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Sample records for 1-alkoxymethyl-2-methyl-5-hydroxypyridinium chloride homologues

  1. Biodegradation of diesel fuel by a microbial consortium in the presence of 1-alkoxymethyl-2-methyl-5-hydroxypyridinium chloride homologues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrzanowski, L; Stasiewicz, M; Owsianiak, Mikolaj

    2009-01-01

    hypothesize that in the presence of diesel fuel low-water-soluble ionic liquids may become more toxic to hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms. In this study the influence of 1-alkoxymethyl-2-methyl-5-hydroxypyridinium chloride homologues (side-chain length from C-3 to C-18) on biodegradation of diesel fuel....... As a result of exposure to toxic compounds also modification in cell surface hydrophobicity was observed (MATH). Disulphine blue active substances method was employed to determine partitioning index of ionic liquids between water and diesel fuel phase, which varied from 1.1 to 51% for C-3 and C-18 homologues...

  2. Crystal chemistry of sartorite homologues and related sulfosalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berlepsch, Peter; Makovicky, Emil; Balic-Zunic, Tonci

    2001-01-01

    sartorite homologues, sulfosalt, crystal chemistry, coordination polyhedra, bond-pairs, crankshaft chains......sartorite homologues, sulfosalt, crystal chemistry, coordination polyhedra, bond-pairs, crankshaft chains...

  3. Crystal chemical formula for sartorite homologues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Topa, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The members of the sartorite homologous series are complex sulfides Me 2+ 8N–16–2X Me 3+ 16+X Me + XS8N+8where Me 2+ is Pb and Me 3+ is As and Sb, whereas Me + is Ag and/or Tl. This paper presents calculation formulae for the homologue order N and for the separate substitution percentages for Tl...

  4. A novel salting-out assisted extraction coupled with HPLC- fluorescence detection for trace determination of vitamin K homologues in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sameh; Mahmoud, Ashraf M

    2015-11-01

    Recently, new physiological roles of vitamin K homologues have been established in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and leukemia. However, relatively high plasma protein binding, low plasma concentrations and occurrences of interfering lipids make accurate determination of vitamin K homologues a challenging task. Therefore, a sensitive and reliable salting-out assisted liquid/liquid extraction (SALLE) method coupled with HPLC-Fluorescence detection was designed for efficient extraction and quantification of trace levels of vitamin K homologues in human plasma. The investigated vitamin K homologues were phylloquinone (PK, vitamin K1), menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and menaquinone-7 (MK-7). The method employed a new efficient fluorescence derivatization reaction using ethanolic solution of stannous chloride in acidic solution to generate highly fluorescent naphthohydroquinone derivatives. Correlation coefficients were more than 0.998 in the concentration ranges of 0.3-100 ng mL(-1) with detection limits of 0.1-0.17 ng mL(-1) in human plasma. The developed HPLC-FL system was successfully applied for sensitive determination of vitamin K homologues in plasma of healthy volunteers. The developed method may provide a valuable tool in the pharmacoinformatic studies concerning the roles of vitamin K homologues.

  5. Chloride transference during electrochemical chloride extraction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chemical titration method and lab-made chloride probes were jointly adopted to investigate the effects of water-to-cement (W/C) ratio and the impressed current density on chloride transport for cement-based materials during electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) process.The dissolution of bound chlorides and the effect of current density on dissolution were analyzed.The variations of chloride concentration at different depths and the chloride transference process were monitored.Test results show that W/C ratios adopted have slight influence on chloride extraction,while chloride extraction efficiency is mainly determined by the impressed current density.During ECE process a portion of bound chloride ions dissolved and the amount of bound chlorides released is directly proportional to current density.

  6. Tribenzylammonium chloride

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    Waly Diallo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH+·Cl−, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH23NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH33Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetrahedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16 (10°. In the crystal, the tribenzylammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin.

  7. Characterization of the C. elegans erlin homologue

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    Hoegg Maja B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erlins are highly conserved proteins associated with lipid rafts within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Biochemical studies in mammalian cell lines have shown that erlins are required for ER associated protein degradation (ERAD of activated inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs, implying that erlin proteins might negatively regulate IP3R signalling. In humans, loss of erlin function appears to cause progressive intellectual disability, motor dysfunction and joint contractures. However, it is unknown if defects in IP3R ERAD are the underlying cause of this disease phenotype, whether ERAD of activated IP3Rs is the only function of erlin proteins, and what role ERAD plays in regulating IP3R-dependent processes in the context of an intact animal or embryo. In this study, we characterize the erlin homologue of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and examine erlin function in vivo. We specifically set out to test whether C. elegans erlin modulates IP3R-dependent processes, such as egg laying, embryonic development and defecation rates. We also explore the possibility that erlin might play a more general role in the ERAD pathway of C. elegans. Results We first show that the C. elegans erlin homologue, ERL-1, is highly similar to mammalian erlins with respect to amino acid sequence, domain structure, biochemical properties and subcellular location. ERL-1 is present throughout the C. elegans embryo; in adult worms, ERL-1 appears restricted to the germline. The expression pattern of ERL-1 thus only partially overlaps with that of ITR-1, eliminating the possibility of ERL-1 being a ubiquitous and necessary regulator of ITR-1. We show that loss of ERL-1 does not affect overall phenotype, or alter brood size, embryonic development or defecation cycle length in either wild type or sensitized itr-1 mutant animals. Moreover we show that ERL-1 deficient worms respond normally to ER stress conditions, suggesting that ERL-1 is not an

  8. Is the prosthetic homologue necessary for embodiment?

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    Chelsea Dornfeld

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Embodiment is the process by which patients with limb loss come to accept their peripheral device as a natural extension of self. However, there is little guidance as to how exacting the prosthesis must be in order for embodiment to take place: is it necessary for the prosthetic hand to look just like the absent hand? Here, we describe a protocol for testing whether an individual would select a hand that looks like their own from among a selection of 5 hands, and whether the hand selection (regardless of homology is consistent across multiple exposures to the same (but reordered set of candidate hands. Pilot results using healthy volunteers reveals that hand selection is only modestly consistent, and that selection of the prosthetic homologue is atypical (61 of 192 total exposures. Our protocol can be executed in minutes, and makes use of readily available equipment and softwares. We present both a face-to-face and a virtual protocol, for maximum flexibility of implementation.

  9. Is the Prosthetic Homologue Necessary for Embodiment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornfeld, Chelsea; Swanston, Michelle; Cassella, Joseph; Beasley, Casey; Green, Jacob; Moshayev, Yonatan; Wininger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Embodiment is the process by which patients with limb loss come to accept their peripheral device as a natural extension of self. However, there is little guidance as to how exacting the prosthesis must be in order for embodiment to take place: is it necessary for the prosthetic hand to look just like the absent hand? Here, we describe a protocol for testing whether an individual would select a hand that looks like their own from among a selection of five hands, and whether the hand selection (regardless of homology) is consistent across multiple exposures to the same (but reordered) set of candidate hands. Pilot results using healthy volunteers reveals that hand selection is only modestly consistent, and that selection of the prosthetic homologue is atypical (61 of 192 total exposures). Our protocol can be executed in minutes, and makes use of readily available equipment and softwares. We present both a face-to-face and a virtual protocol, for maximum flexibility of implementation. PMID:28066228

  10. Detection of a Yersinia pestis gene homologue in rodent samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. Giles

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A homologue to a widely used genetic marker, pla, for Yersinia pestis has been identified in tissue samples of two species of rat (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus and of mice (Mus musculus and Apodemus sylvaticus using a microarray based platform to screen for zoonotic pathogens of interest. Samples were from urban locations in the UK (Liverpool and Canada (Vancouver. The results indicate the presence of an unknown bacterium that shares a homologue for the pla gene of Yersinia pestis, so caution should be taken when using this gene as a diagnostic marker.

  11. Isolation and characterization of an AGAMOUS homologue from cocoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaidamsari, T.; Sugiarit, H.; Santoso, D.; Angenent, G.C.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2006-01-01

    We report the cloning of a cDNA from TcAG, an AG (Arabidopsis thaliana MADS-box C-type transcription factor gene AGAMOUS) homologue from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). TcAG was in the cocoa flower expressed primarily in stamens and ovaries, comparable to AG in Arabidopsis. Additionally, we found that T

  12. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents the state-of-the art: an analytical model which describes chloride profiles in concrete as function of depth...... makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  13. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...

  14. Characterization of mouse Dach2, a homologue of Drosophila dachshund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R J; Shen, W; Sandler, Y I; Heanue, T A; Mardon, G

    2001-04-01

    The Drosophila genes eyeless, eyes absent, sine oculis and dachshund cooperate as components of a network to control retinal determination. Vertebrate homologues of these genes have been identified and implicated in the control of cell fate. We present the cloning and characterization of mouse Dach2, a homologue of dachshund. In situ hybridization studies demonstrate Dach2 expression in embryonic nervous tissues, sensory organs and limbs. This pattern is similar to mouse Dach1, suggesting a partially redundant role for these genes during development. In addition, we determine that Dach2 expression in the forebrain of Pax6 mutants and dermamyotome of Pax3 mutants is not detectably altered. Finally, genetic mapping experiments place mouse Dach2 on the X chromosome between Xist and Esx1. The identification of human DACH2 sequences at Xq21 suggests a possible role for this gene in Allan-Herndon syndrome, Miles-Carpenter syndrome, X-linked cleft palate and/or Megalocornea.

  15. Monolayer structures of alkyl aldehydes: Odd-membered homologues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T.K. [BP Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Clarke, S.M., E-mail: stuart@bpi.cam.ac.u [BP Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bhinde, T. [BP Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Castro, M.A.; Millan, C. [Instituto Ciencia de los Materiales de Sevilla, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica (CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla) (Spain); Medina, S. [Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion de la Universidad de Sevilla (CITIUS), Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-03-01

    Crystalline monolayers of three aldehydes with an odd number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain (C{sub 7}, C{sub 9} and C{sub 11}) at low coverages are observed by a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction. Analysis of the diffraction data is discussed and possible monolayer crystal structures are proposed; although unique structures could not be ascertained for all molecules. We conclude that the structures are flat on the surface, with the molecules lying in the plane of the layer. The C{sub 11} homologue is determined to have a plane group of either p2, pgb or pgg, and for the C{sub 7} homologue the p2 plane group is preferred.

  16. Mammalian homologue of the calcium-sensitive phosphoglycoprotein, parafusin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyroba, E; Widding Høyer, A; Storgaard, P; Satir, B H

    1995-12-01

    Three specific antipeptide antibodies and oligonucleotide probes synthesized to internal sequences of parafusin have been used to search for mammalian counterpart(s) of this protein. Parafusin is an exocytic-sensitive phosphoglycoprotein from a unicellular eukaryote Paramecium that was recently cloned and sequenced (Subramanian et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 9832-9836 (1994)). Western and Southern blot analyses, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase coupled PCR (RT-PCR) techniques have been used to examine rat liver and pancreas, human pancreas and a murine pancreatic beta-cell line (beta TC3) arising in transgenic mice. The parafusin-specific antibodies showed cross-reaction with a protein at approximately 63 kDa in 4 tissues, whereas a phosphoglucomutase-specific antibody also detected a second band of similar molecular weight in the beta TC3 cells. The presence of two bands shows that parafusin homologue(s) and phosphoglucomutase are separate entities. beta TC3 cells were shown to incorporate [beta 35]UDPGlc into the parafusin homologue in a Ca(++)-sensitive manner characteristic of parafusin. Southern blot analysis revealed that the parafusin-specific probe hybridized with restriction enzyme digests of rat DNA in distinct patterns different from those observed with a phosphoglucomutase-specific probe. Rat genomic DNA and mRNA from the beta TC3 cells were used as the templates for PCR and RT-PCR using internal parafusin primers. In both cases similarly sized products were obtained which hybridized in Southern analysis with a specific parafusion probe located within the amplified region. These results indicate that a parafusin homologue exists in mammalian cells.

  17. Cloning of an agr homologue of Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakinc, Türkan; Kulczak, Pawel; Henne, Karsten; Gatermann, Sören G

    2004-08-01

    An agr homologue of Staphylococcus saprophyticus was identified, cloned and sequenced. The gene locus shows homologies to other staphylococcal agr systems, especially to those of S. epidermidis and S. lugdunensis. A putative RNAIII was identified and found to be differentially expressed during the growth phases. In contrast to the RNAIII molecules of S. epidermidis and S. aureus it does not contain an open reading frame that codes for a protein with homologies to the delta-toxin. Using PCR, the agr was found to be present in clinical isolates of S. saprophyticus.

  18. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  19. Alkylresorcinol content and homologue composition in durum wheat (Triticum durum) kernels and pasta products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landberg, Rikard; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Andersson, Roger; Aman, Per

    2006-04-19

    The total alkylresorcinol (AR) content and relative homologue composition of 21 durum wheat (Triticum durum) kernel samples, as well as 5 pasta products and the corresponding flour mixtures, were determined. Durum wheat contained on average 455 microg/g ARs, and the average relative homologue composition was C17:0 (0.4%), C19:0 (14%), C21:0 (58%), C23:0 (21%), and C25:0 (6.5%). The homologue composition was found to be relatively consistent among samples, with durum wheat being different from common wheat by having a higher proportion of the longer homologues. No differences in content or homologue composition were observed in pasta products compared to flour ingredients, showing that alkylresorcinols are stable during pasta processing. The ratio of the homologues C17:0 to C21:0 was wheat products, which is different from those of common wheat (0.1) and rye (0.9).

  20. Identification of possible targets of the Aspergillus fumigatus CRZ1 homologue, CrzA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Gustavo H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcineurin, a serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase, plays an important role in the control of cell morphology and virulence in fungi. Calcineurin regulates localization and activity of a transcription factor called CRZ1. Recently, we characterize Aspergillus fumigatus CRZ1 homologue, AfCrzA. Here, we investigate which pathways are influenced by A. fumigatus AfCrzA during a short pulse of calcium by comparatively determining the transcriptional profile of A. fumigatus wild type and ΔAfcrzA mutant strains. Results We were able to observe 3,622 genes modulated in at least one timepoint in the mutant when compared to the wild type strain (3,211 and 411 at 10 and 30 minutes, respectively. Decreased mRNA abundance in the ΔcrzA was seen for genes encoding calcium transporters, transcription factors and genes that could be directly or indirectly involved in calcium metabolism. Increased mRNA accumulation was observed for some genes encoding proteins involved in stress response. AfCrzA overexpression in A. fumigatus increases the expression of several of these genes. The deleted strain of one of these genes, AfRcnA, belonging to a class of endogenous calcineurin regulators, calcipressins, had more calcineurin activity after exposure to calcium and was less sensitive to menadione 30 μM, hydrogen peroxide 2.5 mM, EGTA 25 mM, and MnCl2 25 mM. We constructed deletion, overexpression, and GFP fusion protein for the closely related A. nidulans AnRcnA. GFP::RcnA was mostly detected along the germling, did not accumulate in the nuclei and its location is not affected by the cellular response to calcium chloride. Conclusion We have performed a transcriptional profiling analysis of the A. fumigatus ΔAfcrzA mutant strain exposed to calcium stress. This provided an excellent opportunity to identify genes and pathways that are under the influence of AfCrzA. AfRcnA, one of these selected genes, encodes a modulator of calcineurin

  1. Structure of a DsbF homologue from Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Si-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Sik; Lee, Kangseok; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2014-09-01

    Disulfide-bond formation, mediated by the Dsb family of proteins, is important in the correct folding of secreted or extracellular proteins in bacteria. In Gram-negative bacteria, disulfide bonds are introduced into the folding proteins in the periplasm by DsbA. DsbE from Escherichia coli has been implicated in the reduction of disulfide bonds in the maturation of cytochrome c. The Gram-positive bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes DsbE and its homologue DsbF, the structures of which have been determined. However, the two mycobacterial proteins are able to oxidatively fold a protein in vitro, unlike DsbE from E. coli. In this study, the crystal structure of a DsbE or DsbF homologue protein from Corynebacterium diphtheriae has been determined, which revealed a thioredoxin-like domain with a typical CXXC active site. Structural comparison with M. tuberculosis DsbF would help in understanding the function of the C. diphtheriae protein.

  2. Histamine homologues discriminating between two functional H3 receptor assays. Evidence for H3 receptor heterogeneity?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurs, R; Kathmann, M; Vollinga, R C; Menge, W M; Schlicker, E; Timmerman, H

    1996-03-01

    We studied several histamine homologues as potential ligands for the histamine H3 receptor in two binding assays ([125l]iodophenpropit and N alpha-[3H]methylhistamine binding to rat brain cortex membranes) and two functional H3 receptor models (inhibition of the neurogenic contraction in the guinea pig jejunum and of [3H]noradrenaline release in mouse brain cortex slices). The histamine homologues acted all as competitive H3 antagonists at the guinea pig jejunum. The potency in this model and/or the affinity for N alpha-[3H]methylhistamine binding was higher for the butylene (pA2 = 7.7; pKi = 9.4) and pentylene homologue (impentamine, pA2 = 8.4; pKi = 9.1) than for the propylene, hexylene and octylene homologues (pA2 = 5.9-7.8; pKi = 6.1-7.6). In the mouse brain cortex the propylene, butylene and pentylene homologues acted as partial agonists (alpha = 0.3-0.6) and the hexylene and octylene homologues acted as antagonists. [125I]Iodophenpropit binding was displaced monophasically by the propylene, hexylene and octylene homologues and biphasically by the butylene and pentylene homologues. Biphasic displacement curves were converted to monophasic ones by 10 microM guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate. In conclusion, the homologue of histamine with five methylene groups is a more potent H3 receptor antagonist in the guinea pig jejunum than the other homologues tested. Furthermore, the propylene, butylene and pentylene homologues can discriminate between the two functional H3 receptor models in the guinea pig jejunum and mouse brain. These data are discussed in relation to the efficiency of receptor coupling and receptor heterogeneity.

  3. Determination of homologues of quaternary ammonium surfactants by capillary electrophoresis using indirect UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsueh-Ying; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2004-02-06

    This investigation describes the simultaneous separation of two major non-chromophoric quaternary ammonium surfactants, alkyltrimethyl- and dialkyldimethylammonium compounds (ATMACs and DADMACs, respectively), by capillary electrophoresis (CE) using indirect UV detection. The most effective separation conditions was 10 mM phosphate buffer with 57.5% tetrahydrofuran and 3 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at pH 4.3, and the sample hydrodynamic injection of up to 20 s at 1 psi (approximately 60 nl), and an applied voltage of 25 kV (1 psi = 6.9 kPa). Specially, the selection of an appropriate chromophore and an internal standard (I.S.) to improve the peak identification and quantitation was systematically investigated. Decylbenzyldimethyl ammonium chloride (C10-BDMA+C-) as a chromophore with 3 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate provided the best detectability for all homologues. The reproducibility of the migration time and quantitative analysis can be improved by using tetraoctyl ammonium ion as an internal standard, giving the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) less than 0.8% for the relative migration times, and 2.5-5.5% for the relative peak areas. A good linearity of CE analysis was obtained in the range of 1.0-20 microg/ml with r2 values of above 0.999. The analysis of cationic surfactants in commercial products of hair conditioners and fabric softeners was also performed. Electrospray mass spectrometric method was applied to evaluate the CE method, and the compatible results were obtained.

  4. Isolation and characterization of the human MRE11 homologue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrini, J.H.J.; Walsh, M.E.; DiMare, C. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Mutation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD52 epistasis group gene, MRE11, blocks meiotic recombination, confers profound sensitivity to double-strand break damage, and has a hyperrecombinational phenotype in mitotic cells. We isolated a highly conserved human MRE11 homologue using a two-hybrid screen for DNA ligase I-interacting proteins. Human MRE11 shares approximately 50% identity with its yeast counterpart over the N-terminal half of the protein. MRE11 is expressed at the highest levels in proliferating tissues, but is also observed in other tissues. The MRE11 locus maps to human chromosome 11q21 in a region frequently associated with cancer-related chromosomal abnormalities. A MRE11-related locus was found on chromosome 7q11.2-q11.3. 60 refs., 4 figs.

  5. PCDD/F catalysis by metal chlorides and oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmei; Yang, Jie; Buekens, Alfons; Olie, Kees; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-09-01

    Model fly ash (MFA) samples were composed of silica, sodium chloride, and activated carbon, and doped with metal (0.1 wt% Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn and Cd) chloride or oxide. Each sample was de novo tested at 350 °C for 1 h, in a flow of gas (N2, N2 + 10% O2, +21% O2 or +10% H2) to investigate the effect of metal catalyst and gas composition on PCDD/F formation. Total PCDD/F yield rises rapidly with oxygen content, while the addition of hydrogen inhibits the formation and chlorination of PCDD/F. The amount of PCDD on average rises linearly with the oxygen concentration, while that of PCDF follows a reaction order of about 1/2; thus the PCDF to PCDD ratio drops when more oxygen becomes available. Some samples do not follow this trend. Chlorides are much more active than oxides, yet there are marked differences between individual metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to study the signatures from all samples, showing their unique specificity and diversity. Each catalyst shows a different signature within its individual homologue groups, demonstrating that these signatures are not thermodynamically controlled. Average congener patterns do not vary considerably with oxygen content changing from oxidising (air) to reducing (nitrogen, hydrogen).

  6. Homologue Pairing in Flies and Mammals: Gene Regulation When Two Are Involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasi S. Apte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome pairing is usually discussed in the context of meiosis. Association of homologues in germ cells enables chromosome segregation and is necessary for fertility. A few organisms, such as flies, also pair their entire genomes in somatic cells. Most others, including mammals, display little homologue pairing outside of the germline. Experimental evidence from both flies and mammals suggests that communication between homologues contributes to normal genome regulation. This paper will contrast the role of pairing in transmitting information between homologues in flies and mammals. In mammals, somatic homologue pairing is tightly regulated, occurring at specific loci and in a developmentally regulated fashion. Inappropriate pairing, or loss of normal pairing, is associated with gene misregulation in some disease states. While homologue pairing in flies is capable of influencing gene expression, the significance of this for normal expression remains unknown. The sex chromosomes pose a particularly interesting situation, as females are able to pair X chromosomes, but males cannot. The contribution of homologue pairing to the biology of the X chromosome will also be discussed.

  7. Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Carol A.; Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapo...

  8. SLAH1, a homologue of the slow type anion channel SLAC1, modulates shoot Cl − accumulation and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Jiaen

    2016-06-23

    Salinity tolerance is correlated with shoot chloride (Cl–) exclusion in multiple crops, but the molecular mechanisms of long-distance Cl– transport are poorly defined. Here, we characterize the in planta role of AtSLAH1 (a homologue of the slow type anion channel-associated 1 (SLAC1)). This protein, localized to the plasma membrane of root stelar cells, has its expression reduced by salt or ABA, which are key predictions for a protein involved with loading Cl– into the root xylem. Artificial microRNA knockdown mutants of AtSLAH1 had significantly reduced shoot Cl− accumulation when grown under low Cl–, whereas shoot Cl– increased and the shoot nitrate/chloride ratio decreased following AtSLAH1 constitutive or stelar-specific overexpression when grown in high Cl–. In both sets of overexpression lines a significant reduction in shoot biomass over the null segregants was observed under high Cl– supply, but not low Cl– supply. Further in planta data showed AtSLAH3 overexpression increased the shoot nitrate/chloride ratio, consistent with AtSLAH3 favouring nitrate transport. Heterologous expression of AtSLAH1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to no detectible transport, suggesting the need for post-translational modifications for AtSLAH1 to be active. Our in planta data are consistent with AtSLAH1 having a role in controlling root-to-shoot Cl– transport.

  9. Characterization of Major Surface Protease Homologues of Trypanosoma congolense

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    Veronica Marcoux

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomes encode a family of proteins known as Major Surface Metalloproteases (MSPs. We have identified six putative MSPs encoded within the partially sequenced T. congolense genome. Phylogenic analysis indicates that T. congolense MSPs belong to five subfamilies that are conserved among African trypanosome species. Molecular modeling, based on the known structure of Leishmania Major GP63, reveals subfamily-specific structural variations around the putative active site despite conservation of overall structure, suggesting that each MSP subfamily has evolved to recognize distinct substrates. We have cloned and purified a protein encoding the amino-terminal domain of the T. congolense homologue TcoMSP-D (most closely related to Leishmania GP63. We detect TcoMSP-D in the serum of T. congolense-infected mice. Mice immunized with the amino-terminal domain of TcoMSP-D generate a persisting IgG1 antibody response. Surprisingly, a low-dose challenge of immunized mice with T. congolense significantly increases susceptibility to infection, indicating that immunity to TcoMSP-D is a factor affecting virulence.

  10. Phosphatase and Tensin Homologue: Novel Regulation by Developmental Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J. Jerde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN is a critical cell endogenous inhibitor of phosphoinositide signaling in mammalian cells. PTEN dephosphorylates phosphoinositide trisphosphate (PIP3, and by so doing PTEN has the function of negative regulation of Akt, thereby inhibiting this key intracellular signal transduction pathway. In numerous cell types, PTEN loss-of-function mutations result in unopposed Akt signaling, producing numerous effects on cells. Numerous reports exist regarding mutations in PTEN leading to unregulated Akt and human disease, most notably cancer. However, less is commonly known about nonmutational regulation of PTEN. This review focuses on an emerging literature on the regulation of PTEN at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels. Specifically, a focus is placed on the role developmental signaling pathways play in PTEN regulation; this includes insulin-like growth factor, NOTCH, transforming growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein, wnt, and hedgehog signaling. The regulation of PTEN by developmental mediators affects critical biological processes including neuronal and organ development, stem cell maintenance, cell cycle regulation, inflammation, response to hypoxia, repair and recovery, and cell death and survival. Perturbations of PTEN regulation consequently lead to human diseases such as cancer, chronic inflammatory syndromes, developmental abnormalities, diabetes, and neurodegeneration.

  11. Analysis of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate homologues in environmental water samples by mixed admicelle-based extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunar, Loreto; Rubio, Soledad; Pérez-Bendito, Dolores

    2006-07-01

    Hemimicelles and admicelles of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), adsorbed onto silica, were tested as sorbents for the solid phase extraction (SPE) of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) homologues from environmental water samples. LASs were quantitatively retained on both surfactants due to high hydrophobic and ionic interactions, which led to the formation of analyte-extractant mixed aggregates. Parameters affecting the SPE of LASs were optimised. Recoveries of analytes from wastewater influent and effluent and river water samples ranged between 86 and 110%. Combination of SPE with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry provided detection limits for the different LAS homologues of about 4 ng L(-1). The precision of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation, ranged from 5 to 9%. The method was applied to the analysis of LASs in wastewater and river samples using sample volumes between 10 and 25 mL. The LAS concentrations found ranged from 9 to 503 microg L(-1). No cleaning step was required to get accurate results.

  12. Identification and analysis of cation channel homologues in human pathogenic fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Prole

    Full Text Available Fungi are major causes of human, animal and plant disease. Human fungal infections can be fatal, but there are limited options for therapy, and resistance to commonly used anti-fungal drugs is widespread. The genomes of many fungi have recently been sequenced, allowing identification of proteins that may become targets for novel therapies. We examined the genomes of human fungal pathogens for genes encoding homologues of cation channels, which are prominent drug targets. Many of the fungal genomes examined contain genes encoding homologues of potassium (K(+, calcium (Ca(2+ and transient receptor potential (Trp channels, but not sodium (Na(+ channels or ligand-gated channels. Some fungal genomes contain multiple genes encoding homologues of K(+ and Trp channel subunits, and genes encoding novel homologues of voltage-gated K(v channel subunits are found in Cryptococcus spp. Only a single gene encoding a homologue of a plasma membrane Ca(2+ channel was identified in the genome of each pathogenic fungus examined. These homologues are similar to the Cch1 Ca(2+ channel of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The genomes of Aspergillus spp. and Cryptococcus spp., but not those of S. cerevisiae or the other pathogenic fungi examined, also encode homologues of the mitochondrial Ca(2+ uniporter (MCU. In contrast to humans, which express many K(+, Ca(2+ and Trp channels, the genomes of pathogenic fungi encode only very small numbers of K(+, Ca(2+ and Trp channel homologues. Furthermore, the sequences of fungal K(+, Ca(2+, Trp and MCU channels differ from those of human channels in regions that suggest differences in regulation and susceptibility to drugs.

  13. [Patterns of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs homologues in fly ash from cement kilns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Ni, Yu-Wen; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Ping; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Ji-Ping

    2009-02-15

    The concentrations and toxic equivalent (TEQ) values of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs in fly ash collected from three types of cement kilns (vertical shaft kiln, wet-process rotary kiln and dry-process rotary kiln) and two types of waste incinerators were determined, and the patterns of homologues and congeners were compared. The results showed that the total TEQ of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs in cement kiln fly ash, which were in the range of 4.0-62, 0.069-3.9 and 0.47-2.8 ng x kg(-1) respectively, were much lower than that of fly ash from waste incinerators. In cement kiln fly ash, the predominating PCDD/Fs homologues were TCDFs, and the chief 2, 3, 7, 8-PCDD/Fs congeners were OCDD, 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDF and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8-HpCDF. The patterns of PCBs homologues in cement kiln fly ash were similar to those of waste incinerators in which TeCB were predominating homologues. PCB77, PCB105, PCB118 were at higher concentrations than other co-polar PCBs. Different types of cement kiln fly ash presented similar PCNs homologue patterns. The predominant homologues were TeCN, whereas OcCN were not detected. PCN 66/67 which has dioxin like toxity was the most abundant congener in all fly ash.

  14. Antidepressant Binding Site in a Bacterial Homologue of Neurotransmitter Transporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh,S.; Yamashita, A.; Gouaux, E.

    2007-01-01

    Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds, including diuretics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, many of which have also become indispensable tools in biochemical experiments designed to probe antagonist binding sites and to elucidate transport mechanisms. Steady-state kinetic data have revealed that both competitive and noncompetitive modes of inhibition exist. Antagonist dissociation experiments on the serotonin transporter (SERT) have also unveiled the existence of a low-affinity allosteric site that slows the dissociation of inhibitors from a separate high-affinity site. Despite these strides, atomic-level insights into inhibitor action have remained elusive. Here we screen a panel of molecules for their ability to inhibit LeuT, a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter sodium symporters, and show that the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine noncompetitively inhibits substrate uptake. Cocrystal structures show that clomipramine, along with two other TCAs, binds in an extracellular-facing vestibule about 11 {angstrom} above the substrate and two sodium ions, apparently stabilizing the extracellular gate in a closed conformation. Off-rate assays establish that clomipramine reduces the rate at which leucine dissociates from LeuT and reinforce our contention that this TCA inhibits LeuT by slowing substrate release. Our results represent a molecular view into noncompetitive inhibition of a sodium-coupled transporter and define principles for the

  15. The human homologue of macaque area V6A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzalis, S; Sereno, M I; Committeri, G; Fattori, P; Galati, G; Tosoni, A; Galletti, C

    2013-11-15

    In macaque monkeys, V6A is a visuomotor area located in the anterior bank of the POs, dorsal and anterior to retinotopically-organized extrastriate area V6 (Galletti et al., 1996). Unlike V6, V6A represents both contra- and ipsilateral visual fields and is broadly retinotopically organized (Galletti et al., 1999b). The contralateral lower visual field is over-represented in V6A. The central 20°-30° of the visual field is mainly represented dorsally (V6Ad) and the periphery ventrally (V6Av), at the border with V6. Both sectors of area V6A contain arm movement-related cells, active during spatially-directed reaching movements (Gamberini et al., 2011). In humans, we previously mapped the retinotopic organization of area V6 (Pitzalis et al., 2006). Here, using phase-encoded fMRI, cortical surface-based analysis and wide-field retinotopic mapping, we define a new cortical region that borders V6 anteriorly and shows a clear over-representation of the contralateral lower visual field and the periphery. As with macaque V6A, the eccentricity increases moving ventrally within the area. The new region contains a non-mirror-image representation of the visual field. Functional mapping reveals that, as in macaque V6A, the new region, but not the nearby area V6, responds during finger pointing and reaching movements. Based on similarity in position, retinotopic properties, functional organization and relationship with the neighboring extrastriate visual areas, we propose that the new cortical region is the human homologue of macaque area V6A.

  16. Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Haruna Abdulkareem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene deleted or mutated in many human cancers such as glioblastoma, spinal tumors, prostate, bladder, adrenals, thyroid, breast, endometrium, and colon cancers. They result from loss of heterozygosity (LOH for the PTEN gene on chromosome 10q23. Previous studies reported that various drugs, chemicals, and foods can up-regulate PTEN mRNA and protein expression in different cell lines, and they may be useful in the future prevention and/or treatment of these cancers. PTEN has also been observed to have prognostic significance and is gradually being accepted as an independent prognostic factor. This will help in monitoring disease progression and/or recurrence, with a view to improving treatment outcomes and reducing the associated morbidity and mortality from these cancers. Neprilysin (NEP is a zinc-dependent metallopeptidase that cleaves and inactivates some biologically active peptides thus switching off signal transduction at the cell surface. Decreased NEP expression in many cancers has been reported. NEP can form a complex with PTEN and enhance PTEN recruitment to the plasma membrane as well as stabilize its phosphatase activity. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21 post-transcriptionally down-regulates the expression of PTEN and stimulates growth and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC (lung Ca, suggesting that this may be a potential therapeutic target in the future treatment of NSCLC. PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene associated with many human cancers. This has diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic significance in the management of many human cancers, and may be a target for new drug development in the future.

  17. Oxomemazine hydro-chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddegowda, M S; Butcher, Ray J; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H S; Ramesh, A R

    2011-08-01

    IN THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 3-(5,5-dioxo-phen-othia-zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl-propanaminium chloride], C(18)H(23)N(2)O(2)S(+)·Cl(-), the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia-zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions.

  18. Benzalkonium chloride and glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Carol A; Kaufman, Paul L; Kiland, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology.

  19. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  20. Separation of bacteriochlorophyll homologues from green photosynthetic sulfur bacteria by reversed-phase HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C M; Garcia-Gil, L J

    1994-07-01

    A reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Cromatography (HPLC) method has been developed to accurately separate bacteriochlorophyllsc, d ande homologues in a reasonably short run time of 60 minutes. By using this method, two well-defined groups of bacteriochlorophyll homologue peaks can be discriminated. The first one consists of 4 peaks (min 24 to 30), which corresponds to the four main farnesyl homologues. The second peak subset is formed by a cluster of up to 10 minor peaks (min 33 to 40). These peaks can be related with series of several alcohol esters of the different chlorosome chlorophylls. The number of homologues was, however, quite variable depending on both, the bacteriochlorophyll and the bacterial species. The method hereby described, also provides a good separation of other photosynthetic pigments, either bacterial (Bacteriochlorophylla, chlorobactene, isorenieratene and okenone) or algal ones (Chlorophylla, Pheophytina and β-carotene). A preliminary screening of the homologue composition of several green photosynthetic bacterial species and isolates, has revealed different relative quantitative patterns. These differences seem to be related to physiological aspects rather than to taxonomic ones. The application of the method to the study of natural populations avoids the typical drawbacks on the pigment identification of overlapping eukaryotic and prokaryotic phototrophic microorganisms, giving further information about their physiological status.

  1. Expression pattern of INNER NO OUTER homologue in Nymphaea (water lily family, Nymphaeaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshihiro; Ito, Motomi; Kato, Masahiro

    2003-10-01

    Two homologues of INNER NO OUTER ( INO) in Nymphaea alba and N. colorata (Nymphaeaceae) were isolated and the expression pattern of the N. alba INO homologue NaINO was examined by in situ hybridization. The INO homologues obtained have a portion similar to INO in the predicted amino acid sequences between the conserved zinc finger-like and YABBY domains. In an in situ hybridization analysis, NaINO is expressed in the outer epidermis of the outer integument, inner integument, and the tip of the nucellus. The pattern observed in the outer integument is very similar to that of Arabidopsis thaliana, while the expression in the inner integument and nucellus is not observed in A. thaliana.

  2. Identification and Characterisation of the Murine Homologue of the Gene Responsible for Cystinosis, Ctns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poras Isabelle

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by an intralysosomal accumulation of cystine, and affected individuals progress to end-stage renal failure before the age of ten. The causative gene, CTNS, was cloned in 1998 and the encoded protein, cystinosin, was predicted to be a lysosomal membrane protein. Results We have cloned the murine homologue of CTNS, Ctns, and the encoded amino acid sequence is 92.6% similar to cystinosin. We localised Ctns to mouse chromosome 11 in a region syntenic to human chromosome 17 containing CTNS. Ctns is widely expressed in all tissues tested with the exception of skeletal muscle, in contrast to CTNS. Conclusions We have isolated, characterised and localised Ctns, the murine homologue of CTNS underlying cystinosis. Furthermore, our work has brought to light the existence of a differential pattern of expression between the human and murine homologues, providing critical information for the generation of a mouse model for cystinosis.

  3. Solid-Phase Synthesis of Amine/Carboxyl Substituted Prolines and Proline Homologues: Scope and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ziniu; Scott, William L; O'Donnell, Martin J

    2016-03-15

    A solid-phase procedure is used to synthesize racemic peptidomimetics based on the fundamental peptide unit. The peptidomimetics are constructed around proline or proline homologues variably substituted at the amine and carbonyl sites. The procedure expands the diversity of substituted peptidomimetic molecules available to the Distributed Drug Discovery (D3) project. Using a BAL-based solid-phase synthetic sequence the proline or proline homologue subunit is both constructed and incorporated into the peptidomimetic by an α-alkylation, hydrolysis and intramolecular cyclization sequence. Further transformations on solid-phase provide access to a variety of piperazine derivatives representing a class of molecules known to exhibit central nervous system activity. The procedure works well with proline cores, but with larger six- and seven-membered ring homologues the nature of the carboxylic acid acylating the cyclic amine can lead to side reactions and result in poor overall yields.

  4. Peptidoglycan inducible expression of a serine proteinase homologue from kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanachai, Achara; Hirono, Ikuo; Ohira, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yukinori; Aoki, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a serine proteinase homologue of kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) was cloned. The 1257 bp cDNA encodes a 339 amino acid putative peptide, with a signal sequence of 16 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence is 42-67% similar to the immune-related serine proteinases and serine proteinase homologues of arthropods. It contains catalytic triad residues in the putative catalytic domain except for one substitution of Ser by a Gly residue. The six cysteine residues that form three disulphide bridges in most serine proteinases were conserved. The M. japonicus serine proteinase homologue was mainly expressed in haemocytes, in which expression dramatically increased after 3 days feeding with peptidoglycan at 0.2 mg kg(-1) shrimp body weight per day.

  5. CRIP homologues maintain apical cytoskeleton to regulate tubule size in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiangyan; Buechner, Matthew

    2008-05-01

    Maintenance of the shape and diameter of biological tubules is a critical task in the development and physiology of all metazoan organisms. We have cloned the exc-9 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans, which regulates the diameter of the single-cell excretory canal tubules. exc-9 encodes a homologue of the highly expressed mammalian intestinal LIM-domain protein CRIP, whose function has not previously been determined. A second well-conserved CRIP homologue functions in multiple valves of C. elegans. EXC-9 shows genetic interactions with other EXC proteins, including the EXC-5 guanine exchange factor that regulates CDC-42 activity. EXC-9 and its nematode homologue act in polarized epithelial cells that must maintain great flexibility at their apical surface; our results suggest that CRIPs function to maintain cytoskeletal flexibility at the apical surface.

  6. CRIP Homologues Maintain Apical Cytoskeleton to Regulate Tubule Size in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Xiangyan; Buechner, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Maintenance of the shape and diameter of biological tubules is a critical task in the development and physiology of all metazoan organisms. We have cloned the exc-9 gene of C. elegans, which regulates the diameter of the single-cell excretory canal tubules. exc-9 encodes a homologue of the highly expressed mammalian intestinal LIM-domain protein CRIP, whose function has not previously been determined. A second well-conserved CRIP homologue functions in multiple valves of C. elegans. EXC-9 sho...

  7. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  8. Parameters Affecting Hydrogen Chloride Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    contain sea salt, which is hygroscopic because of the magnesium chloride present, or ammonium bisulfate , which mostly comes from sulfur pollution and is...boosters release hydrogen chloride as a combustion product, and hydrazines or nitric acid can be spilled from liquid fuel motors. Monitoring the...solubility constant, and the second is the acid ionization constant. From experimental work, the product of the two constants is well established (Reference

  9. Chloride channels in stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Dayue Darrel DUAN

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles,including proliferation,migration,and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs),is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain,ie,stroke.Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Clˉ) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke.At least three Clˉ channel genes are expressed in VSMCs:1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1),which may encode the calcium-activated Clˉ channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Clˉ channel and Clˉ/H+ antiporter,which is closely related to the volume-regulated Clˉ channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR),which encodes the PKA-and PKC-activated Clˉ channels.Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization,vasoconstriction,and inhibition of VSMC proliferation.Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species,induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs.Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension.In addition,Clˉ current mediated by gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death.This review focuses on the functional roles of Clˉ channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Clˉ channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  11. Strboh A homologue of NADPH oxidase regulates wound-induced oxidative burst and facilitates wound-healing in potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G N Mohan; Iyer, Suresh; Knowles, N Richard

    2007-12-01

    During 30-months of storage at 4 degrees C, potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers progressively lose the ability to produce superoxide in response to wounding, resist microbial infection, and develop a suberized wound periderm. Using differentially aged tubers, we demonstrate that Strboh A is responsible for the wound-induced oxidative burst in potato and aging attenuates its expression. In vivo superoxide production and NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity from 1-month-old tubers increased to a maximum 18-24 h after wounding and then decreased to barely detectable levels by 72 h. Wounding also induced a 68% increase in microsomal protein within 18 h. These wound-induced responses were lost over a 25- to 30-month storage period. Superoxide production and NOX activity were inhibited by diphenylene iodonium chloride, a specific inhibitor of NOX, which in turn effectively inhibited wound-healing and increased susceptibility to microbial infection and decay in 1-month-old tubers. Wound-induced superoxide production was also inhibited by EGTA-mediated destabilization of membranes. The ability to restore superoxide production to EGTA-treated tissue with Ca(+2) declined with advancing tuber age, likely a consequence of age-related changes in membrane architecture. Of the five homologues of NOX (Strboh A-D and F), wounding induced the expression of Strboh A in 6-month-old tubers but this response was absent in tubers stored for 25-30 months. Strboh A thus mediates the initial burst of superoxide in response to wounding of potato tubers; loss of its expression increases the susceptibility to microbial infection and contributes to the age-induced loss of wound-healing ability.

  12. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and...

  13. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.65 Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene...

  14. Structure of HLA-A*1101 in complex with a hepatitis B peptide homologue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, Thomas; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm; Pedersen, Lars Østergaard

    2006-01-01

    A high-resolution structure of the human MHC-I molecule HLA-A*1101 is presented in which it forms a complex with a sequence homologue of a peptide that occurs naturally in hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase. The sequence of the bound peptide is AIMPARFYPK, while that of the corresponding natural...

  15. The Retention Behaviors of Benzene and Its Alkyl Homologues in Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The retention behaviors of benzene and its alkyl homologues in microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography were investigated in both anionic and cationic surfactant MEEKC systems. The effects of the composition of microemulsion on retention time and selectivity were studied. A good linear relationship was obtained between log k' and the carbon number of alkyl chain.

  16. Congenital sideroblastic anemia due to mutations in the mitochondrial HSP70 homologue HSPA9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz-Abe, Klaus; Ciesielski, Szymon J; Schmidt, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    The congenital sideroblastic anemias (CSAs) are relatively uncommon diseases, characterized by defects in mitochondrial heme synthesis, iron-sulfur cluster (Fe-S) biogenesis, or protein synthesis. Here we demonstrate that mutations in HSPA9, a mitochondrial HSP70 homologue located in the 5q...

  17. Identification and cloning of a sequence homologue of dopamine β-hydroxylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambers, Kaylene J.; Tonkin, Leath A.; Chang, Edwin; Shelton, Dawne N.; Linskens, Maarten H.; Funk, Walter D.

    1998-01-01

    We have identified and cloned a cDNA encoding a new member of the monooxygenase family of enzymes. This novel enzyme, which we call MOX (monooxygenase X; unknown substrate) is a clear sequence homologue of the enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH). MOX maintains many of the structural features of DBH,

  18. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used...... as the cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after...... a period of time, i.e. remove the chlorides before the chloride front reaches the reinforcement. If the chlorides are removed from outer few centimetres from the surface, the chloride will not reach the reinforcement and cause damage. By using the electrochemical chloride removal in this preventive way...

  19. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell

    2007-04-01

    In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to enhance intestinal fluid secretion, which increases GI transit and improves symptoms of constipation. This article reviews the role of chloride channels in the GI tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses clinically important data on this new medication.

  20. [Headspace GC/MS analysis of residual vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride in polyvinyl chloride and polyvinylidene chloride products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Suzuki, Masako; Aoyama, Taiki

    2005-02-01

    A headspace GC/MS analysis method for the simultaneous determination of residual vinyl chloride (VC) and vinylidene chloride (VDC) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) products was developed. A test sample was swelled overnight with N,N-dimethylacetamide in a sealed vial. The vial was incubated for 1 hour at 90 degrees C, then the headspace gas was analyzed by GC/MS using a PLOT capillary column. The recoveries from spiked PVC and PVDC samples were 90.0-112.3% for VC and 85.2-108.3% for VDC. The determination limits were 0.01 microg/g for VC and 0.06/microg/g for VDC, respectively. By this method, VC was detected in two PVC water supply pipes at the levels of 0.61 and 0.01 microg/g. On the other hand, VC and VDC were not detected in any of the food container-packages or toys tested.

  1. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  2. Chloride : The queen of electrolytes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general d

  3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2): comparative modeling of the active site, specificity requirements, and chloride dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Jodie L; Jackson, Richard M; Acharya, K Ravi; Sturrock, Edward D; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J

    2003-11-18

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a homologue of ACE, represents a new and potentially important target in cardio-renal disease. A model of the active site of ACE2, based on the crystal structure of testicular ACE, has been developed and indicates that the catalytic mechanism of ACE2 resembles that of ACE. Structural differences exist between the active site of ACE (dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase) and ACE2 (carboxypeptidase) that are responsible for the differences in specificity. The main differences occur in the ligand-binding pockets, particularly at the S2' subsite and in the binding of the peptide carboxy-terminus. The model explains why the classical ACE inhibitor lisinopril is unable to bind to ACE2. On the basis of the ability of ACE2 to cleave a variety of biologically active peptides, a consensus sequence of Pro-X-Pro-hydrophobic/basic for the protease specificity of ACE2 has been defined that is supported by the ACE2 model. The dipeptide, Pro-Phe, completely inhibits ACE2 activity at 180 microM with angiotensin II as the substrate. As with ACE, the chloride dependence of ACE2 is substrate-specific such that the hydrolysis of angiotensin I and the synthetic peptide substrate, Mca-APK(Dnp), are activated in the presence of chloride ions, whereas the cleavage of angiotensin II is inhibited. The ACE2 model is also suggestive of a possible mechanism for chloride activation. The structural insights provided by these analyses for the differences in inhibition pattern and substrate specificity among ACE and its homologue ACE2 and for the chloride dependence of ACE/ACE2 activity are valuable in understanding the function and regulation of ACE2.

  4. Natural replacement of vertically inherited lux-rib genes of Photobacterium aquimaris by horizontally acquired homologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanczyk, Henryk; Furukawa, Takashi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Dunlap, Paul V

    2012-08-01

    We report here the first instance of a complete replacement of vertically inherited luminescence genes by horizontally acquired homologues. Different strains of Photobacterium aquimaris contain homologues of the lux-rib genes that have a different evolutionary history. Strain BS1 from the Black Sea contains a vertically inherited lux-rib operon, which presumably arose in the ancestor of this species, whereas the type strain NBRC 104633(T) , from Sagami Bay, lacks the vertically inherited lux-rib operon and instead carries a complete and functional lux-rib operon acquired horizontally from a bacterium related to Photobacterium mandapamensis. The results indicate that the horizontal acquisition of the lux genes expanded the pan-genome of P. aquimaris, but it did not influence the phylogenetic divergence of this species.

  5. Formation of Benzyl Carbanion in Collision-Induced Dissociation of Deprotonated Phenylalanine Homologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Kanako; Matsuda, Natsuki; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    The fragmentation behavior of deprotonated L-phenylalanine (Phe) and its homologues including L-homophenylalanine (HPA) and L-phenylglycine (PG) was investigated using collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry coupled with a negative ion atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI) technique. The deprotonated molecules [M-H](-) fragmented to lose unique neutral species, e.g., the loss of NH3, CO2, toluene and iminoglycine for [Phe-H](-); styrene and ethenamine/CO2 for [HPA-H](-); and CO2 for [PG-H](-). All of the fragmentations observed are attributable to the formation of intermediates and/or product ions which include benzyl carbanions having resonance-stabilized structures. The carbanions are formed via proton rearrangement through a transition state or via a simple dissociation reaction. These results suggest that the principal factor governing the fragmentation behavior of deprotonated Phe homologues is the stability of the intermediate and/or product ion structures.

  6. C21orf57 is a human homologue of bacterial YbeY proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Anubrata; Köhrer, Caroline; Babu, Vignesh M P; Yamanaka, Kinrin; Davies, Bryan W; Jacob, Asha I; Ferullo, Daniel J; Gruber, Charley C; Vercruysse, Maarten; Walker, Graham C

    2017-03-11

    The product of the human C21orf57 (huYBEY) gene is predicted to be a homologue of the highly conserved YbeY proteins found in nearly all bacteria. We show that, like its bacterial and chloroplast counterparts, the HuYbeY protein is an RNase and that it retains sufficient function in common with bacterial YbeY proteins to partially suppress numerous aspects of the complex phenotype of an Escherichia coli ΔybeY mutant. Expression of HuYbeY in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which lacks a YbeY homologue, results in a severe growth phenotype. This observation suggests that the function of HuYbeY in human cells is likely regulated through specific interactions with partner proteins similarly to the way YbeY is regulated in bacteria.

  7. Rabbit muscle creatine phosphokinase. CDNA cloning, primary structure and detection of human homologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putney, S; Herlihy, W; Royal, N; Pang, H; Aposhian, H V; Pickering, L; Belagaje, R; Biemann, K; Page, D; Kuby, S

    1984-12-10

    A cDNA library was constructed from rabbit muscle poly(A) RNA. Limited amino acid sequence information was obtained on rabbit muscle creatine phosphokinase and this was the basis for design and synthesis of two oligonucleotide probes complementary to a creatine kinase cDNA sequence which encodes a pentapeptide. Colony hybridizations with the probes and subsequent steps led to isolation of two clones, whose cDNA segments partially overlap and which together encode the entire protein. The primary structure was established from the sequence of two cDNA clones and from independently determined sequences of scattered portions of the polypeptide. The reactive cysteine has been located to position 282 within the 380 amino acid polypeptide. The rabbit cDNA hybridizes to digests of human chromosomal DNA. This reveals a restriction fragment length polymorphism associated with the human homologue(s) which hybridizes to the rabbit cDNA.

  8. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No... Nutrition's Library, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, or...

  9. Progress of Carbonation in Chloride Contaminated Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yaocheng; Basheer, P. A.M.; Nanukuttan, S; Bai, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Concretes used in marine environment are generally under the cyclic effect of CO2 and chloride ions (Cl-). To date, the influence of carbonation on ingress of chloride ions in concretes has been widely studied; in comparison, study on the influence of Cl- on the progress of carbonation is limited. During the study, concretes were exposed to independent and combined mechanisms of carbonation and chloride ingress regimes. Profiles of apparent pH and chloride concentration were used to indicate ...

  10. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  11. Homologue of mammalian apolipoprotein A-Ⅱ in non-mammalian vertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malay Choudhury; Shoji Yamada; Masaharu Komatsu; Hideki Kishimura; Seiichi Ando

    2009-01-01

    Although apolipoprotein with molecular weight 14 kDa (apo-14 kDa) is associated with fish plasma highdensity lipoproteins(HDLs),it remains to be determined whether apo-14 kDa is the homologue of mammalian apoA-Ⅱ.We have obtained the full cDNA sequences that encode Japanese eel and rainbow trout apo-14 kDa.Homologues of Japanese eel apo-14 kDa sequence could be found in 14 fish species deposited in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank or TGI database.Fish apo14 kDa lacks propeptide and contains more internal repeats than mammalian apoA-Ⅱ.Nevertheless,phylogenetic analysis allowed fish apo-14 kDa to be the homologue of mammalian apoA-Ⅱ.In addition,in silico cloning of the TGI,Ensembl,or NCBI database revealed apoA-Ⅱs in dog,chicken,green anole lizard,and African clawed frog whose sequences had not so far been available,suggesting both apoA-Ⅰ and apoA-Ⅱas fundamental constituents of vertebrate HDLs.

  12. [Homologue pairing: initiation sites and effects on crossing over and chromosome disjunction in Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubykin, V L

    1996-01-01

    The role of homologue pairing and chromocentral association of chromosomes in recombination and segregation during cell division is discussed. Peculiarities of mitotic and meiotic chromosome pairing in Drosophila males and females are considered. On the basis of our own and published data, the presence and localization of sites of homologue pairing initiation in euchromatin are substantiated. The effects of transfer of initiation sites along a chromosome (exemplified by inversions) on chromosome pairing (asynapsis), crossing over (intrachromosomal, interchromosomal, and centromeric effects), and segregation are discussed. To record the effects of pairing sites on crossing over, a method of comparing crossing-over frequencies in an inverted region with those in a region of the same size and position with regard to the centromere on cytological maps was proposed. Chromosomes orient toward opposite division poles during paracentromeric heterochromatin pairing. This occurs after successful euchromatin pairing, during which the chromocentral circular structure is reorganized. If heterochromatin pairing is disrupted because of structural or locus mutations, nonexchange bivalents segregate randomly. In this case, chromosome coordination may occur due to proximal chiasmata or chromocentral associations between homologues.

  13. Arabidopsis thaliana CENTRORADIALIS homologue (ATC) acts systemically to inhibit floral initiation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nien-Chen; Jane, Wann-Neng; Chen, Jychian; Yu, Tien-Shin

    2012-10-01

    Floral initiation is orchestrated by systemic floral activators and inhibitors. This remote-control system may integrate environmental cues to modulate floral initiation. Recently, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) was found to be a florigen. However, the identity of systemic floral inhibitor or anti-florigen remains to be elucidated. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana CENTRORADIALIS homologue (ATC), an Arabidopsis FT homologue, may act in a non-cell autonomous manner to inhibit floral initiation. Analysis of the ATC null mutant revealed that ATC is a short-day-induced floral inhibitor. Cell type-specific expression showed that companion cells and apex that express ATC are sufficient to inhibit floral initiation. Histochemical analysis showed that the promoter activity of ATC was mainly found in vasculature but under the detection limit in apex, a finding that suggests that ATC may move from the vasculature to the apex to influence flowering. Consistent with this notion, Arabidopsis seedling grafting experiments demonstrated that ATC moved over a long distance and that floral inhibition by ATC is graft transmissible. ATC probably antagonizes FT activity, because both ATC and FT interact with FD and affect the same downstream meristem identity genes APETALA1, in an opposite manner. Thus, photoperiodic variations may trigger functionally opposite FT homologues to systemically influence floral initiation.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O,...

  15. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test KidsHealth > For Parents > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test Print A A A ... It Is A chloride sweat test helps diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF) , an inherited disorder that makes kids sick ...

  16. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the...

  17. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... chloride from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full review... revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead...

  18. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  19. Functional characterization of Aspergillus nidulans ypkA, a homologue of the mammalian kinase SGK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colabardini, Ana Cristina; Brown, Neil Andrew; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    The serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinase (SGK) is an AGC kinase involved in signal cascades regulated by glucocorticoid hormones and serum in mammals. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ypk1 and ypk2 genes were identified as SGK homologues and Ypk1 was shown to regulate the balance of sphingolipids between the inner and outer plasma membrane. This investigation characterized the Aspergillus nidulans YPK1 homologue, YpkA, representing the first filamentous fungal YPK1 homologue. Two conditional mutant strains were constructed by replacing the endogenous ypk1 promoter with two different regulatable promoters, alcA (from the alcohol dehydrogenase gene) and niiA (from the nitrate reductase gene). Both constructs confirmed that ypkA was an essential gene in A. nidulans. Repression of ypkA caused decreased radial growth, a delay in conidial germination, deficient polar axis establishment, intense branching during late stages of growth, a lack of asexual spores, and a terminal phenotype. Membrane lipid polarization, endocytosis, eisosomes and vacuolar distribution were also affected by ypkA repression, suggesting that YpkA plays a role in hyphal morphogenesis via coordinating the delivery of cell membrane and wall constituents to the hyphal apex. The A. nidulans Pkh1 homologue pkhA was also shown to be an essential gene, and preliminary genetic analysis suggested that the ypkA gene is not directly downstream of pkhA or epistatic to pkhA, rather, ypkA and pkhA are genetically independent or in parallel. BarA is a homologue of the yeast Lag1 acyl-CoA-dependent ceramide synthase, which catalyzes the condensation of phytosphingosine with a fatty acyl-CoA to form phytoceramide. When barA was absent, ypkA repression was lethal to the cell. Therefore, there appears to be a genetic interaction between ypkA, barA, and the sphingolipid synthesis. Transcriptional profiling of ypkA overexpression and down-regulation revealed several putative YpkA targets associated with the

  20. Functional Characterization of Aspergillus nidulans ypkA, a Homologue of the Mammalian Kinase SGK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colabardini, Ana Cristina; Brown, Neil Andrew; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    The serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinase (SGK) is an AGC kinase involved in signal cascades regulated by glucocorticoid hormones and serum in mammals. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ypk1 and ypk2 genes were identified as SGK homologues and Ypk1 was shown to regulate the balance of sphingolipids between the inner and outer plasma membrane. This investigation characterized the Aspergillus nidulans YPK1 homologue, YpkA, representing the first filamentous fungal YPK1 homologue. Two conditional mutant strains were constructed by replacing the endogenous ypk1 promoter with two different regulatable promoters, alcA (from the alcohol dehydrogenase gene) and niiA (from the nitrate reductase gene). Both constructs confirmed that ypkA was an essential gene in A. nidulans. Repression of ypkA caused decreased radial growth, a delay in conidial germination, deficient polar axis establishment, intense branching during late stages of growth, a lack of asexual spores, and a terminal phenotype. Membrane lipid polarization, endocytosis, eisosomes and vacuolar distribution were also affected by ypkA repression, suggesting that YpkA plays a role in hyphal morphogenesis via coordinating the delivery of cell membrane and wall constituents to the hyphal apex. The A. nidulans Pkh1 homologue pkhA was also shown to be an essential gene, and preliminary genetic analysis suggested that the ypkA gene is not directly downstream of pkhA or epistatic to pkhA, rather, ypkA and pkhA are genetically independent or in parallel. BarA is a homologue of the yeast Lag1 acyl-CoA-dependent ceramide synthase, which catalyzes the condensation of phytosphingosine with a fatty acyl-CoA to form phytoceramide. When barA was absent, ypkA repression was lethal to the cell. Therefore, there appears to be a genetic interaction between ypkA, barA, and the sphingolipid synthesis. Transcriptional profiling of ypkA overexpression and down-regulation revealed several putative YpkA targets associated with the

  1. Functional characterization of Aspergillus nidulans ypkA, a homologue of the mammalian kinase SGK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Colabardini

    Full Text Available The serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinase (SGK is an AGC kinase involved in signal cascades regulated by glucocorticoid hormones and serum in mammals. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ypk1 and ypk2 genes were identified as SGK homologues and Ypk1 was shown to regulate the balance of sphingolipids between the inner and outer plasma membrane. This investigation characterized the Aspergillus nidulans YPK1 homologue, YpkA, representing the first filamentous fungal YPK1 homologue. Two conditional mutant strains were constructed by replacing the endogenous ypk1 promoter with two different regulatable promoters, alcA (from the alcohol dehydrogenase gene and niiA (from the nitrate reductase gene. Both constructs confirmed that ypkA was an essential gene in A. nidulans. Repression of ypkA caused decreased radial growth, a delay in conidial germination, deficient polar axis establishment, intense branching during late stages of growth, a lack of asexual spores, and a terminal phenotype. Membrane lipid polarization, endocytosis, eisosomes and vacuolar distribution were also affected by ypkA repression, suggesting that YpkA plays a role in hyphal morphogenesis via coordinating the delivery of cell membrane and wall constituents to the hyphal apex. The A. nidulans Pkh1 homologue pkhA was also shown to be an essential gene, and preliminary genetic analysis suggested that the ypkA gene is not directly downstream of pkhA or epistatic to pkhA, rather, ypkA and pkhA are genetically independent or in parallel. BarA is a homologue of the yeast Lag1 acyl-CoA-dependent ceramide synthase, which catalyzes the condensation of phytosphingosine with a fatty acyl-CoA to form phytoceramide. When barA was absent, ypkA repression was lethal to the cell. Therefore, there appears to be a genetic interaction between ypkA, barA, and the sphingolipid synthesis. Transcriptional profiling of ypkA overexpression and down-regulation revealed several putative YpkA targets

  2. Oxomemazine hydro­chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Mehmet Akkurt; Yathirajan, H.S.; Ramesh, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxophenothiazin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethylpropanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+·Cl−, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothiazine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds and C—H...π interactions.

  3. Shock compression of polyvinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents shock compression simulation of atactic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics. The manuscript also identifies the limits of applicability of classical molecular dynamics based shock compression simulation for PVC. The mechanism of bond dissociation under shock loading and its progression is demonstrated in this manuscript using the density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The rate of dissociation of different bonds at different shock velocities is also presented in this manuscript.

  4. Developing chloride resisting concrete using PFA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhir, R.K.; El-Mohr, M.A.K.; Dyer, T.D. [Univ. of Dundee (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-11-01

    PFA concrete mixes were designed to optimize resistance to chloride ingress. Chloride binding capacity, intrinsic permeability and their concomitant influence on the coefficient of chloride diffusion have been investigated. PFA replacements up to 67% and exposure concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mole/liter were used. Chloride binding capacity was found to increase with increasing PFA replacement up to 50% and to then decline. It increased with chloride exposure concentration as well as water/binder ratio. The coefficient of chloride diffusion of concrete samples was found to be dependent on both the intrinsic permeability of the concrete and the ability of its cement matrix to bind chlorides.

  5. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense.

  6. Hydrolysis of cupric chloride in aqueous ammoniacal ammonium chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limpo, J. L.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Cupric solubility in the CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O system for chloride concentrations lower than 4 molal in the temperature range 25-60 °C was studied. The experimental results show that for chloride concentration between 3.0 and 1.0 molal the cupric solubility is determined by the solubility of the cupric hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. For a chloride concentration value of 4.0 molal, there are two cupric compounds, the hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 or the diammine chloride Cu(NH32Cl2, on which the solubility of Cu(II depends, according to the temperature and the value of the ratio [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total.

    Se estudia la solubilidad del Cu(II en el sistema CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O para concentraciones de cloruro inferiores a 4 molal en el intervalo de temperaturas 25-60 °C. Los resultados experimentales muestran que, para concentraciones de cloruros comprendidas entre 3,0 y 1,0 molal, la solubilidad cúprica viene determinada por la solubilidad del hidroxicloruro cúprico, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. Para concentraciones de cloruro 4,0 molal, existen dos compuestos cúpricos, el hidroxicloruro, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 o el cloruro de diamina, Cu(NH32Cl2, de los que, de acuerdo con la temperatura y con el valor de la relación [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total depende la solubilidad del Cu(II.

  7. Vaccination against Bm86 Homologues in Rabbits Does Not Impair Ixodes ricinus Feeding or Oviposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Coumou

    Full Text Available Human tick-borne diseases that are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, such as Lyme borreliosis and tick borne encephalitis, are on the rise in Europe. Diminishing I. ricinus populations in nature can reduce tick exposure to humans, and one way to do so is by developing an anti-vector vaccine against tick antigens. Currently, there is only one anti-vector vaccine available against ticks, which is a veterinary vaccine based on the tick antigen Bm86 in the gut of Rhipicephalus microplus. Bm86 vaccine formulations cause a reduction in the number of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks that successfully feed, i.e. lower engorgement weights and a decrease in the number of oviposited eggs. Furthermore, Bm86 vaccines reduce transmission of bovine Babesia spp. Previously two conserved Bm86 homologues in I. ricinus ticks, designated as Ir86-1 and Ir86-2, were described. Here we investigated the effect of a vaccine against recombinant Ir86-1, Ir86-2 or a combination of both on Ixodes ricinus feeding. Recombinant Ixodes ricinus Bm86 homologues were expressed in a Drosophila expression system and rabbits were immunized with rIr86-1, rIr86-2, a combination of both or ovalbumin as a control. Each animal was infested with 50 female adults and 50 male adults Ixodes ricinus and tick mortality, engorgement weights and egg mass were analyzed. Although serum IgG titers against rIr86 proteins were elicited, no effect was found on tick feeding between the rIr86 vaccinated animals and ovalbumin vaccinated animals. We conclude that vaccination against Bm86 homologues in Ixodes ricinus is not an effective approach to control Ixodes ricinus populations, despite the clear effects of Bm86 vaccination against Rhipicephalus microplus.

  8. Knockdown of the putative Lifeguard homologue CG3814 in neurons of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Angale, P G; Staveley, B E

    2016-12-19

    Lifeguard is an integral transmembrane protein that modulates FasL-mediated apoptosis by interfering with the activation of caspase 8. It is evolutionarily conserved, with homologues present in plants, nematodes, zebra fish, frog, chicken, mouse, monkey, and human. The Lifeguard homologue in Drosophila, CG3814, contains the Bax inhibitor-1 family motif of unknown function. Downregulation of Lifeguard disrupts cellular homeostasis and disease by sensitizing neurons to FasL-mediated apoptosis. We used bioinformatic analyses to identify CG3814, a putative homologue of Lifeguard, and knocked down CG3814/LFG expression under the control of the Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc-Gal4) transgene in Drosophila melanogaster neurons to investigate whether it possesses neuroprotective activity. Knockdown of CG3814/LFG in Ddc-Gal4-expressing neurons resulted in a shortened lifespan and impaired locomotor ability, phenotypes that are strongly associated with the degeneration and loss of dopaminergic neurons. Lifeguard interacts with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and possibly pro-apoptotic proteins to exert its neuroprotective function. The co-expression of Buffy, the sole anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene family member in Drosophila, and CG3814/LFG by stable inducible RNA interference, suppresses the shortened lifespan and the premature age-dependent loss in climbing ability. Suppression of CG3814/LFG in the Drosophila eye reduces the number of ommatidia and increases disruption of the ommatidial array. Overexpression of Buffy, along with the knockdown of CG3814/LFG, counteracts the eye phenotypes. Knockdown of CG3814/LFG in Ddc-Gal4-expressing neurons in Drosophila diminishes its neuroprotective ability and results in a shortened lifespan and loss of climbing ability, phenotypes that are improved upon overexpression of the pro-survival Buffy.

  9. The TFL1 homologue KSN is a regulator of continuous flowering in rose and strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hikaru; Gaston, Amèlia; Remay, Arnaud; Thouroude, Tatiana; Jeauffre, Julien; Kawamura, Koji; Oyant, Laurence Hibrand-Saint; Araki, Takashi; Denoyes, Béatrice; Foucher, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Flowering is a key event in plant life, and is finely tuned by environmental and endogenous signals to adapt to different environments. In horticulture, continuous flowering (CF) is a popular trait introduced in a wide range of cultivated varieties. It played an essential role in the tremendous success of modern roses and woodland strawberries in gardens. CF genotypes flower during all favourable seasons, whereas once-flowering (OF) genotypes only flower in spring. Here we show that in rose and strawberry continuous flowering is controlled by orthologous genes of the TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) family. In rose, six independent pairs of CF/OF mutants differ in the presence of a retrotransposon in the second intron of the TFL1 homologue. Because of an insertion of the retrotransposon, transcription of the gene is blocked in CF roses and the absence of the floral repressor provokes continuous blooming. In OF-climbing mutants, the retrotransposon has recombined to give an allele bearing only the long terminal repeat element, thus restoring a functional allele. In OF roses, seasonal regulation of the TFL1 homologue may explain the seasonal flowering, with low expression in spring to allow the first bloom. In woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca, a 2-bp deletion in the coding region of the TFL1 homologue introduces a frame shift and is responsible for CF behaviour. A diversity analysis has revealed that this deletion is always associated with the CF phenotype. Our results demonstrate a new role of TFL1 in perennial plants in maintaining vegetative growth and modifying flowering seasonality.

  10. Plasmodium falciparum Histone Acetyltransferase, a Yeast GCN5 Homologue Involved in Chromatin Remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiFan; LijiaAn; LiwangCui

    2005-01-01

    The yeast transcriptional coactivator GCN5 (yGCN5), a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), is part of large multimeric complexes that are required for chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activation. Like other eukaryotes, the malaria parasite DNA is organized into nucleosomes and the genome encodes components of chromatin-remodeling complexes. Here we show that GCN5 is conserved in Plasmodium species and that the most homologous regions are within the HAT domain and the bromodomain. The Plasmodiumfalclparum GCN5 homologue (PfGCN5) is spliced with three introns, encoding a protein of 1,464 residues. Mapping of the ends of the PfGCN5 transcript suggests that the mRNA is 5.2 to 5.4 kb, consistent with the result from Northern analysis. Using free core histones, we determined that recombinant PfGCN5 proteins have conserved HAT activity with a substrate preference for histone H3. Using substrate-specific antibodies, we determined that both Lys-8 and -14 of H3 were acetylated by the recombinant PfGCN5. In eukaryotes, GCN5 homologues interact with yeast ADA2 homologues and form large multiprotein HAT complexes. We have identified an ADA2 homologue in P. falciparum, PfADA2. Yeast two-hybrid and in vitro binding assays verified the interactions between PfGCN5 and PfADA2, suggesting that they may be associated with each other in vivo. The conserved function of the HAT domain in PfGCN5 was further illustrated with yeast complementation experiments, which showed that the PfGCN5 region corresponding to the full-length yGCN5 could partially complement the yGCN5 deletion mutation. Furthermore, a chimera comprising the PfGCN5 HAT domain fused to the remainder of yeast GCN5 (yGCN5) fully rescued the yGCN5 deletion mutant. These data demonstrate that PfGCN5 is an authentic GCN5 family member and may exist in chromatin-remodeling complexes to regulate gene expression in P. falciparum.

  11. Molecular Cloning of a Novel Bovine Homologue of the Drosophila Tumor Suppressor Gene, Lats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Pervious studies demonstrate that lats, also known as warts, is a tumor suppressor gene in Drosophila[1,2]. Mutations of lats lead to an increase in cell number and organ size in Drosophila, indicating lats may be involved in organ size control. Furthermore, the high conservation of sequence and tumor suppression function of lats between Drosophila and human suggests that it may be also involved in organ size control of higher animals[3]. So here we isolated the bovine homologue of Drosophila lats. Sequence analysis indicates the bovine LATS1 to be very similar to other lats proteins.

  12. Oxomemazine hydro­chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H. S.; Ramesh, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxo­phen­othia­zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl­propanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+·Cl−, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia­zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22090928

  13. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  14. Chloride Ion Critical Content in Reinforced Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chloride ion critical content was studied under soaking and cycle of dry and wet conditions,with three electrochemical nondestructive measuring techniques, i e, half-cell potential, A C impedance, and time potential. The experimental results show that chloride ion critical content is primarily determined by the water cement ratio, while for the same concrete mixture the chloride ion critical content in soaking conditions is larger than that in a cycle of dry and wet conditions.

  15. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...... have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion...

  16. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, O.M.; Hansen, P.F.; Coats, A.M.; Glasser, F.P.

    1999-09-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature). The measurements are modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect diffusion rates.

  17. Green process to recover magnesium chloride from residue solution of potassium chloride production plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin WANG; Yunliang HE; Yanfei WANG; Ying BAO; Jingkang WANG

    2008-01-01

    The green process to recover magnesium chlor-ide from the residue solution of a potassium chloride pro-duction plant, which comes from the leach solution of a potash mine in Laos, is designed and optimized. The res-idue solution contains magnesium chloride above 25 wt-%, potassium chloride and sodium chloride together below 5 wt-% and a few other ions such as Br-, SO2-4and Ca2+. The recovery process contains two steps: the previous impurity removal operation and the two-stage evapora-tion-cooling crystallization procedure to produce magnes-ium chloride. The crystallized impurity carnallite obtained from the first step is recycled to the potassium chloride plant to recover the potassium salt. The developed process is a zero discharge one and thus fulfills the requirements for green chemical industrial production. The produced magnesium chloride is up to industrial criteria.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl chloride (VC monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.

  19. Cloning of rat sp56, the homologue of mouse sperm ZP3 receptor-sp56

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Mouse sp56 is considered as one of the candidates for mouse zona pellucida 3 (mZP3) receptor. Up to date, its homologue has only been cloned from guinea pig, namely AM67. Based on the cDNA sequence of mouse sp56, we designed a pair of primer to amplify its homologue from rat testis cDNA. Using RT-PCR,two fragments of 743 bp and 938 bp were amplified. The PCR products show very high homology to mouse sp56. However, the 743 bp product completely lacks one of the seven Sushi domains of mouse sp56. Using the 743 bp product as the probe to detect the expression profile of sp56 in rat tissues, Northern blot shows that a ~2.0 kb mRNA expresses specifically in testis. Employed the RACE method, two full cDNA sequences of rat sp56 were obtained. A Mr ~42 KD band was detected in denatured and non-reducing protein sample of rat testis and sperm with anti-mouse sp56 monoclonal antibody by Western blot method. Rat sp56was localized on rat sperm head by the indirect immunofiuorescence method. Rat sp56 immunoreactivitywas detected from the early pachytene spermatocytes and throughout the spermatogenesis. Its cloning willfurther our understanding of the mechanism of the sperm-egg recognition and binding.

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF HUMAN MURR1, THE HOMOLOGUE OF MOUSE IMPRINTED Murr1 GENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhongming; Wang Youdong; Hitomi Yatsuki; Keiichiro Joh; Tsuyoshi Iwasaka; Tsunehiro Mukai

    2006-01-01

    Objective To identify the mRNA sequence, genetic construction, imprinting status, and expression profile of human MURR1 gene, the homologue of mouse imprinted Murr1 gene. Methods The MURR1 mRNA sequence was identified by colony hybridization screening of human cDNA library and the 5'-RACE analyses; Absence of U2AF1-RS1 gene within MURR1 was confirmed by Southern Blotting; Expression profile of MURR1 was examined by Northern Blotting; The imprinting status of MURR1 were revealed by SNP investigation and RT-PCR followed by sequencings and RFLP analyses. Results The full-length mRNA sequence of MURR1 spans 711 bp, transcribed from 3 exons, encodes predicted MURR1 protein of 190 amino acids. The gene was expressed in all the 12 kinds of human adult tissues and 6 kinds of fetal tissues. It showed biallelic expression in all 32 investigated samples including 6 kinds of human fetal tissues and 8 adult brains. Unlike mouse imprinted U2af1-rs1 gene existing in the intron of Murr1, the human U2AF1-RS1 gene was not located in the MURR1 locus. Conclusion Human MURR1 gene is not imprinted and the non-imprinting is possible due to the absence of human homologue of mouse U2af1-rs1 within MURR1 locus.

  1. Heavy Atom Effect on the First Hyperpolarizabilities of Squaric Acid Homologues Studied by Ab Initio and DFT Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Wei-Wei; ZHOU Li-Xin; WAN Hua-Ping

    2004-01-01

    We have calculated the first hyperpolarizabilities of four squaric acid homologue molecules: 3,4-dithiohydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dione (OSSQ), 3,4-dithiohydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1, 2-dithione (SSSQ), 3,4-dithiohydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-diselenone (SeSSQ) and 3,4-dithiohydroxy- 3-cyclobutene-1,2-ditellurone (TeSSQ). The correlation effect was investigated at the second-order Mφller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation and density functional theory (DFT) levels. The frequency disper- sion and solvent effect were considered to compare the theoretical values with the experimental observations. Based on all of these studies, it is worthy to point out that the heavy atom effect dis- covered for furan homologues is an influence on the first hyperpolarizabilities of squaric acid homologues.

  2. Comparing polyaluminum chloride and ferric chloride for antimony removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Meea; Kamei, Tasuku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2003-10-01

    Antimony has been one of the contaminants required to be regulated, however, only limited information has been collected to date regarding antimony removal by polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FC). Accordingly, the possible use of coagulation by PACl or FC for antimony removal was investigated. Jar tests were used to determine the effects of solution pH, coagulant dosage, and pre-chlorination on the removal of various antimony species. Although high-efficiency antimony removal by aluminum coagulation has been expected because antimony is similar to arsenic in that both antimony and arsenic are a kind of metalloid in group V of the periodic chart, this study indicated: (1) removal density (arsenic or antimony removed per mg coagulant) for antimony by PACl was about one forty-fifth as low as observed for As(V); (2) although the removal of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) by coagulation with FC was much higher than that of PACl, a high coagulant dose of 10.5mg of FeL(-1) at optimal pH of 5.0 was still not sufficient to meet the standard antimony level of 2 microg as SbL(-1) for drinking water when around 6 microg as SbL(-1) were initially present. Consequently, investigation of a more appropriate treatment process is necessary to develop economical Sb reduction; (3) although previous studies concluded that As(V) is more effectively removed than As(III), this study showed that the removal of Sb(III) by coagulation with FC was much more pronounced than that of Sb(V); (4) oxidation of Sb(III) with chlorine decreased the ability of FC to remove antimony. Accordingly, natural water containing Sb(III) under anoxic condition should be coagulated without pre-oxidation.

  3. Electrochemical Behavior of Copper in Thionyl Chloride Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . Thionyl chloride is known *3 to react...electrolyte for lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . 8R. K. McAlpine and B. A. Soule, Prescott and Johnson’s Qualitative Chemical Analysis, D. Van...black carbon electrodes, cupric chloride appears to be a useful cathode additive for lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . Preliminary results2l

  4. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Y.; Graaf, de D.B.; Olthuis, W.; Berg, van den A.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference electr

  5. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  7. Chemische contaminanten in diervoeder additief Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.; Dam, ten G.

    2010-01-01

    Dit briefrapport beschrijft de resultaten van een onderzoek naar chemische contaminanten in Choline Chloride. De doelstellingen waren: 1) Inzicht te verkrijgen in het voorkomen van (gebromeerde) vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in het diervoederadditief Choline Chloride en het, op basis van de result

  8. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  9. Isolation of a cotton NADP(H oxidase homologue induced by drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEPOMUCENO ALEXANDRE LIMA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and isolate genes that are differentially expressed in four selected cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. genotypes contrasting according to their tolerance to water deficit. The genotypes studied were Siokra L-23, Stoneville 506, CS 50 and T-1521. Physiological, morphological and developmental changes that confer drought tolerance in plants must have a molecular genetic basis. To identify and isolate the genes, the mRNA Differential Display (DD technique was used. Messenger RNAs differentially expressed during water deficit were identified, isolated, cloned and sequenced. The cloned transcript A12B15-5, a NADP(H oxidase homologue, was up regulated only during the water deficit stress and only in Siokra L-23, a drought tolerant genotype. Ribonuclease protection assay confirmed that transcription.

  10. Homologue Structure of the SLAC1 Anion Channel for Closing Stomata in Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Chen; L Hu; M Punta; R Bruni; B Hillerich; B Kloss; B Rost; J Love; S Siegelbaum; W Hendrickson

    2011-12-31

    The plant SLAC1 anion channel controls turgor pressure in the aperture-defining guard cells of plant stomata, thereby regulating the exchange of water vapour and photosynthetic gases in response to environmental signals such as drought or high levels of carbon dioxide. Here we determine the crystal structure of a bacterial homologue (Haemophilus influenzae) of SLAC1 at 1.20 {angstrom} resolution, and use structure-inspired mutagenesis to analyse the conductance properties of SLAC1 channels. SLAC1 is a symmetrical trimer composed from quasi-symmetrical subunits, each having ten transmembrane helices arranged from helical hairpin pairs to form a central five-helix transmembrane pore that is gated by an extremely conserved phenylalanine residue. Conformational features indicate a mechanism for control of gating by kinase activation, and electrostatic features of the pore coupled with electrophysiological characteristics indicate that selectivity among different anions is largely a function of the energetic cost of ion dehydration.

  11. A Salmonella Typhi homologue of bacteriophage muramidases controls typhoid toxin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodak, Hélène; Galán, Jorge E

    2013-01-01

    Unlike other Salmonella, which can infect a broad range of hosts causing self-limiting infection, Salmonella Typhi is an exclusively human pathogen that causes typhoid fever, a life-threatening systemic disease. Typhoid toxin is a unique virulence factor of Salmonella Typhi, which is expressed when the bacteria are within mammalian cells. Here, we report that an N-acetyl-β-D-muramidase similar to phage endolysins encoded within the same pathogenicity islet as the toxin is required for typhoid toxin secretion. Genetic and functional analysis of TtsA revealed unique amino acids at its predicted peptidoglycan-binding domain that are essential for protein secretion and that distinguishes this protein from other homologues. We propose that TtsA defines a new protein secretion mechanism recently evolved from the machine that mediates phage release.

  12. Xenopus BTBD6 and its Drosophila homologue lute are required for neuronal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Frédéric J; Moers, Virginie; Yan, Jiekun; Souopgui, Jacob; Quan, Xiao-Jiang; De Geest, Natalie; Kricha, Sadia; Hassan, Bassem A; Bellefroid, Eric J

    2008-11-01

    BBP proteins constitute a subclass of CUL3 interacting BTB proteins whose in vivo function remains unknown. Here, we show that the Xenopus BBP gene BTBD6 and the single Drosophila homologue of mammalian BBP genes lute are strongly expressed in the developing nervous system. In Xenopus, BTBD6 expression responds positively to proneural and negatively to neurogenic gene overexpression. Knockdown of BTBD6 in Xenopus or loss of Drosophila lute result in embryos with strong defects in late neuronal markers and strongly reduced and disorganized axons while early neural development is unaffected. XBTBD6 knockdown in Xenopus also affects muscle development. Together, these data indicate that BTBD6/lute is required for proper embryogenesis and plays an essential evolutionary conserved role during neuronal development.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of a New Five and Six Membered Selenoheterocyclic Compounds Homologues of Ebselen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouslim Messali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the antioxidant activity of selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx has attracted growing attention in the biochemistry of selenium. Among molecules which mimic the structure of the active site of the enzyme, N-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazolin-3-one 1, Ebselen, exhibited useful anti-inflammatory properties. It has been extensively investigated and has undergone clinical trials as an anti-inflammatory agent. Unfortunately, Ebselen exhibits relatively poor catalytic activity, prompting attempts to design more efficacious GPx mimetics that would retain his low toxicity while manifesting improved catalytic properties. In this context, novel 1,2-benzoselenazine and 1,2-benzoselenazols, which are five and six membered homologues of Ebselen were synthesized and characterized. One structure has been proven by single crystal X-ray crystallography.

  14. Conservation of Oxidative Protein Stabilization in an Insect Homologue of Parkinsonism-Associated Protein DJ-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiusheng; Prahlad, Janani; Wilson, Mark A. (UNL)

    2012-08-21

    DJ-1 is a conserved, disease-associated protein that protects against oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in multiple organisms. Human DJ-1 contains a functionally essential cysteine residue (Cys106) whose oxidation is important for regulating protein function by an unknown mechanism. This residue is well-conserved in other DJ-1 homologues, including two (DJ-1{alpha} and DJ-1{beta}) in Drosophila melanogaster. Because D. melanogaster is a powerful model system for studying DJ-1 function, we have determined the crystal structure and impact of cysteine oxidation on Drosophila DJ-1{beta}. The structure of D. melanogaster DJ-1{beta} is similar to that of human DJ-1, although two important residues in the human protein, Met26 and His126, are not conserved in DJ-1{beta}. His126 in human DJ-1 is substituted with a tyrosine in DJ-1{beta}, and this residue is not able to compose a putative catalytic dyad with Cys106 that was proposed to be important in the human protein. The reactive cysteine in DJ-1 is oxidized readily to the cysteine-sulfinic acid in both flies and humans, and this may regulate the cytoprotective function of the protein. We show that the oxidation of this conserved cysteine residue to its sulfinate form (Cys-SO{sub 2{sup -}}) results in considerable thermal stabilization of both Drosophila DJ-1{beta} and human DJ-1. Therefore, protein stabilization is one potential mechanism by which cysteine oxidation may regulate DJ-1 function in vivo. More generally, most close DJ-1 homologues are likely stabilized by cysteine-sulfinic acid formation but destabilized by further oxidation, suggesting that they are biphasically regulated by oxidative modification.

  15. 4-Oxalocrotonate tautomerase, its homologue YwhB, and active vinylpyruvate hydratase : Synthesis and evaluation of 2-fluoro substrate analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, William H; Wang, Susan C; Stanley, Thanuja M; Czerwinski, Robert M; Almrud, Jeffrey J; Poelarends, Gerrit J; Murzin, Alexey G; Whitman, Christian P

    2004-01-01

    A series of 2-fluoro-4-alkene and 2-fluoro-4-alkyne substrate analogues were synthesized and examined as potential inhibitors of three enzymes: 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) and vinylpyruvate hydratase (VPH) from the catechol meta-fission pathway and a closely related 4-OT homologue found in B

  16. Predominant recognition of species-specific determinants of the GroES homologues from Mycobacterium leprae and M. tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chua-Intra, B.; Ivanyi, J.; Hills, A.; Thole, J.; Moreno, C.; Vordermeier, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Mycobacterium leprae and M. tuberculosis 10000 MW heat-shock protein homologues of GroES have previously been identified as major immunogens for human T cells. We used synthetic peptides to characterize the determinants recognized by murine T cells. The findings suggest that, despite 90% sequenc

  17. GTP analogue inhibits polymerization and GTPase activity of the bacterial protein FtsZ without affecting its eukaryotic homologue tubulin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Läppchen, T.; Hartog, A.F.; Pinas, V.; Koomen, G.J.; den Blaauwen, T.

    2005-01-01

    The prokaryotic tubulin homologue FtsZ plays a key role in bacterial cell division. Selective inhibitors of the GTP-dependent polymerization of FtsZ are expected to result in a new class of antibacterial agents. One of the challenges is to identify compounds which do not affect the function of tubul

  18. Isolation of Crb1, a mouse homologue of Drosophila crumbs, and analysis of its expression pattern in eye and brain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.I. den; Ghiani, M.; Kok, Y.J.M. de; Wijnholds, J.; Ballabio, A.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Broccoli, V.

    2002-01-01

    Mutations in the human Crumbs homologue 1 (CRB1) gene cause severe retinal dystrophies. CRB1 is homologous to Drosophila Crumbs, a protein essential for establishing and maintaining epithelial polarity. We have isolated the mouse orthologue, Crb1, and analyzed its expression pattern in embryonic and

  19. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe.

  20. Chloride Ingress into Concrete under Water Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Mia Schou; Sander, Lotte Braad; Grelk, Bent; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2011-01-01

    The chloride ingress into concrete under water pressures of 100 kPa and 800 kPa have been investigated by experiments. The specimens were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and water mixture. For the concrete having w/c = 0.35 the experimental results show the chloride diffusion coefficient at 800 kPa (~8 atm.) is 12 times greater than at 100 kPa (~1 atm.). For w/c = 0.45 and w/c = 0.55 the chloride diffusion coefficients are 7 and 3 times greater. This means that a change in pressure highly infl...

  1. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used......In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...

  2. ELECTRON-TRANSFER REACTIONS OF CROSSLINKED POLY(1-PYRIDINIOMETHYL)STYRENE CHLORIDE 2. REDUCTION OF NITRO-COMPOUNDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Yushan; SHAO Yunglin; XU Jiping

    1984-01-01

    Continuing the study of electron transfer reactions of polypyridiniomethylstyrene chloride (PSPyCl), the reduction of nitro-compounds by the PSPyCl-Zn system was investigated. In general azoxy compounds were obtained as chief intermediate product of reduction. Reduction of nitrobenzo-15-crown-5 and its homologues give a new class of bis-crown ether compounds--azoxy-bisbenzocrown ethers. Azoxybisbenzocrown ethers undergo photoinduced trans-cis isomerization,which is reversible on irradiation with UV and on storage in darkness, similar to the case of azobiscrown ethers. Investigation of solvent extraction of various cations by azobiscrown ether isomers shows that cis-azoxybisbenzo-15-crown-5 exhibit good selectivity toward Nd3+ from other rare earth cations.

  3. A capillary liquid chromatography method for benzalkonium chloride determination as a component or contaminant in mixtures of biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Blanco, M C; Argente-García, A; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2016-01-29

    A method for quantifying benzalkonium chloride (BAK), an alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium compound, in several biocides formulations is proposed. A tertiary amine like N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-dodecyl-1,3-propanediamine (TA) and a straight-chain alkyl ammonium compound like trimethyl-tetradecyl ammonium chloride (TMTDAC), have been employed as trade surfactants besides BAK. Two capillary analytical columns with different polarities are tested: inertsil CN-3 capillary column (150mm×0.5mm i.d., 3μm particle diameter) and a non endcapped Zorbax C18 capillary column (35mm×0.5mm i.d., 5μm particle diameter). This latter column provided the best separation of the BAK homologues in less than 12min using acetonitrile:acetate buffer (50mM, pH 5) 85:15 at 20μLmin(-1). The proposed method combines on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME) coupled to capillary liquid chromatography (CapLC) and UV diode array detection. Matrix effect was present when TA were in excess to BAK. If TMTDAC is the co-biocide, matrix effect is always present. A decreasing of analytical response mainly for C12-BAK homologue was found using both chromatographic columns. The charged amount of mixture in the system was the most important parameter for obtaining reliable results. 1mL was the on line processed sample volume optimum for concentrations lower than 35μgmL(-1) of total surfactants. LODs were 0.03μgmL(-1) and 0.006μgmL(-1) for C12-BAK and C14-BAK, respectively. This method is also of use to evaluate the unwanted presence of BAK in biocide formulations due to industrial processes.

  4. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  5. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammoni...

  6. Qualitative Determination of Nitrate with Triphenylbenzylphosphonium Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Donna A.; Cole, Jerry J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses two procedures for the identification of nitrate, the standard test ("Brown Ring" test) and a new procedure using triphenylbenzylphosphonium chloride (TPBPC). Effectiveness of both procedures is compared, with the TPBPC test proving to be more sensitive and accurate. (JM)

  7. Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) to the eye causes dose-related corneal neurotoxicity. Corneal inflammation and reduction in aqueous tear production accompany neurotoxicity. Cessation of BAK treatment leads to recovery of corneal nerve density.

  8. Chloride Ingress into Concrete under Water Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou; Sander, Lotte Braad; Grelk, Bent;

    2011-01-01

    The chloride ingress into concrete under water pressures of 100 kPa and 800 kPa have been investigated by experiments. The specimens were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and water mixture. For the concrete having w/c = 0.35 the experimental results show the chloride diffusion coefficient at 800 k......Pa (~8 atm.) is 12 times greater than at 100 kPa (~1 atm.). For w/c = 0.45 and w/c = 0.55 the chloride diffusion coefficients are 7 and 3 times greater. This means that a change in pressure highly influences the chloride ingress into the concrete and thereby the life length models for concrete structures....

  9. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  10. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  11. Cesium chloride-induced torsades de pointes

    OpenAIRE

    Wiens, Matthew; Gordon, Wendy; Baulcomb, Daisy; Mattman, Andre; Mock, Tom; Brown, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The chloride salt of cesium, a group 1A element, is gaining popularity as an alternative treatment of advanced cancers. Cesium chloride has primarily been used in cardiovascular research for arrhythmogenesis in animals because of its potassium-blocking effects. The present report describes a 45-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer who experienced repeated episodes of torsades de pointes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia after several months of oral cesium therapy. There was a clear ...

  12. The kinetics of the hydrogen chloride oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Martinez Isai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen chloride (HCl oxidation has been investigated on technical membrane electrode assemblies in a cyclone flow cell. Influence of Nafion loading, temperature and hydrogen chloride mole fraction in the gas phase has been studied. The apparent kinetic parameters like reaction order with respect to HCl, Tafel slope and activation energy have been determined from polarization data. The apparent kinetic parameters suggest that the recombination of adsorbed Cl intermediate is the rate determining step.

  13. Effect of Chloride Type on Penetration of Chloride Ions in Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The influence of chloride type on the diffusivity of chloride ions in concrete was studied by experiment. The result shows that the glectric resistance of concrete and the chloride diffusion coefficient are influenced by chloride type. For the same water/cement ratio (W/C), the diffusion coefficient D in KCl solution is larger than that in NaCl solution; however, the concrete resistance in KCl solution is smaller than that in NaCl solution. The experimental result is analyzed with theory of diffusion.

  14. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Fei Peng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short, composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel’s salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO2− in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel’s salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  15. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  16. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many coastal areas of Australia, may have perturbed catchment chloride balance conditions for appropriate use in CMB applications. In order to deal with these issues, a high resolution chloride deposition map in the coastal region is needed. In this study, we examined geographic, orographic, and atmospheric factors influencing chloride deposition in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, and terrain aspect and slope are two most significant factors controlling chloride deposition. Coastal distance accounts for 65% spatial variability in chloride deposition, with terrain aspect and slope for 8%. The deposition gradient is about 0.08 gm-2 year-1 km-1 as one progresses inland. The results are incorporated into a published de-trended residual kriging approach (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution annual chloride deposition map and a bulk precipitation chloride concentration map. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 30% in the western MLR, and over 50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a very useful basis for examining catchment chloride balances for use in the CMB application in the study area.

  17. A comprehensive probabilistic model of chloride ingress in unsaturated concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Bastidas-Arteaga, Emilio; Chateauneuf, Alaa; Sánchez-Silva, Mauricio; Bressolette, Philippe; Schoefs, Franck

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Corrosion induced by chloride ions has become a critical issue for many reinforced concrete structures. The chloride ingress into concrete has been usually simplified as a diffusion problem where the chloride concentration throughout concrete is estimated analytically. However, this simplified approach has several limitations. For instance, it does not consider chloride ingress by convection which is essential to model chloride penetration in unsaturated conditions as ...

  18. Studies of the Cataluminescence of Benzene Homologues onNanosized γ–Al2O3/Eu2O3 and the Development of a Gas Sensorfor Benzene Homologue Vapors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiqin Wu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The cataluminescence (CTL of benzene and the benzene homologues tolueneand xylene on nanosized γ–Al2O3 doped with Eu2O3 (γ–Al2O3/Eu2O3 was studied and asensor of determining these gases was designed. The proposed sensor showed highsensitivity and selectivity at an optimal temperature of 432 ºC, a wavelength of 425 nm anda flow rate of 400 mL/min. Quantitative analysis was performed at the optimal conditions.The linear ranges of CTL intensity versus concentration of the benzene homologues were asfollows: benzene 2.4~5000 mL/m3, toluene 4.0~5000 mL/m3 and xylene 6.8~5000 mL/m3,with detection limits (3σ of 1.8 mL/m3, 3.0 mL/m3 and 3.4 mL/m3 for each one,respectively. The response time of this system was less than 3 s. The coexistence of othergases, such as SO2, CO and NH3, caused interference at levels around 11.7%, 5.8% and8.9% respectively. The technique is a convenient and fast way of determining the vapors ofbenzene homologues in air.

  19. Positive selection in AvrP4 avirulence gene homologues across the genus Melampsora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Merwe, Marlien M; Kinnear, Mark W; Barrett, Luke G; Dodds, Peter N; Ericson, Lars; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J

    2009-08-22

    Pathogen genes involved in interactions with their plant hosts are expected to evolve under positive Darwinian selection or balancing selection. In this study a single copy avirulence gene, AvrP4, in the plant pathogen Melampsora lini, was used to investigate the evolution of such a gene across species. Partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha sequences were obtained to establish phylogenetic relationships among the Melampsora species. We amplified AvrP4 homologues from species pathogenic on hosts from different plant families and orders, across the inferred phylogeny. Translations of the AvrP4 sequences revealed a predicted signal peptide and towards the C-terminus of the protein, six identically spaced cysteines were identified in all sequences. Maximum likelihood analysis of synonymous versus non-synonymous substitution rates indicated that positive selection played a role in the evolution of the gene during the diversification of the genus. Fourteen codons under significant positive selection reside in the C-terminal 28 amino acid region, suggesting that this region interacts with host molecules in most sequenced accessions. Selection pressures on the gene may be either due to the pathogenicity or avirulence function of the gene or both.

  20. Novel Type Ⅱ Peroxiredoxin Gene Homologue from Chinese Wildrye Enhancing Salt Stress Tolerance of Transgenic Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ying; LIU Xiang-guo; LU Yang; DOU Yao; WANG Hu-yi; HAN Si-ping; FENG Shu-dan; HAO Dong-yun

    2011-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins(Prxs)are a large family of antioxidant enzymes of various types that take part in signal transduction via decomposing reactive oxygen species(ROS).Although extensive efforts have been made over the last decades in understanding the structures and functions of Prxs,type Ⅱ Prxs in monocots are hardly studied.In this work,a monocot type Ⅱ Prx gene homologue from Chinese wildrye(Leymus Chinensis),designated as LcTpxⅡ,was isolated and characterized.LcTpxⅡ encoding a 162-amino acid protein contains a thioredoxin domain and a cysteine residue at position 51,suggesting that it is a member of the Prxs family.The LcTpxⅡ is capable of decomposing H2O2 and protecting plasmid DNA from damage caused by ROS.The expression of LcTpxⅡ in Chinese wildrye was induced by 400 mmol/L NaCl and 100 mmol/L Na2CO3 in the experiment.The overexpression of LcTpxⅡ enhances the tolerance of transgenic yeast to 1.6 mol/L NaCl and 10 mmol/L Na2CO3.

  1. Characterization of a chaperone ClpB homologue of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesuino, Rosália S A; Azevedo, Maristela O; Felipe, M Sueli S; Pereira, Maristela; De Almeida Soares, Célia M

    2002-08-01

    We report the cloning and sequence analysis of a genomic clone encoding a Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ClpB chaperone homologue (PbClpB). The clpb gene was identified in a lambda Dash II library. Sequencing of Pbclpb revealed a long open reading frame capable of encoding a 792 amino acid, 87.9 kDa protein, pI of 5.34. The predicted polypeptide contains several consensus motifs of the ClpB proteins. Canonical sequences such as two putative nucleotide-binding sites, chaperonins ClpA/B signatures and highly conserved casein kinase phosphorylation domains are present. ClpB is 69% to 49% identical to members of the ClpB family from several organisms from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. The transcript of PbclpB was detected as a mRNA species of 3.0 kb, preferentially expressed in the yeast parasitic phase of the fungus. A 89 kDa protein was also detected in yeast cells of P. brasiliensis.

  2. Characterization and expression analysis of an allograft inflammatory factor-1 homologue in yellow grouper (Epinephelus awoara)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; SHI Dawei; WU Xinzhong

    2008-01-01

    Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a cytoplasmic calcium-binding protein involved in iullammatory response-related dis-eases in mammals.Previously an identified AIF-1 gene was simply reported in yellow grouper.The characterization of AIF-1 gene and its expression at the gene and protein level are further described.Yellow grouper AIF-1 is composed of 147 amino acids,and 64% ~ 84% identical to other homologues.Basal level AIF-I mRNA expression was noted in spleen,anterior kid-ney and kidney,using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).After stimulation of LPS,the AIF-1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in tissues examined:spleen,anterior kidney,kidney,heart and liver,but not in muscle.The re-combinant AIF-1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli,and then purified for the development of antiserum.Western blotting analysis revealed a band with a molecular mass of about 17 ku.

  3. Cloning the mouse homologue of the human lysosomal acid {alpha}-glucosidase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, J.H.; Yang, B.Z.; Liu, H.M. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Pompe disease (GSD II) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of lysosomal acid {alpha}-glucosidase (GAA). In an attempt to create a mouse model for Pompe disease, we isolated and characterized the gene encoding the mouse homologue of the human GAA. Twenty clones that extend from exon 2 to the poly(A) tail were isolated from a mouse liver cDNA library, but the remainder of the mRNA proved difficult to obtain by conventional cDNA library screening. Sequences spanning exons 1-2 were cloned by RACE from mouse liver RNA. The full-length liver GAA cDNA contains 3365 nucleotides with a coding region of 2859 nucleotides and a 394 base pair 3{prime}-nontranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mouse GAA shows 84% identity to the human GAA. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the mouse GAA was encoded by a single copy gene. Then six bacteriophages containing DNA from the GAA gene were isolated by screening 10{sup 6} phage plaques of a mouse 129 genomic library using a mouse GAA cDNA as a probe. From one of these bacteriophages, an 11-kilobase EcoRI fragment containing exons 3 to 15 was subcloned and sequenced. Work is in progress using this genomic clone to disrupt the GAA gene in murine embryonic stem cells in order to create GSD II mice.

  4. GET_HOMOLOGUES, a versatile software package for scalable and robust microbial pangenome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Vinuesa, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    GET_HOMOLOGUES is an open-source software package that builds on popular orthology-calling approaches making highly customizable and detailed pangenome analyses of microorganisms accessible to nonbioinformaticians. It can cluster homologous gene families using the bidirectional best-hit, COGtriangles, or OrthoMCL clustering algorithms. Clustering stringency can be adjusted by scanning the domain composition of proteins using the HMMER3 package, by imposing desired pairwise alignment coverage cutoffs, or by selecting only syntenic genes. The resulting homologous gene families can be made even more robust by computing consensus clusters from those generated by any combination of the clustering algorithms and filtering criteria. Auxiliary scripts make the construction, interrogation, and graphical display of core genome and pangenome sets easy to perform. Exponential and binomial mixture models can be fitted to the data to estimate theoretical core genome and pangenome sizes, and high-quality graphics can be generated. Furthermore, pangenome trees can be easily computed and basic comparative genomics performed to identify lineage-specific genes or gene family expansions. The software is designed to take advantage of modern multiprocessor personal computers as well as computer clusters to parallelize time-consuming tasks. To demonstrate some of these capabilities, we survey a set of 50 Streptococcus genomes annotated in the Orthologous Matrix (OMA) browser as a benchmark case. The package can be downloaded at http://www.eead.csic.es/compbio/soft/gethoms.php and http://maya.ccg.unam.mx/soft/gethoms.php.

  5. NRMT2 is an N-terminal monomethylase that primes for its homologue NRMT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkowski, Janusz J; Bonsignore, Lindsay A; Tooley, John G; Wilkey, Daniel W; Merchant, Michael L; Macara, Ian G; Schaner Tooley, Christine E

    2013-12-15

    NRMT (N-terminal regulator of chromatin condensation 1 methyltransferase) was the first eukaryotic methyltransferase identified to specifically methylate the free α-amino group of proteins. Since the discovery of this N-terminal methyltransferase, many new substrates have been identified and the modification itself has been shown to regulate DNA-protein interactions. Sequence analysis predicts one close human homologue of NRMT, METTL11B (methyltransferase-like protein 11B, now renamed NRMT2). We show in the present paper for the first time that NRMT2 also has N-terminal methylation activity and recognizes the same N-terminal consensus sequences as NRMT (now NRMT1). Both enzymes have similar tissue expression and cellular localization patterns. However, enzyme assays and MS experiments indicate that they differ in their specific catalytic functions. Although NRMT1 is a distributive methyltransferase that can mono-, di- and tri-methylate its substrates, NRMT2 is primarily a monomethylase. Concurrent expression of NRMT1 and NRMT2 accelerates the production of trimethylation, and we propose that NRMT2 activates NRMT1 by priming its substrates for trimethylation.

  6. A caseian point for the evolution of a diaphragm homologue among the earliest synapsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz, Markus; Shelton, Christen D; Spindler, Frederik; Perry, Steven F

    2016-12-01

    The origin of the diaphragm remains a poorly understood yet crucial step in the evolution of terrestrial vertebrates, as this unique structure serves as the main respiratory motor for mammals. Here, we analyze the paleobiology and the respiratory apparatus of one of the oldest lineages of mammal-like reptiles: the Caseidae. Combining quantitative bone histology and functional morphological and physiological modeling approaches, we deduce a scenario in which an auxiliary ventilatory structure was present in these early synapsids. Crucial to this hypothesis are indications that at least the phylogenetically advanced caseids might not have been primarily terrestrial but rather were bound to a predominantly aquatic life. Such a lifestyle would have resulted in severe constraints on their ventilatory system, which consequently would have had to cope with diving-related problems. Our modeling of breathing parameters revealed that these caseids were capable of only limited costal breathing and, if aquatic, must have employed some auxiliary ventilatory mechanism to quickly meet their oxygen demand upon surfacing. Given caseids' phylogenetic position at the base of Synapsida and under this aquatic scenario, it would be most parsimonious to assume that a homologue of the mammalian diaphragm had already evolved about 50 Ma earlier than previously assumed.

  7. A C. elegans stretch receptor neuron revealed by a mechanosensitive TRP channel homologue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Feng, Zhaoyang; Sternberg, Paul W; Xu, X Z Shawn

    2006-03-30

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is commonly used as a genetic model organism for dissecting integration of the sensory and motor systems. Despite extensive genetic and behavioural analyses that have led to the identification of many genes and neural circuits involved in regulating C. elegans locomotion behaviour, it remains unclear whether and how somatosensory feedback modulates motor output during locomotion. In particular, no stretch receptors have been identified in C. elegans, raising the issue of whether stretch-receptor-mediated proprioception is used by C. elegans to regulate its locomotion behaviour. Here we have characterized TRP-4, the C. elegans homologue of the mechanosensitive TRPN channel. We show that trp-4 mutant worms bend their body abnormally, exhibiting a body posture distinct from that of wild-type worms during locomotion, suggesting that TRP-4 is involved in stretch-receptor-mediated proprioception. We show that TRP-4 acts in a single neuron, DVA, to mediate its function in proprioception, and that the activity of DVA can be stimulated by body stretch. DVA both positively and negatively modulates locomotion, providing a unique mechanism whereby a single neuron can fine-tune motor activity. Thus, DVA represents a stretch receptor neuron that regulates sensory-motor integration during C. elegans locomotion.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis of a DsbA homologue from Wolbachia pipientis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, M. [Institute for Molecular Bioscience and ARC Special Research Centre for Functional and Applied Genomics, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Iturbe-Ormaetxe, I. [School of Integrative Biology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Jarrott, R. [Institute for Molecular Bioscience and ARC Special Research Centre for Functional and Applied Genomics, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); O’Neill, S. L. [School of Integrative Biology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Byriel, K. A.; Martin, J. L., E-mail: j.martin@imb.uq.edu.au; Heras, B., E-mail: j.martin@imb.uq.edu.au [Institute for Molecular Bioscience and ARC Special Research Centre for Functional and Applied Genomics, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2008-02-01

    The first crystallization of a W. pipientis protein, α-DsbA1, was achieved using hanging-drop and sitting-drop vapour diffusion. α-DsbA1 is one of two DsbA homologues encoded by the Gram-negative α-proteobacterium Wolbachia pipientis, an endosymbiont that can behave as a reproductive parasite in insects and as a mutualist in medically important filarial nematodes. The α-DsbA1 protein is thought to be important for the folding and secretion of Wolbachia proteins involved in the induction of reproductive distortions. Crystals of native and SeMet α-DsbA1 were grown by vapour diffusion and belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 71.4, b = 49.5, c = 69.3 Å, β = 107.0° and one molecule in the asymmetric unit (44% solvent content). X-ray data were recorded from native crystals to a resolution of 2.01 Å using a copper anode and data from SeMet α-DsbA1 crystals were recorded to 2.45 Å resolution using a chromium anode.

  9. The Drosophila homologue of the amyloid precursor protein is a conserved modulator of Wnt PCP signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Soldano

    Full Text Available Wnt Planar Cell Polarity (PCP signaling is a universal regulator of polarity in epithelial cells, but it regulates axon outgrowth in neurons, suggesting the existence of axonal modulators of Wnt-PCP activity. The Amyloid precursor proteins (APPs are intensely investigated because of their link to Alzheimer's disease (AD. APP's in vivo function in the brain and the mechanisms underlying it remain unclear and controversial. Drosophila possesses a single APP homologue called APP Like, or APPL. APPL is expressed in all neurons throughout development, but has no established function in neuronal development. We therefore investigated the role of Drosophila APPL during brain development. We find that APPL is involved in the development of the Mushroom Body αβ neurons and, in particular, is required cell-autonomously for the β-axons and non-cell autonomously for the α-axons growth. Moreover, we find that APPL is a modulator of the Wnt-PCP pathway required for axonal outgrowth, but not cell polarity. Molecularly, both human APP and fly APPL form complexes with PCP receptors, thus suggesting that APPs are part of the membrane protein complex upstream of PCP signaling. Moreover, we show that APPL regulates PCP pathway activation by modulating the phosphorylation of the Wnt adaptor protein Dishevelled (Dsh by Abelson kinase (Abl. Taken together our data suggest that APPL is the first example of a modulator of the Wnt-PCP pathway specifically required for axon outgrowth.

  10. A homologue of cathepsin L identified in conditioned medium from Sf9 insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindskog, Eva; Svensson, Ingrid; Häggström, Lena

    2006-07-01

    Gelatin zymography revealed the presence of proteolytic activity in conditioned medium (CM) from a serum-free, non-infected Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9 insect cell culture. Two peptidase bands at about 49 and 39 kDa were detected and found to be proform and active form of the same enzyme. The 49-kDa form was visible on zymogram gels in samples of CM taken on days 4 and 5 of an Sf9 culture, while the 39-kDa form was seen on days 6 and 7. On basis of the inhibitor profile and substrate range, the enzyme was identified as an Sf9 homologue of cathepsin L, a papain-like cysteine peptidase. After lowering the pH of Sf9 CM to 3.5, an additional peptidase band at 22 kDa appeared. This peptidase showed the same inhibitor profile, substrate range and optimum pH (5.0) as the 39-kDa form, indicating that Sf9 cathepsin L has two active forms, at 39 and 22 kDa. Addition of the cysteine peptidase inhibitor E-64c to an Sf9 culture inhibited all proteolytic activities of Sf9 cathepsin L but did not influence the proliferation of Sf9 cells.

  11. Crystal Structure of the Heterotrimer Core of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK Homologue SNF1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amodeo,G.; Rudolph, M.; Tong, L.

    2007-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of energy homeostasis in mammals and is an attractive target for drug discovery against diabetes, obesity and other diseases. The AMPK homologue in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as SNF1, is essential for responses to glucose starvation as well as for other cellular processes, although SNF1 seems to be activated by a ligand other than AMP. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.6 resolution of the heterotrimer core of SNF1. The ligand-binding site in the {gamma}-subunit (Snf4) has clear structural differences from that of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe enzyme, although our crystallographic data indicate that AMP can also bind to Snf4. The glycogen-binding domain in the {beta}-subunit (Sip2) interacts with Snf4 in the heterotrimer but should still be able to bind carbohydrates. Our structure is supported by a large body of biochemical and genetic data on this complex. Most significantly, the structure reveals that part of the regulatory sequence in the {alpha}-subunit (Snf1) is sequestered by Snf4, demonstrating a direct interaction between the {alpha}- and {gamma}-subunits and indicating that our structure may represent the heterotrimer core of SNF1 in its activated state.

  12. TRBP and eIF6 homologue in Marsupenaeus japonicus play crucial roles in antiviral response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    Full Text Available Plants and invertebrates can suppress viral infection through RNA silencing, mediated by RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC. Trans-activation response RNA-binding protein (TRBP, consisting of three double-stranded RNA-binding domains, is a component of the RISC. In our previous paper, a TRBP homologue in Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Fc-TRBP was reported to directly bind to eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (Fc-eIF6. In this study, we further characterized the function of TRBP and the involvement of TRBP and eIF6 in antiviral RNA interference (RNAi pathway of shrimp. The double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBDs B and C of the TRBP from Marsupenaeus japonicus (Mj-TRBP were found to mediate the interaction of TRBP and eIF6. Gel-shift assays revealed that the N-terminal of Mj-TRBP dsRBD strongly binds to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA and that the homodimer of the TRBP mediated by the C-terminal dsRBD increases the affinity to dsRNA. RNAi against either Mj-TRBP or Mj-eIF6 impairs the dsRNA-induced sequence-specific RNAi pathway and facilitates the proliferation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. These results further proved the important roles of TRBP and eIF6 in the antiviral response of shrimp.

  13. The Oct4 homologue PouV and Nanog regulate pluripotency in chicken embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavial, Fabrice; Acloque, Hervé; Bertocchini, Federica; Macleod, David J; Boast, Sharon; Bachelard, Elodie; Montillet, Guillaume; Thenot, Sandrine; Sang, Helen M; Stern, Claudio D; Samarut, Jacques; Pain, Bertrand

    2007-10-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) have been isolated from pregastrulation mammalian embryos. The maintenance of their pluripotency and ability to self-renew has been shown to be governed by the transcription factors Oct4 (Pou5f1) and Nanog. Oct4 appears to control cell-fate decisions of ESC in vitro and the choice between embryonic and trophectoderm cell fates in vivo. In non-mammalian vertebrates, the existence and functions of these factors are still under debate, although the identification of the zebrafish pou2 (spg; pou5f1) and Xenopus Pou91 (XlPou91) genes, which have important roles in maintaining uncommitted putative stem cell populations during early development, has suggested that these factors have common functions in all vertebrates. Using chicken ESC (cESC), which display similar properties of pluripotency and long-term self-renewal to mammalian ESC, we demonstrated the existence of an avian homologue of Oct4 that we call chicken PouV (cPouV). We established that cPouV and the chicken Nanog gene are required for the maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal of cESC. These findings show that the mechanisms by which Oct4 and Nanog regulate pluripotency and self-renewal are not exclusive to mammals.

  14. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  15. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

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    C. Gils

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3- exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  16. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

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    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  17. A new MOF-5 homologue for selective separation of methane from C2 hydrocarbons at room temperature

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    Yabing He

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new MOF-5 homologue compound UTSA-10 has been obtained under solvothermal conditions from a mixture of Zn(NO32⋅6H2O and commercially available linker, 2-methylfumaric acid, in N,N-dimethylformamide. The moderate surface area and suitable pore sizes enable the activated UTSA-10a to separate methane from C2 hydrocarbons at room temperature.

  18. Dynamic Electrochemical Measurement of Chloride Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-02-05

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement, long-term and continuous monitoring is limited due to the inherent drift and the requirement of a stable reference electrode. We utilized the chronopotentiometric approach to minimize drift and avoid the use of a conventional reference electrode. A galvanostatic pulse is applied to an Ag/AgCl electrode which initiates a faradic reaction depleting the Cl- ions near the electrode surface. The transition time, which is the time to completely deplete the ions near the electrode surface, is a function of the ion concentration, given by the Nernst equation. The square root of the transition time is in linear relation to the chloride ion concentration. Drift of the response over two weeks is negligible (59 µM/day) when measuring 1 mM [Cl-]using a current pulse of 10 Am(-2). This is a dynamic measurement where the moment of transition time determines the response and thus is independent of the absolute potential. Any metal wire can be used as a pseudo-reference electrode, making this approach feasible for long-term measurement inside concrete structures.

  19. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul

    2013-05-21

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding.

  20. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

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    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  1. Identification of NoxD/Pro41 as the homologue of the p22phox NADPH oxidase subunit in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Isabelle; Lalucque, Hervé; Siegmund, Ulrike; Silar, Philippe; Brun, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    NADPH oxidases (Nox) are membrane complexes that produce O2(-). Researches in mammals, plants and fungi highlight the involvement of Nox-generated ROS in cell proliferation, differentiation and defense. In mammals, the core enzyme gp91(phox)/Nox2 is associated with p22(phox) forming the flavocytochrome b558 ready for activation by a cytosolic complex. Intriguingly, no homologue of the p22(phox) gene has been found in fungal genomes, questioning how the flavoenzyme forms. Using whole genome sequencing combined with phylogenetic analysis and structural studies, we identify the fungal p22(phox) homologue as being mutated in the Podospora anserina mutant IDC(509). Functional studies show that the fungal p22(phox), PaNoxD, acts along PaNox1, but not PaNox2, a second fungal gp91(phox) homologue. Finally, cytological analysis of functional tagged versions of PaNox1, PaNoxD and PaNoxR shows clear co-localization of PaNoxD and PaNox1 and unravel a dynamic assembly of the complex in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the vacuolar system.

  2. Cloning and characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana AtNAP57--a homologue of yeast pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceluch, J; Kmieciak, M; Szweykowska-Kulińska, Z; Jarmołowski, A

    2001-01-01

    Rat Nap57 and its yeast homologue Cbf5p are pseudouridine synthases involved in rRNA biogenesis, localized in the nucleolus. These proteins, together with H/ACA class of snoRNAs compose snoRNP particles, in which snoRNA guides the synthase to direct site-specific pseudouridylation of rRNA. In this paper we present an Arabidopsis thaliana protein that is highly homologous to Cbf5p (72% identity and 85% homology) and NAP57 (67% identity and 81% homology). Moreover, the plant protein has conserved structural motifs that are characteristic features of pseudouridine synthases of the TruB class. We have named the cloned and characterized protein AtNAP57 (Arabidopsis thaliana homologue of NAP57). AtNAP57 is a 565 amino-acid protein and its calculated molecular mass is 63 kDa. The protein is encoded by a single copy gene located on chromosome 3 of the A. thaliana genome. Interestingly, the AtNAP57 gene does not contain any introns. Mutations in the human DKC1 gene encoding dyskerin (human homologue of yeast Cbf5p and rat NAP57) cause dyskeratosis congenita a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by abnormal skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and mucosal leukoplakia.

  3. Species-specific flight styles of flies are reflected in the response dynamics of a homologue motion sensitive neuron

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    Bart eGeurten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoverflies and blowflies have distinctly different flight styles. Yet, both species have been shown to structure their flight behaviour in a way that facilitates extraction of 3D information from the image flow on the retina (optic flow. Neuronal candidates to analyse the optic flow are the tangential cells in the third optical ganglion – the lobula complex. These neurons are directionally selective and integrate the optic flow over large parts of the visual field. Homologue tangential cells in hoverflies and blowflies have a similar morphology. Because blowflies and hoverflies have similar neuronal layout but distinctly different flight behaviours, they are an ideal substrate to pinpoint potential neuronal adaptations to the different flight styles.In this article we describe the relationship between locomotion behaviour and motion vision on three different levels:1.We compare the different flight styles based on the categorisation of flight behaviour into prototypical movements.2.We measure the species specific dynamics of the optic flow under naturalistic flight conditions. We found the translational optic flow of both species to be very different.3.We describe possible adaptations of a homologue motion sensitive neuron. We stimulate this cell in blowflies (Calliphora and hoverflies (Eristalis with naturalistic optic flow generated by both species during free flight. The characterized hoverfly tangential cell responds faster to transient changes in the optic flow than its blowfly homologue. It is discussed whether and how the different dynamical response properties aid optic flow analysis.

  4. The OxyR homologue in Tannerella forsythia regulates expression of oxidative stress responses and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Kiyonobu; Mishima, Elina; Inagaki, Satoru; Sharma, Ashu

    2009-06-01

    Tannerella forsythia is an anaerobic periodontal pathogen that encounters constant oxidative stress in the human oral cavity due to exposure to air and reactive oxidative species from coexisting dental plaque bacteria as well as leukocytes. In this study, we sought to characterize a T. forsythia ORF with close similarity to bacterial oxidative stress response sensor protein OxyR. To analyse the role of this OxyR homologue, a gene deletion mutant was constructed and characterized. Aerotolerance, survival after hydrogen peroxide challenge and transcription levels of known bacterial antioxidant genes were then determined. Since an association between oxidative stress and biofilm formation has been observed in bacterial systems, we also investigated the role of the OxyR protein in biofilm development by T. forsythia. Our results showed that aerotolerance, sensitivity to peroxide challenge and the expression of oxidative stress response genes were significantly reduced in the mutant as compared with the wild-type strain. Moreover, the results of biofilm analyses showed that, as compared with the wild-type strain, the oxyR mutant showed significantly less autoaggregation and a reduced ability to form mixed biofilms with Fusobacterium nucleatum. In conclusion, a gene annotated in the T. forsythia genome as an oxyR homologue was characterized. Our studies showed that the oxyR homologue in T. forsythia constitutively activates antioxidant genes involved in resistance to peroxides as well as oxygen stress (aerotolerance). In addition, the oxyR deletion attenuates biofilm formation in T. forsythia.

  5. Efficient cellulose solvent: quaternary ammonium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; El Seoud, Omar A; Heinze, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Pure quaternary tetraalkylammonium chlorides with one long alkyl chain dissolved in various organic solvents constitute a new class of cellulose solvents. The electrolytes are prepared in high yields and purity by Menshutkin quaternization, an inexpensive and easy synthesis route. The pure molten tetraalkylammonium chlorides dissolve up to 15 wt% of cellulose. Cosolvents, including N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), may be added in large excess, leading to a system of decreased viscosity. Contrary to the well-established solvent DMA/LiCl, cellulose dissolves in DMA/quaternary ammonium chlorides without any pretreatment. Thus, the use of the new solvent avoids some disadvantages of DMA/LiCl and ionic liquids, the most extensively employed solvents for homogeneous cellulose chemistry.

  6. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  7. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  8. EVALUATION OF BACTERICIDAL EFFECTIVENESS OF BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE

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    K. Imandel

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride is a quaternary ammounium Compounds derivative under different names such as Afxhang, Hamoon, Mahan etc, which have great and expanded use in sanitation and medical affairs. Bactericidal activity of these disinfectants was fulfilled according to National Standard Method No.2842 on Staph. Aureus, Sal. Typhimouium and E. coli. This laboratory test showed that, except Mahan that has not bactericidal efficacy on E.coli at concentration 0.4 percent, other disinfectants under the study in concentrations of 0.4, 0.8, 1, 1.2 percent have reliable antibacterial properties, and bacterial resistance to benzalkonium chloride has not occurred yet.

  9. Cesium chloride-induced torsades de pointes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Matthew; Gordon, Wendy; Baulcomb, Daisy; Mattman, Andre; Mock, Tom; Brown, Robert

    2009-09-01

    The chloride salt of cesium, a group 1A element, is gaining popularity as an alternative treatment of advanced cancers. Cesium chloride has primarily been used in cardiovascular research for arrhythmogenesis in animals because of its potassium-blocking effects. The present report describes a 45-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer who experienced repeated episodes of torsades de pointes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia after several months of oral cesium therapy. There was a clear temporal relationship between cesium ingestion and the arrhythmia, which later resolved following discontinuation of cesium therapy. Serial cesium plasma and whole blood levels were measured over the ensuing six months and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed.

  10. Characterization of the promoter and extended C-terminal domain of Arabidopsis WRKY33 and functional analysis of tomato WRKY33 homologues in plant stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Wang, Jian; Zheng, Zuyu; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2015-08-01

    Arabidopsis AtWRKY33 plays a critical role in broad plant stress responses. Whether there are evolutionarily conserved homologues of AtWRKY33 in other plants and what make AtWRKY33 such an important protein in plant stress responses are largely unknown. We compared AtWRKY33 with its close homologues to identify AtWRKY33-specific regulatory and structural elements, which were then functionally analysed through complementation. We also performed phylogenetic analysis to identify structural AtWRKY33 homologues in other plants and functionally analysed two tomato homologues through complementation and gene silencing. AtWRKY33 has an extended C-terminal domain (CTD) absent in its close homologue AtWRKY25. Both its CTD and the strong pathogen/stress-responsive expression of AtWRKY33 are necessary to complement the critical phenotypes of atwrky33. Structural AtWRKY33 homologues were identified in both dicot and monocot plants including two (SlWRKY33A and SlWRKY33B) in tomato. Molecular complementation and gene silencing confirmed that the two tomato WRKY genes play a critical role similar to that of AtWRKY33 in plant stress responses. Thus, WRKY33 proteins are evolutionarily conserved with a critical role in broad plant stress responses. Both its CTD and promoter are critical for the uniquely important roles of WRKY33 in plant stress responses.

  11. Validating tyrosinase homologue melA as a photoacoustic reporter gene for imaging Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paproski, Robert J.; Li, Yan; Barber, Quinn; Lewis, John D.; Campbell, Robert E.; Zemp, Roger

    2015-10-01

    To understand the pathogenic processes for infectious bacteria, appropriate research tools are required for replicating and characterizing infections. Fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging have primarily been used to image infections in animal models, but optical scattering in tissue significantly limits imaging depth and resolution. Photoacoustic imaging, which has improved depth-to-resolution ratio compared to conventional optical imaging, could be useful for visualizing melA-expressing bacteria since melA is a bacterial tyrosinase homologue which produces melanin. Escherichia coli-expressing melA was visibly dark in liquid culture. When melA-expressing bacteria in tubes were imaged with a VisualSonics Vevo LAZR system, the signal-to-noise ratio of a 9× dilution sample was 55, suggesting that ˜20 bacteria cells could be detected with our system. Multispectral (680, 700, 750, 800, 850, and 900 nm) analysis of the photoacoustic signal allowed unmixing of melA-expressing bacteria from blood. To compare photoacoustic reporter gene melA (using Vevo system) with luminescent and fluorescent reporter gene Nano-lantern (using Bruker Xtreme In-Vivo system), tubes of bacteria expressing melA or Nano-lantern were submerged 10 mm in 1% Intralipid, spaced between bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging could not resolve the two tubes of Nano-lantern-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were spaced 10 mm from each other. After injecting 100-μL of melA-expressing bacteria in the back flank of a chicken embryo, photoacoustic imaging allowed visualization of melA-expressing bacteria up to 10-mm deep into the embryo. Photoacoustic signal from melA could also be separated from deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin signal observed within the embryo and chorioallantoic membrane. Our results suggest that melA is a useful photoacoustic reporter gene for visualizing bacteria, and further work incorporating photoacoustic reporters into infectious bacterial strains is warranted.

  12. Ligand Binding in the Extracellular Vestibule of the Neurotransmitter Transporter Homologue LeuT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grouleff, Julie; Koldsø, Heidi; Miao, Yinglong; Schiøtt, Birgit

    2017-03-15

    The human monoamine transporters (MATs) facilitate the reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft. MATs are linked to a number of neurological diseases and are the targets of both therapeutic and illicit drugs. Until recently, no high-resolution structures of the human MATs existed, and therefore, studies of this transporter family have relied on investigations of the homologues bacterial transporters such as the leucine transporter LeuT, which has been crystallized in several conformational states. A two-substrate transport mechanism has been suggested for this transporter family, which entails that high-affinity binding of a second substrate in an extracellular site is necessary for the substrate in the central binding site to be transported. Compelling evidence for this mechanism has been presented, however, a number of equally compelling accounts suggest that the transporters function through a mechanism involving only a single substrate and a single high-affinity site. To shed light on this apparent contradiction, we have performed extensive molecular dynamics simulations of LeuT in the outward-occluded conformation with either one or two substrates bound to the transporter. We have also calculated the substrate binding affinity in each of the two proposed binding sites through rigorous free energy simulations. Results show that substrate binding is unstable in the extracellular vestibule and the substrate binding affinity within the suggested extracellular site is very low (0.2 and 3.3 M for the two dominant binding modes) compared to the central substrate binding site (14 nM). This suggests that for LeuT in the outward-occluded conformation only a single high-affinity substrate binding site exists.

  13. Fungal phytopathogens encode functional homologues of plant rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thynne, Elisha; Saur, Isabel M L; Simbaqueba, Jaime; Ogilvie, Huw A; Gonzalez-Cendales, Yvonne; Mead, Oliver; Taranto, Adam; Catanzariti, Ann-Maree; McDonald, Megan C; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Jones, David A; Rathjen, John P; Solomon, Peter S

    2016-06-13

    In this article, we describe the presence of genes encoding close homologues of an endogenous plant peptide, rapid alkalinization factor (RALF), within the genomes of 26 species of phytopathogenic fungi. Members of the RALF family are key growth factors in plants, and the sequence of the RALF active region is well conserved between plant and fungal proteins. RALF1-like sequences were observed in most cases; however, RALF27-like sequences were present in the Sphaerulina musiva and Septoria populicola genomes. These two species are pathogens of poplar and, interestingly, the closest relative to their respective RALF genes is a poplar RALF27-like sequence. RALF peptides control cellular expansion during plant development, but were originally defined on the basis of their ability to induce rapid alkalinization in tobacco cell cultures. To test whether the fungal RALF peptides were biologically active in plants, we synthesized RALF peptides corresponding to those encoded by two sequenced genomes of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. One of these peptides inhibited the growth of tomato seedlings and elicited responses in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana typical of endogenous plant RALF peptides (reactive oxygen species burst, induced alkalinization and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation). Gene expression analysis confirmed that a RALF-encoding gene in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was expressed during infection on tomato. However, a subsequent reverse genetics approach revealed that the RALF peptide was not required by F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici for infection on tomato roots. This study has demonstrated the presence of functionally active RALF peptides encoded within phytopathogens that harbour an as yet undetermined role in plant-pathogen interactions.

  14. Development and mapping of SSR markers linked to resistance-gene homologue clusters in common bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luz; Nayibe; Garzon; Matthew; Wohlgemuth; Blair

    2014-01-01

    Common bean is an important but often a disease-susceptible legume crop of temperate,subtropical and tropical regions worldwide. The crop is affected by bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. The strategy of resistance-gene homologue(RGH) cloning has proven to be an efficient tool for identifying markers and R(resistance) genes associated with resistances to diseases. Microsatellite or SSR markers can be identified by physical association with RGH clones on large-insert DNA clones such as bacterial artificial chromosomes(BACs). Our objectives in this work were to identify RGH-SSR in a BAC library from the Andean genotype G19833 and to test and map any polymorphic markers to identify associations with known positions of disease resistance genes. We developed a set of specific probes designed for clades of common bean RGH genes and then identified positive BAC clones and developed microsatellites from BACs having SSR loci in their end sequences. A total of 629 new RGH-SSRs were identified and named BMr(bean microsatellite RGH-associated markers). A subset of these markers was screened for detecting polymorphism in the genetic mapping population DOR364 × G19833. A genetic map was constructed with a total of 264 markers,among which were 80 RGH loci anchored to single-copy RFLP and SSR markers. Clusters of RGH-SSRs were observed on most of the linkage groups of common bean and in positions associated with R-genes and QTL. The use of these new markers to select for disease resistance is discussed.

  15. Characterization of two 20kDa-cement protein (cp20k homologues in Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Sheng He

    Full Text Available The barnacle, Amphibalanus amphitrite, is a common marine fouling organism. Understanding the mechanism of barnacle adhesion will be helpful in resolving the fouling problem. Barnacle cement is thought to play a key role in barnacle attachment. Although several adult barnacle cement proteins have been identified in Megabalanus rosa, little is known about their function in barnacle settlement. In this study, two homologous 20k-cement proteins (cp20k in Amphibalanus amphitrite, named Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2, were characterized. The two homologues share primary sequence structure with proteins from other species including Megabalanus rosa and Fistulobalanus albicostatus. The conserved structure included repeated Cys domains and abundant charged amino acids, such as histidine. In this study we demonstrated that Bamcp20k-1 localized at the α secretory cells in the cyprid cement gland, while Bamcp20k-2 localized to the β secretory cells. The differential localizations suggest differential regulation for secretion from the secretory cells. Both Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2 from cyprids dissolved in PBS. However, adult Bamcp20k-2, which was dominant in the basal shell of adult barnacles, was largely insoluble in PBS. Solubility increased in the presence of the reducing reagent Dithiothreitol (DTT, suggesting that the formation of disulfide bonds plays a role in Bamcp20k-2 function. In comparison, Bamcp20k-1, which was enriched in soft tissue, could not be easily detected in the shell and base by Western blot and easily dissolved in PBS. These differential solubilities and localizations indicate that Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2 have distinct functions in barnacle cementing.

  16. miR-210 Targets Iron-Sulfur Cluster Scaffold Homologue in Human Trophoblast Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deug-Chan; Romero, Roberto; Kim, Jung-Sun; Tarca, Adi L.; Montenegro, Daniel; Pineles, Beth L.; Kim, Ernest; Lee, JoonHo; Kim, Sun Young; Draghici, Sorin; Mittal, Pooja; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia S.; Kim, Chong Jai

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the biological significance of miR-210 in preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) pregnancies. Placental miR-210 expression was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) in the following groups: i) appropriate-for-gestational-age pregnancies (n = 72), ii) preeclampsia (n = 52), iii) SGA (n = 66), and iv)preeclampsia with SGA (n = 31). The effects of hypoxia (1% O2) on miR-210 and iron-sulfur cluster scaffold homologue (ISCU) expressions and miR-210 binding to ISCU 3′ UTR were examined in Swan 71 and BeWo cell lines. Perls' reaction (n = 229) and electron microscopy (n = 3) were conducted to verify siderosis of trophoblasts. miR-210 expression was increased in preeclampsia and SGA cases and was decreased with birth weight and gestational age. In both cell lines, miR-210 was induced by hypoxia, whereas ISCU expression was decreased. The luciferase assay confirmed miR-210 binding to ISCU mRNA 3′ UTR. RNA interference knockdown of ISCU expression in Swan 71, but not in BeWo, cells resulted in autophagosomal and siderosomal iron accumulation and a fourfold decrease of Matrigel invasion (P = 0.004). Placental ISCU expression was decreased in preeclampsia (P = 0.002) and SGA (P = 0.002) cases. Furthermore, hemosiderin-laden trophoblasts were more frequent in the placental bed of preterm preeclampsia and/or SGA births than in control cases (48.7% versus 17.9%; P = 0.004). Siderosis of interstitial trophoblasts is a novel pathological feature of preeclampsia and SGA. The findings herein suggest that ISCU down-regulation by miR-210 perturbing trophoblast iron metabolism is associated with defective placentation. PMID:21801864

  17. The Mode of Hedgehog Binding to Ihog Homologues is Not Conserved Across Different Phyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, J.; Zheng, X; Hauk, G; Ghirlando, R; Beachy, P; Leahy, D

    2008-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) proteins specify tissue pattern in metazoan embryos by forming gradients that emanate from discrete sites of expression and elicit concentration-dependent cellular differentiation or proliferation responses1, 2. Cellular responses to Hh and the movement of Hh through tissues are both precisely regulated, and abnormal Hh signalling has been implicated in human birth defects and cancer3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Hh signalling is mediated by its amino-terminal domain (HhN), which is dually lipidated and secreted as part of a multivalent lipoprotein particle8, 9, 10. Reception of the HhN signal is modulated by several cell-surface proteins on responding cells, including Patched (Ptc), Smoothened (Smo), Ihog (known as CDO or CDON in mammals) and the vertebrate-specific proteins Hip (also known as Hhip) and Gas1 (ref. 11). Drosophila Ihog and its vertebrate homologues CDO and BOC contain multiple immunoglobulin and fibronectin type III (FNIII) repeats, and the first FNIII repeat of Ihog binds Drosophila HhN in a heparin-dependent manner12, 13. Surprisingly, pull-down experiments suggest that a mammalian Sonic hedgehog N-terminal domain (ShhN) binds a non-orthologous FNIII repeat of CDO12, 14. Here we report biochemical, biophysical and X-ray structural studies of a complex between ShhN and the third FNIII repeat of CDO. We show that the ShhN-CDO interaction is completely unlike the HhN-Ihog interaction and requires calcium, which binds at a previously undetected site on ShhN. This site is conserved in nearly all Hh proteins and is a hotspot for mediating interactions between ShhN and CDO, Ptc, Hip and Gas1. Mutations in vertebrate Hh proteins causing holoprosencephaly and brachydactyly type A1 map to this calcium-binding site and disrupt interactions with these partners.

  18. SQL-1, homologue of the Golgi protein GMAP210, modulates intraflagellar transport in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuis, Joost R; Rademakers, Suzanne; Burghoorn, Jan; Jansen, Gert

    2013-04-15

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles that have important sensory functions. For their function, cilia rely on the delivery of specific proteins, both by intracellular trafficking and intraflagellar transport (IFT). In the cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans, anterograde IFT is mediated by kinesin-II and OSM-3. Previously, we have shown that expression of a dominant active G protein α subunit (GPA-3QL) in amphid channel neurons affects the coordination of kinesin-II and OSM-3 and also affects cilia length, suggesting that environmental signals can modulate these processes. Here, we show that loss-of-function of sql-1 (suppressor of gpa-3QL 1), which encodes the homologue of the mammalian Golgi protein GMAP210, suppresses the gpa-3QL cilia length phenotype. SQL-1 localizes to the Golgi apparatus, where it contributes to maintaining Golgi organization. Loss of sql-1 by itself does not affect cilia length, whereas overexpression of sql-1 results in longer cilia. Using live imaging of fluorescently tagged IFT proteins, we show that in sql-1 mutants OSM-3 moves faster, kinesin-II moves slower and that some complex A and B proteins move at an intermediate velocity, while others move at the same velocity as OSM-3. This indicates that mutation of sql-1 destabilizes the IFT complex. Finally, we show that simultaneous inactivation of sql-1 and activation of gpa-3QL affects the velocity of OSM-3. In summary, we show that in C. elegans the Golgin protein SQL-1 plays an important role in maintaining the stability of the IFT complex.

  19. The Drosophila Arf1 homologue Arf79F is essential for lamellipodium formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Daniel; Liu, Tao; Davidson, Anthony C.; Hume, Peter J.; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    Summary The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) drives the polymerisation of actin filaments located beneath the plasma membrane to generate lamellipodia that are pivotal to cell architecture and movement. By reconstituting WRC-dependent actin assembly at the membrane, we recently discovered that several classes of Arf family GTPases directly recruit and activate WRC in cell extracts, and that Arf cooperates with Rac1 to trigger actin polymerisation. Here, we demonstrate that the Class 1 Arf1 homologue Arf79F colocalises with the WRC at dynamic lamellipodia. We report that Arf79F is required for lamellipodium formation in Drosophila S2R+ cells, which only express one Arf isoform for each class. Impeding Arf function either by dominant-negative Arf expression or by Arf double-stranded RNA interference (dsRNAi)-mediated knockdown uncovered that Arf-dependent lamellipodium formation was specific to Arf79F, establishing that Class 1 Arfs, but not Class 2 or Class 3 Arfs, are crucial for lamellipodia. Lamellipodium formation in Arf79F-silenced cells was restored by expressing mammalian Arf1, but not by constitutively active Rac1, showing that Arf79F does not act via Rac1. Abolition of lamellipodium formation in Arf79F-silenced cells was not due to Golgi disruption. Blocking Arf79F activation with guanine nucleotide exchange factor inhibitors impaired WRC localisation to the plasma membrane and concomitant generation of lamellipodia. Our data indicate that the Class I Arf GTPase is a central component in WRC-driven lamellipodium formation. PMID:22992458

  20. Characterization of Two 20kDa-Cement Protein (cp20k) Homologues in Amphibalanus amphitrite

    KAUST Repository

    He, Li-Sheng

    2013-05-22

    The barnacle, Amphibalanus amphitrite, is a common marine fouling organism. Understanding the mechanism of barnacle adhesion will be helpful in resolving the fouling problem. Barnacle cement is thought to play a key role in barnacle attachment. Although several adult barnacle cement proteins have been identified in Megabalanus rosa, little is known about their function in barnacle settlement. In this study, two homologous 20k-cement proteins (cp20k) in Amphibalanus amphitrite, named Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2, were characterized. The two homologues share primary sequence structure with proteins from other species including Megabalanus rosa and Fistulobalanus albicostatus. The conserved structure included repeated Cys domains and abundant charged amino acids, such as histidine. In this study we demonstrated that Bamcp20k-1 localized at the α secretory cells in the cyprid cement gland, while Bamcp20k-2 localized to the β secretory cells. The differential localizations suggest differential regulation for secretion from the secretory cells. Both Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2 from cyprids dissolved in PBS. However, adult Bamcp20k-2, which was dominant in the basal shell of adult barnacles, was largely insoluble in PBS. Solubility increased in the presence of the reducing reagent Dithiothreitol (DTT), suggesting that the formation of disulfide bonds plays a role in Bamcp20k-2 function. In comparison, Bamcp20k-1, which was enriched in soft tissue, could not be easily detected in the shell and base by Western blot and easily dissolved in PBS. These differential solubilities and localizations indicate that Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2 have distinct functions in barnacle cementing. © 2013 He et al.

  1. Phagosome maturation in unicellular eukaryote Paramecium: the presence of RILP, Rab7 and LAMP-2 homologues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Wyroba

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Phagosome maturation is a complex process enabling degradation of internalised particles. Our data obtained at the gene, protein and cellular level indicate that the set of components involved in this process and known up to now in mammalian cells is functioning in unicellular eukaryote. Rab7-interacting partners: homologues of its effector RILP (Rab-interacting lysosomal protein and LAMP-2 (lysosomal membrane protein 2 as well as a7 subunit of the 26S proteasome were revealed in Paramecium phagolysosomal compartment. We identified the gene/transcript fragments encoding RILP-related proteins (RILP1 and RILP2 in Paramecium by PCR/RT-PCR and sequencing. The deduced amino acid sequences of RILP1 and RILP2 show 60.5% and 58.3% similarity, respectively, to the region involved in regulating of lysosomal morphology and dynein-dynactin recruitment of human RILP. RILP colocalised with Rab7 in Paramecium lysosomes and at phagolysosomal membrane during phagocytosis of both the latex beads and bacteria. In the same compartment LAMP-2 was present and its expression during latex internalisation was 2.5-fold higher than in the control when P2 protein fractions (100 000 x g of equal load were quantified by immunoblotting. LAMP-2 crossreacting polypeptide of ~106 kDa was glycosylated as shown by fluorescent and Western analysis of the same blot preceded by PNGase F treatment. The a7 subunit of 26S proteasome was detected close to the phagosomal membrane in the small vesicles, in some of which it colocalised with Rab7. Immunoblotting confirmed presence of RILPrelated polypeptide and a7 subunit of 26S proteasome in Paramecium protein fractions. These results suggest that Rab7, RILP and LAMP-2 may be involved in phagosome maturation in Paramecium.

  2. Phenotypic characterization of OmpX, an Ail homologue of Yersinia pestis KIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejek, Anna M; Sinclair, Dylan J; Seo, Keun S; Schnider, Darren R; Deobald, Claudia F; Rohde, Harold N; Viall, Austin K; Minnich, Scott S; Hovde, Carolyn J; Minnich, Scott A; Bohach, Gregory A

    2007-09-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the Yersinia pestis KIM OmpX protein. Yersinia spp. provide a model for studying several virulence processes including attachment to, and internalization by, host cells. For Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Ail, YadA and Inv, have been implicated in these processes. In Y. pestis, YadA and Inv are inactivated. Genomic analysis of two Y. pestis strains revealed four loci with sequence homology to Ail. One of these genes, designated y1324 in the Y. pestis KIM database, encodes a protein designated OmpX. The mature protein has a predicted molecular mass of 17.47 kDa, shares approximately 70 % sequence identity with Y. enterocolitica Ail, and has an identical homologue, designated Ail, in the Y. pestis CO92 database. The present study compared the Y. pestis KIM6(+) parental strain with a mutant derivative having an engineered disruption of the OmpX structural gene. The parental strain (and a merodiploid control strain) expressed OmpX at 28 and 37 degrees C, and the protein was detectable throughout all phases of growth. OmpX was required for efficient adherence to, and internalization by, cultured HEp-2 cell monolayers and conferred resistance to the bactericidal effect of human serum. Deletion of ompX resulted in a significantly reduced autoaggregation phenotype and loss of pellicle formation in vitro. These results suggest that Y. pestis OmpX shares functional homology with Y. enterocolitica Ail in adherence, internalization into epithelial cells and serum resistance.

  3. Identification and characterization of functional Smad8 and Smad4 homologues from Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanshan; Wang, Limin; Wang, Hui; Pu, Hongwei; Yang, Le; Li, Jing; Wang, Junhua; Lü, Guodong; Lu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Wenbao; Vuitton, Dominique A; Wen, Hao; Lin, Renyong

    2014-10-01

    Smad family proteins are essential cellular mediators of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. In the present study, we identified two members of the Smad proteins, Smad8 and Smad4 homologues (termed as EgSmadE and EgSmadD, respectively), from Echinococcus granulosus, the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE). Phylogenetic analysis placed EgSmadE in the Smad1, 5, and 8 subgroup of the R-Smad sub-family and EgSmadD in the Co-Smad family. Furthermore, EgSmadE and EgSmadD attained a high homology to EmSmadE and EmSmadD of E. multilocularis, respectively. Both EgSmadE and EgSmadD were co-expressed in the larval stages and exhibited the highest transcript levels in activated protoscoleces, and their encoded proteins were co-localized in the sub-tegumental and tegumental layer of the parasite. As shown by yeast two-hybrid and pull-down analysis, EgSmadE displayed a positive binding interaction with EgSmadD. In addition, EgSmadE localized in the nuclei of Mv1Lu cells (mink lung epithelial cells) upon treatment with human TGF-β1 or human BMP2, indicating that EgSmadE is capable of being translocated into nucleus, in vitro. Our study suggests that EgSmadE and EgSmadD may take part in critical biological processes, including echinococcal growth, development, and parasite-host interaction.

  4. Phagosome maturation in unicellular eukaryote Paramecium: the presence of RILP, Rab7 and LAMP-2 homologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyroba, E; Surmacz, L; Osinska, M; Wiejak, J

    2007-01-01

    Phagosome maturation is a complex process enabling degradation of internalised particles. Our data obtained at the gene, protein and cellular level indicate that the set of components involved in this process and known up to now in mammalian cells is functioning in unicellular eukaryote. Rab7-interacting partners: homologues of its effector RILP (Rab-interacting lysosomal protein) and LAMP-2 (lysosomal membrane protein 2) as well as alpha7 subunit of the 26S proteasome were revealed in Paramecium phagolysosomal compartment. We identified the gene/transcript fragments encoding RILP-related proteins (RILP1 and RILP2) in Paramecium by PCR/RT-PCR and sequencing. The deduced amino acid sequences of RILP1 and RILP2 show 60.5% and 58.3% similarity, respectively, to the region involved in regulating of lysosomal morphology and dynein-dynactin recruitment of human RILP. RILP colocalised with Rab7 in Paramecium lysosomes and at phagolysosomal membrane during phagocytosis of both the latex beads and bacteria. In the same compartment LAMP-2 was present and its expression during latex internalisation was 2.5-fold higher than in the control when P2 protein fractions (100,000 x g) of equal load were quantified by immunoblotting. LAMP-2 cross-reacting polypeptide of approximately106 kDa was glycosylated as shown by fluorescent and Western analysis of the same blot preceded by PNGase F treatment. The alpha7 subunit of 26S proteasome was detected close to the phagosomal membrane in the small vesicles, in some of which it colocalised with Rab7. Immunoblotting confirmed presence of RILP-related polypeptide and a7 subunit of 26S proteasome in Paramecium protein fractions. These results suggest that Rab7, RILP and LAMP-2 may be involved in phagosome maturation in Paramecium.

  5. Engineering the glutamate transporter homologue GltPh using protein semisynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke, Paul J; Annen, Alvin W; Valiyaveetil, Francis I

    2015-03-03

    Glutamate transporters catalyze the concentrative uptake of glutamate from synapses and are essential for normal synaptic function. Despite extensive investigations of glutamate transporters, the mechanisms underlying substrate recognition, ion selectivity, and the coupling of substrate and ion transport are not well-understood. Deciphering these mechanisms requires the ability to precisely engineer the transporter. In this study, we describe the semisynthesis of GltPh, an archaeal homologue of glutamate transporters. Semisynthesis allows the precise engineering of GltPh through the incorporation of unnatural amino acids and peptide backbone modifications. In the semisynthesis, the GltPh polypeptide is initially assembled from a recombinantly expressed thioester peptide and a chemically synthesized peptide using the native chemical ligation reaction followed by in vitro folding to the native state. We have developed a robust procedure for the in vitro folding of GltPh. Biochemical characterization of the semisynthetic GltPh indicates that it is similar to the native transporter. We used semisynthesis to substitute Arg397, a highly conserved residue in the substrate binding site, with the unnatural analogue, citrulline. Our studies demonstrate that Arg397 is required for high-affinity substrate binding, and on the basis of our results, we propose that Arg397 is involved in a Na+-dependent remodeling of the substrate binding site required for high-affinity Asp binding. We anticipate that the semisynthetic approach developed in this study will be extremely useful in investigating functional mechanisms in GltPh. Further, the approach developed in this study should also be applicable to other membrane transport proteins.

  6. A La autoantigen homologue is required for the internal ribosome entry site mediated translation of giardiavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Garlapati

    Full Text Available Translation of Giardiavirus (GLV mRNA is initiated at an internal ribosome entry site (IRES in the viral transcript. The IRES localizes to a downstream portion of 5' untranslated region (UTR and a part of the early downstream coding region of the transcript. Recent studies indicated that the IRES does not require a pre-initiation complex to initiate translation but may directly recruit the small ribosome subunit with the help of a number of trans-activating protein factors. A La autoantigen homologue in the viral host Giardia lamblia, GlLa, was proposed as one of the potential trans-activating factors based on its specific binding to GLV-IRES in vitro. In this study, we further elucidated the functional role of GlLa in GLV-IRES mediated translation in Giardia by knocking down GlLa with antisense morpholino oligo, which resulted in a reduction of GLV-IRES activity by 40%. An over-expression of GlLa in Giardia moderately stimulated GLV-IRES activity by 20%. A yeast inhibitory RNA (IRNA, known to bind mammalian and yeast La autoantigen and inhibit Poliovirus and Hepatitis C virus IRES activities in vitro and in vivo, was also found to bind to GlLa protein in vitro and inhibited GLV-IRES function in vivo. The C-terminal domain of La autoantigen interferes with the dimerization of La and inhibits its function. An over-expression of the C-terminal domain (200-348aa of GlLa in Giardia showed a dominant-negative effect on GLV-IRES activity, suggesting a potential inhibition of GlLa dimerization. HA tagged GlLa protein was detected mainly in the cytoplasm of Giardia, thus supporting a primary role of GlLa in translation initiation in Giardiavirus.

  7. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is killed by homologues of 2-(1-undecyloxy)-1-ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2016-07-01

    2-(1-Undecyloxy)-1-ethanol, monochamol, is a male-produced aggregation pheromone of the Monochamus species, which are efficient vectors of the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which cause devastating damage to pines worldwide. The nematicidal activity of synthetic monochamol and its homologues (ROEtOH: R = C7-C13) were investigated to find potential alternatives to the currently used PWN control agents abamectin and emamectin. Compounds with C7-C13 chain length alkyl groups exhibited 100% nematicidal activity at a concentration of 1000 mg/L. At a concentration of 100 mg/L, 2-(1-nonyloxy)-1-ethanol (C9OEtOH), 2-(1-decyloxy)-1-ethanol (C10OEtOH), 2-(1-undecyloxy)-1-ethanol (C11OEtOH), and 2-(1-dodecyloxy)-1-ethanol (C12OEtOH) showed 100% nematicidal activity, but the others showed weaker activities. C11OEtOH showed similar nematicidal activity to abamectin in terms of LD90 values, which were 13.30 and 12.53 mg/L, respectively. However, C9OEtOH, C10OEtOH, and C12OEtOH (LC90 values: 53.63, 38.18, and 46.68 mg/L, respectively) were less effective than C11OEtOH and abamectin. These results indicate that monochamol could be an effective alternative agent against PWN. The relationship of insecticidal and nematicidal activity to different carbon chain lengths in compounds is discussed.

  8. The two PPX-GppA homologues from Mycobacterium tuberculosis have distinct biochemical activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Y Choi

    Full Text Available Inorganic polyphosphate (poly-P, guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp and guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp are ubiquitous in bacteria. These molecules play a variety of important physiological roles associated with stress resistance, persistence, and virulence. In the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the identities of the proteins responsible for the metabolism of polyphosphate and (pppGpp remain to be fully established. M. tuberculosis encodes two PPX-GppA homologues, Rv0496 (MTB-PPX1 and Rv1026, which share significant sequence similarity with bacterial exopolyphosphatase (PPX and guanosine pentaphosphate 5'-phosphohydrolase (GPP proteins. Here we delineate the respective biochemical activities of the Rv0496 and Rv1026 proteins and benchmark these against the activities of the PPX and GPP proteins from Escherichia coli. We demonstrate that Rv0496 functions as an exopolyphosphatase, showing a distinct preference for relatively short-chain poly-P substrates. In contrast, Rv1026 has no detectable exopolyphosphatase activities. Analogous to the E. coli PPX and GPP enzymes, the exopolyphosphatase activities of Rv0496 are inhibited by pppGpp and, to a lesser extent, by ppGpp alarmones, which are produced during the bacterial stringent response. However, neither Rv0496 nor Rv1026 have the ability to hydrolyze pppGpp to ppGpp; a reaction catalyzed by E. coli PPX and GPP. Both the Rv0496 and Rv1026 proteins have modest ATPase and to a lesser extent ADPase activities. pppGpp alarmones inhibit the ATPase activities of Rv1026 and, to a lesser extent, the ATPase activities of Rv0496. We conclude that PPX-GppA family proteins may not possess all the catalytic activities implied by their name and may play distinct biochemical roles involved in polyphosphate and (pppGpp metabolic pathways.

  9. The Split Personality of Glutamate Transporters: A Chloride Channel and a Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Rosemary J; Ryan, Renae M; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Transporters and ion channels are conventionally categorised into distinct classes of membrane proteins. However, some membrane proteins have a split personality and can function as both transporters and ion channels. The excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) in particular, function as both glutamate transporters and chloride (Cl(-)) channels. The EAATs couple the transport of glutamate to the co-transport of three Na(+) ions and one H(+) ion into the cell, and the counter-transport of one K(+) ion out of the cell. The EAAT Cl(-) channel is activated by the binding of glutamate and Na(+), but is thermodynamically uncoupled from glutamate transport and involves molecular determinants distinct from those responsible for glutamate transport. Several crystal structures of an EAAT archaeal homologue, GltPh, at different stages of the transport cycle, alongside numerous functional studies and molecular dynamics simulations, have provided extensive insights into the mechanism of substrate transport via these transporters. However, the molecular determinants involved in Cl(-) permeation, and the mechanism by which this channel is activated are not entirely understood. Here we will discuss what is currently known about the molecular determinants involved in EAAT-mediated Cl(-) permeation and the mechanisms that underlie their split personality.

  10. Solvothermal synthesis of strontium phosphate chloride nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, W. M.; Wong, C. T.; Li, Z. Y.; Luk, K. D. K.; Chan, W. K.; Yang, C.; Chiu, K. Y.; Xu, B.; Lu, W. W.

    2007-08-01

    Strontium phosphate chloride nanowire was synthesized via a solvothermal treatment of strontium tri-polyphosphate and Collin salt in 1,4-dioxane at 150 °C. The effects of 1,4-dioxane concentration on particle morphology, crystallinity and phase purity were investigated in this study. The specimen morphology was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When the concentration of 1,4-dioxane was below 10%, micron-sized whisker was the dominant form. At 20-25% concentration of 1,4-dioxane, strontium phosphate chloride single-crystalline nanowire was 31±12 nm in diameter and 1.43±0.6 μm in length with an aspect ratio of 52.28±29.41. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of this nanowire matched with that of strontium phosphate chloride (JCPDS #083-0973). When 1,4-dioxane concentration exceeded 25%, nanorod aggregate was the dominant form instead of nanowire. At 20-25% 1,4-dioxane concentration suitable strontium concentration combine with high chemical potential environment favors the formation of nanowires. By adding 1,4-dioxane impure phase such as β-strontium hydrogen phosphate, nanorod formation was suppressed. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize high aspect ratio strontium phosphate chloride nanowire. It has potential bioactive nanocomposite, high mechanical performance bioactive bone cement filler and fluorescent material applications.

  11. Controlling chloride ions diffusion in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Song, Runxia

    2013-11-28

    The corrosion of steel in concrete is mainly due to the chemical reaction between the chloride ions and iron ions. Indeed, this is a serious threaten for reinforced concrete structure, especially for the reinforced concrete structure in the sea. So it is urgent and important to protect concrete against chloride ions corrosion. In this work, we report multilayer concrete can cloak chloride ions. We formulated five kinds of concrete A, B, C, D and E, which are made of different proportion of cement, sand and glue, and fabricated six-layer (ABACAD) cylinder diffusion cloak and background media E. The simulation results show that the six-layer mass diffusion cloak can protect concrete against chloride ions penetration, while the experiment results show that the concentration gradients are parallel and equal outside the outer circle in the diffusion flux lines, the iso-concentration lines are parallel outside the outer circle, and the concentration gradients in the inner circle are smaller than those outside the outer circle.

  12. Influence of compaction on chloride ingress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlopasa, J.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences from practice show the need for more of an understanding and optimization of the compaction process in order to design a more durable concrete structure. Local variations in compaction are very often the reason for initiation of local damage and initiation of chloride induced corrosion.

  13. Liquid crystalline critical dynamics in decylammonium chloride

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K W; Lee, C E; Kang, K H; Rhee, C; Kang, J K

    1999-01-01

    Collective chain dynamics and phase transitions in a model biomembrane, decylammonium chloride (C sub 1 sub 0 H sub 2 sub 1 NH sub 3 Cl), were studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Our measurements sensitively reflect the critical dynamics associated with the smectic C to smectic A transition of the lipid bilayer.

  14. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete mixt...

  15. Gebromeerde vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van H.J.; Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Sinds begin 2008 worden in het Nationaal Plan Diervoeder Choline Chloride monsters (= diervoeder additief) gevonden waarbij de DR CALUX screenings-assay een sterk verdacht signaal geeft, maar bij de GC-HRMS geen dioxines en dl-PCB's worden gevonden. Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van nader ond

  16. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  17. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR chloride channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, L.J.; Kleizen, B.; Jonge, H.R. de

    2000-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ABC transporter encoded by the cystic fibrosis gene, is localized in the apical membrane of epithelial cells where it functions as a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels and transporters. Wh

  18. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... possible exposure conditions. (2) Protective garments shall be provided clean and dry for each use. (i... Required Authorized Personnel Only (3) Containers of polyvinyl chloride resin waste from reactors or other... which may be useful: A. For kidney dysfunction: urine examination for albumin, red blood cells,...

  20. Spatial variability of chloride in concrete within homogeneously exposed areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angst, U.M.; Polder, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of variability is increasingly considered in service life predictions. This paper reports experimental data on the spatial distribution of chloride in uncracked concrete subjected to homogeneous exposure. Chloride concentrations were measured with potentiometric sensors embedded in concr

  1. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  2. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox{trademark} process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200{degrees}C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl{sub 3 liquid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} FeOCl{sub solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas} During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl{sub solid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3 solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas}. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way.

  3. Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Stephen R.

    2005-11-01

    Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an accelerated bridge restoration method similar to cathodic protection, but operates at higher current densities and utilizes a temporary installation. Both techniques prolong the life of a bridge by reducing the corrosion rate of the reinforcing bar when properly applied. ECE achieves this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultaneously increasing the alkalinity of the electrolyte near the reinforcing steel. Despite the proven success, significant use of ECE has not resulted in part due to an incomplete understanding in the following areas: (1) An estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment when the treated member is again subjected to chlorides; (2) The cause of the decrease in current flow and, therefore, chloride removal rate during treatment; (3) Influence of water-to-cement (w/c) ratio and cover depth on the time required for treatment. This dissertation covers the research that is connected to the last two areas listed above. To begin examining these issues, plain carbon steel reinforcing bars (rebar) were embedded in portland cement concrete slabs of varying water-to-cement (w/c) ratios and cover depths, and then exposed to chlorides. A fraction of these slabs had sodium chloride added as an admixture, with all of the slabs subjected to cyclical ponding with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. ECE was then used to remove the chlorides from these slabs while making electrical measurements in the different layers between the rebar (cathode) and the titanium mat (anode) to follow the progress of the ECE process. During this study, it was revealed that the resistance of the outer concrete surface layer increases during ECE, inevitably restricting current flow, while the resistance of the underlying concrete decreases or remains constant. During ECE treatment, a white residue formed on the surface of the concrete. Analyses of the

  4. Aspergilli Response to Benzalkonium Chloride and Novel-Synthesized Fullerenol/Benzalkonium Chloride Nanocomposite

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Unković; Milica Ljaljević Grbić; Miloš Stupar; Jelena Vukojević; Vesna Janković; Danica Jović; Aleksandar Djordjević

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive comparative analysis of antifungal potential of benzalkonium chloride and newly synthesized fullerenol/benzalkonium chloride nanocomposite was conducted to assess the possible impact of carbon-based nanocarrier on antimicrobial properties of the commonly used biocide. Physical characterization of synthesized nanocomposite showed zeta potential of +37.4 mV and inhomogeneous particles size distribution, with nanocomposite particles’ dimensions within 30–143 nm and maximum number...

  5. Prenatal susceptibility to carcinogenesis by xenobiotic substances including vinyl chloride.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, J M

    1981-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride for experimental animals when administered transplacentally is reviewed in comparison with known transplacental carcinogens, including those that, like vinyl chloride, are dependent on enzyme-mediated metabolic conversion to a reactive intermediate in maternal or fetal tissues. Vinyl chloride is converted by mixed-function oxidases to the reactive metabolite chlorooxirane, the carcinogenicity of which is also reviewed. Vinyl chloride is unequivocally a tr...

  6. Stability of Alprostadil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polyvinyl Chloride Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Susan V; Kirkham, Kylian; Munson, Jessica M

    2017-01-01

    The stability of alprostadil diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers at refrigerated temperature, protected from light, is reported. Five solutions of alprostadil 11 mcg/mL were prepared in 250 mL 0.9% sodium chloride polyvinyl chloride (PL146) containers. The final concentration of alcohol was 2%. Samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) with protection from light. Two containers were submitted for potency testing and analyzed in duplicate with the stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay at specific time points over 14 days. Three containers were submitted for pH and visual testing at specific time points over 14 days. Stability was defined as retention of 90% to 110% of initial alprostadil concentration, with maintenance of the original clear, colorless, and visually particulate-free solution. Study results reported retention of 90% to 110% initial alprostadil concentration at all time points through day 10. One sample exceeded 110% potency at day 14. pH values did not change appreciably over the 14 days. There were no color changes or particle formation detected in the solutions over the study period. This study concluded that during refrigerated, light-protected storage in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers, a commercial alcohol-containing alprostadil formulation diluted to 11 mcg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride 250 mL was stable for 10 days.

  7. Substrate-modulated gating dynamics in a Na+-coupled neurotransmitter transporter homologue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongfang; Terry, Daniel S; Shi, Lei; Quick, Matthias; Weinstein, Harel; Blanchard, Scott C; Javitch, Jonathan A

    2011-06-02

    Neurotransmitter/Na(+) symporters (NSSs) terminate neuronal signalling by recapturing neurotransmitter released into the synapse in a co-transport (symport) mechanism driven by the Na(+) electrochemical gradient. NSSs for dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin are targeted by the psychostimulants cocaine and amphetamine, as well as by antidepressants. The crystal structure of LeuT, a prokaryotic NSS homologue, revealed an occluded conformation in which a leucine (Leu) and two Na(+) are bound deep within the protein. This structure has been the basis for extensive structural and computational exploration of the functional mechanisms of proteins with a LeuT-like fold. Subsequently, an 'outward-open' conformation was determined in the presence of the inhibitor tryptophan, and the Na(+)-dependent formation of a dynamic outward-facing intermediate was identified using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition, single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging has been used to reveal reversible transitions to an inward-open LeuT conformation, which involve the movement of transmembrane helix TM1a away from the transmembrane helical bundle. We investigated how substrate binding is coupled to structural transitions in LeuT during Na(+)-coupled transport. Here we report a process whereby substrate binding from the extracellular side of LeuT facilitates intracellular gate opening and substrate release at the intracellular face of the protein. In the presence of alanine, a substrate that is transported ∼10-fold faster than leucine, we observed alanine-induced dynamics in the intracellular gate region of LeuT that directly correlate with transport efficiency. Collectively, our data reveal functionally relevant and previously hidden aspects of the NSS transport mechanism that emphasize the functional importance of a second substrate (S2) binding site within the extracellular vestibule. Substrate binding in this S2 site appears to act cooperatively

  8. Validating tyrosinase homologue melA as a photoacoustic reporter gene for imaging Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paproski, Robert J; Li, Yan; Barber, Quinn; Lewis, John D; Campbell, Robert E; Zemp, Roger

    2015-10-01

    To understand the pathogenic processes for infectious bacteria, appropriate research tools are required for replicating and characterizing infections. Fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging have primarily been used to image infections in animal models, but optical scattering in tissue significantly limits imaging depth and resolution. Photoacoustic imaging, which has improved depth-to-resolution ratio compared to conventional optical imaging, could be useful for visualizing melA-expressing bacteria since melA is a bacterial tyrosinase homologue which produces melanin. Escherichia coli-expressing melA was visibly dark in liquid culture. When melA-expressing bacteria in tubes were imaged with a VisualSonics Vevo LAZR system, the signal-to-noise ratio of a 9×dilution sample was 55, suggesting that ∼20 bacteria cells could be detected with our system. Multispectral (680, 700, 750, 800, 850, and 900 nm) analysis of the photoacoustic signal allowed unmixing of melA-expressing bacteria from blood. To compare photoacoustic reporter gene melA (using Vevo system) with luminescent and fluorescent reporter gene Nano-lantern (using Bruker Xtreme In-Vivo system), tubes of bacteria expressing melA or Nano-lantern were submerged 10 mm in 1% Intralipid, spaced between Photoacoustic imaging could resolve the two tubes of melA-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were less than 1 mm from each other, while bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging could not resolve the two tubes of Nano-lantern-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were spaced 10 mm from each other. After injecting 100-μL of melA-expressing bacteria in the back flank of a chicken embryo, photoacoustic imaging allowed visualization of melA-expressing bacteria up to 10-mm deep into the embryo. Photoacoustic signal from melA could also be separated from deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin signal observed within the embryo and chorioallantoic membrane. Our results suggest that melA is a useful photoacoustic reporter gene

  9. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used in food in accordance with...

  10. Intrinsic Resistance of Burkholderia cepacia Complex to Benzalkonium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Youngbeom Ahn; Jeong Myeong Kim; Ohgew Kweon; Seong-Jae Kim; Jones, Richard C.; Kellie Woodling; Goncalo Gamboa da Costa; LiPuma, John J.; David Hussong; Marasa, Bernard S.; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pharmaceutical products that are contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) bacteria may pose serious consequences to vulnerable patients. Benzyldimethylalkylammonium chloride (BZK) cationic surfactants are extensively used in medical applications and have been implicated in the coselection of antimicrobial resistance. The ability of BCC to degrade BZK, tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C14BDMA-Cl), dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C12BDMA-Cl), decyldimethyl...

  11. Retention of vinyl chloride in the human lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Krajewski, J.; Dobecki, M; Gromiec, J

    1980-01-01

    Experiments with volunteers showed that 42% of an inhaled dose of vinyl chloride is retained in the lungs. This value is independent of the concentration of vinyl chloride in the air. Elimination of vinyl chloride through the lungs is negligible since its concentration in expired air decreases immediately after the cessation of exposure.

  12. Kinetics of Vinyl Chloride Polymerization with Mixture of Initiators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Kinetic models for the rate constants of vinyl chloride polymerization in the presence of initiator mixtures were proposed. They may be used to design the initiator recipes for the vinyl chloride polymerization with uniform rate at different temperatures at which various grades of poly(vinyl chloride) will be prepared.

  13. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154.1740... Operating Requirements § 154.1740 Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. When a vessel is carrying vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that: (a) Section 154.1818 is met; or (b) Section 154.1710 is met,...

  14. Improved detection of remote homologues using cascade PSI-BLAST: influence of neighbouring protein families on sequence coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Kaushik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Development of sensitive sequence search procedures for the detection of distant relationships between proteins at superfamily/fold level is still a big challenge. The intermediate sequence search approach is the most frequently employed manner of identifying remote homologues effectively. In this study, examination of serine proteases of prolyl oligopeptidase, rhomboid and subtilisin protein families were carried out using plant serine proteases as queries from two genomes including A. thaliana and O. sativa and 13 other families of unrelated folds to identify the distant homologues which could not be obtained using PSI-BLAST. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have proposed to start with multiple queries of classical serine protease members to identify remote homologues in families, using a rigorous approach like Cascade PSI-BLAST. We found that classical sequence based approaches, like PSI-BLAST, showed very low sequence coverage in identifying plant serine proteases. The algorithm was applied on enriched sequence database of homologous domains and we obtained overall average coverage of 88% at family, 77% at superfamily or fold level along with specificity of ~100% and Mathew's correlation coefficient of 0.91. Similar approach was also implemented on 13 other protein families representing every structural class in SCOP database. Further investigation with statistical tests, like jackknifing, helped us to better understand the influence of neighbouring protein families. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that employment of multiple queries of a family for the Cascade PSI-BLAST searches is useful for predicting distant relationships effectively even at superfamily level. We have proposed a generalized strategy to cover all the distant members of a particular family using multiple query sequences. Our findings reveal that prior selection of sequences as query and the presence of neighbouring families can be important for

  15. A masquerade-like serine proteinase homologue is necessary for phenoloxidase activity in the coleopteran insect, Holotrichia diomphalia larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, T H; Kim, M S; Choi, H W; Joo, C H; Cho, M Y; Lee, B L

    2000-10-01

    Previously, we reported the molecular cloning of cDNA for the prophenoloxidase activating factor-I (PPAF-I) that encoded a member of the serine proteinase group with a disulfide-knotted motif at the N-terminus and a trypsin-like catalytic domain at the C-terminus [Lee, S.Y., Cho, M.Y., Hyun, J.H., Lee, K.M., Homma, K.I., Natori, S. , Kawabata, S.I., Iwanaga, S. & Lee, B.L. (1998) Eur. J. Biochem. 257, 615-621]. PPAF-I is directly involved in the activation of pro-phenoloxidase (pro-PO) by limited proteolysis and the overall structure is highly similar to that of Drosophila easter serine protease, an essential serine protease zymogen for pattern formation in normal embryonic development. Here, we report purification and molecular cloning of cDNA for another 45-kDa novel PPAF from the hemocyte lysate of Holotrichia diomphalia larvae. The gene encodes a serine proteinase homologue consisting of 415 amino-acid residues with a molecular mass of 45 256 Da. The overall structure of the 45-kDa protein is similar to that of masquerade, a serine proteinase homologue expressed during embryogenesis, larval, and pupal development in Drosophila melanogaster. The 45-kDa protein contained a trypsin-like serine proteinase domain at the C-terminus, except for the substitution of Ser of the active site triad to Gly and had a disulfide-knotted domain at the N-terminus. A highly similar 45-kDa serine proteinase homologue was also cloned from the larval cDNA library of another coleopteran, Tenebrio molitor. By in vitro reconstitution experiments, we found that the purified 45-kDa serine proteinase homologue, the purified active PPAF-I and the purified pro-PO were necessary for expressing phenoloxidase activity in the Holotrichia pro-PO system. However, incubation of pro-PO with either PPAF-I or 45-kDa protein, no phenoloxidase activity was observed. Interestingly, when the 45-kDa protein was incubated with PPAF-I and pro-PO in the absence, but not in the presence of Ca2+, the 45-k

  16. An Arabidopsis ctpA homologue is involved in the repair of photosystem Ⅱ under high light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN ShuMing; SUN XuWu; ZHANG LiXin

    2008-01-01

    A T-DNA insertion mutant AtctpA 1 was identified to study the physiological roles of a carboxyl-terminal processing protease (CtpA) homologue in Arabidopsis. Under normal growth conditions, disruption of AtctpA1 did not result in any apparent alterations in growth rate and thylakoid membrane protein components. However the mutant plants exhibited increased sensitivity to high irradiance. Degradation of PSII reaction center protein D1 was accelerated in the mutant during photoinhibition. These results demostrated that AtctpA1 was required for efficient repair of PSII in Arabidopsis under high irradiance.

  17. Crystal structure of myotoxin-II: a myotoxic phospholipase A{sub 2} - homologue from Bothrops moojeni venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, W.F.; Ward, R.J.; Lombardi, F.R.; Arni, R.K. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias, Letras e Ciencias Exatas; Soares, A.M.; Giglio, J.R. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Escola de Medicina; Fontes, M.R.M. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. Biofisica

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Phospho lipases A2 (PLA{sub 2}; E C 3.1.1.4, phosphatides s n-2 acyl hydrolases) hydrolysis the s n-2 ester bond of phospholipids showing enhanced activity at lamellar or membrane surfaces. Intracellular PLA{sub 2} s are involved at phospholipid metabolism and signal transduction, whereas extracellular PLA{sub 2} s are found in mammalian pancreatic juices, the venoms of snakes, lizards and insects. Based on their high primary sequence similarity, extracellular PLA{sub 2} s are separated into Classes I, II and III. Class II PLA{sub 2} s are found in snake venoms of Crotalidae an Viperidae species, and include the sub-family of Lys PLA{sub 2} s homologue. he coordination of the Ca{sup 2+} ion in the PLA{sub 2} calcium-binding loop includes and aspartate at position 49. In the catalytically active PLA{sub 2} s, this calcium ion plays a critical role in the stabilization of the tetrahedral transition state intermediate in the catalytic mechanism. The conservative substitution Asp49-Lys results in a decreased calcium affinity with a concomitant loss of catalytic activity, and naturally occurring PLA{sub 2} s-homologues showing the same substitution are catalytically inactive. However, the Lys PLA{sub 2} s possess cytolytic and myotoxic activities and furthermore retain the ability to disrupt the integrity of both plasma membranes and model lipid layers by a ca{sup 2+}-independent mechanism for which there is no evidence of lipid hydrolysis. Lys 49 PLA{sub 2} homologues have been isolated from several Bothrops spp. venoms including B. moojeni. Therefore, in order to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of the myotoxic and Ca{sup 2+} independent membrane damaging activities we have determined the crystal structure of MjTX-II, a Lys 49 homologue from the venom of B. moojeni. The model presented has been determined at 2.0 A resolution and refined to a crystallographic residual of 19.7% (R{sub f}ree=28.1%). (author)

  18. Prenylated Indolediketopiperazine Peroxides and Related Homologues from the Marine Sediment-Derived Fungus Penicillium brefeldianum SD-273

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yan An

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new indolediketopiperazine peroxides, namely, 24-hydroxyverruculogen (1, 26-hydroxyverruculogen (2, and 13-O-prenyl-26-hydroxyverruculogen (3, along with four known homologues (4–7, were isolated and identified from the culture extract of the marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium brefeldianum SD-273. Their structures were determined based on the extensive spectroscopic analysis and compound 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The absolute configuration of compounds 1–3 was determined using chiral HPLC analysis of their acidic hydrolysates. Each of the isolated compounds was evaluated for antibacterial and cytotoxic activity as well as brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality.

  19. Accelerated solvent extraction followed by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ion trap LC/MS/MS for analysis of benzalkonium chlorides in sediment samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.

    2002-01-01

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) were successfully extracted from sediment samples using a new methodology based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by an on-line cleanup step. The BACs were detected by liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an electrospray interface operated in the positive ion mode. This methodology combines the high efficiency of extraction provided by a pressurized fluid and the high sensitivity offered by the ion trap MS/MS. The effects of solvent type and ASE operational variables, such as temperature and pressure, were evaluated. After optimization, a mixture of acetonitrile/water (6:4 or 7:3) was found to be most efficient for extracting BACs from the sediment samples. Extraction recoveries ranged from 95 to 105% for C12 and C14 homologues, respectively. Total method recoveries from fortified sediment samples, using a cleanup step followed by ASE, were 85% for C12BAC and 79% for C14-BAC. The methodology developed in this work provides detection limits in the subnanogram per gram range. Concentrations of BAC homologues ranged from 22 to 206 ??g/kg in sediment samples from different river sites downstream from wastewater treatment plants. The high affinity of BACs for soil suggests that BACs preferentially concentrate in sediment rather than in water.

  20. Glutamate-gated chloride channel subunit cDNA sequencing of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae): cDNA variants and polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Alberto Moura Mendes; de Carvalho, Renato Assis; de Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria Lima

    2014-09-01

    The New World screwworm (NWS) Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is one of the major myiasis-causing flies that injures livestock and leads to losses of ~US$ 2.7 billions/year in the Neotropics. Ivermectin (IVM), a macrocyclic lactone (ML), is the most used preventive insecticide for this parasite and targets the glutamate-gated chloride (GLUCLα) channels. Several authors have associated altered GluClα homologues to MLs resistance in invertebrates, although studies about resistance in NWS are limited to other genes. Here, we aimed to characterise the NWS GluClα (ChGluClα) cDNA and to search for alterations associated with IVM resistance in NWS larvae from a bioassay. The open reading frame of the ChGluClα comprised 1,359 bp and encoded a sequence of 452 amino acids. The ChGluClα cDNAs of the bioassay larvae showed different sequences that could be splice variants, which agree with the occurrence of alternative splicing in GluClα homologues. In addition, we found cDNAs with premature stop codons and the K242R SNP, which occurred more frequently in the surviving larvae and was located close to mutation (L256F) involved in ML resistance. Although these alterations were in low frequency, the ChGluClα sequencing will allow further studies to find alterations in the gene of resistant natural populations.

  1. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series of...

  2. 40 CFR 61.64 - Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.64 Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of a polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section and § 61.65. (a... is not to exceed 0.02 g vinyl chloride/kg (0.04 lb vinyl chloride/ton) of polyvinyl chloride...

  3. Calcium/thionyl chloride battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, T.

    1985-12-01

    This final report documents the development efforts conducted by the Lithium Batteries Group of the Couples Department of Eagle-Picher Industries. The objective of the project was to develop calcium-thionyl chloride cell technology. The original project was divided into two main tasks. Task One was to consist of component optimization and stability studies. Once sufficiently advanced, the ongoing results of Task One were to be integrated with Task Two. Task Two was to consist of demonstration of an optimized primary cell. In July, 1983, the program was redirected. Task Two was split, with effort to be directed toward both the original primary cell and toward a high discharge rate reserve configuration cell. Additional electrolyte salts were to be evaluated as a means of improving the storability of the active calcium-thionyl chloride cell.

  4. Benzalkonium chloride. Health hazard evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernholc, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Health hazards associated with the use of benzalkonium chlorides (BAC) are reviewed. Benzalkonium chloride is extensively used as a cationic disinfectant. It is found in a great many over-the-counter and prescription eye products, disinfectants, shampoos, and deodorants, and is used in concentrations that range from 0.001 to 0.01% in eyedrops, up to 2.5% in concentrated liquid disinfectants. Solutions of 0.03 to 0.04% BAC may cause temporary eye irritation in humans but are unlikely to cause any skin response except in persons allergic to quaternary ammonium compounds. Inhalation of a vaporized 10% solution of BAC produced a bronchospasmodic reaction in a previously sensitized individual. At present no other human health effects from BAC have been documented or inferred from exposure to such dilute concentrations.

  5. BARRIER PROPERTIES OF VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuesheng; WENG Zhixue; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren

    1996-01-01

    The permeability coefficients of a series of copolymers of vinylidene chloride (VDC)with methyl acrylate (MA), butyl acrylate (BA) or vinyl chloride (VC) (as comonomer)to oxygen and carbon dioxide have been measured at 1.0 MPa and 30℃, while those to water vapor have been measured at 30℃ and 100% relative humidity. All the copolymers are semicrystalline. VDC/MA copolymers have lower melting temperature compared with VDC/BA copolymers, while that melting temperature of VDC/VC copolymer is higher than that of VDC/acrylate copolymers with the same VDC content. The barrier property of the copolymers is predominantly controlled by crystallite, free volume fraction, and cohesive energy. The permeability coefficients of VDC/MA copolymers to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor were successfully correlated with the ratio of free volume to cohesive energy.

  6. STABILISATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMADHER T. ABOOD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding different chloride compounds including (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 on the engineering properties of silty clay soil. Various amounts of salts (2%, 4%, and 8% were added to the soil to study the effect of salts on the compaction characteristics, consistency limits and compressive strength. The main findings of this study were that the increase in the percentage of each of the chloride compounds increased the maximum dry density and decrease the optimum moisture content. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index decreased with the increase in salt content. The unconfinedcompressive strength increased as the salt content increased.

  7. Iron (III) chloride doping of CVD graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Fang, Wenjing; Hsu, Allen L; Kong, Jing

    2014-10-03

    Chemical doping has been shown as an effective method of reducing the sheet resistance of graphene. We present the results of our investigations into doping large area chemical vapor deposition graphene using Iron (III) Chloride (FeCl(3)). It is shown that evaporating FeCl(3) can increase the carrier concentration of monolayer graphene to greater than 10(14) cm(-2) and achieve resistances as low as 72 Ω sq(-1). We also evaluate other important properties of the doped graphene such as surface cleanliness, air stability, and solvent stability. Furthermore, we compare FeCl(3) to three other common dopants: Gold (III) Chloride (AuCl(3)), Nitric Acid (HNO(3)), and TFSA ((CF(3)SO(2))(2)NH). We show that compared to these dopants, FeCl(3) can not only achieve better sheet resistance but also has other key advantages including better solvent stability.

  8. Gene targeting by RNAi-mediated knockdown of potent DNA ligase IV homologue in the cellulase-producing fungus Talaromyces cellulolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayata, Koutarou; Asada, Seiya; Fujii, Tatsuya; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2014-11-01

    The genome of the cellulase-producing fungus Talaromyces cellulolyticus (formerly Acremonium cellulolyticus) was screened for a potent DNA ligase IV gene (ligD homologue). Homologous recombination efficiency in T. cellulolyticus is very low. Therefore, suppression of a non-homologous end-joining system was attempted to enable specific gene knockouts for molecular breeding. The transcript levels of ligD homologue were 0.037 of those of the parental YP-4 strain in the Li20 transformant carrying the RNAi construct targeting the ligD homologue. Transformation of the hairpin-type RNAi vector into T. cellulolyticus could be useful in fungal gene knockdown experiments. Cellulase production and protein secretion were similar in the parental YP-4 strain and the Li20 transformant. Knockout transformation of ligD homologue using the Li20 transformant led to 23.1 % double crossover gene targeting. Our results suggest that the potent DNA ligase IV gene of T. cellulolyticus is related to non-homologous end joining and that the knockdown of the ligD homologue is useful in gene targeting.

  9. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Güler, Ekrem; Olgar, Şeref; Davutoğlu, Mehmet; Garipardıç, Mesut; Karabiber, Hamza

    2011-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is ...

  10. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrem Güler; Şeref Olgar; Mehmet Davutoğlu; Mesut Garipardıç; Hamza Karabiber

    2014-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is...

  11. EVALUATION OF BACTERICIDAL EFFECTIVENESS OF BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE

    OpenAIRE

    K. Imandel; M.B. Shaywaard; F. Mobaraki

    1996-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride is a quaternary ammounium Compounds derivative under different names such as Afxhang, Hamoon, Mahan etc, which have great and expanded use in sanitation and medical affairs. Bactericidal activity of these disinfectants was fulfilled according to National Standard Method No.2842 on Staph. Aureus, Sal. Typhimouium and E. coli. This laboratory test showed that, except Mahan that has not bactericidal efficacy on E.coli at concentration 0.4 percent, other disinfectants under ...

  12. Inactivation of Viruses by Benzalkonium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J. A.; Froelich, E. J.

    1964-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (as Roccal or Zephiran) was found to inactivate influenza, measles, canine distemper, rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, vaccinia, Semliki Forest, feline pneumonitis, meningopneumonitis, and herpes simplex viruses after 10 min of exposure at 30 C or at room temperature. Poliovirus and encephalomyocarditis virus were not inactivated under the same conditions. It was concluded that all viruses tested were sensitive except members of the picorna group. The literature was reviewed. PMID:4288740

  13. Electrochemical Studies in Aluminum Chloride Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-31

    Molten Salt Systems", Symposium on Molten Salts, Symposium Volume, The Electrochemical Society , in press (1976). Manuscripts in Preparation--Related to...Fused Salt Technology, Electrochemical Society Meeting, Chicaao, May 8-13, 1973. R. A. Osteryoung, R. H. Abel, L. G. Boxall and B. H. Vassos, "An...aluminate Melts", Electrochemical Society , San Francisco, CA, May, 1974. R. A. Osteryoung, "Chemistry in Aluminum Chloride Melts", Fifth International

  14. Developing Polymer Cathode Material for the Chloride Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangyu; Zhao, Zhigang; Yang, Meng; Xia, Hui; Yu, Tingting; Shen, Xiaodong

    2017-01-25

    The chloride ion battery is an attractive rechargeable battery owing to its high theoretical energy density and sustainable components. An important challenge for research and development of chloride ion batteries lies in the innovation of the cathode materials. Here we report a nanostructured chloride ion-doped polymer, polypyrrole chloride, as a new type of potential cathode material for the chloride ion battery. The as-prepared polypyrrole chloride@carbon nanotubes (PPyCl@CNTs) cathode shows a high reversible capacity of 118 mAh g(-1) and superior cycling stability. Reversible electrochemical reactions of the PPyCl@CNTs cathode based on the redox reactions of nitrogen species and chloride ion transfer are demonstrated. Our work may guide and offer electrode design principles for accelerating the development of rechargeable batteries with anion transfer.

  15. The Accelerated Test of Chloride Permeability of Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Ke-feng; ODD E Gjφrv

    2003-01-01

    The availability of accelerated chloride permeability test and the effect of w/c ratio, incorporation of silica fume, maximum aggregate size and aggregate type on the chloride permeability were studied. The mathematic analysis certifies that there is a linear relationship between accelerated test and natural diffusion. Test results show that the chloride permeability of concrete increases as w/c ratio increases whilst a limited amount of replacement of cement with silica fume, the chloride permeability decreases dramatically. The maximum aggregate size in the range of 8 to 25 mm seems also affect chloride permeability but with a much less significant level. The chloride permeability of silica fume lightweight aggregate concrete is very low, especially the concrete made with dry lightweight concrete. The chloride permeability can be evaluated by this accelerated test method.

  16. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  17. Boldine action against the stannous chloride effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiniger, I W; Ribeiro da Silva, C; Felzenszwalb, I; de Mattos, J C; de Oliveira, J F; da Silva Dantas, F J; Bezerra, R J; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-12-15

    Peumus boldus extract has been used in popular medicine in the treatment of biliar litiase, hepatic insufficiency and liver congestion. Its effects are associated to the substance boldine that is present in its extract. In the present work, we evaluated the influence of boldine both in: (i) the structural conformation of a plasmid pUC 9.1 through gel electrophoresis analysis; and in (ii) the survival of the strain of Escherichia coli AB1157 submitted to reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by a Fenton like reaction, induced by stannous chloride. Our results show a reduction of the lethal effect induced by stannous chloride on the survival of the E. coli culture in the presence of boldine. The supercoiled form of the plasmid is not modified by stannous chloride in the presence of boldine. We suggest that the protection induced by boldine could be explained by its anti-oxidant mechanism. In this way, the boldine could be reacting with stannous ions, protecting them against the oxidation and, consequently, avoiding the generation of ROS.

  18. Understanding microwave vessel contamination by chloride species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Sandro; Spanu, Davide; Bianchi, Davide; Dossi, Carlo; Pozzi, Andrea; Monticelli, Damiano

    2016-10-01

    Microwaves are widely used to assist digestion, general sample treatment and synthesis. The use of aqua regia is extensively adopted for the closed vessel mineralization of samples prior to trace element detection, leading to the contamination of microwave vessels by chlorine containing species. The latter are entrapped in the polymeric matrix of the vessels, leading to memory effects that are difficult to remove, among which the risk of silver incomplete recoveries by removal of the sparingly soluble chloride is the predominant one. In the present paper, we determined by mass spectrometry that hydrogen chloride is the species entrapped in the polymeric matrix and responsible for vessel contamination. Moreover, several decontamination treatments were considered to assess their efficiency, demonstrating that several cleaning cycles with water, nitric acid or silver nitrate in nitric acid were inefficient in removing chloride contamination (contamination reduction around 90%). Better results (≈95% decrease) were achieved by a single decontamination step in alkaline environment (sodium hydroxide or ammonia). Finally, a thermal treatment in a common laboratory oven (i.e. without vacuum and ventilation) was tested: a one hour heating at 150°C leads to a 98.5% decontamination, a figure higher than the ones obtained by wet treatments which requires comparable time. The latter treatment is a major advancement with respect to existing treatments as it avoids the need of a vacuum oven for at least 17h as presently proposed in the literature.

  19. Determination of the fate of alcohol ethoxylate homologues in a laboratory continuous activated-sludge unit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, T; Stephenson, R J; Eadsforth, C V; Sherren, A; Toy, R

    2006-05-01

    Environmental monitoring indicates that the distribution of alcohol ethoxylate (AE) homologues in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents differs from the distribution in commercial AE products, with a relative higher proportion of fatty alcohol (AOH, which is AE with zero ethoxylation). To determine the contribution of AE-derived AOH to the total concentration of AE and AOH in WWTP effluents, we conducted a laboratory continuous activated-sludge study (CAS). This consisted of a test unit fed with AE-amended synthetic sewage and a control unit fed with only synthetic sewage to avoid AE contamination from the feed. The removal efficiencies of some 114 AE homologues were determined by the application of a specific and sensitive analytical method. The extent of the removal of AE ranged from 99.70% for C18 compounds to > 99.98% for C12-16. Relatively high-AOH concentrations were observed in the effluents from blank and test units. By building the concentration difference from the test minus the control unit, the AE in the CAS effluent originating from AE in the influent was determined. Thus, it could be shown that AOH represented only 19% of the total AE (EO0-18) in the CAS, while monitoring in 29 WWTP effluents (European, Canadian, and US) revealed in total a mean AOH fraction of 55% (5-82%) of the total AE (EO0-18). This shows that only a small fraction of AOH in WWTP effluents originates from AE entering the WWTP.

  20. Dimerization and heme binding are conserved in amphibian and starfish homologues of the microRNA processing protein DGCR8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Senturia

    Full Text Available Human DiGeorge Critical Region 8 (DGCR8 is an essential microRNA (miRNA processing factor that is activated via direct interaction with Fe(III heme. In order for DGCR8 to bind heme, it must dimerize using a dimerization domain embedded within its heme-binding domain (HBD. We previously reported a crystal structure of the dimerization domain from human DGCR8, which demonstrated how dimerization results in the formation of a surface important for association with heme. Here, in an attempt to crystallize the HBD, we search for DGCR8 homologues and show that DGCR8 from Patiria miniata (bat star also binds heme. The extinction coefficients (ε of DGCR8-heme complexes are determined; these values are useful for biochemical analyses and allow us to estimate the heme occupancy of DGCR8 proteins. Additionally, we present the crystal structure of the Xenopus laevis dimerization domain. The structure is very similar to that of human DGCR8. Our results indicate that dimerization and heme binding are evolutionarily conserved properties of DGCR8 homologues not only in vertebrates, but also in at least some invertebrates.

  1. The Drosophila melanogaster Apaf-1 homologue ARK is required for most, but not all, programmed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kathryn; Daish, Tasman; Harvey, Kieran F; Pfleger, Cathie M; Hariharan, Iswar K; Kumar, Sharad

    2006-03-13

    The Apaf-1 protein is essential for cytochrome c-mediated caspase-9 activation in the intrinsic mammalian pathway of apoptosis. Although Apaf-1 is the only known mammalian homologue of the Caenorhabditis elegans CED-4 protein, the deficiency of apaf-1 in cells or in mice results in a limited cell survival phenotype, suggesting that alternative mechanisms of caspase activation and apoptosis exist in mammals. In Drosophila melanogaster, the only Apaf-1/CED-4 homologue, ARK, is required for the activation of the caspase-9/CED-3-like caspase DRONC. Using specific mutants that are deficient for ark function, we demonstrate that ARK is essential for most programmed cell death (PCD) during D. melanogaster development, as well as for radiation-induced apoptosis. ark mutant embryos have extra cells, and tissues such as brain lobes and wing discs are enlarged. These tissues from ark mutant larvae lack detectable PCD. During metamorphosis, larval salivary gland removal was severely delayed in ark mutants. However, PCD occurred normally in the larval midgut, suggesting that ARK-independent cell death pathways also exist in D. melanogaster.

  2. A WD40-repeat gene from Malus x domestica is a functional homologue of Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggemann, Julian; Weisshaar, Bernd; Sagasser, Martin

    2010-03-01

    The WD40 repeat protein TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) is involved in a multitude of developmental and biochemical reactions in Arabidopsis thaliana such as the production of seed coat colour and mucilage, pigmentation by anthocyanins as well as the formation of trichomes and root hairs. In this study, a putative TTG1 homologue was isolated from apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) showing 80.2% identity to A. thaliana TTG1 on nucleotide and 90.7% similarity on amino acid level. The MdTTG1 candidate was able to activate the AtBAN promoter in cooperation with the A. thaliana transcription factors TT2 and TT8 in A. thaliana protoplasts. This indicates that the encoded protein can be integrated into the complex that activates BAN in A. thaliana, and that a similar complex might also be present in apple. When transformed into ttg1 mutants of A. thaliana, the apple sequence was able to restore trichome growth, anthocyanin production in young seedlings as well as proanthocyanidin production in seeds. Additionally, roots of complemented mutant plants showed root hair formation resembling wild type. These results show that the studied apple WD40 gene is a functional homologue of AtTTG1 and we refer to this gene as MdTTG1.

  3. Anti-chloride permeability and anti-chloride corrodibility of a green high performance concrete admixture in concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yongbao; LIU Xinrong; LIU Dongyan; CHEN Jiangong; HUANG Xiongjun

    2003-01-01

    The effects of green high performance concrete (GHPC) admixture on the anti-chloride permeability and anti- chloride corrodibility of concrete are studied by a series of experiments designed on the basis of the diffusion principle and electrochemical principle. The GHPC admixture consists of fly ash, gangue, slag, red mud, etc., of which the mass fraction of industrial residues is over 96 %. The anti-permeabilities and anti-corrodibilities of the tested GHPC and normal concrete (NC) are evaluated by the Diffusion Coefficients of chloride which was obtained by measuring the concentration of chloride in the tested systems by the voltage difference method. It is found that the adoption of GHPC admixture greatly improves the anti-chloride permeability and anti-chloride corrodibility by modifying the inner structure and contracting the porosity of concrete to the reduce considerably the diffusion rate of chloride. The admixture is desirable regarding its engineering performances as well as economical and environmental interests.

  4. Chloride Ingress in Concrete with Different Age at Time of First Chloride Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Østergaard; Iskau, Martin Riis; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2016-01-01

    Concrete structures cast in spring have longer time to hydrate and are therefore denser and more resistant to chloride ingress when first subjected to deicing salts in winter than structures cast in autumn. Consequently, it is expected that a spring casting will have a longer service life....... This hypothesis is investigated in the present study by testing drilled cores from concrete cast in 2012 and 2013 on the Svendborgsund Bridge. The cores are subject to petrographic examination and mapping of chloride profiles. Moreover, chloride migration coefficients have been measured. The study shows...... that the effect of the extra time of hydration obtained when casting in spring increases the expected service life of the concrete structure significantly....

  5. In situ hydrothermal growth of metal-organic framework 199 films on stainless steel fibers for solid-phase microextraction of gaseous benzene homologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao-Yan; Gu, Zhi-Yuan; Jiang, Dong-Qing; Li, Yan; Wang, He-Fang; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2009-12-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received great attention due to their fascinating structures and intriguing potential applications in various fields. Herein, we report the first example of the utilization of MOFs for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). MOF-199 with unique pores and open metal sites (Lewis acid sites) was employed as the coating for SPME fiber to extract volatile and harmful benzene homologues. The SPME fiber was fabricated by in situ hydrothermal growth of thin MOF-199 films on etched stainless steel wire. The MOF-199-coated fiber not only offered large enhancement factors from 19,613 (benzene) to 110,860 (p-xylene), but also exhibited wide linearity with 3 orders of magnitude for the tested benzene homologues. The limits of detection for the benzene homologues were 8.3-23.3 ng L(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for six replicate extractions using one SPME fiber ranged from 2.0% to 7.7%. The fiber-to-fiber reproducibility for three parallel prepared fibers was 3.5%-9.4% (RSD). Indoor air samples were analyzed for the benzene homologues using the SPME with the MOF-199-coated fiber in combination with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. The recoveries for the spiked benzene homologues in the collected indoor air samples were in the range of 87%-106%. The high affinity of the MOF-199-coated fiber to benzene homologues resulted from the combined effects of the large surface area and the unique porous structure of the MOF-199, the pi-pi interactions of the aromatic rings of the analytes with the framework 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid molecules, and the pi-complexation of the electron-rich analytes to the Lewis acid sites in the pores of MOF-199.

  6. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Güler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride (BAC is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is to draw attention to the fact that BAC application to the scalp for treating pediculosis capitis may resemble the herpes encephalitis clinical picture.

  7. N-(2-Benzoylethylpropan-2-aminium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Aydın

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C12H18NO+·Cl−, N—H...Cl interactions between the free chloride anions and the organic cations connect the molecules into hydrogen-bond dimers, forming a R22(8 motif. The dimers are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains extending along [301]. The carbonyl group is co-planar with the phenyl ring [C—C—C=O torsion angle = −3.3 (7°]. The side chain has an E conformation.

  8. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...

  9. Synthesis of Aminolaurylpyridinium Chloride as Antimicrobial Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Tao; SONG Xin-yuan; SUN Gang

    2008-01-01

    4-amino-laurylpyridinium chloride (ALPC) was synthesized and employed in antimicrobial finishing of wool fabrics. The structures of the salt was fully characterized by using FTIR, 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR analysis. The effects of pH conditions of finishing baths, finishing time and temperature, and salt concentrations were investigated. ALPC could form ionic interactions with anionic groups on wool, which contribute to durable antimicrobial functions. The finished wool fabrics exhibited antimicrobial efficacy against Escherichia coli. The washing durability of antimicrobial functions on the finished wool fabrics was also studied.

  10. Magnesium anode for chloride ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangyu; Li, Qiang; Zhao-Karger, Zhirong; Gao, Ping; Fink, Karin; Shen, Xiaodong; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2014-07-23

    A key advantage of chloride ion battery (CIB) is its possibility to use abundant electrode materials that are different from those in Li ion batteries. Mg anode is presented as such a material for the first time and Mg/C composite prepared by ball milling of Mg and carbon black powders or thermally decomposed MgH2/C composite has been tested as anode for CIB. The electrochemical performance of FeOCl/Mg and BiOCl/Mg was investigated, demonstrating the feasibility of using Mg as anode.

  11. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg....../m(3) rapid-hardening Portland cement, w/c = 0.5, maturity minimum 6 months) stored at 65% and 85% RH, as well as in vacuum-saturated mortar samples, illustrate the applicability of the method. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    . The results show that K+-induced contraction of smooth muscle cells in the afferent arteriole is highly sensitive to chloride, whereas neurotransmitter release and ensuing contraction is not dependent on chloride. Thus, there are different activation pathways for depolarizing vasoconstrictors......-Renal vascular reactivity is influenced by the level of dietary salt intake. Recent in vitro data suggest that afferent arteriolar contractility is modulated by extracellular chloride. In the present study, we assessed the influence of chloride on K+-induced contraction in isolated perfused rabbit...... afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel...

  13. Investigation of Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Battery Safety Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE BATTERY SAFETY HAZARDS(U) GOULD RESEARCH CENTER ROLLING MEADOWS IL MATERIALS LAB A I ATTIA ET...838-012 7 ontract No. 60921-81-C-0363 6// Investigation of Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Battery Safety Hazards AD A 1 T 2 , Alan I. Attia Gould Research...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Investigation of Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Final Report Battery Safety Hazards 9/28/81 - 12/31/82 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT

  14. Surface Chloride Concentration of Concrete under Shallow Immersion Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Liu; Kaifeng Tang; Dong Pan; Zongru Lei; Weilun Wang; Feng Xing

    2014-01-01

    Deposition of chloride ions in the surface layer of concrete is investigated in this study. In real concrete structure, chloride ions from the service environment can penetrate into concrete and deposit in the surface layer, to form the boundary condition for further diffusion towards the interior. The deposit amount of chloride ions in the surface layer is normally a function of time, rather than a constant. In the experimental investigation, concrete specimens with different mix proportions...

  15. Chloride ingress profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, O.M. [Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Structural Engineering and Materials; Coats, A.M.; Glasser, F.P. [Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-11-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA is demonstrated to determine chloride ingress in cement paste on a micrometer scale. Potential chloride ingress routes such as cracks or the paste-aggregate interface may also be characterized by EPMA.

  16. Chloride ingress profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole mejlhede; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA...... is demonstated to determine chloride ingress in cement paste on a micrometer scale. Potential chloride ingress routes such as cracks or the paste-aggregate interface may also be characterized by EPMA. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd...

  17. In mouse oocytes the mitochondrion-originated germinal body-like structures accumulate mouse Vasa homologue (MVH) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunov, Arkadiy A; Reunova, Yulia A

    2015-08-01

    Mouse Vasa homologue (MVH) antibodies were applied to mouse Graafian oocytes to clarify if mitochondrion-originated germinal body-like structures, described previously by conventional electron microscopy, were associated with the germ plasm. It was found that both the mitochondrion-like structures with cristae and the germinal body-like structures that lacked any signs of cristae were labelled specifically by the anti-MVH antibody. Moreover, some granules were MVH-positive ultrastructural hybrids of the mitochondria and germinal body-like structures, the presence of which clearly supported the idea of a mitochondrial origin for the germinal body-like structures. This finding is the first evidence that mitochondrion-originated germinal body-like granules represent mouse germ plasm.

  18. Investigation of evaporation characteristics of polonium and its lighter homologues selenium and tellurium from liquid Pb-Bi-eutecticum

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhausen, J; Eichler, B

    2004-01-01

    The evaporation behaviour of polonium and its lighter homologues selenium and tellurium dissolved in liquid Pb-Bi-eutecticum (LBE) has been studied at various temperatures in the range from 482 K up to 1330 K under Ar/H2 and Ar/H2O-atmospheres using γ-ray spectroscopy. Polonium release in the temperature range of interest for technical applications is slow. Within short term (1h) experiments measurable amounts of polonium are evaporated only at temperatures above 973 K. Long term experiments reveal that a slow evaporation of polonium occurs at temperatures around 873 K resulting in a fractional polonium loss of the melt around 1% per day. Evaporation rates of selenium and tellurium are smaller than those of polonium. The presence of H2O does not enhance the evaporation within the error limits of our experiments. The thermodynamics and possible reaction pathways involved in polonium release from LBE are discussed.

  19. The contributions of protein disulfide isomerase and its homologues to oxidative protein folding in the yeast endoplasmic reticulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Ruoyu; Wilkinson, Bonney; Solovyov, Anton;

    2004-01-01

    and one or more of its ER homologues (Mpd1p, Mpd2p, Eug1p, Eps1p) are required for efficient carboxypeptidase Y maturation. Consistent with its function as a disulfide isomerase in vivo, the active sites of Pdi1p are partially reduced (32 +/- 8%) in vivo. These results suggest that PDI and its ER......In vitro, protein disulfide isomerase (Pdi1p) introduces disulfides into proteins (oxidase activity) and provides quality control by catalyzing the rearrangement of incorrect disulfides (isomerase activity). Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an essential protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae......, but the contributions of the catalytic activities of PDI to oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are unclear. Using variants of Pdi1p with impaired oxidase or isomerase activity, we show that isomerase-deficient mutants of PDI support wild-type growth even in a strain in which all of the PDI...

  20. On barium oxide solubility in barium-containing chloride melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V. [Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High Temperature Electrochemistry

    2016-11-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl{sub 2}-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl{sub 2}-MCl systems.

  1. Stochastic modeling of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2004-01-01

    the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface chloride......For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around...

  2. Fire's effect on chloride ingress related durability of concrete structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Wei-liang; ZHANG Yi

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of fire on durability of reinforced concrete structures, and points out that fire not only damages the chemical composition and physical structure of concrete by high temperature, but also leads to an additional risk due to the generation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)combustion gases. A mathematical model is proposed to calculate chloride ingress profiles in fire damaged concrete, so as to explore the service life prediction of the structure. Rapid Chloride Migration (RCM) test was carried out to determine the chloride diffusion coefficients for the application of the mathematical model. Finally, the detected results of a reported case testified to the validity of the mathematical model.

  3. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  4. Surface Chloride Concentration of Concrete under Shallow Immersion Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of chloride ions in the surface layer of concrete is investigated in this study. In real concrete structure, chloride ions from the service environment can penetrate into concrete and deposit in the surface layer, to form the boundary condition for further diffusion towards the interior. The deposit amount of chloride ions in the surface layer is normally a function of time, rather than a constant. In the experimental investigation, concrete specimens with different mix proportions are immersed in NaCl solution with a mass concentration of 5%, to simulate the shallow immersion condition in sea water, and the surface chloride concentrations are measured at different ages. It is found that the surface chloride concentration increases following the increasing immersion durations, and varies from a weight percentage of 0.161%–0.781% in concretes with different mix proportions. The w/c (water-to-cement ratio influences the surface chloride concentration significantly, and the higher the w/c is, the higher the surface chloride concentration will be, at the same age. However, following the prolonging of immersion duration, the difference in surface chloride concentration induced by w/c becomes smaller and smaller. The incorporation of fly ash leads to higher surface chloride concentration. The phenomena are explained based on pore structure analyses.

  5. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time.

  6. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Ekman, Tom; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1999-01-01

    is used as environmental load. The chloride penetration is characterized both qualitatively (UV-test) and quantitatively (chloride profile) and by microscopy. The test programme involves three different concrete qualities. Both steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are used in the concrete beams as well......Durability studies are carried out by subjecting FRC-beams to combined mechanical and environmental load. Mechanical load is obtained by exposing beams to 4-point bending until a predefined crack width is reached, using a newly developed test setup. Exposure to a concentrated chloride solution...... as main reinforcement. The effect of the cracks, the fibres and the concrete quality on the chloride penetration is studied....

  7. Expression of CLC-K chloride channels in the rat cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chunyan; Liang, Fenghe; Hu, Wei; Shen, Zhijun; Spicer, Samuel S; Schulte, Bradley A

    2006-03-01

    Current models of the lateral K+ recycling pathway in the mammalian cochlea include two multicellular transport networks separated from one another by three interstitial gaps. The first gap is between outer hair cells and Deiters cells, the second is between outer sulcus cells and type II spiral ligament fibrocytes and the third is between intermediate and marginal cells in the stria vascularis. K+ taken up by cells bordering these interstitial spaces is accompanied by Cl-. Maintaining appropriate electrolyte balance and membrane potentials in these cells requires a mechanism for exit of the resorbed Cl-. One possible candidate for regulating this Cl- efflux is ClC-K, a chloride channel previously thought to be kidney specific. Here, we demonstrate the expression of both known isoforms of ClC-K in the organ of Corti, spiral ligament and stria vascularis of the rat cochlea by immunohistochemical, Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. These results indicate a role for ClC-K in mediating Cl- recycling in the cochlea. The widespread expression of both ClC-K isoforms in the cochlea may help to explain the symptoms of Bartter's syndrome Type III, a mutation in the hClC-Kb gene (human homologue of ClC-K2), which results in renal salt wasting without deafness. These data support the hypothesis that both isoforms of ClC-K are co-expressed in some cell membranes and account for the preservation of hearing in the presence of a mutation in only one channel isoform.

  8. Plasmodium falciparum Bloom homologue, a nucleocytoplasmic protein, translocates in 3' to 5' direction and is essential for parasite growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Farhana; Tarique, Mohammed; Tuteja, Renu

    2016-05-01

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium, particularly Plasmodium falciparum, is the most serious and widespread parasitic disease of humans. RecQ helicase family members are essential in homologous recombination-based error-free DNA repair processes in all domains of life. RecQ helicases present in each organism differ and several homologues have been identified in various multicellular organisms. These proteins are involved in various pathways of DNA metabolism by providing duplex unwinding function. Five members of RecQ family are present in Homo sapiens but P. falciparum contains only two members of this family. Here we report the detailed biochemical and functional characterization of the Bloom (Blm) homologue (PfBlm) from P. falciparum 3D7 strain. Purified PfBlm exhibits ATPase and 3' to 5' direction specific DNA helicase activity. The calculated average reaction rate of ATPase was ~13 pmol of ATP hydrolyzed/min/pmol of enzyme. The immunofluorescence assay results show that PfBlm is expressed in all the stages of intraerythrocytic development of the P. falciparum 3D7 strain. In some stages of development in addition to nucleus PfBlm also localizes in the cytoplasm. The gene disruption studies of PfBlm by dsRNA showed that it is required for the ex-vivo intraerythrocytic development of the parasite P. falciparum 3D7 strain. The dsRNA mediated inhibition of parasite growth suggests that a variety of pathways are affected resulting in curtailing of the parasite growth. This study will be helpful in unravelling the basic mechanism of DNA transaction in the malaria parasite and additionally it may provide leads to understand the parasite specific characteristics of this protein.

  9. Homologue of Protein Kinase Mζ Maintains Context Aversive Memory and Underlying Long-Term Facilitation in Terrestrial Snail Helix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel M. Balaban

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that a variety of long-term memories in different regions of the brain and in different species are quickly erased by local inhibition of PKMζ. Using antibodies to mammalian PKMζ, we describe in the present study the localization of immunoreactive molecules in the nervous system of the terrestrial snail Helix lucorum. Presence of a homologue of PKMζ was confirmed with transcriptomics. We have demonstrated in behavioral experiments that contextual fear memory disappeared under a blockade of PKMζ with a selective peptide blocker of PKMζ (ZIP, but not with scrambled ZIP. If ZIP was combined with a reminder (20 min in noxious context, no impairment of the long-term contextual memory was observed. In electrophysiological experiments we investigated whether PKMζ takes part in the maintenance of long-term facilitation (LTF in the neural circuit mediating tentacle withdrawal. LTF of excitatory synaptic inputs to premotor interneurons was induced by high-frequency nerve stimulation combined with serotonin bath applications and lasted at least four hours. We found that bath application of 2x10-6 M ZIP at the 90th min after the tetanization reduced the EPSP amplitude to the non-tetanized EPSP values. Applications of the scrambled ZIP peptide at a similar time and concentration didn't affect the EPSP amplitudes. In order to test whether effects of ZIP are specific to the synapses, we performed experiments with LTF of somatic membrane responses to local glutamate applications. It was shown earlier that serotonin application in such an artificial synapse condition elicits LTF of responses to glutamate. It was found that ZIP had no effect on LTF in these conditions, which may be explained by the very low concentration of PKMζ molecules in somata of these identified neurons, as evidenced by immunochemistry. Obtained results suggest that the Helix homologue of PKMζ might be involved in post-induction maintenance of long-term changes in

  10. Identification and characterisation of the angiotensin converting enzyme-3 (ACE3 gene: a novel mammalian homologue of ACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelan Anne

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE plays a key role in blood pressure regulation. Although multiple ACE-like proteins exist in non-mammalian organisms, to date only one other ACE homologue, ACE2, has been identified in mammals. Results Here we report the identification and characterisation of the gene encoding a third homologue of ACE, termed ACE3, in several mammalian genomes. The ACE3 gene is located on the same chromosome downstream of the ACE gene. Multiple sequence alignment and molecular modelling have been employed to characterise the predicted ACE3 protein. In mouse, rat, cow and dog, the predicted protein has mutations in some of the critical residues involved in catalysis, including the catalytic Glu in the HEXXH zinc binding motif which is Gln, and ESTs or reverse-transcription PCR indicate that the gene is expressed. In humans, the predicted ACE3 protein has an intact HEXXH motif, but there are other deletions and insertions in the gene and no ESTs have been identified. Conclusion In the genomes of several mammalian species there is a gene that encodes a novel, single domain ACE-like protein, ACE3. In mouse, rat, cow and dog ACE3, the catalytic Glu is replaced by Gln in the putative zinc binding motif, indicating that in these species ACE3 would lack catalytic activity as a zinc metalloprotease. In humans, no evidence was found that the ACE3 gene is expressed and the presence of deletions and insertions in the sequence indicate that ACE3 is a pseudogene.

  11. The DELTA 181 lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ralph M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Leigh, A. P.

    In 1986, the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) undertook the development of a sensor module for the DELTA 181 spacecraft, a low earth orbit (LEO) mission of less than two months duration. A large lithium thionyl chloride battery was developed as the spacecraft's primary power source, the first known such use for this technology. The exceptionally high energy density of the lithium thionyl chloride cell was the primary driver for its use, resulting in a completed battery with a specific energy density of 120 Wh/lb. Safety requirements became the primary driver shaping all aspects of the power system design and development due to concerns about the potential hazards of this relatively new, high-energy technology. However, the program was completed without incident. The spacecraft was launched on February 8, 1988, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with over 60,000 Wh of battery energy. It reentered on April 2, 1988, still operating after 55 days, providing a successful, practical, and visible demonstration of the use of this technology for spacecraft applications.

  12. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR chloride channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleizen, B; Braakman, I; de Jonge, H R

    2000-08-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ABC transporter encoded by the cystic fibrosis gene, is localized in the apical membrane of epithelial cells where it functions as a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels and transporters. Whereas a key role of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in CFTR-channel gating has been firmly established, more recent studies have provided clear evidence for the existence of a second level of cAMP regulation, i.e. the exocytotic recruitment of CFFR to the plasma membrane and its endocytotic retrieval. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR Cl- channel has sofar been demonstrated only in a subset of CFTR-expressing cell types. However, with the introduction of more sensitive methods to measure CFTR cycling and submembrane localization, it might turn out to be a more general phenomenon that could contribute importantly to both the regulation of CFTR-mediated chloride transport itself and to the regulation of other transporters and CFTR-modulated cellular functions. This review aims to summarize the present state of knowledge regarding polarized and regulated CFTR trafficking and endosomal recycling in epithelial cells, to discuss present gaps in our understanding of these processes at the cellular and molecular level, and to consider its possible implications for cystic fibrosis.

  13. Synthesis and structure characterization of diethyldiallylammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立华; 龚竹青; 郑雅杰

    2003-01-01

    The unsaturated quaternary ammonium salt diethyldiallylammonium chloride(DEDAAC) was synthesized in a two-step synthetic method. The influences of the adding method of raw materials and temperature on the yields of diethylallylamine (DEAA), and drying and temperature on the synthesis of DEDAAC were investigated. The content of in-process product DEAA was determined by non-aqueous titration. The structure of product DEDAAC was identified with IR, 1 H NMR and elemental analysis. The results show that adding allyl chloride and sodium hydroxide alternately can increase the yield of DEAA and decrease by-products. In further synthesizing of DEDAAC from DEAA, the step of drying DEAA is very necessary. When DEAA is dried by solid sodium hydroxide, good columnar crystals with a high purity(mp 199.5-201.0 ℃) are obtained; when DEAA is undried or the content of water in DEAA is above 20%, only platelets with bad quality are obtained even without crystals. The suitable synthesis conditions for DEAA and DEDAAC are 35 ℃, 6 h and 40 ℃, 36 h, respectively, and their yields are 69.7% and 67.3%, respectively.

  14. Fault locator of an allyl chloride plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savković-Stevanović Jelenka B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Process safety analysis, which includes qualitative fault event identification, the relative frequency and event probability functions, as well as consequence analysis, was performed on an allye chloride plant. An event tree for fault diagnosis and cognitive reliability analysis, as well as a troubleshooting system, were developed. Fuzzy inductive reasoning illustrated the advantages compared to crisp inductive reasoning. A qualitative model forecast the future behavior of the system in the case of accident detection and then compared it with the actual measured data. A cognitive model including qualitative and quantitative information by fuzzy logic of the incident scenario was derived as a fault locator for an ally! chloride plant. The obtained results showed the successful application of cognitive dispersion modeling to process safety analysis. A fuzzy inductive reasoner illustrated good performance to discriminate between different types of malfunctions. This fault locator allowed risk analysis and the construction of a fault tolerant system. This study is the first report in the literature showing the cognitive reliability analysis method.

  15. Allele mining in the gene pool of wild Solanum species for homologues of late blight resistance gene RB/Rpi-blb1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum bulbocastanum comprising a CC-NBS-LRR gene RB/Rpi-blb1 confers broad-spectrum resistance to Phytophthora infestans and is currently employed in potato breeding for durable late blight (LB) resistance. Genomes of several Solanum species were reported to contain RB homologues with confirmed b...

  16. Identification of common mechanisms by which human and mouse cytomegalovirus seven-transmembrane receptor homologues contribute to in vivo phenotypes in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, Helen E; Abraham, Alexander M; Cardin, Rhonda D;

    2013-01-01

    The mouse cytomegalovirus chemokine receptor homologue (CKR) M33 is required for salivary gland tropism and efficient reactivation from latency, phenotypes partially rescued by the human cytomegalovirus CKR US28. Herein, we demonstrate that complementation of salivary gland tropism is mediated pr...

  17. THE COMPATIBILITY OF BLENDS OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) OR CHLORINATED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingguo; CHENG Rongshi

    1988-01-01

    IR spectral shifts of carbonyl vibrational absorption for ethyl acetate, which acts analogically as the structural unit of poly(methyl methacrylate), in cyclohexane, chloroform, chlorinated paraffins, poly(vinyl chloride) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) were measured. The results suggest that there are specific interactions between the carbonyl groups and the chlorinated hydrocarbons which could be responsible for the apparent compatibility of poly(vinyl chloride) -poly(methyl methacrylate) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) -poly(methyl methacrylate) blends. Additionally, the effects of the preparation mode of blend films on phase separation and observed compatibility are discussed.

  18. 21 CFR 177.1980 - Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as... applicable to vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers used in food-packaging adhesives complying with § 175.105... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers....

  19. 46 CFR 154.1745 - Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. 154.1745 Section 154.1745 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Operating Requirements § 154.1745 Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. A vessel carrying vinyl...

  20. Phosphatase inhibitors activate normal and defective CFTR chloride channels

    OpenAIRE

    Becq, F; Jensen, T J; Chang, X B; Savoia, A.; Rommens, J M; Tsui, L C; Buchwald, M; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1994-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at multiple sites. Although activation by protein kinases has been studied in some detail, the dephosphorylation step has received little attention. This report examines the mechanisms responsible for the dephosphorylation and spontaneous deactivation ("rundown") of CFTR chloride channels excised from transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human airway epi...

  1. Experimental and numerical investigation of chloride ingress in cracked concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Šavija, B.

    2014-01-01

    Chloride induced corrosion of reinforcing steel is recognized as the most common deterioration mechanism affecting reinforced concrete structures. As such, it has been in focus of research for more than thirty years. Numerous studies of chloride ingress, corrosion initiation, and corrosion propagati

  2. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  3. Hydrophobic treatment of concrete as protection against chloride penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Polder, R.B.; Borsje, H.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrophobic treatment makes a concrete surface absorb less water and less chloride. Hydrophobic treatment was studied as a protection agninst chloride penetration from deicing salts. Test methods were designed. Nine hydrophobic products were tested, of which three complied to the requirements on fin

  4. Chloride penetration into cementitious mortar at early age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caballero, J.; Polder, R.B.; Leegwater, G.A.; Fraaij, A.L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Modern service life design methods for concrete structures use chloride diffusion data as an input parameter. Abundant data exist for concrete at 28 days and, to a lesser extent, at later ages. This paper presents chloride diffusion data for mortar at ages between 1 day and 28 days age. Rapid Chlori

  5. Unsteady growth of ammonium chloride dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyushev, L. M.; Terentiev, P. S.; Soboleva, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Growth of ammonium chloride dendrites from aqueous solution is experimentally investigated. The growth rate υ and the radius ρ of curvature of branches are measured as a function of the relative supersaturation Δ for steady and unsteady growth conditions. It is shown that the experimental results are quantitatively described by the dependences ρ=a/Δ+b, υ=cΔ2, where the factors for primary branches are a=(1.3±0.2)·10-7 m, b=(2.5±0.4)·10-7 m, and c=(2.2±0.3)·10-4 m/s. The factor c is found to be approximately 7 times smaller for the side branches than that for the primary branches.

  6. Electrochemical properties of actinides in molten chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambertin, D.; Lacquement, J. [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification, DRRV, 30 - Marcoule (France); Sanchez, S.; Picard, G. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Lab. d' Electrochimie et de Chimie Analytique, UMR 7575 du CNRS, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    The chemical properties of plutonium and cerium chlorides have been studied in the fused CaCl{sub 2}-NaCl equimolar mixture at 550 deg. C using a tungsten working electrode and a pO{sup 2-} indicator electrode. The standard potential of Pu(III)/Pu was determined using cyclic voltammetry. The solubility product of Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} was calculated by potentiometric titration. The standard potential of Ce(III)/Ce have been determined by a potentiometry method. Potentiometric titrations of Ce(III) have been shown the existence of a soluble cerium oxychloride. All these data allowed us to draw the potential-pO{sup 2-} diagram which summarises the properties of plutonium and cerium compounds in the melt. (authors)

  7. [Survey of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Hirahara, Yoshichika; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Plasticizers in 101 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys on the Japanese market were surveyed. No phthalates were detected in designated toys, though bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and benzyl butyl phthalate were detected in more than half of other toys. 2,2,4-Tributyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutylate, o-acetyl tributyl citrate, adipates and diacetyl lauroyl glycerol, which are alternative plasticizers to phthalates, were detected. The results of structural analysis confirmed the presence of di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate, tributyl citrate, diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and neopentyl glycol esters; these have not previonsly been reported in Japan. There appears to be a shift in plasticizers used for designated toys from phthalates to new plasticizers, and the number of different plasticizers is increasing.

  8. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method proved to be useful for exploring cement hydration-induced changes in the diffusion coefficient of cement paste.

    Se ha desarrollado un método para medir el coeficiente de difusión de los iones cloruro en la pasta de cemento, partiendo de una aplicación analítica de la segunda ley de Fick en un sistema de coordinadas cilíndrico. Este método, que es natural, demostró ser capaz de producir resultados de difusividad en tan solo un mes. Se consiguió reducir el tiempo de ensayo mediante el aprovechamiento de la tridimensionalidad del flujo desde el exterior al interior de la probeta. A fin de determinar la concentración de saturación, se sometieron las pastas de cemento Portland a una disolución de cloruros concentrada. Este método resultó ser útil en el estudio de los cambios del coeficiente de difusión de la pasta de cemento provocados por las reacciones de hidratación que tienen lugar en esta.

  9. Behavior and products of mechano-chemical dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride and poly (vinylidene chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Zeng, Zigao; Xiao, Songwen

    2008-02-28

    The mechano-chemical (MC) dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) was performed by mechanical milling PVC/PVDC powder with zinc powder in a planetary ball mill, and the products of dechlorination were characterized by Infrared spectra (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The experimental results show that PVC/PVDC can be easily dechlorinated by milling with zinc powder, and formed various kinds of inorganic and organic products. Inorganic compounds included Zn2OCl(2).2H2O, Zn5(OH)8Cl2.H2O etc., and organic products involved diamond-like carbon, carbyne fragment, polyacetylene etc. Organic products formed following the paths of dechlorination, dehydrochlorination, crosslink, and oxidation. The mechano-chemical dechlorination process of PVC/PVDC may be an effective approach for carbyne synthesizing in the appropriate condition.

  10. Effects of cyclic chloride exposure on penetration of concrete cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, K.; Hooton, R.D.

    1999-09-01

    Concretes are in a state of flux between saturated and partially saturated conditions as they undergo continuous cycles of wetting and drying. In saturated concrete, dissolved ions enter through diffusion, whereas in partially saturated concrete, ion-containing fluids are absorbed by capillary suction and concentrated by evaporation of water. The primary focus of this study was to examine the effects of cyclic wetting and drying with sodium chloride solution on chloride ingress into concrete. Chloride profiles of samples exposed to various lengths and numbers of cycles were determined for three mixtures of concrete: two containing slag and/or silica fume with a 0.4 w/cm (water to cementing materials ratio) and one with a 0.3 w/cm. It was found that longer drying times increase the rate of chloride ingress. A good relationship exists between the depth of chloride penetration and the square root of the number of cycles.

  11. Determination of the heat capacities of Lithium/BCX (bromide chloride in thionyl chloride) batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stephen A.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    1989-12-01

    Heat capacities of twelve different Lithium/BCX (BrCl in thionyl chloride) batteries in sizes AA, C, D, and DD were determined. Procedures and measurement results are reported. The procedure allowed simple, reproducible, and precise determinations of heat capacities of industrially important Lithium/BCX cells, without interfering with performance of the cells. Use of aluminum standards allowed the accuracy of the measurements to be maintained. The measured heat capacities were within 5 percent of calculated heat capacity values.

  12. PHASE EQUILIBRIUM FOR THE TERNARY SYSTEM VINYL CHLORIDE-CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE-POLY (VINYL CHLORIDE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Jianfeng; WENG Zhixue; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren

    1991-01-01

    Swelling capacity of vinyl chloride (VC) in chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) with 25- 40 wt% Cl at temperature 30- 57 ℃ was studied and their relationships were correlated with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption equations. A ternary phase diagram for VC-CPE-PVC was also established.In-situ polymerization conditions of CPE-g -VC were proposed and CPE content control was analyzed for the manufacturing process of CPE-g-VC graft product based on results of phase equilibrium study.

  13. Genetically encoded optical sensors for monitoring of intracellular chloride and chloride-selective channel activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bregestovski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This review briefly discusses the main approaches for monitoring chloride (Cl−, the most abundant physiological anion. Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular Cl− ([Cl−]i is a challenging task owing to two main difficulties: (i the low transmembrane ratio for Cl−, approximately 10:1; and (ii the small driving force for Cl−, as the Cl− reversal potential (ECl is usually close to the resting potential of the cells. Thus, for reliable monitoring of intracellular Cl−, one has to use highly sensitive probes. From several methods for intracellular Cl− analysis, genetically encoded chloride indicators represent the most promising tools. Recent achievements in the development of genetically encoded chloride probes are based on the fact that yellow fluorescent protein (YFP exhibits Cl−-sensitivity. YFP-based probes have been successfully used for quantitative analysis of Cl− transport in different cells and for high-throughput screening of modulators of Cl−-selective channels. Development of a ratiometric genetically encoded probe, Clomeleon, has provided a tool for noninvasive estimation of intracellular Cl− concentrations. While the sensitivity of this protein to Cl− is low (EC50 about 160 mM, it has been successfully used for monitoring intracellular Cl− in different cell types. Recently a CFP–YFP-based probe with a relatively high sensitivity to Cl− (EC50 about 30 mM has been developed. This construct, termed Cl-Sensor, allows ratiometric monitoring using the fluorescence excitation ratio. Of particular interest are genetically encoded probes for monitoring of ion channel distribution and activity. A new molecular probe has been constructed by introducing into the cytoplasmic domain of the Cl−-selective glycine receptor (GlyR channel the CFP–YFP-based Cl-Sensor. This construct, termed BioSensor-GlyR, has been successfully expressed in cell lines. The new genetically encoded chloride probes offer means of screening

  14. Optical, thermal and magnetic studies of pure and cobalt chloride doped L-alanine cadmium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benila, B. S.; Bright, K. C.; Delphine, S. Mary; Shabu, R.

    2017-03-01

    Single crystals of L-alanine cadmium chloride (LACC) and cobalt chloride (Co2+) doped LACC have been grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterizations such as powder XRD, SXRD, FTIR, UV-vis, EDAX, TG/DTA, VSM, Dielectric and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) measurements. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. EDAX analysis confirms the presence of Co2+ ion in the host material. The functional group and optical behavior of the crystals were identified from FTIR and UV-vis spectrum analysis. Electrical parameters such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss have been studied. The thermal stability of the compound was found out using TGA/DTA analysis. Second Harmonic Generation of the samples was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique. Magnetic properties of the crystals studied by VSM were also reported. The encouraging results show that the cobalt chloride doped LACC crystals have greater potential applications in optical devices.

  15. Comparative effects of hydrogen chloride gas on tomato and chrysanthemum. I. Distribution and accumulation of chloride following exposure. II. Pathological anatomy of hydrogen chloride gas injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.

    1969-01-01

    Hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas damage to plants has not been a historically important problem. However, recent practices in a number of industries, particularly glass manufacturing and pyrolysis of waste plastics, have increased the seriousness of the problem. Studies were carried out under carefully controlled exposure conditions to determine the effects of HCl gas on a relatively sensitive and a relatively resistant plant species. The macroscopic symptoms of most importance in acute damage to tomato and chrysanthemum are glazing of the lower surface, and a bifacial bronzing of interveinal and marginal areas of leaves. Microscopically, glazing was shown to be caused by a collapse of the lower epidermal cells and a partial disorganization of the spongy mesophyll of leaves. Bronzing was shown to be caused by the further collapse of the spongy mesophyll, and in some cases the palisade mesophyll and upper epidermis. Analysis of plant tissues for their free chloride content following an exposure to HCl gas was done with cell-free water extracts which were titrated on an automatic chloride titrator. On the basis of such studies, evidence suggest that the mechanism of accumulation of chlorides in plants is similar to that of fluorides, and that in subacute doses, chlorides are translocated toward the extremities of the foliar portions of the plant. In areas where a number of different types of pollution sources exist, and symptomotology is not definitive in pinpointing the source, chloride analysis of plant tissues should prove valuable as an aid to diagnosis if HCl gas was suspected.

  16. Acute lethal and teratogenic effects of tributyltin chloride and copper chloride on mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) eggs and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adema-Hannes, Rachel; Shenker, Jonathan

    2008-10-01

    Acute and chronic bioassays were used to evaluate the lethal and sublethal effects of copper chloride and tributyltin chloride on mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos, a pelagic life stage often found in the surface microlayer where anthropogenic contaminants can accumulate. Acute bioassay testing determined the median lethal concentration (LC50) for the test organism after 48 h of exposure. Chronic toxicity tests were used to determine the measurement of sublethal parameters, such as developmental abnormalities after 72-h exposures to the toxicants. Embryos were collected 4 h postfertilization and subsequently exposed to 1, 5, 25, 50, and 100 microg/L of copper chloride and 3, 10, 20, 30, and 50 microg/L of tributyltin chloride. Analysis of hatch rate percentage determined that the mean 48-h LC50 of copper chloride and tributyltin chloride was 32.8 and 16.7 microg/L, respectively, based on the pooled data of four experiments with four replicates for each metal. Consistent abnormalities, such as yolk sac swelling, spinal deformities, and decreased hatch rates, were observed for each metal. Teratogenic responses to copper chloride and tributyltin chloride demonstrate the need to investigate further the impacts of pollution in the open oceans to a species indigenous to, and commercially important to, the Florida (USA) coasts. This information could then lead to the future development of a surface microlayer bioassay using mahi mahi embryos.

  17. Cloning of the Zygosaccharomyces bailii GAS1 homologue and effect of cell wall engineering on protein secretory phenotype

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    Dato Laura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zygosaccharomyces bailii is a diploid budding yeast still poorly characterized, but widely recognised as tolerant to several stresses, most of which related to industrial processes of production. Because of that, it would be very interesting to develop its ability as a cell factory. Gas1p is a β-1,3-glucanosyltransglycosylase which plays an important role in cell wall construction and in determining its permeability. Cell wall defective mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, deleted in the GAS1 gene, were reported as super-secretive. The aim of this study was the cloning and deletion of the GAS1 homologue of Z. bailii and the evaluation of its deletion on recombinant protein secretion. Results The GAS1 homologue of Z. bailii was cloned by PCR, and when expressed in a S. cerevisiae GAS1 null mutant was able to restore the parental phenotype. The respective Z. bailii Δgas1 deleted strain was obtained by targeted deletion of both alleles of the ZbGAS1 gene with deletion cassettes having flanking regions of ~400 bp. The morphological and physiological characterization of the Z. bailii null mutant resulted very similar to that of the corresponding S. cerevisiae mutant. As for S. cerevisiae, in the Z. bailii Δgas1 the total amount of protein released in the medium was significantly higher. Moreover, three different heterologous proteins were expressed and secreted in said mutant. The amount of enzymatic activity found in the medium was almost doubled in the case of the Candida rugosa lipase CRL1 and of the Yarrowia lipolytica protease XPR2, while for human IL-1β secretion disruption had no relevant effect. Conclusions The data presented confirm that the engineering of the cell wall is an effective way to improve protein secretion in yeast. They also confirmed that Z. bailii is an interesting candidate, despite the knowledge of its genome and the tools for its manipulation still need to be improved. However, as

  18. Chloride penetration into concrete under simulated field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motohashi, K.; Misra, S.; Yamamoto, A. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-31

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of field conditions such curing period, slump, maximum size of aggregate, etc. on chloride penetration into concrete. With a view to closely simulate the field conditions, all specimens were exposed to chloride attack for five days after casting. From the preliminary results obtained after a six month immersion in 3.3% NaCl solution, higher degrees of chloride ingress were observed in cases when the concrete was prematurely exposed to chloride attack or had a higher slump. In addition, apart from properties, such as water-cement ratio, etc., the relative orientation of the direction of penetration to that of casting, the mortar content of the mix, and the properties of the transition zone between the coarse aggregate and mortar were found to affect the diffusivity of the chloride. Under a limited number of conditions, soluble chloride content was also illustrated in addition to the total chlorides. 10 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Acetogenic microbial degradation of vinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2000-01-01

    Under methanogenic conditions, microbial degradation of [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride (VC) resulted in significant (14 ?? 3% maximum recovery) but transient recovery of radioactivity as 14C-acetate. Subsequently, 14C- acetate was degraded to 14CH4 and 14CO2 (18 ?? 2% and 54 ?? 3% final recoveries, respectively). In contrast, under 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES) amended conditions, 14C-acetate recovery remained high (27 ?? 1% maximum recovery) throughout the study, no 14CH4 was produced, and the final recovery of 14CO2 was only 35 ?? 4%. These results demonstrate that oxidative acetogenesis may be an important mechanism for anaerobic VC biodegradation. Moreover, these results (1) demonstrate that microbial degradation of VC to CH4 and CO2 may involve oxidative acetogenesis followed by acetotrophic methanogenesis and (2) suggest that oxidative acetogenesis may be the initial step in the net oxidation of VC to CO2 reported previously under Fe(III)-reducing, SO4-reducing, and humic acids- reducing conditions.Under methanogenic conditions, microbial degradation of [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride (VC) resulted in significant (14 ?? 3% maximum recovery) but transient recovery of radioactivity as 14C-acetate. Subsequently, 14C-acetate was degraded to 14CH4 and 14CO2 (18 ?? 2% and 54 ?? 3% final recoveries respectively). In contrast, under 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES) amended conditions, 14C-acetate recovery remained high (27 ?? 1% maximum recovery) throughout the study, no 14CH4 was produced, and the final recovery of 14CO2 was only 35 ?? 4%. These results demonstrate that oxidative acetogenesis may be an important mechanism for anaerobic VC biodegradation. Moreover, these results (1) demonstrate that microbial degradation of VC to CH4 and CO2 may involve oxidative acetogenesis followed by acetotrophic methanogenesis and (2) suggest that oxidative acetogenesis may be the initial step in the net oxidation of VC to CO2 reported previously under Fe(III)-reducing, SO4-reducing, and

  20. Studies on Hypokalemia Induced by Trimethyltin Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To determine the possible relationship between plasma potassium concentration and severity of acute trimethyltin chloride (TMT) poisoning and to assess the mechanism of TMT induced hypokalemia. Methods SD rats were treated with various dosages of TMT (ip). All the indices were measured and analysed for determing their possible relations with plasma K+. Results With increase of dosage, the plasma K+ level dropped rapidly, and deaths appeared more quickly. The LDs0 of TMT (ip) was 14.7 mg/kgbw. In the low dosage group (10 mg/kgbw), the plasma K+ level dropped slowly with the lowest dosage on day 6 (4.85 mmol/L). It rose again on day 11 (5.06 mmol/L), and recoverd on day 28. The poisoning signs corresponded with decline of the span of K+ level. The plasma Na+ level dropped half an hour after TMT treatment, but recovered 24 h later. In the high dosage group (46.4 mg/kgbw), the levels of plasma K+ and Na+ fell rapidly within half an hour (P<0.05), the intracellular potassium concentration of RBC did not decrerase obviously (P>0.05), the activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase in RBC membrane were depressed remarkably (P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively), the plasma aldosterone concentrations rose as high as tenfold (P<0.01), the arterial blood pH fell from 7.434 to 7.258 (P<0.01),pCO2 was raised from 29.62 to 45.33 mmHg (P<0.01). In the 24 h urine test, when rats were treated with TMT (21.5 mg/kgbw, ip), urine volume, urinary potassium, sodium and chloride increased significantly in comparison with those in the controls (P<0.01). Conclusion TMT could induce hypokalemia in SD rats. The available evidence suggests that TMT can induce acute renal leakage of potassium. At the same time, a significant rise of plasma aldosterone may play an important role in promoting potassium leakage from kidney to result in severe hypokalemia with inhaling acid-base abnormalities produced, which aggravate the poisoning symptoms. In the end the rats would die of respiratory

  1. Determination of vitamin K homologues by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line photoreactor and peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Sameh [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Course of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Kishikawa, Naoya [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Course of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Nakashima, Kenichiro [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Course of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Kuroda, Naotaka [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Course of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)]. E-mail: n-kuro@nagasaki-u.ac.jp

    2007-05-22

    A sensitive and highly selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of vitamin K homologues including phylloquinone (PK), menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) in human plasma using post-column peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (PO-CL) detection following on-line ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The method was based on ultraviolet irradiation (254 nm, 15 W) of vitamin K to produce hydrogen peroxide and a fluorescent product at the same time, which can be determined with PO-CL detection. The separation of vitamin K by HPLC was accomplished isocratically on an ODS column within 35 min. The method involves the use of 2-methyl-3-pentadecyl-1,4-naphthoquinone as an internal standard. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) were 32, 38 and 85 fmol for PK, MK-4 and MK-7, respectively. The recoveries of PK, MK-4 and MK-7 were greater than 82% and the inter- and intra-assay R.S.D. values were 1.9-5.4%. The sensitivity and selectivity of this method were sufficient for clinical and nutritional applications.

  2. Modeling meiotic chromosomes indicates a size dependent contribution of telomere clustering and chromosome rigidity to homologue juxtaposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Penfold

    Full Text Available Meiosis is the cell division that halves the genetic component of diploid cells to form gametes or spores. To achieve this, meiotic cells undergo a radical spatial reorganisation of chromosomes. This reorganisation is a prerequisite for the pairing of parental homologous chromosomes and the reductional division, which halves the number of chromosomes in daughter cells. Of particular note is the change from a centromere clustered layout (Rabl configuration to a telomere clustered conformation (bouquet stage. The contribution of the bouquet structure to homologous chromosome pairing is uncertain. We have developed a new in silico model to represent the chromosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in space, based on a worm-like chain model constrained by attachment to the nuclear envelope and clustering forces. We have asked how these constraints could influence chromosome layout, with particular regard to the juxtaposition of homologous chromosomes and potential nonallelic, ectopic, interactions. The data support the view that the bouquet may be sufficient to bring short chromosomes together, but the contribution to long chromosomes is less. We also find that persistence length is critical to how much influence the bouquet structure could have, both on pairing of homologues and avoiding contacts with heterologues. This work represents an important development in computer modeling of chromosomes, and suggests new explanations for why elucidating the functional significance of the bouquet by genetics has been so difficult.

  3. 2D and 3D crystallization of a bacterial homologue of human vitamin C membrane transport proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Harder, Daniel; Ucurum, Zöhre; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2014-10-01

    Most organisms are able to synthesize vitamin C whereas humans are not. In order to contribute to the elucidation of the molecular working mechanism of vitamin C transport through biological membranes, we cloned, overexpressed, purified, functionally characterized, and 2D- and 3D-crystallized a bacterial protein (UraDp) with 29% of amino acid sequence identity to the human sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 1 (SVCT1). Ligand-binding experiments by scintillation proximity assay revealed that uracil is a substrate preferably bound to UraDp. For structural analysis, we report on the production of tubular 2D crystals and present a first projection structure of UraDp from negatively stained tubes. On the other hand the successful growth of UraDp 3D crystals and their crystallographic analysis is described. These 3D crystals, which diffract X-rays to 4.2Å resolution, pave the way towards the high-resolution crystal structure of a bacterial homologue with high amino acid sequence identity to human SVCT1.

  4. Deletion of the fission yeast homologue of human insulinase reveals a TORC1-dependent pathway mediating resistance to proteotoxic stress.

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    Clémentine Beuzelin

    Full Text Available Insulin Degrading Enzyme (IDE is a protease conserved through evolution with a role in diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. The reason underlying its ubiquitous expression including cells lacking identified IDE substrates remains unknown. Here we show that the fission yeast IDE homologue (Iph1 modulates cellular sensitivity to endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in a manner dependent on TORC1 (Target of Rapamycin Complex 1. Reduced sensitivity to tunicamycin was associated with a smaller number of cells undergoing apoptosis. Wild type levels of tunicamycin sensitivity were restored in iph1 null cells when the TORC1 complex was inhibited by rapamycin or by heat inactivation of the Tor2 kinase. Although Iph1 cleaved hallmark IDE substrates including insulin efficiently, its role in the ER stress response was independent of its catalytic activity since expression of inactive Iph1 restored normal sensitivity. Importantly, wild type as well as inactive human IDE complemented gene-invalidated yeast cells when expressed at the genomic locus under the control of iph1(+ promoter. These results suggest that IDE has a previously unknown function unrelated to substrate cleavage, which links sensitivity to ER stress to a pro-survival role of the TORC1 pathway.

  5. Mapping of ionomic traits in Mimulus guttatus reveals Mo and Cd QTLs that colocalize with MOT1 homologues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Lowry

    Full Text Available Natural variation in the regulation of the accumulation of mineral nutrients and trace elements in plant tissues is crucial to plant metabolism, development, and survival across different habitats. Studies of the genetic basis of natural variation in nutrient metabolism have been facilitated by the development of ionomics. Ionomics is a functional genomic approach for the identification of the genes and gene networks that regulate the elemental composition, or ionome, of an organism. In this study, we evaluated the genetic basis of divergence in elemental composition between an inland annual and a coastal perennial accession of Mimulus guttatus using a recombinant inbred line (RIL mapping population. Out of 20 elements evaluated, Mo and Cd were the most divergent in accumulation between the two accessions and were highly genetically correlated in the RILs across two replicated experiments. We discovered two major quantitative trait loci (QTL for Mo accumulation, the largest of which consistently colocalized with a QTL for Cd accumulation. Interestingly, both Mo QTLs also colocalized with the two M. guttatus homologues of MOT1, the only known plant transporter to be involved in natural variation in molybdate uptake.

  6. Assessing the role of the ASP56/CAP homologue of Dictyostelium discoideum and the requirements for subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noegel, A A; Rivero, F; Albrecht, R; Janssen, K P; Köhler, J; Parent, C A; Schleicher, M

    1999-10-01

    The CAP (cyclase-associated protein) homologue of Dictyostelium discoideum is a phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) regulated G-actin sequestering protein which is present in the cytosol and shows enrichment at plasma membrane regions. It is composed of two domains separated by a proline rich stretch. The sequestering activity has been localized to the C-terminal domain of the protein, whereas the presence of the N-terminal domain seems to be required for PIP(2)-regulation of the sequestering activity. Here we have constructed GFP-fusions of N- and C-domain and found that the N-terminal domain showed CAP-specific enrichment at the anterior and posterior ends of cells like endogenous CAP irrespective of the presence of the proline rich region. Mutant cells expressing strongly reduced levels of CAP were generated by homologous recombination. They had an altered cell morphology with very heterogeneous cell sizes and exhibited a cytokinesis defect. Growth on bacteria was normal both in suspension and on agar plates as was phagocytosis of yeast and bacteria. In suspension in axenic medium mutant cells grew more slowly and did not reach saturation densities observed for wild-type cells. This was paralleled by a reduction in fluid phase endocytosis. Development was delayed by several hours under all conditions assayed, furthermore, motile behaviour was affected.

  7. Differential expression of metallothionein type-2 homologues in leaves and roots of Black pepper (Piper nigrum L

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    Susan M. Alex

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Black pepper (Piper nigrum L., member of the family Piperaceae is indigenous to India and is one of the most widely used spices in the world. In this paper we report the results of our attempts to identify a set of genes differentially expressed in the leaves of Piper nigrum, which could facilitate targeted engineering of this valuable crop. A PCR-based Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH technique was used to generate a leaf-specific subtracted cDNA library of Piper nigrum. A tester population of leaf cDNA was subtracted with a root derived driver cDNA. The efficiency of subtraction was confirmed by PCR analysis using the housekeeping gene actin. On sequence analysis, almost 30% of the clones showed homology to metallothionein type-2 gene. The predominance of metallothionein transcripts in the leaf was further confirmed using Real-Time PCR analyses and Northern blot. The possible role of metallothionein type-2 homologues in the leaf is discussed along with the feasibility of using SSH technique for identification of more number of tissue-specific genes from Piper nigrum.

  8. The ClpP protease homologue is required for the transmission traits and cell division of the pathogen Legionella pneumophila

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    Zhang Qin-fen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legionella pneumophila, the intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Legionnaires' disease, exhibit characteristic transmission traits such as elevated stress tolerance, shortened length and virulence during the transition from the replication phase to the transmission phase. ClpP, the catalytic core of the Clp proteolytic complex, is widely involved in many cellular processes via the regulation of intracellular protein quality. Results In this study, we showed that ClpP was required for optimal growth of L. pneumophila at high temperatures and under several other stress conditions. We also observed that cells devoid of clpP exhibited cell elongation, incomplete cell division and compromised colony formation. Furthermore, we found that the clpP-deleted mutant was more resistant to sodium stress and failed to proliferate in the amoebae host Acanthamoeba castellanii. Conclusions The data present in this study illustrate that the ClpP protease homologue plays an important role in the expression of transmission traits and cell division of L. pneumophila, and further suggest a putative role of ClpP in virulence regulation.

  9. Genetic link between Cabeza, a Drosophila homologue of Fused in Sarcoma (FUS), and the EGFR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Mai; Kyotani, Akane; Azuma, Yumiko; Yoshida, Hideki; Binh Nguyen, Thanh; Mizuta, Ikuko; Yoshida, Tomokatsu; Mizuno, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Masanori; Tokuda, Takahiko; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2014-08-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive muscular weakness. Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) that has been identified in familial ALS is an RNA binding protein that is normally localized in the nucleus. However, its function in vivo is not fully understood. Drosophila has Cabeza (Caz) as a FUS homologue and specific knockdown of Caz in the eye imaginal disc and pupal retina using a GMR-GAL4 driver was here found to induce an abnormal morphology of the adult compound eyes, a rough eye phenotype. This was partially suppressed by expression of the apoptosis inhibitor P35. Knockdown of Caz exerted no apparent effect on differentiation of photoreceptor cells. However, immunostaining with an antibody to Cut that marks cone cells revealed fusion of these and ommatidia of pupal retinae. These results indicate that Caz knockdown induces apoptosis and also inhibits differentiation of cone cells, resulting in abnormal eye morphology in adults. Mutation in EGFR pathway-related genes, such as rhomboid-1, rhomboid-3 and mirror suppressed the rough eye phenotype induced by Caz knockdown. Moreover, the rhomboid-1 mutation rescued the fusion of cone cells and ommatidia observed in Caz knockdown flies. The results suggest that Caz negatively regulates the EGFR signaling pathway required for determination of cone cell fate in Drosophila.

  10. Mammalian mitochondrial intermediate peptidase: Structure/function analysis of a new homologue from Schizophyllum commune and relationship to thimet oligopeptidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaya, G.; Sakati, W.R.; Rollins, R.A. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-10

    Mitochondrial intermediate peptidase (MIP) is a component of the mitochondrial protein import machinery required for maturation of nuclear-encoded precursor proteins targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or inner membrane. We previously characterized this enzyme in rat (RMIP) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YMIP) and showed that MIP activity is essential for mitochondrial function in yeast. We have now defined the structure of a new MIP homologue (SMIP) from the basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune. SMIP includes 4 exons of 523, 486, 660, and 629 bp separated by 3 short introns. The predicted SMIP, YMIP, and RMIP sequences share 31-37% identity and 54-57% similarity over 700 amino acids. When SMIP and RMIP were expressed in a yeast mip1{Delta} mutant, they were both able to rescue the respiratory-deficient phenotype caused by genetic inactivation of YMIP, indicating that the function of this enzyme is conserved in eukaryotes. Moreover, the MIP sequences show 20-24% identity and 40-47% similarity to a family of oligopeptidases from bacteria, yeast, and mammals. MIP and these proteins are characterized by a highly conserved motif, F-H-E-X-G-H-(X){sub 12}-G-(X){sub 5}-D-(X){sub 2}-E-X-P-S-(X){sub 3}-E-X, centered around a zinc-binding site and appear to represent a new family of genes associated with proteolytic processing in the mitochondrial and cytosolic compartments. 48 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Mammalian mitochondrial intermediate peptidase: structure/function analysis of a new homologue from Schizophyllum commune and relationship to thimet oligopeptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaya, G; Sakati, W R; Rollins, R A; Shen, G P; Hanson, L C; Ullrich, R C; Novotny, C P

    1995-08-10

    Mitochondrial intermediate peptidase (MIP) is a component of the mitochondrial protein import machinery required for maturation of nuclear-encoded precursor proteins targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or inner membrane. We previously characterized this enzyme in rat (RMIP) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YMIP) and showed that MIP activity is essential for mitochondrial function in yeast. We have now defined the structure of a new MIP homologue (SMIP) from the basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune. SMIP includes 4 exons of 523, 486, 660, and 629 bp separated by 3 short introns. The predicted SMIP, YMIP, and RMIP sequences share 31-37% identity and 54-57% similarity over 700 amino acids. When SMIP and RMIP were expressed in a yeast mip1 delta mutant, they were both able to rescue the respiratory-deficient phenotype caused by genetic inactivation of YMIP, indicating that the function of this enzyme is conserved in eukaryotes. Moreover, the MIP sequences show 20-24% identity and 40-47% similarity to a family of oligopeptidases from bacteria, yeast, and mammals. MIP and these proteins are characterized by a highly conserved motif, F-H-E-X-G-H-(X)2-H-(X)12-G-(X)5-D-(X)2-E-X-P-S-(X)3-E-X, centered around a zinc-binding site and appear to represent a new family of genes associated with proteolytic processing in the mitochondrial and cytosolic compartments.

  12. The FBXO7 homologue nutcracker and binding partner PI31 in Drosophila melanogaster models of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzetti, Eric M; Dolomount, Lindsay A; Staveley, Brian E

    2017-01-01

    Parkinsonian-pyramidal syndrome (PPS) is an early onset form of Parkinson's disease (PD) that shows degeneration of the extrapyramidal region of the brain to result in a severe form of PD. The toxic protein build-up has been implicated in the onset of PPS. Protein removal is mediated by an intracellular proteasome complex: an E3 ubiquitin ligase, the targeting component, is essential for function. FBXO7 encodes the F-box component of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase linked to familial forms of PPS. The Drosophila melanogaster homologue nutcracker (ntc) and a binding partner, PI31, have been shown to be active in proteasome function. We show that altered expression of either ntc or PI31 in dopaminergic neurons leads to a decrease in longevity and locomotor ability, phenotypes both associated with models of PD. Furthermore, expression of ntc-RNAi in an established α-synuclein-dependent model of PD rescues the phenotypes of diminished longevity and locomotor control.

  13. Su(dx) E3 ubiquitin ligase-dependent and -independent functions of polychaetoid, the Drosophila ZO-1 homologue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djiane, Alexandre; Shimizu, Hideyuki; Wilkin, Marian; Mazleyrat, Sabine; Jennings, Martin D; Avis, Johanna; Bray, Sarah; Baron, Martin

    2011-01-10

    Zona occludens (ZO) proteins are molecular scaffolds localized to cell junctions, which regulate epithelial integrity in mammals. Using newly generated null alleles, we demonstrate that polychaetoid (pyd), the unique Drosophila melanogaster ZO homologue, regulates accumulation of adherens junction-localized receptors, such as Notch, although it is dispensable for epithelial polarization. Pyd positively regulates Notch signaling during sensory organ development but acts negatively on Notch to restrict the ovary germline stem cell niche. In both contexts, we identify a core antagonistic interaction between Pyd and the WW domain E3 ubiquitin ligase Su(dx). Pyd binds Su(dx) directly, in part through a noncanonical WW-binding motif. Pyd also restricts epithelial wing cell numbers to control adult wing shape, a function associated with the FERM protein Expanded and independent of Su(dx). As both Su(dx) and Expanded regulate trafficking, we propose that a conserved role of ZO proteins is to coordinate receptor trafficking and signaling with junctional organization.

  14. Biological characterization of a myotoxin phosphoplipase A2 homologue purified from the venom of the snake Bothrops moojeni

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    MR Queiroz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A myotoxin phospholipase A2 homologue, BmooMtx, was isolated from the venom of Bothrops moojeni by a combination of ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel column and gel filtration on Sephadex G-75. SDS-PAGE showed the enzyme to be a monomer with a molecular weight of 16,500. BmooMtx induced release of creatine kinase and morphological analyses indicated that it provoked an intense myonecrosis, with visible leukocyte infiltrate and damaged muscle cells 24 hours after injection. Anti-BmooMTx antibodies partially neutralized the myotoxic activity of BmooMtx and crude B. moojeni venom, as judged by determination of plasma creatine kinase levels and histological evaluation of skeletal muscle in mice. Anti-BmooMTx antibodies were effective in reducing the plasma creatine kinase levels of crude B. alternatus and B. leucurus venoms, evidencing immunological cross-reactivity between BmooMTx and other bothropic venoms. Intraplantar (i.pl. injection of BmooMtx (1 to 15 μg/animal caused a dose- and time-dependent hyperalgesia and edematogenic responses. Dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg, meloxicam (2 mg/kg and promethazine (5 mg/kg markedly reduced the hyperalgesia. Our data suggest that these drugs may likely serve as complementary therapies in cases of accidents with Bothrops moojeni, provided that such pharmacological treatments are administered immediately after the incident.

  15. Transcriptomic analysis of common carp anterior kidney during Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection: Immunoglobulin repertoire and homologue functional divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Matthew J; Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A

    2017-02-02

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infects koi and common carp and causes widespread mortalities. While the virus is a significant concern for aquaculture operations in many countries, in Australia the virus may be a useful biocontrol agent for pest carp. However, carp immune responses to CyHV-3, and the molecular mechanisms underpinning resistance, are not well understood. Here we used RNA-Seq on carp during different phases of CyHV-3 infection to detect the gene expression dynamics of both host and virus simultaneously. During acute CyHV-3 infection, the carp host modified the expression of genes involved in various immune systems and detoxification pathways. Moreover, the activated pathways were skewed toward humoral immune responses, which may have been influenced by the virus itself. Many immune-related genes were duplicated in the carp genome, and often these were expressed differently across the infection phases. Of particular interest were two interleukin-10 homologues that were not expressed synchronously, suggesting neo- or sub-functionalization. The carp immunoglobulin repertoire significantly diversified during active CyHV-3 infection, which was followed by the selection of high-affinity B-cells. This is indicative of a developing adaptive immune response, and is the first attempt to use RNA-Seq to understand this process in fish during a viral infection.

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of common carp anterior kidney during Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection: Immunoglobulin repertoire and homologue functional divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Matthew J.; Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infects koi and common carp and causes widespread mortalities. While the virus is a significant concern for aquaculture operations in many countries, in Australia the virus may be a useful biocontrol agent for pest carp. However, carp immune responses to CyHV-3, and the molecular mechanisms underpinning resistance, are not well understood. Here we used RNA-Seq on carp during different phases of CyHV-3 infection to detect the gene expression dynamics of both host and virus simultaneously. During acute CyHV-3 infection, the carp host modified the expression of genes involved in various immune systems and detoxification pathways. Moreover, the activated pathways were skewed toward humoral immune responses, which may have been influenced by the virus itself. Many immune-related genes were duplicated in the carp genome, and often these were expressed differently across the infection phases. Of particular interest were two interleukin-10 homologues that were not expressed synchronously, suggesting neo- or sub-functionalization. The carp immunoglobulin repertoire significantly diversified during active CyHV-3 infection, which was followed by the selection of high-affinity B-cells. This is indicative of a developing adaptive immune response, and is the first attempt to use RNA-Seq to understand this process in fish during a viral infection. PMID:28148967

  17. Ustilago maydis Rho1 and 14-3-3 homologues participate in pathways controlling cell separation and cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cau D; Yu, Zhanyang; Sandrock, Björn; Bölker, Michael; Gold, Scott E; Perlin, Michael H

    2009-07-01

    Proteins of the 14-3-3 and Rho-GTPase families are functionally conserved eukaryotic proteins that participate in many important cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, malignant transformation, stress response, and apoptosis. However, the exact role(s) of these proteins in these processes is not entirely understood. Using the fungal maize pathogen, Ustilago maydis, we were able to demonstrate a functional connection between Pdc1 and Rho1, the U. maydis homologues of 14-3-3epsilon and Rho1, respectively. Our experiments suggest that Pdc1 regulates viability, cytokinesis, chromosome condensation, and vacuole formation. Similarly, U. maydis Rho1 is also involved in these three essential processes and exerts an additional function during mating and filamentation. Intriguingly, yeast two-hybrid and epistasis experiments suggest that both Pdc1 and Rho1 could be constituents of the same regulatory cascade(s) controlling cell growth and filamentation in U. maydis. Overexpression of rho1 ameliorated the defects of cells depleted for Pdc1. Furthermore, we found that another small G protein, Rac1, was a suppressor of lethality for both Pdc1 and Rho1. In addition, deletion of cla4, encoding a Rac1 effector kinase, could also rescue cells with Pdc1 depleted. Inferring from these data, we propose a model for Rho1 and Pdc1 functions in U. maydis.

  18. The Caenorhabditis elegans p120 catenin homologue, JAC-1, modulates cadherin-catenin function during epidermal morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, Jonathan; Cox, Elisabeth A; Broadbent, Ian D; Flett, Aileen; Hardin, Jeff

    2003-07-07

    The cadherin-catenin complex is essential for tissue morphogenesis during animal development. In cultured mammalian cells, p120 catenin (p120ctn) is an important regulator of cadherin-catenin complex function. However, information on the role of p120ctn family members in cadherin-dependent events in vivo is limited. We have examined the role of the single Caenorhabditis elegans p120ctn homologue JAC-1 (juxtamembrane domain [JMD]-associated catenin) during epidermal morphogenesis. Similar to other p120ctn family members, JAC-1 binds the JMD of the classical cadherin HMR-1, and GFP-tagged JAC-1 localizes to adherens junctions in an HMR-1-dependent manner. Surprisingly, depleting JAC-1 expression using RNA interference (RNAi) does not result in any obvious defects in embryonic or postembryonic development. However, jac-1(RNAi) does increase the severity and penetrance of morphogenetic defects caused by a hypomorphic mutation in the hmp-1/alpha-catenin gene. In these hmp-1 mutants, jac-1 depletion causes failure of the embryo to elongate into a worm-like shape, a process that involves contraction of the epidermis. Associated with failed elongation is the detachment of actin bundles from epidermal adherens junctions and failure to maintain cadherin in adherens junctions. These results suggest that JAC-1 acts as a positive modulator of cadherin function in C. elegans.

  19. An alpha-catulin homologue controls neuromuscular function through localization of the dystrophin complex and BK channels in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linu S Abraham

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The large conductance, voltage- and calcium-dependent potassium (BK channel serves as a major negative feedback regulator of calcium-mediated physiological processes and has been implicated in muscle dysfunction and neurological disorders. In addition to membrane depolarization, activation of the BK channel requires a rise in cytosolic calcium. Localization of the BK channel near calcium channels is therefore critical for its function. In a genetic screen designed to isolate novel regulators of the Caenorhabditis elegans BK channel, SLO-1, we identified ctn-1, which encodes an α-catulin homologue with homology to the cytoskeletal proteins α-catenin and vinculin. ctn-1 Mutants resemble slo-1 loss-of-function mutants, as well as mutants with a compromised dystrophin complex. We determined that CTN-1 uses two distinct mechanisms to localize SLO-1 in muscles and neurons. In muscles, CTN-1 utilizes the dystrophin complex to localize SLO-1 channels near L-type calcium channels. In neurons, CTN-1 is involved in localizing SLO-1 to a specific domain independent of the dystrophin complex. Our results demonstrate that CTN-1 ensures the localization of SLO-1 within calcium nanodomains, thereby playing a crucial role in muscles and neurons.

  20. GTP analogue inhibits polymerization and GTPase activity of the bacterial protein FtsZ without affecting its eukaryotic homologue tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Läppchen, Tilman; Hartog, Aloysius F; Pinas, Victorine A; Koomen, Gerrit-Jan; den Blaauwen, Tanneke

    2005-05-31

    The prokaryotic tubulin homologue FtsZ plays a key role in bacterial cell division. Selective inhibitors of the GTP-dependent polymerization of FtsZ are expected to result in a new class of antibacterial agents. One of the challenges is to identify compounds which do not affect the function of tubulin and various other GTPases in eukaryotic cells. We have designed a novel inhibitor of FtsZ polymerization based on the structure of the natural substrate GTP. The inhibitory activity of 8-bromoguanosine 5'-triphosphate (BrGTP) was characterized by a coupled assay, which allows simultaneous detection of the extent of polymerization (via light scattering) and GTPase activity (via release of inorganic phosphate). We found that BrGTP acts as a competitive inhibitor of both FtsZ polymerization and GTPase activity with a Ki for GTPase activity of 31.8 +/- 4.1 microM. The observation that BrGTP seems not to inhibit tubulin assembly suggests a structural difference of the GTP-binding pockets of FtsZ and tubulin.

  1. Neurospora crassa fmf-1 encodes the homologue of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Ste11p regulator of sexual development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srividhya V. Iyer; Mukund Ramakrishnan; Durgadas P. Kasbekar

    2009-04-01

    The Neurospora crassa fmf-1 mutation exerts an unusual ‘perithecium-dominant’ developmental arrest; fmf-1 × fmf-1+ cross becomes arrested in perithecial development regardless of whether the mutant participates in the cross as the male or female parent. We localized fmf-1 to the LG IL genome segment between the centromere-proximal breakpoint of the chromosome segment duplication Dp(IL)39311 and the centromere. By mapping crossovers with respect to RFLP markers in this region we further localized fmf-1 to an approximately 34-kb-genome segment. Partial sequencing of this segment revealed a point mutation in the gene NCU 09387.1, a homologue of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe ste11+ regulator of sexual development. The fmf-1 mutation did not complement a NCU 09387.1 deletion mutation, and transformation with wild-type NCU 09387.1 complemented fmf-1. S. pombe Ste11 protein (Ste 11p) is a transcription factor required for sexual differentiation and for the expression of genes required for mating pheromone signalling in matP and matM cells. If FMF-1 also plays a corresponding role in mating pheromone signalling in Neurospora, then protoperithecia in an fmf-1 × fmf-1+ cross would be unable to either send or receive sexual differentiation signals and thus become arrested in development.

  2. Characterization of Fetal Antigen 1/Delta-Like 1 Homologue Expressing Cells in the Rat Nigrostriatal System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liechti, Rémy; Ducray, Angélique D; Jensen, Pia;

    2015-01-01

    Fetal antigen 1/delta-like 1 homologue (FA1/dlk1) belongs to the epidermal growth factor superfamily and is considered to be a non-canonical ligand for the Notch receptor. Interactions between Notch and its ligands are crucial for the development of various tissues. Moreover, FA1/dlk1 has been su...... adult rats. FA1/dlk1-ir cells were predominantly distributed in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta (SNc) and in the ventral tegmental area. Interestingly, the expression of FA1/dlk1 significantly increased in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-ir cells during early postnatal development. Co......-localization and tracing studies demonstrated that FA1/dlk1-ir cells in the SNc were nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, and unilateral 6-OHDA lesions resulted in loss of both FA1/dlk1-ir and TH-ir cells in the SNc. Surprisingly, increased numbers of FA1/dlk1-ir cells (by 70%) were detected in dopamine-depleted striata...... as compared to unlesioned controls. The higher number of FA1/dlk1-ir cells was likely not due to neurogenesis as colocalization studies for proliferation markers were negative. This suggests that FA1/dlk1 was up-regulated in intrinsic cells in response to the 6-OHDA-mediated loss of FA1/dlk1-expressing SNc...

  3. PP-O and PP-V, Monascus pigment homologues, production, and phylogenetic analysis in Penicillium purpurogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Teppei; Kojima, Ryo; Motegi, Yoshiki; Kato, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ogihara, Jun

    2015-12-01

    The production of pigments as secondary metabolites by microbes is known to vary by species and by physiological conditions within a single strain. The fungus strain Penicillium purpurogenum IAM15392 has been found to produce violet pigment (PP-V) and orange pigment (PP-O),Monascus azaphilone pigment homologues, when grown under specific culture conditions. In this study, we analysed PP-V and PP-O production capability in seven strains of P. purpurogenum in addition to strain IAM15392 under specific culture conditions. The pigment production pattern of five strains cultivated in PP-V production medium was similar to that of strain IAM15392, and all violet pigments produced by these five strains were confirmed to be PP-V. Strains that did not produce pigment were also identified. In addition, two strains cultivated in PP-O production medium produced a violet pigment identified as PP-V. The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences from the eight P. purpurogenum strains were sequenced and used to construct a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree. PP-O and PP-V production of P. purpurogenum was shown to be related to phylogenetic placement based on rDNA ITS sequence. Based on these results, two hypotheses for the alteration of pigment production of P. purpurogenum in evolution were proposed.

  4. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization and expression analysis of a CD63 homologue from the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Kang, Seong Min; Seo, Gi Won; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Patnaik, Hongray Howrelia; Jo, Yong Hun; Tindwa, Hamisi; Lee, Yong Seok; Lee, Bok Luel; Kim, Nam Jung; Bang, In Seok; Han, Yeon Soo

    2013-10-15

    CD63, a member of the tetraspanin membrane protein family, plays a pivotal role in cell growth, motility, signal transduction, host-pathogen interactions and cancer. In this work, the cDNA encoding CD63 homologue (TmCD63) was cloned from larvae of a coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The cDNA is comprised of an open reading frame of 705 bp, encoding putative protein of 235 amino acid residues. In silico analysis shows that the protein has four putative transmembrane domains and one large extracellular loop. The characteristic "Cys-Cys-Gly" motif and "Cys188" residues are highly conserved in the large extracellular loop. Phylogenetic analysis of TmCD63 revealed that they belong to the insect cluster with 50%-56% identity. Analysis of spatial expression patterns demonstrated that TmCD63 mRNA is mainly expressed in gut and Malphigian tubules of larvae and the testis of the adult. Developmental expression patterns of CD63 mRNA showed that TmCD63 transcripts are detected in late larval, pupal and adult stages. Interestingly, TmCD63 transcripts are upregulated to the maximum level of 4.5 fold, in response to DAP-type peptidoglycan during the first 6 h, although other immune elicitors also caused significant increase to the transcript level at later time-points. These results suggest that CD63 might contribute to T. molitor immune response against various microbial pathogens.

  5. Molecular Cloning, Sequence Characterization and Expression Analysis of a CD63 Homologue from the Coleopteran Beetle, Tenebrio molitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Soo Han

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available CD63, a member of the tetraspanin membrane protein family, plays a pivotal role in cell growth, motility, signal transduction, host-pathogen interactions and cancer. In this work, the cDNA encoding CD63 homologue (TmCD63 was cloned from larvae of a coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The cDNA is comprised of an open reading frame of 705 bp, encoding putative protein of 235 amino acid residues. In silico analysis shows that the protein has four putative transmembrane domains and one large extracellular loop. The characteristic “Cys-Cys-Gly” motif and “Cys188” residues are highly conserved in the large extracellular loop. Phylogenetic analysis of TmCD63 revealed that they belong to the insect cluster with 50%–56% identity. Analysis of spatial expression patterns demonstrated that TmCD63 mRNA is mainly expressed in gut and Malphigian tubules of larvae and the testis of the adult. Developmental expression patterns of CD63 mRNA showed that TmCD63 transcripts are detected in late larval, pupal and adult stages. Interestingly, TmCD63 transcripts are upregulated to the maximum level of 4.5 fold, in response to DAP-type peptidoglycan during the first 6 h, although other immune elicitors also caused significant increase to the transcript level at later time-points. These results suggest that CD63 might contribute to T. molitor immune response against various microbial pathogens.

  6. Ectopic expression of Cvh (Chicken Vasa homologue) mediates the reprogramming of chicken embryonic stem cells to a germ cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavial, Fabrice; Acloque, Hervé; Bachelard, Elodie; Nieto, M Angela; Samarut, Jacques; Pain, Bertrand

    2009-06-01

    When they are derived from blastodermal cells of the pre-primitive streak in vitro, the pluripotency of Chicken Embryonic Stem Cells (cESC) can be controlled by the cPouV and Nanog genes. These cESC can differentiate into derivatives of the three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo, but they only weakly colonize the gonads of host embryos. By contrast, non-cultured blastodermal cells and long-term cultured chicken primordial germ cells maintain full germline competence. This restriction in the germline potential of the cESC may result from either early germline determination in the donor embryos or it may occur as a result of in vitro culture. We are interested in understanding the genetic determinants of germline programming. The RNA binding protein Cvh (Chicken Vasa Homologue) is considered as one such determinant, although its role in germ cell physiology is still unclear. Here we show that the exogenous expression of Cvh, combined with appropriate culture conditions, induces cESC reprogramming towards a germ cell fate. Indeed, these cells express the Dazl, Tudor and Sycp3 germline markers, and they display improved germline colonization and adopt a germ cell fate when injected into recipient embryos. Thus, our results demonstrate that Vasa can drive ES cell differentiation towards the germ cell lineage, both in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina;

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active...

  8. Calcium chloride in stabilised soil roads and runways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Vardhan

    1952-09-01

    Full Text Available Mudless, dustless, hard and all weather driving surfaces is a serious requirement of the forces.  surfacing by mixtures of definite amounts of locally available stone, gravel, sand, clay and Silt to which calculated amount of calcium chloride is added quickly compact and ultimately harden like concrete. This provides an easy, quick and economic- means of meeting the requirement.  Necessity of such surfaces, use and action of calcium chloride and resulting effects are discussed. Different methods of construction and application of calcium chloride are briefly related.

  9. Microwave evaluation of accelerated chloride ingress in mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C.; Case, T.; Castle, M.; Zoughi, R.; Kurtis, K.

    2001-04-01

    Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete structures can be induced by the presence of chloride ions near the steel/concrete interface. To show the potential of microwave nondestructive testing techniques for evaluating chloride ingress, 8″×8″×8″ mortar specimens with different mixture designs were prepared. To accelerate chloride ingress, they were exposed to cyclical wet/dry conditions, where the wet condition included exposure to salt bath. A complete discussion of the results will be presented in this paper.

  10. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.......4 g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C...

  11. The ionic product of water in concentrated tetramethylammonium chloride solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, P; Bódi, I; May, P M; Hefter, G T

    1997-04-01

    The ionic product of water, pK(w) = - log[H(+)][OH(-)] has been determined in aqueous solutions of tetramethylammonium chloride over the concentration range of 0.1-5.5 M at 25 degrees C using high-precision glass electrode potentiometric titrations. pK(w) data relating to aqueous potassium and sodium chlorides at ionic strengths up to 5 M are markedly lower than the tetramethylammonium chloride results. These differences are almost certainly due to weak associations between potassium and (especially) sodium and hydroxide ions.

  12. Ionometric determination of chloride ion in circulating and waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebeshko, G.I.; Afanas' eva, V.I.; Danielova, I.I.; Dmitriev, M.A.; Radchenko, A.F.

    1986-09-01

    The authors attempt to develop selective ionometric methods to determine chloride ion in waste and circulating waters from technological ore processing, containing significant amounts of sulfide ion and various flotation reagents. These waters contain practically no cations that form hard to dissolve compounds with chloride ion such as Ag/sup +/, Cu/sup +/, Hg/sup +/ or Pb/sup 2 +/. The chloride ion concentration in water varies between 10 and 100 mg/liter. Information is shown on the concentration of the main anions and flotation reagents in waters that were analyzed.

  13. Stochastic Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures Exposed to Chloride Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2003-01-01

    concentration and reinforcement cover depth are modeled by stochastic fields. The paper contains a description of the parameters to be included in a stochastic model and a proposal for the information needed to obtain values for the parameters in order to be ab le to perform reliability investigations...... the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface chloride...

  14. Characterization of synthetic routes to 'Bromo-DragonFLY' and benzodifuranyl isopropylamine homologues utilizing ketone intermediates. Part 1: synthesis of ketone precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard E; Keating, John J

    2014-01-01

    Bromo-DragonFLY (BDF) and many of its analogues are misused as recreational drugs due to their potency as psychoactive substances. To date, none of the published routes to these designer amphetamines have exploited a ketone intermediate. It is well known that benzyl methyl ketone (BMK) can be employed as a precursor in the synthesis of amphetamine. Similarly, it is reasonable to assume that ketone precursors may potentially be utilized in the clandestine synthesis of BDF and its homologues. This paper describes the multifaceted synthesis of novel precursor ketones structurally related to BDF, namely benzodifuranyl propanone 16, its tetrahydrobenzodifuranyl homologue 8, and their brominated analogues 12 and 20. Their characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-NMR), carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13) C-NMR), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) is also described.

  15. Ionization potentials and electron affinities of the superheavy elements 115-117 and their sixth-row homologues Bi, Po, and At

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borschevsky, A.; Pašteka, L. F.; Pershina, V.; Eliav, E.; Kaldor, U.

    2015-02-01

    Calculations of the first and second ionization potentials and electron affinities of superheavy elements 115-117 are presented. The calculations are performed in the framework of the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian, and the results are corrected for the Breit and QED contributions. Correlation is treated by the relativistic coupled cluster approach with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)]. The same approach is used to calculate the ionization potentials and electron affinities of the lighter homologues, Bi, Po, and At. Comparison of the available experimental values for these atoms, namely, the first ionization potentials (IPs) of Bi, Po, and At and the second IP and EA of Bi, with our results shows excellent agreement, within a few hundredths of an eV, lending credence to our predictions for their superheavy homologues. High-accuracy predictions are also made for the second ionization potentials and electron affinities of Po and At, where no experiment is available.

  16. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2016-09-27

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  17. Piezoresistive Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprakci, Hatice Aylin Karahan

    Textile based sensors provide an interface between the user and the electronic system by converting any type of physiological or environmental signal into electrical signals. Common applications include health monitoring, rehabilitation, multimedia, and surveillance. In this research we demonstrate fabrication of piezoresistive sensors on textile fabrics through application of a screen-printed conductive nanocomposite layer of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), and carbon nanofiber (CNF). In order to understand the behavior of conductive plastisol, morphological, mechanical and electrical properties of composite films were investigated for different molecular weights of PVC. Homogeneous filler dispersion and good filler/polymer interphase were observed without any dominant filler orientation. Mechanical and electrical properties were found to be affected by CNF, plasticizer content and matrix molecular weight. CNFs were found to provide substantial bridging in the matrix and enhance strength. These nanostructured composite sensors were found to be sensitive under different levels of strain which can be monitored by change in electrical resistance. Finally, we demonstrate the fabrication of piezoresistive sensors on textile fabrics through application of a screen-printed conductive nanocomposite layer of conductive plastisol. Conductive plastisol was found to show good adhesion to fabric with homogeneous CNF distribution. As in composite films, samples were found to show negative piezoresistance at different levels of strain. Strain level and filler concentration were found to affect the piezoresistive behavior and sensitivity of the printed sensors.

  18. Cloning of the Rhesus Lymphocryptovirus Viral Capsid Antigen and Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded Small RNA Homologues and Use in Diagnosis of Acute and Persistent Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Pasupuleti; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Fred

    2000-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with the development of several human malignancies. A closely related herpesvirus in the same lymphocryptovirus (LCV) genera as EBV naturally infects rhesus monkeys and provides an important animal model for studying EBV pathogenesis. We cloned the small viral capsid antigen (sVCA) homologue from the rhesus LCV and developed a peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine whether e...

  19. Structure and Function of CC-Chemokine Receptor 5 Homologues Derived from Representative Primate Species and Subspecies of the Taxonomic Suborders Prosimii and Anthropoidea

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    A chemokine receptor from the seven-transmembrane-domain G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily is an essential coreceptor for the cellular entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains. To investigate nonhuman primate CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) homologue structure and function, we amplified CCR5 DNA sequences from peripheral blood cells obtained from 24 representative species and subspecies of the primate suborders Prosimii (family L...

  20. Characterization of the cDNA encoding a BPI/LBP homologue in venom gland of the hundred-pace snake Deinagkistrodon acutus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianrao HU; Mingfu CAO; Jiong CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) and LPS-binding protein (LBP) play an important role in host defence. Current evidence shows that BPI/LBP may be widely existed in different cells and tissue types of animals. A full-length cDNA clone encoding a BPI/LBP homologue (dBPI), 1757 bp in size, was characterized in venom gland of the hundred-pace snake Deinagkistrodon acutus. Its deduced amino acid sequence of 417 residues had 13.8% - 21.5% identity to BPI like 1 (BPIL1) and BPI like 3 (BPIL3) of other animals. Conserved cysteine residues which are involved in disulfide bond formation between the final strand of the N-terminal beta sheet and the long alpha helix of BPI are identified as Cys146-Cys183 of dBPI. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the BPI/LBP homologues formed five large clusters and dBPl was in a large cluster including BPIL1 and BPIL3. dBPI mRNA shows a tissue specific expression in venom gland. This is the fast study to identify the cDNA encoding BPI/LBP homologues from reptiles [Current Zoology 55 (5) : 376 - 382, 2009].

  1. Characterization of the cDNA encoding a BPI/LBP homologue in venom gland of the hundred-pace snake Deinagkistrodon acutus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianrao HU, Mingfu CAO, Jiong Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI and LPS-binding protein (LBP play an important role in host defence. Current evidence shows that BPI/LBP may be widely existed in different cells and tissue types of animals. A full-length cDNA clone encoding a BPI/LBP homologue (dBPI, 1757bp in size, was characterized in venom gland of the hundred-pace snake Deinagkistrodon acutus. Its deduced amino acid sequence of 417 residues had 13.8%–21.5% identity to BPI like 1(BPIL1 and BPI like 3(BPIL3 of other animals. Conserved cysteine residues which are involved in disulfide bond formation between the final strand of the N-terminal beta sheet and the long alpha helix of BPI are identified as Cys146-Cys183 of dBPI. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the BPI/LBP homologues formed five large clusters and dBPI was in a large cluster including BPIL1 and BPIL3. dBPI mRNA shows a tissue specific expression in venom gland. This is the first study to identify the cDNA encoding BPI/LBP homologues from reptiles [Current Zoology 55 (5: –2009].

  2. Active primary lithium thionyl chloride battery for artillery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Arlen R.; Delnick, Frank M.; Miller, David L.

    1990-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Eagle Picher Industries have successfully developed an Active Lithium Thionyl Chloride (ALTC) power battery for unique artillery applications. Details of the design and the results of safety and performance will be presented.

  3. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhupinder Kaur; Harish Kumar

    2013-09-01

    The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines using methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquate 336) as a catalyst under ultrasonic irradiations.

  4. 1300-nm gain obtained with dysprosium-doped chloride crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, R.H.; Schaffers, K.I.; Beach, R.J.; Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.

    1996-03-01

    Dy{sup 3+} - doped chloride crystals have high 1300-nm emission quantum yields. Pump - probe experiments on La Cl{sub 3}:Dy{sup 3+} demonstrate optical gain consistent with predictions based on spectroscopic cross sections and lifetimes.

  5. Probabilistic evaluation of initiation time of chloride-induced corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Val, Dimitri V. [Department of Structural Engineering and Construction Management, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)], E-mail: val@tx.technion.ac.il; Trapper, Pavel A. [Department of Structural Engineering and Construction Management, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2008-03-15

    The paper presents a model for chloride ingress into concrete. The model accounts for two mechanisms which control the chloride ingress-diffusion and convection. Using one-dimensional (1-D) formulation of the model, the influence of chloride binding and ambient humidity on chloride ingress into concrete has been investigated. Based on results of this investigation parameters for probabilistic analysis have been selected. Probabilistic evaluation of the time to corrosion initiation has then been carried out for a reinforced concrete (RC) wall (1-D problem) and a RC column (2-D problem) in a marine environment. Results of the analysis show that for the same thickness of the concrete cover the probability of corrosion initiation in the corner reinforcing bars of the RC column is much higher than in reinforcing bars in the middle part of the RC wall. The results demonstrate the importance of 2-D modelling for correct prediction of corrosion initiation in such RC elements as columns and beams.

  6. Analysis of chloride diffusivity in concrete containing red mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Red mud is a solid waste produced in the alumina production process and, due to its high pH, is classified as hazardous. Its incorporation in concrete mixtures, acting as filler due to the particles fineness, might be an interesting reuse alternative. The focus of this paper is to study the chloride diffusivity of concrete mixtures containing red-mud. The concentration of chlorides was monitored by measuring the conductivity of the anolyte, which was distilled water initially. In addition, the estimation of the chloride ions diffusion coefficients in steady and non-steady conditions, Ds and Dns, was obtained from the ''time-lag'' and ''equivalent time'' between diffusion and migration experiments. Due to superfine particle-size distribution and the "filler" effect, the red mud addition seems to assure lower chloride diffusivity.

  7. Prediction of chloride ingress and binding in cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Nielsen, Erik Pram; Herforth, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent work on an analytical model for predicting the ingress rate of chlorides in cement-based materials. An integral part of this is a thermodynamic model for predicting the phase equilibria in hydrated Portland cement. The model’s ability to predict chloride binding...... in Portland cement pastes at any content of chloride, alkalis, sulfates and carbonate was verified experimentally and found to be equally valid when applied to other data in the literature. The thermodynamic model for predicting the phase equilibria in hydrated Portland cement was introduced into an existing...... Finite Difference Model for the ingress of chlorides into concrete which takes into account its multi-component nature. The “composite theory” was then used to predict the diffusivity of each ion based on the phase assemblage present in the hydrated Portland cement paste. Agreement was found between...

  8. Homocoupling of Aryl Bromides Catalyzed by Nickel Chloride in Pyridine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO, Xiao-Chun; ZHOU, Wei; ZHANG, Yue-Ping; DAI, Chun-ya; SHEN, Dong; HUANG, Mei

    2006-01-01

    Pyridine was used as a solvent for homocoupling of aryl bromides catalyzed by nickel chloride/triarylphosphine in the presence of zinc and recycled easily. Triphenylphosphine was the best ligand for nickel in this coupling reaction.

  9. Chloride supporting electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soowhan; Vijayakumar, M; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianlu; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Feng; Hu, Jianzhi; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-28

    This paper examines vanadium chloride solutions as electrolytes for an all-vanadium redox flow battery. The chloride solutions were capable of dissolving more than 2.3 M vanadium at varied valence states and remained stable at 0-50 °C. The improved stability appeared due to the formation of a vanadium dinuclear [V(2)O(3)·4H(2)O](4+) or a dinuclear-chloro complex [V(2)O(3)Cl·3H(2)O](3+) in the solutions over a wide temperature range. The all-vanadium redox flow batteries with the chloride electrolytes demonstrated excellent reversibility and fairly high efficiencies. Only negligible, if any, gas evolution was observed. The improved energy capacity and good performance, along with the ease in heat management, would lead to substantial reduction in capital cost and life-cycle cost, making the vanadium chloride redox flow battery a promising candidate for stationary applications.

  10. Facile Preparation of Chloride-Conducting Membranes: First Step towards a Room-Temperature Solid-State Chloride-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Fabienne; Steinle, Dominik; Sandbeck, Daniel; Schmidt, Celine; von Hauff, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Three types of chloride-conducting membranes based on polyvinyl chloride, commercial gelatin, and polyvinyldifluoride-hexafluoropolymer are introduced in this report. The polymers are mixed with chloride-containing salts, such as tetrabutylammonium chloride, and cast to form membranes. We studied the structural properties, thermal stability, and electrochemical response of the membranes to understand chloride migration and transport. Finally, the membranes are tested in a prototype solid-state chloride-ion battery setup. The feasibility of the membranes for their potential use in anion batteries is discussed.

  11. Durability Analysis of Subway Station in Chloride Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Yang LuFeng; Yu Bo; Hong Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a finite element model for chloride ions transport in saturated concrete was proposed based on the Fick’s second law of diffusion. The governing partial differential equation was solved numerically in space as a boundary-value problem and in time as an initial-value problem by means of the finite element formulations. The maximum allowable value of chloride diffusion coefficient within different locations of subway station with service life of 100a was achieved and suggestions ...

  12. Recovering germanium from coal ash by chlorination with ammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new process of enriching germanium from coal ash was developed. The process involves in mixing the coal ash and ammonium chloride and then roasting the mixture to produce germanium chloride that is then absorbed by dilute hydrochloric acid and hydrolyzed to germanium oxide. The germanium recovery reached to 80.2% at the optimum condition: mass ratio of NH4Cl/coal ash is 0.15, roasting temperature 400℃ and roasting time 90 min.

  13. Synthesis and structural characterization of polyaniline/cobalt chloride composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Goyal, Sneh Lata; Kishore, Nawal

    2016-05-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) and PANI /cobalt chloride composites were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline with CoCl2.6H2O using ammonium peroxidisulphate as an oxidant. These composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD study reveals that both PANI and composites are amorphous. The XRD and SEM results confirm the presence of cobalt chloride in the composites.

  14. Mechanism of chloride interaction with neurotransmitter:sodium symporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomot, Elia; Bendahan, Annie; Quick, Matthias; Zhao, Yongfang; Javitch, Jonathan A; Kanner, Baruch I

    2007-10-11

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSS) have a critical role in regulating neurotransmission and are targets for psychostimulants, anti-depressants and other drugs. Whereas the non-homologous glutamate transporters mediate chloride conductance, in the eukaryotic NSS chloride is transported together with the neurotransmitter. In contrast, transport by the bacterial NSS family members LeuT, Tyt1 and TnaT is chloride independent. The crystal structure of LeuT reveals an occluded binding pocket containing leucine and two sodium ions, and is highly relevant for the neurotransmitter transporters. However, the precise role of chloride in neurotransmitter transport and the location of its binding site remain elusive. Here we show that introduction of a negatively charged amino acid at or near one of the two putative sodium-binding sites of the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) transporter GAT-1 from rat brain (also called SLC6A1) renders both net flux and exchange of GABA largely chloride independent. In contrast to wild-type GAT-1, a marked stimulation of the rate of net flux, but not of exchange, was observed when the internal pH was lowered. Equivalent mutations introduced in the mouse GABA transporter GAT4 (SLC6A11) and the human dopamine transporter DAT (SLC6A3) also result in chloride-independent transport, whereas the reciprocal mutations in LeuT and Tyt1 render substrate binding and/or uptake by these bacterial NSS chloride dependent. Our data indicate that the negative charge, provided either by chloride or by the transporter itself, is required during binding and translocation of the neurotransmitter, probably to counterbalance the charge of the co-transported sodium ions.

  15. KINETICS OF VINYL CHLORIDE (CO)POLYMERIZATION AT HIGH CONVERSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu-ren Pan; Zhi-xue Weng; Zhi-ming Huang

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a summarized review on the kinetics of vinyl chloride homopolymerization in the absence and presence of chain transfer agents, of VC/DAP(diallyl phthalate) copolymerization with chain extension and/or slightly crosslinking functions, and of vinylidene chloride/VC random copolymerization.Models of rate, degree of polymerization or molecular weight, copolymer composition, gel fraction and crosslinking density were proposed and interpreted mechanistically.

  16. cis-Dichloridobis(1,10-phenanthrolinechromium(III chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Gao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [CrCl2(C12H8N22]Cl, the CrIII ion is situated on a twofold rotation axis and displays a slightly distorted octahedral CrCl2N4 coordination geometry. The Cr environment is composed of a cis arrangement of two 1,10-phenanthroline and two chloride ligands. The chloride counter-anion exhibits half-occupation and is equally disordered over two positions.

  17. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  18. Determination of chloride in geological samples by ion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.A.; Gent, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of silicate rocks are prepared by sodium carbonate fusion and then treated by ion chromatography. The method was tested for geological standards with chloride concentration between 0.003 and 3%. Observed chloride concentrations comparedd favorably with literature values. The relative standard deviation and detection limit for the method were 8% and 7 ppm, respectively. Up to 30 determination per 24-hour period were possible. ?? 1983.

  19. Hafnium extraction from acidic chloride solutions by Cyanex 923

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ammouri, E.; Distin, P.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    Hafnium extraction from hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride solutions into Cyanex 923 in kerosene has been studied. Variables investigated were hydrochloric acid, total chloride and hafnium concentrations in the aqueous phase, and extractant/modifier (isodecanol) levels in the organic phase. Hafnium is considered to load as the tetrachloride complex forming a disolvate with Cyanex 923. Results are compared with equivalent data for zirconium extraction. 14 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Fenfen, E-mail: zhu@hse.gcoe.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl{sub 2} decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.CaCl{sub 2}) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl{sub 2}. Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl{sub 2}.

  1. Intrinsic Resistance of Burkholderia cepacia Complex to Benzalkonium Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Youngbeom; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Kweon, Ohgew; Kim, Seong-Jae; Jones, Richard C; Woodling, Kellie; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; LiPuma, John J; Hussong, David; Marasa, Bernard S; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2016-11-22

    Pharmaceutical products that are contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) bacteria may pose serious consequences to vulnerable patients. Benzyldimethylalkylammonium chloride (BZK) cationic surfactants are extensively used in medical applications and have been implicated in the coselection of antimicrobial resistance. The ability of BCC to degrade BZK, tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C14BDMA-Cl), dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C12BDMA-Cl), decyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C10BDMA-Cl), hexyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, and benzyltrimethylammonium chloride was determined by incubation in 1/10-diluted tryptic soy broth (TSB) to determine if BCC bacteria have the ability to survive and inactivate these disinfectants. With BZK, C14BDMA-Cl, and C12BDMA-Cl, inhibition of the growth of 20 BCC strains was observed in disinfectant solutions that ranged from 64 to 256 µg/ml. The efflux pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone increased the sensitivity of bacteria to 64 µg/ml BZK. The 20 BCC strains grew well in 1/10-diluted TSB medium with BZK, C12BDMA-Cl, and C10BDMA-Cl; they absorbed and degraded the compounds in 7 days. Formation of benzyldimethylamine and benzylmethylamine as the initial metabolites suggested that the cleavage of the C alkyl-N bond occurred as the first step of BZK degradation by BCC bacteria. Proteomic data confirmed the observed efflux activity and metabolic inactivation via biodegradation in terms of BZK resistance of BCC bacteria, which suggests that the two main resistance mechanisms are intrinsic and widespread.

  2. Extractive process for preparing high purity magnesium chloride hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezei Radouanne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers a method for the preparation of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (bischofite from Sebkha el Melah of Zarzis Tunisian natural brine. It is a five-stage process essentially based on crystallization by isothermal evaporation and chemical precipitation. The two first steps were dedicated to the crystallization of sodium chloride and potassiummagnesium double salts, respectively. Then, the resulting liquor was desulfated using calcium chloride solution. After that another isothermal evaporation stage was implemented in order to eliminate potassium ions in the form of carnallite, KCl.MgCl2.6H2O. At the end of this step, the recovered solution primarily composed of magnesium and chloride ions was treated by dioxan in order to precipitate magnesium chloride as MgCl2.6H2O.C4H8O2. This compound dried at constant temperature of 100°C gave good quality magnesium chloride hexahydrate. Besides this salt, the various by-products obtained from the different treatment stages are also useful.

  3. Removal of chloride from electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Chang, Fang-Chih

    2011-06-15

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust with high chloride content increases the threat of dioxin emissions and the high chloride content reduces the value of recycled zinc oxide produced by EAF dust recycling plants. This study conducts a number of laboratory experiments to determine the technical feasibility of a new dechlorination method. These methods consist of a series of roasting processes and water washing processes. In the roasting process, EAF dust was heated in a tube furnace to evaluate the parameters of atmospheric conditions, roasting temperature, and roasting time. Results indicate that sulfation roasting is more efficient in reducing chloride content than other roasting processes. The water washing process can totally remove water-soluble chloride at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10. However, the remaining water-insoluble substance is difficult to dechlorinate. For example, lead chloride forms a hydroxyl-halide (PbOHCl) and lead chloride carbonate (Pb(2)CO(3)Cl(2)) agglutinative matrix that is hard to wash away.

  4. Chloride ion transport performance in slag mortar under fatigue loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG CaiHui; SUN Wei; JIANG JinYang; HAN JianDe; YE BangTu

    2012-01-01

    The transport performance of chloride ion in slag cement mortar was investigated experimentally.In the self-designed experiment,fatigue loading was coupled simultaneously with ion transportation process,the diffusion law of chloride ion was obtained by titration and the AE (acoustic emission) technique was employed to detect the real-time damage distribution in the mortar specimen.The results for fatigue stress levels of 0.3,0.4 and 0.5 and slag contents of 0,10%,30% and 50% showed that fatigue loading accelerated the diffusion of chloride ion in mortar and the acceleration effect increased with the increase in stress levels.Slag addition was found to improve anti-chloride ion erosion performance effectively with the best substitution level at 30%,because the inhibition effect of slag on chloride ion diffusion diminished when the slag content exceeded 30%.The comparative experiments indicated that dynamic load has a significant effect on the transport performance of chloride ion in slag cement mortar.

  5. Aspergilli Response to Benzalkonium Chloride and Novel-Synthesized Fullerenol/Benzalkonium Chloride Nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unković, Nikola; Ljaljević Grbić, Milica; Stupar, Miloš; Vukojević, Jelena; Janković, Vesna; Jović, Danica; Djordjević, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive comparative analysis of antifungal potential of benzalkonium chloride and newly synthesized fullerenol/benzalkonium chloride nanocomposite was conducted to assess the possible impact of carbon-based nanocarrier on antimicrobial properties of the commonly used biocide. Physical characterization of synthesized nanocomposite showed zeta potential of +37.4 mV and inhomogeneous particles size distribution, with nanocomposite particles' dimensions within 30-143 nm and maximum number of particles at 44 nm. The effect of pure and fullerenol nanocarrier-bound biocide was evaluated in eight Aspergillus species. In mycelial growth assay, nanocomposite was more potent, as fungicidal effect of 1.04/0.6 μg mL(-1) was obtained in all but one of the isolates (A. niger), while proportional concentration of pure biocide (0.6 μg mL(-1)) completely inhibited mycelial growth of only three Aspergillus species. However, conidia appear to be less susceptible to nanocomposite treatment, as lower fungistatic (MIC) and fungicidal (MFC) concentrations were obtained with biocide alone (MIC in range from 0.03 to 0.15 μg mL(-1) and MFC from 0.075 to 0.45 μg mL(-1)). To a different degree, both substances stimulated aflatoxin B1 production and inhibited ochratoxin A synthesis. Very low mycelium biomass yield, in range from 1.0 to 3.0 mg dry weight, was documented in both biocide and nanocomposite enriched medium.

  6. Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize the effect of topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on corneal nerves in vivo and in vitro. Methods. Thy1-YFP+ neurofluorescent mouse eyes were treated topically with vehicle or BAK (0.01% or 0.1%). Wide-field stereofluorescence microscopy was performed to sequentially image the treated corneas in vivo every week for 4 weeks, and changes in stromal nerve fiber density (NFD) and aqueous tear production were determined. Whole-mount immunofluorescence staining of corneas was performed with antibodies to axonopathy marker SMI-32. Western immunoblot analyses were performed on trigeminal ganglion and corneal lysates to determine abundance of proteins associated with neurotoxicity and regeneration. Compartmental culture of trigeminal ganglion neurons was performed in Campenot devices to determine whether BAK affects neurite outgrowth. Results. BAK-treated corneas exhibited significantly reduced NFD and aqueous tear production, and increased inflammatory cell infiltration and fluorescein staining at 1 week (P < 0.05). These changes were most significant after 0.1% BAK treatment. The extent of inflammatory cell infiltration in the cornea showed a significant negative correlation with NFD. Sequential in vivo imaging of corneas showed two forms of BAK-induced neurotoxicity: reversible neurotoxicity characterized by axonopathy and recovery, and irreversible neurotoxicity characterized by nerve degeneration and regeneration. Increased abundance of beta III tubulin in corneal lysates confirmed regeneration. A dose-related significant reduction in neurites occurred after BAK addition to compartmental cultures of dissociated trigeminal ganglion cells. Although both BAK doses (0.0001% and 0.001%) reduced nerve fiber length, the reduction was significantly more with the higher dose (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Topical application of BAK to the eye causes corneal neurotoxicity, inflammation, and reduced aqueous

  7. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standard for vinyl chloride... for Vinyl Chloride § 61.63 Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of a vinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section and § 61.65. (a) Vinyl...

  8. Genetic analysis of the spindle checkpoint genes san-1, mdf-2, bub-3 and the CENP-F homologues hcp-1 and hcp-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Landon L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spindle checkpoint delays the onset of anaphase until all sister chromatids are aligned properly at the metaphase plate. To investigate the role san-1, the MAD3 homologue, has in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos we used RNA interference (RNAi to identify genes synthetic lethal with the viable san-1(ok1580 deletion mutant. Results The san-1(ok1580 animal has low penetrating phenotypes including an increased incidence of males, larvae arrest, slow growth, protruding vulva, and defects in vulva morphogenesis. We found that the viability of san-1(ok1580 embryos is significantly reduced when HCP-1 (CENP-F homologue, MDF-1 (MAD-1 homologue, MDF-2 (MAD-2 homologue or BUB-3 (predicted BUB-3 homologue are reduced by RNAi. Interestingly, the viability of san-1(ok1580 embryos is not significantly reduced when the paralog of HCP-1, HCP-2, is reduced. The phenotype of san-1(ok1580;hcp-1(RNAi embryos includes embryonic and larval lethality, abnormal organ development, and an increase in abnormal chromosome segregation (aberrant mitotic nuclei, anaphase bridging. Several of the san-1(ok1580;hcp-1(RNAi animals displayed abnormal kinetochore (detected by MPM-2 and microtubule structure. The survival of mdf-2(RNAi;hcp-1(RNAi embryos but not bub-3(RNAi;hcp-1(RNAi embryos was also compromised. Finally, we found that san-1(ok1580 and bub-3(RNAi, but not hcp-1(RNAi embryos, were sensitive to anoxia, suggesting that like SAN-1, BUB-3 has a functional role as a spindle checkpoint protein. Conclusion Together, these data suggest that in the C. elegans embryo, HCP-1 interacts with a subset of the spindle checkpoint pathway. Furthermore, the fact that san-1(ok1580;hcp-1(RNAi animals had a severe viability defect whereas in the san-1(ok1580;hcp-2(RNAi and san-1(ok1580;hcp-2(ok1757 animals the viability defect was not as severe suggesting that hcp-1 and hcp-2 are not completely redundant.

  9. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER CHLORIDE, METHYLENE CHLORIDE,AND 6-AMINONICOTINAMIDE TO EMBRYOS OF THE GRASS SHRIMPPALAEMONETES PUGIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embryos of estuarine grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio have demonstrated sensitivity to various solvents and petroleum products, indicating utility for evaluating estuarine contamination. Testing was performed to establish concentration-response curves for methylene chloride, cop...

  10. The immune system GTPase GIMAP6 interacts with the Atg8 homologue GABARAPL2 and is recruited to autophagosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Pascall

    Full Text Available The GIMAPs (GTPases of the immunity-associated proteins are a family of small GTPases expressed prominently in the immune systems of mammals and other vertebrates. In mammals, studies of mutant or genetically-modified rodents have indicated important roles for the GIMAP GTPases in the development and survival of lymphocytes. No clear picture has yet emerged, however, of the molecular mechanisms by which they perform their function(s. Using biotin tag-affinity purification we identified a major, and highly specific, interaction between the human cytosolic family member GIMAP6 and GABARAPL2, one of the mammalian homologues of the yeast autophagy protein Atg8. Chemical cross-linking studies performed on Jurkat T cells, which express both GIMAP6 and GABARAPL2 endogenously, indicated that the two proteins in these cells readily associate with one another in the cytosol under normal conditions. The GIMAP6-GABARAPL2 interaction was disrupted by deletion of the last 10 amino acids of GIMAP6. The N-terminal region of GIMAP6, however, which includes a putative Atg8-family interacting motif, was not required. Over-expression of GIMAP6 resulted in increased levels of endogenous GABARAPL2 in cells. After culture of cells in starvation medium, GIMAP6 was found to localise in punctate structures with both GABARAPL2 and the autophagosomal marker MAP1LC3B, indicating that GIMAP6 re-locates to autophagosomes on starvation. Consistent with this finding, we have demonstrated that starvation of Jurkat T cells results in the degradation of GIMAP6. Whilst these findings raise the possibility that the GIMAPs play roles in the regulation of autophagy, we have been unable to demonstrate an effect of GIMAP6 over-expression on autophagic flux.

  11. Sex-dependent modulation of longevity by two Drosophila homologues of human Apolipoprotein D, GLaz and NLaz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Mario; Sanchez, Diego; Canal, Inmaculada; Acebes, Angel; Ganfornina, Maria D

    2011-07-01

    Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), a member of the Lipocalin family, is the gene most up-regulated with age in the mammalian brain. Its expression strongly correlates with aging-associated neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases. Two homologues of ApoD expressed in the Drosophila brain, Glial Lazarillo (GLaz) and Neural Lazarillo (NLaz), are known to alter longevity in male flies. However, sex differences in the aging process have not been explored so far for these genes. Here we demonstrate that NLaz alters lifespan in both sexes, but unexpectedly the lack of GLaz influences longevity in a sex-specific way, reducing longevity in males but not in females. While NLaz has metabolic functions similar to ApoD, the regulation of GLaz expression upon aging is the closest to ApoD in the aging brain. A multivariate analysis of physiological parameters relevant to lifespan modulation uncovers both common and specialized functions for the two Lipocalins, and reveals that changes in protein homeostasis account for the observed sex-specific patterns of longevity. The response to oxidative stress and accumulation of lipid peroxides are among their common functions, while the transcriptional and behavioral response to starvation, the pattern of daily locomotor activity, storage of fat along aging, fertility, and courtship behavior differentiate NLaz from GLaz mutants. We also demonstrate that food composition is an important environmental parameter influencing stress resistance and reproductive phenotypes of both Lipocalin mutants. Since ApoD shares many properties with the common ancestor of invertebrate Lipocalins, we must benefit from this global comparison with both GLaz and NLaz to understand the complex functions of ApoD in mammalian aging and neurodegeneration.

  12. Cloning, identification and functional analysis of a β-catenin homologue from Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Shi, Lili; L, Kai; Li, Haoyang; Wang, Sheng; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng

    2016-07-01

    Wnt signaling is known to control multiple of cellular processes such as cell differentiation, communication, apoptosis and proliferation, and is also reported to play a role during microbial infection. β-catenin is a key regulator of the Wnt signaling cascade. In the present study, we cloned and identified a β-catenin homologue from Litopenaeus vannamei termed Lvβ-catenin. The full-length of Lvβ-catenin transcript was 2797 bp in length within a 2451 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a protein of 816 amino acids. Lvβ-catenin protein was comprised of several characteristic domains such as an N-terminal region of GSK-β consensus phosphorylation site and Coed coil section, a central region of 12 continuous Armadillo/β-Catenin-like repeat (ARM) domains and a C-terminal region. Real-time PCR showed Lvβ-catenin expression was responsive to Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Dual-reporter analysis showed that over-expression of Lvβ-catenin could induce activation of the promoter activities of several antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as shrimp PEN4, suggesting that Lvβ-catenin could play a role in regulating the production of AMPs. Knockdown of Lvβ-catenin enhanced the sensitivity of shrimps to V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV challenge, suggesting Lvβ-catenin could play a positive role against bacterial and viral pathogens. In summary, the results presented in this study provided some insights into the function of Wnt/β-catenin of shrimp in regulating AMPs and the host defense against invading pathogens.

  13. Genetic link between Cabeza, a Drosophila homologue of Fused in Sarcoma (FUS), and the EGFR signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimamura, Mai; Kyotani, Akane [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Insect Biomedical Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Azuma, Yumiko [Department of Neurology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho,Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan); Yoshida, Hideki; Binh Nguyen, Thanh [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Insect Biomedical Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Mizuta, Ikuko; Yoshida, Tomokatsu; Mizuno, Toshiki [Department of Neurology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho,Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan); Nakagawa, Masanori [North Medical Center, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan); Tokuda, Takahiko, E-mail: ttokuda@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [Department of Neurology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho,Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan); Department of Molecular Pathobiology of Brain Diseases, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masamitsu, E-mail: myamaguc@kit.ac.jp [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Insect Biomedical Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive muscular weakness. Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) that has been identified in familial ALS is an RNA binding protein that is normally localized in the nucleus. However, its function in vivo is not fully understood. Drosophila has Cabeza (Caz) as a FUS homologue and specific knockdown of Caz in the eye imaginal disc and pupal retina using a GMR-GAL4 driver was here found to induce an abnormal morphology of the adult compound eyes, a rough eye phenotype. This was partially suppressed by expression of the apoptosis inhibitor P35. Knockdown of Caz exerted no apparent effect on differentiation of photoreceptor cells. However, immunostaining with an antibody to Cut that marks cone cells revealed fusion of these and ommatidia of pupal retinae. These results indicate that Caz knockdown induces apoptosis and also inhibits differentiation of cone cells, resulting in abnormal eye morphology in adults. Mutation in EGFR pathway-related genes, such as rhomboid-1, rhomboid-3 and mirror suppressed the rough eye phenotype induced by Caz knockdown. Moreover, the rhomboid-1 mutation rescued the fusion of cone cells and ommatidia observed in Caz knockdown flies. The results suggest that Caz negatively regulates the EGFR signaling pathway required for determination of cone cell fate in Drosophila. - Highlights: • Knockdown of Cabeza induced rough eye phenotype. • Knockdown of Cabeza induced fusion of cone cells in pupal retinae. • Knockdown of Cabeza induced apoptosis in pupal retinae. • Mutation in EGFR pathway-related genes suppressed the rough eye phenotype. • Cabeza may negatively regulate the EGFR pathway.

  14. MutS homologue hMSH5: recombinational DSB repair and non-synonymous polymorphic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiling; Xu, Yang; Feng, Katey; Tompkins, Joshua D; Her, Chengtao

    2013-01-01

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) constitute the most deleterious form of DNA lesions that can lead to genome alterations and cell death, and the vast majority of DSBs arise pathologically in response to DNA damaging agents such as ionizing radiation (IR) and chemotherapeutic agents. Recent studies have implicated a role for the human MutS homologue hMSH5 in homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DSB repair and the DNA damage response. In the present study, we show that hMSH5 promotes HR-based DSB repair, and this property resides in the carboxyl-terminal portion of the protein. Our results demonstrate that DSB-triggered hMSH5 chromatin association peaks at the proximal regions of the DSB and decreases gradually with increased distance from the break. Furthermore, the DSB-triggered hMSH5 chromatin association is preceded by and relies on the assembly of hMRE11 and hRad51 at the proximal regions of the DSB. Lastly, the potential effects of hMSH5 non-synonymous variants (L85F, Y202C, V206F, R351G, L377F, and P786S) on HR and cell survival in response to DSB-inducing anticancer agents have been analyzed. These experiments show that the expression of hMSH5 variants elicits different survival responses to anticancer drugs cisplatin, bleomycin, doxorubicin and camptothecin. However, the effects of hMSH5 variants on survival responses to DSB-inducing agents are not directly correlated to their effects exerted on HR-mediated DSB repair, suggesting that the roles of hMSH5 variants in the processes of DNA damage response and repair are multifaceted.

  15. The SPF27 homologue Num1 connects splicing and kinesin 1-dependent cytoplasmic trafficking in Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Nikola; Heimel, Kai; Obhof, Theresa; Finkernagel, Florian; Kämper, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The conserved NineTeen protein complex (NTC) is an integral subunit of the spliceosome and required for intron removal during pre-mRNA splicing. The complex associates with the spliceosome and participates in the regulation of conformational changes of core spliceosomal components, stabilizing RNA-RNA- as well as RNA-protein interactions. In addition, the NTC is involved in cell cycle checkpoint control, response to DNA damage, as well as formation and export of mRNP-particles. We have identified the Num1 protein as the homologue of SPF27, one of NTC core components, in the basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis. Num1 is required for polarized growth of the fungal hyphae, and, in line with the described NTC functions, the num1 mutation affects the cell cycle and cell division. The num1 deletion influences splicing in U. maydis on a global scale, as RNA-Seq analysis revealed increased intron retention rates. Surprisingly, we identified in a screen for Num1 interacting proteins not only NTC core components as Prp19 and Cef1, but several proteins with putative functions during vesicle-mediated transport processes. Among others, Num1 interacts with the motor protein Kin1 in the cytoplasm. Similar phenotypes with respect to filamentous and polar growth, vacuolar morphology, as well as the motility of early endosomes corroborate the genetic interaction between Num1 and Kin1. Our data implicate a previously unidentified connection between a component of the splicing machinery and cytoplasmic transport processes. As the num1 deletion also affects cytoplasmic mRNA transport, the protein may constitute a novel functional interconnection between the two disparate processes of splicing and trafficking.

  16. The SPF27 homologue Num1 connects splicing and kinesin 1-dependent cytoplasmic trafficking in Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Kellner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conserved NineTeen protein complex (NTC is an integral subunit of the spliceosome and required for intron removal during pre-mRNA splicing. The complex associates with the spliceosome and participates in the regulation of conformational changes of core spliceosomal components, stabilizing RNA-RNA- as well as RNA-protein interactions. In addition, the NTC is involved in cell cycle checkpoint control, response to DNA damage, as well as formation and export of mRNP-particles. We have identified the Num1 protein as the homologue of SPF27, one of NTC core components, in the basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis. Num1 is required for polarized growth of the fungal hyphae, and, in line with the described NTC functions, the num1 mutation affects the cell cycle and cell division. The num1 deletion influences splicing in U. maydis on a global scale, as RNA-Seq analysis revealed increased intron retention rates. Surprisingly, we identified in a screen for Num1 interacting proteins not only NTC core components as Prp19 and Cef1, but several proteins with putative functions during vesicle-mediated transport processes. Among others, Num1 interacts with the motor protein Kin1 in the cytoplasm. Similar phenotypes with respect to filamentous and polar growth, vacuolar morphology, as well as the motility of early endosomes corroborate the genetic interaction between Num1 and Kin1. Our data implicate a previously unidentified connection between a component of the splicing machinery and cytoplasmic transport processes. As the num1 deletion also affects cytoplasmic mRNA transport, the protein may constitute a novel functional interconnection between the two disparate processes of splicing and trafficking.

  17. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) possesses three homologues of ISG15 with different expression kinetics and conjugation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Clemens; Kileng, Øyvind; Rinaldo, Christine Hanssen; Seppola, Marit; Jensen, Ingvill; Robertsen, Børre

    2009-12-01

    Two new interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) family members were identified in a subtractive cDNA library constructed from a mixture of head kidney and spleen of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stimulated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). Two full-length Atlantic cod (Ac) ISG15-2 and AcISG15-3 cDNAs were cloned with rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA sequence of AcISG15-2 encodes a 16.9kDa protein and AcISG15-3 encodes a 18.4kDa protein, both of which possess the characteristic structural features of two tandem ubiquitin-like domains and the LRGG motif necessary for conjugation. Furthermore, the AcISG15-3 protein is expressed with a C-terminal extension in common with the human ISG15 protein. Gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that AcISG15-1, AcISG15-2, and AcISG15-3 transcripts were up-regulated in head kidney after poly I:C stimulation, suggesting that these proteins may be involved in the cod immune response. However, transient expression of myc-tagged AcISG15 proteins revealed differences in their abilities to form conjugates in vitro. We show that AcISG15-2 forms covalent conjugates to a range of cellular protein as a response to poly I:C, recombinant Atlantic salmon IFNa1 (rSasaIFNa1) and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), whereas conjugation was absent for AcISG15-1 and AcISG15-3. Thus, these results suggest there are three ISG15 homologues in Atlantic cod and that the three proteins may play different roles in innate immunity.

  18. Gibberellins regulate the transcription of the continuous flowering regulator, RoKSN, a rose TFL1 homologue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randoux, Marie; Jeauffre, Julien; Thouroude, Tatiana; Vasseur, François; Hamama, Latifa; Juchaux, Marjorie; Sakr, Soulaiman; Foucher, Fabrice

    2012-11-01

    The role of gibberellins (GAs) during floral induction has been widely studied in the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Less is known about this control in perennials. It is thought that GA is a major regulator of flowering in rose. In spring, low GA content may be necessary for floral initiation. GA inhibited flowering in once-flowering roses, whereas GA did not block blooming in continuous-flowering roses. Recently, RoKSN, a homologue of TFL1, was shown to control continuous flowering. The loss of RoKSN function led to continuous flowering behaviour. The objective of this study was to understand the molecular control of flowering by GA and the involvement of RoKSN in this inhibition. In once-flowering rose, the exogenous application of GA(3) in spring inhibited floral initiation. Application of GA(3) during a short period of 1 month, corresponding to the floral transition, was sufficient to inhibit flowering. At the molecular level, RoKSN transcripts were accumulated after GA(3) treatment. In spring, this accumulation is correlated with floral inhibition. Other floral genes such as RoFT, RoSOC1, and RoAP1 were repressed in a RoKSN-dependent pathway, whereas RoLFY and RoFD repression was RoKSN independent. The RoKSN promoter contained GA-responsive cis-elements, whose deletion suppressed the response to GA in a heterologous system. In summer, once-flowering roses did not flower even after exogenous application of a GA synthesis inhibitor that failed to repress RoKSN. A model is presented for the GA inhibition of flowering in spring mediated by the induction of RoKSN. In summer, factors other than GA may control RoKSN.

  19. [Pulmonary manifestations of polyvinyl chloride exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süyür, Hüseyin; Bayram, Nazan; Aydın, Neriman; Uyar, Meral; Gündoğdu, Nevhiz; Elbek, Osman

    2011-01-01

    There is currently no national data on the effects of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) exposure on pulmonary function. In this study we recruited workers and administrative staff from two PVC plants between July 2008 and July 2009. A questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, and peak flows were recorded. Particulate matter analyses were performed by the Adana Central Laboratory of the Directorate of Occupational Health and Safety. Data were analyzed with SPSS 13.0 software. Nine of the 147 subjects were female. The incidence of a cough was more common in the administrative group. Of the study population, 59.1% were smokers. Tobacco addiction significantly increased cough and dyspnea [OR= 1.10 (1.00-1.20, 95% CI) p= 0.007 and OR= 1.08 (1.02-1.14, 95% CI), p= 0.008, respectively]. Dust exposure was correlated with the incidence of a cough [OR= 0.20 (0.04-0.80, 95% CI) p= 0.008]. The period of work correlated with sputum production [OR= 1.00 (1.00-1.02, 95% CI) p= 0.044]. The FVC% was significantly higher in the administrative group, and FEV1/FVC and DLCO were higher in the exposed group. Tobacco addiction increased the risk of airflow limitation, as evaluated by FEV1/FVC < 70% and FEF25-75 < 50% [OR= 1.15 (1.06-1.25, 95% CI) p= 0.001 and OR= 1.09 (1.02-1.17, 95% CI) p= 0.010, respectively]. Tobacco addiction and increasing duration of work had a negative influence on DLCO in the exposed group (r= -0.270, p= 0.025 and r= -0.210, p= 0.037). In the exposed group PEF variability was significantly greater on workdays, compared with rest days. This study shows that tobacco consumption has a greater affect on the airways than PVC dust exposure. A median of 36 months exposure to PVC dust had no significant impact on pulmonary function parameters, except for DLCO and PEF variability.

  20. Aspergilli Response to Benzalkonium Chloride and Novel-Synthesized Fullerenol/Benzalkonium Chloride Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Unković

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive comparative analysis of antifungal potential of benzalkonium chloride and newly synthesized fullerenol/benzalkonium chloride nanocomposite was conducted to assess the possible impact of carbon-based nanocarrier on antimicrobial properties of the commonly used biocide. Physical characterization of synthesized nanocomposite showed zeta potential of +37.4 mV and inhomogeneous particles size distribution, with nanocomposite particles’ dimensions within 30–143 nm and maximum number of particles at 44 nm. The effect of pure and fullerenol nanocarrier-bound biocide was evaluated in eight Aspergillus species. In mycelial growth assay, nanocomposite was more potent, as fungicidal effect of 1.04/0.6 μg mL−1 was obtained in all but one of the isolates (A. niger, while proportional concentration of pure biocide (0.6 μg mL−1 completely inhibited mycelial growth of only three Aspergillus species. However, conidia appear to be less susceptible to nanocomposite treatment, as lower fungistatic (MIC and fungicidal (MFC concentrations were obtained with biocide alone (MIC in range from 0.03 to 0.15 μg mL−1 and MFC from 0.075 to 0.45 μg mL−1. To a different degree, both substances stimulated aflatoxin B1 production and inhibited ochratoxin A synthesis. Very low mycelium biomass yield, in range from 1.0 to 3.0 mg dry weight, was documented in both biocide and nanocomposite enriched medium.

  1. Microstructural Evolution of Chloride-Cleaned Silicon Carbide Aluminum Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Gbenebor, O. P.; Balogun, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the synergy between reinforcement surface modifications on the evolution of microstructures of AA6011-silicon carbide particle (SiCp) composites in multidirectional solidification. Silicon carbide particles (SiCp) were cleaned with ammonium chloride, tin(II) chloride, sodium chloride, and palladium(II) chloride and used as reinforcement to cast AA6011-SiCp composites by applying the stir casting method. A scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer were used to investigate the morphology and phases present, respectively, in the composite material. Results show that wetting agents were effective as they inhibited the formation of Al4C3 in all modified composites. The modified SiCp was found to have varying effects on the morphology, dendrite arm size and direction, size and configuration of AlFeSi, and the amount of eutectic silicon depending on the concentration of the reagent and cleaning time. The highest effect was shown by the use of 40 g/L of tin(II) chloride. The composites had short dendritic arms, good interfacial interaction, and only a few crystals of AlFeSi.

  2. Enhancement of trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum by cobalt chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Rie; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Sakamoto, Naoko; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2011-03-09

    The effects of cobalt chloride on the production of trichothecene and ergosterol in Fusarium graminearum were examined. Incorporation experiments with (13)C-labeled acetate and leucine confirmed that both 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and ergosterol were biosynthesized via a mevalonate pathway by the fungus, although hydroxymethyl-glutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) from intact leucine was able to be partially used for ergosterol production. Addition of cobalt chloride at concentrations of 3-30 μM into liquid culture strongly enhanced 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol production by the fungus, whereas the amount of ergosterol and the mycelial weight of the fungus did not change. The mRNA levels of genes encoding trichothecene biosynthetic proteins (TRI4 and TRI6), ergosterol biosynthetic enzymes (ERG3 and ERG25), and enzymes involved in the mevalonate pathway (HMG-CoA synthase (HMGS) and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR)) were all strongly up-regulated in the presence of cobalt chloride. Precocene II, a specific trichothecene production inhibitor, suppressed the effects of cobalt chloride on Tri4, Tri6, HMGS, and HMGR, but did not affect erg3 and erg25. These results indicate that cobalt chloride is useful for investigating regulatory mechanisms of trichothecene and ergosterol production in F. graminearum.

  3. Interactions between chloride and cement-paste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberon, Fabien; Baroghel-Bouny, Véronique; Zanni, Hélène; Bresson, Bruno; d'Espinose de la Caillerie, Jean-Baptiste; Malosse, Lucie; Gan, Zehong

    2005-02-01

    The durability of cement-based materials with respect to exterior aggressions is one of the current priorities in civil engineering. Depending on their use, the cement-based materials can be exposed to different types of aggressive environments. For instance, damages to concrete structures in contact with a saline environment (sea water on bridges, deicing salts on roads, etc.) are of utmost importance. Upon exposure to saline water, Cl- ions penetrate into the structures and subsequently lead to reinforcement corrosion. Chloride attack is often combined with other aggressive influences such as temperature (e.g., freezing) or the ingress of other ions (e.g., sulfates in sea water). We therefore aim to explore the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on the structural chemistry of cement paste. Existing studies about reinforcement corrosion by chloride have focused on the penetration of Cl- ions and the comparison between "free" ions (water-soluble ions) and bound ones. However, little is known about the fixation mechanisms, the localization of Cl in the cement matrix and the structural interaction between Cl and the silicate and aluminate hydrate phases present in cement paste. We present here results of a multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance study on the fixation of chloride in the hydration products and the characterization of new phases potentially appearing due to chloride ingress.

  4. Development and critical evaluation of fluorescent chloride nanosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graefe, Anja; Stanca, Sarmiza E; Nietzsche, Sandor; Kubicova, Lenka; Beckert, Rainer; Biskup, Christoph; Mohr, Gerhard J

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we describe the preparation and evaluation of new fluorescent sensor nanoparticles for the ratiometric measurement of chloride concentrations. Both a chloride-sensitive dye (lucigenin) and a reference dye (sulforhodamine derivative) were incorporated into polyacrylamide nanoparticles via inverse microemulsion polymerization and investigated for their response to chloride ions in buffered suspension as well as in living cells. The fluorescence intensity of lucigenin reversibly decreased in the presence of chloride ions due to a collisional quenching process, which can be described with the Stern-Volmer equation. The determined Stern-Volmer constant K SV for the quenching of lucigenin incorporated into particles was found to be 53 M (-1) and is considerably smaller than the Stern-Volmer constant for quenching of free lucigenin ( K SV = 250 M (-1)) under the same conditions. To test the nanosensors in living cells, we incorporated them into Chinese hamster ovary cells and mouse fibroblasts by using the conventional lipofectamin technique and monitored the response to changing chloride concentrations in the cell.

  5. Elusive Presence of Chloride in Mixed Halide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Silvia; Mosconi, Edoardo; Pellegrino, Giovanna; Alberti, Alessandra; Guerra, Valentino L P; Masi, Sofia; Listorti, Andrea; Rizzo, Aurora; Condorelli, Guglielmo Guido; De Angelis, Filippo; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2014-10-16

    The role of chloride in the MAPbI3-xClx perovskite is still limitedly understood, albeit subjected of much debate. Here, we present a combined angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS) and first-principles DFT modeling to investigate the MAPbI3-xClx/TiO2 interface. AR-XPS analyses carried out on ad hoc designed bilayers of MAPbI3-xClx perovskite deposited onto a flat TiO2 substrate reveal that the chloride is preferentially located in close proximity to the perovskite/TiO2 interface. DFT calculations indicate the preferential location of chloride at the TiO2 interface compared to the bulk perovskite due to an increased chloride-TiO2 surface affinity. Furthermore, our calculations clearly demonstrate an interfacial chloride-induced band bending, creating a directional "electron funnel" that may improve the charge collection efficiency of the device and possibly affecting also recombination pathways. Our findings represent a step forward to the rationalization of the peculiar properties of mixed halide perovskite, allowing one to further address material and device design issues.

  6. The Chloride Permeability of Persulphated Phosphogypsum-Slag Cement Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Youqiang; LU Jianxin; CHEN Feixiang; SHUI Zhonghe

    2016-01-01

    The chloride permeability and microstructure of persulphated phosphogypsum-slag cement concrete (PPSCC), the Portland slag cement concrete (PSCC) and ordinary Portland cement concrete (OPCC) were investigated comparatively. Some test methods were used to evaluate the chloride permeability and explain the relationship between the permeability and microstructure of concrete. The results show that the resistance to chloride penetration in PPSCC is signiifcantly better than that in OPCC, the reasons are as follows: 1) the slag in PPSCC is activated by clinker (alkali activation) and phosphogypsum (sulfate activation), forming more low Ca/Si C-S-H gel and gel pores below 10 nm than OPCC, improving the resistance to chloride penetration; 2) the hydration products of PPSCC have a much stronger binding capacity for chloride ions; and 3) in the same mix proportion, PPSCC has a better workability without large crystals calcium hydroxide in the hydration products, the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is smoother and denser, which can cut off the communicating pores between the pastes and aggregates.

  7. Chloride channels of platelets%血小板氯通道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓琳; 尹松梅

    2004-01-01

    Chloride channels distribute widely in the body, and participate in many physiological actions and regulatory processes. Based on their physiological roles and molecular structures, six kinds of chloride channels have been identified: (1) The chloride channels family; (2) Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; (3) Swelling-activated chloride channels; (4) Calcium-activated chloride channels; (5) The p64 (CLIC) gene family; (6) γ-aminobutyric acid and glycine receptors. The chloride channels do exist in platelets, and their appearances are dependent on the presence of intracellular calcium. Blocking agents of chloride channels inhibit the thrombin-activated platelet aggregation and the elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration in a dose-dependent manner. It is suggested that chloride channels play a role in the activation of platelets. In addition, chloride channels act on both the cell volume regulation and the intracellular pH regulation in platelets.

  8. Cloning of the rhesus lymphocryptovirus viral capsid antigen and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA homologues and use in diagnosis of acute and persistent infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P; Jiang, H; Wang, F

    2000-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with the development of several human malignancies. A closely related herpesvirus in the same lymphocryptovirus (LCV) genera as EBV naturally infects rhesus monkeys and provides an important animal model for studying EBV pathogenesis. We cloned the small viral capsid antigen (sVCA) homologue from the rhesus LCV and developed a peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine whether epitopes in the rhesus LCV sVCA are a reliable indicator of rhesus LCV infection. In order to define a "gold standard" for rhesus LCV infection, we also cloned the EBV-encoded small RNA 1 (EBER1) and EBER2 homologues from rhesus LCV and developed a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay to detect persistent LCV infection in rhesus monkey peripheral blood lymphocytes. Animals from a conventional and a hand-reared colony were studied to compare the prevalence of rhesus LCV infection in the two groups. There was a 100% correlation between the peptide ELISA and EBER RT-PCR results for rhesus LCV infection. In addition, specificity for LCV infection and exclusion of potential cross-reactivity to the rhesus rhadinovirus sVCA homologue could be demonstrated using sera from experimentally infected animals. These studies establish two novel assays for reliable diagnosis of acute and persistent rhesus LCV infections. The rhesus LCV sVCA peptide ELISA provides a sensitive and reliable assay for routine screening, and these studies of the hand-reared colony confirm the feasibility of raising rhesus LCV-naive animals.

  9. Analysis of a homologue of the adducin head gene which is a potential target for the Dictyostelium STAT protein Dd-STATa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoshima, Ryota; Hiraoka, Rieko; Shimada, Nao; Kawata, Takefumi

    2006-01-01

    A Dd-STATa-null mutant, which is defective in expression of a Dictyostelium homologue of the metazoan STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins, fails to culminate and this phenotype correlates with the loss of expression of various prestalk (pst) genes. An EST clone, SSK395, encodes a close homologue of the adducin amino-terminal head domain and harbors a putative actin-binding domain. We fused promoter fragments of the cognate gene, ahhA (adducin head homologue A), to a lacZ reporter and determined their expression pattern. The proximal promoter region is necessary for the expression of ahhA at an early (pre-aggregative) stage of development and this expression is Dd-STATa independent. The distal promoter region is necessary for expression at later stages of development in pstA cells, of the slug and in upper cup and pstAB cells during culmination. The distal region is partly Dd-STATa-dependent. The ahhA-null mutant develops almost normally until culmination, but it forms slanting culminants that tend to collapse on to the substratum. The mutant also occasionally forms fruiting bodies with swollen papillae and with constrictions in the prestalk region. The AhhA protein localizes to the stalk tube entrance and also to the upper cup cells and in cells at or near to the constricted region where an F-actin ring is localized. These findings suggest that Dd-STATa regulates culmination and may be necessary for straight downward elongation of the stalk, via the putative actin-binding protein AhhA.

  10. A homologue of the defender against the apoptotic death gene (dad1) in UV-exposed Chlamydomonas cells is downregulated with the onset of programmed cell death

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swati Moharikar; Jacinta S D’souza; Basuthkar J Rao

    2007-03-01

    We report here the isolation of a homologue of the potential anti-apoptotic gene, defender against apoptotic death (dad1) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we investigated its expression in the execution process of programmed cell death (PCD) in UV-C exposed dying C. reinhardtii cells. Reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR showed that C. reinhardtii dad1 amplification was drastically reduced in UV-C exposed dying C. reinhardtii cells. We connect the downregulation of dad1 with the upregulation of apoptosis protease activating factor-1 (APAF-1) and the physiological changes that occur in C. reinhardtii cells upon exposure to 12 J/m2 UV-C in order to show a reciprocal relationship between proapoptotic and inhibitor of apoptosis factors. The temporal changes indicate a correlation between the onset of cell death and dad1 downregulation. The sequence of the PCR product of the cDNA encoding the dad1 homologue was aligned with the annotated dad1 (C_20215) from the Chlamydomonas database (http://genome.jgi-psf.org:8080/annotator/servlet/jgi.annotation.Annotation?pDb=chlre2); Annotation?pDb=chlre2); this sequence was found to show 100% identity, both at the nucleotide and amino acid level. The 327 bp transcript showed an open reading frame of 87 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of the putative C. reinhardtii DAD1 homologue showed 54% identity with Oryza sativa, 56% identity with Drosophila melanogaster, 66% identity with Xenopus laevis, and 64% identity with Homo sapiens, Sus scrofa, Gallus gallus, Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus.

  11. Separating refractory and non-refractory particulate chloride and estimating chloride depletion by aerosol mass spectrometry in a marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Nuaaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol composition and concentration measurements along the coast of California were obtained using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS onboard the research vessel Atlantis during the CalNex study in 2010. This paper focuses on the measurement of aerosol chloride using the HR-AMS that can be ambiguous in regions with significant quantities of sea salt aerosols. This ambiguity arises due to large differences in the sensitivity of the HR-AMS to refractory chloride species (i.e., NaCl and non refractory chloride species (i.e., NH4Cl, HCl, etc.. Using the HR-AMS, the aerosol chloride signal is typically quantified using ion signals for 35Cl+, H35Cl+, 37Cl+ and H37Cl+ (HxCl+. During this study, the highest aerosol chloride signal was observed during sea sweep experiments when the source of the aerosol chloride was NaCl present in artificially generated sea salt aerosols even though the HR-AMS has significantly lower sensitivity to such refractory species. Other prominent ion signals that arise from NaCl salt were also observed at m/z 22.99 for Na+ and m/z 57.96 for Na35Cl+ during both sea sweep experiments and during periods of ambient measurements. Thus, refractory NaCl contributes significantly to the HxCl+ signal, interfering with attempts to quantify non sea salt chloride (nssCl. It was found that during ambient aerosol measurements, the interference in the HxCl+ signal from sea salt chloride (ssCl was as high as 89%, but with a study wide average of 10%. The Na35Cl+ ion signal was found to be a good tracer for NaCl. We outline a method to establish nssCl in the ambient aerosols by subtracting the sea salt chloride (ssCl signal from the HxCl+ signal. The ssCl signal is derived from the Na35Cl+ ion tracer signal and the HxCl+ to Na35Cl+ ratio established from the sea sweep experiments. Ambient submicron concentrations of ssCl were also established using the

  12. Optimization of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    A 1-D math model for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell is used in conjunction with a parameter estimation technique in order to estimate the electro-kinetic parameters of this electrochemical system. The electro-kinetic parameters include the anodic transfer coefficient and exchange current density of the lithium oxidation, alpha sub a,1 and i sub o,i,ref, the cathodic transfer coefficient and the effective exchange current density of the thionyl chloride reduction, alpha sub c,2 and a sup o i sub o,2,ref, and a morphology parameter, Xi. The parameter estimation is performed on simulated data first in order to gain confidence in the method. Data, reported in the literature, for a high rate discharge of an experimental lithium/thionyl chloride cell is used for an analysis.

  13. Stochastic Models for Chloride-Initiated Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Svend; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can lead to a substantial decrease of the load-bearing capacity. One mode of corrosion initiation is when the chloride content around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In the present paper a statistical model is developed by which t...... the chloride content in a 1reinforced concrete structure can be predicted. The model parameters are estimated on the basis of measurements. The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by FORMISORM-analysis.......Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can lead to a substantial decrease of the load-bearing capacity. One mode of corrosion initiation is when the chloride content around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In the present paper a statistical model is developed by which...

  14. Binder content influences on chloride ingress in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhir, R.K.; Jones, M.R.; McCarthy, M.J. [Univ. of Dundee (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The reported study looked at the effect of reducing free water contents, and thereby binder contents, and thereby binder contents, on the ingress of chloride in concrete. Concretes with equal water/binder ratio (and design strength), but with water contents reduced by up to 30 liters/m{sup 3}, were tested for chloride diffusion (D) and penetration. The quality of the microstructure was inferred from initial surface absorption tests (ISAT). The results show no practical difference in chloride durability between the corresponding concretes, and that reducing the binder content, (providing that the water/binder ratio is maintained) is not likely to be detrimental. However, the results reported underline the importance of binder type, in this case PFA. Implications of the results are discussed and, in light of the findings, whether specifications which demand minimum cement contents are justified.

  15. IL-2R{gamma} gene microdeletion demonstrates that canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency is a homologue of the human disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henthorn, P.S.; Fimiani, V.M.; Patterson, D.F. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by profound defects in cellular and humoral immunity and, in humans, is associated with mutations in the gene for the {gamma} chain of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R{gamma}). We have examined this gene in a colony of dogs established from a single X-linked SCID carrier female. Affected dogs have a 4-bp deletion in the first exon of the IL-2R{gamma} gene, which precludes the production of a functional protein, demonstrating that the canine disease is a true homologue of human X-linked SCID. 37 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Intrinsic Resistance of Burkholderia cepacia Complex to Benzalkonium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngbeom Ahn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical products that are contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC bacteria may pose serious consequences to vulnerable patients. Benzyldimethylalkylammonium chloride (BZK cationic surfactants are extensively used in medical applications and have been implicated in the coselection of antimicrobial resistance. The ability of BCC to degrade BZK, tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C14BDMA-Cl, dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C12BDMA-Cl, decyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C10BDMA-Cl, hexyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, and benzyltrimethylammonium chloride was determined by incubation in 1/10-diluted tryptic soy broth (TSB to determine if BCC bacteria have the ability to survive and inactivate these disinfectants. With BZK, C14BDMA-Cl, and C12BDMA-Cl, inhibition of the growth of 20 BCC strains was observed in disinfectant solutions that ranged from 64 to 256 µg/ml. The efflux pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone increased the sensitivity of bacteria to 64 µg/ml BZK. The 20 BCC strains grew well in 1/10-diluted TSB medium with BZK, C12BDMA-Cl, and C10BDMA-Cl; they absorbed and degraded the compounds in 7 days. Formation of benzyldimethylamine and benzylmethylamine as the initial metabolites suggested that the cleavage of the C alkyl-N bond occurred as the first step of BZK degradation by BCC bacteria. Proteomic data confirmed the observed efflux activity and metabolic inactivation via biodegradation in terms of BZK resistance of BCC bacteria, which suggests that the two main resistance mechanisms are intrinsic and widespread.

  17. Role of Quercetin in Modulating Chloride Transport in the Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Jiang, Yu; Jin, Lingling; Ma, Tonghui; Yang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial chloride channels provide the pathways for fluid secretion in the intestine. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are the main chloride channels in the luminal membrane of enterocytes. These transmembrane proteins play important roles in many physiological processes. In this study, we have identified a flavonoid quercetin as a modulator of CaCC chloride channel activity. Fluorescence quenching assay showed that quercetin activated Cl− transport in a dose-dependent manner, with EC50 ~37 μM. Short-circuit current analysis confirmed that quercetin activated CaCC-mediated Cl− currents in HT-29 cells that can be abolished by CaCCinh-A01. Ex vivo studies indicated that application of quercetin to mouse ileum and colon on serosal side resulted in activation of CFTR and CaCC-mediated Cl− currents. Notably, we found that quercetin exhibited inhibitory effect against ANO1 chloride channel activity in ANO1-expressing FRT cells and decreased mouse intestinal motility. Quercetin-stimulated short-circuit currents in mouse ileum was multi-component, which included elevation of Ca2+ concentration through L-type calcium channel and activation of basolateral NKCC, Na+/K+-ATPase, and K+ channels. In vivo studies further revealed that quercetin promoted fluid secretion in mouse ileum. The modulatory effect of quercetin on CaCC chloirde channels may therefore represent a potential therapeutic strategy for treating CaCC-related diseases like constipation, secretory diarrhea and hypertension. The inverse effects of quercetin on CaCCs provided evidence that ANO1 and intestinal epithelial CaCCs are different calcium-activated chloride channels. PMID:27932986

  18. Role of quercetin in modulating chloride transport in the intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial chloride channels provide the pathways for fluid secretion in the intestine. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs are the main chloride channels in the luminal membrane of enterocytes. These transmembrane proteins play important roles in many physiological processes. In this study, we have identified a flavonoid quercetin as a modulator of CaCC chloride channel activity. Fluorescence quenching assay showed that quercetin activated Clˉ transport in a dose-dependent manner, with EC50 ~37 µM. Short-circuit current analysis confirmed that quercetin activated CaCC-mediated Clˉ currents in HT-29 cells that can be abolished by CaCCinh-A01. Ex-vivo studies indicated that application of quercetin to mouse ileum and colon on serosal side resulted in activation of CFTR and CaCC-mediated Clˉ currents. Notably, we found that quercetin exhibited inhibitory effect against ANO1 chloride channel activity in ANO1-expressing FRT cells and decreased mouse intestinal motility. Quercetin-stimulated short-circuit currents in mouse ileum was multi-component, which included elevation of Ca2+ concentration through L-type calcium channel and activation of basolateral NKCC, Na+/K+-ATPase and K+ channels. In vivo studies further revealed that quercetin promoted fluid secretion in mouse ileum. The modulatory effect of quercetin on CaCC chloirde channels may therefore represent a potential therapeutic strategy for treating CaCC-related diseases like constipation, secretory diarrhea and hypertension. The inverse effects of quercetin on CaCCs provided evidence that ANO1 and intestinal epithelial CaCCs are different calcium-activated chloride channels.

  19. An experiment on multibubble sonoluminescence spectra in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhan; XU JunFeng; HUANG Wei; CHEN WeiZhong; MIAO GuoQing

    2008-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the spectra of MBSL in sodium chloride water solution with krypton as dissolved gas. We observed and compared the spectra of hydroxyl ion at 310 nm and that of sodium atom at 589 nm. It has been found that under the same experimental condition, the intensity of sodium atom spectra is obviously higher than that of the hydroxyl ion spectra, and is more sensitive to the experimental condition. The krypton content, the concentration of sodium chloride solution, and the driving sound pressure obviously affect the spectra intensity in certain range.

  20. Controversy: Is Benzalkonium Chloride Necessary in Antiglaucoma Drops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louati, Y

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Medical therapy is the first-line option in glaucoma management, with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) being the most frequently used preservative in antiglaucoma medications. Its use is however, known to be associated with deleterious effects on the ocular surface. This review is an attempt to critically evaluate whether BAC really is indispensable for better bioavailability of antiglaucoma drugs and consequently, better IOP control. How to cite this article: Louati Y, Shaarawy T. Controversy: Is Benzalkonium Chloride Necessary in Antiglaucoma Drops? J Current Glau Prac 2012;6(3):104-107. PMID:26997764

  1. Stochastic Models for Chloride-Initiated Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1996-01-01

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can lead to a substantial decrease of the load-bearing capacity. One mode of corrosion initiation is when the chloride content around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In the present paper a statistical model is developed by which...... the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be predicted. The model parameters are estimated on the basis of measurements. The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by FORM/SORM-analysis....

  2. Inhibitory effects of beryllium chloride on rat liver microsomal enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, C F; Yasaka, W J; Silva, L F; Oshiro, T T; Oga, S

    1990-04-30

    A single i.v. dose (0.1 mmol Be2+/kg) of beryllium chloride prolonged the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep and zoxazolamine-induced paralysis, in rats. The effects are correlated with changes of the pharmacokinetic parameters and with the in vitro inhibition of both aliphatic and aromatic hydroxylation of pentobarbital and zoxazolamine. In vitro N-demethylation of meperidine and aminopyrine was partially inhibited while O-demethylation of quinidine was unaffected by liver microsomes of rats pretreated with beryllium salt. The findings give clues that beryllium chloride inhibits some forms of cytochrome P-450, especially those responsible for hydroxylation of substrates, like pentobarbital and zoxazolamine.

  3. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-08-11

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  4. Nutritive value of timothy fertilized with chloride or chloride-containing liquid swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, S; Tremblay, G F; Bélanger, G; Chantigny, M H; Seguin, P; Drapeau, R; Allard, G

    2008-02-01

    Chloride fertilization of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) decreases forage dietary cation-anion difference to an acceptable value [(fertilization might affect nutritive value. Two experiments were used to evaluate the effects of chloride fertilization on timothy spring growth and summer regrowth by determining concentrations of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), in vitro true digestibility of DM (IVTD), and in vitro digestibility of NDF (dNDF). In an inorganic fertilization experiment, forages grown at 4 locations were fertilized with CaCl(2) (0, 80, 160, and 240 kg of Cl/ha per yr) or NH(4)Cl (160 kg of Cl/ha per yr) in combination with 2 N application rates (70 and 140 kg of N/ha per yr). The increase in Cl fertilization rate affected forage NDF concentration (+1.4%), IVTD (-0.8%), and dNDF (-1.2%) only at the highest rate of N fertilization, but this effect was not of biological importance. Crude protein concentration was not affected by Cl fertilization. Both Cl fertilizer types had a similar impact on forage nutritive value. In an organic fertilization experiment, forages grown at 2 locations received 1 of 7 experimental treatments [unfertilized control, inorganic fertilizer, raw liquid swine manure (LSM), and liquid fractions of 4 pretreated LSM types (decanted, filtered, anaerobically digested, and flocculated)] that provided, respectively, 0, 60, 41, 44, 44, 36, and 101 kg of Cl/ha per yr. The last 6 fertilizer treatments also provided 140 kg of N/ha per yr. The IVTD, dNDF, and concentration of NDF in timothy forage were not affected by the Cl content of the different LSM types. Nitrogen fertilization increased concentration of forage NDF and decreased IVTD and dNDF, but this effect was not biologically important. In both experiments, soil types and harvests had a negligible effect on forage nutritive value. Organic or inorganic Cl fertilizers applied to decrease timothy dietary cation-anion difference have little or no effect on forage nutritive

  5. Mercury toxicity in the shark (Squalus acanthias) rectal gland: apical CFTR chloride channels are inhibited by mercuric chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Martha A; Decker, Sarah E; Aller, Stephen G; Weber, Gerhard; Forrest, John N

    2006-03-01

    In the shark rectal gland, basolateral membrane proteins have been suggested as targets for mercury. To examine the membrane polarity of mercury toxicity, we performed experiments in three preparations: isolated perfused rectal glands, primary monolayer cultures of rectal gland epithelial cells, and Xenopus oocytes expressing the shark cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. In perfused rectal glands we observed: (1) a dose-dependent inhibition by mercury of forskolin/3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-stimulated chloride secretion; (2) inhibition was maximal when mercury was added before stimulation with forskolin/IBMX; (3) dithiothrietol (DTT) and glutathione (GSH) completely prevented inhibition of chloride secretion. Short-circuit current (Isc) measurements in monolayers of rectal gland epithelial cells were performed to examine the membrane polarity of this effect. Mercuric chloride inhibited Isc more potently when applied to the solution bathing the apical vs. the basolateral membrane (23 +/- 5% and 68 +/- 5% inhibition at 1 and 10 microM HgCl2 in the apical solution vs. 2 +/- 0.9% and 14 +/- 5% in the basolateral solution). This inhibition was prevented by pre-treatment with apical DTT or GSH; however, only the permeant reducing agent DTT reversed mercury inhibition when added after exposure. When the shark rectal gland CFTR channel was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and chloride conductance was measured by two-electrode voltage clamping, we found that 1 microM HgCl2 inhibited forskolin/IBMX conductance by 69.2 +/- 2.0%. We conclude that in the shark rectal gland, mercury inhibits chloride secretion by interacting with the apical membrane and that CFTR is the likely site of this action.

  6. Toxic effects of mercuric chloride, methylmercuric chloride, and Emisan 6 (an organic mercurial fungicide) on ovarian recrudescence in the catfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirubagaran, R.; Joy, K.P.

    1988-12-01

    Mercurial toxicity in fishes has been focused mainly on tissue uptake and subcellular distribution, nephrotoxicity, development, hatching and survivability of young ones and teratology. Very few studies have been attempted to investigate Hg toxicity on gonadal activity of fishes throughout the breeding season. In a previous investigation the authors have studied the toxic effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/), methylmercuric chloride (CH/sub 3/HgCl) and emisan 6 (an alkoxyalkyl fungicide) on the survival and histology of the kidney of the catfish, Clarias batrachus. The present report deals with toxic effects of these mercurials on ovarian recrudescence in the catfish, an economically important species in the subcontinent.

  7. [Evaluation of professional exposure to chloride vinyl monomer and vinyl idene chloride for a pharmaceutical packaging worker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsi, F; De Grandis, D; Laurelli, R; Narda, R; Pietrantonio, E; Scarlini, E; Soldati, P S

    2007-01-01

    The study was conducted by Judicial Policy investigations of Prosecution's Office. The event was connected by a professional founded suspicion disease of a pharmaceutical worker. First information coming from the Authority indicated a chloride vinyl monomer (CVM) exposure. We applied a chemical risk assessment method to estimate real professional exposure. The method was based on the productive cycle, physical and chemical and toxicological properties. The method combined to environmental data permitted to formulate etiological hypothesis. The worker during drugs packaging was exposed to CVM and vinylidene chloride (CVDM) caused by blister warming and by glue deposition. We explain the evaluations by which we could consider the pollutant different distribution in workplaces.

  8. The Effect of Silver Chloride Formation on the Kinetics of Silver Dissolution in Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Hung; Payer, Joe

    2011-01-01

    The precipitation and growth of AgCl on silver in physiological NaCl solution were investigated. AgCl was found to form at bottom of scratches on the surface which may be the less effective sites for diffusion or the favorable sites for heterogeneous nucleation. Patches of silver chloride expanded laterally on the substrate until a continuous film formed. The ionic transport path through this newly formed continuous film was via spaces between AgCl patches. As the film grew, the spaces between AgCl patches closed and ion transport was primarily via micro-channels running through AgCl patches. The decrease of AgCl layer conductivity during film growth were attributed to the clogging of micro-channels or decrease in charge carrier concentration inside the micro-channels. Under thin AgCl layer, i.e. on the order of a micrometer, the dissolution of silver substrate was under mixed activation-Ohmic control. Under thick AgCl layer, i.e. on the order of tens of micrometers, the dissolution of silver substrate was mediated by the Ohmic resistance of AgCl layer. PMID:21516171

  9. The Effect of Silver Chloride Formation on the Kinetics of Silver Dissolution in Chloride Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Hung; Payer, Joe

    2011-02-28

    The precipitation and growth of AgCl on silver in physiological NaCl solution were investigated. AgCl was found to form at bottom of scratches on the surface which may be the less effective sites for diffusion or the favorable sites for heterogeneous nucleation. Patches of silver chloride expanded laterally on the substrate until a continuous film formed. The ionic transport path through this newly formed continuous film was via spaces between AgCl patches. As the film grew, the spaces between AgCl patches closed and ion transport was primarily via micro-channels running through AgCl patches. The decrease of AgCl layer conductivity during film growth were attributed to the clogging of micro-channels or decrease in charge carrier concentration inside the micro-channels. Under thin AgCl layer, i.e. on the order of a micrometer, the dissolution of silver substrate was under mixed activation-Ohmic control. Under thick AgCl layer, i.e. on the order of tens of micrometers, the dissolution of silver substrate was mediated by the Ohmic resistance of AgCl layer.

  10. Comparison of the regulation, metabolic functions, and roles in virulence of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase homologues gapA and gapB in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Joanne; Cockayne, Alan; Moody, Peter C E; Morrissey, Julie A

    2010-12-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus contains two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) homologues known as GapA and GapB. GapA has been characterized as a functional GAPDH protein, but currently there is no biological evidence for the role of GapB in metabolism in S. aureus. In this study we show through a number of complementary methods that S. aureus GapA is essential for glycolysis while GapB is essential in gluconeogenesis. These proteins are reciprocally regulated in response to glucose concentrations, and both are influenced by the glycolysis regulator protein GapR, which is the first demonstration of the role of this regulator in S. aureus and the first indication that GapR homologues control genes other than those within the glycolytic operon. Furthermore, we show that both GapA and GapB are important in the pathogenesis of S. aureus in a Galleria mellonella model of infection, showing for the first time in any bacteria that both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis have important roles in virulence.

  11. Equine herpesvirus 1 gene 12, the functional homologue of herpes simplex virus VP16, transactivates via octamer sequences in the equine herpesvirus IE gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, G; O'Hare, P

    1995-10-20

    The HSV-1 transactivator of immediate-early (IE) gene expression, VP16, has several functional homologues among the alphaherpesviruses which have not yet been extensively studied in relation to their modes of action. To date, nothing is known of the exact sites or mechanism of interaction of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) homologue, the gene 12 protein, with the EHV-1 IE promoter. We show that the gene 12 protein utilises the promoter proximal region of the IE gene to induce activation and identify four potential octamer DNA binding sites within that region. Although there was divergence from its consensus, Oct-1 bound to each of these sites in an in vitro complex formation assay, and in the presence of the gene 12 product a second complex of slower migration, which was also dependent on Oct-1, was detected. When each site was inserted into a basal promoter, two conferred activation by gene 12 with a resulting increase in expression of up to 50-fold compared to basal levels. These results show that, despite the differences between the two proteins, the mechanism of interaction of the gene 12 protein with its target is analogous to that of VP16.

  12. DUF538 protein super family is predicted to be the potential homologue of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein in plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Ashraf; Kohnehrouz, Samira Baghban

    2013-03-01

    DUF538 protein super family includes a number of plant proteins that their role is not yet clear. These proteins have been frequently reported to be expressed in plants under various stressful stimuli such as bacteria and elicitors. In order to further understand about this protein family we utilized bioinformatics tools to analyze its structure in details. As a result, plants DUF538 was predicted to be the partial structural homologue of BPI (bactericidal/permeability increasing) proteins in mammalian innate immune system that provides the first line of defense against different pathogens including bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. Moreover, on the base of the experimental data, it was identified that exogenously applied purified fused product of Celosia DUF538 affects the bacterial growth more possibly similar to BPI through the binding to the bacterial membranes. In conclusion, as the first ever time report, we nominated DUF538 protein family as the potential structural and functional homologue of BPI protein in plants, providing a basis to study the novel functions of this protein family in the biological systems in the future.

  13. Two plant bacteria, S. meliloti and Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, share functional znuABC homologues that encode for a high affinity zinc uptake system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl M Vahling-Armstrong

    Full Text Available The Znu system, encoded for by znuABC, can be found in multiple genera of bacteria and has been shown to be responsible for the import of zinc under low zinc conditions. Although this high-affinity uptake system is known to be important for both growth and/or pathogenesis in bacteria, it has not been functionally characterized in a plant-associated bacterium. A single homologue of this system has been identified in the plant endosymbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, while two homologous systems were found in the destructive citrus pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. To understand the role of these protein homologues, a complementation assay was devised allowing the individual genes that comprise the system to be assayed independently for their ability to reinstate a partially-inactivated Znu system. Results from the assays have demonstrated that although all of the genes from S. meliloti were able to restore activity, only one of the two Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus encoded gene clusters contained genes that were able to functionally complement the system. Additional analysis of the gene clusters reveals that distinct modes of regulation may also exist between the Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus and S. meliloti import systems despite the intracellular-plant niche common to both of these bacteria.

  14. Muscle cell migrations of C. elegans are mediated by the alpha-integrin INA-1, Eph receptor VAB-1, and a novel peptidase homologue MNP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Morgan; Han, Min

    2008-06-15

    Cell migration is a fundamental process occurring during embryonic development and tissue morphogenesis. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, morphogenesis of the body-wall musculature involves short-range migrations of 81 embryonic muscle cells from the lateral surface of the embryo towards the dorsal and ventral midlines. This study shows that mutations in ina-1 (alpha-integrin), as well as vab-1 (Eph receptor), and vab-2 (ephrin), display defects in embryonic muscle cell migration. Furthermore, an RNAi-based enhancer screen in an ina-1 weak loss-of-function background identified mnp-1 (matrix non-peptidase homologue-1) as a previously uncharacterized gene required for promoting proper migration of the embryonic muscle cells. mnp-1 encodes a membrane associated metalloproteinase homologue that is predicted to be catalytically inactive. Our data suggest that MNP-1 is expressed in migrating muscle cells and localizes to the plasma membrane with the non-peptidase domain exposed to the extra-cellular environment. Double-mutant analysis between mnp-1(RNAi), ina-1, and vab-1 mutations; as well as tissue specific rescue experiments; indicated that each of these gene products function predominantly independent of each other and from different cell types to affect muscle cell migration. Together these results suggest complex interactions between the adjacent epidermal, neuronal, and muscle cells are required to promote proper muscle cell migration during embryogenesis.

  15. Formaldoxime hydrogen bonded complexes with ammonia and hydrogen chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec, Barbara; Mucha, Małgorzata; Sałdyka, Magdalena; Barnes, Austin; Mielke, Zofia

    2015-02-01

    An infrared spectroscopic and MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) study of hydrogen bonded complexes of formaldoxime with ammonia and hydrogen chloride trapped in solid argon matrices is reported. Both 1:1 and 1:2 complexes between formaldoxime and ammonia, hydrogen chloride have been identified in the CH2NOH/NH3/Ar, CH2NOH/HCl/Ar matrices, respectively, their structures were determined by comparison of the spectra with the results of calculations. In the 1:1 complexes present in the argon matrices the OH group of formaldoxime acts as a proton donor for ammonia and the nitrogen atom acts as a proton acceptor for hydrogen chloride. In the 1:2 complexes ammonia or hydrogen chloride dimers interact both with the OH group and the nitrogen atom of CH2NOH to form seven membered cyclic structures stabilized by three hydrogen bonds. The theoretical spectra generally agree well with the experimental ones, but they seriously underestimate the shift of the OH stretch for the 1:1 CH2NOH⋯NH3 complex.

  16. Sulfation of Condensed Potassium Chloride by SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Louise With; Hansen, Troels Bruun; Bartolomé, Carmen;

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K and with rea...

  17. Methyl chloride and other chlorocarbons in polluted air during INDOEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, HA; Lelieveld, J; de Gouw, JA; van der Veen, C; Fischer, H

    2002-01-01

    [1] Methyl chloride (CH3Cl) is the most abundant, natural, chlorine-containing gas in the atmosphere, with oceans and biomass burning as major identified sources. Estimates of global emissions suffer from large uncertainties, mostly for the tropics, partly due to a lack of measurements. We present a

  18. Photonic crystal fiber based chloride chemical sensors for corrosion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Heming; Tao, Chuanyi; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion of steel is one of the most important durability issues in reinforced concrete (RC) structures because aggressive ions such as chloride ions permeate concrete and corrode steel, consequently accelerating the destruction of structures, especially in marine environments. There are many practical methods for corrosion monitoring in RC structures, mostly focusing on electrochemical-based sensors for monitoring the chloride ion which is thought as one of the most important factors resulting in steel corrosion. In this work, we report a fiber-optic chloride chemical sensor based on long period gratings inscribed in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a chloride sensitive thin film. Numerical simulation is performed to determine the characteristics and resonance spectral response versus the refractive indices of the analyte solution flowing through into the holes in the PCF. The effective refractive index of the cladding mode of the LPGs changes with variations of the analyte solution concentration, resulting in a shift of the resonance wavelength, hence providing the sensor signal. This fiber-optic chemical sensor has a fast response, is easy to prepare and is not susceptible to electromagnetic environment, and can therefore be of use for structural health monitoring of RC structures subjected to such aggressive environments.

  19. The Vinyl Chloride Problem: Several Routes to One Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechvatal, A.; And Others

    This unit is one of a group of units written to fit the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies (CSYS) chemistry course, but it could be used in most Sixth Form courses. These materials are designed for use in a group decision-making format with each of three groups representing a different manufacturing process which produces vinyl chloride. The unit…

  20. Chloride transport in normal and cystic fibrosis epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Kansen (Maarten)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe experimental work described in this thesis was aimed at a better understanding of the pathogenesis of CF with the emphasis on electrophysiological studies on Cl" transport. Chloride transport was studied with Ussing chamber, isotopic ('25I")-efflux and fluorescent (SPQ) measurements

  1. Prenatal Mercuric Chloride Exposure Causes Developmental Deficits in Rat Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Rastegar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental pollution with heavy metals such as mercury is a major health problem. Growing studies on the field have shown the deleterious effects of mercury on human and nonhuman nervous system, especially in infants, however the effects of prenatal exposure to mercuricchloride on cortical development are not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to mercuric chloride on morphological characteristics of brain cortex. Methods: Mercuric chloride (2 mg/kg or normal saline were injected (I.P. to 36 Sprague – dawley rats in the 8th, 9th or 10th day of gestation. The embryos were surgically removed in the 15th day of gestation, and brain cortices were studied by histological techniques. Results: Histological studies showed that embryos of mercuric chloride treated rats hadcortical neuronal disarrangement withdifferent orientations of nuclei, increased diameter of cortex, increased mitosis of cells, increased cell death, decreased cellular density and increased intracellular space. Conclusion: These findings suggest some micro structural abnormalities in cortical regions after prenatal exposure to mercuric chloride. These structural abnormalities may underliesome neurologic disturbances following mercury intoxication.

  2. Autogeneous healing and chloride ingress in cracked concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savija, B.; Schlangen, E.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study of the influence of autogeneous healing on chloride ingress in cracked concrete is presented. In the study, two concrete mixtures (a Portland cement mix and a blast furnace slag mix), two healing regimes (submerged and fog room regime), two cracking ages (14 and 28 days), and m

  3. Factors other than chloride level influencing rate of reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castel, A.; Arliguie, G. [Paul Sabatier Univ., Toulouse (France); Francois, R. [Institut National Des Sciences Appliques, Toulouse (France)

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the degree of corrosion a 14 year-old concrete member was completely bared and three meter-long beams were stored in three-point flexion in an aggressive environment by sequences of drying and wetting by a salt fog. Total chloride content was measured at the level of all reinforcements. Despite the small concrete cover of 10 mm at the stirrups and 16 mm for the longitudinal reinforcement, no evidence was found to relate corrosion to chloride content, since a large part of the reinforcement was not affected by corrosion. It was concluded that the steel-concrete interface had a major influence on being able to predict the onset of corrosion in relation to chloride content. Indeed, corrosion damage was only present when the steel-concrete interface was damaged. These results call into question the validity of the chloride threshold as the single determining criterion to forecast corrosion development. It is suggested that the nature of the interface between steel and concrete, which may be randomly distributed along the reinforcements, should also be considered. Experimental evidence shows that steel-concrete interface damage is linked to non-elastic behaviour of bond that occurs at a given level of mechanical loading. Therefore, corrosion damage is best considered as a deterministic phenomenon linked to a bonding damage. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  4. Electrochemical Migration on Electronic Chip Resistors in Chloride Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per;

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical migration behavior of end terminals on ceramic chip resistors (CCRs) was studied using a novel experimental setup in varying sodium chloride concentrations from 0 to 1000 ppm. The chip resistor used for the investigation was 10-kΩ CCR size 0805 with end terminals made of 97Sn3Pb...

  5. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  6. Contact dermatitis in workers processing polyvinyl chloride plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, R; Kansky, A

    1985-01-01

    Out of 401 workers employed in a factory producing shoes from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) granulate, 388 were investigated. By patch testing with the standard tests and 4 phthalate compounds, a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis was confirmed in 11 of these. Six of them were sensitized to phthalates and 5 to coal tar.

  7. Study on the Reaction Mechanism of Naphthalene with Oxalyl Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The reaction of naphthalene with oxalyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous AlCl3 was investigated. The homolog of dinaphthyl methanone can be obtained mainly from this reaction. Naphthalene conversion does not have evident correlation with the amount of AlCl3. The results show that the reaction proceeds via carbon cation electrophilic substitution reaction-free radical substitution reaction pathway.

  8. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in horses, dogs, and cats as an antidote in the treatment of poisoning due to those pesticides and chemicals of the organophosphate class which have anticholinesterase activity... for at least 48 hours. Following severe poisoning, a second dose of sterile pralidoxime chloride...

  9. Comment on "Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voipio, Juha; Boron, Walter F; Jones, Stephen W; Hopfer, Ulrich; Payne, John A; Kaila, Kai

    2014-09-05

    Glykys et al. (Reports, 7 February 2014, p. 670) conclude that, rather than ion transporters, "local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration" and thereby determine "the magnitude and direction of GABAAR currents at individual synapses." If this were possible, perpetual ion-motion machines could be constructed. The authors' conclusions conflict with basic thermodynamic principles.

  10. Methylene chloride: two-generation inhalation reproductive study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitschke, K.D.; Eisenbrandt, D.L.; Lomax, L.G.; Rao, K.S.

    1988-07-01

    Reproductive parameters in Fischer 344 rats were evaluated following inhalation of methylene chloride (MeCl/sub 2/) for two successive generations. Thirty male and female rats were exposed to 0, 100, 500, or 1500 ppm MeCl/sub 2/ for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 14 weeks and then mated to produce f1 litters. After weaning, 30 randomly selected f1 pups/sex/group were exposed to MeCl/sub 2/ for 17 weeks and subsequently mated to produce f2 litters. Reproductive parameters examined included fertility, litter size and neonatal growth, and survival. All adults and selected weanlings were examined for grossly visible lesions. Tissues from selected weanlings were examined histopathologically. No adverse effects on reproductive parameters, neonatal survival, or neonatal growth were noted in animals exposed to methylene chloride in either the f0 or f1 generations. Similarly, there were no treatment-related gross pathologic observations in f0 or f1 adults or f1 and f2 weanlings. Histopathologic examination of tissues from f1 and f2 weanlings did not reveal any lesions attributed to methylene chloride. Thus, exposure of rats to concentrations as high as 1500 ppm methylene chloride, which has been shown in a 2-year study to produce treatment-related effects, did not affect any reproductive parameters.

  11. Maintenance Planning for Chloride Initiated Corrosion in Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can be initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In order to prevent the corrosion from reaching a stage where the load-bearing capacity of a given structure suffers a substantial decrease...

  12. Using polyvinyl chloride dyed with bromocresol purple in radiation dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Munzer; al Kassiri, Haroun; Daher, Yarob

    2011-02-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dyed with bromocresol purple was investigated as a high-dose radiation dosimeter. The absorbance at 417 nm depends linearly on the dose below 50 kGy. The response depends neither on dose rate nor on the irradiation temperature. The effects of post-irradiation storage in the dark and in indirect sunlight are also discussed.

  13. 21 CFR 862.1170 - Chloride test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloride test system. 862.1170 Section 862.1170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  14. Chloride Ingress in Concrete Cracks under Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Olesen, John Forbes;

    2005-01-01

    was similar for both sets and the maximum crack width was kept constant throughout the exposure period by means of precracking and an external prestressed reinforcement. Chloride profiles after 40 days revealed a considerable increase in ingress towards the crack tip in contrast to data from the literature...

  15. Synthesis of functional aromatic multisulfonyl chlorides and their masked precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percec, V; Bera, T K; De, B B; Sanai, Y; Smith, J; Holerca, M N; Barboiu, B; Grubbs, R B; Fréchet, J M

    2001-03-23

    The synthesis of functional aromatic bis(sulfonyl chlorides) containing an acetophenone and two sulfonyl chloride groups, i.e., 3,5-bis[4-(chlorosulfonyl)phenyl]-1-acetophenone (16), 3,5-bis(chlorosulfonyl)-1-acetophenone (17), and 3,5-bis(4-(chlorosulfonyl)phenyloxy)-1-acetophenone (18) via a sequence of reactions, involving in the last step the quantitative oxidative chlorination of S-(aryl)- N,N'-diethylthiocarbamate, alkyl- or benzyl thiophenyl groups as masked nonreactive precursors to sulfonyl chlorides is described. A related sequence of reactions was used for the synthesis of the aromatic trisulfonyl chloride 1,1,1-tris(4-chlorosulfonylphenyl)ethane (24). 4-(Chlorosulfonyl)phenoxyacetic acid, 2,2-bis[[[4-(chlorosulfonyl)phenoxyacetyl]oxy]methyl]-1,3-propanediyl ester (27), 5,11,17,23-tetrakis(chlorosulfonyl)-25,26,27,28-tetrakis(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy)calix[4]arene (38), 5,11,17,23,29,35-hexakis(chlorosulfonyl)-37,38,39,40,41,42-hexakis(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy)calix[6]arene (39), 5,11,17,23,29,35,41,47-octakis(chlorosulfonyl)-49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56-octakis(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy)calix[8]arene (40), 5,11,17,23-tetrakis(tert-butyl)-25,26,27,28-tetrakis(chlorosulfonyl phenoxyacetoxy)calix[4]arene (44), 5,11,17,23,29,35-hexakis(tert-butyl)-37,38,39,40,41,42-hexakis(chlorosulfonylphenoxyacetoxy)calix[6]arene (45), and 5,11,17,23,29,35,41,47-octakis(tert-butyl)-49,40,51,52,53,54,55,56-octakis(chlorosulfonylphenoxyacetoxy)calix[8]arene (46) were synthesized by two different multistep reaction procedures, the last step of both methods consisting of the chlorosulfonation of compounds containing suitable activated aromatic positions. 2,4,6-Tris(chlorosulfonyl)aniline (47) was obtained by the chlorosulfonation of aniline. The conformation of two series of multisulfonyl chlorides i.e., 38, 39, 40 and 44, 45, 46, was investigated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The masked nonreactive precursor states of the functional aromatic multisulfonyl chlorides and the aromatic

  16. Effects of Organic Corrosion Inhibitor and Chloride Ion Concentration on Steel Depassivation and Repassivation in Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zixiao; YU; Lei; LIU; Zhiyong; SONG; Ning

    2015-01-01

    Effect of an organic corrosion inhibitor(OCI) named PCI-2014 added in chloride solution on the critical chloride concentration of mild steel depassivation and the critical OCI concentrations for repairing the steel in different chloride solution were investigated.The results show that the critical chloride concentration increases exponentially with raises of PCI-2014 concentration in the solution.Within a certain chloride ion concentration range,the critical PCI-2014 concentration for repairing the corroded steel is also increases exponentially with enhancement of chloride content in the solution.Atomic force microscopy images display the molecular particles of inhibitor are adsorbed on the steel surface and formed a protective layer.Analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the chloride ions at the surface of steel are displaced by atoms or molecules of the inhibitor in chloride condition.

  17. Covalent organic polymer functionalization of activated carbon surfaces through acyl chloride for environmental clean-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.; Thirion, Damien; Uthuppu, Basil;

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous networks of covalent organic polymers (COPs) are successfully grafted on the surfaces of activated carbons, through a series of surface modification techniques, including acyl chloride formation by thionyl chloride. Hybrid composites of activated carbon functionalized with COPs exhibit...

  18. Effects of Organic Corrosion Inhibitor and Chloride Ion Concentration on Steel Depassivation and Repassivation in Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zixiao; YU Lei; LIU Zhiyong; SONG Ning

    2015-01-01

    Effect of an organic corrosion inhibitor (OCI) named PCI-2014 added in chloride solution on the critical chlo-ride concentration of mild steel depassivation and the critical OCI concentrations for repairing the steel in different chlo-ride solution were investigated. The results show that the critical chloride concentration increases exponentially with raises of PCI-2014 concentration in the solution. Within a certain chloride ion concentration range, the critical PCI-2014 concentration for repairing the corroded steel is also increases exponentially with enhancement of chloride content in the solution. Atomic force microscopy images display the molecular particles of inhibitor are adsorbed on the steel surface and formed a protective layer. Analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the chloride ions at the surface of steel are displaced by atoms or molecules of the inhibitor in chloride condition.

  19. [Effect of sodium chloride on elasticity of silicone matrices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snejdrová, E; Zelenka, J; Rehula, M

    2002-09-01

    An increase in the availability of the active ingredient from silicone matrices can be achieved by using sodium chloride as the filler. An addition of sodium chloride also influences the mechanical properties of silicone systems. The temperature dependence of real Young's model E' of addition silicone systems with sodium chloride was measured. With increasing NaCl concentration in the silicone system, the values of Young's module E are increased. The increase is also influenced by the particle size of NaCl. The values of the module are moderately increased also with increasing temperature, which corresponds to the kinetic theory of caoutchouc elasticity. A significant increase in E takes place at NaCl concentrations higher than 20%. With a 50% NaCl content in the system, E is increased approximately 3.5 times in comparison with an unfilled sample. Various theories of elastic behaviour of composites can be employed for the description of the effect of the filler on the mechanical properties of silicone systems under small deformations. The effect of chloride is best described by the relation proposed by Nielsen. The value of the constant A in Nielsen's relation, dependent on the shape of the filler particles and Poisson's constant of the unfilled matrix, decreases with increasing particle size. With a change in particle size, a certain change in particle shape takes place. Hydrodynamic theory provides good results for sodium chloride particle size of 102.5 microns, but for particle sizes of 20 microns and 60 microns it is less successful than Nielsen's relation.

  20. AMELIORATION OF MERCURIC CHLORIDE INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY AND OXIDATIVE STRESS BY GARLIC EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Abirami, N; Jagadeeswari, R.

    2006-01-01

    Effect of Garlic against mercuric chloride induced toxicity in albino rats was studied. Oral administration of mercuric chloride (100mg/kg/p.o) for 30 days resulted in significant increase in LPO Basal level and LPO FeSO4 induced and significant decrease in GSH (Glutathione) and Vit C as compared to the normal and control group. Simultaneous administration of Garlic along with Mercuric chloride, produced a pronounced neproprotective effect against mercuric chloride induced toxicity in rats by...

  1. The Influence of Mineral Functional Materials on Chloride Ion Penetration of Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hongmei; MA Baoguo

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of chloride ion penetration in high performance concrete was analyzed. The experimental results indicate that there are two important reasons that influence the anti-chloride penetration of high performance concrete. One is the function effect of mineral functional material, so that it increases concrete's capability to resist chloride ion penetration. The other is combined action of mineral functional material's original capability of binding the chloride ion (physical adsorption) and physicochemical adsorption after hydration.

  2. Solubilities ,Densities and Refractive Indices of Rubidium Chloride or Cesium Chloride in Ethanol Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO,Wen-Xia; HU,Man-Cheng; JIANG,Yu-Cheng; LI,Shu-Ni

    2007-01-01

    The data of solubilities.densities and refractive indices of rubidium chloride or cesium chloride in the system C2H5OH-H2O were measured by using a simple accurate analytical method at different temperatures,with mass fractions of ethanol in the range of O to 1.0.In all cases,the presence of ethanol significantly reduced the solubility of rubidium chloride and cesium chloride in aqueous solution.The solubilities of the saturated solutions were fitted via polynomial equations as a function of the mass fraction of ethanol.The CsCl-C2H5OH-H2O temary system appeared in two liquid phases:alcoholic phase and water phase.when the mass fractions of ethanol were in the range of 10.37% to 49.59%at 35℃.Density and refractive index were also determined for the same ternary systems with varied unsaturated salt concentrations.Values for both experiment and theory were correlated with the salt concentrations and proportions of alcohol in the solutions.The equations proposed could also account for the saturated solutions.

  3. separation of strontium and cesium from ternary and quaternary lithium chloride-potassium chloride salts via melt crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammon N. Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Separation of cesium chloride (CsCl and strontium chloride (SrCl2 from the lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl salt was studied using a melt crystallization process similar to the reverse vertical Bridgeman growth technique. A ternary SrCl2-LiCl-KCl salt was explored at similar growth rates (1.8–5 mm/h and compared with CsCl ternary results to identify similarities. Quaternary experiments were also conducted and compared with the ternary cases to identify trends and possible limitations to the separations process. In the ternary case, as much as 68% of the total salt could be recycled per batch process. In the quaternary experiments, separation of Cs and Sr was nearly identical at the slower rates; however, as the growth rate increased, SrCl2 separated more easily than CsCl. The quaternary results show less separation and rate dependence than in both ternary cases. As an estimated result, only 51% of the total salt could be recycled per batch. Furthermore, two models have been explored to further understand the growth process and separation. A comparison of the experimental and modeling results reveals that the nonmixed model fits reasonably well with the ternary and quaternary data sets. A dimensional analysis was performed and a correlation was identified to semipredict the segregation coefficient.

  4. The Limiting Phenomena at the Anode of the Electrowinning of Zinc from Zinc Chloride in a Molten Chloride Electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the possibilities and technological viability for the electrowinning of zinc from zinc chloride. This research contributes to development of an alternative process, because it provides: ⢠A clear understanding and overview of the present zinc industr

  5. High Energy Density Battery Lithium Thionyl Chloride Improved Reverse Voltage Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    BATTERY LITHIUM THIONYL CHLORIDE IMPROVED R-ETC(U) DEC 81 A E ZOLLA N660011-C-0310...HIGH ENERGY DENSITY BATTERY LITHIUM THIONYL CHLORIDE IMPROVED REVERSE VOLTAGE DESIGN Dr. A. E. Zolla Altus Corporation C:1 1610 Crane Court San Jose...reverse aide If necesary and identify by block number) Lithium Battery Lithium Thionyl Chloride High Energy Density Battery Voltage Reversal Battery

  6. 21 CFR 520.310 - Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride... § 520.310 Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 10 milligrams of 5st caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and 80 milligrams of ammonium chloride.1 1...

  7. 40 CFR 415.240 - Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ammonium chloride production subcategory. 415.240 Section 415.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.240 Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154... and Operating Requirements § 154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression unless it: (a) Avoids...

  9. Determination of Vinyl Chloride at ug/l. Level in Water by Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellar, Thomas A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative method for the determination of vinyl chloride in water is presented. Vinyl chloride is transfered to the gas phase by bubbling inert gas through the water. After concentration on silica gel or Carbosieve-B, determination is by gas chromatography. Confirmation of vinyl chloride is by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (Author/BT)

  10. 21 CFR 177.1960 - Vinyl chloride-hexene-1 copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-hexene-1 copolymers. 177.1960... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1960 Vinyl chloride-hexene-1 copolymers. The vinyl chloride-hexene-1 copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section or...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1970 - Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1970 Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers. The vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers identified in...

  12. 21 CFR 178.2650 - Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride plastics... AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2650 Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride... vinyl chloride homopolymers and copolymers complying with the provisions of § 177.1950 or § 177.1980...

  13. The Influence of C3A Content in Cement on the Chloride Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns the influence of C3A in cement on chloride transport in reinforced concrete. Three modified cement was manufactured in the variation of the C3A content, ranging from 6.0 and 10.5 up to 16.9%. The setting time of fresh concrete was measured immediately after mixing, together with the temperature at the time of initial set. For properties of hardened concrete in the variation in the C3A, a development of the compressive strength and chloride permeation were measured using mortar specimens. Simultaneously, chloride binding capacity was measured by the water extraction method. To ensure the influence of pore structure on chloride transport, the pore structure was examined by the mercury intrusion porosimetry. As a result, it was found that an increase in the C3A content resulted in an increase in chloride binding capacity. However, it seemed that increased binding of chlorides is related to the higher ingress of chlorides, despite denser pore structure. It may be attributed to the higher surface chloride, which could increase the gradient of chloride concentration from the surface, thereby leading to the higher level of chloride profiles. Substantially, the benefit of high C3A in resisting corrosion, arising from removal of free chlorides in the pore solution, would be offset by increased chloride ingress at a given duration, when it comes to the corrosion-free service life.

  14. 75 FR 36629 - Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... China: Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset Review of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 55814 (October 29... Barium Chloride From China, 75 FR 33824 (June 15, 2010), and Barium Chloride from China (Inv. No....

  15. 76 FR 30604 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed..., the proposed rule, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production, under Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0037 (available at...

  16. 76 FR 42613 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production is being extended for 14... extend the public comment period for the May 20, 2011, Proposed Polyvinyl Chloride and...

  17. Connecting to concrete: wireless monitoring of chloride ions in concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Have, ten Bas; Hoekstra, Gerrit I.; Douma, Arjan; Bruijn, de Douwe; Olthuis, Wouter; Berg, van den Albert

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, chloride ions are measured wirelessly in concrete. The half-cell potential of a silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode, which corresponds to the concentration of chloride ions, is measured wirelessly. The sensor system (the Ag/AgCl and a reference electrode) is embedded in co

  18. A study of anaerobic biodegradation of pure homologue and isomers of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) in batch digesters; Estudio de la biodegradacion anaerobia de homologos e isomeros puros de alquibenceno sulfonatos lineales (LAS) en digestores discontinuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M. T.; Campos, E.; Illan, P.; Dalman, M.; Sanchez-Leal, J.

    2005-07-01

    In the present work the effect of different structural parameters on the anaerobic degradation of the LAS molecule has been studied. so, the effect both of the alkyl chain length and the phenyl position on the anaerobic degradation of the LAS molecule have been investigated. The behaviour of the individual homologues and isomers was studied applying discontinuous anaerobic tests (ECETOC-28). Sludge from the anaerobic digester of the waste water treatment plant of Manresa (Barcelona) was used as bacterial inoculum source. All the LAS homologues showed a poor primary biodegradation. In addition, no effect of the LAS isomer type was found on the anaerobic degradation kinetics. (Author) 6 refs.

  19. Resistant mechanism study of benzalkonium chloride selected Salmonella Typhimurium mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Cui, Shenghui; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Haoyan

    2014-02-01

    Benzalkonium chloride is one of the invaluable biocides that is extensively used in healthcare settings as well as in the food processing industry. After exposing wild-type Salmonella Typhimurium 14028s or its AcrAB inactivation mutant to gradually increasing levels of benzalkonium chloride, resistance mutants S-41, S-150, S-AB-23, S-AB-38, and S-AB-73 were selected and these mutants also showed a 2-64-fold stable minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) increase to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. In S-41 and S-150, the expression of acrB was increased 2.7- and 7.6-fold, and ΔtolC or ΔacrAB mutants of S-41 and S-150 showed the same MICs to all tested antimicrobials as the equivalent Salmonella Typhimurium 14028s mutants. However, in S-AB-23, S-AB-38, and S-AB-73, the expression of acrF was increased 96-, 230-, and 267-fold, respectively, and ΔtolC or ΔacrEF mutants of S-AB-23, S-AB-38, and S-AB-73 showed the similar MICs to all tested antimicrobials as the ΔtolC mutant of Salmonella Typhimurium 14028s. Our data showed that constitutively over-expressed AcrAB working through TolC was the main resistance mechanism in ST14028s benzalkonium chloride resistance mutants. However, after AcrAB had been inactivated, benzalkonium chloride-resistant mutants could still be selected and constitutively over-expressed, AcrEF became the dominant efflux pump working through TolC and being responsible for the increasing antimicrobial resistance. These data indicated that different mechanisms existed for acrB and acrF constitutive over-expression. Since exposure to benzalkonium chloride may lead to Salmonella mutants with a decreased susceptibility to quinolones, which is currently one of the drugs of choice for the treatment of life-threatening salmonelosis, research into the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the benzalkonium chloride resistance mutants will be of increasing importance.

  20. [Evaluating risk of health disorders in workers engaged into polyvinyl chloride, vinyl chloride and caustic soda production (according to data collected by polls)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'iakovich, O A

    2014-01-01

    The authors represent data of automated system for quantitative risk evaluation of main pathologic syndromes in workers engaged into polyvinyl chloride, vinyl chloride and caustic soda production. Vinyl chloride and mercury levels at the investigation time corresponded with MAC. Relationship was seen between value of arterial hypertension risk and duration of contact with both vinyl chloride and mercury. Risk values for functional disorders of liver, endocrine system and nervous system were in weak correlation with length of exposure to mercury at work. Workers exposed to mercury appeared to have lower self-estimation of health state and higher dissatisfaction with the work.

  1. Enthalpy and entropy interaction parameters of sodium chloride with some monosaccharides in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO; Kelei; WANG; Jianji; BAI; Guangyue; YAN; Haike; WANG

    2004-01-01

    Dilution enthalpies of sodium chloride and some monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, and fructose) in water and mixing enthalpies of aqueous sodium chloride and these monosaccharide solutions were measured by using an improved precision semimicro-titration calorimeter. Transfer enthalpies of sodium chloride from water to aqueous saccharide solutions were evaluated as well as enthalpy interaction parameters of sodium chloride with these monosaccharides in water. Combined with Gibbs energy interaction parameters, entropy interaction parameters were also obtained. The results show that interactions of the saccharides with sodium chloride depend on the stereochemistry of saccharide molecules. These interaction parameters can identify stereochemical structure of saccharide molecules.

  2. An insight into the passivation of cupronickel alloys in chloride environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Mathiyarasu; N Palaniswamy; V S Muralidharan

    2001-02-01

    Cupronickels offer enhanced corrosion protection in marine environments by the formation of passive films on the surface. Cyclic voltammetric studies were carried on cupronickels in chloride solutions at H 6.3 to understand the role of chloride ions in passive film formation. Increase in nickel content of the alloy and of chloride ions in solution decreases film resistance. Chloride ions take part in reduction of the passive film to copper. A solid-state model for passive film formation involving chloride ions has been attempted.

  3. Properties of a conductive cellular chloride pathway in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Kristensen, P

    1978-01-01

    of the steady-state conductance and the steady-state chloride current reveal that the chloride pathway has maximum conductance for V approximately -80 mV (outside of the skin being negative) and approaches a non-conducting safe for V greater than 0 mV. This strong outward going rectification is a steady......-compartment model indicate that the strong steady-state chloride current rectification cannot be obtained if only the intracellular chloride concentration and the membrane potentials are allowed to vary ("Goldman-rectification"). It is suggested, therefore, that the premeability of the chloride pathway varies...

  4. Mathematical Model of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.; Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Weidner, J.W.

    1998-11-24

    A mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed ~d used for parameter estimation and design studies. The model formulation is based on the fimdarnental Consemation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to estimate the difision coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode as a function of temperature. These parameters are obtained by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49"C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells. The model is also used to study the effkct of cathode thickness on the cell capacity as a finction of temperature, and it was found that the optimum thickness for the cathode- limited design is temperature and load dependent.

  5. Physical and conductivity properties of poly (vinyl chloride) ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Nira; Panda, H. S.; Kapusetti, Govinda; Jaiswal, Shilpa; Bhattacharya, Subhratanu

    2011-02-01

    Poly (vinyl chloride)(PVC) is a cheapest plastic. Importance of PVC based ionomer has been gradually being popularizing due to compatibility of PVC with a number of salts to replace polyethylene oxide based ionomer. Under present investigation few of chloride group of PVC chain have been replaced by basic thiouronium group and these thiouronium groups are further oxidized to sulfonate group. Introduction of thiouronium group in PVC is confirmed through FTIR and further its oxidation to sulfonate group is also confirmed by FTIR. Conductivity in different stoichiometric ratio of PVCTU and PVCSO3H was studied and found that PVCTU: PVCSO3H in 1:1 ratio has conductivity near to pure PVC (10-9 Ohm-1 cm-1) and increases with proportion of PVCSO3Na in the mixture (10-6 Ohm-1 cm-1) for pure PVC, PVCTU has less conductivity not much significant.

  6. Chlorine Nuclear Quadrupole Hyperfine Structure in the Vinyl - Chloride Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Helen O.; Marshall, Mark D.; Messinger, Joseph P.

    2015-06-01

    The microwave spectrum of the vinyl chloride--hydrogen chloride complex, presented at last year's symposium, is greatly complicated by the presence of two chlorine nuclei as well as an observed, but not fully explained tunneling motion. Indeed, although it was possible at that time to demonstrate conclusively that the complex is nonplanar, the chlorine nuclear quadrupole hyperfine splitting in the rotational spectrum resisted analysis. With higher resolution, Balle-Flygare Fourier transform microwave spectra, the hyperfine structure has been more fully resolved, but appears to be perturbed for some rotational transitions. It appears that knowledge of the quadrupole coupling constants will provide essential information regarding the structure of the complex, specifically the location of the hydrogen atom in HCl. Our progress towards obtaining values for these constants will be presented.

  7. Plastics and carcinogenesis: The example of vinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wesley Brandt-Rauf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture, use and disposal of various plastics can pose numerous health risks, including the risk of cancer. A model example of carcinogenic risk from plastics is provided by polyvinyl chloride, since it is composed of the known human carcinogen vinyl chloride (VC. In recent years, much has been learned about the molecular biological pathways of VC carcinogenesis. This has led to molecular epidemiologic studies of VC carcinogenesis in exposed human populations which have identified useful biomarkers of exposure, effect and susceptibility for VC. These studies have in turn provided the basis for new molecular approaches for the prevention and treatment of VC cancers. This model could have much wider applicability for many other carcinogenic exposures and many other human cancers.

  8. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Laplace, Annabelle; Renard, Catherine; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Abraham, Francis

    2016-06-01

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl2 (30-70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10-4.0, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl3 precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO2 powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation.

  9. Solvolyses of Benzoyl Chlorides in Weakly Nucleophilic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldon Carl Harris

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Rate constants and activations parameters are reported for solvolyses of p-Z-substituted benzoyl chlorides (1, Z = OMe, Me, H, and Cl in 97% w/w hexafluoroisopropanol-water (97H. Additional kinetic data are reported for solvolyses in acetic and formic acids. Plots of log k vs. σp in 97H are consistent with previous research showing that a cationic reaction channel is dominant, even for solvolyses of 1, Z = NO2. A benzoyl cation intermediate was trapped by Friedel-Crafts reaction with 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene in hexafluoroisopropanol. The results are explained by an SN2-SN1 spectrum of mechanisms with variations in nucleophilic solvent assistance. Ab initio calculations of heterolytic bond dissociation energies of various chloro- and fluoro-substituted and other benzoyl chlorides are correlated with log k for solvolyses.

  10. INTERACTION OF POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE WITH METAL CHLORIDE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Saleem Khan; Khaista Gul; Najeeb Ur Rehman

    2004-01-01

    Interactions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with metal chlorides (MgCl2, CaCl2, KC1 and BaC12) have been investigated by viscometric and spectrophotometric techniques in aqueous solutions. Intrinsic viscosity [η] of (PVP) has shown a discontinuity with varying concentration of metal chlorides. The decreasing order of effectiveness of cation is K1+>Ca2+> Mg2+> Ba2+ for poly(vinylpyrrolidone) solution. Changes in the absorption spectra of the cosolutes were observed in the presence of PVP in the lower limit of the UV-visible region i.e. 200-210 nm. These changes were attributed to interaction of PVP molecules with the cosolute molecules. As the concentration of the cosolute increased, a red shift in the peaks was observed, indicating an increase in interaction between PVP and cosolutes.

  11. Molybdenum chloride catalysts for Z-selective olefin metathesis reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ming Joo; Nguyen, Thach T.; Lam, Jonathan K.; Torker, Sebastian; Hyvl, Jakub; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2017-01-01

    The development of catalyst-controlled stereoselective olefin metathesis processes has been a pivotal recent advance in chemistry. The incorporation of appropriate ligands within complexes based on molybdenum, tungsten and ruthenium has led to reactivity and selectivity levels that were previously inaccessible. Here we show that molybdenum monoaryloxide chloride complexes furnish higher-energy (Z) isomers of trifluoromethyl-substituted alkenes through cross-metathesis reactions with the commercially available, inexpensive and typically inert Z-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene. Furthermore, otherwise inefficient and non-stereoselective transformations with Z-1,2-dichloroethene and 1,2-dibromoethene can be effected with substantially improved efficiency and Z selectivity. The use of such molybdenum monoaryloxide chloride complexes enables the synthesis of representative biologically active molecules and trifluoromethyl analogues of medicinally relevant compounds. The origins of the activity and selectivity levels observed, which contradict previously proposed principles, are elucidated with the aid of density functional theory calculations.

  12. Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owais, Ashour [Suez Canal Univ., Suez (Egypt). Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept.

    2012-11-15

    Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor obtained from secondary lead slag leached in hydrochloric acid is the main aim of this work. The resulted lead chloride solution (leachate) containing 2.2 wt.-% Pb and 1.24 wt.-% HCl was electrowon in an electrolytic cell containing one graphite plate as inert anode and two lead sheets as starting permanent cathodes. Different electrolysis parameters such as current density, electrolyte temperature and electrolyte stirring rate were studied. As indicated by SEM, EDX and XRD analyses, fine and pure (100 % Pb) powders with a dispersed and needle-like shape were formed with cathodic current efficiency up to 67.9 % and electrical energy demand ranges from 0.809 to 4.998 kWh/kg Pb with productivity up to 2.63 g/Ah. (orig.)

  13. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of chloride doped polyaniline

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Pharhad Hussain; A Kumar

    2003-04-01

    Chloride doped polyaniline conducting polymer films have been prepared in a protic acid medium (HCl) by potentiodynamic method in an electrochemical cell and studied by cyclic voltammetry and FTIR techniques. The FTIR spectra confirmed Cl– ion doping in the polymers. The polymerization rate was found to increase with increasing concentration of aniline monomer. But the films obtained at high monomer concentration were rough having a nonuniform flaky polyaniline distribution. Results showed that the polymerization rate did not increase beyond a critical HCl concentration. Cyclic voltammetry suggested that, the oxidation-reduction current increased with an increase in scan rate and that the undoped polyaniline films were not hygroscopic whereas chloride doped polyaniline films were found to be highly hygroscopic.

  14. Viscosity and density of some lower alkyl chlorides and bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, W.M.

    1988-07-01

    A high-pressure capillary viscometer, used previously to measure the viscosity of methyl chloride was rebuilt to eliminate the first-order dependence of the measured viscosity on the value assumed for the density of the fluid being investigated. At the same time, the system was arranged so that part of the apparatus could be used to measure density by a volumetric displacement technique. Viscosity and density were measured for ethyl chloride, 1-chloropropane, 1-chlorobutane, methyl bromide, ethyl bromide, and 1-bromopropane. The temperature and pressure ranges of the experiments were 20-150 /sup 0/C and 0.27-6.99 MPa, respectively. The accuracy of the viscosity measurements was estimated to be +-1% and of the density measurements, +-0.2%.

  15. Probabilistic Models and Computational Methods for Chloride Ingress in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.

    Within the last decades it has been recognized that reinforced concrete structures are subject to a number of destructive mechanisms which might affect the structure in such a way that it is not able to fulfil its purpose efficiently. The present report focuses on chloride ingress and chloride......-initiated corrosion of the reinforcement, because experience has shown that in Denmark this is one of the most common destructive mechanisms. In order to ensure that a given reinforced concrete structure is able to fulfil its purpose extensive measurements are performed and on the basis of these measurements...... are costly, and careful planning is mandatory. The planning can be performed on the basis of classical decision theory (see e.g. Raiffa and Schlaifer). However, in order to use decision theory, it is necessary to formulate a probabilistic model of the considered problem....

  16. Constitutive Expression of Sense & Antisense PtAP3, an AP3 Homologue Gene of Populus tomentosa, Affects Growth and Flowering Time in Transgenic Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To analyze the function of PtAP3, an APETALA3 (AP3) homologue gene isolated from Populus tomentosa Carr., the full length sequence (1 797 bp) and a fragment (870 bp) of PtAP3 were fused to a CaMV 35S promoter of pBI121 to generate the sense and antisense constructs of PtAP3. These constructs were transformed into tobacco by Agrobacterium infection of leaf disks and selection on kanamycin medium. Some sense and antisense transgenic tobacco plants were obtained by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Great phenotypic differences in transgenic tobacco plants were observed. Almost all of sense PtAP3 to transgenic tobaccos showed a higher growth rate than those of antisense transformants and a few developed pregnancy earlier than wild type seedlings and antisense transformants under the same conditions.

  17. Multidrug efflux pumps: the structures of prokaryotic ATP-binding cassette transporter efflux pumps and implications for our understanding of eukaryotic P-glycoproteins and homologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Ian D; Jones, Peter M; George, Anthony M

    2010-02-01

    One of the Holy Grails of ATP-binding cassette transporter research is a structural understanding of drug binding and transport in a eukaryotic multidrug resistance pump. These transporters are front-line mediators of drug resistance in cancers and represent an important therapeutic target in future chemotherapy. Although there has been intensive biochemical research into the human multidrug pumps, their 3D structure at atomic resolution remains unknown. The recent determination of the structure of a mouse P-glycoprotein at subatomic resolution is complemented by structures for a number of prokaryotic homologues. These structures have provided advances into our knowledge of the ATP-binding cassette exporter structure and mechanism, and have provided the template data for a number of homology modelling studies designed to reconcile biochemical data on these clinically important proteins.

  18. The small GTPase Rab5 homologue Ypt5 regulates cell morphology, sexual development, ion-stress response and vacuolar formation in fission yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Yuta; Katayama, Chisako [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Shinohara, Miki; Shinohara, Akira [Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Maekawa, Shohei [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Miyamoto, Masaaki, E-mail: miya@kobe-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Center for Supports to Research and Education Activities, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •Multiple functions of Rab5 GTPase in fission yeast were found. •Roles of Rab5 in fission yeast were discussed. •Relation between Rab5 and actin cytoskeleton were discussed. -- Abstract: Inner-membrane transport is critical to cell function. Rab family GTPases play an important role in vesicle transport. In mammalian cells, Rab5 is reported to be involved in the regulation of endosome formation, phagocytosis and chromosome alignment. Here, we examined the role of the fission yeast Rab5 homologue Ypt5 using a point mutant allele. Mutant cells displayed abnormal cell morphology, mating, sporulation, endocytosis, vacuole fusion and responses to ion stress. Our data strongly suggest that fission yeast Rab5 is involved in the regulation of various types of cellular functions.

  19. Tsp66E, the Drosophila KAI1 homologue, and Tsp74F function to regulate ovarian follicle cell and wing development by stabilizing integrin localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Yeop; Lee, Minjung; Hong, Yoon Ki; Hwang, Soojin; Choi, Gahee; Suh, Yoon Seok; Park, Seung Hwan; Lee, Soojin; Lee, Sang-Hee; Chung, Jongkyeong; Baek, Sung Hee; Cho, Kyoung Sang

    2012-11-16

    The metastasis suppressor KAI1/CD82 has been implicated in various cellular processes; however, its function in development is not fully understood. Here, we generated and characterized mutants of Tsp66E and Tsp74F, which are Drosophila homologues of KAI1/CD82 and Tspan11, respectively. These mutants exhibited egg elongation defects along with disturbed integrin localization and actin polarity. Moreover, the defects were enhanced by mutation of inflated, an αPS2 integrin gene. Mutant ovaries had elevated αPS2 integrin levels and reduced endocytic trafficking. These results suggest that Drosophila KAI1/CD82 affects the polarized localization and the level of integrin, which may contribute to epithelial cell polarity.

  20. Studies on the Physicochemical Properties, Structure and Antitumor Activity of an Oligosaccharide Homologue SnS-2 from the Root of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG,Jun-E(邓军娥); ZHANG,Jian(张健); CHEN,Xiao-Ming(陈晓明); KE,Wei(柯炜); TIAN,Geng-Yuan(田庚元)

    2004-01-01

    An oligosaccharide homologue named SnS-2 was isolated from the root of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.SnS-2 was purified by means of gel-permeation chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography.Its physicochemical properties,including carbohydrate content and molecular weight were determined.The structure of SnS-2was elucidated by chemical methods along with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy,including two-dimensional DQCOSY and H-detected 1H,13C HMQC experiments.These results show that SnS-2 possesses a backbone consisting of terminal α-Galp-(1→,α-Galp-(1→6),α-Glcp-(1→6) and nonreducing end fβ-Fruf-(2→.The bioactive assay showed that it could inhibit the growth of Lewis pulmonary carcinoma implanted in mice.

  1. Six3, a medaka homologue of the Drosophila homeobox gene sine oculis is expressed in the anterior embryonic shield and the developing eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, F; Köster, R W; Carl, M; Krone, A; Wittbrodt, J

    1998-06-01

    homologue Six3 (Oliver, G., Mailhos, A., Wehr, R., Copeland, N.G., Jenkins, N.A., Gruss, P., 1995. Six3, a murine homologue of the sine oculis gene, demarcates the most anterior border of the developing neural plate and is expressed during eye development. Development 121, 4045-4055). sine oculis (so) is essential for the development of the larval and adult visual system (Cheyette, B.N.R., Green, P.J., Martin, K., Garren, H., Hartenstein, V., Zipursky, S.L., 1994. The Drosophila sine oculis locus encodes a homeodomain-containing protein required for the development of the entire visual system. Neuron l2, 977-996). Six3 is expressed in the anterior neural plate and optic vesicles, lens, olfactory placodes and ventral forebrain (Oliver, G., Mailhos, A., Wehr, R., Copeland, N.G., Jenkins, N.A., Gruss, P., 1995. Six3, a murine homologue of the sine oculis gene, demarcates the most anterior border of the developing neural plate and is expressed during eye development. Development 121, 4045-4055). Overexpression of mouse Six3 gene in medaka fish embryos (Orvzias latipes) results in the formation of an ectopic lens, indicating that Six3 activity can trigger the genetic pathway leading to lens formation (Oliver, G., Loosli, F., Koster, R., Wittbrodt, J., Gruss, P., 1996. Ectopic lens induction in fish in response to the murine homeobox gene Six3. Mech. Dev. 60, 233-239). We isolated the medaka Six3 homologue and analyzed its expression pattern in the medaka embryo. It is expressed initially in the anterior embryonic shield and later in the developing eye and prosencephalon. The early localized expression of Six3 suggests a role in the regionalization of the rostral head.

  2. Rye inhibitors of animal alpha-amylases show different specificities, aggregative properties and IgE-binding capacities than their homologues from wheat and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casado, G; Sánchez-Monge, R; López-Otín, C; Salcedo, G

    1994-09-01

    Three new members of the alpha-amylase/trypsin-inhibitor family of cereal endosperm have been isolated from rye. N-terminal amino acid sequence comparison revealed that two of the purified proteins were the rye homologues of the barley monomeric inhibitor (BMAI-1) previously described, while the other rye protein corresponded to one of the subunits of the barley and wheat heterotetrameric inhibitors. However, the inhibitory specificities (active against human salivary alpha-amylase), aggregative behaviours (mainly as dimeric forms) and IgE-binding capacities (not recognized by sera from allergic patients) of the rye inhibitors were clearly different from those of their wheat and barley counterparts. These results indicate that homologous inhibitors may have distinctive properties in different cereal species.

  3. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P.G. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States); Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl{sub 2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application. (orig.)

  4. High rate lithium-thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P.G.; Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The lithium/thionyl chloride system is capable of providing both high power and high energy density when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. Electrode current densities in excess of 300mA/cm{sup 2} are achieved during pulse discharge. The present work is concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells.

  5. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. G.; Goebel, F.

    The lithium/thionyl chloride ( {Li}/{SOCl2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application.

  6. Mechanism of resistance to benzalkonium chloride by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakagami, Y; Yokoyama, H; Nishimura, H.; Ose, Y; Tashima, T.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanisms of resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to benzalkonium chloride (BC) were studied. The effluence of cell components was observed in susceptible P. aeruginosa by electron microscopy, but resistant P. aeruginosa seemed to be undamaged. No marked changes in cell surface potential between Escherichia coli NIHJC-2 and a spheroplast strain were found. The contents of phospholipids (PL) and fatty and neutral lipids (FNL) in the cell walls of resistant P. aeruginosa were higher than t...

  7. Fatal Cesium Chloride Toxicity After Alternative Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sessions, Daniel; Heard, Kennon; Kosnett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cesium chloride (CsCl) is sold as a treatment for several types of cancers. The purported mechanism of action is alkalinization of relatively acidic neoplastic cells. The efficacy of CsCl has not been demonstrated in controlled experiments. Oral and intravenous CsCl use has been associated with seizures, cardiotoxicity, syncope, and death. Although intratumoral treatment with various antineoplastic agents is described, no cases of intratumoral cancer treatment with CsCl have been ...

  8. Tertiary amines nucleophilicity in quaternization reaction with benzyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia S. Yutilova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quaternization reaction of tertiary amines with benzyl chloride was investigated. Reaction orders with respect to the reactants were determined. Kinetic scheme of quaternization reaction was found to be corresponding to reversible process. An influence of amines basicity and steric factor of alkyl substituent bound to the nitrogen atom on tertiary amines reactivity as nucleophiles was studied. It was shown that the rate constants of direct reaction step may serve as a measure of nucleophilicity of amines.

  9. The Use of Electrodiffusion for Removing Chlorides from Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a description of ion migration in a concrete pore liquid caused by an external electric field. The equation of the flow of aggressive chloride ions is formulated on the basis of partial equations of mass balance. It is assumed that electrochemical potential is in classical form, then an attempt is made to determine the average diffusion coefficient using the inverse diffusion Eq.(3.9).

  10. Dynamic viscoelastic properties of polyvinyl chloride with physical aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang; Luo, Yingshe; Yin, Shuiping; Wang, Hong; Cao, Chun

    2015-11-01

    The experimental research of dynamic viscoelastic properties of polyvinyl chloride was conducted by the dynamic mechanical analysis method in this paper. And the fitting equation of dynamic modulus of polymers has been presented. Based on the time-aging time equivalent principle, horizontal shift factor and vertical shift factor of aging time are carried out, which proposes a novel method for the research on time-aging time equivalent analysis of dynamic mechanical properties of polymers during physical aging.

  11. Chemical Attribution Signatures of Cyanogen Chloride from Commercial Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    HP GAS, LLC .........................................15  C: LISTING OF IMPURITIES DETECTED IN CYANOGEN CHLORIDE CYLINDERS FROM SEMICONDUCTOR ...most recent spectra in the front. Spectra were normalized to the H2O resonance at 2.17 ppm: (top) HP Gas, (middle) Semiconductor Resources, and...LLC (Baytown, TX), including Stillwater Consultants (Stillwater, MN), LMTG (Roanoke, LA), and TL2 Gases (Sulphur, LA); 28 from   4 Semiconductor

  12. The Use of Electrodiffusion for Removing Chlorides from Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabry, A.

    2016-12-01

    The article presents a description of ion migration in a concrete pore liquid caused by an external electric field. The equation of the flow of aggressive chloride ions is formulated on the basis of partial equations of mass balance. It is assumed that electrochemical potential is in classical form, then an attempt is made to determine the average diffusion coefficient using the inverse diffusion Eq.(3.9).

  13. Comment on "Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Kirischuk, Sergei; Kilb, Werner

    2014-09-01

    Glykys et al. (Reports, 7 February 2014, p. 670) proposed that cytoplasmic impermeant anions and polyanionic extracellular matrix glycoproteins establish the local neuronal intracellular chloride concentration, [Cl(-)]i, and thereby the polarity of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor signaling. The experimental procedures and results in this study are insufficient to support these conclusions. Contradictory results previously published by these authors and other laboratories are not referred to.

  14. Methyl chloride production from methane over lanthanum-based catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podkolzin, Simon G; Stangland, Eric E; Jones, Mark E; Peringer, Elvira; Lercher, Johannes A

    2007-03-07

    The mechanism of selective production of methyl chloride by a reaction of methane, hydrogen chloride, and oxygen over lanthanum-based catalysts was studied. The results suggest that methane activation proceeds through oxidation-reduction reactions on the surface of catalysts with an irreducible metal-lanthanum, which is significantly different from known mechanisms for oxidative chlorination. Activity and spectroscopic measurements show that lanthanum oxychloride (LaOCl), lanthanum trichloride (LaCl3), and lanthanum phases with an intermediate extent of chlorination are all active for this reaction. The catalyst is stable with no noticeable deactivation after three weeks of testing. Kinetic measurements suggest that methane activation proceeds on the surface of the catalyst. Flow and pulse experiments indicate that the presence of hydrogen chloride is not required for activity, and its role appears to be limited to maintaining the extent of catalyst chlorination. In contrast, the presence of gas-phase oxygen is essential for catalytic activity. Density-functional theory calculations suggest that oxygen can activate surface chlorine species by adsorbing dissociatively and forming OCl surface species, which can serve as an active site for methane activation. The proposed mechanism, thus, involves changing of the formal oxidation state of surface chlorine from -1 to +1 without any changes in the oxidation state of the underlying metal.

  15. Modeling chloride penetration into concrete with light-weight aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maage, M.; Helland, S.; Carlsen, J. E. [SELMER ASA, Oslo (Norway)

    2000-07-01

    Results of a program of studies designed to provide input to a model for estimating the initiation period of reinforcement corrosion and to document chloride ingress into various practical concretes made with light-weight aggregates, depending on a number of variables in curing and exposure conditions, as well as concrete composition and materials, are discussed. Variables included curing time before exposure; curing temperature; exposure temperature and time; type of exposure; and type of binder. Results achieved correlate well with the initial hypothesis i.e. that the achieved chloride coefficient decreases with increasing exposure time and also with increasing curing time.Surface chloride content as the environmental load, was shown to increase with exposure time during the first years, and decrease with increased curing time and exposure temperature. The achieved diffusion coefficient was found to be independent of curing and exposure temperature, but decreased with longer exposure time and the addition of slag. Increasing the salt concentration in the exposure water and the introduction of slag increased the time dependency of the achieved diffusion coefficient. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  16. Prediction of Chloride Diffusion in Concrete Structure Using Meshless Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of RC structures due to chloride penetration followed by reinforcement corrosion is a serious problem in civil engineering. The numerical simulation methods at present mainly involve finite element methods (FEM, which are based on mesh generation. In this study, element-free Galerkin (EFG and meshless weighted least squares (MWLS methods are used to solve the problem of simulation of chloride diffusion in concrete. The range of a scaling parameter is presented using numerical examples based on meshless methods. One- and two-dimensional numerical examples validated the effectiveness and accuracy of the two meshless methods by comparing results obtained by MWLS with results computed by EFG and FEM and results calculated by an analytical method. A good agreement is obtained among MWLS and EFG numerical simulations and the experimental data obtained from an existing marine concrete structure. These results indicate that MWLS and EFG are reliable meshless methods that can be used for the prediction of chloride ingress in concrete structures.

  17. Multi-scale modelling of uranyl chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Nghi; Duvail, Magali, E-mail: magali.duvail@icsm.fr; Villard, Arnaud; Dufrêche, Jean-François, E-mail: jean-francois.dufreche@univ-montp2.fr [Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule (ICSM), UMR 5257, CEA-CNRS-Université Montpellier 2-ENSCM, Site de Marcoule, Bâtiment 426, BP 17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Molina, John Jairo [Fukui Institute for Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Takano-Nishihiraki-cho 34-4, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8103 (Japan); Guilbaud, Philippe [CEA/DEN/DRCP/SMCS/LILA, Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France)

    2015-01-14

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations with explicit polarization have been successfully used to determine the structural and thermodynamic properties of binary aqueous solutions of uranyl chloride (UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}). Concentrated aqueous solutions of uranyl chloride have been studied to determine the hydration properties and the ion-ion interactions. The bond distances and the coordination number of the hydrated uranyl are in good agreement with available experimental data. Two stable positions of chloride in the second hydration shell of uranyl have been identified. The UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}-Cl{sup −} association constants have also been calculated using a multi-scale approach. First, the ion-ion potential averaged over the solvent configurations at infinite dilution (McMillan-Mayer potential) was calculated to establish the dissociation/association processes of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}-Cl{sup −} ion pairs in aqueous solution. Then, the association constant was calculated from this potential. The value we obtained for the association constant is in good agreement with the experimental result (K{sub UO{sub 2Cl{sup +}}} = 1.48 l mol{sup −1}), but the resulting activity coefficient appears to be too low at molar concentration.

  18. Investigation of lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, A. I.; Gabriel, K. A.; Burns, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    In the ten years since the feasibility of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell was first recognized (1) remarkable progress has been made in hardware development. Cells as large as 16,000 Ah (2) and batteries of 10.8 MWh (3) have been demonstrated. In a low rate configuration, energy densities of 500 to 600 Wh/kg are easily achieved. Even in the absence of reported explosions, safety would be a concern for such a dense energetic package; the energy density of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell is approaching that of dynamite (924 Wh/kg). In fact explosions have occurred. In general the hazards associated with lithium-thionyl chloride batteries may be divided into four categories: Explosions as a result of an error in battery design. Very large cells were in prototype development prior to a full appreciation of the hazards of the system. It is possible that some of the remaining safety issues are related to cell design; Explosions as a result of external physical abuse such as cell incineration and puncture; Explosions due to short circuiting which could lead to thermal runaway reactions. These problems appear to have been solved by changes in the battery design (4); and Explosions due to abnormal electrical operation (i.e., charging (5) and overdischarging (6) and in partially or fully discharged cells on storage (7 and 8).

  19. Permeation of protective clothing materials by methylene chloride and perchloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahdat, N

    1987-07-01

    The permeation of methylene chloride and perchloroethylene through seven protective clothing materials was studied to determine the permeation parameters, and to investigate the effect of solubility (polymer weight gain) and material thickness on the permeation parameters. The materials tested were two different nitrile rubbers, neoprene, Combination (a blend of natural rubber, neoprene and nitrile), two different polyvinyl chlorides, and polyvinyl alcohol. Methylene chloride permeated through all materials, except PVA, with breakthrough times in the range of 2 to 8 min, and permeation rates in the range of 1250-5800 micrograms/cm2 X min. PVA and unsupported nitrile offered good protection against perchloroethylene with breakthrough time occurring after 2 hr. Perchloroethylene permeated through the other materials with breakthrough times in the range of 8 to 36 min and permeation rates in the range of 200 to 1600 micrograms/cm2 X min. It was shown that for both chemicals, there is a correlation between the solubility (weight gain) and the ratio of permeation rate to breakthrough time (PR/BT). For all material/chemical pairs, an increase in solubility, increased (PR/BT). The change in material thickness had an effect on breakthrough time and permeation rate, but no effect on normalized breakthrough time. An increase in thickness reduced permeation rate and increased breakthrough time.

  20. Control of Perovskite Crystal Growth by Methylammonium Lead Chloride Templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binek, Andreas; Grill, Irene; Huber, Niklas; Peters, Kristina; Hufnagel, Alexander G; Handloser, Matthias; Docampo, Pablo; Hartschuh, Achim; Bein, Thomas

    2016-04-20

    State-of-the-art solar cells based on methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3 ) now reach efficiencies over 20 %. This fast improvement was possible with intensive research in perovskite processing. In particular, chloride-based precursors are known to have a positive influence on the crystallization of the perovskite. Here, we used a combination of in-situ X-ray diffraction and charge-transport measurements to understand the influence of chloride during perovskite crystallization in planar heterojunction solar cells. We show that MAPbCl3 crystallizes directly after the deposition of the starting solution and acts as a template for the formation of MAPbI3 . Additionally, we show that the charge-carrier mobility doubles by extending the time for the template formation. Our results give a deeper understanding of the influence of chloride in the synthesis of MAPbI3 and illustrate the importance of carefully controlling crystallization for reproducible, high-efficiency solar cells.