低肝脏和背最长肌单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)的相对含量(P<0.05),显著提高肝脏和背最长肌多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)(P<0.05)和n-3系列PUFA的相对含量(P<0.000 1);极显著降低n-6/n-3比例(P<0.01),各处理组n-6系列PUFA相对含量差异不显著(P>0.05).日粮ALA水平对肝脏ACC和CPTl基因mRNA表达量的影响均极显著(P=0.000 2,P=0.000 1).从生长性能、组织脂肪酸构成和肉质等多方面考虑,断奶至2月龄生长肉兔饲粮中可添加0.2%的亚麻酸以生产富含n-3PUFA的功能性兔肉产品.%The experiment was conducted to study the effects of α-linolenic acid (ALA) on growth performance, blood lipids, liver and muscle fatty acid composition and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine acyl transferase 1 (CPT1) mRNA expression in liver from weaning to 2month-growing meat rabbits. Two hundred 1-month-old meat rabbits were randomly assigned to 5 groups with 40 replicates in each group and each replicate contained 1 rabbit. Rabbits in 5 groups were fed basal diet with 0, 0. 1% , 0. 2%, 0. 3% and 0. 4% ALA, respectively. The trial lasted for 7 days for adaptation, and 23 days

  14. Expression of genes responsible for ethylene production and wilting are differently regulated in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) petals.

    Kosugi; Shibuya; Tsuruno; Iwazaki; Mochizuki; Yoshioka; Hashiba; Satoh


    Carnation petals exhibit autocatalytic ethylene production and wilting during senescence. The autocatalytic ethylene production is caused by the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase genes, whereas the wilting of petals is related to the expression of the cysteine proteinase (CPase) gene. So far, it has been believed that the ethylene production and wilting are regulated in concert in senescing carnation petals, since the two events occurred closely in parallel with time. In the present study, we investigated the expression of these genes in petals of a transgenic carnation harboring a sense ACC oxidase transgene and in petals of carnation flowers treated with 1,1-dimethyl-4-(phenylsulfonyl)semicarbazide (DPSS). In petals of the transgenic carnation flowers, treatment with exogenous ethylene caused accumulation of the transcript for CPase and in-rolling (wilting), whereas it caused no or little accumulation of the transcripts for ACC oxidase and ACC synthase and negligible ethylene production. In petals of the flowers treated with DPSS, the transcripts for ACC synthase and ACC oxidase were accumulated, but no significant change in the level of the transcript for CPase was observed. These results suggest that the expression of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase genes, which leads to ethylene production, is differentially regulated from the expression of CPase, which leads to wilting, in carnation petals.

  15. The effect of electric field on callus induction with rape hypocotyls

    Filek, M.; Holda, M. [Inst. of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); Machackova, I.; Krekule, J. [Inst. of Experimental Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Praha (Czech Republic)


    The influence of electric field treatment on dedifferentiation and calli formation on rape hypocotyls was investigated. Segments, 10 mm long, of the upper part of rape (Brassica napus L., cv. Gorcza{delta}ski) hypocotyls were stimulated by different combinations of voltage/time (1.5 V/120 h, 3 V/3 h, 10 V/15 min and 30 V/30 s) under in vitro conditions. With all electric field treatments, segments oriented with their apical part towards the cathode produced more calli as compared to control (non-treated with electric field). Under opposite orientation slight inhibition of callus growth was observed. As the strongest effect on callus growth was observed after treatment with 30 V/30 s, this electric field treatment was selected for following analyses: the incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and [{sup 14}C]-BAP (benzylaminopurine) from the culture medium, changes in ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) level and the redox activity in apical and bottom parts of hypocotyls during 18 d of culture. In contrast to changes in fresh weight, electric field treatment (30 V/30 s) stimulated a higher accumulation of 2,4-D and BAP in basal parts of hypocotyls than in apical ones. Moreover, orienting the apical part towards the cathode resulted in lower uptake of hormones as compared with the opposite orientation. The ACC concentration increased, especially in the basal parts of hypocotyls, independently on electric field application. However, the highest level was observed after electric field treatment with orientation of the apical part towards the anode. The distribution of oxidative substances (measured as the amount of ferric ions) between the apical and bottom part of hypocotyls was not changed when the apical parts were oriented towards the cathode. Under these conditions a decrease in apical and an increase in basal parts was observed during culture. Opposite orientation influenced the redistribution of oxidative substances from the

  16. Review of Key Clinical Trails ACC 2008%ACC 2008年重要临床试验回顾



    @@ 在2008年第57届美国心脏病学会(ACC)年会上,众多对临床有着深远影响的大型研究结果问世.ACC主席W.Douglas Weaver教授也在第十九届长城会上总结了2008年美国心血管临床领域的重要临床试验成果.

  17. IPMACC: Open Source OpenACC to CUDA/OpenCL Translator

    Lashgar, Ahmad; Majidi, Alireza; Baniasadi, Amirali


    In this paper we introduce IPMACC, a framework for translating OpenACC applications to CUDA or OpenCL. IPMACC is composed of set of translators translating OpenACC for C applications to CUDA or OpenCL. The framework uses the system compiler (e.g. nvcc) for generating final accelerator's binary. The framework can be used for extending the OpenACC API, executing OpenACC applications, or obtaining CUDA or OpenCL code which is equivalent to OpenACC code. We verify correctness of our framework und...

  18. Reward salience and risk aversion underlie differential ACC activity in substance dependence

    William H. Alexander


    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex, especially the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, has long been implicated in cognitive control and error processing. Although the association between ACC and behavior has been established, it is less clear how ACC contributes to dysfunctional behavior such as substance dependence. Evidence from neuroimaging studies investigating ACC function in substance users is mixed, with some studies showing disengagement of ACC in substance dependent individuals (SDs, while others show increased ACC activity related to substance use. In this study, we investigate ACC function in SDs and healthy individuals performing a change signal task for monetary rewards. Using a priori predictions derived from a recent computational model of ACC, we find that ACC activity differs between SDs and controls in factors related to reward salience and risk aversion between SDs and healthy individuals. Quantitative fits of a computational model to fMRI data reveal significant differences in best fit parameters for reward salience and risk preferences. Specifically, the ACC in SDs shows greater risk aversion, defined as concavity in the utility function, and greater attention to rewards relative to reward omission. Furthermore, across participants risk aversion and reward salience are positively correlated. The results clarify the role that ACC plays in both the reduced sensitivity to omitted rewards and greater reward valuation in SDs. Clinical implications of applying computational modeling in psychiatry are also discussed.

  19. Enhanced flux of substrates into polyamine biosynthesis but not ethylene in tomato fruit engineered with yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene.

    Lasanajak, Yi; Minocha, Rakesh; Minocha, Subhash C; Goyal, Ravinder; Fatima, Tahira; Handa, Avtar K; Mattoo, Autar K


    S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a major substrate in 1-C metabolism is a common precursor in the biosynthetic pathways of polyamines and ethylene, two important plant growth regulators, which exhibit opposing developmental effects, especially during fruit ripening. However, the flux of various substrates including SAM into the two competing pathways in plants has not yet been characterized. We used radiolabeled (14)C-Arg, (14)C-Orn, L-[U-(14)C]Met, (14)C-SAM and (14)C-Put to quantify flux through these pathways in tomato fruit and evaluate the effects of perturbing these pathways via transgenic expression of a yeast SAM decarboxylase (ySAMDC) gene using the fruit ripening-specific promoter E8. We show that polyamines in tomato fruit are synthesized both from Arg and Orn; however, the relative contribution of Orn pathway declines in the later stages of ripening. Expression of ySAMDC reversed the ripening associated decline in spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) levels observed in the azygous control fruit. About 2- to 3-fold higher levels of labeled-Spd in transgenic fruit (556HO and 579HO lines) expressing ySAMDC confirmed the enzymatic function of the introduced gene. The incorporation of L-[U-(14)C]Met into Spd, Spm, ethylene and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) was used to determine Met-flux into these metabolites. The incorporation of (14)C-Met into Spd/Spm declined during ripening of the control azygous fruit but this was reversed in fruits expressing ySAMDC. However, incorporation of (14)C-Met into ethylene or ACC during ripening was not altered by the expression of ySAMDC in the fruit. Taken together these results show that: (1) There is an inverse relationship between the production of higher polyamines and ethylene during fruit ripening, (2) the inverse relationship between higher polyamines and ethylene is modulated by ySAMDC expression in that the decline in Spd/Spm during fruit ripening can be reversed without significantly altering ethylene

  20. Hormonal and metabolic regulation of tomato fruit sink activity and yield under salinity.

    Albacete, Alfonso; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Balibrea, María E; Großkinsky, Dominik K; de la Cruz González, María; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Smigocki, Ann C; Roitsch, Thomas; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco


    Salinization of water and soil has a negative impact on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) productivity by reducing growth of sink organs and by inducing senescence in source leaves. It has been hypothesized that yield stability implies the maintenance or increase of sink activity in the reproductive structures, thus contributing to the transport of assimilates from the source leaves through changes in sucrolytic enzymes and their regulation by phytohormones. In this study, classical and functional physiological approaches have been integrated to study the influence of metabolic and hormonal factors on tomato fruit sink activity, growth, and yield: (i) exogenous hormones were applied to plants, and (ii) transgenic plants overexpressing the cell wall invertase (cwInv) gene CIN1 in the fruits and de novo cytokinin (CK) biosynthesis gene IPT in the roots were constructed. Although salinity reduces fruit growth, sink activity, and trans-zeatin (tZ) concentrations, it increases the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) during the actively growing period (25 days after anthesis). Indeed, exogenous application of the CK analogue kinetin to salinized actively growing fruits recovered sucrolytic activities (mainly cwInv and sucrose synthase), sink strength, and fruit weight, whereas the ethylene-releasing compound ethephon had a negative effect in equivalent non-stressed fruits. Fruit yield was increased by both the constitutive expression of CIN1 in the fruits (up to 4-fold) or IPT in the root (up to 30%), owing to an increase in the fruit number (lower flower abortion) and in fruit weight. This is possibly related to a recovery of sink activity in reproductive tissues due to both (i) increase in sucrolytic activities (cwInv, sucrose synthase, and vacuolar and cytoplasmic invertases) and tZ concentration, and (ii) a decrease in the ACC levels and the activity of the invertase inhibitor. This study provides new functional evidences about the role of

  1. Role of Ethylene in Ochratoxin A(OTA) Toxicity to Arabidopsis thaliana%乙烯在赭曲霉毒素A(OTA)诱导的拟南芥毒性中的作用

    郝俊冉; 彭晓丽; 许文涛; 吕杨俊; 翟亚楠; 黄昆仑


    赭曲霉毒素A(ochratoxin A,OTA)是毒性最强的真菌毒素之一,具有较强的动物毒性和植物毒性.乙烯(ethylene,ETH)作为植物激素能够调节植物生长、发育、响应生物及非生物胁迫的多个环节,但是乙烯在OTA诱导的拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)植物毒性中的作用尚不清楚.本研究利用气相色谱测定了OTA处理下拟南芥叶片乙烯和乙烯前体氨基环丙烷羧酸(1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid,ACC)含量的变化.结果显示,OTA胁迫促进了ETH和ACC含量的上升;通过实时荧光定量PCR检测到OTA能诱导ETH合成限速酶——ACC合成酶(ACC synthase,ACS)基因ACS6的表达,且这种诱导作用与OTA的胁迫时间有关;ACC和乙烯作用抑制剂(AgNO3)分别与OTA作用处理拟南芥叶片后,观察到ACC能加重OTA引起的叶片坏死斑,增加相对电导率和活性氧含量,加剧OTA对叶片的伤害,而AgNO3则引起相反的作用效果,缓解OTA引起的植物损伤.本研究结果表明,乙烯参与了OTA诱导拟南芥毒性的过程,并且乙烯在拟南芥响应OTA胁迫中可能起到负调控的作用.本研究初步明确了乙烯在OTA诱导的拟南芥毒性中的作用与部分机理,为深入研究OTA植物毒性致毒机理提供了基础资料.

  2. 嗜碱单胞菌的新型羧基转移酶α亚基基因Aa-accA及其抗盐碱性能%A novel gene (Aa-accA) encoding acetyl-CoA carboxyltransferase α-subunit of Alkalimonas amylolytica N10 enhances salt and alkali tolerance of Escherichia coli and tobacco BY-2 cells

    羡明杰; 翟磊; 仲乃琴; 马祎玮; 薛燕芬; 马延和


    [Objective] Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) catalyzes the first step of fatty acid synthesis.In most bacteria,ACC is composed of four subunits encoded by accA,accB,accC,and accD.Of them,accA encodes acetyl-CoA carboxyltransferase α-subunit.Our prior work on proteomics of Alkalimonas amylolytica N10 showed that the expression of the Aa-accA has a remarkable response to salt and alkali stress.This research aimed to find out the Aa-accA gene contributing to salt and alkali tolerance.[Methods] The Aa-accA was amplified by PCR from A.amylolytica N10 and expressed in E.coli K12 host.The effects of Aa-accA expression on the growth of transgenic strains were examined under different NaC1 concentration and pH conditions.Transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells harboring Aa-accA were also generated via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.The viability of BY-2 cells was determined with FDA staining method after salt and alkali shock.[Results] The Aa-accA gene product has 318 amino acids and is homologous to the carboxyl transferase domain of acyl-CoA carboxylases.It showed 76% identity with AccA (acetyl-CoA carboxylase carboxyltransferase subunit alpha) from E.coli.Compared to the wild-type strains,transgenic E.coli K12 strain containing Aa-accA showed remarkable growth superiority when grown in increased NaCl concentrations and pH levels.The final cell density of the transgenic strains was 2.6 and 3.5 times higher than that of the control type when they were cultivated in LB medium containing 6% (W/V) NaCl and at pH 9,respectively.Complementary expression of Aa-accA in an accA-depletion E.coli can recover the tolerance of K12△accA to salt and alkali stresses to some extent.Similar to the transgenic E.coli,transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells showed higher percentages of viability compared to the wild BY-2 cells under the salt or alkali stress condition.[Conclusion] We found that Aa-accA from A.amylolytica N10 overexpression enhances the tolerance of both transgenic E.coli and tobacco BY-2

  3. The Studies of the Reactions of 2, 4, 6-Triphenylpyrylium Tetrafluoroborate with Amino Acids

    Shrong Shi LIN; Xian Jing KONG; Jing Yuan LIU; Cheng Yong LI


    The reactions of triphenylpyrylium salt 1 with various amino acids were explored andcompared. The reactions with most α-amino acids yielded decarboxylation products 2 viadecarboxylation. The reactions with glutamic acid, lysine and ACC (1-aminocyclopropyl-carboxylic acid) gave triphenylpyridine 8, dimer 9 and acid 5a-acc, respectively. The reactionswith β and γ-amino acids yielded triphenylpyridine by intramolecular elimination.

  4. Further studies of auxin and ACC induced feminization in the cucumber plant using ethylene inhibitors

    Takahashi, H.; Jaffe, M. J.


    The present study was designed to establish the role of an essential hormone controlling sex expression in cucumber. A potent anti-ethylene agent, AgNO3, completely inhibited pistillate flower formation caused by IAA, ACC or ethephon. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, AVG and CoCl2 also suppressed feminization due to exogenous IAA or ACC. Though AVG also suppressed ethephon-induced feminization, this may be due to the second effect of AVG rather than the effect on ACC biosynthesis. These results confirm that ethylene is a major factor regulating feminization and that exogenous auxin induces pistillate flower formation through its stimulation of ethylene production, rather than ACC production.

  5. Ethylene evolution and endo-beta-mannanase activity during lettuce seed germination at high temperature Evolução de etileno e atividade da enzima endo-beta-mananase durante a germinação de sementes de alface sob altas temperaturas

    Warley Marcos Nascimento


    Full Text Available High temperatures during lettuce seed imbibition can delay or completely inhibit germination and the endosperm layer appears to restrict the radicle protrusion. The role of endo-beta-mannanase during lettuce seed germination at 35°C and the influence of ethylene in endo-beta-mannanase regulation were investigated. Seeds of 'Dark Green Boston' (DGB and 'Everglades' (EVE were germinated in water, or 10 mmol L-1 of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, or 10 mmol L-1 of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, or 20 mmol L-1 of silver thiosulphate (STS. Seeds were also primed in polyethylene glycol (PEG, or PEG + ACC, PEG + AVG, or PEG + STS. Untreated seeds germinated 100% at 20°C. At 35°C, EVE seeds germinated 100%, whereas DGB seeds germinated only 33%. Seed priming or adding ACC during incubation increased germination at 35°C. Higher ethylene evolution was detected in EVE than in DGB during germination at 35°C. AVG did not inhibit seed germination of DGB at 35°C, but STS did. Higher endo-beta-mannanase activity was observed in EVE compared with DGB seeds. Providing ACC either during priming or during germination increased endo-beta-mannanase activity, whereas AVG and STS led to decreased or no activity. Ethylene may overcome the inhibitory effect of high temperature in thermosensitive lettuce seeds due to increased endo-beta-mannanase, possibly leading to weakening of the endosperm.Altas temperaturas durante a embebição das sementes de alface podem atrasar ou inibir a germinação e o endosperma parece ser o responsável na restrição da protrusão da radícula. O envolvimento da enzima endo-beta-mananase durante a germinação de sementes de alface a 35°C e a influência do etileno na regulagem desta enzima foram estudados. Sementes das cultivares Dark Green Boston (DGB e Everglades (EVE foram germinadas em água ou em soluções de 10 mmol L-1 de 1-aminociclopropano-1-ácido carboxilico (ACC, 10 mmol L-1 de amino-etoxi-vinil-glicina (AVG

  6. 24 CFR 882.805 - HA application process, ACC execution, and pre-rehabilitation activities.


    .... (4) The owner is responsible for selecting a competent contractor to undertake the rehabilitation...; (ii) Assure that the owner has selected a contractor in accordance with paragraph (c)(4) of this... ACC for an additional 10 years. (3) Section 882.403(a) (Maximum Total ACC Commitments) applies to...

  7. Driver behavior analysis during ACC activation and deactivation in a real traffic environment

    Pauwelussen, J.; Feenstra, P.J.


    For the development of a traffic-simulation model to estimate the effect of adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems on traffic safety, throughput, and environment, data of a field operational test (FOT) were analyzed, in which vehicles were equipped with ACC and lane-departure warning (LDW) systems. T

  8. ACCE/ACS National Educator and Leader of the Year Winners: AEC Congratulates These Outstanding Educators

    Australian Educational Computing, 2012


    This article presents the ACCE/ACS National Educator and Leader of the Year winners. Anne Mirtschin is the recipient of the ACCE/ACS 2012 Educator of the Year Award. Mirtschin is an innovative teacher at Hawkesdale P-12 College a small rural school that is isolated culturally and geographically. She uses online tools and technology to create…

  9. Crystallization of recombinant 1-amino cyclo propane-1-carboxylate (Acc) oxidase

    Watanabe, L.; Arni, R.K. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Dilley, D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biophysics


    Full text. Ethylene is an important harmone in plant biology because it activates gene expression with consequences at all phases of plant growth and development spanning seed germination to fruit ripening and senesense of plant organs. In climacteric fruits, the sharp increase in ethylene production at the onset of ripening is throught to trigger the changes in colour, aroma, texture and flavour. The final step in ethylene biosynthesis is catalyzed by ACC oxidase. Biothechnological methods have been used to inhibit ethylene biosynthesis and ripening in tomato by down-regulating ACC synthase and ACC oxidase gene expression using the antisense RNA strategy. A similar goal has been achieved by overexpressing a bacterial ACC deaminase or a viral-S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase gene, which reduces the availability of the ethylene precursors., ACC and S-adenosylmethionine, respectively. C0{sub 2} at concentrations commonly found in the intracellular space of plant tissues is required to active ACC oxidase to produce ethylene and can elevate enzyme activity 20-fold in a concentration dependent manner. Consequently, the intracellular ethylene level is modulated from low inactive levels when C0{sub 2} is not limiting and this may alter gene expression. ACC oxidase undergoes catalytic inactivation as the reaction to make ethylene procedes and this too may involve CO{sub 2}. It has been suggested that CO{sub 2}acts as a modulator of ACC oxidase activity and therby helps regulate ethylene levels in the cell and thus may explain many ethylene related phenomena in plant biology. CO{sub 2} is know to affect O{sub 2} binding in hemoglobin and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco). Catalytic inactivation is a common phenomena in enzyme turnover, ACC oxidase is a Fe{sup +2}/ascorbate requiring enzyme and this makes it a prime candidate for metal ion oxidation-based inactivation. Charentais melon with an antisense ACC oxidase cDNA. A trangenic line exhibits reduction

  10. Transcription of Biotic Stress Associated Genes in White Clover (Trifolium repens L. Differs in Response to Cyst and Root-Knot Nematode Infection.

    Afsana Islam

    Full Text Available The transcription of four members of the Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI gene family of white clover (Trifolium repens L., designated as Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5, was investigated at both local infection (roots and systemic (leaf tissue sites in white clover in response to infection with the clover root knot nematode (CRKN Meloidogyne trifoliophila and the clover cyst nematode (CCN Heterodera trifolii. Invasion by the CRKN resulted in a significant decrease in transcript abundance of Tr-KPI4 locally at both 4 days post-infection (dpi and at 8 dpi, and an increase in transcription of Tr-KPI1 systemically at 8 dpi. In contrast, an increase in transcript abundance of all four Tr-KPI genes locally at 4 and 8 dpi, and an increase of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5 at 8 dpi systemically was observed in response to infection with the CCN. Challenge of a resistant (R genotype and a susceptible (S genotype of white clover with the CCN revealed a significant increase in transcript abundance of all four Tr-KPI genes locally in the R genotype, while an increase in abundance of only Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5 was observed in the S genotype, and only at 4 dpi. The transcript abundance of a member of the1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE (ACC SYNTHASE gene family from white clover (Tr-ACS1 was significantly down-regulated locally in response to CRKN infection at 4 and 8 dpi and at 4 dpi, systemically, while abundance increased locally and systemically at 8 dpi in response to CCN challenge. Conversely, the abundance of the jasmonic acid (JA signalling gene, CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE PROTEIN 1 from white clover (Tr-COI1 increased significantly at 8 dpi locally in response to CRKN infection, but decreased at 8 dpi in response to CCN infection. The significance of this differential regulation of transcription is discussed with respect to differences in infection strategy of the two nematode species.

  11. Effects of Cobalt on Ethylene Production and Senescence of Carnation Flowers

    Fujii, Nobukatsu; Watanabe, Masami; Watanabe, Yukio; Shimada, Noritsugu


    切り花カーネーションにおける, エチレン生成と老化に及ぼすコバルトの影響について検討した.切り花の切り口からEDTAコバルト溶液として処理したコバルトは, エチレン生成を阻害し, 老化を遅らせた.また, エチレン処理は, コバルトの効果を打ち消した.よって, コバルトは, エチレン生成のピークを遅らせることにより, 老化を遅らせたと考えられる.コバルトは, 切断花弁において, エチレン生成を阻害するが, エチレン前駆体である1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)の含量には影響を及ぼさなかったことにより, ACCからエチレンへの変換を阻害するものと考えられた.コバルトは, SH反応試薬であるモノヨード酢酸と同様の傾向で花弁のエチレン生成を阻害した.このことよりコバルトは, 花弁のエチレン生成酵素のSH基と反応してエチレン生成を阻害する可能性があるものと思われた....

  12. Ectopic overexpression of the cell wall invertase gene CIN1 leads to dehydration avoidance in tomato.

    Albacete, Alfonso; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Großkinsky, Dominik K; Arias, Cintia L; Balibrea, María Encarnación; Bru, Roque; Fragner, Lena; Ghanem, Michel E; González, María de la Cruz; Hernández, Jose A; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; van der Graaff, Eric; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Zellnig, Günther; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Roitsch, Thomas


    senescence-delaying hormone trans-zeatin and decreases in the senescence-inducing ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) in the leaves. Thus, cwInv critically functions at the integration point of metabolic, hormonal, and stress signals, providing a novel strategy to overcome drought-induced limitations to crop yield, without negatively affecting plant fitness under optimal growth conditions.

  13. Plant growth-promoting traits of epiphytic and endophytic yeasts isolated from rice and sugar cane leaves in Thailand.

    Nutaratat, Pumin; Srisuk, Nantana; Arunrattiyakorn, Panarat; Limtong, Savitree


    A total of 1035 yeast isolates, obtained from rice and sugar cane leaves, were screened primarily for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. Thirteen isolates were selected, due to their IAA production ranging from 1.2 to 29.3 mg g(-)(1) DCW. These isolates were investigated for their capabilities of calcium phosphate and ZnO(3) solubilisation, and also for production of NH(3), polyamine, and siderophore. Their 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, catalase and fungal cell wall-degrading enzyme activities were assessed. Their antagonism against rice fungal pathogens was also evaluated. Strain identification, based on molecular taxonomy, of the thirteen yeast isolates revealed that four yeast species - i.e. Hannaella sinensis (DMKU-RP45), Cryptococcus flavus (DMKU-RE12, DMKU-RE19, DMKU-RE67, and DMKU-RP128), Rhodosporidium paludigenum (DMKU-RP301) and Torulaspora globosa (DMKU-RP31) - were capable of high IAA production. Catalase activity was detected in all yeast strains tested. The yeast R. paludigenum DMKU-RP301 was the best IAA producer, yielding 29.3 mg g(-)(1) DCW, and showed the ability to produce NH3 and siderophore. Different levels of IAA production (7.2-9.7 mg g(-)(1) DCW) were found in four strains of C. flavus DMKU-RE12, DMKU-RE19, and DMKU-RE67, which are rice leaf endophytes, and strain DMKU-RP128, which is a rice leaf epiphyte. NH(3) production and carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) activity was also detected in these four strains. Antagonism to fungal plant pathogens and production of antifungal volatile compounds were exhibited in T. globosa DMKU-RP31, as well as a moderate level of IAA production (4.9 mg g(-)(1) DCW). The overall results indicated that T. globosa DMKU-RP31 might be used in two ways: enhancing plant growth and acting as a biocontrol agent. In addition, four C. flavus were also found to be strains of interest for optimal IAA production.

  14. The glossyhead1 allele of acc1 reveals a principal role for multidomain acetyl-coenzyme a carboxylase in the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes by Arabidopsis

    Lu, Shiyou


    A novel mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), having highly glossy inflorescence stems, postgenital fusion in floral organs, and reduced fertility, was isolated from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population and designated glossyhead1 (gsd1). The gsd1 locus was mapped to chromosome 1, and the causal gene was identified as a new allele of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase1 (ACC1), a gene encoding the main enzyme in cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A synthesis. This, to our knowledge, is the first mutant allele of ACC1 that does not cause lethality at the seed or early germination stage, allowing for the first time a detailed analysis of ACC1 function in mature tissues. Broad lipid profiling of mature gsd1 organs revealed a primary role for ACC1 in the biosynthesis of the very-long-chain fatty acids (C 20:0 or longer) associated with cuticular waxes and triacylglycerols. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analysis revealed that gsd1 has limited impact on any lipid metabolic networks but instead has a large effect on environmental stress-responsive pathways, especially senescence and ethylene synthesis determinants, indicating a possible role for the cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A-derived lipids in stress response signaling. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Astronomical Image Compression Techniques Based on ACC and KLT Coder

    J. Schindler


    Full Text Available This paper deals with a compression of image data in applications in astronomy. Astronomical images have typical specific properties — high grayscale bit depth, size, noise occurrence and special processing algorithms. They belong to the class of scientific images. Their processing and compression is quite different from the classical approach of multimedia image processing. The database of images from BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System has been chosen as a source of the testing signal. BOOTES is a Czech-Spanish robotic telescope for observing AGN (active galactic nuclei and the optical transient of GRB (gamma ray bursts searching. This paper discusses an approach based on an analysis of statistical properties of image data. A comparison of two irrelevancy reduction methods is presented from a scientific (astrometric and photometric point of view. The first method is based on a statistical approach, using the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT with uniform quantization in the spectral domain. The second technique is derived from wavelet decomposition with adaptive selection of used prediction coefficients. Finally, the comparison of three redundancy reduction methods is discussed. Multimedia format JPEG2000 and HCOMPRESS, designed especially for astronomical images, are compared with the new Astronomical Context Coder (ACC coder based on adaptive median regression.

  16. Chondrogenic potential of canine articular cartilage derived cells (cACCs

    Nowak Urszula


    Full Text Available In the present paper, the potential of canine articular cartilage-derived cells (cACCs for chondrogenic differentiation was evaluated. The effectiveness of cACCs’ lineage commitment was analyzed after 14 days of culture in chondorgenic and non-chondrogenic conditions. Formation of proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix was assessed using histochemical staining – Alcian Blue and Safranin-O, while elemental composition was determined by means of SEM-EDX. Additionally, ultrastructure of cACCs was evaluated using TEM. The expression of genes involved in chondrogenesis was monitored with quantitative Real Time PCR. Results obtained indicate that the potential of cACCs for cartilagous extracellular matrix formation may be maintained only in chondrogenic cultures. The formation of specific chondro-nodules was not observed in a non-chondrogenic culture environment. The analysis of cACCs’ ultrastructure, both in non-chondrogenic and chondrogenic cultures, revealed well-developed rough endoplasmatic reticulum and presence of mitochondria. The cACCs in chondrogenic medium shed an increased number of microvesicles. Furthermore, it was shown that the extracellular matrix of cACCs in chondrogenic cultures is rich in potassium and molybdenum. Additionally, it was determined that gene expression of collagen type II, aggrecan and SOX-9 was significantly increased during chondrogenic differentiation of cACCs. Results obtained indicate that the culture environment may significantly influence the cartilage phenotype of cACCs during long term culture.

  17. OpenARC: Extensible OpenACC Compiler Framework for Directive-Based Accelerator Programming Study

    Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL


    Directive-based, accelerator programming models such as OpenACC have arisen as an alternative solution to program emerging Scalable Heterogeneous Computing (SHC) platforms. However, the increased complexity in the SHC systems incurs several challenges in terms of portability and productivity. This paper presents an open-sourced OpenACC compiler, called OpenARC, which serves as an extensible research framework to address those issues in the directive-based accelerator programming. This paper explains important design strategies and key compiler transformation techniques needed to implement the reference OpenACC compiler. Moreover, this paper demonstrates the efficacy of OpenARC as a research framework for directive-based programming study, by proposing and implementing OpenACC extensions in the OpenARC framework to 1) support hybrid programming of the unified memory and separate memory and 2) exploit architecture-specific features in an abstract manner. Porting thirteen standard OpenACC programs and three extended OpenACC programs to CUDA GPUs shows that OpenARC performs similarly to a commercial OpenACC compiler, while it serves as a high-level research framework.

  18. Norlittorine and norhyoscyamine identified as products of littorine and hyoscyamine metabolism by (13)C-labeling in Datura innoxia hairy roots.

    Al Balkhi, Mohamad Houssam; Schiltz, Séverine; Lesur, David; Lanoue, Arnaud; Wadouachi, Anne; Boitel-Conti, Michèle


    The presence of two compounds, norlittorine and norhyoscyamine, has been reported in leaves and roots of Datura innoxia; however their metabolic origin in the tropane alkaloid pathway has remained unknown. Precise knowledge of this pathway is a necessary pre-requisite to optimize the production of hyoscyamine and scopolamine in D. innoxia hairy root cultures. The exact structure of norlittorine and norhyoscyamine was confirmed by LC-MS/MS and NMR analyses. Isotopic labeling experiments, using [1-(13)C]-phenylalanine, [1'-(13)C]-littorine and [1'-(13)C]-hyoscyamine, combined with elicitor treatments, using methyl jasmonate, coronalon and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, were used to investigate the metabolic origin of the N-demethylated tropane alkaloids. The results suggest that norlittorine and norhyoscyamine are induced under stress conditions by conversion of littorine and hyoscyamine. We propose the N-demethylation of tropane alkaloids as a mechanism to detoxify cells in overproducing conditions.

  19. Enterobacter asburiae KUNi5, a Nickel Resistant Bacterium for Possible Bioremediation of Nickel Contaminated Sites.

    Paul, Anirudha; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar


    Nickel resistant bacterial strain Enterobacter asburiae KUNi5 was isolated and showed resistance up to 15 mM and could remove Ni optimally better at 37 degrees C and pH 7. Maximum removal was found at initial concentration of 0.5 to 2 mM, however, growth and Ni removal were affected by other heavy metals. Major amount of the metal was accumulated in the membrane fractions and certain negatively charged groups were found responsible for Ni binding. KUNi5 could also produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, indole-acetic acid and siderophore. It seems that KUNi5 could be a possible candidate for Ni detoxification and plant growth promotion in Ni-contaminated field.

  20. Plant growth-promoting traits of yeasts isolated from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of Drosera spatulata Lab.

    Fu, Shih-Feng; Sun, Pei-Feng; Lu, Hsueh-Yu; Wei, Jyuan-Yu; Xiao, Hong-Su; Fang, Wei-Ta; Cheng, Bai-You; Chou, Jui-Yu


    Microorganisms can promote plant growth through direct and indirect mechanisms. Compared with the use of bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi, the use of yeasts as plant growth-promoting (PGP) agents has not been extensively investigated. In this study, yeast isolates from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of the medicinally important plant Drosera spatulata Lab. were assessed for their PGP traits. All isolates were tested for indole-3-acetic acid-, ammonia-, and polyamine-producing abilities, calcium phosphate and zinc oxide solubilizing ability, and catalase activity. Furthermore, the activities of siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, and fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes were assessed. The antagonistic action of yeasts against pathogenic Glomerella cingulata was evaluated. The cocultivation of Nicotiana benthamiana with yeast isolates enhanced plant growth, indicating a potential yeast-plant interaction. Our study results highlight the potential use of yeasts as plant biofertilizers under controlled and field conditions.

  1. Report of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) Scientific Sessions 2016, Chicago.

    Mano, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro


    The 65(th)Annual Scientific Sessions of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) were held at McCormick Place, Chicago, from April 2-4, 2016. The ACC Scientific Sessions are one of the 2 major scientific cardiology meetings in the USA and one of the major scientific meetings of cardiology in the world. It had an attendance of 18,769 and over 2,000 oral and poster abstracts, including 8 late-breaking clinical trials. This report presents the key presentations and the highlights from the ACC Scientific Sessions 2016 in Chicago. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1308-1313).

  2. Dualization of non-abelian lattice gauge theory with Abelian Color Cycles (ACC)

    Marchis, Carlotta


    We discuss a new approach to strong coupling expansion and dual representations for non-abelian lattice gauge theories. The Wilson gauge action is decomposed into a sum over "abelian color cycles" (ACC), which are loops around plaquettes visiting different colors at the corners. ACCs are complex numbers and thus commute such that a dual representation of a non-abelian theory can be obtained as in the abelian case. We apply the ACC approach to SU(2) and SU(3) lattice gauge theory and exactly rewrite the two partition sums in a strong coupling series where all gauge integrals are known in closed form.

  3. Report of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) Scientific Sessions 2015, San Diego.

    Murohara, Toyoaki


    The 64th Annual Scientific Sessions and Exposition of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) were held at the San Diego Convention Center from March 14-16, 2015. The ACC Scientific Sessions are 1 of 2 major scientific cardiology meetings in the United States, with nearly 20,000 attendees, including 15,000 cardiovascular professionals. There were over 2,100 oral and poster abstracts, and more than 15 late-breaking clinical trials (LBCTs) abstructs. This report presents the highlights and several key presentations, especially the LBCTs, from the ACC Scientific Sessions 2015. I hope this review will help cardiologists update to the latest information.

  4. IMPACC: A Tightly Integrated MPI+OpenACC Framework Exploiting Shared Memory Parallelism

    Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL


    We propose IMPACC, an MPI+OpenACC framework for heterogeneous accelerator clusters. IMPACC tightly integrates MPI and OpenACC, while exploiting the shared memory parallelism in the target system. IMPACC dynamically adapts the input MPI+OpenACC applications on the target heterogeneous accelerator clusters to fully exploit target system-specific features. IMPACC provides the programmers with the unified virtual address space, automatic NUMA-friendly task-device mapping, efficient integrated communication routines, seamless streamlining of asynchronous executions, and transparent memory sharing. We have implemented IMPACC and evaluated its performance using three heterogeneous accelerator systems, including Titan supercomputer. Results show that IMPACC can achieve easier programming, higher performance, and better scalability than the current MPI+OpenACC model.


    S. J. Martsevich


    The ACC/AHA clopidogrel clinical alert about the possibility of ineffective treatment with clopidogrel is discussed. The reason of this resistance to clopidogrel therapy and possible ways to overcome it is considered.

  6. Two distinct plastid genome configurations and unprecedented intraspecies length variation in the accD coding region in Medicago truncatula.

    Gurdon, Csanad; Maliga, Pal


    We fully sequenced four and partially sequenced six additional plastid genomes of the model legume Medicago truncatula. Three accessions, Jemalong 2HA, Borung and Paraggio, belong to ssp. truncatula, and R108 to ssp. tricycla. We report here that the R108 ptDNA has a ~45-kb inversion compared with the ptDNA in ssp. truncatula, mediated by a short, imperfect repeat. DNA gel blot analyses of seven additional ssp. tricycla accessions detected only one of the two alternative genome arrangements, represented by three and four accessions each. Furthermore, we found a variable number of repeats in the essential accD and ycf1 coding regions. The repeats within accD are recombinationally active, yielding variable-length insertions and deletions in the central part of the coding region. The length of ACCD was distinct in each of the 10 sequenced ecotypes, ranging between 650 and 796 amino acids. The repeats in the ycf1 coding region are also recombinationally active, yielding short indels in 10 regions of the reading frames. Thus, the plastid genome variability we report here could be linked to repeat-mediated genome rearrangements. However, the rate of recombination was sufficiently low, so that no heterogeneity of ptDNA could be observed in populations maintained by single-seed descent.

  7. Jam-avoiding adaptive cruise control (ACC) and its impact on traffic dynamics

    Kesting, A; Kranke, F; Sch"onhof, M; Treiber, M; Helbing, Dirk; Kesting, Arne; Kranke, Florian; Sch\\"onhof, Martin; Treiber, Martin


    Adaptive-Cruise Control (ACC) automatically accelerates or decelerates a vehicle to maintain a selected time gap, to reach a desired velocity, or to prevent a rear-end collision. To this end, the ACC sensors detect and track the vehicle ahead for measuring the actual distance and speed difference. Together with the own velocity, these input variables are exactly the same as in car-following models. The focus of this contribution is: What will be the impact of a spreading of ACC systems on the traffic dynamics? Do automated driving strategies have the potential to improve the capacity and stability of traffic flow or will they necessarily increase the heterogeneity and instability? How does the result depend on the ACC equipment level? We discuss microscopic modeling aspects for human and automated (ACC) driving. By means of microscopic traffic simulations, we study how a variable percentage of ACC-equipped vehicles influences the stability of traffic flow, the maximum flow under free traffic conditions until ...

  8. Abundance and diversity of archaeal accA gene in hot springs in Yunnan Province, China.

    Song, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Li; Wang, Feng-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Chen, Jin-Quan; Zhou, En-Min; Liang, Feng; Xiao, Xiang; Li, Wen-Jun


    It has been suggested that archaea carrying the accA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of the acetyl CoA carboxylase, autotrophically fix CO2 using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway in low-temperature environments (e.g., soils, oceans). However, little new information has come to light regarding the occurrence of archaeal accA genes in high-temperature ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the abundance and diversity of archaeal accA gene in hot springs in Yunnan Province, China, using DNA- and RNA-based phylogenetic analyses and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that archaeal accA genes were present and expressed in the investigated Yunnan hot springs with a wide range of temperatures (66-96 °C) and pH (4.3-9.0). The majority of the amplified archaeal accA gene sequences were affiliated with the ThAOA/HWCG III [thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA)/hot water crenarchaeotic group III]. The archaeal accA gene abundance was very close to that of AOA amoA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. These data suggest that AOA in terrestrial hot springs might acquire energy from ammonia oxidation coupled with CO2 fixation using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway.

  9. Isolation and characterization of novel plant growth promoting Micrococcus sp NII-0909 and its interaction with cowpea

    Dastager, S.G.; Deepa, C.K.; Pandey, A.

    , and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The strain exhibited the plant growthpromoting attributes of phosphate solubilization, auxin production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity, and siderophore production. It was able to solubilize (122.4 mg...

  10. OpenACC to FPGA: A Framework for Directive-based High-Performance Reconfigurable Computing

    Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL


    This paper presents a directive-based, high-level programming framework for high-performance reconfigurable computing. It takes a standard, portable OpenACC C program as input and generates a hardware configuration file for execution on FPGAs. We implemented this prototype system using our open-source OpenARC compiler; it performs source-to-source translation and optimization of the input OpenACC program into an OpenCL code, which is further compiled into a FPGA program by the backend Altera Offline OpenCL compiler. Internally, the design of OpenARC uses a high- level intermediate representation that separates concerns of program representation from underlying architectures, which facilitates portability of OpenARC. In fact, this design allowed us to create the OpenACC-to-FPGA translation framework with minimal extensions to our existing system. In addition, we show that our proposed FPGA-specific compiler optimizations and novel OpenACC pragma extensions assist the compiler in generating more efficient FPGA hardware configuration files. Our empirical evaluation on an Altera Stratix V FPGA with eight OpenACC benchmarks demonstrate the benefits of our strategy. To demonstrate the portability of OpenARC, we show results for the same benchmarks executing on other heterogeneous platforms, including NVIDIA GPUs, AMD GPUs, and Intel Xeon Phis. This initial evidence helps support the goal of using a directive-based, high-level programming strategy for performance portability across heterogeneous HPC architectures.

  11. Fertilizer-dependent efficiency of Pseudomonads for improving growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Shaharoona, Baby; Naveed, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Zahir, Zahir A


    Acquisition of nutrients by plants is primarily dependent on root growth and bioavailability of nutrients in the rooting medium. Most of the beneficial bacteria enhance root growth, but their effectiveness could be influenced by the nutrient status around the roots. In this study, two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase containing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. fluorescens biotype F were tested for their effect on growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat under simultaneously varying levels of all the three major nutrients N, P, and K (at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of recommended doses). Results of pot and field trials revealed that the efficacy of these strains for improving growth and yield of wheat reduced with the increasing rates of NPK added to the soil. In most of the cases, significant negative linear correlations were recorded between percentage increases in growth and yield parameters of wheat caused by inoculation and increasing levels of applied NPK fertilizers. It is highly likely that under low fertilizer application, the ACC-deaminase activity of PGPR might have caused reduction in the synthesis of stress (nutrient)-induced inhibitory levels of ethylene in the roots through ACC hydrolysis into NH(3) and alpha-ketobutyrate. The results of this study imply that these Pseudomonads could be employed in combination with appropriate doses of fertilizers for better plant growth and savings of fertilizers.

  12. Investigating the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens UW4 to reduce cadmium stress in Lactuca sativa via an intervention in the ethylene biosynthetic pathway.

    Albano, Lucas J; Macfie, Sheila M


    A typical plant response to any biotic or abiotic stress, including cadmium (Cd), involves increased ethylene synthesis, which causes senescence of the affected plant part. Stressed plants can experience reduced ethylene and improved growth if they are inoculated with bacteria that have the enzyme ACC deaminase, which metabolizes the ethylene precursor ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate). We investigated whether one such bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens UW4, reduces the production of ethylene and improves the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) sown in Cd-contaminated potting material (PRO-MIX® BX). Plants were inoculated with the wild-type P. fluorescens UW4 or a mutant strain that cannot produce ACC deaminase. Cadmium-treated plants contained up to 50 times more Cd than did control plants. In noninoculated plants, Cd induced a 5-fold increase in ethylene concentration. The wild-type bacterium prevented Cd-induced reductions in root biomass but there was no relationship between Cd treatment and ethylene production in inoculated plants. In contrast, when the concentration of ethylene was plotted against the extent of bacterial colonization of the roots, increased colonization with wild-type P. fluorescens UW4 was associated with 20% less ethylene production. Ours is the first study to show that the protective effect of this bacterium is proportional to the quantity of bacteria on the root surface.

  13. Development of ACC system for heavy-duty trucks; Ogata truck yo shakan seigyo kuruzu control no kaihatsu

    Hirayama, S.; Shibata, N. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Okata, H.; Matsuoka, K. [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    This paper presents ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) system for heavy duty trucks which is now on the market. The ACC system consists of the distance warning system with a scanning laser radar device and the conventional cruise control system. The ACC is carefully tuned taking the characteristics of heavy-duty trucks into consideration. That has made it possible to achieve lower degree of driver`s fatigue as well as higher ride comfort and easier driving. (author)

  14. Bidirectional modulation of hyperalgesia via the specific control of excitatory and inhibitory neuronal activity in the ACC

    Kang, SukJae Joshua; Kwak, Chuljung; Lee, Jaejyun; Sim, Su-Eon; Shim, Jaehoon; Choi, Taehyuk; Graham L. Collingridge; Zhou, Min; Kaang, B-K


    Neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are assumed to play important roles in the perception of nociceptive signals and the associated emotional responses. However, the neuronal types within the ACC that mediate these functions are poorly understood. In the present study, we used optogenetic techniques to selectively modulate excitatory pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons in the ACC and to assess their ability to modulate peripheral mechanical hypersensitivity in freely movi...

  15. An OpenACC-Based Unified Programming Model for Multi-accelerator Systems

    Kim, Jungwon [ORNL; Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL


    This paper proposes a novel SPMD programming model of OpenACC. Our model integrates the different granularities of parallelism from vector-level parallelism to node-level parallelism into a single, unified model based on OpenACC. It allows programmers to write programs for multiple accelerators using a uniform programming model whether they are in shared or distributed memory systems. We implement a prototype of our model and evaluate its performance with a GPU-based supercomputer using three benchmark applications.

  16. La publication scientifique en ligne et le libre accès. Pourquoi tant de retard ?

    Christine Kosmopoulos


    Full Text Available En octobre 2003, une vingtaine de responsables d'instituts européens de recherche (CNRS, INSERM, Max Plank Institut, ont ratifié à Berlin une Déclaration sur le Libre Accès à la Connaissance en Sciences exactes, Sciences de la vie, Sciences humaines et socialesdans laquelle ils s'engagent à soutenir toutes les initiatives qui s'appuient sur le paradigme du libre accès via Internet. En février 2005, la conférence de Berlin3 qui s'est tenue à Southampton encourage les chercheurs à publier dans...

  17. ''Yeelen Kura'', the new light. 1. the Acces programs in Mali. 2 the Acces approach; ''Yeelen Kura'', nouvelle lumiere. 1. les programmes Acces au Mali. 2. l'approche Acces



    In order to help the developing countries, EDF began in 2001 the Acces program. This program aims at installing in rural area, rentable projects of decentralized electrification. This document presents the economic aspects of the first installation, in Mali. (A.L.B.)

  18. An Analysis of OpenACC Programming Model: Image Processing Algorithms as a Case Study

    M. J. Mišić


    Full Text Available Graphics processing units and similar accelerators have been intensively used in general purpose computations for several years. In the last decade, GPU architecture and organization changed dramatically to support an ever-increasing demand for computing power. Along with changes in hardware, novel programming models have been proposed, such as NVIDIA’s Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA and Open Computing Language (OpenCL by Khronos group. Although numerous commercial and scientific applications have been developed using these two models, they still impose a significant challenge for less experienced users. There are users from various scientific and engineering communities who would like to speed up their applications without the need to deeply understand a low-level programming model and underlying hardware. In 2011, OpenACC programming model was launched. Much like OpenMP for multicore processors, OpenACC is a high-level, directive-based programming model for manycore processors like GPUs. This paper presents an analysis of OpenACC programming model and its applicability in typical domains like image processing. Three, simple image processing algorithms have been implemented for execution on the GPU with OpenACC. The results were compared with their sequential counterparts, and results are briefly discussed.

  19. Le Service Accueil et Contrôle d'Accès

    Ducastel, C


    L'utilisateur qui vient au CERN pour la première fois, est accueilli généralement par les membres du service 'Accueil et Contrôle d'Accès'. Cet utilisateur sera tout d'abord orienté vers un des postes d'hôtesses d'accueil en charge de l'enregistrement et de la délivrance de cartes CERN. Les informations seront saisies et immédiatement disponibles et transmises, via le système AMS, aux équipements de contrôle d'accès et à la Centrale de Surveillance des accès, chargée de la supervision de tout le dispositif de contrôle d'accès au domaine. Ces contrôles aux entrées et accueil des visiteurs individuels sont complétés par des missions de surveillance à l'intérieur du Domaine pour les agents, et par des travaux de gestions de dossiers administratifs (service enregistrement) pour les hôtesses. Un contrat commun assure une uniformité de formation des agents et hôtesses. Ce contrat est assorti d'une clause de Bonus Malus afin de tendre vers une optimisation des performances.

  20. AccesSports: A Model for Adapting Mainstream Sports Activities for Individuals with Visual Impairments.

    Ponchilla, Paul E.


    The AccesSports Model allows professionals with basic knowledge of visual impairments and mainstream sports to analyze any sports activity and design adaptations needed for targets or goals, boundaries, and rules to enable individuals with visual impairments to participate. Suggestions for modifying baseball, table tennis, swim racing, wrestling,…

  1. Citrate effects on amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) structure, stability, and crystallization

    Tobler, Dominique Jeanette; Rodriguez Blanco, Juan Diego; Dideriksen, Knud;


    Understanding the role of citrate in the crystallization kinetics of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is essential to explain the formation mechanisms, stabilities, surface properties, and morphologies of CaCO3 biominerals. It also contributes to deeper insight into fluid-mineral inte...

  2. Analisis Model Peramalan Status Kredit Kendaraan Bermotor pada Astra Credit Companies (ACC Cabang X Periode 2011

    Tomy Gurtama Soemapradja


    variable that significantly to the car loan status at Astra Credit Companies (ACC, and further continue to arrange prediction model of loan status and measure its accuracy level.. The statistic test shows there are 2 independent variables affect to dependent variable significantly, where models accuracy level achieves 100%.

  3. Frontal and rostral anterior cingulate (rACC) theta EEG in depression: implications for treatment outcome?

    Arns, M.W.; Etkin, A.; Hegerl, U.; Williams, L.M.; DeBattista, C.; Palmer, D.M.; Fitzgerald, P.B.; Harris, A.; deBeuss, R.; Gordon, E.


    In major depressive disorder (MDD), elevated theta current density in the rostral anterior cingulate (rACC), as estimated by source localization of scalp-recorded electroencenphalogram (EEG), has been associated with response to antidepressant treatments, whereas elevated frontal theta has been link

  4. Real-time dynamic optical imaging of ACC-M tumor cells killed by HSV-tk/ACV system.

    Xiong, Tao; Li, Yongjin; Li, Zhiyang; Xie, Xiangmo; Lu, Lisha


    HSV-tk/ACV induced and killed human adenoid cystic carcinoma cell (ACC-M) in vivo and in vitro, which were observed through optical imaging and green fluorescence protein (GFP) tagging technique. ACC-M was transfected with TK-GFP, and the single clone cell ACC-M-TK-GFP was selected by G418. With fluorescent stereomicroscope, whole-body fluorescent imaging system and fluorescent microscope, we could observe ACV treated ACC-M-TK-GFP cells in cell level and nude mice. The therapies of tumor were visualized clearly with optical imaging. This study proves that optical imaging is a very good approach for studying the effect of HSV-tk/ACV on the ACC-M tumor cells and decreasing the amount of vessel about tumors cell. Optical imaging will become a visual groundwork for monitoring tumor growth and evaluating in vivo curative effect of antitumor drugs.

  5. Is a cysteine proteinase inhibitor involved in the regulation of petal wilting in senescing carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers?

    Sugawara, Hiroaki; Shibuya, Kenichi; Yoshioka, Toshihito; Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Satoh, Shigeru


    Senescence of carnation petals is accompanied by autocatalytic ethylene production and wilting of the petals; the former is caused by the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase genes and the latter is related to the expression of a cysteine proteinase (CPase) gene. CPase is probably responsible for the degradation of proteins, leading to the decomposition of cell components and resultant cell death during the senescence of petals. The carnation plant also has a gene for the CPase inhibitor (DC-CPIn) that is expressed abundantly in petals at the full opening stage of flowers. In the present study, DC-CPIn cDNA was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant DC-CPIn protein completely inhibited the activities of a proteinase (CPase) extracted from carnation petals and papain. Northern blot analysis showed that the mRNA for CPase (DC-CP1) accumulated in large amounts, whereas that for DC-CPIn disappeared, corresponding to the onset of petal wilting in flowers undergoing natural senescence and exogenous ethylene-induced senescence. Based on these findings, a role of DC-CPIn in the regulation of petal wilting is suggested; DC-CPIn acts as a suppressor of petal wilting, which probably functions to fine-tune petal wilting in contrast to coarse tuning, the up-regulation of CPase activity by gene expression.

  6. Effect of tea polyphenols on ACC-M cell Fas/Fasl expression%茶多酚对ACC-M细胞株Fas、Fasl表达的影响

    李萍; 杨志刚; 文国容; 魏丹; 宋琦


    目的 体外观察茶多酚对肺高转移性腺样囊性癌细胞株(ACC-M)生长、Fas及其配体Fasl表达的影响.方法 (1)采用MTT比色实验法观察茶多酚对ACC-M细胞增殖的影响;(2)用免疫组化(SP法)检测不同浓度茶多酚对ACC-M细胞中Fas及其配体Fasl表达的影响.结果 (1)茶多酚对ACC-M细胞增殖抑制作用明显,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);(2)细胞免疫组化结果显示,加入不同浓度茶多酚后,Fas蛋白在ACC-M细胞中表达增高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),Fasl表达降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且随浓度增加更为明显.结论 茶多酚可影响ACC-M细胞中Fas、Fasl表达,茶多酚具有抑制ACC-M细胞生长的作用可能与此有关.

  7. Analysis of an ACC System for Sliding Mode and MPC under Transitional Manoeuvers

    Zeeshan Ali Memon


    Full Text Available Two different control algorithms, sliding mode and MPC (Model Predictive Control are employed to analyse the performance of a linear vehicle model equipped with an ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control system. Both controllers are analysed under critical TM (Transitional Maneuvers to investigate their suitability for the ACC system. The simulation results, for the same scenario, from both controllers\\' approach have been compared. The results show that the MPC is more robust than the SMC (Sliding Model Controller. The results show that the SMC algorithm is not suitable for the proposed vehicle model. The shortcomings of the SMC have been highlighted and the comparisons are made with the previous studies. The proposed approach can be useful for the selection of the appropriate controller for the given application.

  8. Historic Learning Approach for Auto-tuning OpenACC Accelerated Scientific Applications

    Siddiqui, Shahzeb


    The performance optimization of scientific applications usually requires an in-depth knowledge of the hardware and software. A performance tuning mechanism is suggested to automatically tune OpenACC parameters to adapt to the execution environment on a given system. A historic learning based methodology is suggested to prune the parameter search space for a more efficient auto-tuning process. This approach is applied to tune the OpenACC gang and vector clauses for a better mapping of the compute kernels onto the underlying architecture. Our experiments show a significant performance improvement against the default compiler parameters and drastic reduction in tuning time compared to a brute force search-based approach.

  9. Establishment and Application of UFC-ACC Heat Transfer Coefficient Model

    Tian-Liang Fu; Zhao-Dong Wang; Yong Li; Jia-Dong Li; Guo-Dong Wang


    Based on medium plate runout table ultra-fast cooling ( UFC)-accelerated cooling equipment ( ACC) system, a heat transfer coefficient model was constructed. Firstly, according to the measured data, heat transfer coefficients under different roll speed and water volume were calculated by using an inverse heat conduction method. Secondly, a monofactorial heat transfer coefficient calculation formula was obtained. Finally, the heat transfer coefficient model based on medium plate runout table UFC-ACC system was constructed by intercept function, slope function, interaction influence function and linear or nonlinear influencing factors. The precision of these models was validated by comparing model prediction value with measured data, and the results were in good agreement with practical needs, and the average deviation was less than 5%.

  10. Impulsivity and Aggression in Female BPD and ADHD Patients: Association with ACC Glutamate and GABA Concentrations.

    Ende, Gabriele; Cackowski, Sylvia; Van Eijk, Julia; Sack, Markus; Demirakca, Traute; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Bohus, Martin; Sobanski, Esther; Krause-Utz, Annegret; Schmahl, Christian


    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are both characterized by high impulsivity and difficulties in controlling anger and aggression. In BPD, comorbid ADHD may further increase impulsivity. For both disorders, altered MR spectroscopy levels of the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA as well as some correlations with impulsivity were previously reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA in relation to impulsivity and aggression as expressed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in groups of female patients with BPD and ADHD, respectively. Associations of glutamate and GABA levels with further BPD (symptom severity) and ADHD aspects (hyperactivity and inattention) were exploratively evaluated. 1H MR spectra were acquired at 3T to determine glutamate to total creatine ratios (Glu/tCr) and GABA levels from the ACC in a BPD group (n=26), an ADHD group (n=22), and a healthy control (HC) group (n=30); all participants were females. Both patient groups showed higher scores on self-reported impulsivity, anger, and aggression compared with HCs. ACC GABA levels were significantly lower in ADHD than HC. Although measures of impulsivity were positively related to glutamate and negatively to GABA, for aggression only a negative correlation with GABA could be demonstrated. These data provide human in vivo evidence for the role of ACC Glu/tCr and GABA in impulsivity and aggression. If distinct associations of Glu/tCr and GABA for BPD and ADHD can be confirmed in future studies, this might yield implications for more specific pharmacological treatments.

  11. The kinetics and mechanisms of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) crystallization to calcite, via vaterite.

    Rodriguez-Blanco, Juan Diego; Shaw, Samuel; Benning, Liane G


    The kinetics and mechanisms of nanoparticulate amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) crystallization to calcite, via vaterite, were studied at a range of environmentally relevant temperatures (7.5-25 °C) using synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (ED-XRD) in conjunction with high-resolution electron microscopy, ex situ X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The crystallization process occurs in two stages; firstly, the particles of ACC rapidly dehydrate and crystallize to form individual particles of vaterite; secondly, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate controlled by the surface area of calcite. The second stage of the reaction is approximately 10 times slower than the first. Activation energies of calcite nucleation and crystallization are 73±10 and 66±2 kJ mol(-1), respectively. A model to calculate the degree of calcite crystallization from ACC at environmentally relevant temperatures (7.5-40 °C) is also presented.

  12. Un accélérateur de particules pour sonder l'Univers

    Iliopoulos, Jean


    L'accélérateur de particules du CERN est la plus grande machine jamais construite par l'homme. Son but est d'accélérer deux faisceaux de protons en sens inverse, de les porter à une collision frontale, et d'étudier les produits de cette collision. Pourquoi ? La première réponse est de voir l'accélérateur comme un microscope. Avec lui notre pouvoir de résolution sera augmenté et révolutionnera ainsi notre compréhension de l'infiniment petit. La seconde réponse est de le voir comme un télescope. La densité d'énergie produite pendant la collision ressemble à celle qui a prévalu pendant les premières fractions de seconde de l'histoire de l'Univers. Il nous offre donc un moyen d'étudier les mécanismes physiques qui sont à l'origine de la création de la matière dans le Cosmos.

  13. Adolescent neighborhood quality predicts adult dACC response to social exclusion.

    Gonzalez, Marlen Z; Beckes, Lane; Chango, Joanna; Allen, Joseph P; Coan, James A


    Neuroimaging studies using the social-exclusion paradigm Cyberball indicate increased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right insula activity as a function of exclusion. However, comparatively less work has been done on how social status factors may moderate this finding. This study used the Cyberball paradigm with 85 (45 females) socio-economically diverse participants from a larger longitudinal sample. We tested whether neighborhood quality during adolescence would predict subsequent neural responding to social exclusion in young adulthood. Given previous behavioral studies indicating greater social vigilance and negative evaluation as a function of lower status, we expected that lower adolescent neighborhood quality would predict greater dACC activity during exclusion at young adulthood. Our findings indicate that young adults who lived in low-quality neighborhoods in adolescence showed greater dACC activity to social exclusion than those who lived in higher quality neighborhoods. Lower neighborhood quality also predicted greater prefrontal activation in the superior frontal gyrus, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and the middle frontal gyrus, possibly indicating greater regulatory effort. Finally, this effect was not driven by subsequent ratings of distress during exclusion. In sum, adolescent neighborhood quality appears to potentiate neural responses to social exclusion in young adulthood, effects that are independent of felt distress.

  14. Influence of tea polyphenols on expression of Fas/FasL and PCNA in ACC-M%茶多酚对ACC-M细胞Fas/FasL、PCNA表达的影响

    李萍; 杨志刚; 魏丹; 宋琦


    目的 体外观察不同浓度茶多酚对腺样囊性癌肺高转移细胞株(ACC-M)生长、Fas/FasL和增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)表达的影响.方法 (1)不同浓度茶多酚(0.05、0.1、0.15、0.2 g/L)组处理对数期生长ACC-M细胞;(2)用MTT法观察不同浓度茶多酚对ACC-M细胞生长的影响;(3)用免疫细胞化学法检测不同浓度茶多酚对ACC-M细胞中Fas/FasL和PCNA表达的影响.结果 (1)茶多酚对ACC-M细胞生长抑制作用明显(P<0.05);(2)细胞免疫组化结果显示:与未加茶多酚相比,加入茶多酚后,在ACC-M细胞中Fas蛋白表达增高(P<0.05)、FasL和PCNA蛋白表达降低(P<0.05),且随着浓度的增加更为明显.结论 茶多酚可抑制ACC-M细胞生长,这种抑制作用可能与茶多酚促进ACC-M细胞中Fas表达和抑制FasL、PCNA表达有关.

  15. ACCTuner: OpenACC Auto-Tuner For Accelerated Scientific Applications

    Alzayer, Fatemah


    We optimize parameters in OpenACC clauses for a stencil evaluation kernel executed on Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) using a variety of machine learning and optimization search algorithms, individually and in hybrid combinations, and compare execution time performance to the best possible obtained from brute force search. Several auto-tuning techniques – historic learning, random walk, simulated annealing, Nelder-Mead, and genetic algorithms – are evaluated over a large two-dimensional parameter space not satisfactorily addressed to date by OpenACC compilers, consisting of gang size and vector length. A hybrid of historic learning and Nelder-Mead delivers the best balance of high performance and low tuning effort. GPUs are employed over an increasing range of applications due to the performance available from their large number of cores, as well as their energy efficiency. However, writing code that takes advantage of their massive fine-grained parallelism requires deep knowledge of the hardware, and is generally a complex task involving program transformation and the selection of many parameters. To improve programmer productivity, the directive-based programming model OpenACC was announced as an industry standard in 2011. Various compilers have been developed to support this model, the most notable being those by Cray, CAPS, and PGI. While the architecture and number of cores have evolved rapidly, the compilers have failed to keep up at configuring the parallel program to run most e ciently on the hardware. Following successful approaches to obtain high performance in kernels for cache-based processors using auto-tuning, we approach this compiler-hardware gap in GPUs by employing auto-tuning for the key parameters “gang” and “vector” in OpenACC clauses. We demonstrate results for a stencil evaluation kernel typical of seismic imaging over a variety of realistically sized three-dimensional grid configurations, with different truncation error orders

  16. The ErbB-3 Binding Protein ebp1 inhibits the growth of ACC-M cells%ErbB-3结合蛋白-ebp1对ACC-M细胞生长的影响

    余优成; 张志愿; 陈万涛; 周晓健; 潘红芽; 张萍; 徐骎; 叶冬霞



  17. Screening of Rhizosphere Bacteria From Rice Fields in The Coastal Area as Acc-Deaminase and Auxin Producer

    Annisyia Zarina Putri


    Full Text Available Salinity and drought stress results in the production of ethylene. Rhizosphere bacterial activity suppresses the production of ethylene through the activity of 1-aminocycopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase. In this study,a sampel of rhizosphere bacteria from coastal rice plant area was tested. The method used was acc deaminase activity test performed on Dworkin - Foster (DF media and PCR acdS gene using specific primers of ACC and a quantitative analysis of the production of auxin (IAA. Of 47 isolatees obtained, 8 were positively have acdS activity. The positive result was indicated by the presence of 1080 bp amplicon. Quantitative analysisshowed the highest yield of 10.6 ppm of auxin. The results prove that there are some bacteria originated from coastal rice plant area which have acc deaminase activity.

  18. Influence of Ginkgo biloba extract on the proliferation, apoptosis of ACC-2 cell and Survivin gene expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma of lacrimal gland

    Li-Xiao Zhou; Yu Zhu


    Objective: To explore the influence of extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGB) on the proliferation, apoptosis of ACC-2 cell and Survivin gene expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of lacrimal gland. Methods:ACC-2 cell in human with ACC of lacrimal gland was in vitro cultured. MTT method was used for cell proliferation detection. Annexin V/PI double-staining flow cytometer was used to detect cell apoptosis and cell cycle. Survivin gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results: EGB had inhibitory effect on the proliferation of ACC-2 cell with significant dose-effect relationship, and there was statistical difference when compared with the control group (P<0.01). The inhibitory concentration 50 % (IC50) is 88 mg/L. The flow cytometer test indicated that EGB can gradually increase ACC-2 cell in G0-G1 stage and decrease it in G2-M and S stage. With the increase of dose, the apoptosis rate of ACC-2 cell was obviously increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01). EGB had certain inhibitory effect on Survivin gene expression of ACC-2 cell, and Survivin gene expression was decreased with the increasing of the EGB concentration (P<0.01). Conclusions:EGB can effectively inhibit Survivin gene expression of ACC-2 cell in human with ACC of lacrimal gland, induce the apoptosis of ACC-2 cell and inhibit tumor cell proliferation.

  19. Molecular cloning, expression, and stress response of the estrogen-related receptor gene (AccERR) from Apis cerana cerana

    Zhang, Weixing; Zhu, Ming; Zhang, Ge; Liu, Feng; Wang, Hongfang; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua


    Estrogen-related receptor (ERR), which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, has been implicated in diverse physiological processes involving the estrogen signaling pathway. However, little information is available on ERR in Apis cerana cerana. In this report, we isolated the ERR gene and investigated its involvement in antioxidant defense. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that the highest mRNA expression occurred in eggs during different developmental stages. The expression levels of AccERR were highest in the muscle, followed by the rectum. The predicted transcription factor binding sites in the promoter of AccERR suggested that AccERR potentially functions in early development and in environmental stress responses. The expression of AccERR was induced by cold (4 °C), heat (42 °C), ultraviolet light (UV), HgCl2, and various types of pesticides (phoxim, deltamethrin, triadimefon, and cyhalothrin). Western blot was used to measure the expression levels of AccERR protein. These data suggested that AccERR might play a vital role in abiotic stress responses.

  20. Capteurs monopodes pour mesures accélérométriques

    Delaite, R.; Valentin, J.-P.


    A new design for accelerometric measurements sensors is described. It uses a plate vibrating in thickness shear mode, maintained by the means of a single holder located at the crystal edge. This mounting does cancel the mechanical and thermal stresses which generally modify the sensor output signal. So the ratio signal/noise of a thickness shear accelerometer is improved and the intrinsic sensitivity is multiplied by a factor 40, by comparison with the sensitivity of a thickness shear plate bonded by the means of two opposite holders. Un nouveau dispositif destiné aux mesures d'accélération est présenté. Il met en œuvre une lame vibrant en cisaillement d'épaisseur, fixée à sa structure de maintien par l'intermédiaire d'une unique liaison. Ce montage permet d'éliminer les contraintes mécaniques et thermiques qui perturbent habituellement le signal de mesure, et qui sont liées soit au montage des éléments du capteur, soit aux variations rapides de température qui interviennent lors de la mise en fonctionnement du capteur. Le rapport signal/bruit d'un accéléromètre à lame vibrant en cisaillement d'épaisseur s'en trouve amélioré et la sensibilité à l'accélération est multipliée par un facteur 40, comparée à celle d'un capteur qui serait constitué d'une lame vibrant en cisaillement d'épaisseur, fixée par deux liaisons diamétralement opposées.

  1. L'intégration des accélérateurs du CERN

    Chemli, S; CERN. Geneva. TS Department


    L?intégration du LHC a ouvert des perspectives pour une gestion plus complète des accélérateurs du CERN. La base de données LAYOUT a permis d'assurer la continuité des phases de définition optique du projet, d'intégration 3D et de contrôles de conformité des installations. Les scans et modélisations 3D en couches des installations réalisées constituent un outil déterminant pour la préparation des interventions dans le cadre des procédures de sécurité ALARA. Il est proposé de reproduire cette méthodologie pour les nouveaux projets comme pour les accélérateurs existants. La mise à jour de l'anneau SPS dans LAYOUT semble être la priorité. La base de données SURVEY contient déjà une vue d'ensemble des accélérateurs, chaque composant étant référencé dans le Système de Coordonnées du CERN, selon les définitions théoriques "sources" au 1/100 mm. Base pour l'alignement, elle stocke également les positions réelles des machines. Elle complète ainsi l'information linéaire de LAY...

  2. Higher Order Modes in Coupled Cavities of the Flash Module ACC39

    Shinton, I R R; Li, Z; Zhang, P


    We analyse the higher order modes (HOM's) in the 3.9GHz bunch shaping cavities installed in the FLASH facility at DESY. A suite of finite element computer codes (including HFSS and ACE3P) and globalised scattering matrix calculations (GSM) are used to investigate the modes in these cavities. This study is primarily focused on the dipole component of the multiband expansion of the wakefield, with the emphasis being on the development of a HOM-based BPM system for ACC39. Coupled inter-cavity modes are simulated together with a limited band of trapped modes.

  3. Entrevue avec Steve Myers, directeur des accélérateurs et de la technologie

    CERN Video Productions


    Questions : 1. Après un an de travail de réparations et de consolidations, le LHC est il prêt à recevoir des données? 2. Le LHC est il plus compliqué à faire fonctionner que les accélérateurs de particules précédent ou existants? 3. Quand prévoyez vous d'utiliser des faisceaux à 7 TeV? 4. Que va-t-il se passer précisément dans la salle de contrôle dans les prochains jours?

  4. Higher order modes HOMs in coupled cavities of the FLASH module ACC39

    Shinton, I R R; Li, Z; Zhang, P


    We analyse the higher order modes (HOM’s) in the 3.9GHz bunch shaping cavities installed in the FLASH facility at DESY. A suite of finite element computer codes (including HFSS and ACE3P) and globalised scattering matrix calculations (GSM) are used to investigate the modes in these cavities. This study is primarily focused on the dipole component of the multiband expansion of the wakefield, with the emphasis being on the development of a HOM-based BPM system for ACC39. Coupled inter-cavity modes are simulated together with a limited band of trapped modes.

  5. Simulations of Higher Order Modes in the ACC39 Module of FLASH

    Shinton, I R R; Li, Z; Zhang, P


    This study is focused on the development of a HOMbased BPM system for the ACC39 module currently installed and in operation at FLASH. A similar system is anticipated to be installed at XFEL. Coupled inter-cavity modes are simulated together with a limited band of trapped modes. A suite of finite element computer codes (including HFSS and ACE3P) and globalised scattering matrix calculations (GSM) are used to investigate the modes in these cavities with a view to providing guidance on their use as a cavity beam diagnostic.

  6. New Method for Confirming the Desired Safety Headway Distance and Desired Deceleration in ACC System

    ZHANG Jing-bo; LIU Zhao-du; SONG Ming; QI Zhi-quan


    A new method of confirming the desired safety headway distance and desired deceleration is put forward according to the detected static or moving target and its simulation results in Matlab are also presented.The validity of the algorithm to calculate the reference speeds of both the ACC vehicle and the targeted car according to the vector quadrangle composed of the relative distance, the relative azimuth angle, the relative speeds of the vehicles has also been demonstrated through numerical example in Matlab. New laws to obtain the desired deceleration by estimating the braking force according to the vehicle analyses force equation are established too.

  7. ACC/AHA/ESC 2006年心房颤动指南



    @@ 2006年ACC/AHA/ESC心房颤动(房颤)指南已经接近完成.在韩国首都召开的第一届亚太房颤会议上,美国学者Eric Prystowsky介绍了即将发表的指南的一些重要内容.与最初的方案相比,在维持窦性心律和抗凝治疗方面有了一些重要改变.

  8. Evaluation of Varying Biochars as Carrier Materials for Bacterial Soil Inoculants

    Hale, Lauren; Crowley, David


    The incorporation of biochar into agricultural soils for carbon sequestration and improved soil fertility creates an opportunity to simultaneously deliver plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Many characteristics of biochar materials indicate that these particles could be conducive as inoculum carriers. This could provide a value-added component for biochar marketing and has an advantage over traditional carrier materials, which can be unsustainable or expensive to produce. Here, we assessed the suitability of 10 biochar types, made from 5 feedstocks at 2 pyrolysis temperatures (300°C and 600°C), to serve as carriers for 2 model PGPR strains, Enterobacter cloacae UW5 and Pseudomonas putida UW4. All biochars were characterized based on BET specific surface area, C-N content, pH, EC, and their abilities to adsorb bacterial cells from a liquid inoculum. Further studies incorporated qPCR to quantify the survival of inoculants after introduction into soils via biochar carriers. The biochars that performed well were further assayed for their influence on PGPR traits, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and auxin production. Peat and vermiculite served as traditional carrier materials to which we compared the biochars. Our findings indicated that biochars varied in their interactions with our model PGPR strains. Based on our analysis several biochar types were able to serve as carriers which were as good, if not better than, the traditional carrier materials. Future work should seek to assess shelf life and varying inoculation methods for the biochar-inoculant complexes.

  9. Poplar and its bacterial endophytes: coexistence and harmony

    van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Monchy, S.; Schwender, J.; Miller, L.; Ferrieri, R.; Rogers, A.; Zhu, W.; Weyens, N.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.


    Associations between plants and microorganisms are very complex and are the subject of an increasing number of studies. Here, we specifically address the relationship between poplar and its endophytic bacteria. The role and importance of endophytic bacteria in growth and development of their host plants is still underestimated. However, since many endophytes have a beneficial effect on their host, an improved understanding of the interaction between poplar and its endophytic bacteria has the potential to provide major breakthroughs that will improve the productivity of poplar. Endophytic bacteria can improve plant growth and development in a direct or indirect way. Direct plant growth promoting mechanisms may involve nitrogen fixation, production of plant growth regulators such as auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins, and suppression of stress ethylene synthesis by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. Endophytic bacteria can indirectly benefit the plant by preventing the growth or activity of plant pathogens through competition for space and nutrients, antibiosis, production of hydrolytic enzymes, inhibition of pathogen-produced enzymes or toxins, and through systemic induction of plant defense mechanisms. Examples of applications for custom endophyte-host partnerships include improved productivity and establishment of poplar trees on marginal soils and the phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. A systems biology approach to understand the synergistic interactions between poplar and its beneficial endophytic bacteria represents an important field of research, which is facilitated by the recent sequencing of the genomes of poplar and several of its endophytic bacteria.

  10. 一株促生拮抗木霉菌的鉴定%Identification of an Antagonistic Trichoderma spp.Strain with Plant Growth-Promoting Activity

    赵姣; 赵蕾


    A strain of Trichoderma spp. LT19 was isolated from soil in Shandong Province, which showed a broad inhibition spectrum against various soil - borne plant phytopathogenic fungi. It also exhibited some plant growth - promoting attributes such as phosphate solubilization, indol - 3 - acetic (IAA) productivity, 1 - aminocyclopropane - 1 -carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity and siderophore (S) synthesis ability. The pot experiments showed that inoculation with the strain could increase the biomass of cucumber seedlings. Based on its morphology and ITS gene sequences, the strain LT19 was identified as Trichoderma asperellum.%从采集的植物根际土壤中分离到一株对黄瓜具有拮抗作用的木霉菌LT19,该菌能够促进黄瓜幼苗的生长,并具有溶磷、产嗜铁素、IAA及ACC脱氨酶的能力,显示了该菌在防治作物病害以及促进作物生长方面潜在的应用价值.根据形态特征与ITS序列分析,将其鉴定为棘孢木霉(Trichoderma asperellum).

  11. The effect of plant growth regulators, nitric oxide, nitrate, nitrite and light on the germination of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa under saline conditions.

    Li, Weiqiang; Liu, Xiaojing; Ajmal Khan, M; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro


    Suaeda salsa, a leaf succulent shrub in the family Chenopodiaceae, is one of the most important halophytes in China. Suaeda salsa produces dimorphic seeds (soft brown seeds and hard black seeds). Seeds of S. salsa were collected from the coastal salt flats near Huanghua City, China. Experiments were conducted to determine the salinity-alleviating effect of plant growth regulators, nitric oxide, nitrate, nitrite and light on the germination of dimorphic seeds of S. salsa. Brown seeds had a higher germination rate than black seeds in all experiments. Black seeds were more sensitive to salt in the absence of light in comparison to brown seeds. Brown seeds absorbed water more quickly in comparison to black seeds and were found to be more tolerant of salt stress. Our results showed that 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC, the immediate precursor of ethylene), nitrite, GA(4) and BA improved seed germination in the presence of salt. However, nitrate, GA(1), GA(3) failed to alleviate salt stress. ABA inhibited seed germination and seedling growth. Possible mechanisms involved in the alleviation of salt stress in S. salsa seeds and the ecological adaptation of the seeds to the environment are discussed.

  12. Clarifying the role of the rostral dmPFC/dACC in fear/anxiety: learning, appraisal or expression?

    Simon Maier

    Full Text Available Recent studies have begun to carve out a specific role for the rostral part of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC and adjacent dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC in fear/anxiety. Within a novel general framework of dorsal mPFC/ACC areas subserving the appraisal of threat and concomitant expression of fear responses and ventral mPFC/ACC areas subserving fear regulation, the rostral dmPFC/dACC has been proposed to specifically mediate the conscious, negative appraisal of threat situations including, as an extreme variant, catastrophizing. An alternative explanation that has not been conclusively ruled out yet is that the area is involved in fear learning. We tested two different fear expression paradigms in separate fMRI studies (study 1: instructed fear, study 2: testing of Pavlovian conditioned fear with independent groups of healthy adult subjects. In both paradigms the absence of reinforcement precluded conditioning. We demonstrate significant BOLD activation of an identical rostral dmPFC/dACC area. In the Pavlovian paradigm (study 2, the area only activated robustly once prior conditioning had finished. Thus, our data argue against a role of the area in fear learning. We further replicate a repeated observation of a dissociation between peripheral-physiological fear responding and rostral dmPFC/dACC activation, strongly suggesting the area does not directly generate fear responses but rather contributes to appraisal processes. Although we succeeded in preventing extinction of conditioned responding in either paradigm, the data do not allow us to definitively exclude an involvement of the area in fear extinction learning. We discuss the broader implications of this finding for our understanding of mPFC/ACC function in fear and in negative emotion more generally.

  13. Agilent acceSS7网络监测的卫兵


    @@ 网络监测系统的研发是安捷伦科技业务构成中的一个重要组成部分.近年来,以其骄人的成果在业界树立了良好的形象.位于北京的安捷伦科技软件设计中心成立于1997年,是安捷伦科技软件研究核心机构,中心研制的SS7监控系统acceSS7是专为电信运营商量身定做的应用方案,已经被业界广泛认可并归纳为基于SS7的电信网络监控和数据采集的标准.该方案在大小网络、无线和有线应用等领域占有主导地位,目前在全球范围内,安装Agilent acceSS7的客户已经超过70家.

  14. Monitoring apoptosis of TK-GFP-expressing ACC-M cells induced by ACV using FRET technique

    Xiong, Tao; Zhang, Zhihong; Lin, Juqiang; Yang, Jie; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming


    Apoptosis is an evolutionary conserved cellular process that plays an important role during development, but it is also involved in tissue homeostasis and in many diseases. To study the characteristics of suicide gene system of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene in tumor cells and explore the apoptosis phenomena in this system and its effect on the human adenoid cystic carcinoma line ACC-M cell, we detected apoptosis of CD3- (ECFP-CRS-DsRed) and TK-GFP-expressing ACC-M (ACC-M-TK-GFP-CD3) cells induced by acyclovir (ACV) using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique. CD3 is a FRET-based indicator for activity of caspase-3, which is composed of an enhanced cyan fluorescent protein, a caspase-3 sensitive linker, and a red fluorescent protein from Discosoma with efficient maturation property. FRET from ECFP to DsRed could be detected in normal ACC-M-TK-GFP-CD3 cells, and the FRET efficient was remarkably decreased and then disappeared during the cells apoptosis induced by ACV. It was due to the activated caspase-3 cleaved the CD3 fusion protein. In this study, the results suggested that the AVC-induced apoptosis of ACC-M-TK-GFP-CD3 cells was through caspase-3 pathway.

  15. Effects of globular adiponectin, glucose and free fatty acid on AMPK and ACC phosphorylation in INS-1 β cells%球形脂联素、葡萄糖和游离脂肪酸对胰岛β细胞单磷酸腺苷激活的蛋白激酶和乙酰辅酶A羧化酶磷酸化的影响

    童玉; 黄丹珊; Michael BRYER-ASH


    目的:探讨不同浓度的葡萄糖和游离脂肪酸对胰岛β细胞内单磷酸腺苷激活的蛋白激酶(adenosine-5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase,AMPK)和乙酰辅酶A羧化酶(acetyl CoA carboxylase,ACC)磷酸化的影响,以及球形脂联素对AMPK和ACC磷酸化的作用.方法:培养INS-1胰岛细胞系,用5 mmol/L葡萄糖和0.25 mmol/L游离脂肪酸处理,确定在不同时间对AMPK和ACC磷酸化的影响;观察不同浓度葡萄糖和游离脂肪酸对AMPK和ACC磷酸化的影响;在葡萄糖和游离脂肪酸存在的条件下观察AMPK的药理激活剂氨基咪唑-4-甲酰胺核苷酸(AICAR)和球形脂联素对AMPK和ACC磷酸化的影响.结果:不同浓度的葡萄糖和游离脂肪酸都能够在60 min时抑制AMPK和ACC的磷酸化水平,采用AMPK的药理激动剂AICAR能够明显升高AMPK和ACC的磷酸化水平.2.5 mg/L球形脂联素可以使基础状态的AMPK和ACC磷酸化水平分别增加23%(P<0.05)和50%(P<0.05).在5 mmol/L葡萄糖的基础上加用球形脂联素使AMPK和ACC磷酸化水平分别增加1.4倍(P<0.05)和3倍(P<0.01),在0.25 mmol/L游离脂肪酸的基础上加用球形脂联素使AMPK和ACC磷酸化水平分别增加3倍(P<0.05)和5倍(P<0.01).结论:在体外培养的胰岛INS-1细胞中,不同浓度的葡萄糖和游离脂肪酸能够降低AMPK和ACC的磷酸化水平,而AMPK的药理激动剂氨基咪唑-4-甲酰胺核苷酸(5'-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside,AICAR)和2.5 mg/L球形脂联素可以提高AMPK和ACC的磷酸化水平,此作用可以进一步增强胰岛β细胞内的脂肪酸氧化水平,减轻甘油三酯聚集,保护胰岛β细胞功能.

  16. Traffic flow characteristics in a mixed traffic system consisting of ACC vehicles and manual vehicles: A hybrid modelling approach

    Yuan, Yao-Ming; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin; Wu, Qing-Song; Wang, Ruili


    In this paper, we have investigated traffic flow characteristics in a traffic system consisting of a mixture of adaptive cruise control (ACC) vehicles and manual-controlled (manual) vehicles, by using a hybrid modelling approach. In the hybrid approach, (i) the manual vehicles are described by a cellular automaton (CA) model, which can reproduce different traffic states (i.e., free flow, synchronised flow, and jam) as well as probabilistic traffic breakdown phenomena; (ii) the ACC vehicles are simulated by using a car-following model, which removes artificial velocity fluctuations due to intrinsic randomisation in the CA model. We have studied the traffic breakdown probability from free flow to congested flow, the phase transition probability from synchronised flow to jam in the mixed traffic system. The results are compared with that, where both ACC vehicles and manual vehicles are simulated by CA models. The qualitative and quantitative differences are indicated.

  17. Acceleration of a Particle-in-Cell Code for Space Plasma Simulations with OpenACC

    Peng, Ivy Bo; Markidis, Stefano; Vaivads, Andris; Vencels, Juris; Deca, Jan; Lapenta, Giovanni; Hart, Alistair; Laure, Erwin


    We simulate space plasmas with the Particle-in-cell (PIC) method that uses computational particles to mimic electrons and protons in solar wind and in Earth magnetosphere. The magnetic and electric fields are computed by solving the Maxwell's equations on a computational grid. In each PIC simulation step, there are four major phases: interpolation of fields to particles, updating the location and velocity of each particle, interpolation of particles to grids and solving the Maxwell's equations on the grid. We use the iPIC3D code, which was implemented in C++, using both MPI and OpenMP, for our case study. By November 2014, heterogeneous systems using hardware accelerators such as Graphics Processing Unit (GPUs) and the Many Integrated Core (MIC) coprocessors for high performance computing continue growth in the top 500 most powerful supercomputers world wide. Scientific applications for numerical simulations need to adapt to using accelerators to achieve portability and scalability in the coming exascale systems. In our work, we conduct a case study of using OpenACC to offload the computation intensive parts: particle mover and interpolation of particles to grids, in a massively parallel Particle-in-Cell simulation code, iPIC3D, to multi-GPU systems. We use MPI for inter-node communication for halo exchange and communicating particles. We identify the most promising parts suitable for GPUs accelerator by profiling using CrayPAT. We implemented manual deep copy to address the challenges of porting C++ classes to GPU. We document the necessary changes in the exiting algorithms to adapt for GPU computation. We present the challenges and findings as well as our methodology for porting a Particle-in-Cell code to multi-GPU systems using OpenACC. In this work, we will present the challenges, findings and our methodology of porting a Particle-in-Cell code for space applications as follows: We profile the iPIC3D code by Cray Performance Analysis Tool (CrayPAT) and identify

  18. Isolation and functional characterizations of spinach endogenous nitrogen-fixing bacteria%菠菜内生固氮菌的分离及其功能特性研究

    王泽; 徐齐; 袁梅; 张磊; 高淼; 孙建光


    Endogenous nitrogen-fixing bacteria have positive functions of promoting growth, pathogen prevention and biological nitrogen fixation and occupy the plant tissue which is conductive to nutrient supply and suitable micro ecological environment. In this study, seven endogenous nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from the root of spinach. Among the 7 diazotrophic bac-teria, five were identified as Pseudomonas and two belonged to Rhodococcus and Flavobacterium, respecitively. The nitroge-nase activities of strain Pseudomonas sp. BC-E6 and Pseudomonas sp. BC-E8 were ( 13. 19 ± 0. 32 ) and ( 12. 11 ± 0. 96 ) C2H4 nmol/(mg protein ·h), which was significantly higher (P<0. 01) than that of Azotobacter chroococcum ACCC11104. For Strain Pseudomonas sp. BC-E7, the nitrogenase activity was (8.42 ±0.03) C2H4 nmol/(mg protein ·h), production of indole acetic acid (IAA) was (59. 58 ± 4. 15) μg/mL, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity was (5. 067 ± 0. 376) μmol/(mg protein·h), and it had the capability to antagonize the growth of Rhizoctonia solani ACCC36124, Gibberella zeae ACCC362724, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum ACCC36084 and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum ACCC36905. Strain Pseudomonas sp. BC-E7 had been a multifunctional endogenous nitrogen-fixing bacterium, which should have good application prospect.%内生固氮菌具有促生、 病原菌的防治及生物固氮等作用, 并且占据着植物组织内有利于营养供应和微环境适宜的生态位, 是重要的微生物菌种资源. 从菠菜根内分离筛选优势内生固氮菌7 株, 其中假单胞菌属( Pseudomonas) 5株, 红球菌属 ( Rhodococcus) 和黄杆菌属 ( Flavobacterium) 各1株. 菌株Pseudomonas sp. BC-E6和Pseudomonas sp. BC-E8固氮酶活性较高, 分别为 (13. 19 ± 0. 32) 和 (12. 11 ± 0. 96) C2 H4 nmol/ ( mg pro-tein·h) , 与圆褐固氮菌 ( ACCC11103 ) 的固氮酶活性具有极显著性差异 ( P <0. 01 ); 菌株 Pseudomonas sp. BC-E7

  19. Relationship of γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate+glutamine concentrations in the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex with performance of Cambridge Gambling Task.

    Fujihara, Kazuyuki; Narita, Kosuke; Suzuki, Yusuke; Takei, Yuichi; Suda, Masashi; Tagawa, Minami; Ujita, Koichi; Sakai, Yuki; Narumoto, Jin; Near, Jamie; Fukuda, Masato


    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), consisting of the perigenual ACC (pgACC) and mid-ACC (i.e., affective and cognitive areas, respectively), plays a significant role in the performance of gambling tasks, which are used to measure decision-making behavior under conditions of risk. Although recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration in the pgACC is associated with decision-making behavior, knowledge regarding the relationship of GABA concentrations in subdivisions of the ACC with gambling task performance is still limited. The aim of our magnetic resonance spectroscopy study is to investigate in 20 healthy males the relationship of concentrations of GABA and glutamate+glutamine (Glx) in the pgACC, mid-ACC, and occipital cortex (OC) with multiple indexes of decision-making behavior under conditions of risk, using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT). The GABA/creatine (Cr) ratio in the pgACC negatively correlated with delay aversion score, which corresponds to the impulsivity index. The Glx/Cr ratio in the pgACC negatively correlated with risk adjustment score, which is reported to reflect the ability to change the amount of the bet depending on the probability of winning or losing. The scores of CGT did not significantly correlate with the GABA/Cr or Glx/Cr ratio in the mid-ACC or OC. Results of this study suggest that in the pgACC, but not in the mid-ACC or OC, GABA and Glx concentrations play a distinct role in regulating impulsiveness and risk probability during decision-making behavior under conditions of risk, respectively.

  20. Identification and characterization of an Apis cerana cerana Delta class glutathione S-transferase gene ( AccGSTD) in response to thermal stress

    Yan, Huiru; Jia, Haihong; Wang, Xiuling; Gao, Hongru; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua


    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are members of a multifunctional enzyme super family that plays a pivotal role in both insecticide resistance and protection against oxidative stress. In this study, we identified a single-copy gene, AccGSTD, as being a Delta class GST in the Chinese honey bee ( Apis cerana cerana). A predicted antioxidant response element, CREB, was found in the 1,492-bp 5'-flanking region, suggesting that AccGSTD may be involved in oxidative stress response pathways. Real-time PCR and immunolocalization studies demonstrated that AccGSTD exhibited both developmental- and tissue-specific expression patterns. During development, AccGSTD transcript was increased in adults. The AccGSTD expression level was the highest in the honey bee brain. Thermal stress experiments demonstrated that AccGSTD could be significantly upregulated by temperature changes in a time-dependent manner. It is hypothesized that high expression levels might be due to the increased levels of oxidative stress caused by the temperature challenges. Additionally, functional assays of the recombinant AccGSTD protein revealed that AccGSTD has the capability to protect DNA from oxidative damage. Taken together, these data suggest that AccGSTD may be responsible for antioxidant defense in adult honey bees.

  1. Identification, genomic organization, and oxidative stress response of a sigma class glutathione S-transferase gene (AccGSTS1) in the honey bee, Apis cerana cerana.

    Yan, Huiru; Jia, Haihong; Gao, Hongru; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua


    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are members of a multifunctional antioxidant enzyme superfamily that play pivotal roles in both detoxification and protection against oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species. In this study, a complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding a sigma class GST was identified in the Chinese honey bee, Apis cerana cerana (AccGSTS1). AccGSTS1 was constitutively expressed in all tissues of adult worker bees, including the brain, fat body, epidermis, muscle, and midgut, with particularly robust transcription in the fat body. Relative messenger RNA expression levels of AccGSTS1 at different developmental stages varied, with the highest levels of expression observed in adults. The potential function of AccGSTS1 in cellular defenses against abiotic stresses (cold, heat, UV, H2O2, HgCl2, and insecticides) was investigated. AccGSTS1 was significantly upregulated in response to all of the treatment conditions examined, although the induction levels were varied. Recombinant AccGSTS1 protein showed characteristic glutathione-conjugating catalytic activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Functional assays revealed that AccGSTS1 could remove H2O2, thereby protecting DNA from oxidative damage. Escherichia coli overexpressing AccGSTS1 showed long-term resistance under conditions of oxidative stress. Together, these results suggest that AccGSTS1 is a crucial antioxidant enzyme involved in cellular antioxidant defenses and honey bee survival.

  2. Dos accésits V Edición del Premio MECD - Universia a la iniciativa OCW 2011

    Ministerio de Educación Cultura y Deporte y Universia


    Los dos accésits están dotados de 3.000 euros para el autor o autores de la asignatura de grado o posgrado oficial ganadora y 1.000 euros para la oficina OCW de la universidad ganadora del accésit, cada uno. El Open Course Ware es uno de los mejores exponentes de este movimiento global que promueve el acceso al conocimiento de forma libre y sin restricciones. A través del OCW site, los profesores de enseñanza superior ofrecen en abierto sus materiales docentes. Los objetos educativos en abier...

  3. Reward Sensitivity Modulates Brain Activity in the Prefrontal Cortex, ACC and Striatum during Task Switching

    Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Ávila, César; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Bustamante, Juan C.; Costumero, Víctor; Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso


    Current perspectives on cognitive control acknowledge that individual differences in motivational dispositions may modulate cognitive processes in the absence of reward contingencies. This work aimed to study the relationship between individual differences in Behavioral Activation System (BAS) sensitivity and the neural underpinnings involved in processing a switching cue in a task-switching paradigm. BAS sensitivity was hypothesized to modulate brain activity in frontal regions, ACC and the striatum. Twenty-eight healthy participants underwent fMRI while performing a switching task, which elicited activity in fronto-striatal regions during the processing of the switch cue. BAS sensitivity was negatively associated with activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the ventral striatum. Combined with previous results, our data indicate that BAS sensitivity modulates the neurocognitive processes involved in task switching in a complex manner depending on task demands. Therefore, individual differences in motivational dispositions may influence cognitive processing in the absence of reward contingencies. PMID:25875640

  4. Introgression of High Yield Genes from Lycopersicon hirsutum acc. LA1777 Using CAPS Marker

    LI Hong; WANG Xiao-xuan; SONG Ming; GAO Jian-chang; GUO Yan-mei; ZHU De-wei; DAI Shan-shu; DU Yong-chen


    The idea behind this study is to show that using high yield genes from a wild tomato can enrich tomato breeding resources and accelerate tomato breeding programs. In this study, the near-isogenic line TA1229 containing a 24-cM introgression at the bottom of chromosome 1 from Lycopersicon acc. LA1777, affects several higher yield traits. The TA1229 × 9706 BC1population was analyzed by marker-assisted selection and the traits of the population were evaluated. Twenty-three recombinant individuals that carried a shorter segment than TA1229 were obtained. Among them, 16 lines with the chromosome 1 recombinant segment can increase tomato yield and a QTL affecting yield was found between TG53 and TG158. Sixteen recombinant lines are useful to improve the tomato variety.

  5. A portable platform for accelerated PIC codes and its application to GPUs using OpenACC

    Hariri, F; Jocksch, A; Lanti, E; Progsch, J; Messmer, P; Brunner, S; Gheller, G; Villard, L


    We present a portable platform, called PIC_ENGINE, for accelerating Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes on heterogeneous many-core architectures such as Graphic Processing Units (GPUs). The aim of this development is efficient simulations on future exascale systems by allowing different parallelization strategies depending on the application problem and the specific architecture. To this end, this platform contains the basic steps of the PIC algorithm and has been designed as a test bed for different algorithmic options and data structures. Among the architectures that this engine can explore, particular attention is given here to systems equipped with GPUs. The study demonstrates that our portable PIC implementation based on the OpenACC programming model can achieve performance closely matching theoretical predictions. Using the Cray XC30 system, Piz Daint, at the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre (CSCS), we show that PIC_ENGINE running on an NVIDIA Kepler K20X GPU can outperform the one on an Intel Sandybridge ...

  6. BIM and Sustainability Education: Incorporating Instructional Needs into Curriculum Planning in CEM Programs Accredited by ACCE

    Jingxiao Zhang


    Full Text Available Higher education ought to support the identification of training needs for industrial building information modelling (BIM curriculum development and sustainability education in the fields of civil engineering and management (CEM. This paper proposes a framework based on a four-phase step-by-step quality function deployment (QFD application for CEM curriculum planning and quality management. The framework attempts to respond to requests collected from 17 professionals and professors in order to integrate BIM into the higher education curriculum in China with a specific focus on construction management programs accredited by the American Council for Construction Education (ACCE. The entropy method and a K1–K6 scale adapted from Bloom’s revised cognitive process were employed to evaluate the CEM curriculum in QFD. The proposed framework was successfully applied to CEM curriculum planning, which included two curriculums of the four main knowledge areas provided by the Chinese CEM guidelines: construction cost and flow construction. Two curriculum areas showed that content should focus on knowledge such as (a Program evaluation and review technique(PERT planning; (b construction optimization in flow construction; (c principles of bill of quantities and (d construction consumption in construction costs. As for teaching quality management in China, the higher education curriculum should focus on three aspects to promote curriculum integration: (a pedagogical design; (b teaching resource and material and (c curriculum assessment. This research sheds light on the pedagogical shift to a similar context that has established guidelines accredited by the ACCE, with respect to reviewing curriculum planning from a knowledge system perspective in order to meet industrial demands at the operational level.

  7. siRNA干扰survivin表达对腺样囊性癌细胞株ACC-M的抑制作用%Inhibitory effect of RNAi-mediated survivin gene in adenoid cystic carcinoma cells lines ACC-M

    汪欣; 杨军; 许波; 熊宇; 张从纪


    目的 探讨靶向survivin基因RNAi对腺样囊性癌增殖的抑制效应.方法 设计、合成siRNA(small interferingRNA),构建表达载体pGenesil-shRNA-survivin,将重组质粒导入人腺样囊性癌ACC-M细胞株.采用逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)、Western-blot法分别检测转染后的ACC-M细胞中survivin mRNA和蛋白表达的变化,用噻唑蓝(MTT)法来检测细胞的增殖.结果 测序证实表达载体构建成功,在pGenesil-shRNA-survivin的ACC-M细胞株中,survivin mRNA及蛋白表达明显降低,ACC-M细胞增殖受到抑制.结论 pGenesil-shRNA-survivin重组质粒能有效抑制腺样囊性癌细胞增殖.

  8. The human ACC2 CT-domain C-terminus is required for full functionality and has a novel twist

    Madauss, Kevin P.; Burkhart, William A.; Consler, Thomas G.; Cowan, David J.; Gottschalk, William K.; Miller, Aaron B; Short, Steven A.; Tran, Thuy B.; Williams, Shawn P.; (GSKNC); (Duke); (UNC)


    Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) may prevent lipid-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, making the enzyme an attractive pharmaceutical target. Although the enzyme is highly conserved amongst animals, only the yeast enzyme structure is available for rational drug design. The use of biophysical assays has permitted the identification of a specific C-terminal truncation of the 826-residue human ACC2 carboxyl transferase (CT) domain that is both functionally competent to bind inhibitors and crystallizes in their presence. This C-terminal truncation led to the determination of the human ACC2 CT domain-CP-640186 complex crystal structure, which revealed distinctions from the yeast-enzyme complex. The human ACC2 CT-domain C-terminus is comprised of three intertwined -helices that extend outwards from the enzyme on the opposite side to the ligand-binding site. Differences in the observed inhibitor conformation between the yeast and human structures are caused by differing residues in the binding pocket.

  9. Improved Performance of an Air Cooled Condenser (ACC) Using SPX Wind Guide Technology at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Ken Mortensen


    This project added a new airflow enhancement technology to an existing ACC cooling process at a selected coal power plant. Airflow parameters and efficiency improvement for the main plant cooling process using the applied technology were determined and compared with the capabilities of existing systems. The project required significant planning and pre-test execution in order to reach the required Air Cooled Condenser system configuration for evaluation. A host Power Plant ACC system had to be identified, agreement finalized, and addition of the SPX ACC Wind Guide Technology completed on that site. Design of the modification, along with procurement, fabrication, instrumentation, and installation of the new airflow enhancement technology were executed. Baseline and post-modification cooling system data was collected and evaluated. The improvement of ACC thermal performance after SPX wind guide installation was clear. Testing of the improvement indicates there is a 5% improvement in heat transfer coefficient in high wind conditions and 1% improvement at low wind speed. The benefit increased with increasing wind speed. This project was completed on schedule and within budget.

  10. Effect of Exogenous bFGF on the Proliferation of Human Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma ACC-2 Cells

    Lei DING; Shengrong ZHU; Sanxiang XIE; Xiangbing WU


    To observe the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on human adenoid cystic carcinoma ACC-2 cell line proliferation and ERK, cyclin D1/p21waf/ciplsignaling pathways, human adenoid cystic carcinoma cells (ACC-2) were cultured and the influence of bFGF of different concentrations on cell proliferation was determined by MTT. Protein was detected by im muno-precipitation and ERK activity by using ERK agent kit. P-ERK1/2 and down-stream cyclin D1, p21waf/ciplexpression were detected by Western blotting and the interfering role of mitogen pro- tein-activated kinase (MEK) suppressor U0126 in the afore-mentioned indicators was examined. MTr demonstrated ACC-2 cell proliferation was substantially enhanced by bFGF, immuo-precipitation displayed ERK activity was up-regulated by bFGF, and immuno-imprinting also showed p-ERK1/2, cyclin D1 expression was greatly enhanced and p21waf/ciplexpression was inhibited by bFGE U0126 suppressed the effect of bFGE It is concluded that bFGF can promote the proliferation of human adenoid cystic carcinoma ACC-2 cells, and its pathways are associated with the up-regulated activity and expression of p-ERK1/2, inhibited p21waf/cipl expression and enhanced cyclin DI expression.

  11. Tuning the light in senior care: Evaluating a trial LED lighting system at the ACC Care Center in Sacramento, CA

    Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This report summarizes the results from a trial installation of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting systems in several spaces within the ACC Care Center in Sacramento, CA. The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) coordinated the project and invited the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to document the performance of the LED lighting systems as part of a GATEWAY evaluation. DOE tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct the investigation. SMUD and ACC staff coordinated and completed the design and installation of the LED systems, while PNNL and SMUD staff evaluated the photometric performance of the systems. ACC staff also track behavioral and health measures of the residents; some of those results are reported here, although PNNL staff were not directly involved in collecting or interpreting those data. The trial installation took place in a double resident room and a single resident room, and the corridor that connects those (and other) rooms to the central nurse station. Other spaces in the trial included the nurse station, a common room called the family room located near the nurse station, and the ACC administrator’s private office.

  12. A Simple Disease-Guided Approach to Personalize ACC/AHA-Recommended Statin Allocation in Elderly People

    Mortensen, Martin Bødtker; Fuster, Valentin; Muntendam, Pieter;


    -based statin therapy due to age alone. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to personalize ACC/AHA risk-based statin eligibility using noninvasive assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS: In 5,805 BioImage participants without known ASCVD at baseline, those with ≥7.5% 10-year ASCVD risk were down...

  13. Effects of wintertime fasting and seasonal adaptation on AMPK and ACC in hypothalamus, adipose tissue and liver of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides).

    Kinnunen, Sanni; Mänttäri, Satu; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Saarela, Seppo


    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a canid with autumnal fattening and passive wintering strategy. We examined the effects of wintertime fasting and seasonality on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a regulator of metabolism, and its target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) on the species. Twelve farmed raccoon dogs (eleven females/one male) were divided into two groups: half were fasted for ten weeks in December-March (winter fasted) and the others were fed ad libitum (winter fed). A third group (autumn fed, eight females) was fed ad libitum and sampled in December. Total AMPK, ACC and their phosphorylated forms (pAMPK, pACC) were measured from hypothalamus, liver, intra-abdominal (iWAT) and subcutaneous white adipose tissues (sWAT). The fasted animals lost 32% and the fed 20% of their body mass. Hypothalamic AMPK expression was lower and pACC levels higher in the winter groups compared to the autumn fed group. Liver pAMPK was lower in the winter fasted group, with consistently decreased ACC and pACC. AMPK and pAMPK were down-regulated in sWAT and iWAT of both winter groups, with a parallel decline in pACC in sWAT. The responses of AMPK and ACC to fasting were dissimilar to the effects observed previously in non-seasonal mammals and hibernators. Differences between the winter fed and autumn fed groups indicate that the functions of AMPK and ACC could be regulated in a season-dependent manner. Furthermore, the distinctive effects of prolonged fasting and seasonal adaptation on AMPK-ACC pathway could contribute to the wintering strategy of the raccoon dog.

  14. EuCARD-AccNet-EuroLumi Workshop: The High-Energy Large Hadron Collider

    Zimmermann, F; HE-LHC10; HE-LHC 10


    This report contains the proceedings of the EuCARD-AccNet-EuroLumi Workshop on a High-Energy Large Hadron Collider `HE-LHC10' which was held on Malta from 14 to 16 October 2010. This is the first workshop where the possibility of building a 33 TeV centre-of-mass energy proton--proton accelerator in the LHC tunnel is discussed. The key element of such a machine will be the 20 T magnets needed to bend the particle beams: therefore much space was given to discussions about magnet technologies for high fields. The workshop also discussed possible parameter sets, issues related to beam dynamics and synchrotron radiation handling, and the need for new injectors, possibly with 1 TeV energy. The workshop searched for synergies with other projects and studies around the world facing similar challenges or pushing related technologies, revisited past experience, and explored a possible re-use of existing superconducting magnets. Last not least, it reinforced the inter-laboratory collaborations within EuCARD, especially ...

  15. A portable platform for accelerated PIC codes and its application to GPUs using OpenACC

    Hariri, F.; Tran, T. M.; Jocksch, A.; Lanti, E.; Progsch, J.; Messmer, P.; Brunner, S.; Gheller, C.; Villard, L.


    We present a portable platform, called PIC_ENGINE, for accelerating Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes on heterogeneous many-core architectures such as Graphic Processing Units (GPUs). The aim of this development is efficient simulations on future exascale systems by allowing different parallelization strategies depending on the application problem and the specific architecture. To this end, this platform contains the basic steps of the PIC algorithm and has been designed as a test bed for different algorithmic options and data structures. Among the architectures that this engine can explore, particular attention is given here to systems equipped with GPUs. The study demonstrates that our portable PIC implementation based on the OpenACC programming model can achieve performance closely matching theoretical predictions. Using the Cray XC30 system, Piz Daint, at the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre (CSCS), we show that PIC_ENGINE running on an NVIDIA Kepler K20X GPU can outperform the one on an Intel Sandy bridge 8-core CPU by a factor of 3.4.

  16. Anatomically shaped cranial collimation (ACC) for lateral cephalometric radiography: a technical report.

    Hoogeveen, R C; van der Stelt, P F; Berkhout, W E R


    Lateral cephalograms in orthodontic practice display an area cranial of the base of the skull that is not required for diagnostic evaluation. Attempts have been made to reduce the radiation dose to the patient using collimators combining the shielding of the areas above the base of the skull and below the mandible. These so-called "wedge-shaped" collimators have not become standard equipment in orthodontic offices, possibly because these collimators were not designed for today's combination panoramic-cephalometric imaging systems. It also may be that the anatomical variability of the area below the mandible makes this area unsuitable for standardized collimation. In addition, a wedge-shaped collimator shields the cervical vertebrae; therefore, assessment of skeletal maturation, which is based on the stage of development of the cervical vertebrae, cannot be performed. In this report, we describe our investigations into constructing a collimator to be attached to the cephalostat and shield the cranial area of the skull, while allowing the visualization of diagnostically relevant structures and markedly reducing the size of the irradiated area. The shape of the area shielded by this "anatomically shaped cranial collimator" (ACC) was based on mean measurements of cephalometric landmarks of 100 orthodontic patients. It appeared that this collimator reduced the area of irradiation by almost one-third without interfering with the imaging system or affecting the quality of the image. Further research is needed to validate the clinical efficacy of the collimator.

  17. The level of wild oat resistance to ACC-ase inhibitors in South-Eastern Poland

    Agnieszka Stokłosa


    Full Text Available In the years 2003-2004 two experiments: laboratory and field, were carried out to detect the level of wild oat herbicide resistance. Weeds were collected from fields in south-eastern Poland, on the basis of survey conducted between farmers who have problems with wild oat herbicidal fighting. Two herbicides were tested: fenoxaprop- P-ethyl and diclofop methyl, both ACC-ase inhibitors. The laboratory test was established by modified Letouze et al. (1997 method. After 6-day growth on each herbicide water solution, the number of alive wild oat seedlings was assesed. In the field experiment plants in 3-5 leaf stage were sprayed with field dose of each herbicide. Two weeks after spraying the percentage of plants damage and in July the percentage of flowering plants were assesed. The wild oat plants that survive in laboratory test in ≥50% and plants that flowered in ≥50% in field conditions were recognized as resistant. On that basis wild oat resistace to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and to diclofop methyl was stated on 17% and 28% fields from overall number of 18 fields, respectively.

  18. Joint INFN-CERN-EuCARD-AccNet Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects

    Rumolo, Giovanni; Zimmermann, Frank; ECLOUD'12


    This report contains the Proceedings of the Joint INFN-Frascati, INFN-Pisa, CERN-LER and EuCARD-AccNet Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects, “ECLOUD12”, held at La Biodola, Isola d’Elba, from 5 to 9 June 2012. The ECLOUD12 workshop reviewed many recent electron-cloud (EC) observations at existing storage rings, EC predictions for future accelerators, electron-cloud studies at DAFNE, EC mitigation by clearing electrodes and graphite/carbon coatings, modeling of incoherent EC effects, self-consistent simulations, synergies with other communities like the Valencia Space Consortium and the European Space Agency. ECLOUD12 discussed new EC observations at existing machines including LHC, CesrTA, PETRA-3, J-PARC, and FNAL MI; latest experimental efforts to characterize the EC – including EC diagnostics, experimental techniques, mitigation techniques such as coating and conditioning, advanced chemical and physical analyses of various vacuum-chamber surfaces, beam instabilities and emittance growth –; the...

  19. Manajemen Interferensi Femtocell pada LTE-Advanced dengan Menggunakkan Metode ACCS (Autonomous Component Carrier Selection

    Gatra Erga Yudhanto


    Full Text Available Dalam bidang telekomunikasi yang berkembang pesat, maka tekonologi LTE (Long term Evolution telah berkembang lagi menjadi LTE-Advanced dengan harapan bandwidth yang disediakan bisa mencapai 100 MHz, maka hal itu diciptakan berbagai macam teknik, salah satunya adalah CA (Carrier Aggregation, yaitu teknik untuk menggabungkan alokasi frekuensi yang terpisah-pisah. Manfaat dari teknik CA ini adalah memperbesar bandwith  demi memenuhi kecepatan data yang tinggi. Dalam sistem komunikasi terdapat interferensi dari masing-masing user yang ada di dalam sistem tersebut. Dalam proses manajemen interferensi yang terjadi dalam sistem, interferensi tersebut memiliki karakteristiknya sendiri-sendiri. Maka dari itu banyak sekali diriset tentang manajemen interferensi pada sistem komunikasi bergerak. Femtocell merupakan salah satu perangkat yang ada dalam sistem LTE-Advanced yang berfungsi sebagai penguat sinyal dalam ruangan, yang tersambung langsung pada arsitektur LTE-Advanced. Didalam Penelitian ini akan membahas Analisis performansi femtocell atau bisa disebut HeNB (Home e Node B pada LTE-Advanced dengan memakai teknik CA dan metode Autonomous component carrier selection (ACCS untuk manajemen interferensi.

  20. Early steps of adventitious rooting: morphology, hormonal profiling and carbohydrate turnover in carnation stem cuttings.

    Agulló-Antón, María Ángeles; Ferrández-Ayela, Almudena; Fernández-García, Nieves; Nicolás, Carlos; Albacete, Alfonso; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Acosta, Manuel


    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. A detailed analysis of the morphological changes occurring in the basal region of cultivated carnation cuttings during the early stages of adventitious rooting was carried out and the physiological modifications induced by exogenous auxin application were studied. To this end, the endogenous concentrations of five major classes of plant hormones [auxin, cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid] and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were analyzed at the base of stem cuttings and at different stages of adventitious root formation. We found that the stimulus triggering the initiation of adventitious root formation occurred during the first hours after their excision from the donor plant, due to the breakdown of the vascular continuum that induces auxin accumulation near the wounding. Although this stimulus was independent of exogenously applied auxin, it was observed that the auxin treatment accelerated cell division in the cambium and increased the sucrolytic activities at the base of the stem, both of which contributed to the establishment of the new root primordia at the stem base. Further, several genes involved in auxin transport were upregulated in the stem base either with or without auxin application, while endogenous CK and SA concentrations were specially affected by exogenous auxin application. Taken together our results indicate significant crosstalk between auxin levels, stress hormone homeostasis and sugar availability in the base of the stem cuttings in carnation during the initial steps of adventitious rooting.

  1. Efficiency of plant growth-promoting P-solubilizing Bacillus circulans CB7 for enhancement of tomato growth under net house conditions.

    Mehta, Preeti; Walia, Abhishek; Kulshrestha, Saurabh; Chauhan, Anjali; Shirkot, Chand Karan


    P-solubilizing bacterial isolate CB7 isolated from apple rhizosphere soil of Himachal Pradesh, India was identified as Bacillus circulans on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, biochemical tests, fatty acid methyl esters analysis, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The isolate exhibited plant growth-promoting traits of P-solubilization, auxin, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity, siderophore, nitrogenase activity, and antagonistic activity against Dematophora necatrix. In vitro studies revealed that P-solubilization and other plant growth-promoting traits were dependent on the presence of glucose in PVK medium and removal of yeast extract had no significant effect on plant growth-promoting traits. Plant growth-promoting traits of isolate CB7 were repressed in the presence of KH2 PO4 . P-solubilization activity was associated with the release of organic acids and a drop in the pH of the Pikovskaya's medium. HPLC analysis detected gluconic and citric acid as major organic acids in the course of P-solubilization. Remarkable increase was observed in seed germination (22.32%), shoot length (15.91%), root length (25.10%), shoot dry weight (52.92%) and root dry weight (31.4%), nitrogen (18.75%), potassium (57.69%), and phosphorus (22.22%) content of shoot biomass over control. These results demonstrate that isolate CB7 has the promising PGPR attributes to be developed as a biofertilizer to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth.

  2. Physical mapping of three fruit ripening genes:Endopolygalacturonase,ACC oxidase and ACC synthase from apple(Malus x domestica) in an apple rootstock A106(Malus sieboldii



    The apple rootstock,A106(Malus sieboldii),had 17 bivalents in pollen mother cells at meiotic metaphase 1,and 17 chromosomes in a haploid pollen cell.Karyotypes were prepared from root-tip cells with 2n=34 chromosomes,Seven out of 82 karyotypes(8.5%) showed one pari of satellites at the end of the short arm of chromosome 3.C-bands were shown on 6 pairs of chromosomes 2,4,6,8,14,and 16 near the telomeric regions of short arms.Probes for three ripening-related genes from Malus x domestica:endopolygalacturonase(EPG,0.6kb),ACC oxidase(1.2kb),and ACC synthase(2kb)were hybridized in situ to metaphase chromosomes of A106.Hybridization sites for the EPG gene were observed on the long arm of chromosome 14 in 15 out of 16 replicate spreads and proximal to the centromere of chromosomes 6 and 11.For the ACC oxidase gene,hylridization sites were observed in the telomeric region of the short arm of chromosomes 5 and 11 in 87% and 81% of 16 spreads respectively,proxiaml to the centromere of chromosome 1 in 81% of the spreads,and on the long arm of chromosome 13 in 50% of the spreads. Physical mapping of three fruit ripening genes in an apple rootstock A106.Twenty five spreads were studied for the ACC synthase gene and hybridization sites were observed in the telomeric region of the short arm of chromosome 12 in 96% of the spreads.chromosomes 9 and 10 in 76% of the spreads,and chromosome 17 in 56% of the spreads.

  3. Characterization of a Decapentapletic Gene (AccDpp from Apis cerana cerana and Its Possible Involvement in Development and Response to Oxidative Stress.

    Guilin Li

    Full Text Available To tolerate many acute and chronic oxidative stress-producing agents that exist in the environment, organisms have evolved many classes of signal transduction pathways, including the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ signal pathway. Decapentapletic gene (Dpp belongs to the TGFβ superfamily, and studies on Dpp have mainly focused on its role in the regulation of development. No study has investigated the response of Dpp to oxidative pressure in any organism, including Apis cerana cerana (A. cerana cerana. In this study, we identified a Dpp gene from A. cerana cerana named AccDpp. The 5΄ flanking region of AccDpp had many transcription factor binding sites that relevant to development and stress response. AccDpp was expressed at all stages of A. cerana cerana, with its highest expression in 15-day worker bees. The mRNA level of AccDpp was higher in the poison gland and midgut than other tissues. Furthermore, the transcription of AccDpp could be repressed by 4°C and UV, but induced by other treatments, according to our qRT-PCR analysis. It is worth noting that the expression level of AccDpp protein was increased after a certain time when A. cerana cerana was subjected to all simulative oxidative stresses, a finding that was not completely consistent with the result from qRT-PCR. It is interesting that recombinant AccDpp restrained the growth of Escherichia coli, a function that might account for the role of the antimicrobial peptides of AccDpp. In conclusion, these results provide evidence that AccDpp might be implicated in the regulation of development and the response of oxidative pressure. The findings may lay a theoretical foundation for further genetic studies of Dpp.

  4. Intermediates in the recycling of 5-methylthioribose to methionine in fruits.

    Kushad, M M; Richardson, D G; Ferro, A J


    The recycling of 5-methylthioribose (MTR) to methionine in avocado (Persea americana Mill, cv Hass) and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill, cv unknown) was examined. [(14)CH(3)]MTR was not metabolized in cell free extract from avocado fruit. Either [(14)CH(3)]MTR plus ATP or [(14)CH(3)]5-methylthioribose-1-phosphate (MTR-1-P) alone, however, were metabolized to two new products by these extracts. MTR kinase activity has previously been detected in these fruit extracts. These data indicate that MTR must be converted to MTR-1-P by MTR kinase before further metabolism can occur. The products of MTR-1-P metabolism were tentatively identified as alpha-keto-gamma-methylthiobutyric acid (alpha-KMB) and alpha-hydroxy-gamma-methylthiobutyric acid (alpha-HMB) by chromatography in several solvent systems. [(35)S]alpha-KMB was found to be further metabolized to methionine and alpha-HMB by these extracts, whereas alpha-HMB was not. However, alpha-HMB inhibited the conversion of alpha-KMB to methionine. Both [U-(14)C]alpha-KMB and [U-(14)C]methionine, but not [U-(14)C]alpha-HMB, were converted to ethylene in tomato pericarp tissue. In addition, aminoethoxyvinylglycine inhibited the conversion of alpha-KMB to ethylene. These data suggest that the recycling pathway leading to ethylene is MTR --> MTR-1-P --> alpha-KMB --> methionine --> S-adenosylmethionine --> 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid --> ethylene.

  5. A comparison of native GPU computing versus OpenACC for implementing flow-routing algorithms in hydrological applications

    Rueda, Antonio J.; Noguera, José M.; Luque, Adrián


    In recent years GPU computing has gained wide acceptance as a simple low-cost solution for speeding up computationally expensive processing in many scientific and engineering applications. However, in most cases accelerating a traditional CPU implementation for a GPU is a non-trivial task that requires a thorough refactorization of the code and specific optimizations that depend on the architecture of the device. OpenACC is a promising technology that aims at reducing the effort required to accelerate C/C++/Fortran code on an attached multicore device. Virtually with this technology the CPU code only has to be augmented with a few compiler directives to identify the areas to be accelerated and the way in which data has to be moved between the CPU and GPU. Its potential benefits are multiple: better code readability, less development time, lower risk of errors and less dependency on the underlying architecture and future evolution of the GPU technology. Our aim with this work is to evaluate the pros and cons of using OpenACC against native GPU implementations in computationally expensive hydrological applications, using the classic D8 algorithm of O'Callaghan and Mark for river network extraction as case-study. We implemented the flow accumulation step of this algorithm in CPU, using OpenACC and two different CUDA versions, comparing the length and complexity of the code and its performance with different datasets. We advance that although OpenACC can not match the performance of a CUDA optimized implementation (×3.5 slower in average), it provides a significant performance improvement against a CPU implementation (×2-6) with by far a simpler code and less implementation effort.

  6. Assessment of Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) and Left Cerebellar Metabolism in Asperger's Syndrome with Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS)

    Goji, Aya; Ito, Hiromichi; Mori, Kenji; Harada, Masafumi; Hisaoka, Sonoka; Toda, Yoshihiro; Mori, Tatsuo; Abe, Yoko; Miyazaki, Masahito; Kagami, Shoji


    Purpose Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) is a noninvasive neuroimaging method to quantify biochemical metabolites in vivo and it can serve as a powerful tool to monitor neurobiochemical profiles in the brain. Asperger’s syndrome (AS) is a type of autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired social skills and restrictive, repetitive patterns of interest and activities, while intellectual levels and language skills are relatively preserved. Despite clinical aspects have been well-characterized, neurometabolic profiling in the brain of AS remains to be clear. The present study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to investigate whether pediatric AS is associated with measurable neurometabolic abnormalities that can contribute new information on the neurobiological underpinnings of the disorder. Methods Study participants consisted of 34 children with AS (2–12 years old; mean age 5.2 (±2.0); 28 boys) and 19 typically developed children (2–11 years old; mean age 5.6 (±2.6); 12 boys) who served as the normal control group. The 1H MRS data were obtained from two regions of interest: the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left cerebellum. Results In the ACC, levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), total creatine (tCr), total choline-containing compounds (tCho) and myo-Inositol (mI) were significantly decreased in children with AS compared to controls. On the other hand, no significant group differences in any of the metabolites were found in the left cerebellum. Neither age nor sex accounted for the metabolic findings in the regions. Conclusion The finding of decreased levels of NAA, tCr, tCho, and mI in the ACC but not in left cerebellar voxels in the AS, suggests a lower ACC neuronal density in the present AS cohort compared to controls. PMID:28060873

  7. NATO Network Enabled Capability (NNEC) challenges: Why NATO Air Command and Control System (ACCS) might be a good case?


    Picture ( RAP ), Air Tasking Order (ATO), Air Coordination order (ACO), etc. 2. Non Functional: providing all other functionalities, e.g. IA/security...IBM, BEA, Raytheon, etc.), fielded national systems, NATO systems and prototypes (Euro Fighter, ICC, JADOCS, JCOP, JTS, MUSIC , NE-3A, Nor BFTS...instance, the RAP and FFT dissemination to internal as well as to external entities. The approach will be of benefit to ACCS and NATO C3 in the future

  8. Overproduction of fatty acids in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Li, Xiaowei; Guo, Daoyi; Cheng, Yongbo; Zhu, Fayin; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang


    The long hydrocarbon fatty acyl chain is energy rich, making it an ideal precursor for liquid transportation fuels and high-value oleo chemicals. As Saccharomyces cerevisiae has many advantages for industrial production compared to Escherichia coli. Here, we attempted to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for overproduction of fatty acids. First, disruption of the beta-oxidation pathway, elimination of the acyl-CoA synthetases, overexpression of different thioesterases and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC1, and engineering the supply of precursor acetyl-CoA. The engineered strain XL122 produced more than 120 mg/L of fatty acids. In parallel, we inactivated ADH1, the dominant gene for ethanol production, to redirect the metabolic flux to fatty acids synthesis. The engineered strain DG005 produced about 140 mg/L fatty acids. Additionally, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase was identified as a critical bottleneck of fatty acids synthesis in S. cerevisiae with a cell-free system. However, overexpression of ACC1 has little effect on fatty acids biosynthesis. As it has been reported that phosphorylation of ACC1 may influent its activity, so phosphorylation sites of ACC1 were further identified. Although the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear, our results provide rationale for future studies to target this critical step. All these efforts, particularly the discovery of the limiting step are critical for developing a "cell factory" for the overproduction of fatty acids by using type I fatty acids synthase in yeast or other fungi.

  9. Reduced AMPK-ACC and mTOR signaling in muscle from older men, and effect of resistance exercise

    Li, Mengyao; Verdijk, Lex B.; Sakamoto, Kei; Ely, Brian; van Loon, Luc J.C.; Musi, Nicolas


    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key energy-sensitive enzyme that controls numerous metabolic and cellular processes. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is another energy/nutrient-sensitive kinase that controls protein synthesis and cell growth. In this study we determined whether older versus younger men have alterations in the AMPK and mTOR pathways in skeletal muscle, and examined the effect of a long term resistance type exercise training program on these signaling intermediaries. Older men had decreased AMPKα2 activity and lower phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream signaling substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). mTOR phosphylation also was reduced in muscle from older men. Exercise training increased AMPKα1 activity in older men, however, AMPKα2 activity, and the phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and mTOR, were not affected. In conclusion, older men have alterations in the AMPK-ACC and mTOR pathways in muscle. In addition, prolonged resistance type exercise training induces an isoform-selective up regulation of AMPK activity. PMID:23000302

  10. [Prolonging the vase life of carnation "Mabel" through integrating repeated ACC oxidase genes into its genome].

    Yu, Yi-Xun; Bao, Man-Zhu


    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the most important cut flowers. The cultivar "Mabel" of carnation was transformed with direct repeat gene of ACC oxidase, the key enzyme in ethylene synthesis, driven by the CaMV35S promoter mediated by Agrobacterium tumefacien. Hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT) gene was used as selection marker. Leaf explants were pre-cultured on shoot-inducing medium for 2 d, then immersed in Agrobacterium suspension for 8-12 min. Co-cultivation was carried out on the medium (MS+BA 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.3 mg/L +Acetosyringone 100 micromol/L, pH 5.8-6.0) for 3 d. After that transformants were obtained by transferring explants to selection medium supplemented with 5 mg/L hygromycin (Hyg) and 400 mg/L cefotaxime (Cef). Southern blotting detection showed that a foreign gene was integrated into the carnation genome and 3 transgenic lines (T257, T299 and T273 line) obtained. Addition of acetosyringone and the time of co-culture were the main factors that influenced transformation frequency. After being transplanted to soil, transgenic plants were grew normally in greenhouse. Ethylene production of cut flower of transgenic T257 line was 95% lower than that of the control, and that of T299 line was reduced by 90% than that of the control, while that of transgenic T273 line has no of significantly different from control. Vase life of transgenic T257 line was 5 d longer than that of the control line at 25 degrees C.

  11. Bioprospecting of plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli from the cold desert of north western Indian Himalayas.

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Saxena, Anil Kumar


    The plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli were investigated from different sites in north western Indian Himalayas. A total of 247 morphotypes were obtained from different soil and water samples and were grouped into 43 clusters based on 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis with three restriction endonucleases. Sequencing of representative isolates has revealed that these 43 Bacilli belonged to different species of 11 genera viz., Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus and Virgibacillus. With an aim to develop microbial inoculants that can perform efficiently at low temperatures, all representative isolates were screened for different plant growth promoting traits at low temperatures (5-15 degrees C). Among the strains, variations were observed for production (%) of indole-3-acetic acid (20), ammonia (19), siderophores (11), gibberellic acid (4) and hydrogen cyanide (2); solubilisation (%) of zinc (14), phosphate (13) and potassium (7); 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (6%) and biocontrol activity (4%) against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Among all the strains, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus muralis, Desemzia incerta, Paenibacillus tylopili and Sporosarcina globispora were found to be potent candidates to be developed as inoculants as they exhibited multiple PGP traits at low temperature.

  12. Role of the Tomato Non-Ripening Mutation in Regulating Fruit Quality Elucidated Using iTRAQ Protein Profile Analysis

    Yuan, Xin-Yu; Wang, Rui-Heng; Zhao, Xiao-Dan; Luo, Yun-Bo; Fu, Da-Qi


    Natural mutants of the Non-ripening (Nor) gene repress the normal ripening of tomato fruit. The molecular mechanism of fruit ripening regulation by the Nor gene is unclear. To elucidate how the Nor gene can affect ripening and fruit quality at the protein level, we used the fruits of Nor mutants and wild-type Ailsa Craig (AC) to perform iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) analysis. The Nor mutation altered tomato fruit ripening and affected quality in various respects, including ethylene biosynthesis by down-regulating the abundance of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO), pigment biosynthesis by repressing phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1), ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO), chalcone synthase 1 (CHS1) and other proteins, enhancing fruit firmness by increasing the abundance of cellulose synthase protein, while reducing those of polygalacturonase 2 (PG2) and pectate lyase (PL), altering biosynthesis of nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, and anthocyanins. Conversely, Nor mutation also enhanced the fruit’s resistance to some pathogens by up-regulating the expression of several genes associated with stress and defense. Therefore, the Nor gene is involved in the regulation of fruit ripening and quality. It is useful in the future as a means to improve fruit quality in tomato. PMID:27732677

  13. Characterization of plant-growth-promoting effects and concurrent promotion of heavy metal accumulation in the tissues of the plants grown in the polluted soil by Burkholderia strain LD-11.

    Huang, Gui-Hai; Tian, Hui-Hui; Liu, Hai-Ying; Fan, Xian-Wei; Liang, Yu; Li, You-Zhi


    Plant-growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria especially with the resistance to multiple heavy metals are helpful to phytoremediation. Further development of PGP bacteria is very necessary because of the extreme diversity of plants, soils, and heavy metal pollution. A Burkholderia sp. strain, numbered LD-11, was isolated, which showed resistances to multiple heavy metals and antibiotics. It can produce indole-3-acetic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase and siderophores. Inoculation with the LD-11 improved germination of seeds of the investigated vegetable plants in the presence of Cu, promoted elongation of roots and hypocotyledonary axes, enhanced the dry weights of the plants grown in the soils polluted with Cu and/or Pb, and increased activity of the soil urease and the rhizobacteria diversity. Inoculation with the LD-11 significantly enhanced Cu and/or Pb accumulation especially in the roots of the plants grown in the polluted soils. Notably, LD-11 could produce siderophores in the presence of Cu. Conclusively, the PGP effects and concurrent heavy metal accumulation in the plant tissues results from combined effects of the above-mentioned multiple factors. Cu is an important element that represses production of the siderophore by the bacteria. Phytoremediation by synergistic use of the investigated plants and the bacterial strain LD-11 is a phytoextraction process.

  14. Cloning and sequence of cDNA encoding 1-aminocyclo- propane-1-carboxylate oxidase in Vanda flowers

    Pattana Srifah Huehne


    Full Text Available The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO gene in the final step of ethylene biosynthesis was isolated from ethylene-sensitive Vanda Miss Joaquim flowers. This consists of 1,242 base pairs (bp encoding for 326 amino acid residues. To investigate the specific divergence in orchid ACO sequences, the deduced Vanda ACO was aligned with five other orchid ACOs. The results reveal that the ACO sequences within Doritaenopsis, Phalaenopsis and Vanda show highly conserved and almost 95% identical homology, while the ACOs isolated from Cymbidium, Dendrobium and Cattleya are 8788% identical to Vanda ACO. In addition, the 2-oxoglutarate- Fe(II_oxygenase (Oxy domain of orchid ACOs consists of a higher degree of amino acid conservation than that of the non-haem dioxygenase (DIOX_N domain. The overall homology regions of Vanda ACO are commonly folded into 12 α-helices and 12 β-sheets similar to the three dimensional template-structure of Petunia ACO. This Vanda ACO cloned gene is highly expressed in flower tissue compared with root and leaf tissues. In particular, there is an abundance of ACO transcript accumulation in the column followed by the lip and the perianth of Vanda Miss Joaquim flowers at the fully-open stage.

  15. Doctors' knowledge, attitudes, and compliance with 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in Singapore

    Setia S


    Full Text Available Sajita Setia,1 Selwyn Sze-Wang Fung,2 David D Waters3 1Medical Affairs, Pfizer Pte Ltd, Singapore; 2Regional Medical Affairs, Pfizer Pte Ltd, Hong Kong; 3Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Purpose: There is an unmet need for strategies to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in Singapore. The main objective of this study was to investigate Singapore physicians’ response to the 2013 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA guidelines for treatment of cholesterol and their impact on clinical practice. Methods: This survey was conducted in two stages, qualitative and quantitative. Physicians were initially screened on the basis of an initial screener questionnaire, and eligible physicians were then included in the study. Results: Qualitative (n=19 and quantitative (n=66 surveys were completed by eligible physicians from Singapore. Physicians were less familiar with the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines (35% as compared with the Singapore Ministry of Health (MoH lipid guidelines 2006 (49%. Of the physicians whose opinion was sought on the ACC/AHA guidelines, more than 50% disagreed with the definition of high-, moderate-, and low-intensity statin therapy; recommendation of atorvastatin 40–80 mg and rosuvastatin 20–40 mg as medications for high-intensity statin therapy; and classification of individuals who would benefit from moderate- to high-intensity statin therapy. Most physicians assumed that Asians may be intolerant to high-intensity statin therapy. Conclusion: Although embracing the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines in clinical practice is expected to provide better clinical care to patients, our study revealed high reluctance by physicians, especially in the use of high-dose statins. However, ACC/AHA guidelines can be easily adopted in Asia as there is a wealth of data available for atorvastatin in primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease with

  16. Accumulation fatty acids of in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense

    Leyva, Luis A.; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E.


    The relation between fatty acid accumulation, activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and consequently lipid accumulation was studied in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris co-immobilized with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under dark heterotrophic conditions with Na acetate as a carbon source. In C. vulgaris immobilized alone, cultivation experiments for 6 days showed that ACC activity is directly related to fatty acid accumulation, especially in the last 3 days. In co-immobilization experiments, A. brasilense exerted a significant positive effect over ACC activity, increased the quantity in all nine main fatty acids, increased total lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris, and mitigated negative effects of nonoptimal temperature for growth. No correlation between ACC activity and lipid accumulation in the cells was established for three different temperatures. This study demonstrated that the interaction between A. brasilense and C. vulgaris has a significant effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation in the microalgae.

  17. Accumulation of fatty acids in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoAcarboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense [corrected].

    Leyva, Luis A; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E


    The relation between fatty acid accumulation, activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and consequently lipid accumulation was studied in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris co-immobilized with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under dark heterotrophic conditions with Na acetate as a carbon source. In C. vulgaris immobilized alone, cultivation experiments for 6 days showed that ACC activity is directly related to fatty acid accumulation, especially in the last 3 days. In co-immobilization experiments, A. brasilense exerted a significant positive effect over ACC activity, increased the quantity in all nine main fatty acids, increased total lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris, and mitigated negative effects of nonoptimal temperature for growth. No correlation between ACC activity and lipid accumulation in the cells was established for three different temperatures. This study demonstrated that the interaction between A. brasilense and C. vulgaris has a significant effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation in the microalgae.

  18. Transgenic analysis reveals LeACS-1 as a positive regulator of ethylene-induced shikonin biosynthesis in Lithospermum erythrorhizon hairy roots.

    Fang, Rongjun; Wu, Fengyao; Zou, Ailan; Zhu, Yu; Zhao, Hua; Zhao, Hu; Liao, Yonghui; Tang, Ren-Jie; Yang, Tongyi; Pang, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaoming; Yang, Rongwu; Qi, Jinliang; Lu, Guihua; Yang, Yonghua


    The phytohormone ethylene (ET) is a crucial signaling molecule that induces the biosynthesis of shikonin and its derivatives in Lithospermum erythrorhizon shoot cultures. However, the molecular mechanism and the positive regulators involved in this physiological process are largely unknown. In this study, the function of LeACS-1, a key gene encoding the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase for ET biosynthesis in L. erythrorhizon hairy roots, was characterized by using overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi) strategies. The results showed that overexpression of LeACS-1 significantly increased endogenous ET concentration and shikonin production, consistent with the up-regulated genes involved in ET biosynthesis and transduction, as well as the genes related to shikonin biosynthesis. Conversely, RNAi of LeACS-1 effectively decreased endogenous ET concentration and shikonin production and down-regulated the expression level of above genes. Correlation analysis showed a significant positive linear relationship between ET concentration and shikonin production. All these results suggest that LeACS-1 acts as a positive regulator of ethylene-induced shikonin biosynthesis in L. erythrorhizon hairy roots. Our work not only gives new insights into the understanding of the relationship between ET and shikonin biosynthesis, but also provides an efficient genetic engineering target gene for secondary metabolite production in non-model plant L. erythrorhizon.

  19. Characterization of heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape (Brassica napus) roots and their potential in promoting the growth and lead accumulation of rape

    Sheng Xiafang [MOA Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)], E-mail:; Xia Juanjuan; Jiang Chunyu; He Linyan; Qian Meng [MOA Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)


    Two lead (Pb)-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from rape roots grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils and characterized. A pot experiment was conducted for investigating the capability of the two isolates to promote the growth and Pb uptake of rape from Pb-amended soil. The two isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens G10 and Microbacterium sp. G16 based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Strains G10 and G16 exhibited different multiple heavy metal and antibiotic resistance characteristics and increased water-soluble Pb in solution and in Pb-added soil. Root elongation assays demonstrated increases in root elongation of inoculated rape seedlings compared to the control plants. Strain G16 produced indole acetic acid, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Increases in biomass production and total Pb uptake in the bacteria-inoculated plants were obtained compared to the control. The two strains could colonize the root interior and rhizosphere soil of rape after root inoculation. - Heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape have the potential of promoting the growth and lead uptake of rape.

  20. Significance of diazotrophic plant growth-promoting Herbaspirillum sp. GW103 on phytoextraction of Pband Zn by Zea mays L.

    Praburaman, Loganathan; Park, Sung-Hee; Cho, Min; Lee, Kui-Jae; Ko, Jeong-Ae; Han, Sang-Sub; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Oh, Byung-Taek


    Microbe-assisted phytoremediation has been considered a promising measure for the remediation of heavy metal-polluted soil. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of diazotrophic plant growth-promoting Herbaspirillum sp. GW103 on growth and lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) accumulation in Zea mays L. The strain GW103 exhibited plant growth-promoting traits such as indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic deaminase. Treatment of Z. mays L. plants with GW103 significantly increased 19, 31, and 52% of plant biomass and 10, 50, and 126% of chlorophyll a contents in Pb, Zn, and Pb + Zn-amended soils, respectively. Similarly, the strain GW103 significantly increased Pb and Zn accumulation in shoots and roots of Z. mays L., which were 77 and 25% in Pb-amended soil, 42 and 73% in Zn-amended soil, and 27 and 84% in Pb + Zn-amended soil. Furthermore, addition of GW103 increased 8, 12, and 7% of total protein content, catalase, and superoxide dismutase levels, respectively, in Z. mays L. plants. The results pointed out that isolate GW103 could potentially reduce the phytotoxicity of metals and increase Pb and Zn accumulation in Z. mays L. plant.

  1. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni


    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome.

  2. Resistance of Malus domestica fruit to Botrytis cinerea depends on endogenous ethylene biosynthesis.

    Akagi, Aya; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Stotz, Henrik U


    The plant hormone ethylene regulates fruit ripening, other developmental processes, and a subset of defense responses. Here, we show that 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS)-silenced apple (Malus domestica) fruit that express a sense construct of ACS were more susceptible to Botrytis cinerea than untransformed apple, demonstrating that ethylene strengthens fruit resistance to B. cinerea infection. Because ethylene response factors (ERFs) are known to contribute to resistance against B. cinerea via the ethylene-signaling pathway, we cloned four ERF cDNAs from fruit of M. domestica: MdERF3, -4, -5, and -6. Expression of all four MdERF mRNAs was ethylene dependent and induced by wounding or by B. cinerea infection. B. cinerea infection suppressed rapid induction of wound-related MdERF expression. MdERF3 was the only mRNA induced by wounding and B. cinerea infection in ACS-suppressed apple fruit, although its induction was reduced compared with wild-type apple. Promoter regions of all four MdERF genes were cloned and putative cis-elements were identified in each promoter. Transient expression of MdERF3 in tobacco increased expression of the GCC-box containing gene chitinase 48.

  3. Potential plant growth-promoting strain Bacillus sp. SR-2-1/1 decolorized azo dyes through NADH-ubiquinone:oxidoreductase activity.

    Mahmood, Faisal; Shahid, Muhammad; Hussain, Sabir; Shahzad, Tanvir; Tahir, Muhammad; Ijaz, Muhammad; Hussain, Athar; Mahmood, Khalid; Imran, Muhammad; Babar, Shahid Ali Khan


    In this study, a bacterial strain SR-2-1/1 was isolated from textile wastewater-irrigated soil for its concurrent potential of plant growth promotion and azo-dye decolorization. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence confirmed its identity as Bacillus sp. The strain tolerated high concentrations (i.e. up to 1000mgL(-1)) of metals (Ni(2+), Cd(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), and Cr(6+)) and efficiently decolorized the azo dyes (i.e. reactive black-5, reactive red-120, direct blue-1 and congo red). It also demonstrated considerable in vitro phosphate solubilizing and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase abilities at high metal and salt levels. Bioinformatics analysis of its 537bp azoreductase gene and deduced protein revealed that it decolorized azo dyes through NADH-ubiquinone:oxidoreductase enzyme activity. The deduced protein was predicted structurally and functionally different to those of its closely related database proteins. Thus, the strain SR-2-1/1 is a powerful bioinoculant for bioremediation of textile wastewater contaminated soils in addition to stimulation of plant growth.

  4. Tomato FRUITFULL homologs regulate fruit ripening via ethylene biosynthesis.

    Shima, Yoko; Fujisawa, Masaki; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Nakamura, Toshihide; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro


    Certain MADS-box transcription factors play central roles in regulating fruit ripening. RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), a tomato MADS-domain protein, acts as a global regulator of ripening, affecting the climacteric rise of ethylene, pigmentation changes, and fruit softening. Previously, we showed that two MADS-domain proteins, the FRUITFULL homologs FUL1 and FUL2, form complexes with RIN. Here, we characterized the FUL1/FUL2 loss-of-function phenotype in co-suppressed plants. The transgenic plants produced ripening-defective fruits accumulating little or no lycopene. Unlike a previous study on FUL1/FUL2 suppressed tomatoes, our transgenic fruits showed very low levels of ethylene production, and this was associated with suppression of the genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene synthesis. FUL1/FUL2 suppression also caused the fruit to soften in a manner independent of ripening, possibly due to reduced cuticle thickness in the peel of the suppressed tomatoes.

  5. Identification of differentially expressed genes related to aphid resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Liang, Danna; Liu, Min; Hu, Qijing; He, Min; Qi, Xiaohua; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Fucai; Chen, Xuehao


    Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover) are among the most serious pests in cucumber production and often cause severe loss of yield and make fruit quality get worse. Identifying genes that render cucumbers resistant to aphid-induced damage and breeding aphid-resistant cucumber varieties have become the most promising control strategies. In this study, a Illumina Genome Analyzer platform was applied to monitor changes in gene expression in the whole genome of the cucumber cultivar 'EP6392' which is resistant to aphids. Nine DGE libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected leaves. In total, 49 differentially expressed genes related to cucumber aphid resistance were screened during the treatment period. These genes are mainly associated with signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism and sugar metabolism pathways. Eight of the 49 genes may be associated with aphid resistance. Finally, expression of 9 randomly selected genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR to verify the results for the tag-mapped genes. With the exception of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog 6, the expression of the chosen genes was in agreement with the results of the tag-sequencing analysis patterns.

  6. Bioaccumulation of nickel by E. sativa and role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) under nickel stress.

    Kamran, Muhammad Aqeel; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Bibi, Sadia; Xu, Ren-kou; Amna; Monis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Bokhari, Habib; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed


    Phytoremediation potential of plants can be enhanced in association with microbes. Further, many plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria can improve growth under stress. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) on nickel (Ni) uptake and on growth of Eruca sativa (E. sativa). Three different levels of Ni (low; 150 ug/g, medium; 250 ug/g and high; 500 ug/g) were applied to the soil containing E. sativa seedlings, with or without P. putida. Ni-toxicity was measured by metamorphic parameters including shoot length, root length, biomass, chlorophyll and proline and Ni contents. Inoculation with P. putida increased 34% and 41% in root and shoot length and 38% and 24% in fresh, dry weight respectively, as compared to non-inoculated plants. Similarly, Ni uptake increased by up to 46% following P. putida inoculation as compared to non-inoculated plants. Indole acetic acid, siderophore and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) activity in the growing media enhanced growth and Ni uptake in E. sativa. The present results offer insight on Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), such as P. putida, for the potential to enhance the plant growth by inhibiting the adverse effects of Ni in E. sativa.

  7. Developmental Regulation Is Altered in the Calyx during in Vitro Ovary Culture of Tomato.

    Ishida, B. K.


    To develop a system with which to study fruit ripening, in vitro ovary cultures were initiated from tomato flowers. As reported previously [Nitsch, J.P. (1951). Am. J. Bot. 38, 566-577], tomato fruit ripened after 6 to 7 weeks, but calyces swelled unexpectedly, lost their green color, and gradually became red and succulent. Investigations were conducted, therefore, to verify the occurrence of the ripening process in the calyx. Ethylene production increased in both ripening fruit and red calyx, as did tissue contents of its immediate precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. In addition, an increase in the mRNA of polygalacturonase [poly(1,4-[alpha]-D-galacturonide) glucanohydrolase, EC], an enzyme that in tomato is present in large amounts only in ripening fruit, was established in both ripe fruit and red calyx by RNA gel blot analysis. Ultrastructural studies showed that the disruption of cell walls in red calyx was indistinguishable from that occurring in ripe tomato fruit. Thus, the developmental program of the calyx changed in several aspects to resemble that of tomato fruit.

  8. Multifarious beneficial traits and plant growth promoting potential of Serratia marcescens KiSII and Enterobacter sp. RNF 267 isolated from the rhizosphere of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L.).

    George, Priya; Gupta, Alka; Gopal, Murali; Thomas, Litty; Thomas, George V


    Two plant growth promoting bacteria designated as KiSII and RNF 267 isolated from the rhizosphere of coconut palms were identified as Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter sp. based on their phenotypic features, BIOLOG studies and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Both bacteria exhibited phosphate solubilization, ammonification, and production of indole acetic acid, β-1, 3 glucanase activities and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase activity. They could also tolerate a range of pH conditions, low temperature and salinity (NaCl). In addition, S. marcescens KiSII exhibited N- fixation potential, chitinase activity, siderophore production and antibiotics production. Seed bacterization with these bacteria increased the growth parameters of test plants such as paddy and cowpea over uninoculated control in green house assay. In coconut seedlings, significant increase in growth and nutrient uptake accompanied with higher populations of plant beneficial microorganisms in their rhizospheres were recorded on inoculation with both the PGPRs. The present study clearly revealed that PGPRs can aid in production of healthy and vigorous seedlings of coconut palm which are hardy perennial crops. They offer a scope to be developed into novel PGPR based bioinoculants for production of elite seedlings that can benefit the coconut farming community and the coconut based ecology.

  9. Isolation of Endophytic Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria Associated with the Halophyte Salicornia europaea and Evaluation of their Promoting Activity Under Salt Stress.

    Zhao, Shuai; Zhou, Na; Zhao, Zheng-Yong; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Guo-Hua; Tian, Chang-Yan


    Several reports have highlighted that many plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria (PGPE) can assist their host plants in coping with various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, information about the PGPE colonizing in the halophytes is still scarce. This study was designed to isolate and characterize PGPE from salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea grown under extreme salinity and to evaluate in vitro the bacterial mechanisms related to plant growth promotion. A total of 105 isolates were obtained from the surface-sterilized roots, stems, and assimilation twigs of S. europaea. Thirty-two isolates were initially selected for their ability to produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase as well as other properties such as production of indole-3-acetic acid and phosphate-solubilizing activities. The 16S rRNA gene-sequencing analysis revealed that these isolates belong to 13 different genera and 19 bacterial species. For these 32 strains, seed germination and seedling growth in axenically grown S. europaea seedlings at different NaCl concentrations (50-500 mM) were quantified. Five isolates possessing significant stimulation of the host plant growth were obtained. The five isolates were identified as Bacillus endophyticus, Bacillus tequilensis, Planococcus rifietoensis, Variovorax paradoxus, and Arthrobacter agilis. All the five strains could colonize and can be reisolated from the host plant interior tissues. These results demonstrate that habitat-adapted PGPE isolated from halophyte could enhance plant growth under saline stress conditions.

  10. Characterization of bacteria in the rhizosphere soils of Polygonum pubescens and their potential in promoting growth and Cd, Pb, Zn uptake by Brassica napus.

    Jing, Yuan Xiao; Yan, Jun Lan; He, Huai Dong; Yang, Dan Jing; Xiao, Li; Zhong, Ting; Yuan, Ming; Cai, Xin De; Li, Shu Bin


    Microbe-enhanced phytoremediation has been considered as a promising measure for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. In this study, two bacterial strains JYX7 and JYX10 were isolated from rhizosphere soils of Polygonum pubescens grown in metal-polluted soil and identified as of Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp. based on 16S rDNA sequences, respectively. JYX7 and JYX10 showed high Cd, Pb and Zn tolerance and increased water-soluble Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in culture solution and metal-added soils. Two isolates produced plant growth-promoting substances such as indole acetic acid, siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic deaminase, and solubilized inorganic phosphate. Based upon their ability in metal tolerance and solubilization, two isolates were further studied for their effects on growth and accumulation of Cd, Pb, and Zn in Brassica napus (rape) by pot experiments. Rapes inoculated with JYX7 and JYX10 had significantly higher dry weights, concentrations and uptakes of Cd, Pb, Zn in both above-ground and root tissues than those without inoculation grown in soils amended with Cd (25 mg kg(-1)), Pb (200 mg kg(-1)) or Zn (200 mg kg(-1)). The present results demonstrated that JYX7 and JYX10 are valuable microorganism, which can improve the efficiency of phytoremediation in soils polluted by Cd, Pb, and Zn.

  11. api, A novel Medicago truncatula symbiotic mutant impaired in nodule primordium invasion.

    Teillet, Alice; Garcia, Joseph; de Billy, Françoise; Gherardi, Michèle; Huguet, Thierry; Barker, David G; de Carvalho-Niebel, Fernanda; Journet, Etienne-Pascal


    Genetic approaches have proved to be extremely useful in dissecting the complex nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium-legume endosymbiotic association. Here we describe a novel Medicago truncatula mutant called api, whose primary phenotype is the blockage of rhizobial infection just prior to nodule primordium invasion, leading to the formation of large infection pockets within the cortex of noninvaded root outgrowths. The mutant api originally was identified as a double symbiotic mutant associated with a new allele (nip-3) of the NIP/LATD gene, following the screening of an ethylmethane sulphonate-mutagenized population. Detailed characterization of the segregating single api mutant showed that rhizobial infection is also defective at the earlier stage of infection thread (IT) initiation in root hairs, as well as later during IT growth in the small percentage of nodules which overcome the primordium invasion block. Neither modulating ethylene biosynthesis (with L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinylglycine or 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) nor reducing ethylene sensitivity in a skl genetic background alters the basic api phenotype, suggesting that API function is not closely linked to ethylene metabolism or signaling. Genetic mapping places the API gene on the upper arm of the M. truncatula linkage group 4, and epistasis analyses show that API functions downstream of BIT1/ERN1 and LIN and upstream of NIP/LATD and the DNF genes.

  12. Effect of heavy metal-solubilizing microorganisms on zinc and cadmium extractions from heavy metal contaminated soil with Tricholoma lobynsis.

    Ji, Ling-yun; Zhang, Wei-wei; Yu, Dong; Cao, Yan-ru; Xu, Heng


    The macrofungus, Tricholoma lobynsis, was chosen to remedy Zn-Cd-Pb contaminated soil. To enhance its metal-extracting efficiency, two heavy metal resistant microbes M6 and K1 were applied owing to their excellent abilities to solubilize heavy metal salts. The two isolated microbial strains could also produce indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore and solubilize inorganic phosphate, but neither of them showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. The strains M6 and K1 were identified as Serratia marcescens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa based on 16S rDNA and ITS sequence analysis respectively. Pot experiment showed that spraying to T. lobynsis-inoculated soil with M6 and K1 respectively could increase total Cd accumulations of this mushroom by 216 and 61%, and Zn by 153 and 49% compared to the uninoculated control. Pb accumulation however, was too low (metal-accumulating abilities of macrofungi and IAA-siderophore production, phosphate solubilization abilities of the assisted-microbes. This kind of macrofungi-microbe interaction can be developed into a novel bioremediation strategy.

  13. Polyamines attenuate ethylene-mediated defense responses to abrogate resistance to Botrytis cinerea in tomato.

    Nambeesan, Savithri; AbuQamar, Synan; Laluk, Kristin; Mattoo, Autar K; Mickelbart, Michael V; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Mengiste, Tesfaye; Handa, Avtar K


    Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines overexpressing yeast spermidine synthase (ySpdSyn), an enzyme involved in polyamine (PA) biosynthesis, were developed. These transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of spermidine (Spd) than the wild-type plants and were examined for responses to the fungal necrotrophs Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria solani, bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000, and larvae of the chewing insect tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta). The Spd-accumulating transgenic tomato lines were more susceptible to B. cinerea than the wild-type plants; however, responses to A. solani, P. syringae, or M. sexta were similar to the wild-type plants. Exogenous application of ethylene precursors, S-adenosyl-Met and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, or PA biosynthesis inhibitors reversed the response of the transgenic plants to B. cinerea. The increased susceptibility of the ySpdSyn transgenic tomato to B. cinerea was associated with down-regulation of gene transcripts involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signaling. These data suggest that PA-mediated susceptibility to B. cinerea is linked to interference with the functions of ethylene in plant defense.

  14. 亮点闪辉、科学璀灿的医学盛会--ACC 2005会议浅谈%The Bright and Scientific Medical Pageant--A Brief Talk on the ACC Meeting 2005



    @@ 美国心脏病学会(American College ofCardiology,ACC)年会于2005年3月7-11日在美国佛罗里达州奥兰多市举行.世界各国心血管学的三万多位代表参加了学术大会,共同分享心血管系统的科研成果.笔者参加了会议感触会议亮点四射,于此浅谈于下述.

  15. Sûreté et sécurité d'accès au LHC

    Cennini, E; CERN. Geneva. ST Division


    L'identification des besoins, des contraintes et des performances pour le projet des sysètmes d'accès du LHC étant pratiquement achevée, la phase de design est actuellement en cours et elle mènera á la rédaction des spécifications techniques. L'objet de ce document consiste á présenter les aspects principaux (fonctions, composantes, caractéristiques, phases) des systèmes d'accès du LHC. Ces aspects découlent notamment de l'analyse des besoins requis et identifiés lors des études et des discussions au sein du LHC-AIWG. Les directives issues de la norme IEC 61508 concernant l'élaboration de systèmes électriques et électroniques dédiées á la sureté ont été considérées. La méthode d'évaluation (préconisée par la norme) des différents paramètres de sureté (disponibilité, défaillance, SIL) est brièvement rappelée et, plus concrètement, les valeurs obtenues pour la fonction de sureté principale des systèmes d'accès du SPS sont présentées.

  16. Simulations of higher order modes simulations of higher order modes in the ACC39 module of FLASH

    Shinton, I R R; Li, Z; Zhang, P


    This study is focused on the development of a HOM-based BPM system for the ACC39 module currently installed and in operation at FLASH. A similar system is anticipated to be installed at XFEL. Coupled inter-cavity modes are simulated together with a limited band of trapped modes. A suite of finite element computer codes (including HFSS and ACE3P) and globalised scattering matrix calculations (GSM) are used to investigate the modes in these cavities with a view to providing guidance on their use as a cavity beam diagnostic.

  17. Lettres, mots, textes - Clefs d'accès à l'écrit numérique

    Pincemin, Bénédicte


    National audience; Les moteurs de recherche en texte intégral font partie des outils centraux pour l'anayse littéraire sur corpus numérique. Une introduction simple aux techniques usuelles (indexation par fichier inverse, modèle de l'espace vectoriel) permet de comprendre sur quoi reposent les différents modes d'accès au texte et de prendre en compte les biais induits par le traitement automatique. Avec une approche linguistique, on examine en particulier dans le détail le fonctionnement et l...

  18. 2015年ACC/AHA/HRS成人室上性心动过速管理指南解读%Interpretation of 2015 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline for the management of adult patients with supraventricular tachycardia

    鲍慧慧; 程晓曙



  19. Effects of Compound Radix Sophorae Flavescentis injection on proliferation, apoptosis and Caspase-3 expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma ACC-2 cells%复方苦参注射液对泪腺腺样囊性癌ACC-2细胞增殖、凋亡及Caspase-3蛋白表达的影响

    石博; 徐慧


    目的 探讨复方苦参注射液对泪腺腺样囊性癌ACC-2细胞增殖、凋亡及Caspases-3蛋白表达的影响.方法 体外培养人泪腺腺样囊性癌ACC-2细胞,应用MTT法检测细胞增殖;Annexin V/PI双染色流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡和细胞周期;ELISA法检测Caspases-3蛋白表达.结果 复方苦参注射液对ACC-2细胞的体外增殖具有抑制作用,量效关系显著,与对照组比较有统计学差异(P<0.01),半数抑制浓度(IC50)为0.84 g/ml.经流式细胞仪检测表明,复方苦参注射液能使ACC-2细胞G0-G1期逐渐增加,G2-M期和S期逐渐减少,并且随着剂量的增加,ACC-2细胞凋亡率明显增加(P<0.05或P<0.01).复方苦参注射液能增强ACC-2细胞Caspases-3蛋白的表达(P<0.05或P<0.01),并呈剂量依赖性.结论 复方苦参注射液能有效抑制人泪腺腺样囊性癌ACC-2细胞Caspases-3蛋白表达,诱导ACC-2细胞凋亡,抑制肿瘤细胞增殖.%Objective To investigate the effects of compound Radix Sophorae Flavescentis injection on proliferation, apoptosis and Caspase-3 expression in human adenoid cystic carcinoma ACC-2 cells. Methods ACC-2 cells were cultured in vitro. MTT assay was used to measure the cell proliferative effect. The Annexin V/PI double staining analysis by flow cytometry was used to evaluate apoptotic rate and the cell cycle. The expression of Caspases-3 protein was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA ). Results Compound Radix Sophorae Flavescentis injection could inhibit the proliferation of ACC-2 cells in vitro,and dose-effect relationship was significant P<0. 01 ). IC50 of ACC-2 was 0. 84 g/ml. The flow cytometry test indicated, compound Radix Sophorae Flavescentis injection could make ACC-2 cells Go-G, phase gradually increasing, G2-M period and S phase reduce gradually, and with the increase of the dose, ACC-2 cell apoptosis rate increased significantly ( P<0. 05 or P<0.01 ). Compound Radix Sophorae Flavescentis injection could enhance ACC-2

  20. Politique CERN pour le contrôle d'accès à son domaine et description de l'implantation en cours

    Jacot, C


    Une volonté politique claire émanant de la direction du CERN et de l'Access Control Panel a chargé la section ST/MC/AC de mettre en place un concept de contrôle d'accès global et cohérent pour l'ensemble des accès au domaine et aux sites de ses accélérateurs. Cela implique que depuis l'accueil et l'enregistrement des personnes jusqu'à la gestion, la surveillance du domaine ainsi que les installations techniques de contrôle d'accès, tous ces services qui sont complémentaires sont désormais rassemblés dans une seule section. Un projet de management des autorisations fortement informatisé ainsi que la productions des cartes CERN sont en cours d'installation. De nombreuses autres installations de contrôle d'accès sont opérationnelles et d'autres sont en cours de réalisation. Toutes seront ensuite intégrées et supervisées depuis une centrale située dans le bâtiment 120, cette dernière est exploitée par une société de surveillance au bénéfice d'un contrat avec le CERN.

  1. Methane oxidation needs less stressed plants.

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Smaill, Simeon J; Clinton, Peter W


    Methane oxidation rates in soil are liable to be reduced by plant stress responses to climate change. Stressed plants exude ethylene into soil, which inhibits methane oxidation when present in the soil atmosphere. Here we discuss opportunities to use 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase to manage methane oxidation by regulating plant stress responses.

  2. 2006年ACC/AHA/ESC心房颤动控制指南解读%Readout on the 2006 edition of atrial fibrillation-control guidelines by the ACC/AHA/ESC

    蔡力; 陶剑虹; 李杰



  3. 2003年ACC/AHA/ESC室上性快速性心律失常治疗指南评介%Review of the 2003 ACC/AHA/ESC Treatment Guidelines for Rapid Supraventricular Arrhythmia

    刘兴斌; 黄德嘉


    @@ 美国心脏病学会(ACC)、美国心脏学会(AHA)及欧洲心脏病学会(ESC)于2003年联合制订发布了室上性快速性心律失常治疗指南.该指南涵盖各种类型的窦性心动过速、房性心动过速、心房扑动、房室结折返性心动过速(AVNRT)、房室折返性心动过速(AVRT)、交界区心动过速等.不包括心房颤动(另有专门指南).现结合国内具体情况对该指南作一评介.

  4. Effect of SD rat sciatic nerve on proliferation of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Cell Line ACC-M in vitro%SD大鼠坐骨神经对腺样囊性癌细胞系ACC-M体外增殖能力的影响

    杨向明; 孙沫逸; 蔡卜磊; 贾文荣; 李建虎



  5. XBAT35, a Novel Arabidopsis RING E3 Ligase Exhibiting Dual Targeting of Its Splice Isoforms,Is Involved in Ethylene-Mediated Regulation of Apical Hook Curvature

    Sofia D.Carvalho; Rita Saraiva; Teresa M.Maia; Isabel A.Abreu; Paula Duque


    The Arabidopsis XBAT35 is one of five structurally related ankyrin repeat-containing Really interesting New Gene (RING) E3 ligases involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation,which plays key roles in a wide range of cellular processes.Here,we show that the XBAT35 gene undergoes alternative splicing,generating two transcripts that are constitutively expressed in all plant tissues.The two splice variants derive from an exon skipping event that excludes an in-frame segment from the XBAT35 precursor mRNA,giving rise to two protein isoforms that differ solely in the presence of a nuclear localization signal (NLS).Transient expression assays indicate that the isoform lacking the NLS localizes in the cytoplasm of plant cells,whereas the other is targeted to the nucleus,accumulating in nuclear speckles.Both isoforms are functional E3 ligases,as assessed by in vitro ubiquitination assays.Two insertion mutant alleles and RNA-interference (RNAi) silencing lines for XBAT35 display no evident phenotypes under normal growth conditions,but exhibit hypersensitivity to the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) during apical hook exaggeration in the dark,which is rescued by an inhibitor of ethylene perception.Independent expression of each XBAT35 splice variant in the mutant background indicates that the two isoforms may differentially contribute to apical hook formation but are both functional in this ethylene-mediated response.Thus,XBAT35 defines a novel player in ethylene signaling involved in negatively regulating apical hook curvature,with alternative splicing controlling dual targeting of this E3 ubiquitin ligase to the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments.

  6. Potentiation of motor sub-networks for motor control but not working memory: Interaction of dACC and SMA revealed by resting-state directed functional connectivity

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Asemi, Avisa; Burgess, Ashley; Chowdury, Asadur; Bressler, Steven L.


    The dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) and the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) are known to interact during motor coordination behavior. We previously discovered that the directional influences underlying this interaction in a visuo-motor coordination task are asymmetric, with the dACC→SMA influence being significantly greater than that in the reverse direction. To assess the specificity of this effect, here we undertook an analysis of the interaction between dACC and SMA in two distinct contexts. In addition to the motor coordination task, we also assessed these effects during a (n-back) working memory task. We applied directed functional connectivity analysis to these two task paradigms, and also to the rest condition of each paradigm, in which rest blocks were interspersed with task blocks. We report here that the previously known asymmetric interaction between dACC and SMA, with dACC→SMA dominating, was significantly larger in the motor coordination task than the memory task. Moreover the asymmetry between dACC and SMA was reversed during the rest condition of the motor coordination task, but not of the working memory task. In sum, the dACC→SMA influence was significantly greater in the motor task than the memory task condition, and the SMA→dACC influence was significantly greater in the motor rest than the memory rest condition. We interpret these results as suggesting that the potentiation of motor sub-networks during the motor rest condition supports the motor control of SMA by dACC during the active motor task condition. PMID:28278267

  7. Effect of solvents on the fumonisins analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with AccQ.Fluor as the derivatizing reagent.

    Velázquez, C; Llovera, M; Plana, J; Canela, R


    The effect of several solvent systems on the chromatographic response of fumonisin B1 and B2 derived with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AccQ.Fluor) is described. Naturally contaminated corn samples were extracted and purified by a standard method. Then, samples were dissolved in different solvents, derived with AccQ.Fluor reagent and analysed using HPLC. Results were solvent dependent, methanol being the best one among all assayed solvents for both fumonisins studied and acetonitrile the poorest. o-Phthaldialdehyde (OPA) reagent was used as a reference method.

  8. Effects of High-fat Diet and Treadmill Exercise on AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK)/Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACC) Signaling Pathway and Fatty Acid Translocase CD36 Protein Content in Rat Gastrocnemius Muscle%高脂膳食和跑台运动对雄性大鼠腓肠肌腺苷酸活化蛋白激酶/乙酰辅酶A羧化酶信号通路和膜蛋白脂肪酸转位酶蛋白含量的影响

    张云丽; 娄淑杰


    目的 探讨高脂膳食和8周有氧耐力运动对大鼠腓肠肌腺苷酸活化蛋白激酶(AMPK)/乙酰辅酶A羧化酶(ACC)信号通路和膜蛋白脂肪酸转位酶CD36含量的影响.方法 建立营养性肥胖大鼠模型,并随机分为肥胖安静组(OC组)和肥胖运动组(OE组),另设普通饲料安静组(NC组)和普通饲料运动组(NE组).运动干预结束后检测腓肠肌AMPKα、p-AMPKa ACC、 p-ACC和膜蛋白CD36的蛋白水平.结果 1)NE组与NC、OE及OC组相比,p-AMPKα的蛋白水平显著升高(P<0.01);OC组p-AMPKα的蛋白水平显著低于NC组(P<0.01).2)OC组p-ACC蛋白水平显著低于NC组(P<0.01);OE组p-ACC的蛋白水平显著高于OC组(P<0.01).3)NE组与NC、OE及OC组相比,OC组与NC组相比,膜蛋白CD36含量均无显著性变化(P>0.05).结论 1)运动可改善高脂膳食引起的AMPK/ACC信号通路障碍.2)运动对体质量不同大鼠p-ACC蛋白水平的影响存在差异.3)腓肠肌膜蛋白CD36的含量并没有伴随AMPK/ACC信号通路的激活或抑制而发生显著变化.

  9. L’accès aux ressources d’une formation guidé par des ontologies

    Dominique Fontaine


    Full Text Available Beaucoup de ressources sont mises à contribution pour supporter une formation de type e-learning. L’un des objectifs du projet MEMORAe est de rendre ces ressources plus accessibles aux apprenants. Ce projet propose une approche fondée sur une mémoire organisationnelle de l’ensemble des notions et des ressources de la formation. Un principe est d’indexer ces ressources sur les concepts d’ontologie. Nous décrivons les moyens déployés à cette fin. Nous présentons les scénarios par lesquels les apprenants accèdent aux connaissances en parcourant ces ontologies. Enfin, nous illustrons notre propos à l’aide de deux applications actuellement mises en place en université.


    Oana Elena AMZA


    Full Text Available In the treatment with ultrasounds, two categories of devices are used, which work on theprinciple of the magnetostriction phenomenon or the principle of pieso-electrictricity. The mostimportant part of an endodontic ultrasound device is the ultra-acoustic system which must becalculated, projected and made in such way so th exercise a certain type of ultrasound (asked bythat application which together with the endodontic instrument acoustically activated to worktogether in resonance regime. In order to find the hidden canals calcified and for an easiermaking of the acces to the root canals is suggested an endodontic instrument with an activespecific part and with a central canal which allows the penetration of a cooling fluid in the workarea and in order to create the phenomenon of ultrasound cavity

  11. ACC/AHA/ESC关于诊治室上性心律失常的指南(上)




  12. SCAI/AATS/ACC/STS operator and institutional requirements for transcatheter valve repair and replacement, Part III: Pulmonic valve.

    Hijazi, Ziyad M; Ruiz, Carlos E; Zahn, Evan; Ringel, Richard; Aldea, Gabriel S; Bacha, Emile A; Bavaria, Joseph; Bolman, R Morton; Cameron, Duke E; Dean, Larry S; Feldman, Ted; Fullerton, David; Horlick, Eric; Mack, Michael J; Miller, D Craig; Moon, Marc R; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Trento, Alfredo; Tommaso, Carl L


    With the evolution of transcatheter valve replacement, an important opportunity has arisen for cardiologists and surgeons to collaborate in identifying the criteria for performing these procedures. Therefore, The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI), American Association for Thoracic Surgery (AATS), American College of Cardiology (ACC), and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) have partnered to provide recommendations for institutions to assess their potential for instituting and/or maintaining a transcatheter valve program. This article concerns transcatheter pulmonic valve replacement (tPVR). tPVR procedures are in their infancy with few reports available on which to base an expert consensus statement. Therefore, many of these recommendations are based on expert consensus and the few reports available. As the procedures evolve, technology advances, experience grows, and more data accumulate, there will certainly be a need to update this consensus statement. The writing committee and participating societies believe that the recommendations in this report serve as appropriate requisites. In some ways, these recommendations apply to institutions more than to individuals. There is a strong consensus that these new valve therapies are best performed using a Heart Team approach; thus, these credentialing criteria should be applied at the institutional level. Partnering societies used the ACC's policy on relationships with industry (RWI) and other entities to author this document ( To avoid actual, potential, or perceived conflicts of interest due to industry relationships or personal interests, all members of the writing committee, as well as peer reviewers of the document, were asked to disclose all current healthcare-related relationships including those existing 12 months before the initiation of the writing effort. A committee of interventional cardiologists and

  13. 2015 ACC Health Policy Statement on Cardiovascular Team-Based Care and the Role of Advanced Practice Providers.

    Brush, John E; Handberg, Eileen M; Biga, Cathleen; Birtcher, Kim K; Bove, Alfred A; Casale, Paul N; Clark, Michael G; Garson, Arthur; Hines, Jerome L; Linderbaum, Jane A; Rodgers, George P; Shor, Robert A; Thourani, Vinod H; Wyman, Janet F


    The mission of the American College of Cardiology is "to transform cardiovascular care and improve heart health." Cardiovascular team-based care is a paradigm for practice that can transform care, improve heart health, and help meet the demands of the future. One strategic goal of the College is to help members successfully transition their clinical practices to the future, with all its complexity, challenges, and opportunities. The ACC's strategic plan is aligned with the triple aim of improved care, improved population health, and lower costs per capita. The traditional understanding of quality, access, and cost is that you cannot improve one component without diminishing the others. With cardiovascular team-based care, it is possible to achieve the triple aim of improving quality, access, and cost simultaneously to also improve cardiovascular health. Striving to serve the best interests of patients is the true north of our guiding principles. Cardiovascular team-based care is a model that can improve care coordination and communication and allow each team member to focus more on the quality of care. In addition, the cardiovascular team-based care model increases access to cardiovascular care and allows expansion of services to populations and geographic areas that are currently underserved. This document will increase awareness of the important components of cardiovascular team-based care and create an opportunity for more discussion about the most creative and effective means of implementing it. We hope that this document will stimulate further discussions and activities within the ACC and beyond about team-based care. We have identified areas that need improvement, specifically in APP education and state regulation. The document encourages the exploration of collaborative care models that should enable team members to optimize their education, training, experience, and talent. Improved team leadership, coordination, collaboration, engagement, and efficiency

  14. A tomato MADS-box transcription factor, SlMADS1, acts as a negative regulator of fruit ripening.

    Dong, Tingting; Hu, Zongli; Deng, Lei; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Mingku; Zhang, Jianling; Chen, Guoping


    MADS-box genes encode a highly conserved gene family of transcriptional factors that regulate numerous developmental processes in plants. In this study, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS-box gene, SlMADS1, was cloned and its tissue-specific expression profile was analyzed. The real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that SlMADS1 was highly expressed in sepals and fruits; its expression level was increased with the development of sepals, while the transcript of SlMADS1 decreased significantly in accordance with fruit ripening. To further explore the function of SlMADS1, an RNA interference (RNAi) expression vector targeting SlMADS1 was constructed and transformed into tomato plants. Shorter ripening time of fruit was observed in SlMADS1-silenced tomatoes. The accumulation of carotenoid and the expression of PHYTOENE SYNTHETASE1 were enhanced in RNAi fruits. Besides, ethylene biosynthetic genes, including 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE1A, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE6, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE OXIDASE1, and 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE OXIDASE3, and the ethylene-responsive genes E4 and E8, which were involved in fruit ripening, were also up-regulated in silenced plants. SlMADS1 RNAi fruits showed approximately 2- to 4-fold increases in ethylene production compared with the wild type. Furthermore, SlMADS1-silenced seedlings displayed shorter hypocotyls and were more sensitive to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate than the wild type. Additionally, a yeast two-hybrid assay revealed a clear interaction between SlMADS1 and SlMADS-RIN. These results suggest that SlMADS1 plays an important role in fruit ripening as a repressive modulator.

  15. Effects of Acute Exercise and Chronic Exercise on the Liver Leptin-AMPK-ACC Signaling Pathway in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes

    Xuejie Yi


    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the effects of acute and chronic exercise on glucose and lipid metabolism in liver of rats with type 2 diabetes caused by a high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (STZ. Methods. Animals were classified into control (CON, diabetes (DC, diabetic chronic exercise (DCE, and diabetic acute exercise (DAE groups. Results. Compared to CON, the leptin levels in serum and liver and ACC phosphorylation were significantly higher in DC, but the levels of liver leptin receptor, AMPKα1/2, AMPKα1, and ACC proteins expression and phosphorylation were significantly lower in DC. In addition, the levels of liver glycogen reduced significantly, and the levels of TG and FFA increased significantly in DC compared to CON. Compared to DC, the levels of liver AMPKα1/2, AMPKα2, AMPKα1, and ACC phosphorylation significantly increased in DCE and DAE. However, significant increase of the level of liver leptin receptor and glycogen as well as significant decrease of the level of TG and FFA were observed only in DEC. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that both acute and chronic exercise indirectly activated the leptin-AMPK-ACC signaling pathway and increased insulin sensitivity in the liver of type 2 diabetic rats. However, only chronic and long-term exercise improved glucose and lipid metabolism of the liver.

  16. 白藜芦醇对人腺样囊性癌ACC-83侵袭与转移的影响

    米磊; 刘怀勤



  17. Silencing of the ACC synthase gene ACACS2 causes delayed flowering in pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.].

    Trusov, Yuri; Botella, José Ramón


    Flowering is a crucial developmental stage in the plant life cycle. A number of different factors, from environmental to chemical, can trigger flowering. In pineapple, and other bromeliads, it has been proposed that flowering is triggered by a small burst of ethylene production in the meristem in response to environmental cues. A 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACC synthase) gene has been cloned from pineapple (ACACS2), which is induced in the meristem under the same environmental conditions that induce flowering. Two transgenic pineapple lines have been produced containing co-suppression constructs designed to down-regulate the expression of the ACACS2 gene. Northern analysis revealed that the ACACS2 gene was silenced in a number of transgenic plants in both lines. Southern hybridization revealed clear differences in the methylation status of silenced versus non-silenced plants by the inability of a methylation-sensitive enzyme to digest within the ACACS2 DNA extracted from silenced plants, indicating that methylation is the cause of the observed co-suppression of the ACACS2 gene. Flowering characteristics of the transgenic plants were studied under field conditions in South East Queensland, Australia. Flowering dynamics studies revealed significant differences in flowering behaviour, with transgenic plants exhibiting silencing showing a marked delay in flowering when compared with non-silenced transgenic plants and control non-transformed plants. It is argued that the ACACS2 gene is one of the key contributors towards triggering 'natural flowering' in mature pineapples under commercial field conditions.

  18. Les inégalités d'accès à l'enseignement supérieur

    Duru-Bellat, Marie; Kieffer, Annick; Reimer, David


    Le processus de diffusion des études supérieures à l’œuvre en Europe occidentale depuis une cinquantaine d’années s’accompagne d’une diversification des spécialités et des filières proposées à l’issue du secondaire. Si l’expansion quantitative de l’accès au supérieur a pu réduire les inégalités...... plus diversifiées et plus hiérarchisées en France, ce qui est notamment en rapport avec l’existence propre à notre pays d’une filière de grandes écoles recrutant sur des concours très sélectifs. En Allemagne, les inégalités sociales jouent plus en amont du baccalauréat qu’en France, où l...

  19. ACC deaminase activity of rhizobia associated with Acacia melanoxylon%黑木相思根瘤菌ACC脱氨酶活性的研究

    窦雅静; 康丽华; 陆俊锟; 侯俊杰; 朱亚杰


    Rhizobia can catalyze the ACC deaminase by using-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, thereby reducing the ethylene content in the plants that inhibits the growth of rhizobia and promoting plant growth. The tested bacterial strains were mensurated and their acdS gene’s phylogenetic development were analyzed. The results show that among the isolated 174 isolates, 151 strains showed ACC deaminase activity, but there were rather differences in enzyme activity;however, the acdS gene of 121 strains were detected which were conserved in Mesorhizobium genus;the phylogeny of acdS genes was signiifcantly correlated with geographical origin. A further research on the correlation between the level of ACC deaminase activity and the prevalence of acdS genes is urgently needed. The test method of ACC deaminase will provide a reliable theoretical foundation for rapidly culling high efifcient rhizobia strains.%根瘤菌能够利用1-氨基环丙烷-1羧酸(ACC)脱氨酶催化ACC脱氨基,从而降低植物体内抑制其生长的乙烯含量,促进植物生长。本研究采用茚三酮比色法测定菌株的ACC脱氨酶活性并对其acdS基因进行了系统发育分析。结果表明,扩增174株供试菌株中,151株检测出ACC 脱氨酶活性,但酶活性差异较大。121株扩增出acdS基因,菌株的系统发育关系与地理来源具有相关性,中慢生根瘤菌属菌株的acdS基因具有明显的保守性。菌株ACC脱氨酶活性的高低与acdS基因存在与否的相关性有待进一步研究。ACC脱氨酶活性的检测方法将为快速筛选高效根瘤菌菌株提供可靠的理论依据。

  20. AMPK-independent pathways regulate skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation

    Dzamko, Nicolas; Schertzer, Jonathan D.; Ryall, James G.;


    with rates of fatty acid oxidation. To address this issue we have investigated the requirement for skeletal muscle AMPK in controlling aminoimidazole-4-carboxymide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and contraction-stimulated fatty acid oxidation utilizing transgenic mice expressing a muscle-specific kinase......-based approach we identified 18 Ser/Thr protein kinases whose phosphorylation was increased by greater than 25% in contracted KD relative to WT muscle. Utilizing bioinformatics we predicted that extracellular regulated protein-serine kinase (ERK1/2), inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB protein-serine kinase...... beta (IKKbeta) and protein kinase D (PKD) may phosphorylate ACC2 at Ser-221 but during in vitro phosphorylation assays only AMPK phosphorylated ACC2. These data demonstrate that AMPK is not essential for the regulation of fatty acid oxidation by AICAR or muscle contraction....

  1. Méthodes d'accès basées sur le codage réseau couche physique

    Bui, Huyen Chi


    Dans le domaine des réseaux satellitaires, l'apparition de terminaux interactifs à bas-prix nécessite le développement et la mise en œuvre de protocoles d'accès multiple capables de supporter différents profils d'utilisateurs. En particulier, l'Agence Spatiale Européenne (ESA) et le centre d'étude spatial allemand (DLR) ont récemment proposé des protocoles d'accès aléatoires basés sur le codage réseau couche physique et l'élimination itérative des interférences pour résoudre en partie le prob...

  2. The Effect of MethyI Jasmonate on Ethylene Production, ACC Oxidase Activity and Carbon Dioxide Evolution in the Yellowish-Tangerine Tomato Fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Janusz Czapski


    Full Text Available The yellowish-tangerine tomato (cv. Bursztyn in the green, light yellow and yellow stages of ripening were treated with 0.1% and 1.0% of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me in lanolin paste and kept for several days and then they were evaluated for production of ethylene, ACC oxidase activity and CO2 evolution. Production of endogenous ethylene in mature green fruits was low and increased during ripening. JA-Me stimulated ethylene production and ACC oxidase activity in all investigated stages of fruit ripening. Slices excised from mature green fruits produced highest amount of carbon dioxide as compared to more advanced stages of ripening. JA-Me in O,1 % and 1,0% concentrations increased significantly CO2 evolution in green fruits, while in light yellow and yellow fruits only higher concentration of JA-Me stimulated carbon dioxide production.

  3. Inoculation with Pseudomonas spp.containing ACC-deaminase partially eliminates the effects of drought stress on growth,yield,and ripening of pea (Pisum sativum L.)



    Two preselected plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyelopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)deaminase (EC were used to investigate their potential to ameliorate the effects of drought stress on growth,yield,and ripening of pea (Pisum sativum L.).Inoculated and uninoculated (control) seeds of pea cultivar 2000 were sown in pots (four seeds pot-1) and placed in a wire house.The plants were exposed to drought stress at different stages of growth (vegetative,flowering,and pod formation) by skipping the respective irrigation.Results revealed that inoculation of peas with PGPR containing ACC-deaminase significantly decreased the "drought stress imposed effects" on the growth and yield of peas.Exposure of plants to drought stress at vegetative growth stage significantly decreased shoot growth by 41% in the ease of uninoculated plants,whereas,by only 18% in the case of inoculated plants compared to nonstressed unlnoculated controlGrain yield was decreased when plants were exposed to drought stress at the flowering and pod formation stage,but inoculation resulted in better grain yield (up to 62% and 40% higher,respectively) than the respective uninoculated nonstressed control.Ripening of pods was also delayed in plants inoculated with PGPR,which may imply decreased endogenous ethylene production in inoculated plants.This premise is further supported by the observation that inoculation with PGPR reduced the intensity of classical "triple" response in etiolated pea seedlings,caused by externally applied ACC.It is very probable that the drought stress induced inhibitory effects of ethylene could be partially or completely eliminated by inoculation with PGPR containing ACC-deaminase.

  4. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Laboratoire de l`Accélérateur Linéaire in Orsay


    The `Laboratoire de l`Accélérateur Linéaire` (LAL, CNRS/IN2P3 and University Paris Sud) is a major French laboratory for basic science, located on the Orsay campus. Its core research field is particle physics but the lab is also involved in several other fields: astroparticles, ultra-high energetic phenomena in the Universe, astrophysics, cosmology and R&D on accelerators.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Avena based on chloroplast intergenic spacer psbA-trnH and single-copy nuclear gene Acc1.

    Yan, Hong-Hai; Baum, Bernard R; Zhou, Ping-Ping; Zhao, Jun; Wei, Yu-Ming; Ren, Chang-Zhong; Xiong, Fang-Qiu; Liu, Gang; Zhong, Lin; Zhao, Gang; Peng, Yuan-Ying


    Two uncorrelated nucleotide sequences, chloroplast intergenic spacer psbA-trnH and acetyl CoA carboxylase gene (Acc1), were used to perform phylogenetic analyses in 75 accessions of the genus Avena, representing 13 diploids, seven tetraploid, and four hexaploids by maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. Phylogenic analyses based on the chloroplast intergenic spacer psbA-trnH confirmed that the A genome diploid might be the maternal donor of species of the genus Avena. Two haplotypes of the Acc1 gene region were obtained from the AB genome tetraploids, indicating an allopolyploid origin for the tetraploid species. Among the AB genome species, both gene trees revealed differences between Avena agadiriana and the other species, suggesting that an AS genome diploid might be the A genome donor and the other genome diploid donor might be the Ac genome diploid Avena canariensis or the Ad genome diploid Avena damascena. Three haplotypes of the Acc1 gene have been detected among the ACD genome hexaploid species. The haplotype that seems to represent the D genome clustered with the tetraploid species Avena murphyi and Avena maroccana, which supported the CD genomic designation instead of AC for A. murphyi and A. maroccana.

  6. ''Autonomous driving'' at Heilbronn university. The ACC (Automotive Competence Center) project ''Fahrautomat''; ''Autonomes Fahren'' an der Hochschule Heilbronn. Das ACC (Automotive Competence Center) Projekt ''Fahrautomat''

    Kirchgaessner, D.; Troester, F. [Hochschule Heilbronn (Germany)


    The Heilbronn ACC was founded in 2004. It works on selected aspects of motor car technology and cooperates with the regional car parts supplier industries. Several teams carry out research on different aspects of the motor car. The author intends to provide an outline of the activities in automatic driving, i.e. driverless car control for car test purposes. (orig.)

  7. Increased sensitivity to salt stress in tocopherol-deficient Arabidopsis mutants growing in a hydroponic system.

    Ellouzi, Hasna; Hamed, Karim Ben; Cela, Jana; Müller, Maren; Abdelly, Chedly; Munné-Bosch, Sergi


    Recent studies suggest that tocopherols could play physiological roles in salt tolerance but the mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, we analyzed changes in growth, mineral and oxidative status in vte1 and vte4 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants exposed to salt stress. vte1 and vte4 mutants lack α-tocopherol, but only the vte1 mutant is additionally deficient in γ-tocopherol. Results showed that a deficiency in vitamin E leads to reduced growth and increased oxidative stress in hydroponically-grown plants. This effect was observed at early stages, not only in rosettes but also in roots. The vte1 mutant was more sensitive to salt-induced oxidative stress than the wild type and the vte4 mutant. Salt sensitivity was associated with (i) high contents of Na(+), (ii) reduced efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm ratio) and (iii) more pronounced oxidative stress as indicated by increased hydrogen peroxide and malondialdeyde levels. The vte 4 mutant, which accumulates γ- instead of α-tocopherol showed an intermediate sensitivity to salt stress between the wild type and the vte1 mutant. Contents of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were higher in the vte1 mutant than the vte4 mutant and wild type. It is concluded that vitamin E-deficient plants show an increased sensitivity to salt stress both in rosettes and roots, therefore indicating the positive role of tocopherols in stress tolerance, not only by minimizing oxidative stress, but also controlling Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis and hormonal balance.

  8. Characterization and expression profiles of MaACS and MaACO genes from mulberry (Morus alba L.)%桑树MaACS和MaACO基因的鉴定和表达模式研究

    Chang-ying LIU; Shu-mei HAN; Cheng LU; Mao-de YU; Rui-hua LÜ; Jun LI; Ai-chun ZHAO; Xi-ling WANG; Umuhoza DIANE; Xiao-hong WANG; Chuan-hong WANG; Ya-sheng YU


    研究目的:分离和鉴定桑树中参与乙烯生物合成的酶的编码基因MaACS 和MaACO,研究其表达模式。创新要点:基于最新公布的桑树基因组数据库数据,获得5个MaACS 基因和2个MaACO 基因,对其进行了生物信息分析,同时鉴定了其在不同桑树组织中、不同发育时期桑椹中和不同激素作用下的表达模式。研究方法:通过生物信息学方法筛选和鉴定基因,利用荧光定量逆转录聚合酶链式反应(qRT-PCR)分析基因的表达量。重要结论:MaACS 和MaACO 基因在根、茎、叶等不同组织中呈现出不同的表达模式,在桑椹发育过程中呈现出两种表达模式,其表达量被脱落酸和乙烯利上调。%1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) are encoded by multigene families and are involved in fruit ripening by catalyzing the production of ethylene throughout the development of fruit. However, there are no reports on ACS or ACO genes in mulberry, partly because of the limited molecular research background. In this study, we have obtained five ACS gene sequences and two ACO gene sequences from Morus Genome Database. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed that their amino acids are conserved compared with ACO proteins from other species. MaACS1 and MaACS2 are type I, MaACS3 and MaACS4 are type II, and MaACS5 is type III, with different C-terminal se-quences. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) expression analysis showed that the transcripts of MaACS genes were strongly expressed in fruit, and more weakly in other tissues. The expression of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed different patterns in various mulberry tissues. MaACS and MaACO genes demon-strated two patterns throughout the development of mulberry fruit, and both of them were strongly up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethephon.

  9. Signature of the Collaboration agreement contract between CERN and IASS on High Current, Long Distance Superconducting Power Transmission Lines signed Dr.Steve Myers Director of Acc Tech and Prof. Carlo Rubbia.

    Maximilien Brice


    Signature of the Collaboration agreement contract between CERN and IASS on High Current, Long Distance Superconducting Power Transmission Lines signed Dr.Steve Myers Director of Acc Tech and Prof. Carlo Rubbia.

  10. Cloning and Expression Analysis of OnA CO2 Gene from Onc idium Gower Ramsey%文心兰OnA CO2基因的克隆及表达分析

    田晓岩; 石乐松; 潘英文; 刘进平


    Ethylene plays an important regulatory role on many developmental processes such as cut flower and fruit senescence, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxid ase (ACO) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of ethylene. OnACO2 gene (GenBank accession number is KP410730) was cloned from Oncidium Gower Ramsey using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology, with a full-length cDNA of 1 376 bp, presumably encoding a non-transmembrane protein of 324 amino acid, with a molecular weight of 36 413.5 and an isoelectric point (IP) of 5.71. The deduced OnACO2 protein sequence contains DIOX_N and 20G-FeII_Oxy domains and shares a sequence similarity of 66%~91%with OnACO1 and ACO proteins in other plant species. The molecular weight of recombinant protein obtained in the prokaryotic expression was consistent with its theoretic molecular weight. The expression patterns of OnA CO2 gene were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that the relative expression was highest in gynandria, followed by sepals, lateral petals and leaves, lowest in roots, stems and lip petals. During the senescence of Oncidium cut flower, expression level of OnA CO2 in different parts of the flower increased dramatically, followed by the corresponding sharp increase in ethylene production. The space-time specific expression of OnA CO2 gene in Onc idium flower senescence indicated that the cloned OnA CO2 was a function gene for the flower senescence. As the OnA CO2 is an important candidate gene for Onc idium flower anti-senescence improvement via molecule modification, the results will lay a foundation for gene engineering of Oncidium cut flower senescence.%乙烯对植物的许多发育过程如切花和果实衰老发挥重要的调控作用,而1-氨基环丙烷-1-羧酸(ACC)氧化酶(ACO)是乙烯生物合成中的限速酶。本研究利用RACE技术克隆得到文心兰OnA CO2基因(GenBank登录号为KP410730) cDNA,全长1376 bp

  11. Surveillance of Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Anthropometric Variables among Four International Cricket Teams Competed in ACC Premier League Malaysia 2014

    Srinivas Mondam, Rahul Shaik, Jalaj Jalaja Prakash, Jeffrey Low Fook, Sirisha Nekkanti


    limbs and lower back. The incidence of acute problems is more in elbow and upper back regions. This may be acute injuries but not due to chronic over use. The anthropometric variations between groups participated in ACC premier league, Malaysia 2014 was also significantly differing from each other.

  12. Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18.

    Luo, Shenglian; Xu, Taoying; Chen, Liang; Chen, Jueliang; Rao, Chan; Xiao, Xiao; Wan, Yong; Zeng, Guangming; Long, Fei; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Yutang


    The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments, SLS18 could not only infect plants effectively but also significantly increase the biomass of the three tested plants in the presence of Mn/Cd. The promoting effect order of SLS18 on the biomass of the tested plants was sweet sorghum > P. acinosa > S. nigrum L. In the presence of Mn (2,000 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (50 mg kg(-1)) in vermiculite, the total Mn/Cd uptakes in the aerial parts of sweet sorghum, P. acinosa, and S. nigrum L. were increased by 65.2%/40.0%, 55.2%/31.1%, and 18.6%/25.6%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated controls. This demonstrates that the symbiont of SLS18 and sweet sorghum has the potential of improving sweet sorghum biomass production and its total metal uptake on heavy metal-polluted marginal land. It offers the potential that heavy metal-polluted marginal land could be utilized in planting sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock for ethanol production, which not only gives a promising phytoremediation strategy but also eases the competition for limited fertile farmland between energy crops and food crops.

  13. Deciphering Staphylococcus sciuri SAT-17 Mediated Anti-oxidative Defense Mechanisms and Growth Modulations in Salt Stressed Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Akram, Muhammad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Tariq, Mohsin; Azeem, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad T; Saleem, Seemab; Riaz, Saba


    Soil salinity severely affects plant nutrient use efficiency and is a worldwide constraint for sustainable crop production. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, with inherent salinity tolerance, are able to enhance plant growth and productivity by inducing modulations in various metabolic pathways. In the present study, we reported the isolation and characterization of a salt-tolerant rhizobacterium from Kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth]. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed its lineage to Staphylococcus sciuri and it was named as SAT-17. The strain exhibited substantial potential of phosphate solubilization as well as indole-3-acetic acid production (up to 2 M NaCl) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (up to 1.5 M NaCl). Inoculation of a rifampicin-resistant derivative of the SAT-17 with maize, in the absence of salt stress, induced a significant increase in plant biomass together with decreased reactive oxygen species and increased activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes. The derivative strain also significantly accumulated nutrients in roots and shoots, and enhanced chlorophyll and protein contents in comparison with non-inoculated plants. Similar positive effects were observed in the presence of salt stress, although the effect was more prominent at 75 mM in comparison to higher NaCl level (150 mM). The strain survived in the rhizosphere up to 30 days at an optimal population density (ca. 1 × 10(6) CFU mL(-1)). It was concluded that S. sciuri strain SAT-17 alleviated maize plants from salt-induced cellular oxidative damage and enhanced growth. Further field experiments should be conducted, considering SAT-17 as a potential bio-fertilizer, to draw parallels between PGPR inoculation, elemental mobility patterns, crop growth and productivity in salt-stressed semi-arid and arid regions.

  14. CSR1, the sole target of imidazolinone herbicide in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Manabe, Yuzuki; Tinker, Nicholas; Colville, Adam; Miki, Brian


    The imidazolinone-tolerant mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, csr1-2(D), carries a mutation equivalent to that found in commercially available Clearfield crops. Despite their widespread usage, the mechanism by which Clearfield crops gain imidazolinone herbicide tolerance has not yet been fully characterized. Transcription profiling of imazapyr (an imidazolinone herbicide)-treated wild-type and csr1-2(D) mutant plants using Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChip microarrays was performed to elucidate further the biochemical and genetic mechanisms of imidazolinone resistance. In wild-type shoots, the genes which responded earliest to imazapyr treatment were detoxification-related genes which have also been shown to be induced by other abiotic stresses. Early-response genes included steroid sulfotransferase (ST) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO), as well as members of the glycosyltransferase, glutathione transferase (GST), cytochrome P450, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) and alternative oxidase (AOX) protein families. Later stages of the imazapyr response involved regulation of genes participating in biosynthesis of amino acids, secondary metabolites and tRNA. In contrast to the dynamic changes in the transcriptome profile observed in imazapyr-treated wild-type plants, the transcriptome of csr1-2(D) did not exhibit significant changes following imazapyr treatment, compared with mock-treated csr1-2(D). Further, no substantial difference was observed between wild-type and csr1-2(D) transcriptomes in the absence of imazapyr treatment. These results indicate that CSR1 is the sole target of imidazolinone and that the csr1-2(D) mutation has little or no detrimental effect on whole-plant fitness.

  15. Rapidly induced chemical defenses in maize stems and their effects on short-term growth of Ostrinia nubilalis.

    Dafoe, Nicole J; Huffaker, Alisa; Vaughan, Martha M; Duehl, Adrian J; Teal, Peter E; Schmelz, Eric A


    Plants damaged by insect herbivory often respond by inducing a suite of defenses that can negatively affect an insect's growth and fecundity. Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer, ECB) is one of the most devastating insect pests of maize, and in the current study, we examined the early biochemical changes that occur in maize stems in response to ECB herbivory and how these rapidly induced defenses influence the growth of ECB. We measured the quantities of known maize defense compounds, benzoxazinoids and the kauralexin class of diterpenoid phytoalexins. ECB herbivory resulted in decreased levels of the benzoxazinoid, 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one)-β-D-glucopyranose (DIMBOA-Glc), and a corresponding increase in 2-(2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one)-β-D-glucopyranose (HDMBOA-Glc). Total quantities of benzoxazinoids and kauralexins were increased as early as 24 h after the initiation of ECB feeding. The plant hormones, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET), and the transcripts encoding their key biosynthetic enzymes also accumulated in response to ECB herbivory, consistent with a role in defense regulation. The combined pharmacological application of JA and the ET precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to stem internode tissue likewise resulted in changes in benzoxazinoids similar to that observed with ECB damage. Despite the fact that maize actively mounts a defense response to ECB stem feeding, no differences in percent weight gain were observed between ECB larvae that fed upon non-wounded control tissues compared to tissues obtained from plants previously subjected to 24 h ECB stem herbivory. These rapid defense responses in maize stems do not appear to negatively impact ECB growth, thus suggesting that ECB have adapted to these induced biochemical changes.

  16. Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18

    Luo, Shenglian; Xu, Taoying; Chen, Liang [Hunan Univ., Changsha (China). College of Environmental Science and Engineering] [and others


    The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments, SLS18 could not only infect plants effectively but also significantly increase the biomass of the three tested plants in the presence of Mn/Cd. The promoting effect order of SLS18 on the biomass of the tested plants was sweet sorghum > P. acinosa > S. nigrum L. In the presence of Mn (2,000 mg kg{sup -1}) and Cd (50 mg kg{sup -1}) in vermiculite, the total Mn/Cd uptakes in the aerial parts of sweet sorghum, P. acinosa, and S. nigrum L. were increased by 65.2%/40.0%, 55.2%/31.1%, and 18.6%/25.6%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated controls. This demonstrates that the symbiont of SLS18 and sweet sorghum has the potential of improving sweet sorghum biomass production and its total metal uptake on heavy metal-polluted marginal land. It offers the potential that heavy metal-polluted marginal land could be utilized in planting sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock for ethanol production, which not only gives a promising phytoremediation strategy but also eases the competition for limited fertile farmland between energy crops and food crops. (orig.)

  17. Study of garlic oil combined with cisplatin-induced apoptosis of human adenoid cystic carcinoma ACC-M cell lines%大蒜油联合顺铂诱导人腺样囊性癌细胞株ACC-M凋亡

    樊治英; 吴发印; 周鹤峰; 朱雅文


    目的 探讨大蒜油联合顺铂对人腺样囊性癌细胞株ACC-M细胞增殖、细胞周期及凋亡的影响.方法 采用不同浓度大蒜油、顺铂、大蒜油联合顺铂分别处理人腺样囊性癌细胞株ACC-M细胞24、48、72 h后,MTT法检测肿瘤细胞体外增殖抑制情况;选取2、8、32 μg/mL的大蒜油、顺铂、大蒜油联合顺铂处理肿瘤细胞4、8h后,流式细胞术分析肿瘤细胞周期分布和凋亡率.结果 8、16、32 μg/mL大蒜油及2、4、8、16、32 μg/mL顺铂、大蒜油联合顺铂作用24、48、72 h对ACC-M细胞均有明显抑制作用,随浓度及时间增加,抑制率呈上升趋势.联合组用药肿瘤细胞抑制率明显高于单一用药组.流式细胞术结果显示,不同浓度的大蒜油、顺铂、大蒜油联合顺铂作用能使ACC-M细胞发生G2/M期阻滞,诱导细胞凋亡,随浓度增高及作用时间延长,周期分布越明显,凋亡率增高,联合组用药细胞周期阻滞和促凋亡作用明显强于单一用药组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 不同浓度的大蒜油、顺铂、大蒜油联合顺铂均能有效抑制ACC-M细胞生长,阻滞细胞于G2/M期并诱导肿瘤细胞凋亡,大蒜油联合顺铂对ACC-M细胞生长抑制作用明显强于大蒜油、顺铂单独应用.

  18. Open problems in CEM: Porting an explicit time-domain volume-integral- equation solver on GPUs with OpenACC

    Ergül, Özgür


    Graphics processing units (GPUs) are gradually becoming mainstream in high-performance computing, as their capabilities for enhancing performance of a large spectrum of scientific applications to many fold when compared to multi-core CPUs have been clearly identified and proven. In this paper, implementation and performance-tuning details for porting an explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT)-based time-domain volume-integral-equation (TDVIE) solver onto GPUs are described in detail. To this end, a high-level approach, utilizing the OpenACC directive-based parallel programming model, is used to minimize two often-faced challenges in GPU programming: developer productivity and code portability. The MOT-TDVIE solver code, originally developed for CPUs, is annotated with compiler directives to port it to GPUs in a fashion similar to how OpenMP targets multi-core CPUs. In contrast to CUDA and OpenCL, where significant modifications to CPU-based codes are required, this high-level approach therefore requires minimal changes to the codes. In this work, we make use of two available OpenACC compilers, CAPS and PGI. Our experience reveals that different annotations of the code are required for each of the compilers, due to different interpretations of the fairly new standard by the compiler developers. Both versions of the OpenACC accelerated code achieved significant performance improvements, with up to 30× speedup against the sequential CPU code using recent hardware technology. Moreover, we demonstrated that the GPU-accelerated fully explicit MOT-TDVIE solver leveraged energy-consumption gains of the order of 3× against its CPU counterpart. © 2014 IEEE.

  19. Measurement of annexin V uptake and lactadherin labeling for the quantification of apoptosis in adherent Tca8113 and ACC-2 cells

    T. Hu


    Full Text Available Phosphatidylserine (PS exposure occurs during the cell death program and fluorescein-labeled lactadherin permits the detection of PS exposure earlier than annexin V in suspended cell lines. Adherent cell lines were studied for this apoptosis-associated phenomenon to determine if PS probing methods are reliable because specific membrane damage may occur during harvesting. Apoptosis was induced in the human tongue squamous carcinoma cell line (Tca8113 and the adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line (ACC-2 by arsenic trioxide. Cells were harvested with a modified procedure and labeled with lactadherin and/or annexin V. PS exposure was localized by confocal microscopy and apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry. The detachment procedure without trypsinization did not induce cell damage. In competition binding experiments, phospholipid vesicles competed for more than 95 and 90% of lactadherin but only about 75 and 70% of annexin V binding to Tca8113 and ACC-2 cells. These data indicate that PS exposure occurs in three stages during the cell death program and that fluorescein-labeled lactadherin permitted the detection of early PS exposure. A similar pattern of PS exposure has been observed in two malignant cell lines with different adherence, suggesting that this pattern of PS exposure is common in adherent cells. Both lactadherin and annexin V could be used in adherent Tca8113 and ACC-2 cell lines when an appropriate harvesting procedure was used. Lactadherin is more sensitive than annexin V for the detection of PS exposure as the physical structure of PS in these blebs and condensed apoptotic cell surface may be more conducive to binding lactadherin than annexin V.

  20. Complete plastid genome sequence of Primula sinensis (Primulaceae: structure comparison, sequence variation and evidence for accD transfer to nucleus

    Tong-Jian Liu


    Full Text Available Species-rich genus Primula L. is a typical plant group with which to understand genetic variance between species in different levels of relationships. Chloroplast genome sequences are used to be the information resource for quantifying this difference and reconstructing evolutionary history. In this study, we reported the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Primula sinensis and compared it with other related species. This genome of chloroplast showed a typical circular quadripartite structure with 150,859 bp in sequence length consisting of 37.2% GC base. Two inverted repeated regions (25,535 bp were separated by a large single-copy region (82,064 bp and a small single-copy region (17,725 bp. The genome consists of 112 genes, including 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and four rRNA genes. Among them, seven coding genes, seven tRNA genes and four rRNA genes have two copies due to their locations in the IR regions. The accD and infA genes lacking intact open reading frames (ORF were identified as pseudogenes. SSR and sequence variation analyses were also performed on the plastome of Primula sinensis, comparing with another available plastome of P. poissonii. The four most variable regions, rpl36–rps8, rps16–trnQ, trnH–psbA and ndhC–trnV, were identified. Phylogenetic relationship estimates using three sub-datasets extracted from a matrix of 57 protein-coding gene sequences showed the identical result that was consistent with previous studies. A transcript found from P. sinensis transcriptome showed a high similarity to plastid accD functional region and was identified as a putative plastid transit peptide at the N-terminal region. The result strongly suggested that plastid accD has been functionally transferred to the nucleus in P. sinensis.

  1. Genetic dissection of sex determinism, inflorescence morphology and downy mildew resistance in grapevine.

    Marguerit, Elisa; Boury, Christophe; Manicki, Aurélie; Donnart, Martine; Butterlin, Gisèle; Némorin, Alice; Wiedemann-Merdinoglu, Sabine; Merdinoglu, Didier; Ollat, Nathalie; Decroocq, Stéphane


    A genetic linkage map of grapevine was constructed using a pseudo-testcross strategy based upon 138 individuals derived from a cross of Vitis vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon x Vitis riparia Gloire de Montpellier. A total of 212 DNA markers including 199 single sequence repeats (SSRs), 11 single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCPs) and two morphological markers were mapped onto 19 linkage groups (LG) which covered 1,249 cM with an average of 6.7 cM between markers. The position of SSR loci in the maps presented here is consistent with the genome sequence. Quantitative traits loci (QTLs) for several traits of inflorescence and flower morphology, and downy mildew resistance were investigated. Two novel QTLs for downy mildew resistance were mapped on linkage groups 9 and 12, they explain 26.0-34.4 and 28.9-31.5% of total variance, respectively. QTLs for inflorescence morphology with a large effect (14-70% of total variance explained) were detected close to the Sex locus on LG 2. The gene of the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, involved in melon male organ development and located in the confidence interval of all QTLs detected on the LG 2, could be considered as a putative candidate gene for the control of sexual traits in grapevine. Co-localisations were found between four QTLs, detected on linkage groups 1, 14, 17 and 18, and the position of the floral organ development genes GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE1, FRUITFULL, LEAFY and AGAMOUS. Our results demonstrate that the sex determinism locus also determines both flower and inflorescence morphological traits.

  2. Short-term complete submergence of rice at the tillering stage increases yield.

    Yajie Zhang

    Full Text Available Flooding is a major threat to agricultural production. Most studies have focused on the lower water storage limit in rice fields, whereas few studies have examined the upper water storage limit. This study aimed to explore the effect of waterlogging at the rice tillering stage on rice growth and yield. The early-ripening late japonica variety Yangjing 4227 was selected for this study. The treatments included different submergence depths (submergence depth/plant height: 1/2 (waist submergence, 2/3 (neck submergence, and 1/1 (complete submergence and durations (1, 3, and 5 d. The control group was treated with the conventional alternation of drying and wetting. The effects of waterlogging at the tillering stage on root characteristics, dry matter production, nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation, yield, yield components, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS gene expression were explored. Compared with the control group, the 1/1 group showed significant increases in yield, seed-setting rate, photosynthetically efficient leaf area, and OS-ACS3 gene expression after 1 d of submergence. The grain number per panicle, dry weight of the aboveground and belowground parts, and number of adventitious roots also increased. Correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between the panicle number and nitrogen content; however, no significant correlation was found for phosphorus content. If a decrease in rice yield of less than 10% is acceptable, half, 2/3, and complete submergence of the plants can be performed at the tillering stage for 1-3 d; this treatment will increase the space available for rice field water management/control and will improve rainfall resource utilization.

  3. Ethylene Response Factor6 acts as a central regulator of leaf growth under water-limiting conditions in Arabidopsis.

    Dubois, Marieke; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Claeys, Hannes; Maleux, Katrien; Dhondt, Stijn; De Bodt, Stefanie; Vanden Bossche, Robin; De Milde, Liesbeth; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Matsui, Minami; Inzé, Dirk


    Leaf growth is a complex developmental process that is continuously fine-tuned by the environment. Various abiotic stresses, including mild drought stress, have been shown to inhibit leaf growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we identify the redundant Arabidopsis transcription factors ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR5 (ERF5) and ERF6 as master regulators that adapt leaf growth to environmental changes. ERF5 and ERF6 gene expression is induced very rapidly and specifically in actively growing leaves after sudden exposure to osmotic stress that mimics mild drought. Subsequently, enhanced ERF6 expression inhibits cell proliferation and leaf growth by a process involving gibberellin and DELLA signaling. Using an ERF6-inducible overexpression line, we demonstrate that the gibberellin-degrading enzyme GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE6 is transcriptionally induced by ERF6 and that, consequently, DELLA proteins are stabilized. As a result, ERF6 gain-of-function lines are dwarfed and hypersensitive to osmotic stress, while the growth of erf5erf6 loss-of-function mutants is less affected by stress. Besides its role in plant growth under stress, ERF6 also activates the expression of a plethora of osmotic stress-responsive genes, including the well-known stress tolerance genes STZ, MYB51, and WRKY33. Interestingly, activation of the stress tolerance genes by ERF6 occurs independently from the ERF6-mediated growth inhibition. Together, these data fit into a leaf growth regulatory model in which ERF5 and ERF6 form a missing link between the previously observed stress-induced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid accumulation and DELLA-mediated cell cycle exit and execute a dual role by regulating both stress tolerance and growth inhibition.

  4. Preferential Promotion of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) Growth by Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Tomato.

    Vaikuntapu, Papa Rao; Dutta, Swarnalee; Samudrala, Ram Babu; Rao, Vukanti R V N; Kalam, Sadaf; Podile, Appa Rao


    A total of 74 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies were selected during isolation of bacteria from different parts of tomato plant (rhizoplane, phylloplane and rhizosphere) as well as nearby bulk soil. The isolates were screened for plant growth promoting (PGP) traits such as production of indole acetic acid, siderophore, chitinase and hydrogen cyanide as well as phosphate solubilization. Seven isolates viz., NR4, NR6, RP3, PP1, RS4, RP6 and NR1 that exhibited multiple PGP traits were identified, based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, as species that belonged to four genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter. All the seven isolates were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Isolate NR6 was antagonistic to Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme, and both PP1 and RP6 isolates were antagonistic to F. moniliforme. Except RP6, all isolates adhered significantly to glass surface suggestive of biofilm formation. Seed bacterization of tomato, groundnut, sorghum and chickpea with the seven bacterial isolates resulted in varied growth response in laboratory assay on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium. Most of the tomato isolates positively influenced tomato growth. The growth response was either neutral or negative with groundnut, sorghum and chickpea. Overall, the results suggested that bacteria with PGP traits do not positively influence the growth of all plants, and certain PGP bacteria may exhibit host-specificity. Among the isolates that positively influenced growth of tomato (NR1, RP3, PP1, RS4 and RP6) only RS4 was isolated from tomato rhizosphere. Therefore, the best PGP bacteria can also be isolated from zones other than rhizosphere or rhizoplane of a plant.

  5. Inoculation with Metal-Mobilizing Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. SC2b and Its Role in Rhizoremediation.

    Ma, Ying; Oliveira, Rui S; Wu, Longhua; Luo, Yongming; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Freitas, Helena


    A plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) strain SC2b was isolated from the rhizosphere of Sedum plumbizincicola grown in lead (Pb)/zinc (Zn) mine soils and characterized as Bacillus sp. based on (1) morphological and biochemical characteristics and (2) partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing analysis. Strain SC2b exhibited high levels of resistance to cadmium (Cd) (300 mg/L), Zn (730 mg/L), and Pb (1400 mg/L). This strain also showed various plant growth-promoting (PGP) features such as utilization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate, solubilization of phosphate, and production of indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore. The strain mobilized high concentration of heavy metals from soils and exhibited different biosorption capacity toward the tested metal ions. Strain SC2b was further assessed for PGP activity by phytagar assay with a model plant Brassica napus. Inoculation of SC2b increased the biomass and vigor index of B. napus. Considering such potential, a pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of inoculating the metal-resistant PGPB SC2b on growth and uptake of Cd, Zn and Pb by S. plumbizincicola in metal-contaminated agricultural soils. Inoculation with SC2b elevated the shoot and root biomass and leaf chlorophyll content of S. plumbizincicola. Similarly, plants inoculated with SC2b demonstrated markedly higher Cd and Zn accumulation in the root and shoot system, indicating that SC2b enhanced Cd and Zn uptake by S. plumbizincicola through metal mobilization or plant-microbial mediated changes in chemical or biological soil properties. Data demonstrated that the PGPB Bacillus sp. SC2b might serve as a future biofertilizer and an effective metal mobilizing bioinoculant for rhizoremediation of metal polluted soils.

  6. Halotolerant Rhizobacteria Promote Growth and Enhance Salinity Tolerance in Peanut

    Sharma, Sandeep; Kulkarni, Jayant; Jha, Bhavanath


    Use of Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is a promising strategy to improve the crop production under optimal or sub-optimal conditions. In the present study, five diazotrophic salt tolerant bacteria were isolated from the roots of a halophyte, Arthrocnemum indicum. The isolates were partially characterized in vitro for plant growth promoting traits and evaluated for their potential to promote growth and enhanced salt tolerance in peanut. The 16S rRNA gene sequence homology indicated that these bacterial isolates belong to the genera, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, and Ochrobactrum. All isolates were nifH positive and able to produce indole -3-acetic acid (ranging from 11.5 to 19.1 μg ml−1). The isolates showed phosphate solubilisation activity (ranging from 1.4 to 55.6 μg phosphate /mg dry weight), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (0.1 to 0.31 μmol α-kB/μg protein/h) and were capable of reducing acetylene in acetylene reduction assay (ranging from 0.95 to 1.8 μmol C2H4 mg protein/h). These isolates successfully colonized the peanut roots and were capable of promoting the growth under non-stress condition. A significant increase in total nitrogen (N) content (up to 76%) was observed over the non-inoculated control. All isolates showed tolerance to NaCl ranging from 4 to 8% in nutrient broth medium. Under salt stress, inoculated peanut seedlings maintained ion homeostasis, accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS) and showed enhanced growth compared to non-inoculated seedlings. Overall, the present study has characterized several potential bacterial strains that showed an enhanced growth promotion effect on peanut under control as well as saline conditions. The results show the possibility to reduce chemical fertilizer inputs and may promote the use of bio-inoculants. PMID:27790198

  7. Analysis of gene expression during the transition to climacteric phase in carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    In, Byung-Chun; Binder, Brad M; Falbel, Tanya G; Patterson, Sara E


    It has been generally thought that in ethylene-sensitive plants such as carnations, senescence proceeds irreversibly once the tissues have entered the climacteric phase. While pre-climacteric petal tissues have a lower sensitivity to ethylene, these tissues are converted to the climacteric phase at a critical point during flower development. In this study, it is demonstrated that the senescence process initiated by exogenous ethylene is reversible in carnation petals. Petals treated with ethylene for 12h showed sustained inrolling and senescence, while petals treated with ethylene for 10h showed inrolling followed by recovery from inrolling. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed differential expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signalling between 10h and 12h ethylene treatment. Ethylene treatment at or beyond 12h (threshold time) decreased the mRNA levels of the receptor genes (DcETR1, DcERS1, and DcERS2) and DcCTR genes, and increased the ethylene biosynthesis genes DcACS1 and DcACO1. In contrast, ethylene treatment under the threshold time caused a transient decrease in the receptor genes and DcCTR genes, and a transient increase in DcACS1 and DcACO1. Sustained DcACS1 accumulation is correlated with decreases in DcCTR genes and increase in DcEIL3 and indicates that tissues have entered the climacteric phase and that senescence proceeds irreversibly. Inhibition of ACS (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) prior to 12h ethylene exposure was not able to prevent reduction in transcripts of DcCTR genes, yet suppressed transcript of DcACS1 and DcACO1. This leads to the recovery from inrolling of the petals, indicating that DcACS1 may act as a signalling molecule in senescence of flowers.

  8. Culturable diversity and functional annotation of psychrotrophic bacteria from cold desert of Leh Ladakh (India).

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Tyagi, Satya Prakash; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil K


    To study culturable bacterial diversity under subzero temperature conditions and their possible functional annotation, soil and water samples from Leh Ladakh region were analysed. Ten different nutrient combinations were used to isolate the maximum possible culturable morphotypes. A total of 325 bacterial isolates were characterized employing 16S rDNA-Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis with three restriction endonucleases AluI, MspI and HaeIII, which led to formation of 23-40 groups for the different sites at 75 % similarity index, adding up to 175 groups. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing led to the identification of 175 bacteria, grouped in four phyla, Firmicutes (54 %), Proteobacteria (28 %), Actinobacteria (16 %) and Bacteroidetes (3 %), and included 29 different genera with 57 distinct species. Overall 39 % of the total morphotypes belonged to the Bacillus and Bacillus derived genera (BBDG) followed by Pseudomonas (14 %), Arthrobacter (9 %), Exiguobacterium (8 %), Alishewanella (4 %), Brachybacterium, Providencia, Planococcus (3 %), Janthinobacterium, Sphingobacterium, Kocuria (2 %) and Aurantimonas, Citricoccus, Cellulosimicrobium, Brevundimonas, Desemzia, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Paracoccus, Psychrobacter, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus, Sinobaca, Stenotrophomonas, Sanguibacter, Vibrio (1 %). The representative isolates from each cluster were screened for their plant growth promoting characteristics at low temperature (5-15 °C). Variations were observed among strains for production of ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore, solubilisation of phosphate, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity and biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Cold adapted microbes may have application as inoculants and biocontrol agents in crops growing at high altitudes under cold climate condition.

  9. Release of sunflower seed dormancy by cyanide: cross-talk with ethylene signalling pathway.

    Oracz, Krystyna; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Bogatek, Renata; Corbineau, Françoise; Bailly, Christophe


    Freshly harvested sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds are considered to be dormant because they fail to germinate at relatively low temperatures (10 degrees C). This dormancy results mainly from an embryo dormancy and disappears during dry storage. Although endogenous ethylene is known to be involved in sunflower seed alleviation of dormancy, little attention had been paid to the possible role of cyanide, which is produced by the conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid to ethylene, in this process. The aims of this work were to investigate whether exogenous cyanide could improve the germination of dormant sunflower seeds and to elucidate its putative mechanisms of action. Naked dormant seeds became able to germinate at 10 degrees C when they were incubated in the presence of 1 mM gaseous cyanide. Other respiratory inhibitors showed that this effect did not result from an activation of the pentose phosphate pathway or the cyanide-insensitive pathway. Cyanide stimulated germination of dormant seeds in the presence of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, but its improving effect required functional ethylene receptors. It did not significantly affect ethylene production and the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis or in the first steps of ethylene signalling pathway. However, the expression of the transcription factor Ethylene Response Factor 1 (ERF1) was markedly stimulated in the presence of gaseous cyanide. It is proposed that the mode of action of cyanide in sunflower seed dormancy alleviation does not involve ethylene production and that ERF1 is a common component of the ethylene and cyanide signalling pathways.

  10. Halotolerant rhizobacteria promote growth and enhance salinity tolerance in peanut

    Sandeep Sharma


    Full Text Available Use of Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR is a promising strategy to improve the crop production under optimal or sub-optimal conditions. In the present study, five diazotrophic salt tolerant bacteria were isolated from the roots of a halophyte, Arthrocnemum indicum. The isolates were partially characterized in vitro for plant growth promoting traits and evaluated for their potential to promote growth and enhanced salt tolerance in peanut. The 16S rRNA gene sequence homology indicated that these bacterial isolates belong to the genera, Klebisiella, Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium and Ochrobactrum. All isolates were nifH positive and able to produce indole -3-acetic acid (ranging from 11.5 to 19.1 µg ml-1. The isolates showed phosphate solubilisation activity (ranging from 1.4 to 55.6 µg phosphate /mg dry weight, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (0.1 to 0.31 µmol α-kB/µg protein/h and were capable of reducing acetylene in acetylene reduction assay (ranging from 0.95 to 1.8 µmol C2H4 mg protein/h. These isolates successfully colonized the peanut roots and were capable of promoting the growth under non-stress condition. A significant increase in total nitrogen (N content (up to 76% was observed over the non-inoculated control. All isolates showed tolerance to NaCl ranging from 4-8% in nutrient broth medium. Under salt stress, inoculated peanut seedlings maintained ion homeostasis, accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS and showed enhanced growth compared to non-inoculated seedlings. Overall, the present study has characterized several potential bacterial strains that showed an enhanced growth promotion effect on peanut under control as well as saline conditions. The results show the possibility to reduce chemical fertilizer inputs and may promote the use of bio-inoculants.

  11. Ethylene Inhibits Root Elongation during Alkaline Stress through AUXIN1 and Associated Changes in Auxin Accumulation.

    Li, Juan; Xu, Heng-Hao; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Lu, Ying-Tang


    Soil alkalinity causes major reductions in yield and quality of crops worldwide. The plant root is the first organ sensing soil alkalinity, which results in shorter primary roots. However, the mechanism underlying alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation remains to be further elucidated. Here, we report that alkaline conditions inhibit primary root elongation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings by reducing cell division potential in the meristem zones and that ethylene signaling affects this process. The ethylene perception antagonist silver (Ag(+)) alleviated the inhibition of root elongation by alkaline stress. Moreover, the ethylene signaling mutants ethylene response1-3 (etr1-3), ethylene insensitive2 (ein2), and ein3-1 showed less reduction in root length under alkaline conditions, indicating a reduced sensitivity to alkalinity. Ethylene biosynthesis also was found to play a role in alkaline stress-mediated root inhibition; the ethylene overproducer1-1 mutant, which overproduces ethylene because of increased stability of 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID SYNTHASE5, was hypersensitive to alkaline stress. In addition, the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor cobalt (Co(2+)) suppressed alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. We further found that alkaline stress caused an increase in auxin levels by promoting expression of auxin biosynthesis-related genes, but the increase in auxin levels was reduced in the roots of the etr1-3 and ein3-1 mutants and in Ag(+)/Co(2+)-treated wild-type plants. Additional genetic and physiological data showed that AUXIN1 (AUX1) was involved in alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. Taken together, our results reveal that ethylene modulates alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root growth by increasing auxin accumulation by stimulating the expression of AUX1 and auxin biosynthesis-related genes.

  12. 六味地黄丸影响2型糖尿病大鼠肝脏SREBP-1和ACC 表达的实验研究%The effect of Liuwei Dihuang pills on the expression of SREBP and ACC genes in the liver of type 2 diabetic rats

    杜华; 薛耀明; 朱波; 钱毅


    目的:观察六味地黄丸对2 型糖尿病大鼠肝脏脂代谢调控相关基因固醇调节元件结合蛋白(SREBP)和乙酰辅酶A 羧化酶(ACC)表达的影响.方法:以LETO 鼠为正常组,糖尿病大鼠模型OLETF 鼠分为不加药的对照组以及加药的干预组,制作病理切片观察各组肝脏组织形态学改变,RT-PCR 检测SREBP-1、ACC 在各组大鼠肝脏组织中的表达情况.结果:与对照组相比,干预组大鼠肝脏细胞索结构完整,仅见轻度肝细胞脂肪变性.RT-PCR 检测显示SREBP-1 在正常组表达稳定,而在对照组和干预组的表达均随周龄增加而增加(P < 0.01),但干预组SREBP-1 的表达显著低于对照组(P < 0.01).ACC 在对照组中的表达亦随周龄增加而明显增加,但其在正常组及干预组中的表达要显著低于对照组(P < 0.01).结论:六味地黄丸能降低糖尿病大鼠模型肝脏中SREBP mRNA 和ACC mRNA 的表达,可能通过减轻脂肪变性,改善糖尿病肝脏的脂代谢紊乱.%Objective To study the effect of Liuwei Dihuang pills on the expression of SREBP and ACC in the liver of type 2 diabetic rats. Method Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats served as an animal model of normal rat, and Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were established as an animal model of type II diabetic rats. OLETF rats were divided into two subgroups : an intervention group taking Liuwei Dihuang pills and a control group which were not to receive any medication. Each group was assessed the morphological changes and detected SREBP-1 and ACC expressions in the liver tissue by RT-PCR. Results For the structural integrity of the liver cell, mild steatosis was found in the intervention group. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression of SREBP in the normal group was stable, whereas increased with weeks of age in the control group and intervention group (P < 0.01). Moreover, the expression of SREBP in the intervention group was significantly lower than

  13. 埃克替尼通过p38-MAPK信号通路对涎腺腺样囊性癌ACC-M细胞的凋亡诱导作用%Induction effect of icotinib on apoptosis of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma ACC-M cells through p38-MAPK pathway

    杨彩玲; 张景航; 张应花; 任铭新; 刘进忠; 崔卫刚


    目的:探讨埃克替尼对人涎腺腺样囊性癌细胞 ACC-M凋亡的影响,阐明埃克替尼对涎腺腺样囊性癌的治疗作用机制。方法:ACC-M细胞随机分为对照组,2、4、8μmo1·L-1埃克替尼组,促分裂原活化蛋白激酶(APK )抑制剂 SB203580(20μmol · L-1)组, SB203580(20μmol · L-1)+埃克替尼(4μmol·L-1)组。4 h后收集细胞,采用 MTT法检测各组 ACC-M细胞的生长抑制率,用 caspase-3活力检测试剂盒检测 ACC-M细胞的凋亡情况(即 caspase-3活力),采用 Western blotting法检测 p-p38-MAPK蛋白的表达水平。结果:与对照组比较,埃克替尼组 ACC-M细胞生长抑制率明显升高(P<0.05),caspase-3活力显著增强(P<0.05),p-p38-MAPK蛋白表达水平增加(P<0.05)。与4μmol·L-1埃克替尼组比较,SB203580+埃克替尼组 p-p38-MAPK蛋白表达水平明显降低(P<0.05),caspase-3活力显著降低(P<0.05)。结论:埃克替尼可通过上调 p-p38-MAPK信号的表达诱导 ACC-M细胞凋亡。%Objective To explore the influence of icotinib in the apoptosis of the human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cells ACC-M, and to clarify the mechanism of icotinib for the treatment of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.Methods The ACC-M cells were randomly divided into control group,2,4,8μmo1·L-1 icotinib groups,p38-MAPK inhibitor SB203580 (20μmol· L-1 )group,SB203580 (20 μmol· L-1 )+4μmo1 · L-1 icotinib group;the cells were collected 4 h after treatment.The viability of ACC-M cells was measured by MTT assay.The apoptosis of ACC-M cells was assessed by caspase-3 activity kit. The expression of p-p38-MAPK protein was determined by Western blotting analysis.Results Compared with control group,the inhibitory rates of growth of the ACC-M cells in icotinib groups were significantly decreased (P<0.05 ), and the activities of caspase-3 were increased (P<0.05),and the expression levels of p-p38-MAPK were

  14. Relation Between the Number and Severity of Narrowed Coronary Artery and ACC/AHA Type in Coronary Heart Disease%冠心病本虚标实证与冠脉狭窄支数、程度及ACC/AHA病变分型的关系

    王显; 林钟香; 何燕; 葛均波



  15. Analysis of nutritional habits and intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids in veterans with peripheral arterial disease.

    Nosova, Emily V; Bartel, Kevin; Chong, Karen C; Alley, Hugh F; Conte, Michael S; Owens, Christopher D; Grenon, S Marlene


    Inadequate nutrient intake may contribute to the development and progression of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This study's aim was to assess intake of essential fatty acids and nutrients among veterans with PAD. All 88 subjects had ankle-brachial indices of Heart Association (AHA) and American College of Cardiology (ACC), as well as the AHA/ACC endorsed Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan. The mean age was 69 ± 8 years. Compared to the AHA/ACC guidelines, subjects with PAD had an inadequate intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA; 59% consumed >1 gram daily). Our subjects with PAD had an increased intake of cholesterol (31% met the cut-off established in the DASH plan), total fat (5%) and sodium (53%). They had an inadequate intake of magnesium (3%), calcium (5%), and soluble fiber (3%). Dietary potassium intake met the recommended guidelines. In our subjects with PAD, intake of critical nutrients deviated substantially from the recommended amounts. Further prospective studies should evaluate whether PAD patients experience clinical benefit if diets are modified to meet the AHA/ACC recommendations.

  16. La Course des Accélérateurs de Particules vers les Hautes Energies et la Log Périodicité

    Ivan Brissaud


    Full Text Available Plusieurs familles d'accélérateurs de particules se sont succédées grâce à des innovations notables depuis le cyclotron de Lawrence jusqu'au LHC du CERN. Chaque saut d'innovation a permis des gains en énergie importants, nécessaires pour l'obtention d'avancées scientifiques significatives. Les différentes caractéristiques de ces sauts sont mises en évidence montrant que l'ensemble des accélérateurs constitue un système complexe. Une loi log périodique permet de rendre compte de la chronologie de ces innovations comme elle le fait pour de nombreux phénomènes naturels (séismes, avalanches.. ou économiques (krach... En conclusion, des techniques autres que celles utilisées depuis le début du XXe siècle semblent nécessaires dans l'avenir pour maintenir le haut niveau scientifique de la Physique des Particules.

  17. Biomarker analysis of the MITO2 phase III trial of first-line treatment in ovarian cancer: predictive value of DNA-PK and phosphorylated ACC

    Perrone, Francesco; Baldassarre, Gustavo; Indraccolo, Stefano; Signoriello, Simona; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Esposito, Franca; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Franco, Renato; Mezzanzanica, Delia; Sonego, Maura; Zulato, Elisabetta; Zannoni, Gian F.; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Scambia, Giovanni; Sorio, Roberto; Savarese, Antonella; Breda, Enrico; Scollo, Paolo; Ferro, Antonella; Tamberi, Stefano; Febbraro, Antonio; Natale, Donato; Maio, Massimo Di; Califano, Daniela; Scognamiglio, Giosuè; Lorusso, Domenica; Canevari, Silvana; Losito, Simona; Gallo, Ciro; Pignata, Sandro


    Background No biomarker is available to predict prognosis of patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) and guide the choice of chemotherapy. We performed a prospective-retrospective biomarker study within the MITO2 trial on the treatment of AOC. Patients and methods: MITO2 is a randomised multicentre phase 3 trial conducted with 820 AOC patients assigned carboplatin/paclitaxel (carboplatin: AUC5, paclitaxel: 175 mg/m², every 3 weeks for 6 cycles) or carboplatin/PLD-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (carboplatin: AUC5, PLD: 30 mg/m², every 3 weeks for 6 cycles) as first line treatment. Sixteen biomarkers (pathways of adhesion/invasion, apoptosis, transcription regulation, metabolism, and DNA repair) were studied in 229 patients, in a tissue microarray. Progression-free and overall survival were analysed with multivariable Cox model. Results After 72 months median follow-up, 594 progressions and 426 deaths were reported; there was no significant difference between the two arms in the whole trial. No biomarker had significant prognostic value. Statistically significant interactions with treatment were found for DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and phosphorylated acetyl-coenzymeA carboxylase (pACC), both predicting worse outcome for patients receiving carboplatin/paclitaxel. Conclusion These data show that in presence of DNA-PK or pACC overexpression, carboplatin/paclitaxel might be less effective than carboplatin/PLD as first line treatment of ovarian cancer patients. Further validation of these findings is warranted. PMID:27655643

  18. Les accélérateurs de particules : vecteurs de découvertes, moteurs de développement.

    CERN. Geneva


    English version follows Les accélérateurs de particules : vecteurs de découvertes, moteurs de développement. par Dr. Philippe Lebrun Les accélérateurs de particules existent depuis plus d’un siècle comme instruments de recherche fondamentale qui ont permis la découverte des particules élémentaires et leur étude à des échelles toujours plus fines. Épousant les technologies émergentes dont ils ont stimulé les progrès, ils se sont développés de manière exponentielle tout au long du XXe siècle, pour être aujourd’hui les grands outils de la recherche en physique des particules, mais aussi – comme puissantes sources de rayonnements permettant de sonder la matière – en physique atomique et moléculaire, en physique d...

  19. AccPbFRET: An ImageJ plugin for semi-automatic, fully corrected analysis of acceptor photobleaching FRET images

    Vereb György


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acceptor photobleaching fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET method is widely used for monitoring molecular interactions in cells. This method of FRET, while among those with the simplest mathematics, is robust, self-controlled and independent of fluorophore amounts and ratios. Results AccPbFRET is a user-friendly, efficient ImageJ plugin which allows fully corrected, pixel-wise calculation and detailed, ROI (region of interest-based analysis of FRET efficiencies in microscopic images. Furthermore, automatic registration and semi-automatic analysis of large image sets is provided, which are not available in any existing FRET evaluation software. Conclusion Despite of the widespread applicability of the acceptor photobleaching FRET technique, this is the first paper where all possible sources of major errors of the measurement and analysis are considered, and AccPbFRET is the only program which provides the complete suite of corrections – for registering image pairs, for unwanted photobleaching of the donor, for cross-talk of the acceptor and/or its photoproduct to the donor channel and for partial photobleaching of the acceptor. The program efficiently speeds up the analysis of large image sets even for novice users and is freely available.

  20. Susceptibility of podocytes to palmitic acid is regulated by fatty acid oxidation and inversely depends on acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2.

    Kampe, Kapil; Sieber, Jonas; Orellana, Jana Marina; Mundel, Peter; Jehle, Andreas Werner


    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by dyslipidemia with elevated free fatty acids (FFAs). Loss of podocytes is a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy, and podocytes are susceptible to saturated FFAs, which induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and podocyte death. Genome-wide association studies indicate that expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 2, a key enzyme of fatty acid oxidation (FAO), is associated with proteinuria in type 2 diabetes. Here, we show that stimulation of FAO by aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) or by adiponectin, activators of the low-energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), protects from palmitic acid-induced podocyte death. Conversely, inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1), the rate-limiting enzyme of FAO and downstream target of AMPK, augments palmitic acid toxicity and impedes the protective AICAR effect. Etomoxir blocked the AICAR-induced FAO measured with tritium-labeled palmitic acid. The beneficial effect of AICAR was associated with a reduction of ER stress, and it was markedly reduced in ACC-1/-2 double-silenced podocytes. In conclusion, the stimulation of FAO by modulating the AMPK-ACC-CPT-1 pathway may be part of a protective mechanism against saturated FFAs that drive podocyte death. Further studies are needed to investigate the potentially novel therapeutic implications of these findings.

  1. 油樟内生溶磷菌的筛选及其生物学特性%Screening and characterization of phosphate dissolving endophytic bacteria from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum

    冯瑞章; 周诰均; 魏琴; 周万海; 范轶玲; 秦欢


    were screened using phosphate solubilizing zone ( PKO) inorganic culture medium, subsequently, the capacity of dissolving phosphorus of 24 strains were determined by phosphor-molybdate blue color methods, and the characteristics benefited to plant-microbe interaction-indoleacetic acid ( IAA) , siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase ( ACC) and chitosanase activities were also evaluated. The results showed that 24 strains could release phosphate from tricalcium phosphate with the range of dissolving phosphate from 51.26 μg·mL-1 to 237.0 μg·mL-1, and the maxi-mum phosphate content in the solution was obtained with strain YG60. Among 24 strains, 6 strains ( YG60, YG43, YG36, YG25, YG49, YG44 ) showed the higher phosphate solubilization capacity ( 237. 08, 211. 53, 180. 68, 166.85, 151.28, 150.20 μg·mL-1 respectively) . Furthermore, 24 strains could decrease the pH of the medium with the pH value range from 4.5 to 5.5, and the relationship between pH and phosphorus solubizition was also discussed;however, there were no close relationship between them. The further experimental results showed that most of the 6 strains with higher phosphate dissolving capacity had the ability to produce IAA and siderophores, and had ACC deam-inase and chitosanase activity. Among them, YG43, YG60 and YG25 possessed higher IAA producing capacity (22.55, 18.75 and 16.41 μg·mL-1 respectively); YG43 and YG60 possessed higher siderophores of As/Ar<0.6 (0.459, 0.579 respectively );YG43, YG60 and YG25 had strong ACC deaminase activity (0.194, 0.224, 0.208 U·mg-1),YG43 and YG60 had strong chitosanase activity (2.968 U,2.502 U). In terms of all the properties of dis-solving phosphate, secreting IAA, siderophores, ACC deaminase and chitosanase, strains YG43, YG60 and YG25 isolated from interior tissues of C. longepaniculatum have abundant biological characteristics related to plant growth promotion, stress homeostasis regulation and biocontrol activity. They are possible

  2. Preparation of hardened body in calcium carbonate-aspartic acid-chitosan system by using amorphous calcium carbonate; Hishoshitsu tansan calcium wo genryo to suru tansan calcium-asuparaginsan-kitosankei kokatai no sakusei

    Yasue, T.; Aigami, H.; Arai, Y. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering


    Notice was given on chitosan to discuss fabrication of hardened body in calcium carbonate-aspartic acid-chitosan system. First, aspartic acid (Asp) was adsorbed into surface of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). Then, discussions were given on effects of water-solid mass ratio and chitosan amount on compressive strength of the hardened body in the calcium carbonate-chitosan system made by using a flow-in molding process. As a result, approximately the same compressive strength as that of calcium carbonate (calcite type) was obtained when anhydrous ACC as a product of ACC heated at 250 deg C is used as the raw material. Thus, the hardened body in calcium carbonate-aspartic acid-chitosan system was fabricated by using the Asp adsorbed anhydrous ACC as the starting material. The compressive strength decreased with increasing Asp adsorption amount. Therefore, a hardened body was fabricated by using compression molding at 10 MPa, rather than using the flow-in molding process. It was revealed from the results of infrared absorption spectroscopy that the compression molding strengthens the compounding of Asp chemically adsorbed on the ACC surface with chtosan, and improves the compression strength. 23 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid composition for increased tolerance to octanoic acid.

    Besada-Lombana, Pamela B; Fernandez-Moya, Ruben; Fenster, Jacob; Da Silva, Nancy A


    Biorenewable chemicals such as short and medium chain fatty acids enable functional or direct substitution of petroleum-derived building blocks, allowing reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gases while meeting market needs of high-demand products like aliphatic alcohols and alpha olefins. However, producing these fatty acids in microorganisms can be challenging due to toxicity issues. Octanoic acid (C8) can disrupt the integrity of the cell membrane in yeast, and exogenous supplementation of oleic acid has been shown to help alleviate this. We recently engineered the Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase by replacing serine residue 1157 with alanine to prevent deactivation by phosphorylation. Expression of Acc1(S1157A) in S. cerevisiae resulted in an increase in total fatty acid production, with the largest increase for oleic acid. In this study, we evaluated the effect of this modified lipid profile on C8 toxicity to the yeast. Expression of Acc1(S1157A) in S. cerevisiae BY4741 increased the percentage of oleic acid 3.1-fold and 1.6-fold in the absence and presence of octanoic acid challenge, respectively. Following exposure to 0.9 mM of C8 for 24 h, the engineered yeast had a 10-fold higher cell density relative to the baseline strain. Moreover, overexpressing Acc1(S1157A) allowed survival at C8 concentrations that were lethal for the baseline strain. This marked reduction of toxicity was shown to be due to higher membrane integrity as an 11-fold decrease in leakage of intracellular magnesium was observed. Due to the increase in oleic acid, this approach has the potential to reduce toxicity of other valuable bioproducts such as shorter chain aliphatic acids and alcohols and other membrane stressors. In an initial screen, increased resistance to n-butanol, 2-propanol and hexanoic acid was demonstrated with cell densities 3.2-fold, 1.8-fold, and 29-fold higher than the baseline strain, respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All

  4. Effect of NPY on HSL and ACC of bovine adipocyte%NPY对犊牛脂肪细胞HSL和ACC的影响

    张才; 杨自军; 王哲; 刘国文


    试验探讨NPY在脂肪动员中的作用.体外培养犊牛脂肪细胞,通过添加不同浓度的外源性NPY(0、50、100、200、500、1 000 pg/ml)观察对脂肪细胞脂肪动员关键酶的影响.结果表明:①NPY降低脂肪细胞HSL mRNA的水平和活性,具有一定的剂量依赖性;②NPY可直接上调ACC的表达,并具一定的剂量依赖性;③随着NPY添加时间的延长,脂肪细胞HSL mRNA的水平和活性逐渐降低;④随着NPY添加时间的延长,脂肪细胞ACC的表达也逐渐升高.因此,NPY可在一定程度上促进脂肪合成,抑制脂肪动员的发生.%The focal point of this study is to probe the regulation mechanism of NPY on the above mentioned metabolism. Bovine preadipocyte was cultured by the method of adipocyte culture reported by previous literature. The effect of NPY (0,50,100,200,500,1 000 pg/ml)on mRNA expression of HSL,ACC in adipocyte were detected by fluorescent quantitation PCR. The result showed that: the expression levels of HSL mRNA in fat cell were decreased with increasing concentration of NPY in culture media. Enzyme activity of HSL was also lower than the controls. The level of ACC mRNA in fat cell was increased with increasing concentration of NPY -in culture media. The effect of 200 pg/ml NPY (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24 h) on the above parameters were detected by fluorescent quantitation PCR. The result showed that: the expression levels of ACC mRNA in fat cell were increased with delaying the time treated by NPY, and the activity of HSL and the expressing of HSL mRNA were decreased. It was conclued that NPY could decrease fat mobilizationin in adipocyte, and those effect of NPY were dose dependent and time dependence.

  5. Les projets des jeunes ruraux : des stratégies diversifiées pour accéder au foncier et obtenir l’appui de l’Etat

    Zhour Bouzidi


    Full Text Available Les initiatives publiques au Maroc n’offrent que très peu d’appuis spécifiquement dédiés aux jeunes ruraux. Cependant, certains jeunes réussissent à bénéficier de financements publics, tels que l’Initiative Nationale pour le Développement Humain ou le pilier II du Plan Maroc Vert, pour réaliser leurs projets. L’objectif de cet article est de caractériser la diversité des stratégies mises en place par ces jeunes pour accéder à l’appui de l’État. Nous avons pris l’exemple de l’accès au foncier, qui constitue une des obstacles auxquels sont confrontés les jeunes ruraux. Nous avons identifié trois types de projets : i des projets sans accès au foncier ; ii des projets où les jeunes s’arrangent avec un propriétaire de terre pour accéder au foncier ; et iii des projets où les jeunes sécurisent un droit propre d’accès au foncier. Si l’accès sécurisé au foncier permet aux jeunes d’obtenir une marge de manoeuvre importante dans la conception de leurs projets, en revanche leur autonomie est réduite pour les projets avec un accès négocié à la terre. Ce faisant, les projets hors sol constituent une voie de contournement de la contrainte foncière, mais font face à un ensemble de problèmes spécifiques. Bien que l’appui de l’État ne soit accessible qu’à peu de jeunes, les projets analysés créent des opportunités d’emploi et permettent de renforcer l’attachement des jeunes au milieu rural. Enfin, cet article propose des pistes pour améliorer l’accès des jeunes aux ressources productives (terre, eau, capital et mettre en place un appui efficient et adapté à leurs ambitions et leurs projets.

  6. Etude de sécurité en base de données avec une application pour le contrôle d’accès

    EL HADJ MIMOUNE, Khadidja


    Dans le cadre de PFE, nous avons réalisé une application qui fait appel à des mécanismes de sécurité dans le cadre des bases de données. Notre application contient deux parties : la première est une application Web réalisée pour gérer les clients dans un environnement 3-tiers, nous avons proposé dans cette partie un contrôle d’accès sur le nombre de tentatives erronés d’authentification avant de désactiver un compte existant ainsi qu’un mécanisme de chiffrement afin de protéger les informatio...

  7. Heart Failure in the American College of Cardiology (ACC) 59th Annual Scientific Sessions%2010 ACC心力衰竭研究热点

    陆志刚; 潘晔生


    @@ 2010年美国心脏病学会(ACC)年会于3月14日~16日在美国南部城市亚特兰大国际会议中心举行.来自世界各地的超过2万名代表参加了本届大会.本届大会讨论的热点包括冠心病、心血管保健、瓣膜病、先天性心脏病、房颤、卫生信息技术和影像学.心力衰竭领域讨论的重点是利尿剂的合理应用以及心力衰竭的院外治疗.

  8. L'accès aux espaces naturels: l'apport des chorèmes à la gestion des conflits d'usage

    Charlotte Michel


    Full Text Available Les espaces naturels, agricoles ou forestiers sont des lieux où se rencontrent toutes sortes d'usagers. L'accès à ces espaces est remis en cause lorsque augmentent des conflits d'usage entre ces différents utilisateurs. Cette étude dans une commune du Puy-de-Dôme montre les configurations spatiales propices à leur émergence: proximité entre une maison et un chemin de randonnée, traversée d'une zone d'estive par un chemin de randonnée, etc. La «grammaire spatiale» des chorèmes permet de caractériser des situations types et d'imaginer des solutions.

  9. Determination of l-arginine and NG, NG - and NG, NG' -dimethyl-L-arginine in plasma by liquid chromatography as AccQ-Fluor fluorescent derivatives.

    Heresztyn, Tamila; Worthley, Matthew I; Horowitz, John D


    A new HPLC assay for the detection of L-arginine, NG, NG-dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA) and NG, NG' -dimethyl-L-arginine (SDMA) in plasma using the derivatisation reagent AccQ-Fluor (6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate) is described. The fluorescent derivatives produced are extremely stable enabling routine processing of large numbers of samples. Arginine and its metabolites are extracted from plasma on strong cation exchange (SCX) cartridges with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA) as internal standard, derivatised and separated on a C18 column with acetonitrile in 0.1M sodium acetate buffer pH 6. Separation of the stereoisomers ADMA and SDMA was excellent and improvements to the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure enabled good recovery (>80%) of arginine, ADMA and SDMA. The utility of the method is exemplified by comparison of plasma concentrations of ADMA, SDMA and arginine in healthy volunteers and diabetic/ischaemic patients.

  10. Etat de l'art des méthodes d'accès multi-canal pour les réseaux locaux sans fil

    Senoussi Hissein, Mahamat Habib; Van Den Bossche, Adrien; Val, Thierry


    National audience; Au cours de cette dernière décennie, on constate un grand progrès dans le domaine des réseaux locaux sans fil. Leur déploiement se manifeste dans plusieurs domaines d'applications. Cependant, ces applications font face à plusieurs obstacles dus à une gestion difficile à l'accès au médium. Ceci mène le plus souvent à certains problèmes tels que : les collisions, la dégradation du débit et l'augmentation des délais. Pour surmonter ces défis, des travaux de recherches se sont ...

  11. Protocoles d'accès multiple orientés qualité de service en constellation de satellite à orbite basse

    Ibrahim, Abbas


    Pendant les dernières années, le réseau cellulaire est devenu accessible presque partout. Pour compléter ce réseau cellulaire terrestre, plusieurs systèmes basés sur des satellites à basse orbite (LEO Low Earth Orbit) et moyenne orbite (MEO Medium Earth Orbit) ont été développés pour offrir une couverture globale. Les services multimédias sont largement demandés sur une échelle globale.Notre but est de développer une couche d'accès MAC au canal satellitaire tout en respectant les contraintes ...

  12. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines

    The goals of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) are to prevent cardiovascular (CV) diseases, improve the management of people who have these diseases through professional education and research, and develop guidelines, standards and policies that promot...

  13. Performance of a Code Migration for the Simulation of Supersonic Ejector Flow to SMP, MIC, and GPU Using OpenMP, OpenMP+LEO, and OpenACC Directives

    C. Couder-Castañeda


    Full Text Available A serial source code for simulating a supersonic ejector flow is accelerated using parallelization based on OpenMP and OpenACC directives. The purpose is to reduce the development costs and to simplify the maintenance of the application due to the complexity of the FORTRAN source code. This research follows well-proven strategies in order to obtain the best performance in both OpenMP and OpenACC. OpenMP has become the programming standard for scientific multicore software and OpenACC is one true alternative for graphics accelerators without the need of programming low level kernels. The strategies using OpenMP are oriented towards reducing the creation of parallel regions, tasks creation to handle boundary conditions, and a nested control of the loop time for the programming in offload mode specifically for the Xeon Phi. In OpenACC, the strategy focuses on maintaining the data regions among the executions of the kernels. Experiments for performance and validation are conducted here on a 12-core Xeon CPU, Xeon Phi 5110p, and Tesla C2070, obtaining the best performance from the latter. The Tesla C2070 presented an acceleration factor of 9.86X, 1.6X, and 4.5X compared against the serial version on CPU, 12-core Xeon CPU, and Xeon Phi, respectively.

  14. Characteristics of metal-tolerant plant growth-promoting yeast (Cryptococcus sp. NSE1) and its influence on Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola.

    Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Beibei; Wang, Qingling; Hou, Jinyu; Wu, Longhua; Wood, Jennifer L; Luo, Yongming; Franks, Ashley E


    Plant growth-promoting yeasts are often over looked as a mechanism to improve phytoremediation of heavy metals. In this study, Cryptococcus sp. NSE1, a Cd-tolerant yeast with plant growth capabilities, was isolated from the rhizosphere of the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola. The yeast exhibited strong tolerance to a range of heavy metals including Cd, Cu, and Zn on plate assays. The adsorption rate Cd, Cu, Zn by NSE1 was 26.1, 13.2, and 25.2 %, respectively. Irregular spines were formed on the surface of NSE1 when grown in MSM medium supplemented with 200 mg L(-1) Cd. NSE1 was capable of utilizing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) as a sole nitrogen source and was capable of solubilization of inorganic phosphate at rates of 195.2 mg L(-1). Field experiments demonstrated that NSE1 increased phytoremediation by increasing the biomass of Cd hyperaccumulator S. plumbizincicola (46 %, p Cd accumulation by S. plumbizincicola was increased from 19.6 to 31.1 mg m(-2) though no difference in the concentration of Cd in the shoot biomass was observed between NSE1 and control. A Cd accumulation ratio of 38.0 % for NSE1 and 17.2 % for control was observed. The HCl-extractable Cd and CaCl2-extractable Cd concentration in the soil of the NSE1 treatment were reduced by 39.2 and 29.5 %, respectively. Community-level physiology profiling, assessed using Biolog Eco plates, indicated functional changes to the rhizosphere community inoculated with NSE1 by average well color development (AWCD) and measurement of richness (diversity). Values of Shannon-Weiner index, Simpson index, and McIntosh index showed a slight but no significant increases. These results indicate that inoculation of NSE1 could increase the shoot biomass of S. plumbizincicola, enhance the Cd accumulation in S. plumbizincicola, and decrease the available heavy metal content in soils significantly without overall significant changes to the microbial community.

  15. 碱性成纤维细胞生长因子对人涎腺腺样囊性癌ACC-2细胞株增殖及MEK/ERK、MKP-1通路的影响%Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor on the proliferation of human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma ACC-2 cell line and the signaling pathway of MEK/ERK and MKP-1

    丁蕾; 朱声荣; 汤国雄; 向国林


    目的:观察碱性成纤维细胞生长因子(basic fibroblast growth factor,bFGF)对人涎腺腺样囊性癌ACC-2细胞株增殖及MEK1/2、ERK1/2及MKP-1表达的影响.方法:培养人涎腺腺样囊性癌细胞株(ACC-2),MTT比色法测定不同浓度bFGF对细胞增殖的影响;免疫沉淀法纯化蛋白并ERK试剂盒测定ERK活性;免疫印迹法测定p-MEK1/2、p-ERK1/2及MKP-1表达.结果:MTT实验显示bFGF明显增强ACC-2细胞增殖,免疫沉淀法显示bFGF上调ERK活性,免疫印迹法显示bFGF明显增强p-MEK1/2、p-ERK1/2表达及抑制MKP-1表达.结论:bFGF可促进人涎腺腺样囊性癌ACC-2细胞株增殖,其途径与上调ERK活性、激活MEK/ERK通路、抑制MKP-1表达有关.

  16. Aspartic acid

    Aspartic acid is a nonessential amino acids . Amino acids are building blocks of proteins. "Nonessential" means that our ... this amino acid from the food we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps ...

  17. A novel phylogeny and morphological reconstruction of the PIN genes and first phylogeny of the ACC-oxidases (ACOs

    Ronald Matthew Clouse


    Full Text Available The PIN and ACO gene families present interesting questions about the evolution of plant physiology, including testing hypotheses about the ecological drivers of their diversification and whether unrelated genes have been recruited for similar functions. The PIN-formed proteins contribute to the polar transport of auxin, a hormone which regulates plant growth and development. PIN loci are categorized into groups according to their protein length and structure, as well as subcellular localization. An interesting question with PIN genes is the nature of the ancestral form and location. ACOs are members of a superfamily of oxygenases and oxidases that catalyze the last step of ethylene synthesis, which regulates many aspects of the plant life cycle. We used publicly available PIN and ACO sequences to conduct phylogenetic analyses. Third codon positions of these genes in monocots have a high GC content, which could be historical but is more likely due to a mutational bias. Thus we developed methods to extract phylogenetic information from nucleotide sequences while avoiding this convergent feature. One method consisted in using only A-T transformations, and another used only the first and second codon positions for serine, which can only take A or T and G or C, respectively. We also conducted tree-searches for both gene families using unaligned amino acid sequences and dynamic homology. PIN genes appear to have diversified earlier than ACOs, with monocot and dicot copies more mixed in the phylogeny. However, gymnosperm PINs appear to be derived and not closely related to those from primitive plants. We find strong support for a long PIN gene ancestor with short forms subsequently evolving one or more times. ACO genes appear to have diversified mostly since the dicot-monocot split, as most genes cluster into a small number of monocot and dicot clades when the tree is rooted by genes from mosses. Gymnosperm ACOs were recovered as closely related and

  18. A novel phylogeny and morphological reconstruction of the PIN genes and first phylogeny of the ACC-oxidases (ACOs).

    Clouse, Ronald M; Carraro, Nicola


    The PIN and ACO gene families present interesting questions about the evolution of plant physiology, including testing hypotheses about the ecological drivers of their diversification and whether unrelated genes have been recruited for similar functions. The PIN-formed proteins contribute to the polar transport of auxin, a hormone which regulates plant growth and development. PIN loci are categorized into groups according to their protein length and structure, as well as subcellular localization. An interesting question with PIN genes is the nature of the ancestral form and location. ACOs are members of a superfamily of oxygenases and oxidases that catalyze the last step of ethylene synthesis, which regulates many aspects of the plant life cycle. We used publicly available PIN and ACO sequences to conduct phylogenetic analyses. Third codon positions of these genes in monocots have a high GC content, which could be historical but is more likely due to a mutational bias. Thus, we developed methods to extract phylogenetic information from nucleotide sequences while avoiding this convergent feature. One method consisted in using only A-T transformations, and another used only the first and second codon positions for serine, which can only take A or T and G or C, respectively. We also conducted tree-searches for both gene families using unaligned amino acid sequences and dynamic homology. PIN genes appear to have diversified earlier than ACOs, with monocot and dicot copies more mixed in the phylogeny. However, gymnosperm PINs appear to be derived and not closely related to those from primitive plants. We find strong support for a long PIN gene ancestor with short forms subsequently evolving one or more times. ACO genes appear to have diversified mostly since the dicot-monocot split, as most genes cluster into a small number of monocot and dicot clades when the tree is rooted by genes from mosses. Gymnosperm ACOs were recovered as closely related and derived.

  19. Immigration(s et accès aux soins en Guyane Immigration(s and access to health care in French Guyana

    Estelle Carde


    Full Text Available L’immigration en Guyane est plurielle. Aux migrants caribéens que la précarité et les violences politiques ont chassés de chez eux se mêlent des migrants partis de France métropolitaine pour goûter à l’exotisme de cette société française sise en Amérique du Sud. Cette pluralité se retrouve lorsque les premiers, usagers étrangers du système de soins, rencontrent des professionnels qui, bien que français, sont soit autochtones, soit eux-mêmes migrants. Ces usagers étrangers sont parfois victimes de discriminations opérées par des professionnels autochtones qui les suspectent de venir profiter indûment du système de soins local. Si ces discriminations ont également cours ailleurs en France, elles sont exacerbées en Guyane par l’importance des flux migratoires et des difficultés socio-économiques. Une autre figure de l’accès aux soins en contexte d’immigration, plus spécifique à la Guyane, est celle de professionnels migrants qui attribuent à certains de leurs usagers étrangers, au nom de leur identité ethnique, une autochtonie que ne leur reconnaît pas la loi. Enfin, les enjeux de l’accès aux soins en contexte d’immigration s’articulent à l’ensemble des rapports sociaux inégalitaires qui traversent la société guyanaise.Immigration in French Guyana is plural. Caribbean migrants, driven away by poverty and political violence, mix with migrants who left metropolitan France to taste the exotism of this French society in South America. This plurality shapes access to health care, since foreign users meet French professionals who are either native or migrants. These foreigners may be victims of discrimination on the part of native professionals who suspect them of taking advantage of the local health care system. Whereas such discrimination exists elsewhere in France, the situation seems exacerbated in French Guyana by the importance of the migratory flows and socioeconomic difficulties. Migrant

  20. SCD1 inhibition causes cancer cell death by depleting mono-unsaturated fatty acids.

    Paul Mason

    Full Text Available Increased metabolism is a requirement for tumor cell proliferation. To understand the dependence of tumor cells on fatty acid metabolism, we evaluated various nodes of the fatty acid synthesis pathway. Using RNAi we have demonstrated that depletion of fatty-acid synthesis pathway enzymes SCD1, FASN, or ACC1 in HCT116 colon cancer cells results in cytotoxicity that is reversible by addition of exogenous fatty acids. This conditional phenotype is most pronounced when SCD1 is depleted. We used this fatty-acid rescue strategy to characterize several small-molecule inhibitors of fatty acid synthesis, including identification of TOFA as a potent SCD1 inhibitor, representing a previously undescribed activity for this compound. Reference FASN and ACC inhibitors show cytotoxicity that is less pronounced than that of TOFA, and fatty-acid rescue profiles consistent with their proposed enzyme targets. Two reference SCD1 inhibitors show low-nanomolar cytotoxicity that is offset by at least two orders of magnitude by exogenous oleate. One of these inhibitors slows growth of HCT116 xenograft tumors. Our data outline an effective strategy for interrogation of on-mechanism potency and pathway-node-specificity of fatty acid synthesis inhibitors, establish an unambiguous link between fatty acid synthesis and cancer cell survival, and point toward SCD1 as a key target in this pathway.

  1. Selected aspects of social cognition in patient with total agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC and Arnold-Chiari desease – case study

    Daniluk, Beata


    Full Text Available Aim. The goal of the research was a characteristic of emotional-social competencies and communicative abilities in a 16-years old patient with ACC and Arnold-Chiari disease and higher than average intelligence. Method. RHLB-PL was applied. Results. Total score in RHLB-PL suggested language and communication impairment. The greatest problems were observed in the field of behavioral self-control and discourse abilities. The patient had difficulties in the topic of the discourse maintaining, resisting from production of unconnected topics and comments, interject inappropriate remarks. Problems in humor comprehension and the dissociation between relative high level of written metaphors analysis abilities and low level of Picture Metaphors perception and explanation were observed. Linguistic Prosody was average. Conclusion. Patient M.J. with agenesis of corpus callosum presented high number of deficits typical in right hemisphere damage patients. It is possible to explain that fact in the context of interhemispheric transfer disorders, specially when complex material was processed.

  2. Efficient and portable acceleration of quantum chemical many-body methods in mixed floating point precision using OpenACC compiler directives

    Eriksen, Janus Juul


    It is demonstrated how the non-proprietary OpenACC standard of compiler directives may be used to compactly and efficiently accelerate the rate-determining steps of two of the most routinely applied many-body methods of electronic structure theory, namely the second-order M{\\o}ller-Plesset (MP2) model in its resolution-of-the-identity (RI) approximated form and the (T) triples correction to the coupled cluster singles and doubles model (CCSD(T)). By means of compute directives as well as the use of optimized device math libraries, the operations involved in the energy kernels have been ported to graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerators, and the associated data transfers correspondingly optimized to such a degree that the final implementations (using either double and/or single precision arithmetics) are capable of scaling to as large systems as allowed for by the capacity of the host central processing unit (CPU) main memory. The performance of the hybrid CPU/GPU implementations is assessed through calcula...

  3. "Multicystic dysplastic kidney (Potter type II syndrome) and agenesis of corpus callosum (ACC) in two consecutive pregnancies: a possible teratogenic effect of electromagnetic exposure in utero".

    Tonni, Gabriele; Azzoni, Daniela; Ventura, Alessandro; Ambrosetti, Fabrizio; De Felice, Claudio


    Agenesis of the corpus callosum is found in about 5 per 1,000 births and it is due to maldevelopment or, secondary, to destructive lesions. Multicystic dysplastic kidneys is a consequence of either developmental failure of the mesonephric blastema to form nephrons or to early urinary obstruction due to urethral or ureteric atresia and can be found in about 1 per 1,000 live births. A case of fetal multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (Potter type II syndrome) and complete agenesis of the corpus callosum demonstrated by the presence of Probst bundles associated with colpocephaly occurring in the same mother in her two consecutive pregnancies is reported. Data regarding possible teratogenetic effect due to electromagnetic exposure in utero have also been investigated and raised suspicionus as a potential risk factor. In cases of suspected second trimester ultrasound diagnosis of agenesis of corpus callosum (ACC), the following clinical management should be recommended: fetal karyotype; a second level scan with differentiation between underlying conditions such as hydrocephalus and holoprosencephaly; antenatal MRI to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of possible associated neuronal migration (when possible); and direct demonstration of the presence of the Probst bundles to neurohistology.

  4. Headed in the right direction but at risk for miscalculation: a critical appraisal of the 2013 ACC/AHA risk assessment guidelines.

    Amin, Nivee P; Martin, Seth S; Blaha, Michael J; Nasir, Khurram; Blumenthal, Roger S; Michos, Erin D


    The newly released 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines for Assessing Cardiovascular Risk makes progress compared with previous cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms. For example, the new focus on total atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) is now inclusive of stroke in addition to hard coronary events, and there are now separate equations to facilitate estimation of risk in non-Hispanic white and black individuals and separate equations for women. Physicians may now estimate lifetime risk in addition to 10-year risk. Despite this progress, the new risk equations do not appear to lead to significantly better discrimination than older models. Because the exact same risk factors are incorporated, using the new risk estimators may lead to inaccurate assessment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in special groups such as younger individuals with unique ASCVD risk factors. In general, there appears to be an overestimation of risk when applied to modern populations with greater use of preventive therapy, although the magnitude of overestimation remains unclear. Because absolute risk estimates are directly used for treatment decisions in the new cholesterol guidelines, these issues could result in overuse of pharmacologic management. The guidelines could provide clearer direction on which individuals would benefit from additional testing, such as coronary calcium scores, for more personalized preventive therapies. We applaud the advances of these new guidelines, and we aim to critically appraise the applicability of the risk assessment tools so that future iterations of the estimators can be improved to more accurately assess risk in individual patients.

  5. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)2A receptors in rat anterior cingulate cortex mediate the discriminative stimulus properties of d-lysergic acid diethylamide.

    Gresch, Paul J; Barrett, Robert J; Sanders-Bush, Elaine; Smith, Randy L


    d-Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), an indoleamine hallucinogen, produces profound alterations in mood, thought, and perception in humans. The brain site(s) that mediates the effects of LSD is currently unknown. In this study, we combine the drug discrimination paradigm with intracerebral microinjections to investigate the anatomical localization of the discriminative stimulus of LSD in rats. Based on our previous findings, we targeted the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to test its involvement in mediating the discriminative stimulus properties of LSD. Rats were trained to discriminate systemically administered LSD (0.085 mg/kg s.c.) from saline. Following acquisition of the discrimination, bilateral cannulae were implanted into the ACC (AP, +1.2 mm; ML, +/-1.0 mm; DV, -2.0 mm relative to bregma). Rats were tested for their ability to discriminate varying doses of locally infused LSD (0.1875, 0.375, and 0.75 microg/side) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (n = 3-7). LSD locally infused into ACC dose-dependently substituted for systemically administered LSD, with 0.75 microg/side LSD substituting completely (89% correct). Systemic administration of the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) (5-HT)(2A) receptor antagonist R-(+)-alpha-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-[2-(4-fluorophenylethyl)]-4-piperidine-methanol (M100907; 0.4 mg/kg) blocked the discriminative cue of LSD (0.375 microg/side) infused into ACC (from 68 to 16% drug lever responding). Furthermore, M100907 (0.5 microg/microl/side) locally infused into ACC completely blocked the stimulus effects of systemic LSD (0.04 mg/kg; from 80 to 12% on the LSD lever). Taken together, these data indicate that 5-HT(2A) receptors in the ACC are a primary target mediating the discriminative stimulus properties of LSD.

  6. Characterization and Phylogenetic Utility of Non-coding Chloroplast Regions trnL-trnF and accD-psaI in Pyrus%梨属叶绿体非编码区trnL-trnF和accD-psaI特征及其在系统发育研究中的应用价值

    胡春云; 郑小艳; 滕元文


    对梨属19个种共26个供试样本及两个苹果属外类群样本的叶绿体非编码区trnL-trnF和accD-psaI进行了序列分析。排列后的序列长度分别为927 bp和944 bp。两个区域组合后共有36个核苷酸替换(substitution)和11个插入/缺失(indel)。将所有indel处理为一次变异事件并编码为替换,用于简约法系统树和NeighborNet系统发育网络(phylogenetic networks)的构建。研究结果表明:indel为系统发育分析提供了可靠的信息;相比trnL-trnF,accD-psaI因进化速率较快,更适合应用于种及种以下分类水平的梨属植物系统关系研究;NeighborNet系统发育网络表明系统树上部分较低的分支支持率由冲突的信息引起,其余则由信息位点不足引起。此外结果还揭示了可疑种间杂交种的母系祖先。%The two non-coding chloroplast regions,trnL-trnF and accD-psaI of 26 accessions from 19 Pyrus L.species and two outgroup accessions from Malus Mill.were sequenced.Aligned lengths of these two regions were 927 bp and 944 bp,respectively.A total of 36 substitutions and 11 indels were obtained in the combined data.All of the indels were treated as single mutation events and coded as substitutions manually when conducting maximum parsimony and Neighbor Ne(t NN)analyses.Our results showed that the indels in these two cpDNA regions were reliable phylogenetic characters and increased phylogenetic resolution;Compared with trnL-trnF,accD-psaI evolves quicker,providing more information for the discovery of inter-and intra-specific relationships in Pyrus.The NN split network indicated that the poor resolution in the phylogenetic tree was partly caused by conflicting signals or by lack of sufficient informative site.In addition,maternal lineages of putative inter-specific hybrids were revealed.

  7. Les projets des jeunes ruraux : des stratégies diversifiées pour accéder au foncier et obtenir l’appui de l’Etat

    Zhour Bouzidi; Nicolas Faysse; Marcel Kuper


    Les initiatives publiques au Maroc n’offrent que très peu d’appuis spécifiquement dédiés aux jeunes ruraux. Cependant, certains jeunes réussissent à bénéficier de financements publics, tels que l’Initiative Nationale pour le Développement Humain ou le pilier II du Plan Maroc Vert, pour réaliser leurs projets. L’objectif de cet article est de caractériser la diversité des stratégies mises en place par ces jeunes pour accéder à l’appui de l’État. Nous avons pris l’exemple de l’accès au foncier,...

  8. Concentration des services de santé, contraintes de mobilité et difficultés d’accès aux soins dans la métropole d’Oran

    Rebouha, Fafa


    L’objet de ce travail, basé sur une approche quantitative et qualitative, est d’analyser les conditions d’accès des populations démunies aux soins dans la métropole d’Oran. Mieux connaître les inégalités sociales et spatiales d’accès aux soins peut contribuer au développement durable du territoire urbain en offrant de meilleures conditions de vie à chacun. Dans cet objectif, il s’agit en premier lieu de présenter les caractéristiques de l’offre sanitaire dans la wilaya d’Oran selon les statis...

  9. A different pattern of production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species in halophytic Eutrema salsugineum (Thellungiella salsuginea plants in comparison to Arabidopsis thaliana and its relation to salt stress signaling

    Maria Pilarska


    Full Text Available Isolated thylakoids from halophytic Eutrema salsugineum (Thellungiella salsuginea produces more H2O2 in comparison to glycophytic Arabidopsis thaliana. The first objective of this study was to verify whether this feature is relevant also to the intact chloroplasts and leaves. Enhanced H2O2 levels in chloroplasts and leaves of E. salsugineum were positively verified with several methods (electron microscopy, staining with Amplex Red and with diaminobenzidine. This effect was associated with a decreased ratio of O2.-/H2O2 in E.s in comparison to A.thaliana as detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR method. As a next step, we tested how this specific ROS signature of halophytic species affect the antioxidant status and down-stream components of ROS signaling. Comparison of enzymatic antioxidants revealed a decreased activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX, enhanced activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX, and the presence of thylakoid-bound forms of iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD and ascorbate peroxidase (APX in E.s.. These cues were, however, independent from application of salt stress. The typical H2O2-dependent cellular responses, namely the levels of glucosinolates and stress-related hormones were determined. The total glucosinolate content in E.s water-treated leaves was higher than in A.t. and increased after salinity treatment. Treatment with salinity up-regulated all of tested stress hormones, their precursors and catabolites (abscisic acid, dihydrophaseic acid, phaseic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, cis-(+-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine in A.t., whereas in E.s. only a stimulation in ethylene synthesis and abscisic acid catabolism was noted. Obtained results suggest that constitutively enhanced H2O2 generation in chloroplasts of E.s. might be a crucial component of stress-prepardeness of this halophytic species. It shapes a very efficient antioxidant protection (in

  10. [Integration of different T-DNA structures of ACC oxidase gene into carnation genome extended cut flower vase-life differently].

    Yu, Yi-Xun; Bao, Man-Zhu


    The cultivar 'Master' of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) was transformed with four T-DNA structures containing sense, antisense, sense direct repeat and antisense direct repeat gene of ACC oxidase mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Southern blotting detection showed that foreign gene was integrated into the carnation genome and 14 transgenic lines were obtained. The transgenic plants were transplanted to soil and grew normally in greenhouse. Of the 12 transgenic lines screened, the cut flower vase life of 8 transgenic lines is up to 11 days and the longest one is 12.8 days while the vase life of the control is 5.8 days under 25 degrees C. The vase life of 2 lines out of 3 with single sense ACO gene is same as that of the control, while the vase life of 3 lines out of 4 with single antisense ACO gene is prolonged. The vase life of cut flowers of 5 lines with direct repeat ACO genes is all prolonged by about 6 days, while the vase life of 3 out of 7 lines with single ACO gene is same as that of the control. During the senescence of cut flowers, the ethylene production of the most of the transgenic lines decreased significantly, and the production of ethylene is not detectable in lines T456, T556 and T575. The results of the research demonstrate that antisense foreign gene inhibits expression of endogenesis gene more significantly than sense one. Both sense direct repeat and antisense direct repeat foreign genes can suppress endogenous gene expression more significantly comparing to single foreign genes. The transgenic lines obtained from this research are useful to minimize carnation cut flower transportation and storage expenses.

  11. The common traits of the ACC and PFC in anxiety disorders in the DSM-5: meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    Jing Shang

    fear, and the importance of the ventral anterior cingulate (ACC/medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC in mediating anxiety symptoms.

  12. Dutch randomized trial comparing standard catheter-directed thrombolysis versus Ultrasound-accElerated Thrombolysis for thromboembolic infrainguinal disease (DUET: design and rationale

    Fioole Bram


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of thrombosed infrainguinal native arteries and bypass grafts has increased over the years. Main limitation of this treatment modality, however, is the occurrence of bleeding complications. Low intensity ultrasound (US has been shown to accelerate enzymatic thrombolysis, thereby reducing therapy time. So far, no randomized trials have investigated the application of US-accelerated thrombolysis in the treatment of thrombosed infra-inguinal native arteries or bypass grafts. The DUET study (Dutch randomized trial comparing standard catheter-directed thrombolysis versus Ultrasound-accElerated Thrombolysis for thrombo-embolic infrainguinal disease is designed to assess whether US-accelerated thrombolysis will reduce therapy time significantly compared with standard catheter-directed thrombolysis. Methods/design Sixty adult patients with recently (between 1 and 7 weeks thrombosed infrainguinal native arteries or bypass grafts with acute limb ischemia class I or IIa, according to the Rutherford classification for acute ischemia, will be randomly allocated to either standard thrombolysis (group A or US-accelerated thrombolysis (group B. Patients will be recruited from 5 teaching hospitals in the Netherlands during a 2-year period. The primary endpoint is the duration of catheter-directed thrombolysis needed for uninterrupted flow in the thrombosed infrainguinal native artery or bypass graft, with outflow through at least 1 crural artery. Discussion The DUET study is a randomized controlled trial that will provide evidence of whether US-accelerated thrombolysis will significantly reduce therapy time in patients with recently thrombosed infrainguinal native arteries or bypass grafts, without an increase in complications. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN72676102

  13. Enhanced removal of 8-quinolinecarboxylic acid in an activated carbon cloth by electroadsorption in aqueous solution.

    López-Bernabeu, S; Ruiz-Rosas, R; Quijada, C; Montilla, F; Morallón, E


    The effect of the electrochemical treatment (potentiostatic treatment in a filter-press electrochemical cell) on the adsorption capacity of an activated carbon cloth (ACC) was analyzed in relation with the removal of 8-quinolinecarboxylic acid pollutant from water. The adsorption capacity of an ACC is quantitatively improved in the presence of an electric field (electroadsorption process) reaching values of 96% in comparison to 55% in absence of applied potential. In addition, the cathodic treatment results in higher removal efficiencies than the anodic treatment. The enhanced adsorption capacity has been proved to be irreversible, since the removed compound remains adsorbed after switching the applied potential. The kinetics of the adsorption processes is also improved by the presence of an applied potential.

  14. Accélération du temps, crise du futur, crise de la politique Acceleration of time, the crisis of the future, the crisis of politics

    Carmen Leccardi


    Full Text Available Aujourd'hui, les sociétés occidentales ressemblent de plus en plus à des "nanocraties" – c'est ainsi qu'il a été proposé de les rebaptiser d'après la prééminence absolue, en leur sein, de la dimension de la vitesse. En d'autres termes, à notre époque les démocraties seraient devenues le règne des espaces temporels toujours plus restreints dont la nanoseconde peut être considérée comme le symbole.Mais quelles sont les retombées de ce processus sur l’idée de futur ?Si au cours du XXe siècle, l'image du futur en tant qu'espace regorgeant de possibilités s'est progressivement affaiblie, c'est essentiellement ce nouveau siècle qui a mis en relief le croisement entre l'accélération sociale d'un côté, et la crise du futur de l'autre.L'augmentation du rythme de vie ainsi que l'accélération des processus de transformation économique, sociale et technologique, annihilent le futur. En raison de la pression temporelle ainsi produite, le futur a tendance à se replier sur le présent, se consume avant même d’être représenté. À leur tour, les nouveaux idéaux d’instantanéité et de mobilité ont une incidence négative sur la conception de la politique en tant que champ d'action ouvert pour le contrôle des processus de changement, et la mettent en crise.Dans les conclusions l’article indique toutefois la possibilité d’une vision de la politique à même de se soustraire aux impératifs de l’accélération. Une telle vision s’allie aux « savoirs situés » féminins, à la multiplicité des temps et à la centralité de la vie quotidienne qu’ils renferment. Ensemble, ils disposeraient peut-être encore du potentiel de reconstruction de formes d’agora.Today, Western societies appear more and more like ‘nanocracies‘, as it has been proposed to rename them, because of the absolute pre-eminence of the dimension of speed within them. In other words, democracies in our time have arguably become the reign

  15. The effect of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR on fatty acid oxidation in hepatocytes isolated from neonatal piglets

    Xi Lin


    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, the effect of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR on long-chain fatty acid oxidation by hepatocytes isolated from suckled neonatal pig liver (a low ketogenic and lipogenic tissue was tested. Incubation of hepatocytes with AICAR (0.5 mM in the presence of 1 mM of carnitine and 10 mM of glucose for 1 hour at 37°C had no significant effect on total [1-14C]-palmitate (0.5 mM oxidation (14CO2 and 14C-Acid soluble products (ASP. Consistent with the fatty acid oxidation, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I activity and inhibition of its activity by malonyl-CoA (10 μM assayed in cell homogenate also remained constant. However, addition of AICAR to the hepatocytes decreased 14CO2 production by 18% compared to control (p 2 caused a significant difference in distribution of oxidative products between 14CO2 and 14C-ASP (p 14C-ASP. Addition of insulin to hepatocyte incubations with AICAR did not change the oxidative product distribution between CO2 and ASP, but further promoted ACC activity. The increased ACC activity was 70% higher than in the control group when citrate was absent in the reaction medium and was 30% higher when citrate was present in the medium. Our results suggest that AICAR may affect the distribution of metabolic products from fatty acid oxidation by changing ACC activity in hepatocyte isolated from suckled neonatal piglets; however, the basis for the increase in ACC activity elicited by AICAR is not apparent.

  16. Pinolenic Acid Downregulates Lipid Anabolic Pathway in HepG2 Cells.

    Lee, Ah Ron; Han, Sung Nim


    Pine nut oil (PNO) was reported to reduce lipid accumulation in the liver. However, the specific effect of pinolenic acid (18:3, all-cis-Δ5,9,12), a unique component of PNO, on lipid metabolism has not been studied. We hypothesized that pinolenic acid downregulates the lipid anabolic pathway in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were incubated in serum-free medium supplemented with 50 μM bovine serum albumin (BSA), palmitic acid, oleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, pinolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or α-linolenic acid for 24 h. Lipid accumulation was determined by Oil Red O (ORO) staining. The mRNA levels of genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis (SREBP1c, FAS, SCD1, and ACC1), fatty acid oxidation (ACC2, PPARα, CPT1A, and ACADL), cholesterol synthesis (SREBP2 and HMGCR), and lipoprotein uptake (LDLr) and of genes that may be involved in the downregulation of the lipogenic pathway (ACSL3, ACSL4, and ACSL5) were determined by qPCR. LDLR protein levels were measured by Western blot analysis. The mRNA levels of SREBP1c, FAS, and SCD1 were significantly downregulated by pinolenic acid treatment compared to BSA control (53, 54, and 38 % lower, respectively). In addition, the mRNA levels of HMGCR, ACSL3, and LDLr were significantly lower (30, 30, and 43 % lower, respectively), and ACSL4 tended to be lower in the pinolenic acid group (20 % lower, P = 0.082) relative to the control group. In conclusion, pinolenic acid downregulated the lipid anabolic pathway in HepG2 cells by reducing expression of genes related to lipid synthesis, lipoprotein uptake, and the regulation of the lipogenic pathway.

  17. Maternal obesity reduces milk lipid production in lactating mice by inhibiting acetyl-CoA carboxylase and impairing fatty acid synthesis.

    Jessica L Saben

    Full Text Available Maternal metabolic and nutrient trafficking adaptations to lactation differ among lean and obese mice fed a high fat (HF diet. Obesity is thought to impair milk lipid production, in part, by decreasing trafficking of dietary and de novo synthesized lipids to the mammary gland. Here, we report that de novo lipogenesis regulatory mechanisms are disrupted in mammary glands of lactating HF-fed obese (HF-Ob mice. HF feeding decreased the total levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC, and this effect was exacerbated in obese mice. The relative levels of phosphorylated (inactive ACC, were elevated in the epithelium, and decreased in the adipose stroma, of mammary tissue from HF-Ob mice compared to those of HF-fed lean (HF-Ln mice. Mammary gland levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, which catalyzes formation of inactive ACC, were also selectively elevated in mammary glands of HF-Ob relative to HF-Ln dams or to low fat fed dams. These responses correlated with evidence of increased lipid retention in mammary adipose, and decreased lipid levels in mammary epithelial cells, of HF-Ob dams. Collectively, our data suggests that maternal obesity impairs milk lipid production, in part, by disrupting the balance of de novo lipid synthesis in the epithelial and adipose stromal compartments of mammary tissue through processes that appear to be related to increased mammary gland AMPK activity, ACC inhibition, and decreased fatty acid synthesis.

  18. ACC oxidase and miRNA 159a, and their involvement in fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB) via sex ratio determination in oil palm.

    Somyong, Suthasinee; Poopear, Supannee; Sunner, Supreet Kaur; Wanlayaporn, Kitti; Jomchai, Nukoon; Yoocha, Thippawan; Ukoskit, Kittipat; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Tragoonrung, Somvong


    Oil palm (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) is the most productive oil-bearing crop, yielding more oil per area than any other oil-bearing crops. However, there are still efforts to improve oil palm yield, in order to serve consumer and manufacturer demand. Oil palm produces female and male inflorescences in an alternating cycle. So, high sex ratio (SR), the ratio of female inflorescences to the total inflorescences, is a favorable trait in term of increasing yields in oil palm. This study aims to understand the genetic control for SR related traits, such as fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB), by characterizing genes at FFB quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage 10 (chromosome 6) and linkage 15 (chromosome 10). Published oil palm sequences at the FFB QTLs were used to develop gene-based and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We used the multiple QTL analysis model (MQM) to characterize the relationship of new markers with the SR traits in the oil palm population. The RNA expression of the most linked QTL genes was also evaluated in various tissues of oil palm. We identified EgACCO1 (encoding aminocyclopropane carboxylate (ACC) oxidase) at chromosome 10 and EgmiR159a (microRNA 159a) at chromosome 6 to be the most linked QTL genes or determinants for FFB yield and/or female inflorescence number with a phenotype variance explained (PVE) from 10.4 to 15 % and suggest that these play the important roles in sex determination and differentiation in oil palm. The strongest expression of EgACCO1 and the predicted precursor of EgmiR159a was found in ovaries and, to a lesser extent, fruit development. In addition, highly normalized expression of EgmiR159a was found in female flowers. In summary, the QTL analysis and the RNA expression reveal that EgACCO1 and EgmiR159a are the potential genetic factors involved in female flower determination and hence would affect yield in oil palm. However, to clarify how these genetic factors regulate female flower determination, more investigation

  19. Tomato SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4, SlERF.C3 and SlERF.A3, Members of B3 Group of ERF Family, Are Required for Resistance to Botrytis cinerea.

    Ouyang, Zhigang; Liu, Shixia; Huang, Lihong; Hong, Yongbo; Li, Xiaohui; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Yafen; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming


    The Ethylene-Responsive Factors (ERFs) comprise a large family of transcriptional factors that play critical roles in plant immunity. Gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, a typical necrotrophic fungal pathogen, is the serious disease that threatens tomato production worldwide. However, littler is known about the molecular mechanism regulating the immunity to B. cinerea in tomato. In the present study, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-based functional analyses of 18 members of B3 group (also called Group IX) in tomato ERF family were performed to identify putative ERFs that are involved in disease resistance against B. cinerea. VIGS-based silencing of either SlERF.B1 or SlERF.C2 had lethal effect while silencing of SlERF.A3 (Pit4) significantly suppressed vegetative growth of tomato plants. Importantly, silencing of SlERF.A1, SlERF.A3, SlERF.B4, or SlERF.C3 resulted in increased susceptibility to B. cinerea, attenuated the B. cinerea-induced expression of jasmonic acid/ethylene-mediated signaling responsive defense genes and promoted the B. cinerea-induced H2O2 accumulation. However, silencing of SlERF.A3 also decreased the resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 but silencing of SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4 or SlERF.C3 did not affect the resistance to this bacterial pathogen. Expression of SlERF.A1, SlERF.A3, SlERF.B4, or SlERF.C3 was induced by B. cinerea and by defense signaling hormones such as salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (an ethylene precursor). SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4, SlERF.C3, and SlERF.A3 proteins were found to localize in nucleus of cells and possess transactivation activity in yeasts. These data suggest that SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4, and SlERF.C3, three previously uncharacterized ERFs in B3 group, and SlERF.A3, a previously identified ERF with function in immunity to Pst DC3000, play important roles in resistance against B. cinerea in tomato.

  20. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria with multiple plant growth-promoting activities enhance growth of tomato and red pepper.

    Islam, Md Rashedul; Sultana, Tahera; Joe, M Melvin; Yim, Woojong; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Sa, Tongmin


    As a suitable alternative to chemical fertilizers, the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria has been increasing in recent years due to their potential to be used as biofertilizers. In the present work, 13 nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains belonging to 11 different genera were tested for their PGP attributes. All of the strains were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid, and ammonia production while negative for cellulase, pectinase, and hydrocyanic acid production. The strains Pseudomonas sp. RFNB3 and Serratia sp. RFNB14 were the most effective in solubilizing both tri-calcium phosphate and zinc oxide. In addition, all strains except Pseudomonas sp. RFNB3 were able to oxidize sulfur, and six strains were positive for siderophore synthesis. Each strain tested in this study possesses at least four PGP properties in addition to nitrogen fixation. Nine strains were selected based on their multiple PGP potential, particularly ACCD and IAA production, and evaluated for their effects on early growth of tomato and red pepper under gnotobiotic conditions. Bacterial inoculation considerably influenced root and shoot length, seedling vigor, and dry biomass of the two crop plants. Three strains that demonstrated substantial effects on plant performance were further selected for greenhouse trials with red pepper, and among them Pseudomonas sp. RFNB3 resulted in significantly higher plant height (26%) and dry biomass (28%) compared to control. The highest rate of nitrogen fixation, as determined by acetylene reduction assay, occurred in Novosphingobium sp. RFNB21 inoculated red pepper root (49.6 nM of ethylene/h/g of dry root) and rhizosphere soil (41.3 nM of ethylene/h/g of dry soil). Inoculation with nitrogen-fixing bacteria significantly increased chlorophyll content, and the uptake of different macro- and micro-nutrient contents enhancing also in red pepper shoots, in comparison with

  1. Addendum to papers from the GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds) GANISOL Team, published in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Ion Sources, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, September 2009

    Alahari, N.; Bajeat, O.; Barué, C.; Chautard, F.; Clément, E.; Delahaye, P.; De Oliveira, F.; Dubois, M.; Fadil, M.; Frânberg-Delahaye, H.; Jacquot, B.; Jardin, P.; Saint-Laurent, M. G.; Lecesne, N.; Lehérissier, P.; Leroy, R.; Lewitowicz, M.; Lhersonneau, G.; Maunoury, L.; Méry, A.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Pacquet, J. Y.; Pichard, A.; Thomas, J. C.


    This addendum applies to the paper authored by contributors from the Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL) published in the February 2010 issue of Review of Scientific Instruments, within the Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Ion Sources, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, September 2009 (Key Scientific coordinator: P. Delahaye; Technical coordinator: P. Jardin; SPIRAL 2 coordinator: R. Leroy and H. Frånberg-Delahaye; GPI leader: P. Lehérissier; and Direction correspondant: P. Roussel-Chomaz). This addendum provides the full list of GANISOL contributors and their affiliations.

  2. Le droit des auteurs à mettre en accès libre leurs propres résultats de recherche [Authors' right to provide open access to their own research results.

    Bosc, H.


    Les chercheurs n’attendent pas de revenus directs de leurs publications. Ils ne vendent pas leurs publications : ils les donnent gratuitement aux périodiques. Ils souhaitent seulement que leurs publications soient utilisées et citées au maximum par les autres chercheurs, et ce maximum de « rentabilité » est donné par Internet. Pour parvenir à cette rentabilité maximum, il faut soit publier dans des revues en libre accès soit auto-archiver le double des publications publiées dans des ...

  3. Transcriptional regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis is linked to fatty acid metabolism by an acyl-CoA-binding-protein-dependent mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Feddersen, Søren; Neergaard, Thomas B F; Knudsen, Jens;


    proteins involved in fatty acid and phospholipid synthesis (e.g. FAS1, FAS2, ACC1, OLE1, INO1 and OPI3), glycolysis and glycerol metabolism (e.g. GPD1 and TDH1), ion transport and uptake (e.g. ITR1 and HNM1) and stress response (e.g. HSP12, DDR2 and CTT1). In the present study, we show that transcription...

  4. Screening and Evaluation of the Bioremediation Potential of Cu/Zn-resistant, Autochthonous Acinetobacter sp. FQ-44 from Sonchus oleraceus L.

    Qing Fang


    Full Text Available The quest for new, promising and indigenous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and a deeper understanding of their relationship with plants are important considerations in the improvement of phytoremediation. This study focuses on the screening of plant beneficial Cu/Zn-resistant strains and assessment of their bioremediation potential (metal solubilization/tolerance/biosorption and effects on growth of Brassica napus seedlings to identify suitable rhizobacteria and examine their roles in microbes-assisted phytoremediation. Sixty Cu/Zn-resistant rhizobacteria were initially isolated from Sonchus oleraceus grown at a multi-metal-polluted site in Shanghai, China. From these strains, 19 isolates that were all resistant to 300 mg·L-1 Cu as well as 300 mg·L-1 Zn, and could simultaneously grow on Dworkin-Foster salt minimal medium containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were preliminarily selected. Of those 19 isolates, 10 isolates with superior plant growth-promoting properties (indole-3-acetic acid production, siderophore production and insoluble phosphate solubilization were secondly chosen and further evaluated to identify those with the highest bioremediation potential and capacity for bioaugmentation. Strain S44, identified as Acinetobacter sp. FQ-44 based on 16S rDNA sequencing, was specifically chosen as the most favorable strain owing to its strong capabilities to (1 promote the growth of rape seedlings (significantly increased root length, shoot length and fresh weight by 92.60%, 31.00% and 41.96%, respectively under gnotobiotic conditions; (2 tolerate up to 1000 mg·L-1 Cu and 800 mg·L-1 Zn; (3 mobilize the highest concentrations of water-soluble Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe (16.99, 0.98, 0.08 and 3.03 mg·L-1, respectively; and (4 adsorb the greatest quantities of Cu and Zn (7.53 and 6.61 mg·g-1 dry cell, respectively. Our findings suggest that Acinetobacter sp. FQ-44 could be exploited for bacteria-assisted phytoextraction. Moreover

  5. Screening and Evaluation of the Bioremediation Potential of Cu/Zn-Resistant, Autochthonous Acinetobacter sp. FQ-44 from Sonchus oleraceus L.

    Fang, Qing; Fan, Zhengqiu; Xie, Yujing; Wang, Xiangrong; Li, Kun; Liu, Yafeng


    The quest for new, promising and indigenous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and a deeper understanding of their relationship with plants are important considerations in the improvement of phytoremediation. This study focuses on the screening of plant beneficial Cu/Zn-resistant strains and assessment of their bioremediation potential (metal solubilization/tolerance/biosorption and effects on growth of Brassica napus seedlings) to identify suitable rhizobacteria and examine their roles in microbes-assisted phytoremediation. Sixty Cu/Zn-resistant rhizobacteria were initially isolated from Sonchus oleraceus grown at a multi-metal-polluted site in Shanghai, China. From these strains, 19 isolates that were all resistant to 300 mg⋅L(-1) Cu as well as 300 mg⋅L(-1) Zn, and could simultaneously grow on Dworkin-Foster salt minimal medium containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were preliminarily selected. Of those 19 isolates, 10 isolates with superior plant growth-promoting properties (indole-3-acetic acid production, siderophore production, and insoluble phosphate solubilization) were secondly chosen and further evaluated to identify those with the highest bioremediation potential and capacity for bioaugmentation. Strain S44, identified as Acinetobacter sp. FQ-44 based on 16S rDNA sequencing, was specifically chosen as the most favorable strain owing to its strong capabilities to (1) promote the growth of rape seedlings (significantly increased root length, shoot length, and fresh weight by 92.60%, 31.00%, and 41.96%, respectively) under gnotobiotic conditions; (2) tolerate up to 1000 mg⋅L(-1) Cu and 800 mg⋅L(-1) Zn; (3) mobilize the highest concentrations of water-soluble Cu, Zn, Pb, and Fe (16.99, 0.98, 0.08, and 3.03 mg⋅L(-1), respectively); and (4) adsorb the greatest quantities of Cu and Zn (7.53 and 6.61 mg⋅g(-1) dry cell, respectively). Our findings suggest that Acinetobacter sp. FQ-44 could be exploited for bacteria-assisted phytoextraction

  6. Screening and Evaluation of the Bioremediation Potential of Cu/Zn-Resistant, Autochthonous Acinetobacter sp. FQ-44 from Sonchus oleraceus L.

    Fang, Qing; Fan, Zhengqiu; Xie, Yujing; Wang, Xiangrong; Li, Kun; Liu, Yafeng


    The quest for new, promising and indigenous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and a deeper understanding of their relationship with plants are important considerations in the improvement of phytoremediation. This study focuses on the screening of plant beneficial Cu/Zn-resistant strains and assessment of their bioremediation potential (metal solubilization/tolerance/biosorption and effects on growth of Brassica napus seedlings) to identify suitable rhizobacteria and examine their roles in microbes-assisted phytoremediation. Sixty Cu/Zn-resistant rhizobacteria were initially isolated from Sonchus oleraceus grown at a multi-metal-polluted site in Shanghai, China. From these strains, 19 isolates that were all resistant to 300 mg⋅L-1 Cu as well as 300 mg⋅L-1 Zn, and could simultaneously grow on Dworkin–Foster salt minimal medium containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were preliminarily selected. Of those 19 isolates, 10 isolates with superior plant growth-promoting properties (indole-3-acetic acid production, siderophore production, and insoluble phosphate solubilization) were secondly chosen and further evaluated to identify those with the highest bioremediation potential and capacity for bioaugmentation. Strain S44, identified as Acinetobacter sp. FQ-44 based on 16S rDNA sequencing, was specifically chosen as the most favorable strain owing to its strong capabilities to (1) promote the growth of rape seedlings (significantly increased root length, shoot length, and fresh weight by 92.60%, 31.00%, and 41.96%, respectively) under gnotobiotic conditions; (2) tolerate up to 1000 mg⋅L-1 Cu and 800 mg⋅L-1 Zn; (3) mobilize the highest concentrations of water-soluble Cu, Zn, Pb, and Fe (16.99, 0.98, 0.08, and 3.03 mg⋅L-1, respectively); and (4) adsorb the greatest quantities of Cu and Zn (7.53 and 6.61 mg⋅g-1 dry cell, respectively). Our findings suggest that Acinetobacter sp. FQ-44 could be exploited for bacteria-assisted phytoextraction. Moreover

  7. GDM-Induced Macrosomia Is Reversed by Cav-1 via AMPK-Mediated Fatty Acid Transport and GLUT1-Mediated Glucose Transport in Placenta

    Wang, Di; Yang, Ruirui; Sang, Hui; Han, Linlin; Zhu, Yuexia; Lu, Yanyan; Tan, Yeke; Shang, Zhanping


    Objective To investigate if the role of Cav-1 in GDM-induced macrosomia is through regulating AMPK signaling pathway in placenta. Methods We used diagnostic criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and macrosomia to separate and compare placental protein and mRNA levels from GDM with macrosomia group (GDMM), GDM with normal birth weight group (GDMN) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with normal birth weight group (CON). Western blotting was performed to examine differentially expressed proteins of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway related proteins, including phosphorylated-AMPKα(Thr172), AMPKα, phosphorylated-Acetyl-CoA carboxylase(Ser79) (p-ACC(Ser79)), ACC and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) in placenta between the three groups. The mRNA levels of Cav-1, AMPKα, ACC and GLUT1 in placenta were measured by real time-PCR. Results In the GDMM placenta group, both protein and mRNA levels of Cav-1 were down-regulated, while GLUT1 was up-regulated; the phosphorylation and mRNA levels of ACC and AMPKα were decreased, but total ACC protein levels were increased compared to both the GDMN (pGLUT1 protein levels. Besides, in GDMM group placental mRNA levels, NBW had a positive correlation with GLUT1 (pGLUT1 (pGLUT1. Conclusion GDM-induced macrosomias have more severe inhibition of Cav-1 expression in placenta. Cav-1 is associated with placental glucose and fatty acid transport via the induction of AMPK signaling pathway and the reduction of GLUT1 signaling pathway to reverse GDM-induced macrosomia. PMID:28125642

  8. Fatty Acid Binding Protein 7 Is a Molecular Marker in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands: Implications for Clinical Significance

    Janyaporn Phuchareon


    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is an aggressive malignant neoplasm of the salivary glands. Its diagnosis is difficult due to overlapping features with other salivary tumors. Gene expression analysis may complement traditional diagnostic methods. We searched gene expression patterns in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database and in our tumor and normal samples. The biologic and prognostic potential of the identified genes was analyzed. The GEO data set of primary xenografted ACCs revealed that expression of five genes, engrailed homeobox 1 (EN1, fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7, hemoglobin epsilon 1, MYB, and versican (VCAN, was dramatically increased. mRNA expression of EN1, FABP7, MYB, and VCAN distinguished our sporadic ACCs from normal tissues and benign tumors. FABP7 expression appeared to be regulated differently from EN1 and MYB and was crossly correlated with poor prognosis in our ACC cohort. Immunohistochemistry showed that FABP7 protein was predominantly expressed in the nucleus of myoepithelial cells of both tubular and cribriform subtypes. In contrast, in the solid subtype, which is often associated with a lower survival rate, FABP7 protein was uniformly expressed in cancerous cells. One case with cribriform architecture and the highest level of FABP7 mRNA showed strong FABP7 staining in both duct-type epithelial and myoepithelial cells, suggesting that diffuse expression of FABP7 protein might be related to aggressive tumor behavior and poor prognosis. We propose FABP7 as a novel biomarker in ACC. The molecule may be useful in diagnosis and for identifying more effective therapies targeting this protein or upstream molecules that regulate it.

  9. Transcriptional regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase α isoforms in dairy ewes during conjugated linoleic acid induced milk fat depression.

    Ticiani, E; Urio, M; Ferreira, R; Harvatine, K J; De Oliveira, D E


    Feeding trans-10, cis-12 CLA to lactating ewes reduces milk fat by down-regulating expression of enzymes involved in lipid synthesis in the mammary gland and increases adipose tissue lipogenesis. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACC-α) is a key regulated enzyme in de novo fatty acid synthesis and is decreased by CLA. In the ovine, the ACC-α gene is expressed from three tissue-specific promoters (PI, PII and PIII). This study evaluated promoter-specific ACC-α expression in mammary and adipose tissue of lactating cross-bred Lacaune/Texel ewes during milk fat depression induced by rumen-unprotected trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplement. In all, 12 ewes arranged in a completely randomized design were fed during early, mid and late lactation one of the following treatments for 14 days: Control (forage+0.9 kg of concentrate on a dry matter basis) and CLA (forage+0.9 kg of concentrate+27 g/day of CLA (29.9% trans-10, cis-12)). Mammary gland and adipose tissue biopsies were taken on day 14 for gene expression analysis by real-time PCR. Milk fat yield and concentration were reduced with CLA supplementation by 27%, 21% and 35% and 28%, 26% and 42% during early, mid and late lactation, respectively. Overall, our results suggest that trans-10, cis-12 CLA down-regulates mammary ACC-α gene expression by decreasing expression from PII and PIII in mammary gland and up-regulates adipose ACC-α gene expression by increasing expression from PI.

  10. Effect of Non-Esterified Fatty Acids on Fatty Acid Metabolism-Related Genes in Calf Hepatocytes Cultured in Vitro

    Peng Li


    Full Text Available Background: NEFA plays numerous roles in the metabolism of glucose, lipids, and proteins. A number of experimental studies have shown that NEFA may have an important role in fatty acid metabolism in the liver, especially in dairy cows that experience negative energy balance (NEB during early lactation. Methods: In this study, using fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR, ELISA, and primary hepatocytes cultured in vitro, we examined the effect of NEFA (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, and 3.2 mmol/L on fatty acid metabolism by monitoring the mRNA and protein expression of the following key enzymes: long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL, carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT IA, long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADL, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC. Results: The mRNA and protein expression levels of ACSL and ACADL markedly increased as the concentration of NEFA in the media was increased. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CPT IA were enhanced significantly when the NEFA concentrations increased from 0 to 1.6 mmol/L and decreased significantly when the NEFA concentrations increased from 1.6 to 3.2 mmol/L. The mRNA and protein expression of ACC decreased gradually with increasing concentrations of NEFA. Conclusion: These findings indicate that increased NEFA significantly promote the activation and β-oxidation of fatty acids, but very high NEFA concentrations may inhibit the translocation of fatty acids into mitochondria of hepatocytes. This may explain the development of ketosis or liver lipidosis in dairy cows. CPT IA might be the key control enzyme of the fatty acid oxidation process in hepatocytes.

  11. Le programme ARTEMIS : nouvel outil pour la datation radiocarbone AMS (Spectromètre de Masse par Accélérateur et nouvelles problématiques

    Cyrille Billard


    Full Text Available La mise en route du nouvel équipement ARTEMIS (Accélérateur pour la Recherche en sciences de la Terre, Environnement, Muséologie, Implanté à Saclay à partir de 2004 ouvre de nouvelles perspectives scientifiques et conduit à de nouvelles procédures de soumission des échantillons destinés à une datation 14C. Le MCC dispose aujourd’hui de droits alloués aux services régionaux de l'archéologie, services du ministère de la Culture, confrontés à ce type de demandes (musées, monuments historiques. Il impose désormais une nouvelle démarche de programmation scientifique des datations, associant une analyse critique des demandes.Since 2004, the availability at Saclay of a new ARTEMIS installation (Accélérateur pour la Recherche en sciences de la Terre, Environnement, Muséologie has opened new scientific perspectives and led to new procedures for submitting samples for carbon-14 dating. The French Ministry of Culture has the possibility of using this tool for radiocarbon dating at the request of its regional archaeological services or other services, such as museums and the historic monuments administration. This use now implies a new approach to the scientific planning for dating problems, associated with a critical analysis of the requests.

  12. 联合化疗对腺样囊性癌细胞作用的实验研究%Experimental Study about the Effect of Combined Chemotherapy on Acc-M Cell Line

    安永谦; 孙沫逸; 李建虎


    目的 观察体外应用羟基喜树碱(HCPT)、平阳霉素(PYM)两种药物单用和两两联合应用对人腺样囊性癌ACC-M细胞的生长抑制作用.方法 采用MTT法研究用药前后细胞增殖活性的影响,用流式细胞仪观察细胞凋亡及细胞周期变化.结果 ①两种药单用及两药合用对细胞均有很好的抑制作用,且以HCPT和PYM合用最强.②HCPT和PYM单用和合用可使细胞的群体倍增时间显著延长,克隆形成率降低,细胞凋亡率增加,以联合用药为佳.结论 HCPT,PYM单独及联合用药均对ACC-M细胞在体外有很好的抑制作用且与以联合应用效果更佳.

  13. The complete genome sequence of the dominant Sinorhizobium meliloti field isolate SM11 extends the S. meliloti pan-genome.

    Schneiker-Bekel, Susanne; Wibberg, Daniel; Bekel, Thomas; Blom, Jochen; Linke, Burkhard; Neuweger, Heiko; Stiens, Michael; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Weidner, Stefan; Goesmann, Alexander; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas


    Isolates of the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing species Sinorhizobium meliloti usually contain a chromosome and two large megaplasmids encoding functions that are absolutely required for the specific interaction of the microsymbiont with corresponding host plants leading to an effective symbiosis. The complete genome sequence, including the megaplasmids pSmeSM11c (related to pSymA) and pSmeSM11d (related to pSymB), was established for the dominant, indigenous S. meliloti strain SM11 that had been isolated during a long-term field release experiment with genetically modified S. meliloti strains. The chromosome, the largest replicon of S. meliloti SM11, is 3,908,022bp in size and codes for 3785 predicted protein coding sequences. The size of megaplasmid pSmeSM11c is 1,633,319bp and it contains 1760 predicted protein coding sequences whereas megaplasmid pSmeSM11d is 1,632,395bp in size and comprises 1548 predicted coding sequences. The gene content of the SM11 chromosome is quite similar to that of the reference strain S. meliloti Rm1021. Comparison of pSmeSM11c to pSymA of the reference strain revealed that many gene regions of these replicons are variable, supporting the assessment that pSymA is a major hot-spot for intra-specific differentiation. Plasmids pSymA and pSmeSM11c both encode unique genes. Large gene regions of pSmeSM11c are closely related to corresponding parts of Sinorhizobium medicae WSM419 plasmids. Moreover, pSmeSM11c encodes further novel gene regions, e.g. additional plasmid survival genes (partition, mobilisation and conjugative transfer genes), acdS encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase involved in modulation of the phytohormone ethylene level and genes having predicted functions in degradative capabilities, stress response, amino acid metabolism and associated pathways. In contrast to Rm1021 pSymA and pSmeSM11c, megaplasmid pSymB of strain Rm1021 and pSmeSM11d are highly conserved showing extensive synteny with only few rearrangements

  14. Folic acid

    ... taking folic acid by itself, or with L-carnitine a compound similar to an amino acid from ... levels. It is not clear if folic acid supplementation reduces hearing loss in people with normal folate ...

  15. DNA Three Way Junction Core Decorated with Amino Acids-Like Residues-Synthesis and Characterization

    Claudia Addamiano


    Full Text Available Construction and physico-chemical behavior of DNA three way junction (3WJ functionalized by protein-like residues (imidazole, alcohol and carboxylic acid at unpaired positions at the core is described. One 5′-C(S-propargyl-thymidine nucleotide was specifically incorporated on each strand to react through a post synthetic CuACC reaction with either protected imidazolyl-, hydroxyl- or carboxyl-azide. Structural impacts of 5′-C(S-functionalization were investigated to evaluate how 3WJ flexibility/stability is affected.

  16. Drosophila melanogaster Acetyl-CoA-carboxylase sustains a fatty acid-dependent remote signal to waterproof the respiratory system.

    Jean-Philippe Parvy

    Full Text Available Fatty acid (FA metabolism plays a central role in body homeostasis and related diseases. Thus, FA metabolic enzymes are attractive targets for drug therapy. Mouse studies on Acetyl-coenzymeA-carboxylase (ACC, the rate-limiting enzyme for FA synthesis, have highlighted its homeostatic role in liver and adipose tissue. We took advantage of the powerful genetics of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the role of the unique Drosophila ACC homologue in the fat body and the oenocytes. The fat body accomplishes hepatic and storage functions, whereas the oenocytes are proposed to produce the cuticular lipids and to contribute to the hepatic function. RNA-interfering disruption of ACC in the fat body does not affect viability but does result in a dramatic reduction in triglyceride storage and a concurrent increase in glycogen accumulation. These metabolic perturbations further highlight the role of triglyceride and glycogen storage in controlling circulatory sugar levels, thereby validating Drosophila as a relevant model to explore the tissue-specific function of FA metabolic enzymes. In contrast, ACC disruption in the oenocytes through RNA-interference or tissue-targeted mutation induces lethality, as does oenocyte ablation. Surprisingly, this lethality is associated with a failure in the watertightness of the spiracles-the organs controlling the entry of air into the trachea. At the cellular level, we have observed that, in defective spiracles, lipids fail to transfer from the spiracular gland to the point of air entry. This phenotype is caused by disrupted synthesis of a putative very-long-chain-FA (VLCFA within the oenocytes, which ultimately results in a lethal anoxic issue. Preventing liquid entry into respiratory systems is a universal issue for air-breathing animals. Here, we have shown that, in Drosophila, this process is controlled by a putative VLCFA produced within the oenocytes.

  17. Drosophila melanogaster Acetyl-CoA-carboxylase sustains a fatty acid-dependent remote signal to waterproof the respiratory system.

    Parvy, Jean-Philippe; Napal, Laura; Rubin, Thomas; Poidevin, Mickael; Perrin, Laurent; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Montagne, Jacques


    Fatty acid (FA) metabolism plays a central role in body homeostasis and related diseases. Thus, FA metabolic enzymes are attractive targets for drug therapy. Mouse studies on Acetyl-coenzymeA-carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme for FA synthesis, have highlighted its homeostatic role in liver and adipose tissue. We took advantage of the powerful genetics of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the role of the unique Drosophila ACC homologue in the fat body and the oenocytes. The fat body accomplishes hepatic and storage functions, whereas the oenocytes are proposed to produce the cuticular lipids and to contribute to the hepatic function. RNA-interfering disruption of ACC in the fat body does not affect viability but does result in a dramatic reduction in triglyceride storage and a concurrent increase in glycogen accumulation. These metabolic perturbations further highlight the role of triglyceride and glycogen storage in controlling circulatory sugar levels, thereby validating Drosophila as a relevant model to explore the tissue-specific function of FA metabolic enzymes. In contrast, ACC disruption in the oenocytes through RNA-interference or tissue-targeted mutation induces lethality, as does oenocyte ablation. Surprisingly, this lethality is associated with a failure in the watertightness of the spiracles-the organs controlling the entry of air into the trachea. At the cellular level, we have observed that, in defective spiracles, lipids fail to transfer from the spiracular gland to the point of air entry. This phenotype is caused by disrupted synthesis of a putative very-long-chain-FA (VLCFA) within the oenocytes, which ultimately results in a lethal anoxic issue. Preventing liquid entry into respiratory systems is a universal issue for air-breathing animals. Here, we have shown that, in Drosophila, this process is controlled by a putative VLCFA produced within the oenocytes.

  18. Réseau Accéléromètrique Permanent Français : Reconnaissance géotechnique de 14 sites : campagne de mesure de bruit de fond en réseau


    Dans le cadre de la reconnaissance géotechnique des stations sismologiques du Réseau Accélérométrique Permanent (RAP), l'ERA risque sismique du LCPC de Nice a été chargée de la mise en oeuvre de la méthode "bruit de fond en réseau". Cette méthode passive permet d'obtenir à partir de plusieurs enregistrements simultanés du bruit de fond et d'une technique d'inversion des courbes de dispersion, un profil de vitesse de propagation des ondes de cisaillement sous le site d'expérimentation. Les mes...

  19. 慢性心力衰竭治疗的最新观点--2005年美国ACC/AHA慢性心力衰竭诊疗指南介绍



    @@ 2005年9月底,ACC/AHA推出了最新的慢性心力衰竭诊疗指南.该文全面、客观地评估了现有的心力衰竭治疗方法,包括药物及非药物治疗措施,详尽介绍重要药物临床应用相关事项,既涵盖最新循证医学结果,又包括治疗心力衰竭专家丰富的临床经验,是目前治疗心力衰竭最好的纲领性文件,值得广大的心血管医生深入学习及领会.本文简要介绍该指南中有关治疗的主要内容.

  20. Etude théorique des paramètres principaux réglant la sensibilité des capteurs d'accélération à cristal de quartz

    Delaite, R.; Aïch, Y.


    A theoretical analysis of quartz accelerometers is performed to determine their optimal mechanical and sensitivity performances. A general analytical model is used to investigate the parameters and their effects on the sensitivity of these sensors. The analysis of physical characteristics shows that feasibility and performances depend on three factors such as dimensions of the quartz plate, quantity of holders located at the crystal edge and location of these holders with respect to the crystal's crystallographic reference. This study is applied to various design sensors with different supporting quartz crystal. The conditions on parameters are given to achieve optimum performances. Une étude théorique de la sensibilité des capteurs d'accélération à cristal de quartz est présentée. Son but est d'optimiser les performances mécaniques et métrologiques de ces capteurs. Les paramètres sensibles sont mis en évidence. L'analyse des caractéristiques physiques démontre que la faisabilité et les performances des accéléromètres à quartz dépendent, pour une coupe donnée du cristal, de trois facteurs : les dimensions de la lame de quartz, le nombre de liaisons à la périphérie du cristal et la position de ces liaisons par rapport à la référence cristallographique. L'étude est appliquée aux cas des capteurs bipodes, multipodes et monopodes. Pour chaque type de capteur, les valeurs des paramètres sensibles correspondant aux performances optimales sont précisées.

  1. Valproic Acid

    ... acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by increasing the amount of a ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as valproic acid to treat various conditions ...

  2. Ascorbic Acid

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops ...

  3. Amino acids

    ... this page: // Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  4. Crystal structure of Spot 14, a modulator of fatty acid synthesis

    Colbert, Christopher L.; Kim, Chai-Wan; Moon, Young-Ah; Henry, Lisa; Palnitkar, Maya; McKean, William B.; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Deisenhofer, Johann; Horton, Jay D.; Kwon, Hyock Joo (Alnylam Pharm.); (UTSMC)


    Spot 14 (S14) is a protein that is abundantly expressed in lipogenic tissues and is regulated in a manner similar to other enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis. Deletion of S14 in mice decreased lipid synthesis in lactating mammary tissue, but the mechanism of S14's action is unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of S14 to 2.65 {angstrom} and biochemical data showing that S14 can form heterodimers with MIG12. MIG12 modulates fatty acid synthesis by inducing the polymerization and activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the first committed enzymatic reaction in the fatty acid synthesis pathway. Coexpression of S14 and MIG12 leads to heterodimers and reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase polymerization and activity. The structure of S14 suggests a mechanism whereby heterodimer formation with MIG12 attenuates the ability of MIG12 to activate ACC.

  5. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  6. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte


    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  7. Dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin in germinated buckwheat.

    Hao, Jianxiong; Wu, Tongjiao; Li, Huiying; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haijie


    In the present study, the dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat were evaluated during germination. The results showed that SAEW treatment (pH 5.83, ACC of 20.3 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of GABA and rutin in germinated buckwheat. The GABA and rutin contents of SAEW-germinated buckwheat reached 143.20 and 739.9 mg/100 g respectively, which is significantly higher than those of control (Pbuckwheat. The results suggested that SAEW treatment could promote the rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat by influencing phenylpropanoid secondary metabolic pathway instead of the inhibition of rutin degrading enzyme (RDE) activity. In addition, SAEW treatment had no adverse impact on the sprouts growth and could reduce the microbial populations of germinated buckwheat during germination.

  8. Okadaic acid

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K


    Okadaic acid (OA) is a polyether fatty acid produced by marine dinoflagellates and the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The effect of OA on apical endocytosis in the small intestine was studied in organ cultured porcine mucosal explants. Within 0.5-1 h of culture, the toxin caused...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....

  9. Severe depression is associated with increased microglial quinolinic acid in subregions of the anterior cingulate gyrus: Evidence for an immune-modulated glutamatergic neurotransmission?

    Mawrin Christian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune dysfunction, including monocytosis and increased blood levels of interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor α has been observed during acute episodes of major depression. These peripheral immune processes may be accompanied by microglial activation in subregions of the anterior cingulate cortex where depression-associated alterations of glutamatergic neurotransmission have been described. Methods Microglial immunoreactivity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA glutamate receptor agonist quinolinic acid (QUIN in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC, anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC of 12 acutely depressed suicidal patients (major depressive disorder/MDD, n = 7; bipolar disorder/BD, n = 5 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and compared with its expression in 10 healthy control subjects. Results Depressed patients had a significantly increased density of QUIN-positive cells in the sACC (P = 0.003 and the aMCC (P = 0.015 compared to controls. In contrast, counts of QUIN-positive cells in the pACC did not differ between the groups (P = 0.558. Post-hoc tests showed that significant findings were attributed to MDD and were absent in BD. Conclusions These results add a novel link to the immune hypothesis of depression by providing evidence for an upregulation of microglial QUIN in brain regions known to be responsive to infusion of NMDA antagonists such as ketamine. Further work in this area could lead to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and pave the way for novel NMDA receptor therapies or immune-modulating strategies.

  10. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi


    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression.

  11. Implantation des sites de soins communautaires en République Démocratique du Congo: consécration d'un double standard dans l'accès aux soins

    Dunia, Gisèle Mawazo Binti


    Depuis 2005, la République Démocratique du Congo a amorcé l'implantation des sites de soins communautaires. Cette stratégie a pour objectif de rapprocher les services de santé des populations éloignées. Bien que cela parte d'une bonne intention, elle résulte, à notre sens, en une consécration d'un système de santé à deux vitesses. En effet, les populations vivant en ville ont accès à des soins prestés par des agents de santé formés alors que celles vivant en milieu rural reculé ont pour prestataires de soins des relais communautaires. Cette situation marginalise encore plus des populations dont la situation géographique est déjà préoccupante. Pourtant, la population est prête à parcourir des kilomètres en échange d'un service qu'elle estime de qualité. PMID:23785563

  12. Folic Acid

    ... damage. 10 Do I need folic acid after menopause? Yes. Women who have gone through menopause still need 400 micrograms of folic acid every ... United States: 2003–2006 . American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 91(1): 231–237. Hamner, H.C., Cogswell, ...

  13. Acetyl-coenzyme A Carboxylase: A Key Metabolic Enzyme of Fatty Acid and Progress of Its Gene Clone%乙酰辅酶A羧化酶:脂肪酸代谢的关键酶及其基因克隆研究进展

    李洁琼; 郑世学; 喻子牛; 张吉斌


    Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylases (ACCs) have crucial roles in fatty acid metabolism in most living organisms. In this article, structure, types, functions and inhibitors of ACC, as well as research status of ACC gene clone are systematically discussed. ACC is a multi-subunit enzyme in most prokaryotes, whereas it is a large, multi-domain enzyme in most eukaryotes. In addition, there are two special types found from Streptomyces coelicolor and Metallosphaera sedula. All of these types contain three key domains: Biotin carboxylase (BC), biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) and carboxyltransferase (CT). CT domain, as a candidate target, has been widely used for screening of plant herbicides and drug development against obesity, diabetes and other symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. The gene encoded ACC is also becoming an important target gene applied in the fields of transgenic oil plants and biodiesel. Previous studies showed thatβ-CT in plant plasmid was the limit factor of heteromeric ACC, and BCCP was a negative regulator of fatty acid synthesis. Lipid synthesis metabolism is a very complex network, especially feedback inhibition mechanism exists in it. As a result, cloning and expression of ACC gene may increase the activity of ACC in the host, but not necessarily could obviously promote the accumulation of fatty acid. Fig 2, Ref 52%乙酰辅酶A羧化酶( Acetyl-CoA carboxy lase,ACC)在脂肪酸合成和分解代谢中发挥着重要作用.系统介绍了该酶的结构与分类、生物学作用与应用、抑制剂的类型与作用机理以及基因克隆4个方面的进展.ACC在大多数原核生物中为多亚基型酶,而在大多数真核生物中为多功能型单亚基酶,在天蓝色链霉菌和古菌勤奋金属球菌中为另外两种特殊类型;但都具备3个关键的功能域,即生物素羧化酶(BC)、生物素羧基载体蛋白(BCCP)和羧基转移酶(CT).CT功能域作为潜在的靶标广泛应用于植物除草剂的筛选和哺乳

  14. 非抗虫转基因棉花对土壤细菌群落多样性的影响%Effects of Insect Non-resistant Transgenic Cottons on Bacterial Community Diversity in Soil

    赵云丽; 李刚; 修伟明; 多立安; 曹璇; 雒珺瑜; 崔金杰; 杨殿林; 赵建宁


    There are increasing public concerns over the ecological risks of transgenic plants. Under field conditions, the diversity and com-position of bacterial community in soils grown with three insect non-resistant transgenic cottons(high-yield transgenic cotton expressing the RNA recognition motif 2 gene, disease-resistant transgenic cotton expressing the gastrodia antifungal protein and high-quality transgenic cotton expressing the [1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate(ACC)oxidase])and one conventional cotton CCRI 12(as control)were evalu-ated at the boll-opening stage by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE). The results showed that planting three transgenic cottons did not show significant effects on Shannon-wiener index(H), evenness(EH)and richness(S)of soil bacteria. High degree of similarity in community structure was observed between transgenic and conventional cottons, indicating no influence of transgenic cottons on bacterial community diversity in the short term. High-yield RRM2 transgenic cotton, disease-resistant GAFP transgenic cotton, high-quality ACO2 transgenic cotton and conventional cotton had 67%similarity in community levels and were thus regarded as one group. According to the se-quence analysis of DGGE dominant bands, microorganisms which presented the highest homology belonged to families of Flavobacteria, Bacteriovorax, Segetibacter, alpha proteobacterium, Geobacte, Paenisporosarcina, and Acidobacterium, respectively, and all of them were not cultivatable.%田间试验条件下,为了探究非抗虫转基因棉花对土壤细菌群落多样性的影响,应用PCR-DGGE技术对转RRM2基因高产棉、转GAFP基因抗病棉、转ACO2基因优质棉及非转基因常规棉(中棉所12)种植后在吐絮期的土壤细菌群落多样性进行分析。结果表明,与常规棉相比,3种转基因棉的种植均未对土壤细菌香农-威纳指数(H)、均匀度(EH)和丰富度(S)造成显著影

  15. Mefenamic Acid

    ... any of the inactive ingredients in mefenamic acid capsules. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the inactive ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  16. 美国心脏病学会和美国心脏学会新版外周动脉疾病诊疗指南解读%Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment for peripheral artery diseases newly edited by ACC/AHC: Essential Introduction

    杨进刚; 胡大一


    @@ 美国心脏病学会和美国心脏学会(ACC/AHA)最近更新了外周动脉疾病(PAD)诊疗指南,全文发表在Circulation[2006,113(11):463]上,该指南主要目的是早期检测和治疗PAD,以预防残疾,降低病死率.

  17. L’accès du plus grand nombre aux services essentiels ne se fera pas sans une implication du secteur privé et sans une tarification adéquate de ces services

    Luc Rigouzzo


    Full Text Available La couverture, via le secteur privé, des besoins en services de base (eau, énergie, services financiers, logement,.. des populations des pays en développement est une nécessité si l’on veut essayer de faire reculer la pauvreté.  Toutefois les financements privés « classiques » ne s’orientent pas spontanément vers ces secteurs notamment en raison du refus de faire  « payer » un service essentiel à des populations pauvres, sujet qui a fait souvent l’objet de campagnes de rejets de la part d’acteurs de la société civile. De très nombreux exemples montrent pourtant que, compte tenu de l’impact de ces services sur leur qualité de vie, les consommateurs  de ces pays, notamment du « bas de la pyramide » sont disposés à les payer pourvus qu’ils aient accès à un service de qualité. Dans ces secteurs, le coût nominal du service  importe beaucoup moins que son coût d’opportunité et l’impact qu’aura ce service sur la vie des bénéficiaires.  Bien souvent ce service peut même être  payé ex ante ce qui peut permettre aux familles de mieux contrôler les dépenses qu’elles peuvent y consacrer. Il faut toutefois distinguer la fourniture de services essentiels de celles de bien de consommation courante et bien entendu éviter les dérives. En tout état de cause la possibilité de construire des modèles équilibrés financièrement conditionne  la mobilisation de financement en quantité suffisante de la part des  acteurs financiers locaux et internationaux. Dans ce domaine comme dans d’autres, la voie est donc probablement la voie du juste milieu,  en évitant les excès d’une sur-tarification, mais en acceptant de conserver des modèles économiques rentables. Ceux-ci doivent  permettre aux investisseurs d’avoir des résultats qui les conduisent à accroitre et poursuivre leurs investissements, et  d’augmenter le plus rapidement possible le nombre de bénéficiaires. Prétendre construire

  18. Enhanced Amelioration of High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver by Docosahexaenoic Acid and Lysine Supplementations

    Hsin-Yu Lin


    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is the most common pathological condition in the liver. Here, we generated high-fat diet-(HFD- induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in mice and tested the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and lysine during a four-week regular chow (RCfeeding. Our results showed that 1% lysine and the combination of 1% lysine + 1% DHA reduced body weight. Moreover, serum triglyceride levels were reduced by 1% DHA and 1% lysine, whereas serum alanine transaminase activity was reduced by 1% DHA and 1% DHA + 0.5% lysine. Switching to RC reduced hepatic lipid droplet accumulation, which was further reduced by the addition of DHA or lysine. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of hepatic proinflammatory cytokines were suppressed by DHA and combinations of DHA + lysine, whereas the mRNA for the lipogenic gene, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1, was suppressed by DHA. In the gonadal adipose tissues, combinations of DHA and lysine inhibited mRNA expression of lipid metabolism-associated genes, including ACC1, fatty acid synthase, lipoprotein lipase, and perilipin. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, in conjunction with RC-induced benefits, supplementation with DHA or lysine further ameliorated the high-fat diet-induced NAFLD and provided an alternative strategy to treat, and potentially prevent, NAFLD.

  19. Determination of the Amino Acids Content in the BaFeng Amino Acids Oral Liquid with Accq.Tag Method%Accq. Tag法测定氨基酸口服液的氨基酸含量

    陈永波; 汪大顺; 覃建华; 饶斌; 覃兰


    采用AccQ.Tag法对氨基酸口服液中游离氨基酸和牛磺酸含量 进行了分离测定。产品中氨基酸总量达85 mg/ml以上,共13种氨基酸。必需氨基酸与非必需 氨基酸比例为2.20~2.50∶1,支/芳比为2.30~2.55∶1.配方接近于FAO氨基酸比例模式,以 FAO氨基酸模式及化学评分评价了该制剂的营养价值,基本上不存在限制氨基酸,化学评分 均在90分以上。%The separation of the Taurine and Determintion of the f ree amino acids content in BaFeng Amino Acids Oral Liquid with AccQ.Tag mothod was described. The total amino acids contents are more than 8500 mg/100 ml. Ther e were thirteen sorts of free amino acids in this product indicating that the pr oduct was made of crystal free amino acids. The ratio of essential amino acids a nd other amino acids was between 2.20:1and 2.50∶1, the ratio of brench-chain amino acids and sweet-scented amino acids was 2.30--2.55∶1. The patterns of am ino acids component is near to the pattern recommended by FAO. According to the ratios and the patterns of amino acids recommended by FAO, the nutritive values of the product were evaluated. From the results, it was found that there was no limiting amino acids and the chemical scor of amino acids was more than ninety-f ive.

  20. Acid Rain

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison


    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  1. 人脑前扣带回皮质喙部在11C-PIB PET诊断阿尔茨海默病型痴呆中的价值%The value of rACC in diagnosing dementia of Alzheimer type with 11C-PIB PET

    余大富; Mark A.Mintun


    Objective Beta-amyloid (AB) plaque is one of the most important hallmarks of Alzhe-imer disease (AD). [N-methyl-11C]-[4'-methylaminophenyl]-6-hydroxybenzothiazole (11C-PIB) can have a strong binding potential (BP) of AB plaques in the brains of patients with dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT). This study was to investigate the value of rostral anterior cingnlate cortex (rACC) in diagnosing human AD with 11C-PIB PET imaging. Methods All the subjects were enrolled through ads by Washington University School of Medicine (WUSM) in USA. Clinical dementia rating (CDR) was the practical grading standard for AD. There were 129 cases of normal control (HC) with CDR =0 and 40 cases of AD patients with CDR >0 (but there were only 120 HC cases and 34 DAT patients with data of rACC PIB BP. All 169 cases had PIB BP data of other studied cerebral subregions). Brain subregions were localized with MRI. PET imaging was performed immediately after intravenous injection of11C-PIB. MRI and PET images were aligned and fused with the help of software. BP was calculated using the Logan graphical analysis and the cerebellar cortex as the reference tissue. The distribution characters of 11C-PIB BP in rACC were analyzed and compared with other brain subregions studied by other scholars with the same research cases. The corre-lation analysis, t-test or variance analysis were calculated with SPSS 11.5. Results rACC PIB BP of 120 HC and 34 AD patients was calculated, rACC PIB BP was statistically linear and positively correlated with CDR significantly (BP=0.2865±0.442,CDR=0.143±0.290,r=0.545,P0.05), but signifi-cant difference was found between rACC PIB BPs of HC and DAT patients (0.1589±0.0219 vs 0.7370±0.1125, independent-samples t-test in both group of CDR=0 and>0,indicatedt=-7.998, P0),分别为129名和40例(其中有rACC PIB BP数据的健康受试者和DAT患者分别为120名和34例.所有169例受试者均有其他被研究脑局部的PIB BP数据).

  2. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals.

    Runguphan, Weerawat; Keasling, Jay D


    As the serious effects of global climate change become apparent and access to fossil fuels becomes more limited, metabolic engineers and synthetic biologists are looking towards greener sources for transportation fuels. In recent years, microbial production of high-energy fuels by economically efficient bioprocesses has emerged as an attractive alternative to the traditional production of transportation fuels. Here, we engineered the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals from simple sugars. Specifically, we overexpressed all three fatty acid biosynthesis genes, namely acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), fatty acid synthase 1 (FAS1) and fatty acid synthase 2 (FAS2), in S. cerevisiae. When coupled to triacylglycerol (TAG) production, the engineered strain accumulated lipid to more than 17% of its dry cell weight, a four-fold improvement over the control strain. Understanding that TAG cannot be used directly as fuels, we also engineered S. cerevisiae to produce drop-in fuels and chemicals. Altering the terminal "converting enzyme" in the engineered strain led to the production of free fatty acids at a titer of approximately 400 mg/L, fatty alcohols at approximately 100mg/L and fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel) at approximately 5 mg/L directly from simple sugars. We envision that our approach will provide a scalable, controllable and economic route to this important class of chemicals.

  3. trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits lipoprotein lipase but increases the activity of lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue from hamsters fed an atherogenic diet.

    Zabala, Amaia; Churruca, Itziar; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Rodríguez, Víctor M; Macarulla, M Teresa; Martínez, J Alfredo; Portillo, María P


    The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the activity and expression of lipogenic enzymes and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), as well as on the expression of transcriptional factors controlling these enzymes, in adipose tissue from hamsters, and to evaluate the involvement of these changes in the body fat-reducing effect of this CLA isomer. Thirty male hamsters were divided into three groups and fed atherogenic diets supplemented with 0 (linoleic group), 5 or 10 g trans-10,cis-12 CLA/kg diet, for 6 weeks. Body and adipose tissue weights, food intake and serum insulin were measured. Total and heparin-releasable LPL and lipogenic enzyme activities (acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC); fatty acid synthase (FAS); glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH); and malic enzyme (ME)) were assessed. ACC, FAS, LPL, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP-1a), SREBP-1c and PPARgamma mRNA levels were also determined by real-time PCR. CLA did not modify food intake, body weight and serum insulin level. CLA feeding reduced adipose tissue weight, LPL activity and expression, and increased lipogenic enzyme activities, despite a significant reduction in ACC and FAS mRNA levels. The expression of the three transcriptional factors analysed (SREBP-1a, SREBP-1c and PPARgamma) was also reduced. These results appear to provide a framework for partially understanding the reduction in body fat induced by CLA. Inhibition of LPL activity seems to be an important mechanism underlying body fat reduction in hamsters. Further research is needed to better characterize the effects of CLA on lipogenesis and the role of these effects in CLA action.

  4. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N


    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  5. Centralisation, décentralisation et accès aux services urbains : le cas de l’enlèvement des ordures ménagères à Abidjan Centralization, decentralization, access to urban public services : waste collection in Abidjan

    Amandine Henry


    Full Text Available Cet article traite de l’inégalité d’accès aux services publics urbains dans les pays en développement et, plus particulièrement, de la question de l’accès au service d’enlèvement des ordures ménagères à Abidjan. Cette question est étroitement liée au mouvement de centralisation, décentralisation et recentralisation qui a affecté la gestion de ce service au cours des dernières décennies. Chaque étape de l’avancée de la Côte d’Ivoire dans le processus de décentralisation a provoqué des changements institutionnels dans la gestion des ordures ménagères à Abidjan ; tous ont eu des effets spécifiques sur l’accès de la population à ce service. Ces effets sont étudiés à l’échelle des communes et des quartiers à travers une enquête de terrain, et sont liés aux caractéristiques socio-économiques des quartiers. Une analyse comparative entre deux communes de standing opposé, ainsi que l’examen des aspects historiques de la problématique, s’attachent à identifier les facteurs-clés d’une telle inégalité d’accès au service d’enlèvement des ordures ménagères à Abidjan.This paper deals with the inequality of access to the urban public utilities in developing countries, and more accurately with the issue of the access to the waste collection in Abidjan. This question is closely linked with the centralization, decentralization and recentralization movements that affected this service management for the last decades. Each stage of the decentralization process in Ivory Coast brought institutional changes in waste collection management in Abidjan. Each of them had specific consequences on the access of people to this service. These consequences are investigated on a local scale and are linked to the socio-economic characteristics of the studied areas. Together with the focus on the historical aspects of the problematic, a comparative analysis between two districts of opposite standing attempts

  6. Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside regulates fatty acid metabolism via an AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling pathway in human HepG2 cells

    Guo Honghui


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic metabolic derangements are key components in the development of fatty liver disease. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK plays a central role in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism through modulating the downstream acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1 pathway. In this study, cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (Cy-3-g, a typical anthocyanin pigment was used to examine its effects on AMPK activation and fatty acid metabolism in human HepG2 hepatocytes. Results Anthocyanin Cy-3-g increased cellular AMPK activity in a calmodulin kinase kinase dependent manner. Furthermore, Cy-3-g substantially induced AMPK downstream target ACC phosphorylation and inactivation, and then decreased malonyl CoA contents, leading to stimulation of CPT-1 expression and significant increase of fatty acid oxidation in HepG2 cells. These effects of Cy-3-g are largely abolished by pharmacological and genetic inhibition of AMPK. Conclusion This study demonstrates that Cy-3-g regulates hepatic lipid homeostasis via an AMPK-dependent signaling pathway. Targeting AMPK activation by anthocyanin may represent a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  7. β-Hydroxybutyrate Facilitates Fatty Acids Synthesis Mediated by Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein1 in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Min Zhang


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In dairy cows, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA is utilized as precursors of de novo synthesized fatty acids in mammary gland. Ketotic cows are characterized by excessive negative energy balance (NEB, which can further increase the blood BHBA concentration. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein1 (SREBP1 and cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like effector α (Cidea play crucial roles in lipid synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that BHBA could stimulate SREBP1/Cidea pathway to increase milk fat synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Methods: Bovine mammary epithelial cells were treated with different concentrations of BHBA and transfected with adenovirus to silence SREBP1 expression. The effects of BHBA on the lipid synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells were investigated. Results: The results showed that BHBA could significantly increase the expression of SREBP1, fatty acid synthase (FAS, acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACC-α, Cidea and diacylglycerol transferase-1 (DGAT-1, as well as the triglycerides (TG content in bovine mammary epithelial cells. BHBA treatment also increased the transfer of mature SREBP1 to nucleus compared with control group. However, SREBP1 silencing could significantly down-regulate the overexpression of FAS, ACC-α, Cidea and DGAT-1, as well as TG content induced by BHBA. Conclusion: The present data indicate that BHBA can significantly increase TG secretion mediated by SREBP1 in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

  8. Simultaneous analysis of D-alanine, D-aspartic acid, and D-serine using chiral high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to the rat plasma and tissues.

    Karakawa, Sachise; Shimbo, Kazutaka; Yamada, Naoyuki; Mizukoshi, Toshimi; Miyano, Hiroshi; Mita, Masashi; Lindner, Wolfgang; Hamase, Kenji


    A highly sensitive and selective chiral LC-MS/MS method for D-alanine, D-aspartic acid and D-serine has been developed using the precolumn derivatization reagents, 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AccQ-Tag) or p-N,N,N-trimethylammonioanilyl N'-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate iodide (TAHS). The thus N-tagged enantiomers of the derivatized amino acids were nicely separated within 20min using the cinchona alkaloid-based zwittterionic ion-exchange type enantioselective column, Chiralpak ZWIX(+). The selected reaction monitoring was applied for detecting the target d-amino acids in biological matrices. By using the present chiral LC-MS/MS method, the three d-amino acids and their l-forms could be simultaneously determined in the range of 0.1-500nmol/mL. Finally, the technique was successfully applied to rat plasma and tissue samples.

  9. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    Fluorhydric acid ... stomach, or intestine have holes (perforations) from the acid. ... Hydrofluoric acid is especially dangerous. The most common accidents involving hydrofluoric acid cause severe burns on the skin ...

  10. Electronic Access to Justice: From Theory to Practice and Back Accès numérique à  la justice : allers-retours de la théorie à la pratique

    Marco Velicogna


    quand elles changent de support numérique.Les approches traditionnelles dans le domaine de la gestion de l’innovation et du développement des technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC ont de sérieux problèmes  pour traiter de cette complexité. D’où la nécessité de faire appel à de nouvelles théories.A l’aide d’expériences portant sur plusieurs études de cas empiriques, ce texte analyse comment les dynamiques et les ramifications de la justice électronique abordent les multiples facettes de cette complexité. Le projet est double : d’un côté il s’agit de stimuler le discours académique sur un questionnement pertinent qui se développe de plus en plus, et de l’autre côté il s’agit d’enrichir les réflexions des praticiens dans la perspective de rendre plus innovante la justice électronique dans le sens d’un meilleur accès à la justice – et notamment des appels et des pourvois.Notre texte est étayé sur des cas portant sur des questions spécifiques de l’environnement.

  11. Dehydroabietic acid

    Xiao-Ping Rao


    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid],