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Sample records for 1-6ign fe-cu 7-12ign

  1. Reduction of nitrobenzene by the catalyzed Fe/Cu process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wenying; LI Ping; FAN Jinhong

    2008-01-01

    The polarization behavior of the couple Fe/Cu in 100 mg/L nitrobenzene aqueous solution was studied using Evans coupling diagrams. The results indicated that the iron corrosion was limited by both anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions under the neutral conditions and cathodically controlled under the alkaline conditions. Batch experiments were performed to study the effect of solution pH, reaction duration, concentration, type of electrolyte and dissolved oxygen (DO) on the reduction of nitrobenzene by the catalyzed Fe/Cu process. This process proved effective in the pH range of 3 to 11. The conversion efficiency of nitrobenzene at pH ≈ 10.1 was almost the same as that under highly acid conditions (pH ≈ 3). The degradation of nitrobenzene fell into two phases: adsorption and surface reduction, and the influence of adsorption and mass transfer became more extensive with solution concentration. The reduction rate decreased in the presence of DO in the solution, indicating that a need for aeration was eliminated in the catalyzed Fe/Cu process. Accordingly, spending on energy consumption would be reduced. Economic analysis indicated that merely 0.05 kg was required for the treatment of a ton of nitrobenzene-containing water with pH from 3 to 11. The catalyzed Fe/Cu process is cost-effective and of practical value.

  2. Mechanical alloying in the Fe-Cu system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Gente, C.; Bormann, R.

    1998-01-01

    in the Fe-Cu system is; (3) where the positive energy is stored in the alloys; (4) what the decomposition process of the supersaturated alloys is; and (5) what type of magnetic properties the new materials have. The elucidation of these problems will shed light on the understanding of the mechanisms...... for the preparation of materials under highly non-equilibrium conditions in systems with positive heats of mixing by mechanical alloying....

  3. Preparation of 24Mg-Fe-Cu Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Qi-wen; DU; Ying-hui; ZHANG; Rong

    2012-01-01

    <正>The three-layer-sandwich targets of 24Mg-Fe-Cu needed to be prepared in the physics experiment. The middle layers are thin ferromagnetic Fe layers of about 3.2 mg/cm2. The recoil stopper layers are thick crystallized and defect-free Cu layers of about 15 mg/cm2. The thickness of the 24Mg target layers is about 300 μg/cm2, and the uniformity should be better than 90%.

  4. Magnetoresistance of electrodeposited NiFeCu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaili, S., E-mail: esmaili@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahrololoom, M.E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Peter, L. [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-01-01

    NiFeCu alloy films were electrodeposited from baths containing nickel sulfate and/or nickel sulfamate. All samples were pulse plated in the potentiostatic mode. The room temperature magnetoresistances of the films were measured showing anisotropic magnetoresistances up to 1.5%. The anisotropic magnetoresistances increased with the addition of sulfamic acid to the sulfate bath. Samples deposited from the bath with high sulfamate concentration showed a giant magnetoresistance behavior. To characterize the films, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used.

  5. Time evolution of morphology in mechanically alloyed Fe-Cu

    KAUST Repository

    Wille, Catharina Gabriele

    2011-05-01

    Being widely accessible as well as already utilised in many applications, Fe-Cu acts as an ideal binary model alloy to elaborate the enforced nonequilibrium enhanced solubility in such a solution system that shows a limited regime of miscibility and characterised by a large positive heat of mixing. In addition to the detailed analysis of ball milled Fe-Cu powders by means of Atom Probe Tomography (APT), site specific structural analysis has been performed in this study using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).In this contribution results on powders with low Cu concentrations (2.5-10 at%) are presented. Combining a ductile element (Cu, fcc) and a brittle one (Fe, bcc), striking differences in morphology were expected and found on all length-scales, depending on the mixing ratio of the two elements. However, not only could the atomic mixing of Fe and Cu be evaluated, but also the distribution of impurities, mostly stemming from the fabrication procedure. The combination of APT and TEM enables a correlation between the structural evolution and the chemical mixing during the milling process. For the first time, a clear distinction can be drawn between the morphological evolution at the surface and in the interior of the powder particles. This became possible owing to the site specific sample preparation of TEM lamellae by Focussed Ion Beam (FIB). Surprisingly, the texture arising from the ball milling process can directly be related to the classical rolling texture of cold rolled Fe. In addition, full homogeneity can be achieved even on the nano-scale for this material as shown by APT, resulting in an extended miscibility region in comparison to the equilibrium phase diagram. Grain sizes were determined by means of XRD and TEM. The strain corrected XRD results are in very good agreement with the values derived by TEM, both confirming a truly nanocrystalline structure. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. The electrical conductivity characteristics of Fe/Cu nano-scale multilayer materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model for describing the relationship betweenelectrical conductivity and the thickness of bilayer, ratio of sublayer thickness of a nano-scale multilayer material (MLM) is presented. Fe/Cu MLM was synthesized by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) technique, and the dependence of electrical conductivity of Fe/Cu MLM on the bilayer thickness and ratio of sublayer thickness were investigated. It is shown that the electrical conductivity of Fe/Cu MLM with fixed ratio of sublayer thickness decreases sharply when the thickness of bilayer becomes thinner than 30 nm. When the bilayer thickness is kept constant, the electrical conductivity linearly decreases with the increasing ratio of sublayer thickness. The values of parameters in the model were obtained by fitting the measured results of electrical conductivity of Fe/Cu MLM with fixed ratio of sublayer thickness. It is found that the calculated values agree well with measured ones.

  7. Microstructural and magnetic characterizations of CoFeCu electrodeposited in self-assembled mesoporous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortas, G., E-mail: g.fortas@gmail.com [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteur pour l’Energétique, Bd. 2 Frantz Fanon, les sept merveilles B.P.140, Alger (Algeria); Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Faculté des Physique, BP 32 El Alia 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Haine, N. [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Faculté des Physique, BP 32 El Alia 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Sam, S.; Gabouze, N. [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteur pour l’Energétique, Bd. 2 Frantz Fanon, les sept merveilles B.P.140, Alger (Algeria); Saifi, A. [Université Mouloud Mammeri, laboratoire de physique et de chimie quantique, BP No. 17 RP Hasnaoua Tizi-Ouzou 15000 (Algeria); Ouir, S. [Université Said SDB, Route De Soumaa BP 270, Blida (Algeria); Menari, H. [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteur pour l’Energétique, Bd. 2 Frantz Fanon, les sept merveilles B.P.140, Alger (Algeria)

    2015-03-15

    Self-assembled mesoporous silicon with quasi-regular pore arrangements has been fabricated by the electrochemical anodization process in hydrofluoric acid solution. CoFeCu was electrodeposited in this structure from a bath containing sodium acetate as a complexing agent with a pH value of 5. The effect of current density on the morphology, the structure and the magnetic properties of CoFeCu deposit was studied by SEM, EDS, DRX and VSM. It has been shown that the morphology and structure of samples were strongly influenced by the current density and etching duration. The micrographs show the vertical and branched nanowires and also a discontinuous growth of wires. Further, the growth of a thick layer from the grain boundaries of released CoFeCu wires is produced. The magnetic hysteresis loops demonstrate that the CoFeCu nanowires exhibit easy magnetic axis perpendicular to the PS channels axis when the current density varied from 3 to 10 mA/cm{sup 2}. Nevertheless, they reveal a no magnetic anisotropy of CoFeCu nanostructures deposited only in the outside of porous silicon, probably due to the vanishing the shape anisotropy. - Highlights: • CoFeCu deposit has been electrodeposited on self assembled mesoporous silicon. • SEM observation shows that CoFeCu embedded in Porous silicon channels. • Magnetic measurements show the anisotropy magnetic behavior of CoFeCu nanostructures. • The growth rate of nanowires is enhanced with an increase of current density.

  8. Dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by the catalyzed Fe-Cu process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wen-ying; GAO Ting-yao

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction characteristics of carbon tetrachloride (CT) were investigated using cyclic voltammetry in this study. In addition, the difference in reduction mechanisms of CT between Master Builders' iron and the catalyzed Fe-Cu process was discussed. The results showed that CT was reduced directly on the surface of copper rather than by atomic hydrogen produced at the cathode in the catalyzed Fe-Cu process. The reduction was realized largely by atomic hydrogen in Master Builders' iron. The entire CT in 350 ml aqueous solution with 320 mg/L was reduced to trichloromethane and dichloromethane in 2.25 h when 100 g of scrap iron with Fe/Cu ratio of 10:1 (w/w) were used. Moreover, the reduction rate slowed with time. CT could be reduced at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH from solution by Fe-Cu bimetallic media, but the mechanisms were different. The degradation rate was not significantly influenced by pH in the catalyzed Fe-Cu process; in Master Builders' iron it clearly increased with decreasing pH. The kinetics of the reductions followed pseudo-first order in both cases. Furthermore, the reductions under acidic conditions proceeded faster than that under the neutral and alkaline conditions. The catalyzed Fe-Cu process was superior to Master Builders' iron in treating CT-containing water and this advantage was particularly noticeable under alkaline conditions. The reduction was investigated in the cathode (Cu) and anode (Fe) compartments respectively, the results showed that the direct reduction pathway played an important role in the reduction by the catalyzed Fe-Cu process. The catalyzed Fe-Cu process is of practical value.

  9. Preparation of nanometer FeCuP alloy and its application in decomposition of PH3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new ternary Fe-based alloy catalyst FeCuP applied to decompose PH3 was prepared with low-cost material by chemical reduction deposition method. The properties of it were characterized by XRD, ICP and SEM. Its catalytic activity on the decomposition of PH3 and the decomposition conditions were studied. FeCuP alloy exhibits high thermal stabilities and high catalytic activity. Using it as catalyst, the decomposition temperature of phosphine decreases from over 800 ℃ to 400-500 ℃. The decomposition rate of phosphine achieved 100%.

  10. Effect of Applied Current Density on Morphological and Structural Properties of Electrodeposited Fe-Cu Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Umut Sarac; M. Celalettin Baykul

    2012-01-01

    A detailed study has been carried out to investigate the effect of applied current density on the composition, crystallographic structure, grain size, and surface morphology of Fe-Cu films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the films consist of a mixture of face-centered cubic (fcc) Cu and body centered cubic (bcc) ~-Fe phases. The average crystalline size of both Fe and Cu particles decreases as the applied current density becomes more negative. Compositional analysis of Fe-Cu films indicates that the Fe content within the films increases with decreasing current density towards more negative values. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to investigate the surface morphology of Fe-Cu films. It is observed that the surface morphology of the films changes from dendritic structure to a cauliflower structure as the applied current density becomes more negative. The surface roughness and grain size of the Fe-Cu films decrease with decreasing applied current density towards more negative values.

  11. Quantum-well states and induced magnetism in Fe/CuN/Fe bcc (001) trilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niklasson, A.M.N.; Mirbt, S.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt;

    1996-01-01

    We have used a first-principles Green's function technique to investigate the formation of magnetic moments in Fe/Cu-N/Fe bcc (001) trilayers. We show that the magnetic moment in the paramagnetic spacer material to a first approximation may be described as a linear superposition of the magnetic...

  12. Compressibility of nanostructured Fe-Cu materials prepared by mechanical milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Olsen, J.S.; Gerward, Leif;

    1999-01-01

    The compressibility of nanostructured Fe-Cu materials prepared by mechanical milling has been investigated by in-situ high-pressure x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. It is found that the bulk modulus of both fcc-Cu and bcc-Fe phases decreases with decreasing grain sizes. The unstable...

  13. Fine-particle magnetism in nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic interactions between the nanocrystalline particles in FeCuNbSiB are studied above the Curie temperature of the intergranular amorphous phase. It is shown that with increasing volume fraction of nanocrystalline particles, the interparticle interaction increasingly suppresses superparamagnetic fluctuations and the transition to superferromagnetic behavior is observed. ((orig.))

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-Cu-Sn sintered alloy%Fe-Cu-Sn烧结体的显微组织与力学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何娟; 王日初; 彭超群; 郑虎春

    2011-01-01

    分别采用水雾化Fe-30%Cu合金粉末和单质Sn、Fe、Cu元素粉末为原料制备Fe-Cu-Sn合金,研究原料粉末和Sn含量(质量分数)对Fe-Cu-Sn烧结体致密度、冲击韧性、硬度和抗弯强度的影响.结果表明:与采用元素混合粉末相比,采用合金化程度较高的Fe-30%Cu(质量分数,下同)合金粉末为原料能大幅提高850℃烧结的Fe-Cu-5%Sn合金的致密度和力学性能,其致密度由82.8%提高到94.3%,硬度、冲击韧性和抗弯强度分别提高52%、84%和109%:当Sn的质量分数w(Sn)为3%-15%时,随着Sn质量分数增加,合金的硬度增大,冲击韧性和抗弯强度先增加后减小,其中w(Sn)为5%时,其抗弯强度和冲击韧性都较高,分别为977 MPa和11.6 J/cm2.当烧结体为"双重结构"组织时,其力学性能显著提高.

  15. The energetic and structural properties of bcc NiCu, FeCu alloys: a first-principles study

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yao-Ping; Zhao, Shi-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Using special quasirandom structures (SQS's), we perform first-principles calculations studying the metastable bcc NiCu and FeCu alloys which occur in Fe-Cu-Ni alloy steels as precipitated second phase. The mixing enthalpies, density of state, and equilibrium lattice parameters of these alloys are reported. The results show that quasi-chemical approach and vegard rule can well predict the energetic and structural properties of FeCu alloys but fail to yield that of NiCu. The reason rests with ...

  16. 快淬态纳米晶Fe-Cu-Ta-Si-B软磁金属薄带的制备%Preparation of As-quenched Nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Ta-Si-B Soft Magnetic Ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡季帆; 李波; 秦宏伟

    2009-01-01

    Fe-Cu-Ta-Si-B纳米晶金属薄带可以通过快淬技术直接制备,而无需退火过程.对比Fe-Cu-Ta-Si-B快淬纳米晶薄带,发现相同Cu含量下,a-Fe(Si)更易在Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B快淬态薄带中析出.在快淬态Fe-Cu-Ta-Si-B金属薄带中,适当高的Cu含量有利于α-Fe(Si)的成核;但过高的Cu含量反而弱化了纳米晶化,这是由于团簇效应粗化了Cu颗粒的尺寸,却减少了a-Fe(Si)的有效成核位置.

  17. Surface segregation and surface tension in liquid Fe-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple statistical mechanics model has been used to study the temperature dependence of the surface properties of Fe-Cu liquid alloys. The calculated values for the composition dependence of surface segregation indicates that Cu atoms segregate to the surface and, in addition, that the surface tension in Fe-Cu alloys decreases with increasing copper content. Furthermore, our formalism is able to predict the temperature dependence of the surface properties for the liquid alloy based only on knowledge of the results at the melting point. This illustrates that the model used provides a simple recipe to extract information in the undercooled region about the dependence of surface properties in liquid binary alloys. In addition, close to the decomposition temperature, the surface concentration of Cu increases sharply in the undercooled region. (orig.)

  18. Precipitation behavior of B2-like particles in Fe-Cu binary alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The precipitation behavior in Fe-Cu binary alloy was investigated under transmission electron microscope (TEM) during aging at 650℃ for the time range of to 300 h. In addition to the zones with higher copper content and -Cu were observed, a metastable phase with B2-like structure was found in the early stage of the precipitation process, which is quite different from the equilibrium copper phase shown inthe Fe-Cu binary phase diagram and has perfect coherent relationship to the -Fe matrix. The appearance of B2-like structure is very important concerning the mechanism of aging strengthening effect and mechanical properties of corresponding engineering steels and alloys containing copper.

  19. Hot extrusion for Al-Si-(Fe, Cu) hyper-eutectic cast alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Hisanaga; Umezawa, Osamu; Nagai, Kotobu; Kokubo, Kunio

    1999-01-01

    For hyper-eutectic Al-Si-(Fe, Cu) cast materials in large scale ingots, we have studied microstructural modification by thermomechanical treatment to produce a heavily deformable material. Cast materials contained coarse primary Si crystals in a few hundred micron diameter or acicular intermetallic compound in several hundred micron length. Even by multiple-step cold-rolling, sample fracture of the cast alloys occurred with more extrusion step to the cast materials. A novel process, repeated ...

  20. Relaxation process of Fe(CuNb)SiB amorphous alloys investigated by dynamical calorimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, J.; Clavaguera-Mora, M. T.; Clavaguera, N.

    1997-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic differential scanning calorimetry were used to analyze the relaxation process of Fe(CuNb)SiB amorphous alloys. The Curie temperature(TC) evolution of the amorphous phase during relaxation as a function of heating rate, time and pre-annealing temperature were measured. Two distinct relaxation processes are observed, consequent with topological and chemical short range order changes.

  1. Relaxation process of Fe(CuNb)SiB amorphous alloys investigated by dynamical calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic differential scanning calorimetry were used to analyze the relaxation process of Fe(CuNb)SiB amorphous alloys. The Curie temperature (TC) evolution of the amorphous phase during relaxation as a function of heating rate, time and pre-annealing temperature were measured. Two distinct relaxation processes are observed, consequent with topological and chemical short range order changes. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  2. Heat content of liquid Fe-Cu-Si alloys formed in the melting treatment process of domestic waste incineration residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some new melting processes for the ash have been developed to solve the problems on increasing volume of ash generated from municipal waste incinerators. The metal phase formed in this melting process generally consists of Fe-Cu-Si-P-C containing a small amount of other heavy metals, but their phase equilibria and physico-chemical properties are unknown. The present work aimed at determining the thermochemical properties of liquid Fe-Cu-Si alloys, which establish the basic system in this melting process. The heat contents of liquid Fe, Fe-Cu and Fe-Cu-Si alloys have been directly measured with a drop calorimeter at mainly 2073 K in the present work. The observed heat content and the enthalpy of mixing of the alloys were assessed by a thermodynamic model. The input energy which should be supplied to melt the metal phase in the new melting treatment process was also discussed. (orig.)

  3. The effect of magnetic layer thickness on magnetic properties of Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almasi-Kashi, M., E-mail: almac@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramazani, A. [Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kheyri, F.; Jafari-Khamse, E. [Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires were ac-pulse electrodeposited into the anodic aluminum oxide templates prepared by a two-step mild anodization technique. Transmission electron microscopy images showed the distinct layers with a relatively high contrast. A highly pure layer (∼99%) was achieved by tuning the proper ions ratio and optimizing the off-time between pulses of each layer in the single electrodeposition bath. Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires with 38 nm diameter were obtained. The effect of reducing the Fe layer thickness on the magnetic properties of Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires was investigated. It was seen that reducing the Fe layer thickness, thereby variation of rode- to disc-like multilayer nanowires, caused to rotate the magnetic easy axis from parallel to perpendicular to the wires axis. - Highlights: • Changing off-time and ac voltage enables control in segments of multilayer nanowire. • As TEM images show thickness of alternative layers was adjustable by pulse numbers. • A new technique was introduced to grow compositionally-modulated multilayer nanowire. • Two distinct Fe and Cu diffraction peaks indicates formation of two distinct phases. • Identical coercivity in IP and OOP configurations ascribed vanishing shape anisotropy.

  4. Note: Resonance magnetoelectric interactions in laminate of FeCuNbSiB and multilayer piezoelectric stack for magnetic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqiang; Lu, Caijiang; Xu, Changbao; Zhong, Ming

    2015-09-01

    This paper develops a simple miniature magnetoelectric (ME) laminate FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack made up of magnetostrictive Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 (FeCuNbSiB) foils and piezoelectric Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) multilayer stack vibrator. Resonant ME interactions of FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack with different layers of FeCuNbSiB foil (L) are investigated in detail. The experimental results show that the ME voltage coefficient reaches maximum value of 141.5 (V/cm Oe) for FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack with L = 6. The AC-magnetic sensitivities can reach 524.29 mV/Oe and 1.8 mV/Oe under resonance 91.6 kHz and off-resonance 1 kHz, respectively. The FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack can distinguish small dc-magnetic field of ˜9 nT. The results indicate that the proposed ME composites are very promising for the cheap room-temperature magnetic field sensing technology.

  5. Multifractal analysis of the strength of Fe-Cu paragenetic relationships in eastern Tianshan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Wenlei; Cheng, Qiuming

    2016-04-01

    Paragenetic association of elements is a natural and important geological phenomenon reflecting the geochemical behavior of elements during various geo-processes. Because of intrinsic characteristics, different elements of paragenetic association may also be generated. As a result, the respective material sources could be shifted from the original locations, and the strength of paragenetic association of elements could be declined. Therefore, study of paragenetic association of elements can help in locating material source, characterizing migration form, and indicating precipitation conditions. Resulted from complicated and cascade geo-processes, the strength of paragenetic relationship between elements presents variations in space. To examine influences of the strength of paragenetic association of elements on polymetallic mineralization, the current research proposes a data processing procedure that includes non-linear regression and multifractal analysis of the resulting regression coefficients. This procedure is currently tested in the eastern Tianshan mineral district, China, and encouraging results are being derived. In this research, geographically weighted regression (GWR), which is a non-linear statistical method, is used to examine the relationship between Fe and Cu concentrations in eastern Tianshan mineral district, China. This local regression method allows calculation of coefficients for Fe and Cu concentrations at every individual location. Therefore, the variation of the strength of Fe-Cu paragenetic association across the study area can be derived. Furthermore, a multifractal method, spectrum-area (S-A) analysis is applied to the regression coefficient map in order to delineate locations strong associated with Fe-Cu mineralization. Anomalies indicating very strong paragenetic association are separated from background. In addition, noise indicating locations with strong paragenetic relationships but that are not suitable for Fe-Cu mineralization are

  6. Comparative study on the reactivity of Fe/Cu bimetallic particles and zero valent iron (ZVI) under different conditions of N2, air or without aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhaokun; Lai, Bo; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Yuexi; Wang, Juling; Fang, Shuping

    2015-10-30

    In order to further compare the degradation capacity of Fe(0) and Fe/Cu bimetallic system under different aeration conditions, the mineralization of PNP under different aeration conditions has been investigated thoroughly. The results show that the removal of PNP by Fe(0) or Fe/Cu system followed the pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. Under the optimal conditions, the COD removal efficiencies obtained through Fe(0) or Fe/Cu system under different aeration conditions followed the trend that Fe/Cu (air)>Fe/Cu (N2: 0-30 min, air: 30-120 min)>control-Fe (air)>Fe/Cu (without aeration)>Fe/Cu (N2)>control-Fe (N2). It revealed that dissolved oxygen (DO) could improve the mineralization of PNP, and Cu could enhance the reactivity of Fe(0). In addition, the degradation of PNP was further analyzed by using UV-vis, FTIR and GC/MS, and the results suggest that Fe/Cu bimetallic system with air aeration could completely break the benzene ring and NO2 structure of PNP and could generate the nontoxic and biodegradable intermediate products. Meanwhile, most of these intermediate products were further mineralized into CO2 and H2O, which brought about a high COD removal efficiency (83.8%). Therefore, Fe/Cu bimetallic system with air aeration would be a promising process for toxic refractory industry wastewater.

  7. Impact of biogenic nanoscale metals Fe, Cu, Zn and Se on reproductive LV chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiem Nguyen, Quy; Dieu Nguyen, Duy; Kien Nguyen, Van; Thinh Nguyen, Khac; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Tin Tran, Xuan; Nguyen, Huu Cuong; Tien Phung, Duc

    2015-09-01

    Using biogenic nanoscale metals (Fe, Cu, ZnO, Se) to supplement into diet premix of reproductive LV (a Vietnamese Luong Phuong chicken breed) chickens resulted in certain improvement of poultry farming. The experimental data obtained showed that the farming indices depend mainly on the quantity of nanocrystalline metals which replaced the inorganic mineral component in the feed premix. All four experimental groups with different quantities of the replacement nano component grew and developed normally with livability reaching 91 to 94%, hen’s bodyweight at 38 weeks of age and egg weight ranged from 2.53-2.60 kg/hen and 50.86-51.55 g/egg, respectively. All these farming indices together with laying rate, egg productivity and chick hatchability peaked at group 5 with 25% of nanoscale metals compared to the standard inorganic mineral supplement, while feed consumption was lowest. The results also confirmed that nanocrystalline metals Fe, Cu, ZnO and Se supplemented to chicken feed were able to decrease inorganic minerals in the diet premixes at least four times, allowing animals to more effectively absorb feed minerals, consequently decreasing environmental pollution risks.

  8. Atom probe study of Cu-segregation in thermal aging of binary Fe-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fe-Cu binary alloy is commonly used as a prototype model alloy for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) pressure vessel steels, especially for the study of radiation damage. This is because of the fact that Cu is one of the main solutes, segregation of which is known to cause major embrittlement in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under nuclear radiation. Interestingly, similar solute segregation is often noticed in case of radiation-free long-term thermal aging experiments as well. Therefore, thermal aging experiment which is considerably simpler can be effectively utilized to study the solute segregation behaviour and emulate radiation-induced damage. With this objective, a series of binary Fe-Cu alloys with Cu concentration varying from 0.1 at. % - 1.4 at. % were prepared by vacuum arc melting. They were subsequently cold-rolled, followed by homogenization at 800 C and water quenching. The homogenized samples were then aged at 500 C for the following different durations: 1, 3, 5, 8, 25, 50 and 100 h. 3DAP is an indispensable tool to study solute segregation at this length scale, and the current study will present the results of a detailed 3DAP investigation of the evolution of the thermal damage in these binary prototype alloys. (author)

  9. REE and Trace Element Geochemistry of Yinachang Fe-Cu-REE Deposit, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨耀民; 涂光炽; 胡瑞忠

    2004-01-01

    REE and other trace elements in ores, wall rocks, alkaline volcanic rocks and diabase dikes have been determined in the Yinachang Fe-Cu-REE deposit. Comparative studies of REE and trace element geochemical characteristics of these geological bodies indicate that the ores and alkaline volcanic rocks contain abundant REE and Y (65.9-4633)×10-6, with higher abundances of As, Mo, Nb, Co and U than those of the crust. Their chondrite-normalized patterns show a strong enrichment of LREE and a positive Eu anomaly, in contrast to those of the dolomites which are characterized by slight LREE enrichment and moderate negative Eu anomaly. The REE patterns of ores are similar to those of hydrothermal sediment cores in the East Pacific Rise, whereas the REE patterns of dolomites are similar to those of PAAS (Post-Archean Average Shale). In combination with the geological setting of the deposit, the primary ore-forming fluids might have higher REE and volatile elements, and might have been derived from mantle degassing, or the alkaline volcanic magmas. The Yinachang Fe-Cu-REE ore deposit is considered to be of volcanic exhalation-hydrothermal sedimentary origin.

  10. Probing structure-property relationships in perpendicularly magnetized Fe/Cu(001) using MXLD and XPD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, T.R.; Waddill, G.D. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States); Goodman, K.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Magnetic X-ray Linear Dichroism (MXLD) in Photoelectron Spectroscopy and X-Ray Photoelectron Diffraction (XPD) of the Fe 3p core level have been used to probe the magnetic structure-property relationships of perpendicularly magnetized Fe/Cu(001), in an element-specific fashion. A strong MEXLD effect was observed in the high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy of the Fe 3p at {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} emission and was used to follow the loss of perpendicular ferromagnetic ordering as the temperature was raised toward room temperature. In parallel with this, {open_quotes}Forward Focussing{close_quotes} in XPD was used as a direct measure of geometric structure in the overlayer. These results and the implications of their correlation will be discussed. Additionally, an investigation of the effect of Mn doping of the Fe/Cu(001) will be described. These measurements were performed at the Spectromicroscopy Facility (Beamline 7.0.1) of the Advanced Light Source.

  11. Hyperfine and magnetic properties of Fe-Cu clusters and Fe precipitates embedded in a Cu matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klautau, A B [Faculdade de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Para, 66075-110, Belem, PA (Brazil); Socolovsky, L M [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C1063ACV, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nogueira, R N [Faculdade Taboao da Serra, 06768-000, Taboao da Serra, SP (Brazil); Petrilli, H M, E-mail: aklautau@ufpa.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-12-16

    Using the first-principles real-space linear muffin-tin orbital method within the atomic sphere approximation (RS-LMTO-ASA) we study hyperfine and local magnetic properties of substituted pure Fe and Fe-Cu clusters in an fcc Cu matrix. Spin and orbital contributions to magnetic moments, hyperfine fields and the Moessbauer isomer shifts at the Fe sites in Fe precipitates and Fe-Cu alloy clusters of sizes up to 60 Fe atoms embedded in the Cu matrix are calculated and the influence of the local environment on these properties is discussed.

  12. Bleaching effect and nonvola-tile holographic storage in doubly doped LiNbO3:Fe:Cu crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The bleaching effect, i. e. the crystal shows that decoloration after it is illuminated by ultraviolet light, has been observed in congruent LiNbO3:Fe :Cu crystals. Based on this bleaching effect, a new technique including the reco rding phase by two interfering red beams and fixing phase by both UV light and a coherent red beam has been experimentally investigated to realize nonvolatile holographic storage in LiNbO3:Fe:Cu. The results of proof-of-concept experiments confirm that bleaching effect becomes an alternative physical mechanism for nonv olatile holographic storage with high recording sensitivity and weak light-induced scattering noise.

  13. Annealing effects on the microwave linewidth broadening of FeCuNbSiB ferromagnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We systematically investigate the annealing effects on the microwave linewidth broadening of FeCuNbSiB ferromagnetic films with thickness of 100 nm. We correlate the non-uniform residual stress obtained from grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements with the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidth due to effective field inhomogeneities measured from broadband ferromagnetic resonance absorption measurements. We also estimate the annealing temperature effect on the Gilbert and two-magnon scattering contributions to the total ferromagnetic resonance FMR linewidth. We show that the effective field inhomogeneities constitute the main contribution to the microwave linewidth, while this contribution is related to the non-uniform residual stress in the films which is reduced by thermal annealing

  14. Annealing effects on the microwave linewidth broadening of FeCuNbSiB ferromagnetic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, M. J. P.; Gonzalez-Chavez, D. E.; Sommer, R. L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bohn, F. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2015-03-28

    We systematically investigate the annealing effects on the microwave linewidth broadening of FeCuNbSiB ferromagnetic films with thickness of 100 nm. We correlate the non-uniform residual stress obtained from grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements with the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidth due to effective field inhomogeneities measured from broadband ferromagnetic resonance absorption measurements. We also estimate the annealing temperature effect on the Gilbert and two-magnon scattering contributions to the total ferromagnetic resonance FMR linewidth. We show that the effective field inhomogeneities constitute the main contribution to the microwave linewidth, while this contribution is related to the non-uniform residual stress in the films which is reduced by thermal annealing.

  15. THERMODYNAMICS OF FE-CU ALLOYS AS DESCRIBED BY A CLASSIC POTENTIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, A; Caro, M; Lopasso, E M; Turchi, P A; Farkas, D

    2005-04-14

    The Fe-Cu system is of relevance to the nuclear industry because of the deleterious consequences of Cu precipitates in the mechanical properties of Fe. Several sets of classical potentials are used in molecular dynamics simulations studies of this system, in particular that proposed by Ludwig et al. (Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 6, 19 (1998)). In this work we extract thermodynamic information from this interatomic potentials. We obtain equilibrium phase diagram and find a reasonable agreement with the experimental phases in the regions of relevance to radiation damage studies. We compare the results with the predicted phase diagram based on other potential, as calculated in previous work. We discuss the disagreements found between the phase diagram calculated here and experimental results, focusing on the pure components and discuss the applicability of these potentials; finally we suggest an approach to improve existing potentials for this system.

  16. Template-grown NiFe/Cu/NiFe nanowires for spin transfer devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraux, Luc; Renard, Krystel; Guillemet, Raphael; Matéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Matéfi-Tempfli, Maria; Antohe, Vlad Andrei; Fusil, Stéphane; Bouzehouane, Karim; Cros, Vincent

    2007-09-01

    We have developed a new reliable method combining template synthesis and nanolithography-based contacting technique to elaborate current perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance spin valve nanowires, which are very promising for the exploration of electrical spin transfer phenomena. The method allows the electrical connection of one single nanowire in a large assembly of wires embedded in anodic porous alumina supported on Si substrate with diameters and periodicities to be controllable to a large extent. Both magnetic excitations and switching phenomena driven by a spin-polarized current were clearly demonstrated in our electrodeposited NiFe/Cu/ NiFe trilayer nanowires. This novel approach promises to be of strong interest for subsequent fabrication of phase-locked arrays of spin transfer nano-oscillators with increased output power for microwave applications. PMID:17715984

  17. Synthesis and magnetic properties of multilayer Ni/Cu and NiFe/Cu nanowires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Liu; S C Chang; I Baginskiy; S F Hu; C Y Huang

    2006-07-01

    Highly ordered composite nanowires with multilayer Ni/Cu and NiFe/Cu have been fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition into nanoporous alumina membrane. The diameter of wires can be easily varied by pore size of alumina, ranging from 30 to 100 nm. The applied potential and the duration of each potential square pulse determine the thickness of the metal layers. The nanowires have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. The MFM images indicate that every ferromagnetic layer separated by Cu layer was present as single isolated domain-like magnet. This technique has potential use in the measurement and application of magnetic nanodevices.

  18. The lattice structure of nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Si-B alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. D.; Lu, K.; Ding, B. Z.; Hu, Z. Q.; Zhu, J.; Jiang, J.

    1994-02-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Si-B alloys with different grain sizes were synthesized by crystallization of an amorphous alloy. Two nanophases, α-Fe(Se) and Fe 2B, were noticed in all samples. XRD results reveal that the lattice constant of the α-Fe(Si) phase increases; the a-axis is elongated and the c-axis is shortened in the Fe 2B phase upon reducing the grain size. Based on the thermodynamic analysis, the changes in the lattice parameters were attributed to the solution of vacancies in the above two phases. Owing to the lattice distortion of the α-Fe(Si) and Fe 2B phases, the crystallite with small size is found to exhibit a disordered character to some extent, which is manifested by large values of the half linewidth (HLW) and isomer shift (IS) of various Fe configurations in the Mössbauer parameters.

  19. Nanometer Stripe Microstructure of Supersaturated Solid Solution in Fe-Cu Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Hui-ping; WANG Hai-yan; LIU Zong-chang; AN Zhi-guo

    2007-01-01

    Strengthening due to precipitation of Cu in the α-Fe matrix is an important phenomenon utilized in the design of HSLA steels. In the present work, the microstructure of supersaturated solid solution in Fe-1.18%Cu binary alloy was investigated by means of high resolution electron microscopy. The results indicated that the solid solution was heterogeneous, there were lots of Cu atom clusters, which consisted of diffractive stripe microstructure similar to twin crystal. Orientation deviation was observed between two (110)α planes in diffractive stripes, which results in light and shade contrast. Furthermore, formation mechanisms of the nanometre stripe microstructure were discussed in terms of the interaction of Cu and Fe atoms in the Fe-Cu binary alloys.

  20. Preparation and characterization of electrodeposited Fe and Fe/Cu nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, S.; Chassaing, E.; Duvail, J. L.; Piraux, L.; Waals, M. G.

    1999-09-01

    Fe and Fe/Cu multilayered nanowires with layer thicknesses in the 10nm range were successfully synthesized within the voids of nanoporous polycarbonate membranes and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Magnetization measurements show that the shape anisotropy of individual Fe wires dominates the magnetic properties. Fe(8 nm)/Cu(10 nm) multilayered nanowires show CPP-GMR ratios as large as 12% at low temperature. The variations of the CPP-GMR as a function of the Cu layer thickness are consistent with the Valet-Fert model. Our data yield a value of about 0.3 for the bulk spin asymmetry coefficient β. Des nanofilaments constitués de Fe ou de multicouches Fe/Cu sont élaborés par dépôt électrochimique à l'intérieur des pores de membranes polycarbonate et caractérisés en microscopie électronique à transmission. Les propriétés magnétiques des nanofils de Fe sont très largement dominées par l'anisotropie de forme des fils. La magnéto-résistance géante (MRG) de multicouches Fe(8 nm)/Cu(10 nm) atteint 12 % à basse température tandis que la variation de la MRG est en bon accord avec le modèle de Valet-Fert. La valeur du coefficient d'asymétrie de spin β associé aux collisions au sein des couches de Fe est de l'ordre de 0.3.

  1. Study of Fe-Cu/ZSM-5 and its amination catalytic property%Fe-Cu/ZSM-5催化剂及其胺化催化性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锋伟; 淡保松; 王伟; 杨建明; 吕剑

    2009-01-01

    制备了一种Fe-Cu/ZSM-5胺化催化剂,考察其在乙醇胺选择性合成哌嗪、三乙烯二胺反应中的催化活性.结果表明,随着Fe、Cu负载量的增加,催化剂表面酸性逐渐向强酸方向位移,总酸量增加,反应转化率提高;Cu负载量对反应转化率及乙二胺选择性的影响相对较弱,但对哌嗪的生成有明显的促进作用;催化反应性能不仅受催化剂酸性的影响,还与负载组分的性质及负载组分与载体间的相互作用有关.%The synthesis of piperazine(PIP) and triethylene diamine (TEDA)from ethanolamine (MEA) with ammonia over Fe-Cu/ZSM-5 catalyst was investigated.The results showed that when Fe,Cu contents increased,the acid properties were raised,the acid amount and the conversion of MEA increased.The effective in conversion of MEA by Cu content was weaker,but evident to promte synthesis of piperazine.The reaction properties were not only influenced by the surface acid but also influenced by the properties of Fe,Cu.

  2. Electronic structure of nanosized bcc Cu precipitates in Fe-Cu alloys studied by positron 2D-ACAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the finding with the use of the coincidence Doppler measurements that the nanosized Cu precipitates are coherently embedded in the Fe-Cu matrix alloy, taking a bcc structure and acting as efficient positron traps, we measured 2D-ACARs of carefully grown and heat treated single crystals of Fe-Cu. We found that the precipitates have a Fermi surface with 12 necks touching the {110} Bragg planes of the bcc Brillouin zone, which contrasts distinctly with that of the bulk Cu with 8 necks touching the {111} Bragg planes of the fcc Brillouin zone. The 3 dimensional momentum reconstruction of the 2D-ACAR data showed that the Fermi surface cutoff of the Cu precipitates is blurred considerably as compared with that of bulk fcc Cu, suggesting a marked size effect in the momentum distribution. (orig.)

  3. Surface tension of liquid ternary Fe-Cu-Mo alloys measured by electromagnetic levitation oscillating drop method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H P; Luo, B C; Qin, T; Chang, J; Wei, B

    2008-09-28

    For the liquid Fe-Cu-Mo ternary system, the surface tensions of three selected alloys, i.e., three typical monotectic alloys, were measured by the electromagnetic levitation oscillating drop method over a broad temperature range, including both superheated and undercooled states. The maximum undercooling attained is up to 173 K. The experimental results show a good linear correlation between the surface tension and the temperature. By applying on the Butler equation, the surface tensions were also calculated and they are in good agreement with the measured ones, except that in the undercooled state, the calculated value is slightly larger than the measured results. Interestingly, both the measured and calculated results indicate that the enriched element on the droplet surface is much more conspicuous than other elements in influencing the surface tension. Besides, the viscosity and the density of the liquid Fe-Cu-Mo ternary alloys are also derived on the grounds of the experimentally measured surface tensions. PMID:19045047

  4. Magnetoresistive properties of multilayer film systems based on Fe/Cu and Fe/Cr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Synashenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoresistive properties of multilayer film systems based on Fe and Cu or Cr were investigated at room temperature. Factors, which influence on the magnetoresistance (MR value change, were studied. In Fe/Cu film system, in which the individuality of separate layers holds, the substrate change from amorphous pyroceramic to monocrystalline Si(111 leads to the MR ratio increase by 35 %, that is connected with magnetic ordering in bottom epitaxial Fe layer. Thermal annealing of the samples to 700 K leads to vanishing of the odd effect in MR in perpendicular geometry and MR increase by two times in parallel geometries. Investigations of [Fe(dFe/Cr(1]10 system showed, that the Fe thickness changes from 0,31 to 1,5 nm, and this leads to the MR magnitude change from 0,03-0,05 % to 1-3 % subject to the different measurement geometries, which is interpreted by Fe granule formation in matrix of solid solution (Fe, Cr.

  5. Thermodynamics of Fe Cu alloys as described by a classic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, A.; Caro, M.; Lopasso, E. M.; Turchi, P. E. A.; Farkas, D.

    2006-03-01

    The Fe-Cu system is of relevance to the nuclear industry because of the deleterious consequences of Cu precipitates in the mechanical properties of Fe. Several sets of classical potentials are used in molecular dynamics simulations studies of this system, in particular that proposed by Ludwig et al. [M. Ludwig, D. Farkas, D. Pedraza, S. Schmauder, Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 6 (1998) 19]. In this work we extract thermodynamic information from this interatomic potential. We obtain equilibrium phase diagram and find a reasonable agreement with the experimental phases in the regions of relevance to radiation damage studies. We compare the results with the predicted phase diagram based on other potential, as calculated in previous work. We discuss the disagreements found between the phase diagram calculated here and experimental results, focusing on the pure components and discuss the applicability of these potentials. Improved potentials, primarily for the pure components, should be developed to account for proper phase stability in the solid phase up to melting. Finally we suggest an approach to improve existing potentials for this system.

  6. Thermodynamics of Fe-Cu alloys as described by a classic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)]. E-mail: caro2@llnl.gov; Caro, M. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Lopasso, E.M. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Turchi, P.E.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Farkas, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2006-03-01

    The Fe-Cu system is of relevance to the nuclear industry because of the deleterious consequences of Cu precipitates in the mechanical properties of Fe. Several sets of classical potentials are used in molecular dynamics simulations studies of this system, in particular that proposed by Ludwig et al. [M. Ludwig, D. Farkas, D. Pedraza, S. Schmauder, Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 6 (1998) 19]. In this work we extract thermodynamic information from this interatomic potential. We obtain equilibrium phase diagram and find a reasonable agreement with the experimental phases in the regions of relevance to radiation damage studies. We compare the results with the predicted phase diagram based on other potential, as calculated in previous work. We discuss the disagreements found between the phase diagram calculated here and experimental results, focusing on the pure components and discuss the applicability of these potentials. Improved potentials, primarily for the pure components, should be developed to account for proper phase stability in the solid phase up to melting. Finally we suggest an approach to improve existing potentials for this system.

  7. Overlapping solid solubility in mechanically alloyed Fe-Ni and Fe-Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, P. J.; Palshin, V.; Tittsworth, R. C.; He, J. H.; Ma, E.

    2003-12-01

    Solid solutions formed by mechanical alloying in the negative heat of mixing Fe-Ni system and the positive heat of mixing Fe-Cu system were studied. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy data were analyzed to obtain the phase fractions and phase compositions for various overall compositions across the bcc/fcc two-phase region. For both systems, at each nominal composition of the powder mixture, the two solutions formed both have the same composition as the overall alloy. It is concluded that the two-phase coexistence represents an extended region of overlapping solubility for the two phases, rather than the usual two-phase region or a clear switchover at the concentration where the two phases have the same free energy. In terms of these features, the two binary systems, one with negative heat of mixing and one with positive heat of mixing, behave the same way. The external forcing action of mechanical alloying at low temperatures drives the system toward composition homogenization. There is no stable or metastable equilibrium, and the common tangent construction and lever rule are not applicable. What results is a novel two-phase coexistence which is defined by a region of overlapping solubility, rather than the normal solubility gap. That there can be two polymorphs at each composition even after the long ball-milling treatment represents a new type of steady-state two-phase coexistence that is completely different from the normal two-phase region dictated by thermodynamics.

  8. Overlapping solid solubility in mechanically alloyed Fe-Ni and Fe-Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid solutions formed by mechanical alloying in the negative heat of mixing Fe-Ni system and the positive heat of mixing Fe-Cu system were studied. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy data were analyzed to obtain the phase fractions and phase compositions for various overall compositions across the bcc/fcc two-phase region. For both systems, at each nominal composition of the powder mixture, the two solutions formed both have the same composition as the overall alloy. It is concluded that the two-phase coexistence represents an extended region of overlapping solubility for the two phases, rather than the usual two-phase region or a clear switchover at the concentration where the two phases have the same free energy. In terms of these features, the two binary systems, one with negative heat of mixing and one with positive heat of mixing, behave the same way. The external forcing action of mechanical alloying at low temperatures drives the system toward composition homogenization. There is no stable or metastable equilibrium, and the common tangent construction and lever rule are not applicable. What results is a novel two-phase coexistence which is defined by a region of overlapping solubility, rather than the normal solubility gap. That there can be two polymorphs at each composition even after the long ball-milling treatment represents a new type of steady-state two-phase coexistence that is completely different from the normal two-phase region dictated by thermodynamics

  9. Effect of annealing treatments on the microwave electromagnetic properties of amorphous FeCuNbSiB microwires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Di-Fei; Han Man-Gui; Yan Bo; Deng Long-Jiang

    2007-01-01

    The amorphous FeCuNbSiB microwires are fabricated by using the melt extraction method and annealed separately at temperatures T = 573, 673, 723 and 773 K for 1 h. The effect of annealing treatment on the microwave electromagnetic properties of FeCuNbSiB wires/wax composites has been investigated for the first time. It is found that in a frequency range of 0.5-4.0 GHz, the complex permittivity, permeability, magnetic and electric loss tangents of FeCuNbSiB wires/wax composites are strongly dependent on the annealing temperature and frequency. For T = 573,723 and 773K, two resonance peaks are found at frequency f = 1.2 and 3.3GHz. However, for T = 673K, only one resonance peak occurs at f = 3.3 GHz. The resonance peak at f = 1.2 GHz is believed to be due to the stress-induced anisotropy, while the resonance peak at f = 3.3 GHz is attributed to the random anisotropy.

  10. Application of Fe-Cu binary oxide nanoparticles for the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saif Ullah; Zaidi, Rumman; Hassan, Saeikh Z; Farooqi, I H; Azam, Ameer

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption process has been used as an effective technique for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. Groundwater remediation by nanoparticles has received interest in recent years. In the present study, a binary metal oxide of Fe-Cu was prepared and used for the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed to investigate the effects of initial Cr (VI) concentration, dose of adsorbent, and pH of solution on the removal efficiency of Cr (VI). The prepared nanostructured Fe-Cu binary oxides were able to reduce the concentration of Cr (VI) in aqueous solution. Binary metal oxides nanoparticle exhibited an outstanding ability to remove Cr (VI) due to high surface area, low particle size, and high inherent activity. The percentage removal efficiency of Cr (VI) increased with nanoparticles doses (0.1 g L(-1)-2.5 g L(-1)), whereas it decreased with initial Cr (VI) concentration (1 mg L(-1)-25 mg L(-1)) and with pH (3-9). The Freundlich model was found to be the better fit for adsorption isotherm. The prepared nanomaterial was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy. It showed that the Fe-Cu binary oxides were formed in single phase. SEM micrograph showed aggregates with many nano-sized particles. UV-visible spectroscopy showed quantum confinement effect. PMID:27386994

  11. Oxidation of two ternary Fe-Cu-5Al alloys in 1×105 Pa pure oxygen at 700 ℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Jun-huai; NIU Yan; WU Wei-tao; LIU Guo-dong

    2006-01-01

    The oxidation of two two-phase ternary Fe-Cu-Al alloys containing about 5% Al(mole fraction),one Fe-rich and one Cu-rich,were studied at 700 ℃ in 1×105 Pa pure oxygen. The Fe-rich alloy (Fe-15Cu-5Al) shows two quasi-parabolic stages,with a large increase of the parabolic rate constant after about 4 h. The presence of 5% Al does not change greatly the oxidation rate of Fe-15Cu-5Al with respect to a binary Fe-Cu alloy of similar composition,which was quite different from the situation of the same alloys oxidized at 800 ℃. Oxidation of Fe-15Cu-5Al at 700 ℃ produced an outer layer of iron oxides and an inner layer containing a mixture of copper metal,iron and aluminium oxide. On the contrary,the Cu-rich Fe-85Cu-5Al alloy presents a rather irregular kinetic behavior,with formation of an inner continuous alumina thin layer and a rather irregular outer layer. The outer layer with a rather irregular thickness was mainly composed of a matrix of copper oxides plus some aluminium and iron oxides presenting in the deep part of the layer at certain locations. As a result of the formation of a protective alumina layer,the presence of 5% Al greatly reduced the oxidation rate of Fe-85Cu-5Al with respect to a binary Fe-Cu alloy of similar composition,which was also quite different from the situation of the same alloys oxidized at 800 ℃. Moreover,the oxidation rate at 700 ℃ of the Fe-85Cu-5Al alloy was much lower than that of Fe-15Cu-5Al alloy due to the same reason..

  12. Recrystallization and development of cube texture in Ti and Ti+Cr added Ni-Fe-Cu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manna, I. (Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering , I.I.T., Kharagpur (India)); Ray, R.K. (Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, I.I.T., Kanpur (India)); Gupta, K.P. (Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, I.I.T., Kanpur (India))

    1994-06-01

    The development of a sharp cube or [l brace]100[r brace]<100> texture in two Ti and Ti+Cr added Ni-Fe-Cu alloys is presented. Texture studies in deformed as well as recrystallized conditions have been carried out by both conventional pole figure and orientation distribution function analysis. Microstructural evolution in course of recrystallization texture development has been extensively studied with both optical and electron microscopes. Heavy cold deformation (97 to 98%) followed by annealing at 1050 C for 2 h has been found to optimize the conditions for the desired texture development. (orig.)

  13. Densities of Molten and Solid Alloys of (Fe, Cu, Ni, Co)-S at Elevated Temperatures - Literature Review and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfaye, Fiseha; Taskinen, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Densities of solid and liquid Fe, Cu, Ni and Co, and their alloys both at the presence and absence of sulfur have been reviewed. Volumetric thermal expansions were used to estimate the densities at different temperatures. Densities of the alloys generally decrease with increasing temperature. For the pure metals the reduction in density as temperature rises from 25 oC to their respective melting point can be estimated to be about 7.05 ± 0.4 % just before melting and about 11.63 ± 0.92 on comp...

  14. Magnetic behaviour investigation on symmetric spin valves of Co/Cu/NiFe and NiFe/Cu/Co

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铁; 沈鸿烈

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we have obtained and investigated the magnetic behaviours of the ferromagnetic layer in thesymmetric spin valves of Co/Cu/NiFe and NiFe/Cu/Co by measuring with a vibrating sample magnetometer andanalysing in terms of the multi-domain Ising models. It has been found that some magnetic layer can have quitedifferent magnetic behaviours in different structures of spin valves, depending on the properties of the under-layer. Inour investigation, we have found that the magnetic behaviour of a Co layer depends mainly on the magnetization of theunder-layer, whereas this is not the case for the NiFe layer.

  15. Preparation and characterization of epitaxial thin films and patterned nanostructures of Ni/Cu and Fe/Cu

    OpenAIRE

    Corredor, Edna C.

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo realizado en esta tesis titulada: Preparation and magnetic characterization of epitaxial thin films and patterned nanostructures of Ni/Cu and Fe/Cu es establecer relaciones entre las propiedades magnéticas de sistemas nanoestructurados y sus dimensiones físicas o factores estructurales que aparecen al reducirse la dimensión espacial a dos, en el caso de películas delgadas, y a una en el caso de elementos patronados. Los sistemas objeto de estudio se caracterizan por se...

  16. Preparation and characterization of epitaxial thin films and patterned nanostructures of Ni/Cu and Fe/Cu

    OpenAIRE

    Corredor Vega, Edna Consuelo; Ciria Remacha, Miguel Ángel; Arnaudas Pontaque, José Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo realizado en esta tesis titulada: Preparation and magnetic characterization of epitaxial thin films and patterned nanostructures of Ni/Cu and Fe/Cu es establecer relaciones entre las propiedades magnéticas de sistemas nanoestructurados y sus dimensiones físicas o factores estructurales que aparecen al reducirse la dimensión espacial a dos, en el caso de películas delgadas, y a una en el caso de elementos patronados. Los sistemas objeto de estudio se caracterizan por se...

  17. Modelling radiation-induced phase changes in binary FeCu and ternary FeCuNi alloys using an artificial intelligence-based atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply a novel atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo model, which includes local chemistry and relaxation effects when assessing the migration energy barriers of point defects, to the study of the microchemical evolution driven by vacancy diffusion in FeCu and FeCuNi alloys. These alloys are of importance for nuclear applications because Cu precipitation, enhanced by the presence of Ni, is one of the main causes of hardening and embrittlement in reactor pressure vessel steels used in existing nuclear power plants. Local chemistry and relaxation effects are introduced using artificial intelligence techniques, namely a conveniently trained artificial neural network, to calculate the migration energy barriers of vacancies as functions of the local atomic configuration. We prove, through a number of results, that the use of the neural network is fully equivalent to calculating the migration energy barriers on-the-fly, using computationally expensive methods such as nudged elastic bands with an interatomic potential. The use of the neural network makes the computational cost affordable, so that simulations of the same type as those hitherto carried out using heuristic formulas for the assessment of the energy barriers can now be performed, at the same computational cost, using more rigorously calculated barriers. This method opens the way to properly treating more complex problems, such as the case of self-interstitial cluster formation, in an atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo framework.

  18. Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shih-Yi [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Jiang, Shiuh-Jen, E-mail: sjjiang@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Sahayam, A.C. [National Centre for Compositional Characterisation of Materials (CCCM), Hyderabad (India)

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) has been applied to determine Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in several cereal samples. Thioacetamide was used as the modifier to enhance the ion signals. The background ions at the masses of interest were reduced in intensity significantly by using 1.0 mL min{sup −1} methane (CH{sub 4}) as reaction cell gas in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC). Since the sensitivities of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in different matrices were quite different, standard addition and isotope dilution methods were used for the determination of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in these cereal samples. The method detection limits estimated from standard addition curves were about 1, 10, 4, 12 and 2 ng g{sup −1} for Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se, respectively, in original cereal samples. This procedure has been applied to the determination of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se whose concentrations are in μg g{sup −1} (except Cr and Se) in standard reference materials (SRM) of National institute of standards and technology (NIST), NIST SRM 1568a Rice Flour and NIST SRM 1567a Wheat Flour and two cereal samples purchased from a local market. The analysis results of reference materials agreed with certified values at 95% confidence level according to Student's T-test. The results for the real world cereal samples were also found to be in good agreement with the pneumatic nebulization DRC ICP-MS results of the sample solutions. - Highlights: • Determination of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in cereal samples • Ultrasonic slurry sampling in combination with DRC-ICP-MS • Better sensitivity with thioacetamide modifier in ETV • Decreased sample preparation time with solid sampling • Validation with NIST SRM 1568a Rice Flour and NIST SRM 1567a Wheat Flour.

  19. Separation in liquid and the formation of supersaturated solid solutions in Fe-Cu alloys upon rapid laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharanzhevskiy, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    The structure of compacted specimens produced using the rapid laser melting of ultradispersed Fe-50 wt % Cu powders has been studied. The original powder was produced via the mechanical milling of iron and copper powders in a planetary-type ball mill. It has been found that the structure of the compacted specimens produced using rapid laser melting exhibits signs of the initial stages of separation in supercooled liquid. It has been shown using X-ray diffraction analysis as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy that the final structure contains a supersaturated (Fe; Cu) solid solution formed from the high-speed movement of the solidification front and the nonequilibrium capture of copper by the moving front.

  20. Determination of Fe, Cu and Zn in sugar-cane spirits commercialized in Southeastern Brazil by TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to determine simultaneously the concentration of Cu, Fe and Zn in seven sugar-cane spirit samples ('aguardente'), a processed alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation and distillation of sugar-cane juice. The limits of detection ranged from 35 to 8 ng x ml-1 for V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Se. Excluding Fe, Cu and Zn, the concentrations were below their limits. Two samples showed Cu concentrations higher than the value allowed by Brazilian legislation (5 μg x ml-1), and concerning Fe and Zn, no sample were above the limits permitted by WHO for drinking water (2 and 3 μg x ml-1, respectively). (author)

  1. Probing the A1 to L10 transformation in FeCuPt using the first order reversal curve method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin A. Gilbert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The A1-L10 phase transformation has been investigated in (001 FeCuPt thin films prepared by atomic-scale multilayer sputtering and rapid thermal annealing (RTA. Traditional x-ray diffraction is not always applicable in generating a true order parameter, due to non-ideal crystallinity of the A1 phase. Using the first-order reversal curve (FORC method, the A1 and L10 phases are deconvoluted into two distinct features in the FORC distribution, whose relative intensities change with the RTA temperature. The L10 ordering takes place via a nucleation-and-growth mode. A magnetization-based phase fraction is extracted, providing a quantitative measure of the L10 phase homogeneity.

  2. Magnetic Microstructures of 2:17 Type Sm(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr)z Magnets Detected by Magnetic Force Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Ailin; Guo Zhaohui; Li Wei; Han Baoshan

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic microstructures of 2:17 type Sm(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr)z magnets were detected by magnetic force microscopy.Comparing the microstructures of the specimens coated with and without Ta thin film before and after heat-treatment, it is found that: (a) as a protection layer, Ta coating layer about 20 nm thick can effectively restrain Sm volatilization under high temperature;(b) the stress built in the 2:17 type Sm-Co magnets during specimen preparation only affects some local parts of the domain structures;(c) the magnetic microstructures vary largely for specimens heat-treated at high temperature without Ta film coating due to Sm volatilization.In addition, by comparing with high coercivity Fe-Pt point tips, it is found that the Co-Cr thin-film tips are not suitable for detecting the magnetic microstructures of strong permanent magnets.

  3. Effect of Sm Volatilization on Magnetic Microstructures of Sintered Sm(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr)z Magnets at High Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Ai-Lin; FANG Yi-Kun; GUO Zhao-Hui; LI Wei; HAN Bao-Shan

    2006-01-01

    @@ We present a magnetic force microscopy study of surface magnetic microstructure changes at high temperatures in 2:17-type Sm( Co, Fe, Cu,Zr)z (z ~ 7.4) magnets. Surface magnetic microstructures are found to change greatly in parallel and vertical specimens after heat-treatment at 400℃ for one hour in vacuum of 10-5 Torr with Ar gas as protecting atmosphere. Changes of microstructures are attributed to the formation of a soft-magnetic surfaces layer in the specimens, resulting from Sm volatilization due to high temperature. This hypothesis is further confirmed by the heat-treatment experiments at 400℃ for 0.5 h and 2 h. Finally, the existence of the soft-magnetic layers, which consist primarily of Fe-Co compounds, is verified by the results of both XRD and XPS of the vertical specimens before and after heat-treatment.

  4. Seasonal variation of major elements (Ca, Mg) and trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) and cultured mussel Perna viridis L. and seawater in the Dona Paula Bay, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The major elements and trace metals were analysed from nussel tissue and the seawater taken from three depths (0, 5 and 9 meters) from the culture site. Range of variation in Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were 226-399; 708-1329; 0.005-0.084; BDL-0...

  5. SRXRF elemental mapping and source analysis of Pb, Fe, Cu and Zn in human hair from an inhabitant in a lead-zinc mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental mapping of human hair may gain new insights for studying effects of mining environmental pollution on human health. SRXRF micro-analyses were conducted for longitudinal and transversal mapping of Pb, Fe, Cu and Zn relative intensities in hair sample collected from an inhabitant in Qixia lead-zinc mining area, Nanjing, Jiangsu province, China. The Pb relative intensity was low in hair follicle and root, but it increased with the hair growth. The longitudinal Pb accumulation in the hair shaft revealed a strong dependence on continuous exposure to the environment, while Fe, Cu and Zn relative intensities in the hair shaft were comparatively stable. The cortical proteins contributed to a high retention of Pb, Fe, Cu and Zn, while small quantities of all the elements but Zn were distributed in the cuticle. Medullar proteins were confirmed to contribute to slightly lower retention of Zn and Cu than cortical, but Pb and Fe were not detected in medulla. The sources of Pb in the hair were mostly exogenous contamination, and Fe, Cu and Zn were related to endogenous uptake. Zn and Cu participated in the entire metabolic process of hair growth. The study shows that SRXRF is of significance for biogeochemistry research. (authors)

  6. Enthalpy of formation of quasicrystalline phase and ternary solid solutions in the Al-Fe-Cu system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.A. Tomilin; S.D. Kaloshkin; V. V. Tcherdyntsev

    2006-01-01

    Standard enthalpies of formation of quasicrystalline phase and the ternary solid solutions in the Al-Fe-Cu system and the intermetallic compound FeAl were determined by the means of solution calorimetry. The quasicrystalline phase was prepared using two different methods. The first method (Ⅰ) consisted of ball milling the mixture of powders of pure aluminum copper and iron in a planetary mill with subsequent compacting by hot pressing and annealing. The second method (Ⅱ) consisted of arc melting of the components in argon atmosphere followed by annealing. The latter method was used for preparing the compound FeAl and the solid solutions. The phases were identified using the XRD method. The enthalpy of the formation was determined for the quasicrystalline phase of the composition Al62Cu25.5Fe12.5 and the ternary BCC solid solutions Al35Cu14Fe51, Al40Cu17Fe43, and Al50.4Cu19.6Fe30. The measured enthalpy of formation of the intermetallic com pound FeAl is in good agreement with the earlier published data. The enthaipies of formation of the quasicrystalline phases prepared using two different methods are close to each other, namely, -22.7±3.4 (method Ⅰ) and -21.3±2.1 (method Ⅱ)k J/mol.

  7. Isothermal Kinetics Modelling of the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over the Spray-Dried Fe-Cu-K Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohui Guo; Ying Liu; Jie Chang; Liang Bai; Yuanyuan Xu; Hongwei Xiang; Yongwang Li

    2006-01-01

    The isothermal kinetics of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) over Fe-Cu-K spray-dried catalyst was studied in a spinning basket reactor. The experiments were carried out at a constant temperature of 523 K, n(H2)/n(CO) feed ratios of 0.8-2.0, reactor pressures of 1.1-2.5 MPa, and space velocity of 0.556× 10-3 Nm3/kgcat.s. Kinetic model for hydrocarbon formation was derived on the basis of simplified carbide mechanism to reduce the number of parameters. Two individual rate constants for methane and ethene were considered. Furthermore, the model was modified empirically by non-intrinsic effect, such as physisorption and fictitious olefin pressures that were taken into account, and the influences of secondary reaction of α-olefins on product distribution. The simulation results showed that the experimental phenomena of FTS and the deviations from ASF distribution, such as the relatively high yield of methane and low yield of ethene observed experimentally could be depicted basically.

  8. Temperature dependence of the magnetostriction and the induced anisotropy in nanocrystalline FeCuNbSiB alloys, and their fluxgate properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto V; Petersen, Jan Raagaard

    1994-01-01

    Making use of the stress induced magnetic anisotropy in some iron-rich FeCuNbSiB nanocrystalline materials we studied the thermal dependence of their magnetostriction which becomes zero below the Curie temperature. The choice of a suitable composition and annealing temperature results in materials...... with zero magnetostriction at room temperature. Due to the low magnetostriction these materials have very promising fluxgate properties which were studied as well...

  9. Kinetics of Coking Wastewater Pretreatment by Fe/Cu Electrolysis Combined with Zeolite Adsorption%Fe/Cu-改性沸石预处理焦化废水动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱翔; 卢永

    2011-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of coking wastewater pretreatment by Fe/Cu electrolysis combined with modified zeolite adsorption were investigated. The results indicated that the degradation of COD conformed to the kinetics of first order. The removal mechanism of contamination in coking wastewater included adsorption, flocculation and especially electrochemical oxidation-reduction. The GC/MS analysis indicated that 35 kinds of main organic compounds were detected in raw wastewater. 71.5% of total organic compounds, 68.5% of nitrogen containing heterocyclic compounds and 100% of sulfur containing heterocyclic compounds were completely removed by pretreatment. The effluent was suitable for biodegradation.%研究了Fe/Cu双金属微电解和改性沸石联用预处理焦化废水的降解动力学和机理.结果表明,焦化废水COD的降解符合准一级反应.焦化废水中污染物去除的机理包括电化学氧化还原、吸附、絮凝等,其中电化学氧化还原起主要作用.GC/MS分析表明,原水含有机物35种,预处理有机物去除率为71.5%,氮杂环化合物去除率为68.5%,硫杂环化合物去除率为100%.出水利于生化降解.

  10. Nondestructive readout of holograms recorded by Bessel beam technique in LiNbO3:Fe and LiNbO3:Fe:Cu crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalyan, Anahit; Hovsepyan, Ruben; Mantashyan, Paytsar; Mekhitaryan, Vahram; Drampyan, Rafael

    2014-04-01

    Detailed and comparable investigations of the time evolution of the readout erasure of 1D and 2D annular symmetry photonic lattice structures optically induced by nondiffracting Bessel beam technique were performed. The lattices were recorded with the use of cw single mode 532 nm, 17 mW laser beam in photorefractive LiNbO3:Fe and LiNbO3:Fe:Cu crystals, the latter having also photochromic properties. While the 1D Bessel-like refractive lattice had micrometric scale modulation in the radial direction, the 2D complex lattices inducted by Bessel standing wave were a combination of annular and planar refractive gratings with ~10 μm period in the radial and half-wavelength standing wave 266 nm period in the axial directions. The study of photochromic properties of LN:Fe:Cu crystal at 532 nm showed 1.6 times increase of absorption coefficient with increase of illuminating intensity from 12.5 to 96.8 mW/cm2, which opened a direct way of essential decrease of the erasure of the stored lattices during readout by weaker probe beam at the recording wavelength. Investigations showed that the erasure constants for 1D and 2D lattices in LN:Fe:Cu crystal are larger than in LN:Fe crystal (6150 and 5150 s, and 3080 and 698 s, respectively). The nondestructive refractive lattices recorded by Bessel beam technique will assist the different applications in all optical devices and communication systems and have particular interest for experiments on light localization and spatial soliton formation in structured nonlinear media.

  11. Drinking water interlaboratory ring test. Part IV. Results of some cationic analytes. Al, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu and V; Circuito interlaboratorio Unichim sulle acque potabili. Parte IV. Risultati di alcuni cationi metallici. Al, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu e V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaterra, E.; Divo, C.; Bottazzini, N. [Unichim, Milan (Italy); Alava, F. [Bergamo Ambiente e Servizi, Bergamo (Italy); Bettinelli, M. [Electric Power Production Company, Piacenza (Italy); Bonfiglioli, F. [Azienda Mediterranea Gas e Acqua SpA, Genoa (Italy)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper results of statistical treatment of experimental data obtained in some cycles of an interlaboratory ring test of content of Al, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu and V in drinking water are reported. Means, variances and parameters of precision and accuracy of some analytical techniques and methods employed by laboratories participating to the ring test will be reported and discussed. [Italian] Nel presente lavoro vengono riportati i risultati dell'elaborazione statistica dei dati sperimentali ottenuti in alcuni cicli del circuito interlaboratorio e relativi ai seguenti cationi metallici: Al, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu e V. Vengono riportati e discussi i valori medi e la varianza ed infine i dati di accuratezza e precisione delle tecniche o metodi d'analisi impiegati dai laboratori partecipanti al circuito.

  12. The mechanism of solute-enriched clusters formation in neutron-irradiated pressure vessel steels: The case of Fe-Cu model alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotin, A. V.; Panyukov, S. V.

    2016-08-01

    Mechanism of solute-enriched clusters formation in neutron-irradiated pressure vessel steels is proposed and developed in case of Fe-Cu model alloys. The suggested solute-drag mechanism is analogous to the well-known zone-refining process. We show that the obtained results are in good agreement with available experimental data on the parameters of clusters enriched with the alloying elements. Our model explains why the formation of solute-enriched clusters does not happen in austenitic stainless steels with fcc lattice structure. It also allows to quantify the method of evaluation of neutron irradiation dose for the process of RPV steels hardening.

  13. The mechanism of solute-enriched clusters formation in neutron-irradiated pressure vessel steels: the case of Fe-Cu model alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Subbotina, A V

    2016-01-01

    Mechanism of solute-enriched clusters formation in neutron-irradiated pressure vessel steels is proposed and developed in case of Fe-Cu model alloys. We show that the obtained results are in a good agreement with available experimental data on the parameters of clusters enriched with the alloying elements. The suggested solute-drag mechanism is analogous to the well-known zone-refining process. Our model explains why the formation of solute-enriched clusters does not happen in austenitic stainless steels with fcc lattice structure. It also allows to quantify the method of evaluation of neutron irradiation dose for the process of RPV steels hardening.

  14. Probing the Structure, Stability and Hydrogen Adsorption of Lithium Functionalized Isoreticular MOF-5 (Fe, Cu, Co, Ni and Zn by Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Kawazoe

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Li adsorption on isoreticular MOFs with metal Fe, Cu, Co, Ni and Zn was studied using density function theory. Li functionalization shows a considerable structural change associated with a volume change in isoreticular MOF-5 except for the Zn metal center. Hydrogen binding energies on Li functionalized MOFs are seen to be in the range of 0.2 eV, which is the desired value for an ideal reversible storage system. This study has clearly shown that Li doping is possible only in Zn-based MOF-5, which would be better candidate to reversibly store hydrogen.

  15. Force-sensitive properties of FeCuNbSiB powder/butyl rubber composite films%FeCuNbSiB非晶粉体/丁基橡胶复合薄膜的力敏特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周佳; 朱正吼; 付远; 乔宝英; 杜康

    2014-01-01

    Composite film was prepared by molding method with amorphous Fe73.5 Cu1 Nb3 Si13.5 B9 powder as compound phase and butyl rubber as matrix phase.The particle size was 45μm,the content of powder was 85%and the thickness of film was 150 or 200μm.LYYL-500N high-grade type microcomputer control pressure tes-ting machine was used to conduct program control loading with speed of 0.1,0.5 and 1.0 mm/min.Values of impedance,Z,under pressure stress were measured by TH2816LCR digital bridge with 1 and 50 kHz.The pa-per study the effect of loading speed,testing frequency,film thickness and testing temperature on force-sensi-tive properties.The results show the force-sensitive stability property was best,when the loading speed was 0. 1 mm/min.The sensitivity (|k|)of composite films increase firstly then decrease with the increasing stress during loading process,while it increase with the decreasing stress during uploading process.While the fre-quency was 1 kHz,the force-sensitive sensitivity of composite films are better than 50 kHz.The force-sensitive sensitivity of 200μm process are superior to 150μm.The higher temperature is,the better sensitivity of com-posite film is.%以粒径为45μm 的 Fe73.5 Cu1 Nb3 Si13.5 B9非晶粉体为复合相,丁基橡胶为基体相,利用模压成型法制备了粉体含量为85%、厚度为150和200μm 的复合薄膜。采用LYYL-500N高档型微机控制压力试验机对薄膜试样进行连续加载/卸载实验(速度分别为0.1,0.5和1.0 mm/min),用 TH2816LCR 数字电桥测试频率1和50 kHz下薄膜的阻抗Z 值。研究了加载/卸载速度、测试频率、薄膜厚度和环境温度对 Fe-CuNbSiB粉体/丁基橡胶力敏特性的影响。研究表明,复合薄膜在v=0.1 mm/min 时,其重复性最好,在加载过程中,应力灵敏度|k|值随着应力的增大呈现先增大后减小的变化趋势,卸载过程中,|k|值随着应力的逐渐减小而增大。在1 kHz测试频率下复合薄膜的力敏灵敏度高于50 k

  16. Experimental investigation of inhomogeneities, nanoscopic phase separation, and magnetism in arc melted Fe-Cu metals with equal atomic ratio of the constituents

    KAUST Repository

    Hassnain Jaffari, G.

    2015-12-16

    Composition gradient and phase separation at the nanoscale have been investigated for arc-melted and solidified with equiatomic Fe-Cu. Diffraction studies revealed that Fe and Cu exhibited phase separation with no trace of any mixing. Microscopy studies revealed that immiscible Fe-Cu form dense bulk nanocomposite. The spatial distribution of Fe and Cu showed existence of two distinct regions, i.e., Fe-rich and Cu-rich regions. Fe-rich regions have Cu precipitates of various sizes and different shapes, with Fe forming meshes or channels greater than 100 nm in size. On the other hand, the matrix of Cu-rich regions formed strips with fine strands of nanosized Fe. Macromagnetic response of the system showed ferromagnetic behavior with a magnetic moment being equal to about 2.13 μB/Fe atom and a bulk like negligible value of coercivity over the temperature range of 5–300 K. Anisotropy constant has been calculated from various laws of approach to saturation, and its value is extracted to be equal to 1350 J/m3. Inhomogeneous strain within the Cu and Fe crystallites has been calculated for the (unannealed) sample solidified after arc-melting. Annealed sample also exhibited local inhomogeneity with removal of inhomogeneous strain and no appreciable change in magnetic character. However, for the annealed sample phase separated Fe exhibited homogenous strain.

  17. 柠檬草中Zn、Fe、Cu元素含量的测定%Determination of Trace Elements Zn, Fe,Cu in Lemon grass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁洋; 张风平; 曾文琴; 王秀峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to study the elements of Zn, Fe, Cu distribution in Lemon grass. [Method] Nitric acid and per chloric mixed acid were used to digest the sample. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry method for the determination of elements Zn, Fe, Cu contents were used in Lemon grass. Each elements were spiked in recovery test and recovery volume was between in 95.6%~98.8%. [Result] The trace elements of Fe and Zn in Lemon grass were rich. [Conclusion] The Fe was high and Cu was little. These results provided practical foundation for the application of Lemon grass.%[目的]研究柠檬草中Zn、Fe、Cu 3种微量元素的含量。[方法]采用硝酸和高氯酸(体积比为4∶1)分解样品,火焰原子吸收光谱法测定柠檬草中的微量元素Zn、Fe、Cu的含量,对各元素进行加标回收试验,回收率为95.6%~98.8%。[结果]柠檬草中含有丰富的Fe和Zn元素。[结论] Fe元素最多,Cu元素含量最少,为柠檬草的应用提供实践基础。

  18. Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction studies on the structure of nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Si-B alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. D.; Lu, K.; Hu, Z. Q.; Ding, B. Z.; Zhu, J.; Jiang, J.

    1994-04-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Si-B alloys with grain sizes of 25-90 nm were synthesized by crystallization of the amorphous alloy. Two nanocrystalline phases of α-Fe(Si) and Fe2B were observed in all tested samples. Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy investigation on the structure of nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Si-B alloys showed that Si atoms are completely and substitutionally dissolved in Fe bcc lattice and the arrangement of the Si atoms in the α-Fe(Si) phase shows short range order (SRO), whereas 8.5-9.7 at. % of the B atoms were found as Fe2B and the remainder were located in the interfaces. When grains grow larger, the arrangement of the Si atoms in the α-Fe(Si) phase changes. Interestingly, x-ray diffraction results reveal that the lattice constant of α-Fe(Si) phase decreases rapidly with grain coarsening. Based on the thermodynamic analysis, the changes in the lattice constant of the α-Fe(Si) phase and SRO of Si atoms in bcc Fe lattices were attributed to the lattice expansion as a result of the variation of vacancy concentration in α-Fe(Si) solid solution. Meanwhile, owing to the interface contribution, the alloy with small grain size is found to exhibit large values of half linewidth (HLW) and isomer shift (IS) in the Mössbauer spectra. The results from electrical resistivity measurements agree and confirm the strong effects of the lattice distortion and interfaces.

  19. Continuous Bulk FeCuC Aerogel with Ultradispersed Metal Nanoparticles: An Efficient 3D Heterogeneous Electro-Fenton Cathode over a Wide Range of pH 3-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongying; Qian, Lin; Guan, Xiaohong; Wu, Deli; Zhao, Guohua

    2016-05-17

    Novel iron-copper-carbon (FeCuC) aerogel was fabricated through a one-step process from metal-resin precursors and then activated with CO2 and N2 in environmentally friendly way. The activated FeCuC aerogel was applied in a heterogeneous electro-Fenton (EF) process and exhibited higher mineralization efficiency than homogeneous EF technology. High total organic carbon (TOC) removal of organic pollutants with activated FeCuC aerogel was achieved at a wide range of pH values (3-9). The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of real dyeing wastewater was below China's discharge standard after 30 min of treatment, and the specific energy consumption was low (9.2 kW·h·kg(-1)COD(-1)), corresponding to a power consumption of only ∼0.34 kW·h per ton of wastewater. The enhanced mineralization efficiency of FeCuC aerogel was mostly attributable to ultradispersed metallic Fe-Cu nanoparticles embedded in 3D carbon matrix and the CO2-N2 treatment. The CO2 activation enhanced the accessibility of the aerogel's pores, and the secondary N2 activation enlarged the porosity and regenerated the ultradispersed zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) with reductive carbon. Cu(0) acted as a reduction promoter for interfacial electron transfer. Moreover, activated FeCuC aerogel presented low iron leaching (<0.1 ppm) in acidic solution and can be molded into different sizes with high flexibility. Thus, this material could be used as a low-cost cathode and efficient heterogeneous EF technology for actual wastewater treatment.

  20. Continuous Bulk FeCuC Aerogel with Ultradispersed Metal Nanoparticles: An Efficient 3D Heterogeneous Electro-Fenton Cathode over a Wide Range of pH 3-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongying; Qian, Lin; Guan, Xiaohong; Wu, Deli; Zhao, Guohua

    2016-05-17

    Novel iron-copper-carbon (FeCuC) aerogel was fabricated through a one-step process from metal-resin precursors and then activated with CO2 and N2 in environmentally friendly way. The activated FeCuC aerogel was applied in a heterogeneous electro-Fenton (EF) process and exhibited higher mineralization efficiency than homogeneous EF technology. High total organic carbon (TOC) removal of organic pollutants with activated FeCuC aerogel was achieved at a wide range of pH values (3-9). The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of real dyeing wastewater was below China's discharge standard after 30 min of treatment, and the specific energy consumption was low (9.2 kW·h·kg(-1)COD(-1)), corresponding to a power consumption of only ∼0.34 kW·h per ton of wastewater. The enhanced mineralization efficiency of FeCuC aerogel was mostly attributable to ultradispersed metallic Fe-Cu nanoparticles embedded in 3D carbon matrix and the CO2-N2 treatment. The CO2 activation enhanced the accessibility of the aerogel's pores, and the secondary N2 activation enlarged the porosity and regenerated the ultradispersed zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) with reductive carbon. Cu(0) acted as a reduction promoter for interfacial electron transfer. Moreover, activated FeCuC aerogel presented low iron leaching (<0.1 ppm) in acidic solution and can be molded into different sizes with high flexibility. Thus, this material could be used as a low-cost cathode and efficient heterogeneous EF technology for actual wastewater treatment. PMID:27082750

  1. Thermal Stability and Reductive Property of CexZr1-xO2 Solid Solution Doped Simultaneously by Fe, Mn or Fe, Cu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhongjun; Yang Dong; Wen Mingfen; Chen Jing; Wang Jinggang; Gu Yongwan

    2005-01-01

    CexZr1-xO2 complex oxides doped by transition metal(Fe, Mn, Cu) were prepared by precipitation method. Thermal stability of samples was characterized by XRD, surface areas were measured by BET method and reductive property was characterized by TPR. The results show that MnO2 can be dispersed in solid solution after calcined at 1273 K, when the loading is 12%, while Fe and Cu is easy to separate from samples at this temperature. Samples doped simultaneously by Fe, Mn or Fe, Cu demonstrated high reactive property at low temperature. The starting reduction temperature are 413 and 373 K, respectively. TPR results also show a broad range of reductive temperature exists in these bi-metal doped samples.

  2. Structural properties of amorphous and nanocrystallized Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B and Fe-Gd-Cu-Nb-Si-B ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of Gd addition on the structural properties of Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B nanocrystallized and amorphous alloys is studied. The crystallization temperature increases and the microstructure of the annealed samples changes. Gd addition induces the formation of Gd-Fe-B phases. In fully crystallized Fe-Gd-Cu-Nb-Si-B alloys the α-Fe(Si), Fe-Nb-B, Gd3Fe62B14 and Gd1.1Fe4B4 phases are observed. The evolution of the microstructure is followed as a function of the cumulative effects of annealing time and temperature. The results suggest the transformation of the metastable Gd3Fe62B14 phase into Gd1.1Fe4B4 and α-Fe. The hyperfine parameters of the Gd3Fe62B14 Moessbauer contribution are reported. (orig.)

  3. A study on atomic skips in AlFeCu perfect quasicrystals: application of the isotopic substitution method in neutron diffusion; Etude des sauts atomiques dans les quasicristaux parfaits AlFeCu: une application de la methode de substitution isotopique dans la diffusion des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddens, G. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Soulie, E. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Recherche sur l`Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules

    1994-12-31

    In order to better understand the crystal structure and the atomic skip or phason in quasi-crystals, three samples of the AlFeCu ternary alloy have been experimentally studied: Al{sub 62}Cu{sub 25.5}Fe{sub 12.5} (perfect sample), Al{sub 63}Cu{sub 24.5}Fe{sub 12.5} (non-perfect sample), Al{sub 50}Cu{sub 25}Fe{sub 25} (beta phase). Quasielastic neutron scattering variations with temperature and Q were recorded and signals have been enhanced through the use of isotope labelled samples. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 19 refs.

  4. Fe/Cu催化还原降解饮用水中溴氯乙腈的性能研究%Performance Study of Bromochloracetonitrile Degradation in Drinking Water by Fe/Cu Catalytic Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁春生; 马海龙; 傅洋平; 赵世督; 李东兵

    2015-01-01

    为了降低饮用水在氯消毒过程中产生的消毒副产物(DBPs)溴氯乙腈(BCAN)对人体带来的健康危害,采用 Fe/ Cu 催化还原的方法降解饮用水中低浓度的 BCAN,考察了 BCAN 的降解效果和其影响因素,探讨了其降解机制及动力学规律.结果表明,Fe/ Cu 具有更强的还原降解 BCAN 的能力,与零价铁相比, Fe/ Cu(质量比为10:1)的降解效率是其1.5倍.随着 Fe/ Cu 投加量的增加,BCAN 的去除率有明显的提高,对于初始浓度为20μg•L -1的 BCAN 溶液,当 Fe/ Cu(质量比为10:1)投加量由5 g•L -1增加到10 g•L -1,反应150 min 后,去除率由51.1%增加到89.5%. BCAN 降解效率随着温度的升高逐渐提高,BCAN 初始浓度的变化对 Fe/ Cu 去除 BCAN 的去除效果影响不大,Fe/ Cu 降解 BCAN 符合一级反应动力学规律.%The paper used the method of iron copper catalyst reduction to degrade low concentrations of bromochloracetonitrile (BCAN) to lighten the damage to human being, which is a kind of disinfection by-products (DBPs) produced during the chlorination process of drinking water. The removal efficiency of BCAN and its influencing factors were investigated. The mechanism of degradation and kinetics were also explored. The results indicated that iron copper had a greater degradation ability towards BCAN, and the degradation rate of iron copper (mass ratio of 10: 1) was 1. 5 times that of the zero-valent iron. The removal of BCAN increased obviously with the increase of Fe/ Cu dosage. When the initial concentration was set at 20 μg•L - 1 , after a reaction time of 150 min, removal of BCAN was improved from 51. 1% to 89. 5% with the increase of iron copper (mass ratio of 10: 1) dosage from 5 g•L - 1 to 10 g•L - 1 . The temperature also had great impact on BCAN removal and the removal increased with the increase of temperature. However, BCAN removal did not change a lot with the variation of the initial concentration of BCAN when it was at

  5. Effects of Nickel on the Oxide/Metal Interface Morphology and Oxidation Rate During High-Temperature Oxidation of Fe-Cu-Ni Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lan; Balaji, Sukumar; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2010-06-01

    Steel produced in an electric arc furnace (EAF) contains a high amount of Cu that causes a surface-cracking phenomenon called surface hot shortness. Ni reduces the risk for surface hot shortness, and this work focuses on investigating the following two phenomena caused by Ni during oxidation at 1150 °C for Fe-Cu-Ni alloys: (1) the decrease in oxidation rate and (2) the formation of a wavy liquid-Cu/oxide and of liquid-Cu/γ-iron (γFe) interfaces, which promote Cu occlusion into the scale. Thermogravimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy techniques were applied. A numerical model also was developed to explain the experimental results. High Ni contents cause higher liquid-Cu/γFe interface nickel concentrations and more potential for an interface breakdown. The decrease in oxidation rate by adding nickel can be explained qualitatively by the decrease in Fe cation transport through the wüstite layer.

  6. Optimisation of soft magnetic properties in Fe-Cu-X-Si{sub 13}B{sub 9} (X=Cr, Mo, Zr) amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwapulinski, P.; Rasek, J.; Stoklosa, Z.; Haneczok, G. E-mail: haneczok@us.edu.pl

    2001-09-01

    In the present paper a group of Fe-Cu-X-Si{sub 13}B{sub 9} (X=Cr, Mo, Zr) amorphous alloys has been examined by applying different experimental techniques--magnetic permeability, magnetic after-effect, coercive force and electrical resistivity measurements. It has been shown that their soft magnetic properties can be optimised by 1-h thermal annealing at the temperature close to the crystallisation temperature. This leads to an increase of permeability and a decrease of coercive force, thermal instability (magnetic after-effect intensity) and electrical resistivity of the material. The optimisation effect is discussed in terms of different processes--(i) a formation of a nanocrystalline phase with the grain size much smaller than the ferromagnetic exchange length, (ii) an annealing out of microvoids formed during the fabrication process and also (iii) a decrease of the effective magnetostriction constant. The temperature of optimisation annealing treatment is always higher than the Curie temperatures of the materials and varies approximately linearly with the atomic radius of the alloying additions.

  7. Sodium, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentrations in molluscs from the Magellan Strait (Chile): their contribution to dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2005-08-01

    The concentrations of the essential metals Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn were determined in 126 specimens of molluscs belonging to five different species: Mytilus chilensis, n=47; Nacella deaurata, n=65; Aulacomya ater, n=4; Fissurella picta, n=4; Acanthina monodon, n=6, collected from the coastline of the Magellan Strait. Significant differences were obtained among the mean metal concentrations in the mollusc species considered. The contribution to the dietary daily intake of these metals for the consumption of one serving of these molluscs was high, especially the contribution to the Fe intake for the consumption of N. deaurata. Some significant differences were observed among the mean concentrations for the studied metals according to the zone of sampling. The influence of the zone of sampling on the mean concentration of metals in N. deaurata was higher than in M. chilensis. The application of lineal discriminant analysis (LDA) made it possible to differentiate statistically between specimens according to the mollusc species. Within the each mollusc species, the LDA helped to identify specimens according to the zone of sampling and weight/length ratio. PMID:16236595

  8. Formation of oxide nanotubes via oxidation of Fe, Cu and Ni nanowires and their structural stability: Difference in formation and shrinkage behavior of interior pores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, R., E-mail: rnakamur@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Matsubayashi, G. [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Tsuchiya, H.; Fujimoto, S. [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakajima, H. [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Changes in the morphology of Fe, Cu and Ni nanowires with a diameter of 55 nm during oxidation at 423-923 K were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Oxide nanotubes with a cylindrical interior pore of uniform diameter were formed after the oxidation of Fe and Cu nanowires in air at 573 and 423 K, respectively, while the Ni nanowires became bamboo-like nanowires of NiO with separate interior voids after oxidation at 673-773 K. Oxide nanotubes of Fe and Cu and the bamboo structures of NiO showed a tendency to shrink into solid oxide nanowires after annealing at higher temperatures in air. In the shrinking process of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanotubes, however, an array of additional nanovoids was observed along the inner wall of the nanotubes, suggesting the formation of a duplex porous nanostructure. This can be explained by the recombination of vacancies diffusing outward from the inner cylindrical pore.

  9. Fabrication of the 19-filament Fe/Cu clad MgB2 wire via in situ powder-in-tube method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using commercial amorphous B powder (92% in purity) and Mg powder (99% in purity) as starting materials, 19-filament Fe/Cu clad MgB2 wires were fabricated by an in situ powder-in-tube method. Heat treatment was performed at 700℃ for 1 h under an argon gas atmosphere. The influence of Mg/B ratio on the microstructure and superconducting properties of the wires was investigated. It was found that the major phases of MgB2 wires were MgB2 accompanied with relatively small amounts of MgO and Fe2B impurities. With 5% excess Mg addition, the onset TC slightly decreased. However, the transport JC at 4.2 K and 4 T reached 1.07×104 A·cm-2, increasing by a factor of 1.4 compared to the stoichiometric sample. Moreover, the Mg1.05B2 sample showed an improved field dependence of JC, suggesting that less voids and smaller grain size of the Mg1.05B2 core lead to better grain connectivity and stronger flux pinning.

  10. Optimisation of soft magnetic properties in Fe-Cu-X-Si13B9 (X=Cr, Mo, Zr) amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper a group of Fe-Cu-X-Si13B9 (X=Cr, Mo, Zr) amorphous alloys has been examined by applying different experimental techniques--magnetic permeability, magnetic after-effect, coercive force and electrical resistivity measurements. It has been shown that their soft magnetic properties can be optimised by 1-h thermal annealing at the temperature close to the crystallisation temperature. This leads to an increase of permeability and a decrease of coercive force, thermal instability (magnetic after-effect intensity) and electrical resistivity of the material. The optimisation effect is discussed in terms of different processes--(i) a formation of a nanocrystalline phase with the grain size much smaller than the ferromagnetic exchange length, (ii) an annealing out of microvoids formed during the fabrication process and also (iii) a decrease of the effective magnetostriction constant. The temperature of optimisation annealing treatment is always higher than the Curie temperatures of the materials and varies approximately linearly with the atomic radius of the alloying additions

  11. Sodium, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentrations in molluscs from the Magellan Strait (Chile): their contribution to dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2005-08-01

    The concentrations of the essential metals Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn were determined in 126 specimens of molluscs belonging to five different species: Mytilus chilensis, n=47; Nacella deaurata, n=65; Aulacomya ater, n=4; Fissurella picta, n=4; Acanthina monodon, n=6, collected from the coastline of the Magellan Strait. Significant differences were obtained among the mean metal concentrations in the mollusc species considered. The contribution to the dietary daily intake of these metals for the consumption of one serving of these molluscs was high, especially the contribution to the Fe intake for the consumption of N. deaurata. Some significant differences were observed among the mean concentrations for the studied metals according to the zone of sampling. The influence of the zone of sampling on the mean concentration of metals in N. deaurata was higher than in M. chilensis. The application of lineal discriminant analysis (LDA) made it possible to differentiate statistically between specimens according to the mollusc species. Within the each mollusc species, the LDA helped to identify specimens according to the zone of sampling and weight/length ratio.

  12. Influência dos Íons Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu e Zn sobre a tensão superficial estática de soluções contendo surfatante Influence of Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn Ions on static surface tension of surfactant solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M.L. Silva

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a influência da presença de cinco íons em uma calda de pulverização contendo o surfatante Aterbane. A tensão superficial foi analisada por meio da medição da massa de um conjunto de 25 gotas, com quatro repetições constituindo um tratamento. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas. Na primeira, os tratamentos foram combinados em esquema fatorial 9x5x2, sendo nove concentrações do surfatante Aterbane (0,01; 0,025; 0,05; 0,1; 0,2; 0,5; 1; 2; e 3%, cinco íons (Mg++, Ca++, Fe+++, Cu+++ e Zn+++ e duas concentrações desses elementos (10 e 100 ppm. Na segunda etapa, os tratamentos foram combinados em esquema fatorial 5x5x1, utilizandose os mesmos cinco elementos (Mg++, Ca++, Fe+++, Cu+++ e Zn+++, em cinco concentrações (1, 5, 20, 50 e 200 ppm, com apenas uma concentração do surfatante Aterbane (0,025%. Outros nove tratamentos permitiram avaliar as tensões superficiais das concentrações do surfatante (0,01; 0,025; 0,05; 0,1; 0,2; 0,5; 1; 2; e 3% sem a adição dos íons. Os resultados mostraram que houve interferência dos íons sobre as soluções, já que, com exceção do Fe+++ (na concentração de 10 e 100 ppm e do Cu+++ (na concentração de 100 ppm, todos os íons reduziram a tensão mínima alcançada e aumentaram a eficiência do surfatante, implicando benefícios à ação do surfatante e sobre as características de possíveis soluções de aplicação. Todos os íons avaliados promoveram reduções nas tensões superficiais de soluções do surfatante na concentração de 0,025%.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of 5 ions on a spray solution containing the surfactant aterbane. Surface tension was analyzed by measuring the mass of a set of 25 drops, with four repetitions constituting a treatment. The work was divided in two stages. In the first, the treatments were arranged in a 9x5x2 factorial design, nine Aterbane concentrations (0.01; 0.025; 0.05; 0.1; 0.2; 0

  13. Evaluation of the heavy metals Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in water penny wort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) from the upper course of the Lerma River, Mexico; Evaluacion de los metales pesados Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn y Pb en sombrerillo de agua (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) del curso alto del Rio Lerma, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarazua, G.; Avila P, P.; Tejeda, S. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Valdivia B, M.; Macedo M, G. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Zepeda G, C., E-mail: graciela.zarazua@inin.gob.mx [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Cerro de Coatepec s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 50100 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    The Lerma river is one of the most polluted water bodies in Mexico, it presents low biodiversity and lets grow up aquatic plants resistant to the pollution. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration and bioaccumulation factors of Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in aerial and submerged structures of water penny wort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) from the upper course of the Lerma river. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals in water and H. ranunculoides. Results show that the bioaccumulation factors of Fe and Zn were higher than those of Cu, Mn, Cr and Pb; with the exception of Zn, bioaccumulation factors were higher in the submerged structures of the plant, which shows low mobility of analyzed metals. As a result of this study H. ranunculoides can be considered as good indicator of metal pollution in water bodies. (Author)

  14. Characteristics of melt inclusions in skarn minerals from Fe,Cu(Au) and Au(Cu) ore deposits in the region from Daye to Jiujiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵斌; 赵劲松; 李兆麟; 张重泽; 彭卓伦

    2003-01-01

    A vast amount of the melt inclusions and fluid-melt inclusions have been found in skarn minerals from Fe, Cu(Au) and Au(Cu) ore deposits distributed from Daye to Jiujiang along the Yangtze River besides vapor-liquid inclusions. The melt inclusions are many and varied in shape. They mainly consist of crystallized silicate phases (CSi), iron phases (Fe), amorphous silicate phases (ASi) and vapor (V) with different volume percentages, and some of them contain several crystallized silicate phases. These melt inclusion sizes are commonly (10-46)×(6-15) μm2. A difference between the fluid-melt inclusions and melt inclusions is that the liquid phase appears in the former and their homogenization temperatures are lower than the latter. We measured the homogenization temperatures of the melt inclusions, fluid-melt inclusions and fluid inclusions in ten thin sections from eight ore deposits on Leitz microscope heating stage 1350 which was made in Germany. Forty-eight homogenization temperature values have been obtained. Among them, thirty-nine values are homogenization temperatures of the melt inclusions in garnet and pyroxene from skarns, two values are homogenization temperatures of fluid-melt inclusions, others belong to the fluid inclusions. Melt inclusions in garnet and pyroxene have homogenization temperatures of 890-1115℃. Fluid-melt inclusions have homogenization temperatures of 745-750℃. Homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions are between 580℃ and 675℃. The average of thirty- nine homogenization temperatures for the melt inclusions is 1029.9℃. Wethink studied skarns to be magmatic genesis on the basis of available data relative to the characteristic features of phase states within the melt inclusions and the fluid melt inclusions and their homogenization temperatures.

  15. Alteration geochemistry of the volcanic-hosted Dedeninyurdu, Yergen and Fındıklıyar Fe-Cu mineralization at Gökçedoǧan, Çorum-Kargi region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Lokman; Öztürk, Sercan; Yalçın, Cihan; Abdelnasser, Amr; Hanilçi, Nurullah; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    This study is to determine the mass/volume gain and loss of the major and trace elements during the alteration processes on Dedeninyurdu, Yergen and Fındıklıyar Fe-Cu mineralizations of the area. Fe-Cu mineralization occurred in the spilitic volcanic a rock of Saraycık Formation is associated with the different types of alteration zones which are pyritization, silicification and sericitization. The study area comprises Bekirli Formation, Saraycık Formation, Beşpınar Formation, and Ilgaz Formation. Saraycık formation consists of spilitic volcanic rocks with pelagic limestone, siltstone and chert. The ore mineralogical data show that the pyrite, chalcopyrite, covellite, hematite, malachite and goethite formed during three phases of mineralization. As well as the geologic and petrographic studies reveal three alteration zones with definite mineral assemblages; phyllic alteration (quartz + sericite + pyrite) that represents the main alteration and mineralized zone; propylitic alteration; and carbonatized sericitic alteration zone. The boundaries between these zones are gradual. Mass balance calculations suggested that the phyllic alteration zone represented by gain in Si, Fe, K, S, and LOI and loss in Mg, Ca, and Na refers to silicification, sericitization and pyritization as well as replacement of Fe-Mg silicate and plagioclase. While, in the propylitic alteration zone, enrichment of Si, Fe, Mg, LOI and S occurred with depletions of Ca, Na, and K reflecting chloritization alteration type. On the other hand, carbonatized sericitic alteration zone shows local gain in Si, CaO and K reflects the occurrence of calc-silicate alteration. All alteration zones contain a large proportion of sulfide minerals (gain in S) with increase in loss on ignition (LOI). Keywords: Alteration geochemistry; Mass balance calculation, Fe-Cu mineralization; phyllic alteration, propylitic alteration.

  16. Positive feedback between strain localization and fluid flow at the ductile-brittle transition leading to Pb-Zn-Fe-Cu-Ag ore deposits in Lavrion (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Christophe; Tarantola, Alexandre; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    At the crustal scale, the ductile-brittle transition (DBT) might correspond to a physical barrier that separates a deep reservoir of metamorphic and magmatic fluids from a shallow reservoir of surficial fluids. Rock rheology, and thus the location of the DBT, is mainly governed by lithology, temperature and the presence/absence of fluids. Accordingly, the position of the DBT potentially evolves during orogenic evolution owing to thermal evolution and fluid circulation. In turn rocks are transferred across it during burial and exhumation. These processes induce connections between fluid reservoirs which might play a role on ore deposition. In this contribution, we discuss the impact of lithological heterogeneities on deformation, fluid flow and ore deposition based on the example of the Lavrion low-angle top-to-the-SSW detachment accommodating gravitational collapse of the Hellenides orogenic belt in Greece. The Lavrion peninsula, localized along the western boundary of the Attic-Cycladic Metamorphic Core Complex, is characterized by Pb-Zn-Fe-Cu-Ag ore mineralization mainly concentrated along a lithological contact (marble/schists) below and within a detachment shear zone. The mylonitic marble below the detachment shear zone is composed of white layers of pure marble alternating with blue layers containing impurities (SiO2, Al2O3, organic matter…). Development of the mylonitic fabric in competent impure blue marble is associated with its preferred dolomitization related to focused fluid infiltration. This mylonitic marble is cross-cut by several cataclastic horizons preferentially developed within the more competent impure blue marble and newly-crystallized dolomitic horizon. These cataclasites are invaded by fluorite and calcite gangue minerals showing locally Mn, Pb, Zn, Fe oxides and/or hydroxides, sphalerite, Ag-galena, Ag-sulfur and native Ag. Oxygen and carbon stable isotopes performed on marble sections point out decarbonation with magmatic contribution and

  17. Preparation and catalytic property of catalyst in Fe-Cu-Ce/Al2O3 heterogeneous fenton reaction%Fe-Cu-Ce/Al2O3非均相Fenton催化剂的制备及活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关晓雨; 崔宝臣; 丁龙; 王彧

    2014-01-01

    采用浸渍法制备Fe-Cu-Ce/Al2O3催化剂,探讨了催化剂的制备条件、初始pH值等因素对催化剂活性的影响.研究结果表明:Fe、Cu、Ce总离子浓度0.05 mol/L,n(Fe)∶n(Cu)∶n(Ce)=l∶1∶ 1,前驱体在300℃下焙烧2h,反应初始pH值为5时,该催化剂对甲基橙具有良好的催化性能,反应2h后甲基橙脱色率可达97.99%.且pH=5.0~9.0均可取得良好的降解效果,拓宽了pH适用范围.

  18. Atom probe study of the microstructural evolution induced by irradiation in Fe-Cu ferritic alloys and pressure vessel steels; Etude a la sonde atomique de l`evolution microstructurale sous irradiation d`alliages ferritiques Fe-Cu et d`aciers de cuve REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareige, P.

    1996-04-01

    Pressure vessel steels used in pressurized water reactors are low alloyed ferritic steels. They may be prone to hardening and embrittlement under neutron irradiation. The changes in mechanical properties are generally supposed to result from the formation of point defects, dislocation loops, voids and/or copper rich clusters. However, the real nature of the irradiation induced-damage in these steels has not been clearly identified yet. In order to improve our vision of this damage, we have characterized the microstructure of several steels and model alloys irradiated with electrons and neutrons. The study was performed with conventional and tomographic atom probes. The well known importance of the effects of copper upon pressure vessel steel embrittlement has led us to study Fe-Cu binary alloys. We have considered chemical aging as well as aging under electron and neutron irradiations. The resulting effects depend on whether electron or neutron irradiations ar used for thus. We carried out both kinds of irradiation concurrently so as to compare their effects. We have more particularly considered alloys with a low copper supersaturation representative of that met with the French vessel alloys (0.1% Cu). Then, we have examined steels used on French nuclear reactor pressure vessels. To characterize the microstructure of CHOOZ A steel and its evolution when exposed to neutrons, we have studied samples from the reactor surveillance program. The results achieved, especially the characterization of neutron-induced defects have been compared with those for another steel from the surveillance program of Dampierre 2. All the experiment results obtained on model and industrial steels have allowed us to consider an explanation of the way how the defects appear and grow, and to propose reasons for their influence upon steel embrittlement. (author). 3 appends.

  19. 铁及铁铜氧化物对臭氧氧化酸性红B的催化效能%Catalytic ozonation of Acid Red B in aqueous solution with Fe and Fe-Cu composite oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周作明; 方俊辉; 荆国华

    2012-01-01

    采用自蔓延溶胶凝胶法分别制备了铁氧化物和铁铜复合氧化物催化剂,以酸性红B为降解对象,对比了单独臭氧氧化、铁氧化物和铁铜复合氧化物催化臭氧氧化对酸性红B的降解效果,考察了磁力搅拌速度(500~1 640 r/min)、溶液pH(3~11)、臭氧投加速率(3.55~28.4 mg/min)对铁铜复合氧化物催化性能的影响。结果表明,与单独臭氧氧化比较,铁氧化物和铁铜复合氧化物均能加速酸性红B的降解,促进色度和COD的去除,结合催化剂的表征结果,推断催化剂表面羟基促进臭氧分解产生.OH是其氧化性能较好的主要原因,另外,催化剂的吸附能力对催化性能也有一定影响。随着磁力搅拌速度、溶液pH、臭氧投加速率的增大,铁铜复合氧化物催化臭氧氧化酸性红B的效果越好。%The iron oxides and Fe-Cu composite oxide catalysts were synthesized through a nitrate-citrate combustion route.These catalysts were used in catalytic ozonation of Acid Red B,and their performance was compared with conventional ozonation.The effects of magnetic stirring speed(500~1 640 r/min),solution pH(3~11) and ozone flow(3.55~28.4 mg/min) on color and COD removal were investigated in catalytic ozonation using Fe-Cu composite oxide as catalysts.The results indicated that the adding of iron oxides and Fe-Cu composite oxide catalysts into the ozonation reactor obviously accelerated the rate of Acid Red B degradation,thereby improved the reduction of color and COD compared to conventional ozonation.Combined with the results of catalysts characterization,it can be inferred that the hydroxyl groups on the catalysts’ surface accelerated the ozone decomposition,which resulted in the generation of hydroxyl radicals.This might be the main reason for the better oxidation with catalysts.In addition,catalyst’s adsorption capacity also had some impact on oxidation ability.In Fe-Cu composite oxide catalytic

  20. Fe/Cu体-CAST工艺处理草甘膦废水的研究及改造方案%Fe/Cu System - CAST Process for Treatment of Glyphosate Wastewater and Transformation Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈恒宝; 王申

    2011-01-01

    The pesticide glyphosate wastewater is difficult to be treated with high concentration of TP and refractory biodegradable COD. A study has been made which applies Fe/Cu system-CAST process to treat the wastewater from anaerobic removing phosphorus tank. The study indicates that the average removal rates of COD, refractory biodegradable COD, TP and PO34- are 88.4%, 70.4%, 83.3% and 96.6%, respectively. Using Fe/Cu system-CAST process enhanced by microaeration to modify glyphosate original wastewater treatment process, fixed costs investment is low and increased daily running expense is 0.11 yuan per ton of wastewater.%农药草甘膦废水具有TP浓度高、难降解COD浓度高等特点,比较难于处理.采用Fe/Cu体-CAST工艺对目前工艺厌氧放磷池废水进行了研究.结果表明,系统对COD,难降解COD,TP和PO4-3的去除率分别高达88.4%,70.4%,83.3%和96.6%.利用Fe/Cu体微曝气强化CAST工艺对草甘膦原有废水处理工艺进行改造,固定成本投资较低,每吨废水增加的日常运行费用为0.11元.

  1. 土壤污染的修复方法研究--以表面活性剂强化微米Fe/Cu对有机氯农药的降解为例%The Remediation Method for Contaminated Soil:A Case Study of Degradation of Organochlorine Pesticides by Surfactant-Enhanced Fe/Cu Bimetallic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李川; 禹媛; 万金忠; 王新新; 卞师怡; 费菲; 薛建辉

    2015-01-01

    利用Cu作为催化金属与微米铁制成双金属体系处理主要污染物为六六六(HCH)和滴滴涕(DDT)的某污染场地土壤,探讨了不同表面活性剂(鼠李糖脂与Triton X-100(TX-100))对微米Fe/Cu双金属体系降解土壤中有机氯农药的影响。结果表明:相对于空白和只添加零价铁与微米Fe/Cu的三组的稳定,添加了两种表面活性剂的Fe/Cu双金属体系,35 d后土壤氧化还原电位(ORP)随时间呈缓慢上升趋势, Fe/Cu+TX-100至55 d时ORP由–400 mV升高到–300 mV;除Fe/Cu+鼠李糖脂组外,0~25 d内各组土壤pH随时间逐渐升高,从初始的5.0左右提高到6.5~7.2;微米Fe/Cu对污染物的降解效果相比零价铁有提高,鼠李糖脂与TX-100的投加能强化微米Fe/Cu对土壤中HCH和DDT的降解, TX-100的增强效果更为显著。当Fe投加量5%, Cu负载1%, TX-100浓度5 mmoL/L,初始pH 4.5时,处理55d后,α-HCH、γ-HCH、P, P’-DDD和P, P’-DDT的降解去除率达到100%、92.2%、95.7%和85.4%,总污染物去除率为90.0%。%The polluted soil with main pollutants as hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) was dechlorinated using the bimetallic system made of micron iron powder and Cu. And the effects of micron Fe/Cu with surface active agents (rhamnolipid and Triton X-100 (TX-100)) on dechlorination efficiency of polluted soil containing organic-chlorine pesticide were analyzed. The results showed that Oxidation-Reduction Potential(ORP)of polluted soil increased slowly with time 35 d after the addition of micron Fe/Cu, with both surface active agents comparing with micron Fe/Cu only and control experiment. ORP was raised from –400 mV to –300 mV 55 d after the addition of micron Fe/Cu with TX-100; pH increased with time during the first 25 d from 5.0 to 6.5~7.2 except for the addition of micron Fe/Cu with rhamnolipid; the bimetallic system made of micron Fe/Cu had more efficient dechlorination effect relative to zero

  2. Cu/Fe/Cu叠片轧制工艺及复合强度的研究%Research on Rolling Technologies and Compound Strength of Cu/Fe/Cu Laminated Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳华炎; 王德志; 杨益航; 梁丹丹

    2011-01-01

    Cu/Fe/Cu composite was produced by cold rolling technology using oxygen copper and electrical pure iron. The effects of rolling reduction and annealing temperature on mechanical properties of composite were analyzed and optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized to reveal bonding condition. The results show that the optimal comprehensive mechanics performances were obtained under 75% ~ 80% rolling reduction, annealing temperature at700 ℃ for 30 min, and the tensile strength and shear strength reach 385MPa and 358MPa respectively.%采用无氧铜与电工纯铁为原材料运用冷轧复合工艺生产Cu/Fe/Cu复合件,分析了轧制压下率、退火温度对轧合件力学性能的影响,并运用金相显微镜、扫描电镜分析了组元的界面结合情况.结果表明,采用75%、80%压下率的冷轧工艺,且轧后采用700℃×30 min的退火工艺,可获得轧合件最佳的综合力学性能,其抗拉强度达385MPa,抗剪切强度达358MPa.

  3. Adsorptive Separation of Methanol-Acetone on Isostructural Series of Metal-Organic Frameworks M-BTC (M = Ti, Fe, Cu, Co, Ru, Mo): A Computational Study of Adsorption Mechanisms and Metal-Substitution Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Chen, Huiyong; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Defei; Liu, Zewei; Qian, Yu; Xi, Hongxia

    2015-12-01

    The adsorptive separation properties of M-BTC isostructural series (M = Ti, Fe, Cu, Co, Ru, Mo) for methanol-acetone mixtures were investigated by using various computational procedures of grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations (GCMC), density functional theory (DFT), and ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST), following with comprehensive understanding of adsorbate-metal interactions on the adsorptive separation behaviors. The obtained results showed that the single component adsorptions were driven by adsorbate-framework interactions at low pressures and by framework structures at high pressures, among which the mass effects, electrostatics, and geometric accessibility of the metal sites also played roles. In the case of methanol-acetone separation, the selectivity of methanol on M-BTCs decreased with rising pressures due to the pressure-dependent separation mechanisms: the cooperative effects between methanol and acetone hindered the separation at low pressures, whereas the competitive effects of acetone further resulted in the lower selectivity at high pressures. Among these M-BTCs, Ti and Fe analogues exhibited the highest thermodynamic methanol/acetone selectivity, making them promising for adsorptive methanol/acetone separation processes. The investigation provides mechanistic insights on how the nature of metal centers affects the adsorption properties of MOFs, and will further promote the rational design of new MOF materials for effective gas mixture separation. PMID:26581027

  4. Studies on formation and structures of ultrafine Cu precipitates in Fe-Cu model alloys for reactor pressure vessel steels using positron quantum dot confinement in the precipitates by their positron affinity. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H11-034 (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Masayuki; Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Tang, Zheng; Yubuta, Kunio [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research; Suzuki, Masahide [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    Positron annihilation experiments on Fe-Cu model dilute alloys of nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels have been performed after neutron irradiation in JMTR. Nanovoids whose inner surfaces were covered by Cu atoms were clearly observed. The nanovoids transformed to ultrafine Cu precipitates by dissociating their vacancies after annealing at around 400degC. The nanovoids and the ultrafine Cu precipitates are strongly suggested to be responsible for irradiation-induced embrittlement of RPV steels. Effects of Ni, Mn and P addition on the nanovoid and Cu precipitate formations were also studied. The nanovoid formation was enhanced by Ni and P, but suppressed by Mn. The Cu precipitates after annealing around 400degC were almost free from these doping elements and hence were pure Cu in the chemical composition. Furthermore the Fermi surface of the 'embedded' Cu precipitates with a body centered cubic crystal structure was obtained from two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) in a Fe-Cu single crystal and was agreed well with that from a band structure calculation. Theoretical calculation of positron confinement in Fe-Cu model alloys showed that a positron quantum dot state induced by positron affinity is attained for the embedded precipitates larger than 1 nm. A new position sensitive detector with a function of one dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (1D-ACAR) has been developed that enables high resolution experiments over wide ranges of momentum distribution. (author)

  5. Carbonates-based noble metal-free lean NOx trap catalysts MOx-K2CO3/K2Ti8O17 (M = Ce, Fe, Cu, Co) with superior catalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxia; You, Rui; Liu, Dongsheng; Liu, Cheng; Li, Xingang; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Zheng; Zhang, Shuo; Huang, Yuying; Zha, Yuqing; Meng, Ming

    2015-12-01

    A series of base metal-based lean NOx trap (LNT) catalysts MOx-K2CO3/K2Ti8O17 (M = Ce, Fe, Cu, Co) were synthesized by successive impregnations and employed for the storage and reduction of NOx in the emissions of lean-burn engines at 350 °C. The XRD and XANES/EXAFS results reveal that the active phases in the corresponding catalysts exist as CeO2, Fe2O3, CuO and Co3O4, respectively. Among all the catalysts, CoOx-K2CO3/K2Ti8O17 exhibits the best performance, which cannot only trap the NOx quickly and completely at lean condition, giving the highest storage capacity (3.32 mmol/g) reported so far, but also reduce the NOx at rich condition, showing a NOx reduction percentage as high as 99.0%. Meanwhile, this catalyst displays an ultralow NOx to N2O selectivity (0.3%) during NOx reduction. The excellent performance of CoOx-K2CO3/K2Ti8O17 results from its largest amount of surface active oxygen species as revealed by XPS, O2-TPD and NO-TPD. HRTEM, FT-IR and CO2-TPD results illustrate that several kinds of K species such as sbnd OK groups, K2O, surface carbonates and bulk or bulk-like carbonates coexist in the catalysts. Based upon the in situ DRIFTS results, the participation of K2CO3 in NOx storage is confirmed, and the predominant NOx storage species is revealed as bidentate nitrites formed via multiple kinetic pathways. The low cost and high catalytic performance of the CoOx-based LNT catalyst make it most promising for the substitution of noble metal-based LNT catalysts.

  6. 掺杂对锰氧化物La0.67Ca0.33Mn0.9A0.1O3(A:Cr,Co,Fe,Cu)结构的影响%Influence of doping on the structure of La0.67Ca0.33Mn0.9A0.1O3 (A:Cr,Co,Fe,Cu)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳文; 张星; 郝艳玲; 路庆凤

    2012-01-01

    Samples of La0.67Sr0.33Mn0.8Fe0.1O3 series are prepared by the standard solid-state reaction and featured with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electricity mirror (SEM). Results show that all samples are of good single phases and samples doped by Cr,Fe and Co take the form of uniform grains,whereas samples doped by Cu of big flakes,and that cavity radius gradually increases in the order of doping elements Cr.Co,Fe and Cu,indicating that the radius difference between the doping element and Mn ion is the important influential factor of cavity radius and defects.%采用固相反应法制备了La0.67Ca0.33Mn09A0.1O3(A:Cr,CoFe,Cu)系列样品;利用X射线衍射(XRD)和扫描电镜(SEM)对系列样品进行了表征.结果表明:样品单相性很好;以元素Cr,Fe,Co替代时,样品呈现较均匀的颗粒,而元素Cu替代时样品呈大片状结构,空洞半径按替代元素Cr,Co,Fe,Cu的顺序逐渐变大,说明替代元素与Mn离子的半径之差△是影响样品空洞半径及缺陷的重要因素.

  7. In situ Sr isotope analysis of apatite by LA-MC-ICPMS: constraints on the evolution of ore fluids of the Yinachang Fe-Cu-REE deposit, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Fu; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Gao, Jian-Feng; Li, Xiao-Chun; Li, Jian-Wei

    2015-10-01

    Apatite is a ubiquitous accessory mineral in a variety of rocks and hydrothermal ores. Strontium isotopes of apatite are well known to retain petrogenetic information and have been widely used to investigate the origin of igneous rocks, but such attempts have rarely been made to constrain ore-forming processes of hydrothermal systems. We here report in situ LA-MC-ICPMS Sr isotope data of apatite from the ~1660-Ma Yinachang Fe-Cu-REE deposit, Southwest China. The formation of this deposit was coeval to the emplacement of regionally distributed doleritic intrusions within a continental-rift setting. The deposit has a paragenetic sequence consisting of sodic alteration (stage I), magnetite mineralization (stage II), Cu sulfide and REE mineralization (stage III), and final barren calcite veining (stage IV). The stage II and III assemblages contain abundant apatite, allowing to investigate the temporal evolution of the Sr isotopic composition of the ore fluids. Apatite of stage II (Apt II) is associated with fluorite, magnetite, and siderite, whereas apatite from stage III (Apt III) occurs intimately intergrown with ankerite and Cu sulfides. Apt II has 87Sr/86Sr ratios varying from 0.70377 to 0.71074, broadly compatible with the coeval doleritic intrusions (0.70592 to 0.70692), indicating that ore-forming fluids responsible for stage II magnetite mineralization were largely equilibrated with mantle-derived mafic rocks. In contrast, Apt III has distinctly higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.71021 to 0.72114, which are interpreted to reflect external radiogenic Sr, likely derived from the Paleoproterozoic strata. Some Apt III crystals have undergone extensive metasomatism indicated by abundant monazite inclusions. The metasomatized apatite has much higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios up to 0.73721, which is consistent with bulk-rock Rb-Sr isotope analyses of Cu ores with 87Sr/86Sri from 0.71906 to 0.74632. The elevated 87Sr/86Sr values of metasomatized apatite and bulk Cu ores indicate

  8. Studies on formation and structures of ultrafine Cu precipitates in Fe-Cu model alloys for reactor pressure vessel steels using positron quantum dot confinement in the precipitates by their positron affinity. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H11-034 (Contract research)

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, M; Suzuki, M; Tang, Z; Yubuta, K

    2003-01-01

    Positron annihilation experiments on Fe-Cu model dilute alloys of nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels have been performed after neutron irradiation in JMTR. Nanovoids whose inner surfaces were covered by Cu atoms were clearly observed. The nanovoids transformed to ultrafine Cu precipitates by dissociating their vacancies after annealing at around 400degC. The nanovoids and the ultrafine Cu precipitates are strongly suggested to be responsible for irradiation-induced embrittlement of RPV steels. Effects of Ni, Mn and P addition on the nanovoid and Cu precipitate formations were also studied. The nanovoid formation was enhanced by Ni and P, but suppressed by Mn. The Cu precipitates after annealing around 400degC were almost free from these doping elements and hence were pure Cu in the chemical composition. Furthermore the Fermi surface of the 'embedded' Cu precipitates with a body centered cubic crystal structure was obtained from two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) ...

  9. Theoretical Study of Energetic Complexes (Ⅲ): Bis-(5-nitro-2Htetrazolato-N2)tetraammine Cobalt(Ⅲ) Perchlorate (BNCP) and Its Transition Metal (Ni/Fe/Cu/Zn) Perchlorate Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚静; 张建国; 张同来; 黄辉胜; 张绍文; 舒远杰

    2012-01-01

    The geometric conformation and electronic structure of bis-(5-nitro-2H-tetrazolato-N2)tetraammine cobalt(Ⅲ) perchlorate and its Ni/Fe/Cu/Zn analogues are studied under the TPSS (Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria) levels of density functional theory in order to throw light on the relationship between their energy gaps and impact sensitivity While the perchlorate ions are coordinated with the copper cation, which is different from the other four compounds NBO (Natural bond orbital) analyses indicated that the metal-ligand interaction in the Co complex is covalent, while the others are ionic. The analysis of the electrostatic potential demonstrated that the O atoms from the nitro-tetrazole ring and perchlorate were primarily negative, while the other atoms were positive. The study was also conducted to gain a better understanding of the correlation of the energy gap and impact sensitivity.

  10. 电感耦合等离子体光谱法测定黄铁矿和黄铜矿中的铁铜硫%Determination of Fe, Cu and S in Pyrite and Chalcopyrite Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马新荣; 王蕾; 温宏利; 巩爱华

    2011-01-01

    The methods of water bath dissolution by aqua regia to open dissolution by acid mixing HC1-HNO3 -HF-HC104 and determine Fe, Cu and S in pyrite and chalcopyrite by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry ( ICP-AES ) are discussed in this paper. By applying a weighting method to prepare standard solutions, the error caused by scale reading can be greatly reduced during the dilution step. The advantages of using the water bath dissolution by aqua regia method include reduced digestion time, reduced amount of reagent addition and simple analytical processing. When Fe combines with Si in sulfide ore, it cannot be dissolved by aqua regia, yet it can when using open dissolution by acid mixing. The optimal spectrum lines were selected to determine high concentration of Fe, Cu and S ( x%-xx% ) with dilution factor of 1000. Both sample preparation methods are simple to operate and attain good accuracy and precision. The method was validated by the national standard materials of GBW 07267 ( pyrite ) and GBW 07268 ( chalcopyrite ). The accuracy ( RE ) and precision ( RSD, n =5 ) of Fe and Cu were less than 2%. However, accuracy and precision for S was lower when using the method of open dissolution by acid mixing, yielding a RE and RSD of -9.48% and - 18% , respectively. The short period stability of GBW 07267 and GBW 07268 was tested by 10 continuous determinations using the method of water bath dissolution with aqua regia; the RSD being less than 2.%样品用王水水浴和HCl-HNO3-HF-HClO4敞开酸溶两种溶矿方式分解,电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法(ICP-AES)测定黄铜矿和黄铁矿中铁、铜、硫.应用称重法配制标准溶液,明显地降低了在标准溶液在逐级稀释过程中由于体积读数等原因产生的误差.样品用王水水浴分解,消解时间短,试剂加入量少,分析步骤简单;由于硫化矿石中Fe的一部分可能与Si结合,王水无法将其全部溶解,对于Fe的测定采用混合酸敞开酸溶.

  11. Effect of alloying element nickel on structural stability of FCC Fe-Cu precipitates studied by first-principles calculations%合金元素镍对FCC Fe-Cu析出相结构稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温玉锋; 孙坚

    2013-01-01

    采用基于投影缀加波赝势和广义梯度近似的第一性原理和特殊准随机结构模型计算FCC结构Fe-25Cu、Fe-31.25Cu、Fe-3.125Ni-25Cu和Fe-3.125Ni-31.25Cu无序固溶体的基态性质、弹性常数以及电子结构,其中无序固溶体晶胞结构建立在由特殊准随机结构方法所产生的结构模型基础上。计算结果表明:FCC 结构Fe-Ni-Cu无序固溶体存在无磁性与铁磁性两种状态,其中铁磁性 Fe-Cu 和 Fe-Ni-Cu 无序固溶体的能量相对较低;铁磁性Fe-25Cu和Fe-3.125Ni-25Cu无序固溶体不满足Born弹性稳定性准则,而Fe-31.25Cu和Fe-3.125Ni-31.25Cu无序固溶体满足Born弹性稳定性准则,以亚稳态形式存在,合金元素Ni的加入显著提高了铁磁性FCC结构Fe-31.25Cu无序固溶体的结构稳定性。%The first-principles method based on projector augmented wave pseudo-potential and generalized gradient approximation was employed to calculate the ground state properties, elastic constants and electronic structures of FCC structured Fe-25Cu, Fe-31.25Cu, Fe-3.125Ni-25Cu and Fe-3.125Ni-31.25Cu random solid solutions. The cells of the random solid solutions were established based on the special quasirandom structure (SQS) models. The calculated results show that nonmagnetic and ferromagnetic states exist in FCC Fe-Ni-Cu random solid solutions, and Fe-Cu and Fe-Ni-Cu random solid solutions in the ferromagnetic state have lower energy. The ferromagnetic Fe-25Cu and Fe-3.125Ni-25Cu random solid solutions do not satisfy Born criterion of elastic stability, whereas the Fe-31.25Cu and Fe-3.125Ni-31.25Cu random solid solutions satisfy Born criterion of elastic stability and can exist as a metastable phase. The addition of alloying element of nickel can significantly improve the structural stability of FCC Fe-31.25Cu random solid solution.

  12. GMI in FeCuNbSiB/Cu multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, UFSM, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: mmacorrea@gmail.com; Viegas, A.D.C. [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, UFSM, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Silva, R.B. da [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, UFSM, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Andrade, A.M.H. de [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, UFSM, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Sommer, R.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2006-10-01

    Very high magnetoimpedance (MI) measured at frequencies up to 1.8 GHz in single and multilayered thin films with composition Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9} and (Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9}+Cu) are reported. The magnetic properties of both systems are also compared. MI ratio as high as 300% for the multilayered samples were obtained.

  13. Induced anisotropy in nanocrystalline FeCuNbSiB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of induced anisotropy Kind was studied in nanocrystalline Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9, as well as in the amorphous precursor and in amorphous Fe78B13Si9. The nanocrystalline alloy was produced from the precursor by annealing at 813 K for 1 h and possessed an average FeSi grain size of 13 nm, as determined from x-ray diffraction. Annealing in a 0.2 T field at 723--773 K, above Tc of the amorphous phase, resulted in low values of Kind. The data were compared to the micromagnetic theory of Kronmueller to determine activation energy spectra. Kind for the nanocrystalline alloy is well described by this theory, however, with an activation energy spectrum that is much narrower than for the amorphous alloys. The limiting value of the anisotropy is K∞ ∼ 13 J/m3 consistent with that expected for the anisotropy in Fe-20at%.Si with the DO3 structure

  14. 王水溶样-电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法同时测定铁铜铅锌硫化物矿石中8个元素%Simultaneous Determination of 8 Elemental Components of Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in Sulfide Ores by ICP-AES with Aqua Regia Digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温宏利; 马生凤; 马新荣; 王蕾; 范凡; 巩爱华

    2011-01-01

    建立了王水溶样-电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法同时测定铁、铜、铅、锌硫化物矿中Cu、Pb、Zn、As、Ag、Cd、Hg和Mo等8个元素的分析方法.确定了方法的溶矿及测定条件,用国家一级标准物质GBW07162(多金属贫矿石)和GBW07164(多金属矿石)进行精密度实验,除个别元素外,大多数的元素精密度(RSD,n=11)小于5%,准确度(RE)小于10%.通过一系列硫化物矿石标准物质进行方法验证,检测结果基本都在标准值的误差范围内,符合地质矿产开发的要求.方法简单,同时测定元素较多,线性范围宽,检出限低,尤其有利于硫化物矿石中的亲硫元素As、Ag、Hg的分析,实用性强.%A method is presented in this paper for examining sulphide ores, in order to determine Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Hg and Mo within Fe, Cu, Pb and Zn contained in the ores. This method utilizes Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry ( ICP-AES) with aqua regia digestion. The technique for sample dissolution and measuring conditions is also presented. The accuracy and precision of the method were examined by analyzing reference materials GBW07162 (multi-metal lean ore) and GBW07164 (multi-metal ore). The test results indicate that the relative standard deviation ( RSD, n = 11) of most elemental components is less than 5% and the accuracy (RE) is less than 10% for most elements. The method was validated by different reference materials and the results were in good agreement with the certified values, thereby meeting the requirements of mineral exploitation. The method has the advantage of providing a simple, simultaneous determination of multiple elements, along with having a wide linearity range and low detection limit, especially for the determination of As, Ag and Hg.

  15. Relation between Charpy impact properties and magnetism in thermally aged Fe-Cu model alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study demonstrates the possibility of applying magnetic methods to pressure vessel surveillance for irradiation embrittlement at nuclear power plants. Charpy impact test and magnetic hesteresis measurement were preformed on thermally aged Fe-1.0wt%Cu model alloys with and without pre-deformation. DBTT increased with increasing aging time. However, magnetic hysteresis parameters showed nonmonotonical changes. The phenomena are discussed in terms of Cu precipitation behavior and dislocation structure. (author)

  16. Highly Efficient Synthesis of Clean Biofuels from Biomass Using FeCuZnAIK Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-bai Qiu; Yong Xu; Tong-qi Ye; Fei-yan Gong; Zhi Yang; Mitsuo Yamamoto; Yong Liu; Quan-xin Li

    2011-01-01

    Highly efficient synthesis of clean biofuels using the bio-syngas obtained from biomass gasification was performed over Fe1.5Cu1Zn1Al1K0.117 catalyst.The maximum biofuel yield from the bio-syngas reaches about 1.59 kg biofuels/(kgcatal·h) with a contribution of 0.57 kg alcohols/(kgcatal·h) and 1.02 kg liquid hydrocarbons/(kgcatal·h).The alcohol products in the resulting biofuels were dominated by the C2+ alcohols (mainly C2-C6 alcohols) with a content of 73.55%-89.98%.The selectivity of the liquid hydrocarbons (C5+) in the hydrocarbon products ranges from 60.37% to 70.94%.The synthesis biofuels also possess a higher heat value of 40.53-41.49 MJ/kg.The effects of the synthesis conditions,including temperature,pressure,and gas hourly space velocity,on the biofuel synthesis were investigated in detail.The catalyst features were characterized by inductively coupled plasma and atomic emission spectroscopy,X-ray diffraction,temperature programmed reduction,and the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms measurements.The present biofuel synthesis with a higher biofuel yield and a higher selectivity of liquid hydrocarbons and C2+ alcohols may be a potentially useful route to produce clean biofuels and chemicals from biomass.

  17. Study on Catalytic Wet Oxidation of H2S into Sulfur on Fe/Cu Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A wet catalytic oxidation at room temperature was investigated with solution containing ferric, ferrous and cupric ions for H2S removal. The experiments were carried out in a two step process,and the results obtained show that the removal efficiency of H2S can always reach 100% in a 300 mm scrubbing column with four sieve plates, and the regeneration of ferric ions in 200 mm bubble column can match the consumed ferric species in absorption. Removal of H2S, production of elemental sulfur and regeneration of ferric, cupric ions can all be accomplished at the same time. No raw material is consumed except O2 in flue gas or air, the process has no secondary pollution and no problem of catalyst degradation and congestion.

  18. Microstructural characterization of selected AEA/UCSB model FeCuMn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, P.M.; Stoller, R.E.

    1996-06-01

    A set of 22 model ferritic alloys was purchased as part of a collaborative research program by the AEA Harwell Laboratory and the University of California at Santa Barbara. Nine of these alloys were selected by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in a series of ion irradiation experiments investigating dispersed barrier hardening. These nine alloys contain varying amounts of copper, manganese, titanium, carbon, and nitrogen. The alloys have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy in the as-received condition to provide a baseline for comparison with the irradiated specimens. A description of the microstructural observations is provided for future reference. This summary focuses on the type and size distributions of the precipitates present; grain size and dislocation measurements are also included.

  19. Solute redistribution during phase separation of ternary Fe-Cu-Si alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, S. B.; Wang, W. L.; Xia, Z. C.; Wu, Y. H.; Wei, B.

    2015-06-01

    Ternary Fe48Cu48Si4 immiscible alloy was rapidly solidified under the containerless microgravity condition inside a drop tube. Liquid phase separation took place in the alloy melt and led to the formation of various segregated structures. The core-shell structure consisting of Fe-rich and Cu-rich zones and the homogenously dispersed structure were the major structural morphologies. Phase field simulation results revealed that the two-layer core-shell was the final structure of liquid phase separation. The solute redistribution of liquid Fe48Cu48Si4 alloy experienced the macroscopic solute distribution induced by liquid phase separation, the secondary phase separation within the separated liquid phases and the solute trapping during rapid solidification. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that the solute Si was enriched in the Fe-rich zone whereas depleted in the Cu-rich zone. In addition, both αFe and (Cu) phases in the Fe-rich zone exhibited a conspicuous solute trapping effect. As compared with (Cu) phase, αFe phase had a stronger affinity with solute Si.

  20. Determination of soil micronutrients (Fe, Cu, Mn, B) extracted by Mehlich 3 using MP-AES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebstein, Kadri; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Rodima, Ako; Kõlli, Raimo; Künnapas, Allan; Rebane, Jaanus; Penu, Priit; Vennik, Kersti; Soobik, Liina

    2015-04-01

    The total concentration of micronutrients in soils is not a good predictor of its bioavailability and solubility. Therefore, during the decades several methods for the determination of plant availability and extractable fraction of micro- and macronutrients in soil were developed. Among several methods Mehlich 3 is the most appropriate due to its suitability for extracting soil micro- and macronutrients simultaneously. The AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopic) and ICP (inductively coupled plasma) methods are widely used for the analysis of microelements today. In 2011 the third method was added to this list with the appearance of the microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometer (MP-AES). This multielemental analytical equipment has a high potential in the soil analysis. Up to now there have been made some experiments for the use of MP-AES in soil and geological material analysis. But there is no information about the analysis of soil micronutrients extracted according to Mehlich 3 method and determined with the MP-AES. Due to the differences in atomization conditions the different emission and absorption lines are used in different instrumental methods. Therefore it is very important to choose the most suitable emission lines and the best atomization conditions. From the analytical viewpoint it is important to get coincidental results with other instrumental methods and from the agronomical point of view it is important to know the difference between AAS and ICP methods. For the experiment 51 soil samples were used. The samples were collected from A horizons of agricultural lands. The pH range was from 4.7 to 7.5 and organic matter content from 1.4 to 7.8%. The content of Mehlich 3 extractable micronutrients was determined using ICP and MP instrumental methods. The micronutrient contents ranged as follows: Fe - from 170 to 470 mg kg-1, Mn - from 5 to 190 mg kg-1, Cu - from 0.3 to 4.5 mg kg-1, B - from 0.2 to 2.1 mg kg-1. The optimal instrumental settings for iron, manganese, copper, and boron analysis according to Mehlich 3, using MP-AES method, are reported. Detection limits and limits of quantification for the analysed elements are calculated. Comparison of the analysed micronutrients content is provided by ICP and MP. Also the influence of soil pH and organic matter content on the results of analysis was reported.

  1. Distribution of Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in primary colorectal cancer and secondary colorectal liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ebraheem, A. [Department of Radiography, City Community and Health Sciences, City University, London, EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Mersov, A. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. West. Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L8 (Canada); Gurusamy, K. [HPB and Liver Transplant Surgery, Royal Free and University College School of Medicine, UCL and Royal Free NHS trust, London (United Kingdom); Farquharson, M.J., E-mail: farquhm@mcmaster.c [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. West. Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L8 (Canada)

    2010-07-21

    A microbeam synchrotron X-ray fluorescence ({mu}SRXRF) technique has been used to determine the localization and the relative concentrations of Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca in primary colorectal cancer and secondary colorectal liver metastases. 24 colon and 23 liver samples were examined, all of which were formalin fixed tissues arranged as microarrays of 1.0 mm diameter and 10 {mu}m thickness. The distribution of these metals was compared with light transmission images of adjacent sections that were H and E stained to reveal the location of the cancer cells. Histological details were provided for each sample which enable concentrations of all elements in different tissue types to be compared. In the case of liver, significant differences have been found for all elements when comparing tumour, normal, necrotic, fibrotic, and blood vessel tissues (Kruskal Wallis Test, P<0.0001). The concentrations of all elements have also been found to be significantly different among tumour, necrotic, fibrotic, and mucin tissues in the colon samples (Kruskal Wallis Test, P<0.0001). The concentrations of all elements have been compared between primary colorectal samples and colorectal liver metastases. Concentration of Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca are higher in all types of liver tissues compared to those in the colon tissues. Comparing liver tumour and colon tumour samples, significant differences have been found for all elements (Mann Whitney, P<0.0001). For necrotic tissues, significant increase has been found for Zn, Ca, Cu and Fe (Mann Whitney, P<0.0001 for Fe and Zn, 0.014 for Ca, and 0.001 for Cu). The liver fibrotic levels of Zn, Ca, Cu and Fe were higher than the fibrotic colon areas (independent T test, P=0.007 for Zn and Mann Whitney test P<0.0001 for Cu, Fe and Ca). For the blood vessel tissue, the analysis revealed that the difference was only significant for Fe (P=0.009) from independent T test.

  2. Template-grown NiFe/Cu/NiFe nanowires for spin transfer devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piraux, L.; Renard, K.; Guillemet, R.;

    2007-01-01

    . The method allows the electrical connection of one single nanowire in a large assembly of wires embedded in anodic porous alumina supported on Si substrate with diameters and periodicities to be controllable to a large extent. Both magnetic excitations and switching phenomena driven by a spin...

  3. FMR Investigation of the nanocrystalline FeCuNbSiB glass-covered wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of magnetic anisotropy and magnetization mechanisms during nanocrystalline phase formation and crystallization of Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 glass-covered wires are studied by ferromagnetic resonance. The modifications of the magnetic anisotropy due to structural changes are determined from the main resonance peaks. Changes in the magnetization processes are revealed by the low field peaks detected for all samples

  4. The structure and magnetic properties of a powder FeCuNbSiB material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the influence of milling on the structure and magnetic properties of Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 alloy as a function of milling time. We found that with an increase of milling time the size of the powder decreases and both the coercivity and the volume fraction of the crystalline phase increase

  5. Permeability spectra of neutron-irradiated and annealed amorphous FeCuNbSiB ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron irradiation effects of soft magnetic properties in the as-quenched and the annealed amorphous Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 alloys were studied by complex permeability spectra measurement. The annealing at 823 K caused the decrease of permeability from irreversible domain wall motion but increase the permeability from reversible magnetization, compared to the as-quenched sample. The neutron irradiation in the as-quenched sample increases the permeability from both irreversible and reversible magnetization processes. The neutron irradiation in the annealed sample showed the increase of permeability from irreversible domain wall motion, but decrease of permeability from reversible magnetization

  6. Interfacial tension studies between Fe-Cu-Ni sulfide and halo-norilsk basalt slag system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Shangguo

    2005-01-01

    The interfacial tension of the matte/halo-Norilsk basalt slag systems of FeS-Cu2S-Ni3S2 and FeO-FeS were investigated using the sessile drop technique. The results indicate that interfacial tension decreases with increasing copper and nickel contents in the matte of FeS-Cu2S-Ni3S2 system while it increases with increasing oxygen content in the matte of FeO-FeS system. It is inferred from these results that two conditions are critical for the formation of giant Cu-Ni sulfide deposits. One is that mafic-ultramafic parent magma of sulfide deposits should be rich in copper and nickel where due to the low interfacial tension, it is difficult to form sulfide droplet in the early stage of magma evolution. In other words, sulfide liquid conglomeration occurs more difficultly. The other condition is that the magma emplacement should be shallow; and a lot of faults occur in the magma emplacement field. Since oxygen content is high in the environment, interfacial tension is high, which helps sulfide liquid conglomeration and consequently Cu-Ni sulfide deposits form.

  7. Pressure stress-impedance effect in FeCuNbSiB amorphours ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The stress-impedance effect in Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 (at%) ribbons is measured to investigate the influences of vacuum annealing and pressure stress. The results can be explained by the influence of induced anisotropy in the magnetization processes at the chosen drive current frequency of 90 MHz. The maximum SI% value of the ribbon annealed at 300 ℃ is 2.52%.

  8. The microstructure of liquid immiscible Fe-Cu-based in situ formed amorphous/crystalline composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the microstructures of slowly and rapidly cooled liquid of the immiscible alloy Fe30Cu32Ni10Si13Sn4B9Y2 two distinct regions were observed following arc melting and slow cooling, confirming that liquid/liquid phase separation had occurred. Rapid cooling from a temperature within the liquid immiscibility gap, melt spinning, resulted in an amorphous/crystalline composite, formed from the previously melted Fe- and Cu-rich regions, respectively. Transmission electron microscopic studies of this melt-spun ribbon revealed the glassy nature of the Fe-rich matrix, as well as of the Fe-rich spheres formed within the previously existing Cu-rich liquid

  9. Self healing by Cu precipitation in deformed Fe-Cu-B-N-C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Langelaan, G.; Schut, H.; Brück, E.; Van der Zwaag, S.; Van Dijk, N.H.

    2013-01-01

    Steels are among the most widely used construction materials as their mechanical properties can be tuned over a very wide range of desired combinations of strength formability and other properties. However, when exposed for long times to high temperatures steel components can exhibit premature and l

  10. Specific heat and related thermophysical properties of liquid Fe-Cu-Mo alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The specific heat and related thermophysical properties of liquid Fe77.5Cu13Mo9.5 monotectic alloy were investigated by an electromagnetic levitation drop calo-rimeter over a wide temperature range from 1482 to 1818 K.A maximum under-cooling of 221 K(0.13 Tm)was achieved and the specific heat was determined as 44.71 J·mol1·K1.The excess specific heat,enthalpy change,entropy change and Gibbs free energy difference of this alloy were calculated on the basis of experimental results.It was found that the calculated results by traditional esti-mating methods can only describe the solidification process under low under-cooling conditions.Only the experimental results can reflect the reality under high undercooling conditions.Meanwhile,the thermal diffusivity,thermal conductivity,and sound speed were derived from the present experimental results.Furthermore,the solidified microstructural morphology was examined,which consists of(Fe)and(Cu)phases.The calculated interface energy was applied to exploring the correlation between competitive nucleation and solidification microstructure within monotectic alloy.

  11. Specific heat and related thermophysical properties of liquid Fe-Cu-Mo alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HaiPeng; LUO BingChi; CHANG Jian; WEI BingBo

    2007-01-01

    The specific heat and related thermophysical properties of liquid Fe77.5Cu13Mo9.5 monotectic alloy were investigated by an electromagnetic levitation drop calorimeter over a wide temperature range from 1482 to 1818 K. A maximum undercooling of 221 K (0.13 Tm) was achieved and the specific heat was determined as 44.71 J·mol-1·K-1. The excess specific heat, enthalpy change, entropy change and Gibbs free energy difference of this alloy were calculated on the basis of experimental results. It was found that the calculated results by traditional estimating methods can only describe the solidification process under low undercooling conditions. Only the experimental results can reflect the reality under high undercooling conditions. Meanwhile, the thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, and sound speed were derived from the present experimental results. Furthermore, the solidified microstructural morphology was examined, which consists of (Fe) and (Cu) phases. The calculated interface energy was applied to exploring the correlation between competitive nucleation and solidification microstructure within monotectic alloy.

  12. Thermal Stability of CoFe/Cu/CoFe/IrMn Top Spin Valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guang-Hong; WANG Yin-Gang; QI Xian-Jin

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of thermal stability of the top spin valve with a structure of seed Ta (5nm)/Co75Fe25 (5nm)/Cu (2.5nm)/Co75Fe25n (5nm)/Ir20 Mn80 (12nm)/cap Ta (8nm) deposited at room temperature by magnetron sputtering. A vibrating sample magnetometer fixed with a heater was used to record the magnetic hysteresis loops at variational temperatures and x-ray diffraction was performed to characterize the structure of the multilayer.The exchange field Hex and the coercivity of the pinned CoFe layer Hcp decrease monotonically with increasing temperature.The coercivity of the free CoFe layer Hcf in the spin valve shows a maximum at 498K.The temperature dependences of Hex,Hcp and Hcf have also been discussed.

  13. Structure and magnetic behaviour of Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fe was substituted by Al up to 7 at% in Finemet. After annealing at 550 deg. C all samples were nanocrystalline, with more or less ordered α-Fe(Si,Al) grains; the DO3-like ordering was the most dominant in samples with 5 and 7 at% of Al. In as-quenched state Al decreased linearly the magnetization, but up to 3 at% enhanced the Curie temperature of the alloy. The Curie temperature of the crystalline phase and the magnetization in annealed samples abruptly decreased, when there was more than 5 at% of Al in the alloy

  14. A GREENER SYNTHESIS OF CORE (FE, CU)-SHELL (AU, PT, PD AND AG) NANOCRYSTALS USING AQUEOUS VITAMIN C

    Science.gov (United States)

    A greener method to fabricate the novel core (Fe and Cu)-shell (noble metals) metal nanocrystals using aqueous ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is described. Transition metal salts such as Cu and Fe were reduced using ascorbic acid, a benign naturally available antioxidant, and then add...

  15. Magnetic properties of FeCuNbSiB nanocrystallized by flash annealing under high tensile stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzer, Giselher; Budinsky, Viktoria; Polak, Christian [Vacuumschmelze GmbH and Co KG, Gruener Weg 37, 63450 Hanau (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    We have investigated the creep induced anisotropy, magnetostriction, domain structure and coercivity of nanocrystalline Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 15.5}B{sub 7} crystallized by flash annealing under high tensile stress up to 800 MPa. The samples reveal a magnetic easy plane perpendicular to the stress axis with anisotropy constants up to K{sub u} {approx} 12 kJ/m{sup 3} which even exceed the local magneto-crystalline anisotropy (K{sub 1} {approx} 8 kJ/m{sup 3}) of the crystalline Fe-Si phase. Although coercivity increases with K{sub u}, it remains reasonably small even for huge induced anisotropy constants. The coercivity mechanism can be understood from the interplay of the induced anisotropy and the random fluctuations of the local magneto-crystalline anisotropy of the crystallites. The tensile stress applied during annealing also affects the saturation magnetostriction constant {lambda}{sub s}. Thus, {lambda}{sub s} decreases with increasing magnitude of the annealing stress. This behaviour is compared to the elastic stress dependence of magnetostriction. The latter is well-known for amorphous Co-base alloys, but can also be observed in nanocrystalline alloys. The experimental results will be discussed theoretically in terms of the strain dependence of the magnetic anisotropy energy which ultimately provides the physical origin of magnetostrictive phenomena. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. On the concentration and separation of the trace-elements fe, cu, zn, mn, pb, mo and co : Paper chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, P.C. van

    1961-01-01

    Paper chromatographic separations are described by which the minor constituents of biological ashes are separated either into: (Pb) - Mn - Co - (Pb) - Cu - Fe, Mo, Zn; or into: Cu, Mn, Co - Pb - Fe - Mo - Zn.

  17. High frequency behaviours and Mössbauer study of field annealed FeCuNbSiB alloy ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the high frequency behaviours and magnetic anisotropy of rapidly solidified FINEMET (Fe73.5Si13.5B9Nb3Cu1) alloy ribbons annealed in an applied magnetic field. It finds that the ribbons annealed with the applied magnetic field show much higher resonance frequencies and have even higher permeability at higher frequencies than the samples annealed without the magnetic field and the non-annealed ribbons. Mössbauer spectroscopy had been employed to study the spatial distribution of the magnetic moments of five selected FINEMET alloy ribbons in different heat-treated conditions. The results show that an easy plane has been established after annealling in the magnetic field, while for the other ribbons this effect is not significant. Hence, the relationship between magnetic field annealing and high frequency property has been bridged by the bianisotropic theory. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. Structural relaxation and crystallization in the Fe-Cr-Si-B and Fe-Cu-Cr-Si-B amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural relaxation, crystallization and optimisation processes in soft magnetic amorphous alloys based on iron are examined by applying different experimental techniques: X-ray diffraction analysis, high-resolution electron microscopy, measurements of magnetic and electric properties (permeability, after-effect resistivity). The presented results are discussed in terms of annealing out of microvoids, formation of nanocrystalline phase and changes of effective magnetostriction constant. (author)

  19. Microstructural study of nanocrystalline Fe-(Cu-Nb)-Si-B ribbons obtained by a nitriding thermochemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallization process of amorphous Fe74Si14B12, Fe73.5Cu1Si13.5B12, Fe74Nb3Si14B9 and Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 ribbons was investigated by annealing the ribbons under vacuum at 520 deg. C for 6 h. Only Nb containing samples show a nanocrystalline state consisting of α-Fe(Si) nanograins embedded in a remaining amorphous phase. The amorphous ribbons were then submitted to a nitriding thermochemical treatment at 520 deg. C for 6 and 18 h under ammonia. It is observed that crystallization occurs prior to nitrogenation. Upon nitrogenation, a reactive diffusion process of nitrogen is observed, which appears to be slower in the partially crystallized ribbons, due to the presence of a remaining amorphous phase. In the crystalline regions, the α-Fe(Si) phase is disproportionated into α-Fe and probably Si-N precipitates. Then Fe4N is formed when nitrogenation proceeds further

  20. Atomic computer simulation of the formation and growth process of Cu-precipitate in Fe-Cu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuta, T.; Ozaki, K. [Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Okayama Prefectural Univ. (Japan); Akahoshi, Y.; Harada, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    We focus on nanoscale copper-rich precipitates and try to clarify the effect of the nanoscale copper-rich precipitates on embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels. Our final goal is to evaluate such embrittlement from microscopic viewpoint based on atomistic simulation. In this study, we propose Multi Vacancy Lattice Monte Carlo (MVLMC) method which can analyze the model that has more than one vacancy. We showed that process of copper clustering consists of the two phases, i.e., formation phase, and combination phase. And, we analyzed a combination process of a cluster using MVLMC in detail, and evaluate formation of a cluster using distance between clusters. It is noted that in combination between a nano cluster smaller than 1 nm and a cluster of about 2 nm, minute nano clusters separate from the former cluster and are absorbed by the latter cluster. Moreover, we found that a nano cluster is formed by distance of about 1.5 nm extent from other clusters in a formation process of a cluster and that distance between clusters of about 2 nm is about 10 nm. (orig.)

  1. Atomic computer simulation of the formation and growth process of Cu-precipitate in Fe-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We focus on nanoscale copper-rich precipitates and try to clarify the effect of the nanoscale copper-rich precipitates on embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels. Our final goal is to evaluate such embrittlement from microscopic viewpoint based on atomistic simulation. In this study, we propose Multi Vacancy Lattice Monte Carlo (MVLMC) method which can analyze the model that has more than one vacancy. We showed that process of copper clustering consists of the two phases, i.e., formation phase, and combination phase. And, we analyzed a combination process of a cluster using MVLMC in detail, and evaluate formation of a cluster using distance between clusters. It is noted that in combination between a nano cluster smaller than 1 nm and a cluster of about 2 nm, minute nano clusters separate from the former cluster and are absorbed by the latter cluster. Moreover, we found that a nano cluster is formed by distance of about 1.5 nm extent from other clusters in a formation process of a cluster and that distance between clusters of about 2 nm is about 10 nm. (orig.)

  2. Effect of Silicon on Hot Shortness in Fe-Cu-Ni-Sn-Si Alloys During Isothermal Oxidation in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Erica; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2013-10-01

    Residual Cu in scrap-based EAF steel leads to a surface-cracking phenomenon known as surface hot shortness. Si is known to provide a potential reduction in hot shortness; however, the mechanisms involved are not fully understood for low Si quantities. The current study aims to determine a window of Si contents with a given Ni content needed to counteract the negative effects of Sn and Cu to reduce hot shortness and to determine the mechanism. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG), SEM-EDS, XRD, and TEM were used to study the hot shortness behavior of Fe containing 0.2 pct Cu, 0.05 pct Ni, 0.01 pct Sn and with varying Si-content (0.02 pct, 0.1 pct, 0.15 pct, and 0.2 pct Si). It was found that the fayalite formation resulting in a reduction of oxidation and consequently liquid Cu formation occurred for all Si contents examined. The range of Si contents between 0.1 and 0.2 wt pct Si exhibited a mechanism that was a combination of fayalite formation impeding oxidation as well as occlusion of the Cu-rich liquid. This range was acceptable to alleviate hot shortness.

  3. Local X-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of Fe/Cu(111) using a tunneling smart tip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiLullo, Andrew; Shirato, Nozomi; Cummings, Marvin [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Kersell, Heath; Chang, Hao [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Rosenmann, Daniel; Miller, Dean; Freeland, John W. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Hla, Saw-Wai [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Rose, Volker, E-mail: vrose@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    A tunneling smart tip of a synchrotron X-ray scanning tunneling microscope provides simultaneously localized topographic, elemental and magnetic information. Localized spectroscopy with simultaneous topographic, elemental and magnetic information is presented. A synchrotron X-ray scanning tunneling microscope has been employed for the local study of the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Fe L{sub 2,3}-edges of a thin iron film grown on Cu(111). Polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectra have been obtained through a tunneling smart tip that serves as a photoelectron detector. In contrast to conventional spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray excitations provide magnetic contrast even with a non-magnetic tip. Intensity variations in the photoexcited tip current point to chemical variations within a single magnetic Fe domain.

  4. Heterogeneous UV/Fenton catalytic degradation of wastewater containing phenol with Fe-Cu-Mn-Y catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑展望; 雷乐成; 徐生娟; 岑沛霖

    2004-01-01

    The heterogeneous UV/Fenton process with the appropriate amount of Fe-Mn-Cu-Y as catalyst was developed and various operation conditions for the degradation of phenol were evaluated. The results indicated that by using the heterogeneous UV/Fenton process, the CODcr removal rate reached almost 100% for wastewater containing phenol. Compared with the homogeneous process, the developed catalyst could be used at wider pH range in the UV/Fenton process. Comparison of various heterogeneous process showed that heterogeneous UV/Fenton process was best. The heterogeneous UV/Fenton process with Fe-Mn-Cu-Y catalyst is highly efficient in degrading various organic pollutants.

  5. Thermal stability of the induced magnetic anisotropy and structure of the nanocrystalline alloy FeCuNbSiB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic anisotropy induced in the ribbons of the Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 alloy in the course of stress annealing combined with the nanocrystallising one was investigated. Crystalline phases formed during the above treatments were studied by the Moessbauer method. Analysis of the Moessbauer results showed that the content of the Fe-Si phases depends neither on the exposure time nor on the value of the induced magnetic anisotropy constant. At the same time, in the regions containing, along with Fe, Nb and B the process of redistributing the elements proceeds with time, and the deeper the process, the higher the thermal stability of the induced magnetic anisotropy

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of spray-deposited Al-Si-Fe-Cu-Mg alloy containing Mn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Al-20Si-5Fe-3Cu-lMg alloy was synthesized by the spray atomization and deposition technique. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the spray deposited hypereutectic Al-Si alloy were studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and HREM (High-resolution Electron Microscope), DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), microhardness measurement, and tensile tests. The effects of Mn on the microstructural evolution of the highsilicon aluminum alloy after extrusion and heat treatment have been examined. The results show that two kinds of phases, i.e. S (Al2CuMg) and σ(Al5Cu6Mg2), precipitated from matrix and improved the tensile strength of the alloy efficiently at both the ambient and elevated temperatures (300℃). The tensile test results indicate that the spray-deposited Al-20Si-SFe-3Cu-1Mg alloy has better strength than the powder metallurgy processed Al-20Si-3Cu-1Mg alloy at elevated temperature.

  7. Geochemistry and Re-Os geochronology of the organic-rich sedimentary rocks in the Jingtieshan Fe-Cu deposit, North Qilian Mountains, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiuqing; Zhang, Zuoheng; Li, Chao; Duan, Shigang; Jiang, Zongsheng

    2016-04-01

    The Jingtieshan Group in the North Qilian Mountains, NW China, is dominantly composed of banded iron formations (BIFs), copper deposits and organic-rich sedimentary rocks (ORS, carbonaceous phyllite). X-ray diffraction analysis of the ORS shows the mineral assemblage to be quartz + clay minerals. The total organic carbon contents show a range of 0.44-1.72%. Here we present the results of the geochemistry and Re-Os geochronology of the ORS from the Jingtieshan Group. The high values of Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW), Plagioclase Index of Alteration (PIA), and Th/U ratio, indicate intense weathering. The Al2O3/TiO2, Zr/Sc, Th/Sc, La/Th ratios, high rare earth elements abundances, light rare earth elements enrichment (normalized to chondrite), and distinctly negative Eu anomalies, suggest that the Jingtieshan Group ORS were derived mainly from felsic volcanic units. The new Re-Os isochron age of 1308 ± 100 Ma (2σ, n = 6, MSWD = 23) broadly overlap with the previous published ages determined using Sm-Nd and U-Pb isotope systems. The new age represents the depositional age of the Jingtieshan Group, as well that of BIF in the Jingtieshan area. Furthermore, the initial 187Os/188Os ratios (0.44 ± 0.07) indicate that the Os in the seawater was dominantly derived from hydrothermal fluids (∼75%). The Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce∗ = 0.95-1.00) and V/(V + Ni) ratios (0.71-0.86), as well as the lack of enrichment in redox-sensitive trace elements such as U, V, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Co and Mn, together with the presence of overlying BIF, suggest that the Jingtieshan area represents a ferruginous deep-water succession. This, and intense submarine hydrothermal activities contributed to the deposition of the Jingtieshan BIF.

  8. Peculiarities of the valence state of Ce and Yb in RM{sub 4}Al{sub 8} (R=rare earth; M=Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherba, I.D. [L`vovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Lvov (Ukraine); Koterlyn, M.D. [L`vovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Lvov (Ukraine); Kushnir, A.P. [L`vovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Lvov (Ukraine); Kutjanskyj, R.R. [L`vovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Lvov (Ukraine); Synjushko, V.G. [L`vovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Lvov (Ukraine); Tsybukh, Yu.D. [L`vovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Lvov (Ukraine); Yatsyk, B.M. [L`vovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Lvov (Ukraine); Margolych, I.I. [L`vovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Lvov (Ukraine)

    1996-05-01

    L{sub III} X-ray absorption (77 and 300 K) and magnetic susceptibility measurements have been performed on RM{sub 4}Al{sub 8} compounds. The mixed valence state of Ce was observed in CeM{sub 4}Al{sub 8} with M=Cr,Mn,Fe. In the case of M=Cu the Ce{sup 3+} state is stabilized, but the Yb-based compound shows intermediate valence (V{sub Yb}{approx}2.5). In other Yb-based compounds, the Yb ion is mainly in the trivalent state. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of RFe{sub 4}Al{sub 8} compounds fits the Curie-Weiss law over a wide temperature range. (orig.).

  9. The application of photoelectron spectroscopy in the study of corrosion and oxidation mechanisms of alloys: Inconel 182, Fe/Cu(100 and U-Zr-Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In. this work a study of the oxidation/corrosion process of three systems of metallic materials by Photoemission Spectroscopy is presented. In the first system, it was investigated the corrosion of Ineonel 182 at simulated Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) environment. Samples with and without surface chemical treatment were exposed to the simulated environment for until 18 weeks. The oxide layer formed on the surfaces of the samples at different conditions was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy and XPS coupled with argon ion sputtering. The comparison between the oxide films grown on the samples showed that the oxide layer formed on the chemically treated sample is thinner and relatively Cr-rich. In second system it was studied the initial oxidation at room temperature of epitaxial films of Fe evapored on Cu (100). The films were deposited with two different thicknesses in order to get tbe fcc Fe (100) and bcc Fe (110) surfaces. The results, obtained by photoemission spectroscopy at the TEMPO beamline of the Synchrotron Soleil, showed the formation of distinct oxides films. The surfaces also presented different kinetics of oxidation and the (110) Fe-bcc showed highest reactivity. The analysis of the data indicated the Fe1-xO formation on fcc Fe (100) and suggested the Fe1-xO and FC304 formation on (110) Fe-bcc surface. In the last system, it was investigated the initial oxidation of U-Zr-Nb alloys at room temperature. For this experiment, the alloys were exposed to oxygen in ultra high vacuum. The analysis of the U 4f peak showed the fast formation of U)2 on the surfaces and similar kinetics of oxidation between the U and the U-Zr-Nb alloy. The alloying elements showed slower oxidation. The Zr 3d peak suggested the zr02 formation while the Nb 3d peak showed a remarkable enlargement that became necessary a deconvolution which indicated the formation ofNhO, Nb02 and N205. (author)

  10. Investigation of local structural environments and room-temperature ferromagnetism in (Fe,Cu)-codoped In2O3 diluted magnetic oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yukai; Xing, Yaya; Pan, Fei; Wu, Zhonghua; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-05-11

    The local structural, optical, magnetic and transport properties of (In0.95-xFexCu0.05)2O3 (0.06 ≤ x ≤ 0.20) films deposited by RF-magnetron sputtering have been systemically studied by different experimental techniques. Detailed structural analyses using XRD, XPS, EXAFS and full multiple-scattering ab initio theoretical calculations of Fe K-edge XANES show that the (In0.95-xFexCu0.05)2O3 films have the same cubic bixbyite structure as pure In2O3. The doped Fe ions exist at both +2 and +3 oxidation states, substituting for the In(3+) sites in the In2O3 lattice and forming a FeIn + 2VO complex with the O vacancy in the first coordination shell of Fe. However, the co-doped Cu atoms are not incorporated into the In2O3 lattice and form the Cu metal clusters due to high ionization energy. UV-Vis measurements show that the optical band gap Eg decreases monotonically with the increase of Fe concentration, implying an increasing s-pd exchange interaction in the films. All the films display intrinsic room-temperature (RT) ferromagnetism and the saturated magnetization (Ms) increases monotonically with Fe doping. The temperature dependence of the resistivity data suggests the conduction mechanism of Mott variable-range hopping (VRH) at low temperature, confirming that the carriers are localized. It can be concluded that the observed RT ferromagnetism in the films originates from the overlapping of polarons mediated by oxygen vacancies based on the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model. The variation of the localization effect of carriers with Fe doping can obviously adjust the magnetic exchange interaction in the (In0.95-xFexCu0.05)2O3 films.

  11. The coercivity dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B based metallic alloy ribbon at different crystalline stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the giant magneto-impedance (GMI) effect in one Fe-based FINEMET alloy ribbon with nominal composition Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 (at %). DTA experiments were conducted to identify the primary and secondary crystallization temperatures. XRD, SEM and EDAX were performed to identify the phases at various crystalline stages. Static magnetic properties of the ribbons were measured using a VSM. Coercivity was found to be a strong function of annealing temperature, and this, in turn depended on the size and type of the crystalline phases. The maximum MI effect of 103.4% was observed at annealing temperature of 600 deg. C. It was found that a small change in DC coercivity as a result of annealing greatly changed the MI ratios of the crystalline ribbons. Annealing above the secondary crystallization temperature caused the precipitation of Fe2B and Fe3B phases, which induced magnetic hardening and eliminates MI sensitivity

  12. Stability and mobility of Cu-vacancy clusters in Fe-Cu alloys: A computational study based on the use of artificial neural networks for energy barrier calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) method has been applied to study the stability and mobility of copper-vacancy clusters in Fe. This information, which cannot be obtained directly from experimental measurements, is needed to parameterise models describing the nanostructure evolution under irradiation of Fe alloys (e.g. model alloys for reactor pressure vessel steels). The physical reliability of the AKMC method has been improved by employing artificial intelligence techniques for the regression of the activation energies required by the model as input. These energies are calculated allowing for the effects of local chemistry and relaxation, using an interatomic potential fitted to reproduce them as accurately as possible and the nudged-elastic-band method. The model validation was based on comparison with available ab initio calculations for verification of the used cohesive model, as well as with other models and theories.

  13. Porphyry Cu-Au and associated polymetallic Fe-Cu-Au deposits in the Beiya Area, western Yunnan Province, south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.-W.; Cai, X.-P.; Xiao, Q.-B.; Peters, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Alkaline porphyries in the Beiya area are located east of the Jinshajiang suture, as part of a Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry belt in western Yunnan. The main rock types include quartz-albite porphyry, quartz-K-feldspar porphyry and biotite-K-feldspar porphyry. These porphyries are characterised by high alkalinity [(K2O + Na2O)% > 10%], high silica (SiO2% > 65%), high Sr (> 400??ppm) and 87Sr/86Sr (> 0.706)] ratio and were intruded at 65.5??Ma, between 25.5 to 32.5??Ma, and about 3.8??Ma, respectively. There are five main types of mineral deposits in the Beiya area: (1) porphyry Cu-Au deposits, (2) magmatic Fe-Au deposits, (3) sedimentary polymetallic deposits, (4) polymetallic skarn deposits, and (5) palaeoplacers associated with karsts. The porphyry Cu-Au and polymetallic skarn deposits are associated with quartz-albite porphyry bodies. The Fe-Au and polymetallic sedimentary deposits are part of an ore-forming system that produced considerable Au in the Beiya area, and are characterised by low concentrations of La, Ti, and Co, and high concentrations of Y, Yb, and Sc. The Cenozoic porphyries in western Yunnan display increased alkalinity away from the Triassic Jinshajiang suture. Distribution of both the porphyries and sedimentary deposits in the Beiya area are interpreted to be related to partial melting in a disjointed region between upper mantle lithosphere of the Yangtze Plate and Gondwana continent, and lie within a shear zone between buried Palaeo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere and upper mantle lithosphere, caused by the subduction and collision of India and Asia. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Theoretical analysis of novel weak current sensor using FeCuNbSiB single nanocrystalline toroidal core and double-winding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Bing-hao; ZHU Da-qi; DING Jian-ning; LI Chang-sheng

    2006-01-01

    An Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 nanocrystalline toroidal core made by isothermal furnace annealing shows good thermal stability of magnetic properties and excellent soft magnetic properties due to the full release of the internal stresses of the core during the annealing process.Based on the feature of the magnetic core,a novel non-contact type weak current sensor adopting single nanocrystalline core and double-winding excited by multivibrator bridge is proposed.The measuring principles for static current are given in theory by an established mathematical model of the sensor.The theory is in good agreement with the experimental results and it indicated clearly the key factors affecting performance parameters for the sensor.The multivibrator bridge output signal was analyzed by Fourier transform.Furthermore,according to the theoretical results,the method to design the signal conditioning circuit was introduced.

  15. Optimization of planar Hall effect sensor for magnetic bead detection using spin-valve NiFe/Cu/NiFe/IrMn structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui Dinh Tu; Do Thi Huong Giang; Tran Mau Danh; Nguyen Huu Duc [Department of Nano Magnetic Materials and Devices, Faculty of Engineering Physics, College of Technology, Vietnam National University, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Le Viet Cuong [Laboratory for Micro-Nano Technology, College of Technology, Vietnam National University, Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: buidinhtu@vnu.edu.vn

    2009-09-01

    Present paper deals with the planar Hall effect (PHE) of Ta(5 nm)/NiFe(t{sub f})/Cu(1.2 nm)/NiFe(t{sub p})/IrMn(15 nm)/Ta(5 nm) spin-valve structures. Experimental investigations are performed for 50 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2} junctions with various thicknesses of free and pinned layer t{sub f} = 4, 8, 10, 15, 20 nm and t{sub p} = 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12 nm. The results show that the thicker free layers, the higher PHE signal is obtained. In addition, the thicker pinned layers, the lower PHE signal. The highest PHE sensitivity S of 15.6 m{omega}/Oe is obtained in the spin-valve configuration with t{sub f} = 20 nm and t{sub p} = 2 nm. This optimum structure is rather promising for micro magnetic bead detections.

  16. Optimization of planar Hall effect sensor for magnetic bead detection using spin-valve NiFe/Cu/NiFe/IrMn structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Bui Dinh; Viet Cuong, Le; Thi Huong Giang, Do; Mau Danh, Tran; Duc, Nguyen Huu

    2009-09-01

    Present paper deals with the planar Hall effect (PHE) of Ta(5 nm)/NiFe(tf)/Cu(1.2 nm)/NiFe(tp)/IrMn(15 nm)/Ta(5 nm) spin-valve structures. Experimental investigations are performed for 50 × 50 μm2 junctions with various thicknesses of free and pinned layer tf = 4, 8, 10, 15, 20 nm and tp = 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12 nm. The results show that the thicker free layers, the higher PHE signal is obtained. In addition, the thicker pinned layers, the lower PHE signal. The highest PHE sensitivity S of 15.6 mΩ/Oe is obtained in the spin-valve configuration with tf = 20 nm and tp = 2 nm. This optimum structure is rather promising for micro magnetic bead detections.

  17. Planar Hall effect bridge sensors with NiFe/Cu/IrMn stack optimized for self-field magnetic bead detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2016-03-01

    The stack composition in trilayer Planar Hall effect bridge sensors is investigated experimentally to identify the optimal stack for magnetic bead detection using the sensor self-field. The sensors were fabricated using exchange-biased stacks Ni80Fe20(tFM)/Cu(tCu)/Mn80Ir20(10 nm) with tFM = 10, 20, and 30 nm, and 0 ≤ tCu ≤ 0.6 nm. The sensors were characterized by magnetic hysteresis measurements, by measurements of the sensor response vs. applied field, and by measurements of the sensor response to a suspension of magnetic beads magnetized by the sensor self-field due to the sensor bias current. The exchange bias field was found to decay exponentially with tCu and inversely with tFM. The reduced exchange field for larger values of tFM and tCu resulted in higher sensitivities to both magnetic fields and magnetic beads. We argue that the maximum magnetic bead signal is limited by Joule heating of the sensors and, thus, that the magnetic stacks should be compared at constant power consumption. For a fixed sensor geometry, the figure of merit for this comparison is the magnetic field sensitivity normalized by the sensor bias voltage. In this regard, we found that sensors with tFM = 20 nm or 30 nm outperformed those with tFM = 10 nm by a factor of approximately two, because the latter have a reduced AMR ratio. Further, the optimum layer thicknesses, tCu ≈ 0.6 nm and tFM = 20-30 nm, gave a 90% higher signal compared to the corresponding sensors with tCu = 0 nm.

  18. Comment on “Planar Hall resistance ring sensor based on NiFe/Cu/IrMn trilayer structure” [J. Appl. Phys. 113, 063903 (2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Rizzi, Giovanni;

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper, Sinha et al. compared sensitivities of planar Hall effect sensors with different geometries that are all based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance of permalloy. They write that the sensitivity of a planar Hall effect sensor with a ring geometry is a factor of √2 larger than...... the sensitivity of the so-called planar Hall effect bridge (PHEB) sensor of equal size. Osterberg et al do not agree on the signal calculation for a ring sensor derived by Sinha et al. and claim that this adversely affects the results....

  19. Planar Hall effect bridge sensors with NiFe/Cu/IrMn stack optimized for self-field magnetic bead detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2016-01-01

    . The exchange bias field was found to decay exponentially with tCu and inversely with tFM. The reduced exchange field for larger values of tFM and tCu resulted in higher sensitivities to both magnetic fields and magnetic beads. We argue that the maximum magnetic bead signal is limited by Joule heating...

  20. A lattice Monte Carlo simulation of nanophase compositions and structures in irradiated pressure vessel Fe-Cu-Ni-Mn-Si steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A self-consistent analysis, combining thermodynamic calculations, recent small angle neutron scattering and atom probe field ion microscopy measurements and lattice Monte Carlo (LMC) simulations, is used to characterize the ultra fine coherent precipitates that form in irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels. These nanofeatures are typically rich in impurity copper precipitated from highly supersaturated solution at vessel operating temperatures around 300 C at rates greatly accelerated by radiation enhanced diffusion. Although some copper appears to be needed to catalyze their formation, manganese nickel-rich precipitates may replace copper-rich precipitates at high concentrations of these alloying elements and/or lower temperatures. Thermodynamic and kinetic models are generally consistent with observations on the number densities, sizes, compositions and nucleation, growth and coarsening behavior of the nanofeatures. However, the LMC atomic scale simulations of complex nanofeature structures are needed to fully unify experiment and theory. (orig.)

  1. Thermodynamic estimation of minor element distribution between immiscible liquids in Fe-Cu-based metal phase generated in melting treatment of municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X; Nakajima, K; Sakanakura, H; Matsubae, K; Bai, H; Nagasaka, T

    2012-06-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become an important target in managing material cycles from the viewpoint of not only waste management and control of environmental pollution but also resource conservation. This study investigated the distribution tendency of trace elements in municipal solid waste (MSW) or incinerator ash, including valuable non-ferrous metals (Ni, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ti, V, W, Zr), precious group metals (PGMs) originated from WEEE (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt), and others (Al, B, Pb, Si), between Fe-rich and Cu-rich metal phases by means of simple thermodynamic calculations. Most of the typical alloying elements for steel (Co, Cr, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ti, V, and W) and Rh were preferentially distributed into the Fe-rich phase. PGMs, such as Au, Ag, and Pd, were enriched in the Cu-rich phase, whereas Pt was almost equally distributed into both phases. Since the primary metallurgical processing of Cu is followed by an electrolysis for refining, and since PGMs in crude copper have been industrially recovered from the resulting anode slime, our results indicated that Ag, Au, and Pd could be effectively recovered from MSW if the Cu-rich phase could be selectively collected. PMID:22370049

  2. In situ surface magneto-optical Kerr effect (s-MOKE) study of ultrathin soft magnetic FeCuNbSiB alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herein we report on an in situ surface magneto-optical Kerr effect (s-MOKE) study of ion-beam-sputtered ultra-thin films of an amorphous Fe73.9Cu0.9Nb3.1Si13.2B8.9 (FINEMET) alloy with film growth that ranges from a fraction of a nm to a few tens of nms. Extrapolating the linear variation of the Kerr signal with film thickness suggests the absence of a magnetic dead layer at the substrate/FINEMET film interface, and hence the absence of any intermixing. The presence of a thin SiO2 film at the surface of the Si substrate may be responsible for preventing possible intermixing of Fe with Si to form nonmagnetic silicide. Close to the onset of ferromagnetic ordering, a steep increase in the coercive field with film thickness can be explained in terms of the Volmer–Weber growth of the film. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the hysteresis loops of a 41 nm-thick FINEMET film has been studied. The Curie temperature of the amorphous film is found to be lower than that of a ribbon of the same composition. The origin of a uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the as-prepared stage is attributed to the generation of some long-range stresses in the film, which are relieved close to the onset temperature for nanocrystallization. (paper)

  3. Effect of Copper and Niobium Addition on Crystallization Kinetics in Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B Alloys%Cu和Nb元素对Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B纳米晶合金晶化动力学的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广敏; 李德仁; 倪晓俊; 李准; 卢志超

    2013-01-01

    The activation energies of amorphous Fe78Si11B9 and nanocrystalline Fe73.5Cu1B7Si15.5Nb3 alloys were tested by a high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimeter with different heating rates.Kissinger equation was adopted to calculate the activation energies of the primary phase of Fe73.5Cu1B7Si15.5Nb3 alloy (295±5) kJ and the crystal phase of Fe78Si11B9 alloy (370± 3) kJ.The low activation energy of the primary phase for Fe73.5Cu1B7Si15.5Nb3 alloy is related to the precipitation of Cu clusters.The precipitation kinetics of Cu clusters was analyzed.The calculated result of the mean radius Rm of Cu cluster is 3 nm after aging for 3600 s at 773 K in Fe73.5Cu1B7Si15.5Nb3 glass alloy and the maximum value of number density is 3.7 × 1024/m3 after aging for 2.5 h at 773 K,which accords with K.Hono's observation (approximately 3 nm after annealing at 673 K or 3600 s).The density of Cu is in the order of 1024 m-3).%在差热扫描分析仪上以不同加热速率测试非晶Fe78Si11B9和纳米晶Fe73.5Cu1B7Si15.5Nb3合金晶化情况,采用Kissinger方程计算非晶Fe78Si11B9合金的激活能为(370±3)kJ,Fe73.5Cu1B7Si15.5Nb3纳米晶第一晶化相的激活能为(295±5)kJ;提出纳米晶Fe73.5Cu1B7Si15.5Nb3合金初晶相激活能较低与率先析出的Cu簇刺激晶化相析出有关;分析了Cu簇的析出动力学,计算出Fe73.5Cu1B7Si15.5Nb3合金在773 K保温3600 s时Cu簇的生长平均半径为3 nm,在773 K保温2.5h时,最大析出体积密度为3.7×1024/m3;计算结果与K.Hono试验观察结果一致(在673 K保温3600 s,平均半径3nm,析出Cu簇的密度数量级在1024/m3).

  4. Variational-average-atom-in-quantum-plasmas (VAAQP) code and virial theorem: equation-of-state and shock-Hugoniot calculations for warm dense Al, Fe, Cu, and Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piron, R; Blenski, T

    2011-02-01

    The numerical code VAAQP (variational average atom in quantum plasmas), which is based on a fully variational model of equilibrium dense plasmas, is applied to equation-of-state calculations for aluminum, iron, copper, and lead in the warm-dense-matter regime. VAAQP does not impose the neutrality of the Wigner-Seitz ion sphere; it provides the average-atom structure and the mean ionization self-consistently from the solution of the variational equations. The formula used for the electronic pressure is simple and does not require any numerical differentiation. In this paper, the virial theorem is derived in both nonrelativistic and relativistic versions of the model. This theorem allows one to express the electron pressure as a combination of the electron kinetic and interaction energies. It is shown that the model fulfills automatically the virial theorem in the case of local-density approximations to the exchange-correlation free-energy. Applications of the model to the equation-of-state and Hugoniot shock adiabat of aluminum, iron, copper, and lead in the warm-dense-matter regime are presented. Comparisons with other approaches, including the inferno model, and with available experimental data are given. This work allows one to understand the thermodynamic consistency issues in the existing average-atom models. Starting from the case of aluminum, a comparative study of the thermodynamic consistency of the models is proposed. A preliminary study of the validity domain of the inferno model is also included.

  5. Variational-average-atom-in-quantum-plasmas (VAAQP) code and virial theorem: equation-of-state and shock-Hugoniot calculations for warm dense Al, Fe, Cu, and Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piron, R; Blenski, T

    2011-02-01

    The numerical code VAAQP (variational average atom in quantum plasmas), which is based on a fully variational model of equilibrium dense plasmas, is applied to equation-of-state calculations for aluminum, iron, copper, and lead in the warm-dense-matter regime. VAAQP does not impose the neutrality of the Wigner-Seitz ion sphere; it provides the average-atom structure and the mean ionization self-consistently from the solution of the variational equations. The formula used for the electronic pressure is simple and does not require any numerical differentiation. In this paper, the virial theorem is derived in both nonrelativistic and relativistic versions of the model. This theorem allows one to express the electron pressure as a combination of the electron kinetic and interaction energies. It is shown that the model fulfills automatically the virial theorem in the case of local-density approximations to the exchange-correlation free-energy. Applications of the model to the equation-of-state and Hugoniot shock adiabat of aluminum, iron, copper, and lead in the warm-dense-matter regime are presented. Comparisons with other approaches, including the inferno model, and with available experimental data are given. This work allows one to understand the thermodynamic consistency issues in the existing average-atom models. Starting from the case of aluminum, a comparative study of the thermodynamic consistency of the models is proposed. A preliminary study of the validity domain of the inferno model is also included. PMID:21405914

  6. The association between content of the elements S, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in normal and cirrhotic liver tissue from Danes and Greenlandic Inuit examined by dual hierarchical clustering analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jens; Milman, Nils; Pind, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    PROJECT: Meta-analysis of previous studies evaluating associations between content of elements sulphur (S), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and bromine (Br) in normal and cirrhotic autopsy liver tissue samples. PROCEDURE: Normal liver samples from 45 Greenlandic...... Inuit, median age 60 years and from 71 Danes, median age 61 years. Cirrhotic liver samples from 27 Danes, median age 71 years. Element content was measured using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. STATISTICS: Dual hierarchical clustering analysis, creating a dual dendrogram, one clustering element....... The analysis discriminated between elements in normal and cirrhotic livers. The other dendrogram clustered elements in four clusters: sulphur and chlorine; copper and bromine; potassium and zinc; iron. There were significant correlations between the elements in normal liver samples: S was associated with Cl, K...

  7. A magnetic study of ThCr2Si2-type pseudo-ternary RMn1.5T0.5Ge2 compounds. (R=Y,Ce-Sm,Gd-Ho; T=Fe,Cu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on bulk magnetization measurements performed on ThCr2Si2-type RMn1.5T0.5Ge2 compounds (R=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Ho; T=Cu, Fe). These pseudo-ternary compounds display largely correlated variations of their magnetic transition temperatures. This phenomenon might be related to magnetic properties based on competing in-plane and inter-plane Mn-Mn interactions. The RMn1.5Cu0.5Ge2 compounds are characterized by relatively large magnetocrystalline anisotropy. (orig.)

  8. Post-irradiation annealing behavior of neutron-irradiated FeCu, FeMnNi and FeMnNiCu model alloys investigated by means of small-angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergner, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, POB 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Ulbricht, A., E-mail: a.ulbricht@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, POB 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Lindner, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin Grenoble, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Keiderling, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Malerba, L. [SCK-CEN Mol, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    Neutron irradiation of reactor pressure vessel steels gives rise to the formation of thermodynamically stable and unstable nano-features. The present work is focused on the stability of Cu-, Mn- and Ni-containing solute clusters in model alloys exposed to post-irradiation annealing. Fe0.1Cu, Fe1.2Mn0.7Ni and Fe1.2Mn0.7Ni0.1Cu (wt%) model alloys irradiated up to neutron exposures of 0.1 and 0.19 dpa (displacements per atom) were annealed at stepwise increasing temperatures in the range from 300 °C (i.e. near irradiation temperature) to 500 °C and characterized by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). We have found characteristic differences in the annealing behavior of the alloys. In particular, there is a non-trivial (synergistic–antagonistic) interplay of Mn/Ni and Cu.

  9. Fe-Cu合金基体损伤的分子动力学模拟研究%MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION OF MATRIX RADIATION DAMAGE IN Fe-Cu ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺新福; 杨鹏; 杨文

    2011-01-01

    采用分子动力学模拟了压力容器模型材料Fe-0.05Cu和Fe-0.3Cu合金的级联碰撞过程,研究了辐照导致的缺陷构型及其特征能量、Cu的空位迁移机理、Cu含量对初始损伤的影响、辐照温度对间隙原子团簇和空位团簇的影响等.结果表明,Cu对级联碰撞产生的缺陷数量、湮灭和复合没有明显影响,但可降低空位迁移能.辐照温度对团簇有明显影响.%The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is the highest priority key component in nuclear power plants and is considered irreplaceable. The embrittlement of RPV steels is in general thought to be caused primarily by the formation of Cu-enriched clusters, the formation of matrix damage features, and the segregation of P atoms at grain boundaries. The displacement cascades in Fe-0.05Cu and Fe-0.3Cu alloys were studied by molecular dynamics in the current work. It was found that substitutional Cu does not significantly affect the amount, annihilation and recombination of defect produced by displacement cascade but affects the vacancy migration energy significantly. The self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) clusters and vacancies clusters are formed during the displacement cascades and affected by irradiation temperature.

  10. Structure and Strength of Iron-Copper-Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Boshko, Oleh; Dashevskyi, Mykola; Mykhaliuk, Olga; Ivanenko, Kateryna; Hamamda, Smail; Revo, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    Nanocomposite materials of the Fe-Cu system with/without small addition of carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by mechanochemical activation of elemental Fe and Cu powders in a high-energy planetary ball mill and have been examined by the X-ray diffraction method, SEM and the thermopower methods; the tensile strength of the materials obtained has been estimated. The metastable (Fe, Cu) supersaturated solid solution is formed in the Fe-Cu nanocomposites during milling process. The coherent ...

  11. Fe-Cu二元互不溶体系中纳米晶过饱和固溶体的机械合金化制备研究进展%Research progress on mechanical alloying preparation of nanocrystalline supersaturated solid solution in Fe-Cu immiscible system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志方; 周帆

    2015-01-01

    Fe-Cu二元互不溶体系合金在机械合金化过程中形成纳米晶过饱和固溶体,并显示出与其微米尺度结构合金所不同的独特性能.综述了近年来Fe-Cu二元互不溶体系中纳米晶过饱和固溶体的机械合金化研究进展,着重介绍了Fe-Cu纳米晶过饱和固溶体的形成机理及其力学和物理性能等.

  12. Recovery of zinc and manganese, and other metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr, Na, K) from Zn-MnO2 and Zn-C waste batteries: Hydroxyl and carbonate co-precipitation from solution after reducing acidic leaching with use of oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobianowska-Turek, A.; Szczepaniak, W.; Maciejewski, P.; Gawlik-Kobylińska, M.

    2016-09-01

    The article discusses the current situation of the spent batteries and portable accumulators management. It reviews recycling technologies of the spent batteries and portable accumulators which are used in the manufacturing installations in the world. Also, it presents the authors' research results on the reductive acidic leaching of waste material of the zinc-carbon batteries (Zn-C) and zinc-manganese batteries (alkaline Zn-MnO2) delivered by a company dealing with mechanical treatment of this type of waste stream. The research data proved that the reductive acidic leaching (H2SO4 + C2H2O4) of the battery's black mass allows to recover 85.0% of zinc and 100% of manganese. Moreover, it was found that after the reductive acidic leaching it is possible to recover nearly 100% of manganese, iron, cadmium, and chromium, 98.0% of cobalt, 95.5% of zinc, and 85.0% of copper and nickel from the solution with carbonate method. On the basis of the results, it is possible to assume that the carbonate method can be used for the preparation of manganese-zinc ferrite.

  13. Structure and Strength of Iron-Copper-Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshko, Oleh; Dashevskyi, Mykola; Mykhaliuk, Olga; Ivanenko, Kateryna; Hamamda, Smail; Revo, Sergiy

    2016-02-01

    Nanocomposite materials of the Fe-Cu system with/without small addition of carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by mechanochemical activation of elemental Fe and Cu powders in a high-energy planetary ball mill and have been examined by the X-ray diffraction method, SEM and the thermopower methods; the tensile strength of the materials obtained has been estimated. The metastable (Fe, Cu) supersaturated solid solution is formed in the Fe-Cu nanocomposites during milling process. The coherent scattering block size of the materials obtained is decreased with increase of milling time. The duration of mechanochemical activation affects the physical properties of nanocomposites studied. Addition of a small amount of nanotubes into Fe-Cu charge results in a significant increase of strength of the Fe-Cu (4:1) + CNT nanocomposite materials (NCMs) obtained.

  14. Structure and Strength of Iron-Copper-Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshko, Oleh; Dashevskyi, Mykola; Mykhaliuk, Olga; Ivanenko, Kateryna; Hamamda, Smail; Revo, Sergiy

    2016-12-01

    Nanocomposite materials of the Fe-Cu system with/without small addition of carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by mechanochemical activation of elemental Fe and Cu powders in a high-energy planetary ball mill and have been examined by the X-ray diffraction method, SEM and the thermopower methods; the tensile strength of the materials obtained has been estimated. The metastable (Fe, Cu) supersaturated solid solution is formed in the Fe-Cu nanocomposites during milling process. The coherent scattering block size of the materials obtained is decreased with increase of milling time. The duration of mechanochemical activation affects the physical properties of nanocomposites studied. Addition of a small amount of nanotubes into Fe-Cu charge results in a significant increase of strength of the Fe-Cu (4:1) + CNT nanocomposite materials (NCMs) obtained. PMID:26858160

  15. Buried nodules and associated sediments from the central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.; Dutta, P.

    ) at different depths show variable abundances of micronodules, volcanic glass shards and biodebris. Dissolution of biodebris increases and abundance of micronodules decreases with increasing depth. Enrichment in Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, together with a decrease...

  16. Variation in size, morphology and chemical composition of polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Parthiban, G.

    Chemical composition of 613 polymetallic nodules from 150 stations in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) are determined and variations in Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn and moisture content are studied with respect to their size and surface texture...

  17. Positron annihilation study of Fe-ion irradiated reactor pressure vessel model alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Li, Z. C.; Schut, H.; Sekimura, N.

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of reactor pressure vessel steels under irradiation, which results from the hardening and embrittlement caused by a high number density of nanometer scale damage, is of increasingly crucial concern for safe nuclear power plant operation and possible reactor lifetime prolongation. In this paper, the radiation damage in model alloys with increasing chemical complexity (Fe, Fe-Cu, Fe-Cu-Si, Fe-Cu-Ni and Fe-Cu-Ni-Mn) has been studied by Positron Annihilation Doppler Broadening spectroscopy after 1.5 MeV Fe-ion implantation at room temperature or high temperature (290 oC). It is found that the room temperature irradiation generally leads to the formation of vacancy-type defects in the Fe matrix. The high temperature irradiation exhibits an additional annealing effect for the radiation damage. Besides the Cu-rich clusters observed by the positron probe, the results show formation of vacancy-Mn complexes for implantation at low temperatures.

  18. Electron irradiation-induced mechanical property changes in reactor pressure vessel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, D.E.; Rehn, L.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-11-01

    High-energy electrons were used to study tensile property changes in simple Fe-Cu and Fe-Cu-Mn alloys irradiated at 288C. A comparison was made with neutron irradiation data on the same alloys. An apparent effect of alloy chemistry was observed in which the presence of Mn affected embrittlement differently for electron and neutron irradiation. Comparison of previous experimental studies with the present experimental results indicates that electrons may be more efficient than fast neutrons at producing embrittlement.

  19. Magnetoimpedance in amorphous/metal/amorphous sandwiched films at GHz frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, UFSM, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: mmacorrea@gmail.com; Viegas, A.D.C. [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, UFSM, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Silva, R.B. da [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, UFSM, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Andrade, A.M.H. de [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, UFSM, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Sommer, R.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2006-10-01

    In this work, we report a comparative study of the magnetoimpedance in sandwiched films with the structure FS/Cu/FS (SWS) and FM/Cu/FM (SWM) where FS=single-layer FeCuNbSiB and FM=multilayer FeCuNbSiB/Cu. Magnetoimpedance ratios of 250% were obtained for the real part of the impedance in the SWM sample, while variations of 100% were reached for the SWS sample.

  20. Preparation and characterization of iron-copper binary oxide and its effective removal of antimony(III) from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchao; Geng, Bing; Hu, Xiaoxian; Ren, Bozhi; Hursthouse, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    An Fe-Cu binary oxide was fabricated through a simple co-precipitation process, and was used to remove Sb(III) from aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements demonstrated that the Fe-Cu binary oxide consisted of poorly ordered ferrihydrite and CuO, and its specific surface area was higher than both iron oxide and copper oxide. A comparative test indicated that Fe/Cu molar ratio of prepared binary oxide greatly influenced Sb(III) removal and the optimum Fe/Cu molar ratio was about 3/1. Moreover, a maximum adsorption capacity of 209.23 mg Sb(III)/g Fe-Cu binary oxide at pH 5.0 was obtained. The removal of Sb(III) by Fe-Cu binary oxide followed the Freundlich adsorption isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetics in the batch study. The removal of Sb(III) was not sensitive to solution pH. In addition, the release of Fe and Cu ions to water was very low when the pH was greater than 6.0. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the Sb(III) adsorbed on the surface was not oxidized to Sb(V). PMID:27438244

  1. Phase separation and rapid solidification of liquid Cu60Fe30Co10 ternary peritectic alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The metastable liquid phase separation and rapid solidification of Cu60Fe30Co10 ternary peritectic alloy were investigated by using the drop tube technique and the differential scanning calorimetry method. It was found that the critical temperature of metastable liquid phase separation in this alloy is 1623.5 K, and the two sepa- rated liquid phases solidify as Cu(Fe,Co) and Fe(Cu,Co) solid solutions, respec- tively. The undercooling and cooling rate of droplets processed in the drop tube increase with the decrease of their diameters. During the drop tube processing, the structural morphologies of undercooled droplets are strongly dependent on the cooling rate. With the increase of the cooling rate, Fe(Cu,Co) spheres are refined greatly and become uniformly dispersed in the Cu-rich matrix. The calculations of Marangoni migration velocity (VM) and Stokes motion velocity (VS) of Fe(Cu,Co) droplets indicated that Marangoni migration contributes more to the coarsening and congregation of the minor phase during free fall. At the same undercooling, the VM/VS ratio increases drastically as Fe(Cu,Co) droplet size decreases. On the other hand, a larger undercooling tends to increase the VM/VS value for Fe(Cu,Co) drop- lets with the same size.

  2. Phase separation and rapid solidification of liquid Cu60Fe30Co10 ternary peritectic alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI FuPing; CAO ChongDe; WEI BingBo

    2007-01-01

    The metastable liquid phase separation and rapid solidification of Cu60Fe30Co10 ternary peritectic alloy were investigated by using the drop tube technique and the differential scanning calorimetry method. It was found that the critical temperature of metastable liquid phase separation in this alloy is 1623.5 K, and the two separated liquid phases solidify as Cu(Fe,Co) and Fe(Cu,Co) solid solutions, respectively. The undercooling and cooling rate of droplets processed in the drop tube increase with the decrease of their diameters. During the drop tube processing, the structural morphologies of undercooled droplets are strongly dependent on the cooling rate. With the increase of the cooling rate, Fe(Cu,Co) spheres are refined greatly and become uniformly dispersed in the Cu-rich matrix. The calculations of Marangoni migration velocity (VM) and Stokes motion velocity (VS) of Fe(Cu,Co) droplets indicated that Marangoni migration contributes more to the coarsening and congregation of the minor phase during free fall. At the same undercooling, the VM/VS ratio increases drastically as Fe(Cu,Co) droplet size decreases. On the other hand, a larger undercooling tends to increase the VM/VS value for Fe(Cu,Co) droplets with the same size.

  3. Release of Heavy Metals from the Pyrite Tailings of Huangjiagou Pyrite Mine: Batch Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangqian Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To provide the basic information about the release of heavy metals from the pyrite tailings of Huangjiagou pyrite mine, the pyrite tailings were investigated through a series of batch experiments under different initial pH of extractant, temperature, liquid-solid (LS ratio, and soaking time conditions. Moreover, calcium carbonate was added in the pyrite tailings to determine the reduction effect on the release of heavy metals. The results show that Fe, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Ni were the major heavy metals in the pyrite tailings. Low initial pH and high LS ratio significantly promoted Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn release, and high temperature significantly promoted Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni release. Only small amounts of Cr were detected at low LS ratios. With the increase of soaking time, the released amount of Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn increased to the maximum value within 48 h, respectively. After adding calcium carbonate, the released amounts of Fe, Cu, and Zn reduced at least 70.80% within 48 h soaking time. The results indicate that summer and the early soaking stage are the main phases for the release of heavy metals from the pyrite tailings. In the pyrite tailings, Cr is difficult to release. Adding calcium carbonate can effectively reduce the release of Fe, Cu, and Zn.

  4. Trace element determination in amniotic fluid by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaves, E.D.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Castelli, C.; Borgerg, C. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela); Meitin, J.; Liendo, J.

    1995-03-01

    A new method is reported for the determination of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Br in amniotic fluid (AF) by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence. The irradiation of AF samples with monochromatic X-Rays reduces the scattering background from the organic matrix and avoids the need for sample digestion. Sample manipulation is reduced to centrifuging and adding cobalt as internal standard. Lower detection limits obtained are 109, 53, 44 and 37 ppb for Fe, Cu, Zn and Br respectively. Measurement precision depends on element concentrations and can be as low as 1.5% SD. Results of the analysis of 34 AF samples from Venezuelan pregnant patients agree with previously reported ranges of Fe, Cu and Zn. Other elements observed but not quantified are Cl, K, Ca in all spectra and Pb and Sr in some of them. (author).

  5. Growth of Photosynthetic Biofilms and Fe, Pb, Cu, and Zn Speciation in Unsaturated Columns with Calcareous Mine Tailings from Arid Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. García-Meza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailing remediation aims to reduce the rate of sulfide mineral oxidation. Earlier studies showed that photosynthetic biofilms may act as a physical barrier against oxygen diffusion. Currently, a long-term assay (6 months is required to evaluate the solid phase redistribution of the Pb, Fe, Cu, and Zn originally present in historic and calcareous mine tailing samples (in our case from a semiarid region in North-Central Mexico. The presence of biofilms may provide chemical gradients and physical conditions that shift the proportion of Fe, Cu, and Zn originally associated with oxides to carbonates and organic matter/sulfide fractions.

  6. Actividad catalítica de metales de transición en la descomposición de peróxido de hidrógeno

    OpenAIRE

    José G. Carriazo; Luis. F. Bossa-Benavides; Eliana Castillo

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the catalytic activities of some transition metal ions (Fe3+, Co2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+) in the H2O2 decomposition in homogenous and heterogeneous processes, including solid mixed systems (Fe-Cu-Co/Al2O3, Fe-Cu/Al2O3, Fe-Co/Al2O3 and Co-Cu/Al2O3). The solids were characterised by X-ray diffraction to explore evolution of phases or possible changes. Different trends of the catalytic activity were observed: in homogeneous medium the most active species was Fe3+, whereas in hete...

  7. Probing giant magnetoresistance with THz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zuanming; Tkach, Alexander; Casper, Frederick;

    2014-01-01

    We observe a giant magnetoresistance effect in CoFe/Cu-based multistack using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The magnetic field-dependent dc conductivity, electron scattering time, as well as spin-asymmetry parameter of the structure are successfully determined. © 2014 OSA.......We observe a giant magnetoresistance effect in CoFe/Cu-based multistack using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The magnetic field-dependent dc conductivity, electron scattering time, as well as spin-asymmetry parameter of the structure are successfully determined. © 2014 OSA....

  8. Sumario de la mineralización metalífera y su genesis en Galicia occidental (España)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ypma, P.J.M.

    1967-01-01

    The mineralizations of Fe, Cu, Li, Sn, W in W. Galicia are discussed. Sulphidic mineralization of Fe and Cu is exemplified by a description of the mine of Fornás (SE. of Santiago de Compostela). Field and laboratory data (including geothermometry of the phases of the Fe-Zn-S system) suggest that the

  9. Metal analysis of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven varieties of cotton were investigated for 8 metal ions (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy. All of the varieties were grown at the same location. Half of the samples were dry (rain fed only) and the other were well-watered (irrigat...

  10. Research on spectrographic oil analysis of 12VE-230ZC diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the spectrographic analysis, this paper analyzes the concentration of elements inoil, such as Fe, Cu, Cr, Al, Si etc. In order to monitor conditions and diagnose faults, the correlationcoefficient of main elements in oil has been used to study wear characteristics of friction pairs inrunning-in and working periods.

  11. Elements in normal and cirrhotic human liver. Potassium, iron, copper, zinc and bromine measured by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, J.; Milman, N.; Leth, Peter Mygind;

    1990-01-01

    Various elements (K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br) were measured by X-ray flourescence spectrometry in cellular and connective tissue fractions of normal and cirrhotic liver samples obtained at autopsy. Normal livers: 32 subjects (16 males, 16 females) median age 69 years. Cirrhotic livers: 14 subjects (13 mal...

  12. Synthesis of higher alcohols over highly dispersed Cu-Fe based catalysts derived from layered double hydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xinyou; Fang, Kegong; Zhou, Juan; Zhao, Lu; Sun, Yuhan

    2016-05-15

    Highly dispersed Cu-Fe based catalysts with Fe/Cu molar ratios ranging from 0.2 to 1 were prepared via thermal decomposition of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) precursors and tested for higher alcohol synthesis (HAS) via CO hydrogenation. The catalysts were characterized using different techniques such as XRD, TEM, XPS, and H2-TPR. It was demonstrated that the Cu and Fe ions were highly dispersed in the brucite-like layers of the LDHs. With increased Fe/Cu atomic ratio, the tetrahedrally coordinated Cu ion content, Cu reduction temperatures, and the spacing of layers initially increase until the Fe/Cu ratio reaches 0.5 and then decrease. In addition to the catalytic evaluation for CO hydrogenation and catalyst characterization, the relationships between the physical-chemical properties of the catalysts and their catalytic performances were also investigated. It was also found that the alcohols/hydrocarbons ratios correlate linearly with the tetrahedrally coordinated Cu ion content. Moreover, higher reduction temperatures of Cu species as well as larger spacing between the layers in the catalyst are favorable for the synthesis of alcohols. The incorporation of a suitable amount of Fe is beneficial for the production of higher alcohols, with the best catalytic performance (alcohol selectivity of 20.77% and C2+ alcohol selectivity of 48.06%) obtained from a Fe/Cu atomic ratio of 0.5. PMID:26943001

  13. Kinetic process of mechanical alloying in Fe50Cu50

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, J.Y.; Jiang, Jianzhong; Yasuda, H.;

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that mechanical alloying in the immiscible Fe-Cu system is governed by the atomic shear event and shear-induced diffusion process. We found that an alpha-to-gamma phase transformation, as evidenced by the Nishiyama-Wasserman orientation relationship, occurs by simultaneous shearing...

  14. Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using Local Natural Soil in Abu Dhabi, U.A.E

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. Tayim; A. H. Al-Yazouri

    2005-01-01

    Local soil from the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirate is investigated for its efficiency in removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Eight different industrial water effluents from different industries were treated. Pb, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn were removed from industrial wastewaters yielding treated water with heavy metal concentrations well below the maximum limits enforced by environmental protection agencies.

  15. Influence of Ag covering layer on giant magnetoresistance of spin valve sandwich structure%银覆盖层对自旋阀三明治结构巨磁电阻的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜冲; 朱大中

    2005-01-01

    采用射频磁控溅射方法,制备了NiFe/Cu/CoFe和CoFe/Cu/CoFe/NiO两种不同结构类型的自旋阀.当使用Ag作为镜面覆盖层时,发现当Ag厚度大约在2.0~2.4nm时,不同结构的自旋阀样品NiFe/Cu/CoFe和CoFe/Cu/CoFe/NiO的巨磁电阻(GMR)都有较大幅度的提高.对Ag(tAg nm)/NiFe(6nm)/Cu(2.2nm)/CoFe(4nm)结构自旋阀,当tAg=2nm时,样品的GMR达到3.4%;对Ag(tAg nm)/CoFe(4nm)/Cu(2.2nm)/CoFe(4nm)/NiO(70nm)结构自旋阀,当tAg=2.4nm时,样品的GMR从6.9%提高到8.3%.应用半经典理论对银覆盖层的镜面反射作用进行了解释.

  16. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis of Fe, Zn and Cu in mice brain associated with Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜; 施继晔; 胡钧; 黄庆; 樊春海; 孙艳红

    2015-01-01

    The contents and distributions of metal elements in the brain are closely related to neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examined Fe, Cu and Zn contents in the brain section associated with Parkinson‘s disease (PD) using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF). PD mouse model induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-terahydropyridine (MPTP) was used for the elemental analysis (e.g., Fe, Cu and Zn) in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) region of mice brain tissue samples. We found that mice in the MPTP group had higher contents of Fe, Cu and Zn in the SNpc than the control group. After treating the PD mice with rapamycin, the contents of Fe, Cu and Zn were reduced, the dopamine neurons and motor function were rescued correspondingly. The results prompted that the SRXRF provided an ideal method for tracing and analyzing the metal elements in the brain section to assess the pathological changes of PD model and the therapeutic effect of drugs.

  17. The role of MgO content in ex situ MgB2 wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovac, P.; Hugek, I.; Meligek, T.;

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study of the effect of MgO content in the MgB2 powder used for ex situ made composite wires was carried out. Two single-core MgB2/Fe/Cu wires were made using commercial MgB2 powders from Alfa Aesar containing different fraction of MgO. Critical temperature and critical currents...

  18. PREPARATION OF NOVEL METALLIC AND BIMETALLIC CROSS-LINKED POLY (VINYL ALCOHOL) NANOCOMPOSITES UNDER MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A facile method utilizing microwave irradiation is described that accomplishes the cross-linking reaction of PVA with metallic and bimetallic systems. Nanocomposites of PVA-cross-linked metallic systems such as Pt, Cu, and In and bimetallic systems such as Pt-In, Ag-Pt, Pt-Fe, Cu...

  19. Measurement of mean excitation energy by energy loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuChang-Shi

    1997-01-01

    The mean excitation energy(MEE) for Al,Ti,Fe,Cu and Ta has been determined experimentally by the Landan equation,which describes the most probable energy loss of electrons in the incidence direction,and the results are consistent with the values given in the literature,THese provide a quick,easy and accurate evaluation method for the experimental MEE.

  20. Iron, copper, zinc and bromine mapping in cirrhotic liver slices from patients with hemochromatosis studied by microscopic synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis in continuous scanning mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterode, W. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ. Klinik fuer Innere Medizin IV, Klinische Abteilung fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: wolf.osterode@meduniwien.ac.at; Falkenberg, G. [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY (Germany); Hoeftberger, R. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Klinisches Institut fuer Neurologie (Austria); Wrba, F. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Klinisches Institut fuer Klinische Pathologie (Austria)

    2007-07-15

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are essential metals in physiological cell metabolism. While Fe is easy to determine biochemically in histological slices, Cu and zinc (Zn) distribution is frequently critical in confirming the presence of an overload in disturbed Fe/Cu metabolism. To analyze Fe, Cu and Zn in a near histological resolution, energy dispersive microscopic synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence was applied. In normal liver tissue, after fixation and imbedding in paraffin, mean Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were 152 {+-} 54, 20.1 {+-} 4.3 and 88.919.5 {mu}g/g sample weight, respectively. No substantial, characteristic differences in their distribution were found in the two-dimensional scans. In slices from patients with hemochromatosis mean Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were 1102 {+-} 539, 35.9 {+-} 14.6 and 27.2 {+-} 6.7 {mu}g/g sample weight, respectively. Additionally, a significant decrease in phosphorus and sulphur concentrations existed. An increased Cu around cirrhotic regenerations nodules is mostly associated with a lymphocytic infiltration in this region. Analyzing concentrations of Fe in different regions of the samples show a clear negative dependency between Fe and Cu, Cu and Zn, but a positive one between Fe and Zn. Conclusion: With a focal beam size of 15 {mu}m in diameter a resolution of the elemental distribution was achieved which is widely comparable with stained histological slices (20x light microscope). The analysis of simultaneous determined elements reveals metabolic differences between Fe, Cu and Zn in liver tissue from patients with hemochromatosis.

  1. Iron, copper, zinc and bromine mapping in cirrhotic liver slices from patients with hemochromatosis studied by microscopic synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis in continuous scanning mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterode, W.; Falkenberg, G.; Höftberger, R.; Wrba, F.

    2007-07-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are essential metals in physiological cell metabolism. While Fe is easy to determine biochemically in histological slices, Cu and zinc (Zn) distribution is frequently critical in confirming the presence of an overload in disturbed Fe/Cu metabolism. To analyze Fe, Cu and Zn in a near histological resolution, energy dispersive microscopic synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence was applied. In normal liver tissue, after fixation and imbedding in paraffin, mean Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were 152 ± 54, 20.1 ± 4.3 and 88.919.5 μg/g sample weight, respectively. No substantial, characteristic differences in their distribution were found in the two-dimensional scans. In slices from patients with hemochromatosis mean Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were 1102 ± 539, 35.9 ± 14.6 and 27.2 ± 6.7 μg/g sample weight, respectively. Additionally, a significant decrease in phosphorus and sulphur concentrations existed. An increased Cu around cirrhotic regenerations nodules is mostly associated with a lymphocytic infiltration in this region. Analyzing concentrations of Fe in different regions of the samples show a clear negative dependency between Fe and Cu, Cu and Zn, but a positive one between Fe and Zn. Conclusion: With a focal beam size of 15 μm in diameter a resolution of the elemental distribution was achieved which is widely comparable with stained histological slices (20× light microscope). The analysis of simultaneous determined elements reveals metabolic differences between Fe, Cu and Zn in liver tissue from patients with hemochromatosis.

  2. Metastable fcc-Fe film epitaxially grown on Cu(100) single-crystal underlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Shimamoto, Kohei; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2013-05-01

    Fe film of 40 nm thickness is prepared on fcc-Cu(100) single-crystal underlayer at room temperature by ultra-high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The film growth and the detailed structure are investigated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). An Fe single-crystal with metastable fcc structure nucleates on the underlayer. The HR-TEM shows that fcc lattice is formed from the Fe/Cu interface up to the film surface. A large number of misfit dislocations are introduced around the Fe/Cu interface due to an accommodation of lattice mismatch. Dislocations exist up to the film near surface. The lattice constant is estimated by XRD to be a = 0.3607 nm. The film shows a ferromagnetic property, which reflects the property of fcc-Fe crystal with high-spin ferromagnetic state.

  3. Actividad catalítica de metales de transición en la descomposición de peróxido de hidrógeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Carriazo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the catalytic activities of some transition metal ions (Fe3+, Co2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ in the H2O2 decomposition in homogenous and heterogeneous processes, including solid mixed systems (Fe-Cu-Co/Al2O3, Fe-Cu/Al2O3, Fe-Co/Al2O3 and Co-Cu/Al2O3. The solids were characterised by X-ray diffraction to explore evolution of phases or possible changes. Different trends of the catalytic activity were observed: in homogeneous medium the most active species was Fe3+, whereas in heterogeneous one the higher activities were shown for Co/Al2O3 and Co-Cu/Al2O3. A strong cooperative effect for the Co-Cu/Al2O3 system was observed, which can be considered as a new catalyst of interest for this type of reactions.

  4. Dried shiitake (Lentinulla edodes and oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms as a good source of nutrient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julita Reguła

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to presented in literature potential health benefits of shiitake Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegl. and oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr. Kumm., chemical composition as well as Fe, Cu and Zn ions sorption (in conditions related to human digestive tract by dried shiitake and oyster were investigated. Both dried mushrooms had the high content of dietary fiber, Fe, Cu, Mg, K but low of fat, Na and Ca. Relatively low sorption of micronutrients was found in pH = 1.8, while the high sorption of Cu and Fe was observed in pH = 8.7. Dried mushrooms satisfied the maximum permissible level standards concerning toxic metals. The results of the research suggest that dried shiitake and oyster mushrooms can be used as additives in food products.

  5. Formation mechanism of solute clusters under neutron irradiation in ferritic model alloys and in a reactor pressure vessel steel: clusters of defects; Mecanismes de fragilisation sous irradiation aux neutrons d'alliages modeles ferritiques et d'un acier de cuve: amas de defauts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meslin-Chiffon, E

    2007-11-15

    The embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) under irradiation is partly due to the formation of point defects (PD) and solute clusters. The aim of this work was to gain more insight into the formation mechanisms of solute clusters in low copper ([Cu] = 0.1 wt%) FeCu and FeCuMnNi model alloys, in a copper free FeMnNi model alloy and in a low copper French RPV steel (16MND5). These materials were neutron-irradiated around 300 C in a test reactor. Solute clusters were characterized by tomographic atom probe whereas PD clusters were simulated with a rate theory numerical code calibrated under cascade damage conditions using transmission electron microscopy analysis. The confrontation between experiments and simulation reveals that a heterogeneous irradiation-induced solute precipitation/segregation probably occurs on PD clusters. (author)

  6. PIXE study on inhibition effect of sodium alginate to the absorption of strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Xinpei [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Atomic Energy

    1992-12-31

    The sodium alginate extracted from sargassum of South China Sea significantly inhibited the absorption of Sr in human gastrointestinal tract. Because of the identical metabolism dynamics of radioactive Sr and stable Sr, oral medication experiments have been performed by using stable Sr as a tracer. Fifteen adult healthy subjects (10 males and 5 females) were involved and divided into two groups. Concentrations of Sr, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn in serum and urine (24 hours) at different times after oral medications were measured by PIXE. It was found from the PIXE results that Sr in serum and in urine were reduced (78 +/- 8.9)% and (78 +/- 11)% respectively by sodium alginate. A reasonable dosage of sodium alginate had little influence to the absorption of Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn. (author).

  7. Determination of trace elements in Syrian medicinal plants and their infusions by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khuder, A. [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)], E-mail: scientific2@aec.org.sy; Sawan, M.Kh.; Karjou, J. [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Razouk, A.K. [Department of Agriculture, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2009-07-15

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) techniques suited well for a multi-element determination of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Sr in some Syrian medicinal plant species. The accuracy and the precision of both techniques were verified by analyzing the Standard Reference Materials (SRM) peach-1547 and apple leaves-1515. A good agreement between the measured concentrations of the previously mentioned elements and the certified values were obtained with errors less than 10.7% for TXRF and 15.8% for XRF. The determination of Br was acceptable only by XRF with an error less than 24%. Furthermore, the XRF method showed a very good applicability for the determination of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Br in infusions of different Syrian medicinal plant species, namely anise (Anisum vulgare), licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra), and white wormwood (Artemisia herba-alba)

  8. Fe and Co nanostructures embedded into the Cu(100) surface: Self-Organization and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-organization and magnetic properties of small iron and cobalt nanostructures embedded into the first layer of a Cu(100) surface are investigated using the self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo method and density functional theory. The similarities and differences between the Fe/Cu(100) and the Co/Cu(100) are underlined. The time evolution of magnetic properties of a copper monolayer with embedded magnetic atoms at 380 K is discussed

  9. Biomarkers of environmental contaminants in field population of green mussel (Perna viridis) from Karnataka-Kerala coast (South West coast of India).

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnakumar, P.K.; Sasikumar, Geetha; Bhat, G. S.; Asokan, D.P.K.

    2006-01-01

    Biomarker: sister chromatid exchange (SCE); chromosomal aberration; micronucleus (MN); hemic neoplasia (HN), mutagenic activity; comet cells. Exposure/effect represented: exposure to trace metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, Zn, Pb, Mn) / DNA damage. Analytical technique: Toxic and essential elements in tissues were determined using AAS; metaphase chromosomes were viewed using light microscope (Olympus BX50) with image analysis facility; hemolymph was stained using the Schiff Feulgen-picromethyl blu...

  10. Bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals by the water fern, Azolla filiculoides Lam. in a wetland ecosystem affected by sewage, mine and industrial pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wet, L.P.D. de; Schoonbee, H.J.; Pretorius, J.; Bezuidenhout, L.M. (Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg (South Africa). Depts. of Zoology and Botany, Research Unit for Aquatic and Terrestrial Ecosystems)

    1990-10-01

    The bio-accumulation of the heavy metals, Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn and Cr by the water fern, Azolla filiculoides Lam. in a wetland ecosystem polluted by effluents from sewage works, mines and industries was investigated. Results showed that the different metals can be accumulated by the water fern at concentration levels not necessarily related to their actual concentrations in the aquatic environment, as measured in this case, in the bottom sediments. 45 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Determination of Cu/Zn and Fe in human serum of patients with sickle cell anemia using radiation synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, C.G.L. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Carvalho, S.M.F. [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti, 20.211-030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Anjos, M.J. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro, 20.559-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, R.T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    In this work we analyzed serum samples from patients with Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence using Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline at the Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). We studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 suffering from SCA and sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Moreover, there are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. The concentrations of Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger, 120% and 20%, respectively, when compared with the CG. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples from patients suffering from SCA than from the CG. Therefore, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serum samples from patients with Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) were analyzed by SRTXRF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was possible to determine the concentrations of the P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results indicate that the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index for diagnosis of SCA.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of the change of solid solubility in a binary system processed by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, C. [Instituto de Materiales y Procesos Termomecanicos, Facultad de Ciencias de la Ingenieria, Universidad Austral de Chile, Av. General Lagos 2086, Valdivia (Chile)], E-mail: ceaguilar@uach.cl; Martinez, V. [TEKMETALL, Metallurgical Solutions S.L., Po de Manuel Lardizabal No17, 20018 Donostia-Gipuzkoa (Spain); Navea, L.; Pavez, O.; Santander, M. [Departamento de Metalurgia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Atacama, Av. Copayapu 485, Copiapo (Chile)

    2009-03-05

    Using a non-equilibrium process, it is possible to extend the solid solubility range in metallic systems. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to apply a thermodynamic model to predict the change in the solubility limit of systems with positive enthalpy mixing (Cu-Cr and Fe-Cu) processed by mechanical alloying. It was found that increasing the density of crystalline defects alters the solubility limit in these binary systems.

  13. Study of the precipitation and of the hardening microscopic mechanisms under irradiation in dilute ferritic alloys; Etude de la precipitation et des mecanismes microscopiques de durcissement sous irradiation dans des alliages ferritiques dilues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathon, M.H

    1995-07-01

    The copper precipitation plays a significant role in the embrittlement process of reactor vessel steels under neutron irradiation at 300 deg C. In order to understand the copper precipitation mechanisms, we have studied model ferritic binary FeCu and ternary alloys FeCuX (X=Mn,Ni, Cr, P). These materials have been either Irradiated with 2.5 MeV electrons In the 175-360 deg C temperature range or thermal aged at 500 deg C. The evolution of materials has been followed by resistivity measurements under irradiation, by small angle neutron scattering and by Vickers microhardness measurements. We have shown the similarity of copper precipitation under thermally ageing at 500 deg C and electron Irradiation at 300 deg C, in FeCu{sub 1,34%}. This result confirms that the main effect of electronic irradiation is to accelerate precipitation. Nevertheless, we have observed that irradiation induces an additional contribution to hardening attributed to point defect clusters. Concerning the ternary alloys, we observed that at 300 deg C the addition of a third element has no significant effect on the copper precipitation kinetic under irradiation but that at lower temperature manganese slows down precipitation kinetic. In order to reproduce the experimental results obtained on FeCu{sub 1,34%} by using a cluster kinetics model, we have to suppose that the precipitation is heterogeneous and controlled by interface reactions for the small size clusters. In addition, neutron or electron irradiated industrial steels have been studied by small angle neutron scattering. The results revealed the presence of nano-metric solute clusters which contain few copper atoms and which are not linked to the formation of displacement cascades. (author)

  14. Milk and Dairy Products : A Unique Micronutrient Combination

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Milk and dairy products contain micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins, which contribute to multiple and different vital functions in the organism. The mineral fraction is composed of macroelements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl) and oligoelements (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se). From a physicochemical point of view, the chemical forms, the associations with other ions or organic molecules, and the location of macroelements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl in milk are relatively well described and unde...

  15. Atomistic simulations of fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Embedded atom interaction potentials are used to simulate the atomistic aspects of the fracture process. Simulations are presented for the behavior of cracks in pure metals and intermetallics, near the Griffith condition. The materials considered include Fe, Cu, Ni as well as Fe, Ni, Co, and Ti aluminides. The work focuses on the comparative study of fracture behavior in the different materials. The role of the atomic relaxation at the crack tip and of lattice trapping phenomena is analyzed.

  16. The role of heavy metals and toxic materials in the physiological ecology of submersed macrophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Guilizzoni, Piero

    1991-01-01

    An overview of, and information from, a number of publications dealing with the availability, uptake rates and accumulation of metals (eg. Fe, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb) and organic substrances (e.g. polychlorinated biphensyls (PCB) and pesticides) by submersed and floating macrophytes are provided. Differences in metal enrichment are reported to be dependent mainly on the plant species, the seasonal growth rate changes, the tissue age, and metal or compound type. A brief review of the possible sites of...

  17. Chemical composition and radical scavenging activity of melanin from Auricularia auricula fruiting bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zou; Yue Zhao; Wenzhong Hu

    2015-01-01

    Melanin extracted from Auricularia auricula fruiting bodies (AAFB) was examined by element analyzer, amino acid analyzer, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Elemental composition analysis revealed that main component of AAFB melanin was pheomelanin. Amino acid analysis showed that 16 amino acids were found in AAFB melanin and total amino acid content was 321. 63 mg/g. There were 13 detectable metal elements in AAFB melanin, which was rich in Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn. In additi...

  18. The application of energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) to the analysis of cosmetic evidence in Indian nail polishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry in the quantitative analysis of samples of Indian nail polishes of apparently similar shades from different manufacturers has been examined by evaluating the possibility of detecting spurious material which is marketed under the guise of a popular brand. On the basis of the number of elements detected, and from the ratios of particular elements [Fe/Ti,Fe/Cu,Ti/Cu] the results are very encouraging. (author)

  19. Mikronährstoffstatus und kognitive Leistung bei Patienten der Gedächtnisambulanz Ulm

    OpenAIRE

    Hauel, Edith Maria

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency in micronutrients - vitamins and minerals - may add to impaired cognitive function and development of dementia in elderly. The objective of this study was to assess the micronutrient status and associated domain-specific cognitive performance of elderly out-patients of the memory clinic Ulm (Germany) with special focus on B-vitamins (B1, B6, folic acid, B12), antioxidant vitamins and provitamins (A, C, E, carotenes, lycopin), and redox-active minerals (Fe, Cu, Zn). Cognitive perfor...

  20. Advancements in Development of Chemical-Looping Combustion: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    He Fang; Li Haibin; Zhao Zengli

    2009-01-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel combustion technology with inherent separation of greenhouse CO2. Extensive research has been performed on CLC in the last decade with respect to oxygen carrier development, reaction kinetics, reactor design, system efficiencies, and prototype testing. Transition metal oxides, such as Ni, Fe, Cu, and Mn oxides, were reported as reactive species in the oxygen carrier particles. Ni-based oxygen carriers exhibited the best reactivity and stability dur...

  1. PIXE analysis of trace elements in cetacean teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIXE was adopted for analysis of trace elements in teeth of two species of cetaceans, sperm whale (Physeter microcephalus) and pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The analyses were performed along with the growth layer of the teeth, which is formed annually, suitable for age determination. Mn, Fe, Cu, Zu and Sr were detected in the teeth of sperm whale and pantropical spotted dolphin. Among these trace elements, gradual increase was observed for Zn/Ca ratio in the sperm whale's teeth. (author)

  2. A study of the hard magnetic properties in different hard magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic properties of several hard magnetic materials have been investigated to determine any trends in their magnetic characteristics. The materials studied were Nd15Fe77B8, SmCo5, Sm2 (Co,Fe,Cu,Zr)17, strontium ferrite magnets and single domain particles of Ba-ferrite and Cu-Mn-Al. The initial magnetization curves, field dependence of coercivity and remanence curves were measured

  3. Magnetostriction Dependence of the Relaxation Frequency in the Magnetoimpedance Effect for Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.L.Sánchez; V.M.Prida; B.Hernando; G.V.Kurlyandskaya; J.D.Santos; M.Tejedor; M.Vázquez

    2002-01-01

    The magnetoimpedance effect and changes of the relaxation frequency fx are studied in CoFeSiB and CoFeMoSiB amorphous and FeCuNbSiB nanocrystalline ribbons. The evolution of the magnetostriction constant λs and relaxation frequency is analysed for the states with different magnetic anisotropies induced in the same ribbons.A monotonic decrease of the relaxation frequency is observed for shifting of λs towards positive values.

  4. Growth Mechanism of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Iron–Copper Catalyst and Chirality Studies by Electron Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Maoshuai; Liu, Bilu; Chernov, Alexander I.;

    2012-01-01

    Chiralities of single-walled carbon nanotubes grown on an atomic layer deposition prepared bimetallic FeCu/MgO catalyst were evaluated quantitatively using nanobeam electron diffraction. The results reveal that the growth yields nearly 90% semiconducting tubes, 45% of which are of the (6,5) type...... by impregnation, showing similar catalytic performance as the atomic layer deposition-prepared catalyst, yielding single-walled carbon nanotubes with a similar narrow chirality distribution....

  5. Catalytic effect of heat-treated iron and copper phthalocyanines in non-aqueous electrolyte Li/air batteries. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Sheng S.; Ren, Xiaoming; Tran, Dat T.; Read, Jeffrey [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, RDRL-SED-C, Adelphi, MD (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In this review, we summarize our research on the characterization of FeCu/C catalyst and its effect in non-aqueous electrolyte Li/air cells. The catalyst is synthesized by impregnating metal phthalocyanine complex into a high surface area carbon, followed by pyrolyzing the complex-loaded carbon under argon atmosphere. High resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS) results indicate that the metals in the catalyst are present in the form of a mixture of metal-nitrogen complexes (MN) and metal oxides (MO). Using coin-type Li/air cells as the testing vehicle, the FeCu/C is determined to affect the Li/air cells in three manners: (1) It catalyzes two-electron oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to form Li{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which reduces discharge polarization of the Li/air cells, (2) It promotes chemical disproportionation of Li{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which leads to an apparent four-electron ORR, and (3) It induces reduction of electrolyte solvents, which adds a second lower discharge voltage plateau at {proportional_to} 1.7 V. In addition, the FeCu/C catalyst increases the open circle voltage (OCV) recovery rate of the Li/air cells as a result of the chemical disproportionation of Li{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which releases oxygen and the resulting oxygen participates in OCV recovery. (orig.)

  6. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN FISH, WATER AND SEDIMENTS OF AVSAR DAM LAKE IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Öztürk ، G. Özözen ، O. Minareci ، E. Minareci

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, some heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb were seasonally determined in water, sediment and some tissues of Cyprinus carpio from Avsar Dam Lake, which is an important water source for irrigation and drinking in Turkey. Heavy metal levels in water, sediment and fish samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP/AES. The obtained results showed that the average values of Fe in water samples were higher than the respective reference values for fresh water. Results for levels in water were compared with national and international water quality guidelines, as well as literature data reported for the lakes. The analysis of heavy metals in sediments indicated that among the six heavy metals tested, Fe was maximally accumulated, followed by Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd. Heavy metal concentrations were found to decrease in sequence of the Cyprinus carpio samples, in the muscle and stomach-intestine as Fe > Cu > Pb> Ni > Cr > Cd; in the gill, heart and liver as Fe > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Cd and in the air sac as Fe > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd >Cr. In the fish samples, cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead concentrations exceeded the tolerable values provided by international institutions.

  7. Magnetic property and interlayer segregation in spin valve metal multilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Guanghua(于广华); LI; Minghua(李明华); ZHU; Fengwu(朱逢吾); CHAI; Chunlin(柴春林); JIANG; Hongwei(姜宏伟); LAI; Wuyan(赖武彦)

    2002-01-01

    The experimental results show that the exchange coupling field of NiFe/FeMn for Ta/NiFe/FeMn/Ta multilayers is higher than that for the spin valve multilayers Ta/NiFe/Cu/NiFe/FeMn/Ta.In order to find out the reason,the composition and chemical states at the surfaces of Ta(12nm)/NiFe(7nm),Ta(12nm)/NiFe(7nm)/Cu(4nm) and Ta(12nm)/NiFe(7nm)/Cu(3nm)/NiFe(5nm) were studied using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).The results show that no elements from lower layers float out or segregate to the surface for the first and second samples.However,Cu atoms segregate to the surface of Ta(12nm)/NiFe(7nm)/Cu(3nm)/NiFe(5nm) multilayers,i.e.Cu atoms segregate to the NiFe/FeMn interface for Ta/NiFe/Cu/NiFe/FeMn/Ta multilayers.We believe that the presence of Cu atoms at the interface of NiFe/FeMn is one of the important factors causing the exchange coupling field of Ta/NiFe/FeMn/Ta multilayers to be higher than that of Ta/NiFe/Cu/NiFe/FeMn/Ta multilayers.``

  8. Effect of fermentation and extrusion on the release of selected minerals from lupine grain preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał W. Wójciak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Antinutritional factors in legumes lower the nutritional value of foods by lowering the digestibility or bioavailability of nutrients. Technological processes applied in food production (e.g. extrusion, fermentation, germination may influence the leguminous seeds matrix composition which in consequence may affect (improve or decrease mineral bioaccessibility and uptake in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fermentation and extrusion processing, as well as their combination, on the potential availability of Fe, Cu, and Zn from lupine grain preparations. Materials and methods. The content and the release of Fe, Cu and Zn from three different lupine species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus luteus, Lupinus angustifolius was determined. The samples were subjected to enzymatic digestion under in vitro conditions. The content of minerals in lupine grains before and after enzymatic digestion was determined by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results. The degree of release of Fe, Cu, and Zn from dehulled lupine grains was higher than from whole grains. Fermentation processing increased the degree of Fe release, extrusion decreased the degree of Cu release, while the extrusion after fermentation processing increased the degree of Fe release from lupine grain preparations. Conclusions. The degree of mineral release from lupine grains depends on the hull content, technological processing applied and the lupine variety.

  9. Synthesis of Fe–Cu/TiO{sub 2} nanostructure and its use in construction of a sensitive and selective sensor for metformin determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher, E-mail: mbgholivand@yahoo.com; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Paimard, Giti; Feyzi, Mostafa; Jafari, Fataneh

    2014-09-01

    A carbon paste electrode modified with Fe-Cu/TiO{sub 2} was prepared and used for low level determination of metformin (MET) using square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry (SWAdSV). The Fe-Cu/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle was synthesized by a modified sol–gel method. The surface structure and composition of nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD) and N{sub 2} physisorption. Also, electrochemical properties of the prepared nanocomposite modified electrode were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Under optimized conditions, the modified electrode exhibited a linear response over the concentration range of 15 nM to 75 μM MET, with a detection limit of 3 nM. The proposed sensor exhibited a high sensitivity, good selectivity and was successfully applied for MET determination in real samples such as human urine and pharmaceutical formulations. - Highlights: • A carbon paste modified electrode for determination of MET was developed. • The synthesized Fe-Cu/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite was used as a modifier. • The sensor was successfully applied for MET determination in real samples. • Square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric method was used for MET determination.

  10. Tunable characteristics of bending resonance frequency in magnetoelectric laminated composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Lei; Li Ping; Wen Yu-Mei; Zhu Yong

    2013-01-01

    As the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive laminated composites is mediated by mechanical deformation,the ME effect is significantly enhanced in the vicinity of resonance frequency.The bending resonance frequency (fr) of bilayered Terfenol-D/PZT (MP) laminated composites is studied,and our analysis predicts that (i) the bending resonance frequency of an MP laminated composite can be tuned by an applied dc magnetic bias (Hdc) due to the △E effect; (ii) the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite can be controlled by incorporating FeCuNbSiB layers with different thicknesses.The experimental results show that with Hdc increasing from 0Oe (1 Oe=79.5775 A/m)to 700 Oe,the bending resonance frequency can be shifted in a range of 32.68 kHz ≤ fr ≤ 33.96 kHz.In addition,with the thickness of the FeCuNbSiB layer increasing from 0 μm to 90 μm,the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite gradually increases from 33.66 kHz to 39.18 kHz.This study offers a method of adjusting the strength of dc magnetic bias or the thicknesses of the FeCuNbSiB layer to tune the bending resonance frequency for ME composite,which plays a guiding role in the ME composite design for real applications.

  11. Coupling between different superficial kinetics: segregation, precipitation and dissolution; Cinetiques couplees au voisinage des surfaces: segregation, precipitation et dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delage, St

    1998-12-31

    In most of alloys, the surface composition is different from bulk one. This phenomenon, called `surface segregation` have drawn up to now much attention in this case of alloys which have reached thermodynamic equilibrium in the solid solution. Using a kinetic model including bulk and surface driving forces, we study segregation phenomenon during dissolution and precipitation kinetics, in the case of the Fe-Cu alloy. Within a mean field approximation, we point out the dissolution modes for Fe/Cu and Cu/Fe deposit. If the substrate surface energy is lower than the deposit one (case of Fe/Cu deposit) the substrate element climbs through the deposit to reach the surface and forms a layer of the substrate element floating on the deposit. In the case of thick deposit (typically 10 monolayers), a competition between two layer by layer dissolution modes leads to a wide range of behaviours, depending on temperature and deposit thickness. Furthermore, the major part of the concentration profiles obtained during kinetics is at local equilibrium in a region near the surface. In the second part of this work, we study the surface influence during phase separation kinetics in thin layers using Monte-Carlo simulations. A surface directed spinodal decomposition occurs, leading to the appearance of a Cu-rich layer at the surface, which goes toward the layer`s core with time. This process is linked with bulk precipitation in layer`s core, and leads to different behaviours depending on average concentration and layer thickness. (authors) 125 refs.

  12. Trace elements and metals in farmed sea bass and gilthead bream from Tenerife Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Jalilli, A; Gutiérrez, A J; González-Weller, D; Hernández, F; Melón, E; Burgos, A; Revert, C; Hardisson, A

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of metals (Ca, K, Na, Mg) and trace metals (Ni, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd) in two fish species (gilthead bream [Sparus aurata] and sea bass [Dicentrarchus labrax]) collected from fish farms located along the coast of Tenerife Island. Ca, K, Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas Pb, Cd, and Ni were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn contents were 3.09, 0.59, 0.18, and 8.11 mg/kg (wet weight) in S. aurata and 3.20, 0.76, 0.24, and 10.11 mg/kg (wet weight) in D. labrax, respectively. In D. labrax, Ca, K, Na, and Mg levels were 1,955, 2,787, 699.7, and 279.2 mg/kg (wet weight), respectively; in S. aurata, they were 934.7, 3,515, 532.8, and 262.8 mg/kg (wet weight), respectively. The Pb level in S. aurata was 7.28 ± 3.64 μg/kg (wet weight) and, in D. labrax, 4.42 ± 1.56 μg/kg (wet weight). Mean Cd concentrations were 3.33 ± 3.93 and 1.36 ± 1.53 μg/kg (wet weight) for D. labrax and S. aurata, respectively. All Pb and Cd levels measured were well below the accepted European Commission limits, 300 and 50 μg/kg for lead and cadmium, respectively.

  13. Gaseous product mixture from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis as an efficient carbon feedstock for low temperature CVD growth of carbon nanotube carpets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almkhelfe, Haider; Carpena-Núñez, Jennifer; Back, Tyson C; Amama, Placidus B

    2016-07-21

    Low-temperature chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of carbon nanotube (CNT) carpets from Fe and Fe-Cu catalysts using a gaseous product mixture from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS-GP) as a superior carbon feedstock is demonstrated. This growth approach addresses a persistent issue of obtaining thick CNT carpets on temperature-sensitive substrates at low temperatures using a non-plasma CVD approach without catalyst pretreatment and/or preheating of the carbon feedstock. The efficiency of the process is evidenced by the highly dense, vertically aligned CNT structures from both Fe and Fe-Cu catalysts even at temperatures as low as 400 °C - a record low growth temperature for CNT carpets obtained via conventional thermal CVD. The grown CNTs exhibit a straight morphology with hollow interior and parallel graphitic planes along the tube walls. The apparent activation energies for CNT carpet growth on Fe and Fe-Cu catalysts are 0.71 and 0.54 eV, respectively. The synergistic effect of Fe and Cu show a strong dependence on the growth temperature, with Cu being more influential at temperatures higher than 450 °C. The low activation energies and long catalyst lifetimes observed are rationalized based on the unique composition of FTS-GP and Gibbs free energies for the decomposition reactions of the hydrocarbon components. The use of FTS-GP facilitates low-temperature growth of CNT carpets on traditional (alumina film) and nontraditional substrates (aluminum foil) and has the potential of enhancing CNT quality, catalyst lifetime, and scalability. PMID:27353432

  14. Trace elements in scalp hair of leukaemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuder Ali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in scalp hair of leukaemia patients and healthy volunteers, using the optimised XRF method. Leukaemia hair samples were classifi ed corresponding to type, growth and age of the participants. The results showed that the studied trace elements (TEs in both of leukaemia and control groups were positively skewed. In comparison with the control group, lower Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb and higher of Ni medians were found in all studied leukaemia patients. The median rank obtained by Mann-Whitney U-test revealed insignifi cant differences between the leukaemia patients subgroups and the controls. An exact probability (α 0.70 in the scalp hair of control group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn, Pb/Fe-Pb, Cu/Ni-Zn/Ni, Cu/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Fe-Zn/Cu, Pb/Ni-Ni and Ni/Fe-Pb/Ni, whereas only very strong positive ratios in the scalp hair of leukaemia patients group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn and Pb/Fe-Pb, all correlations were signifi cant at p < 0.05. Other strong and signifi cant correlations were also observed in scalp hair of both groups. Signifi cant differences between grouping of studied TEs in all classifi ed leukaemia groups and controls were found using principal component analysis (PCA. The results of PCA confi rmed that the type and the growth of leukaemia factors were more important in element loading than the age factor.

  15. Evaluation of Fe and Zn/Cu ratio in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. In this work we have analyzed serum samples from patients with SCA by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. We have studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 years old, suffering from SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years old. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Student's t-test was applied in order to check whether the two populations (CG x SCA) had the same mean values. It was observed that elemental concentration of P, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br differed significantly (α = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and SCA. The concentrations of K, Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger 15%, 120 % and 20 %, respectively, when compared with the CG. On the other hand, the concentrations of P (-20 %), Cl (-6 %), Zn (-25 %) and Br (-22 %) were smaller than the values determined for the control group. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples of patients with SCA group than the CG. So, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. (author)

  16. Responses in Micro-Mineral Metabolism in Rainbow Trout to Change in Dietary Ingredient Composition and Inclusion of a Micro-Mineral Premix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P; Geurden, Inge; Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Veron, Vincent; Larroquet, Laurence; Mariojouls, Catherine; Schrama, Johan W; Kaushik, Sadasivam J

    2016-01-01

    Responses in micro-mineral metabolism to changes in dietary ingredient composition and inclusion of a micro-mineral premix (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Se) were studied in rainbow trout. In a 2 x 2 factorial design, triplicate groups of rainbow trout (initial weight: 20 g) were fed over 12 weeks at 17°C a fishmeal-based diet (M) or a plant-ingredient based diet (V), with or without inclusion of a mineral premix. Trout fed the V vs. M diet had lower feed intake, growth, hepato-somatic index, apparent availability coefficient (AAC) of Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn and also lower whole body Se and Zn concentration, whereas whole body Fe and Cu and plasma Fe concentrations were higher. Feeding the V diet increased intestinal ferric reductase activity; at transcriptional level, hepatic hepcidin expression was down-regulated and ferroportin 1 was up-regulated. Transcription of intestinal Cu-transporting ATPases and hepatic copper transporter1 were higher in V0 compared to other groups. Among the hepatic metalo-enzyme activities assayed, only Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase was affected, being lower in V fed fish. Premix inclusion reduced the AAC of Fe, Cu and Zn; increased the whole body concentration of all micro- minerals; up-regulated hepatic hepcidin and down-regulated intestinal ferroportin 1 transcription; and reduced the transcription of Cu-transporting ATPases in the intestine. Overall, the regulation of micro-mineral metabolism in rainbow trout, especially Fe and Cu, was affected both by a change in ingredient composition and micro-mineral premix inclusion. PMID:26895186

  17. Evaluation of Fe and Zn/Cu ratio in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Instrumentaco Nuclear; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bellido, Alfredo Victor B., E-mail: alfredo@ien.gov.b [Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Chemistry Inst.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b [State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Physics Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. In this work we have analyzed serum samples from patients with SCA by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. We have studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 years old, suffering from SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years old. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Student's t-test was applied in order to check whether the two populations (CG x SCA) had the same mean values. It was observed that elemental concentration of P, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br differed significantly ({alpha} = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and SCA. The concentrations of K, Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger 15%, 120 % and 20 %, respectively, when compared with the CG. On the other hand, the concentrations of P (-20 %), Cl (-6 %), Zn (-25 %) and Br (-22 %) were smaller than the values determined for the control group. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples of patients with SCA group than the CG. So, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. (author)

  18. An assessment of the homogeneity of nano-crystalline Fe–Cu powders as studied by means of APT

    KAUST Repository

    Wille, Catharina

    2009-04-01

    In this contribution the homogeneity of mechanically alloyed Fe-Cu powders for two different compositions (Fe-10 and Fe-2.5 at%Cu) has been systematically characterised by atom probe tomography. Since Fe-Cu exhibits the Invar effect, it is among the most attractive systems for technical application. Furthermore, this system is immiscible and characterised by a large positive heat of mixing. In combination with the widespread application and accessibility, this predestines Fe-Cu as a binary model alloy to elaborate the enforced nonequilibrium enhanced solubility for immiscible systems. Depending on the parameters composition and milling time, results on the extension of the solubility limit and on the homogeneity of the alloy are presented, discussed and compared to earlier works. Only for the alloy with lower Cu content and for the prolonged milling time of 50 h, chemical homogeneity of the sample as measured by the atom probe was fully reached on the nano-scale. For all other parameter combinations homogeneity could not be achieved, even for long milling times and for those samples that appear to be homogeneous via X-ray analysis. Moreover, impurities were determined, mostly stemming from the fabrication procedure. The arrangement and homogeneity of the most common impurity, oxygen, was evaluated from atom probe data for different samples. Thus, the local concentration, segregation effects and the distribution of impurities could be quantified on the nano-scale, depending on the different nominal compositions and processing parameters. Additionally, structural information could be gained employing transmission electron microscopy and diffraction measurements. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Importance of the mineral fraction in dairy science and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Gaucheron, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are composed of proteins, lipids and sugar contributing to their nutritive and biological values. They also contain minerals in the form of macroelements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P and Cl) and trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, etc). Today, the analytical methods of quantification of these minerals allow us to have a precise idea of their contents in milk and dairy products. This knowledge plays a key role in dairy science and technology especially in the understanding on the s...

  20. Uptake of more important mineral components by common field weeds on loess soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Malicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have determined the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn in winter wheat, spring barley, sugar beets and winter rape, as well as in the most common weed species infesting these crops. It was established that the percentage of mineral components in the dry matter of the majority of weeds is higher than in that of the cultivated plants. The most dangerous weed species competing with plants for the investigated nutrients were: Chenopodium album, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Polygonum convolvulus, Sonchus arvensis and Stellaria media.

  1. Influence of copper and iron constitution for nickel in small quantities on magnetic properties of YNi3 and Y2Ni7 intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degree of magnetization in static fields up to 60 kOe and magnetic susceptibility in weak variables of the field of the Y (Ni1-χMχ)3 and Y2 (Ni1-χMχ)7 intermetallic compounds, where M = Fe, Cu χmax = 0.2, as well as heat capacity of some compositions of these systems are measured. It is found that these compounds are ferromagnetic at low temperatures and their spontaneous degrees of magnetization Ms at 4.2 K and Curie temperatures Tc monotonously decrease with increase in copper concentration and monotonously increase by increase in iron concentration

  2. EXTERNAL PIXE – A NOVEL APPROACH FOR DETERMINING TRACE ELEMENTS IN FERMENTATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.SrinivasaRao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available External Particle Induced X-ray Emission technique was employed in the study of submerged fermentation of ethanol from Jaggery using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the organism. Effect of KNO3 as a nitrogen source was studied and the uptake of the supplement was monitored. A Proton beam of 3MeV from the 3MV Tandom type pelletron accelerator was used for the multi-elemental analysis. Apart from K, other elements like Cr, Fe, Cu and Zn were identified. The sensitivity of the technique was also determined by varying the sample size between 2mm and 10mm.

  3. Radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence analysis of Asellus Aquaticus (Crustacea: Isopoda) from Istanbul as an indicator of environmental metal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some metal contents of the freshwater isopod: Asellus aquaticus (Crustacea: Isopoda), collected form the pool of the botanical garden of Istanbul University (at the vicinity of old city center of Istanbul), were analysed, in order to investigate urban metal pollution. The analysis of the homogenized sample of isopods indicated that it contained K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Cd, Cs and Hg in different amounts. The results were compared with those of other isopods and various organisms. (author)

  4. Interlayer exchange in the plumbo-jarosites: kagome systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we probe the causes behind the unconventional spin glass state of the kagome antiferromagnet hydronium jarosite, (H3O)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6, by study of the lead based compounds PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)2(OH)6, Pb(Fe,Cu)3(SO4)2(OH)6, and Pb0.5Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6. DC susceptibility measurements indicate that the glassy state is dependent on segregated layers of H3O+ ions in the crystal structure

  5. Trace elements in scalp hair of leukaemia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Khuder Ali; Bakir Mohammad Adel; Hasan Reem; Mohammad Ali; Habil Khozama

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in scalp hair of leukaemia patients and healthy volunteers, using the optimised XRF method. Leukaemia hair samples were classifi ed corresponding to type, growth and age of the participants. The results showed that the studied trace elements (TEs) in both of leukaemia and control groups were positively skewed. In comparison with the control group, lower Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb and higher of Ni medians were found in al...

  6. Zeolite-based SCR catalysts and their use in diesel engine emission treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-03-24

    A catalyst comprising a zeolite loaded with copper ions and at least one trivalent metal ion other than Al.sup.+3, wherein the catalyst decreases NO.sub.x emissions in diesel exhaust. The trivalent metal ions are selected from, for example, trivalent transition metal ions, trivalent main group metal ions, and/or trivalent lanthanide metal ions. In particular embodiments, the catalysts are selected from Cu--Fe-ZSM5, Cu--La-ZSM-5, Fe--Cu--La-ZSM5, Cu--Sc-ZSM-5, and Cu--In-ZSM5. The catalysts are placed on refractory support materials and incorporated into catalytic converters.

  7. Soil fertility status and nutrients provided to spring barley (Hordeum distichon L.) by pig slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Melisa Gómez-Garrido; Silvia Martínez-Martínez; Ángel Faz Cano; Asuman Büyükkilif-Yanardag; Arocena, Joselito M.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient recycling using pig slurry is a common agricultural practice to manage the ever-increasing amounts of wastes from the pig industry. This study was conducted in the southeast of Spain to quantify the enrichments in major (N, P, K, Mg) and minor (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn) nutrients in soils amended with D1-170 kg N ha-1 (European Union legislated dose) or D2-340 kg N ha-1, and understand the influence of pig slurry on yield and nutrient uptake in two crop seasons of spring barley (Hordeum di...

  8. Molecular physiology of nickel and cobalt homeostasis in Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Alberti, Jose Manuel; Rubio Sanz, Laura; Prieto Carbajo, Rosa Isabel; Menéndez Cerón, M.; Albareda Contreras, Marta; Clavijo, C.; Imperial Ródenas, Juan; Mandrand Berthelot, M. A.; Rodrigue, A; Cacho, C. del; Ruiz Argüeso, Tomas-Andres; Brito Lopez, Maria Belen

    2013-01-01

    Transition metals such as Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, or Co are essential nutrients, as they are constitutive elements of a significant fraction of cell proteins. Such metals are present in the active site of many enzymes, and also participate as structural elements in different proteins. From a chemical point of view, metals have a defined order of affinity for binding, designated as the Irving-Williams series (Irving and Williams, 1948) Mg2+ menor que Mn2+ menor que Fe2+ menor que Co2+ menor que Ni2+ m...

  9. Processing of Nanostructured WC-Co Powders and Sintered Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zongyin

    2003-01-01

    Processing of nanostructured WC-Co and W-Co powders,modelling of Fe-Mn-Si alloy, swelling of Fe-Cu alloy, andmechanical properties and sintering of Fe-Mn-Si steels havebeen studied in the present thesis. W-Co precursors made by chemical synthesis were used toproduce nanostructured WCCo and W-Co powders by calcination,reduction and carburization. The phase constituents in thecalcined powders depend on temperature and atmospheres. Cobaltcan accelerate the reduction rate of the W-Co precursors a...

  10. Constructive and critical approach of the radiation damage simulation; Approche constructive et critique de la simulation du dommage d'irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becquart, Ch

    2002-11-15

    This work deals with the problem of radiation damage in materials for applications in development of fission and nuclear fusion technologies. It is organised in 3 sections. In section 1 are presented the mechanisms of formation and the evolution kinetics of the primary damage. Section 2 is devoted to the study of the sensitivity of the radiation damage at different approximations. Section 3 discusses the contribution of the ab initio calculations to the study of radiation damage and more particularly the point defects in a dilute Fe-Cu ferritic alloy. This work is illustrated by several publications added in each section. (O.M.)

  11. Constructive and critical approach of the radiation damage simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the problem of radiation damage in materials for applications in development of fission and nuclear fusion technologies. It is organised in 3 sections. In section 1 are presented the mechanisms of formation and the evolution kinetics of the primary damage. Section 2 is devoted to the study of the sensitivity of the radiation damage at different approximations. Section 3 discusses the contribution of the ab initio calculations to the study of radiation damage and more particularly the point defects in a dilute Fe-Cu ferritic alloy. This work is illustrated by several publications added in each section. (O.M.)

  12. The application of XRF and PIXE in the analysis of rice shoot and compositional screening of genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bado, S.; Padilla-Alvarez, R.; Migliori, A.; Forster, B. P.; Jaksic, M.; Diawara, Y.; Kaiser, R.; Laimer, M.

    2016-03-01

    The analytical performance of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques was assessed in the determination of fourteen elements (Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr) in plant samples. The quality of the results - in terms of accuracy, associated uncertainty and correlation between the two methods - was evaluated with regard to their usability for compositional classification of different rice genotypes with known tolerance levels to salinity stress. Plant uptake of essential elements was explored by Principal Component Analysis, which illuminated patterns between treatments (salt and control treatments) and across the rice genotypes tested.

  13. [The element determination of six samples of petal powders by using XRF spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yan; Ma, Mi-Xia; Nie, Zuo-Ren

    2012-07-01

    Elements and contents in three kinds of petal powders of white and red rose, carnation, and butterfly orchis were determined by using XRF technic, and the data for every group were compared and analysed. The results indicated that all powders contain no toxic elements determined but have lots of normal elements and trace elements, such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Si, Sr, and Rb. The same sort of powder had approximately equivalent elements but their contents are different, and the element content of the white sort. was higher than the red one. PMID:23016365

  14. Integral Data Test of HENDL1.0/MG with Neutronics Shielding Experiments(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高纯静; 许德政; 李静惊; 吴宜灿; 邓铁如

    2004-01-01

    The multi-group working nuclear data library HENDL1.0/MG is numerically tested with a series of existent benchmark spherical shell experiments (Si, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zr and Nb) by calculations using the multi-functional neutronics code VisualBUS. The ratio of calculated/measured neutron leakage rates and the neutron leakage spectra are presented in tabular and figural forms.The results from the calculations with the code ANISN and IAEA data library FENDL2.0/MGwere also included for comparison, where the origination of the data used is different from that of HENDL1.0/MG.

  15. Portable EDXRF for Quality Assurance of Cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Luiz Melquiades; Paulo Sérgio Parreira; Lucas Yoshimi Endo; Geiele dos Santos; Luana Wouk; Otávio Portezan Filho

    2015-01-01

    Portable Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence is a viable, cost and time effective analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a wide range of samples. The objective of this study is to present a methodology for quantification of nail polishes, eye shadows, lipsticks and lip gloss using thin film geometry. The samples were applied over thin films, simulating its use on face and nails. It was possible to quantify S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Bi. The ...

  16. Trace elements in sera from patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Bhattacharya, A. [Department of Zoology, Calcutta University, Calcutta (India); Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.; Jal, P.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N. [Inter University Consortium for DAE Facilities, Calcutta Centre 3/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Calcutta (India); Dutta, R.K. [Schonland Research Centre for Nuclear Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2000-07-01

    Trace elements are known to have pivotal role in human health and disease. Present investigation employed PIXE analysis to probe into the elemental profile of patients suffering from visceral Leishmaniasis. Remarkable alternations were observed in concentration of elements like Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn. The pattern of enhancement of elemental concentration corresponds to the progression of the disease. Additionally, our present data reflect probable correlation between alteration in trace elemental status and other pathological syndromes associated with Leishmaniasis. The possibility of considering trace elements as a diagnostic marker for a better understanding of the disease is discussed. (author)

  17. Effect of Peculiarities of Heat Transfer, Diffusion and Phase Transformation on Joint Formation During Welding of Dissimilar Materials by High Power Fiber Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turichin, Gleb; Klimova, Olga; Valdaytseva, Ekaterina

    The article describes mathematical models of diffusion and thermal processes for welding of dissimilar materials and kinetic model of diffusion-controlled deposition and growth of intermetallic inclusions in the weld. Developed models were combined and implemented in the model of weld joint formation for dissimilar materials. To verify a model the microstructure analysis of weld joints and elemental analysis in the diffusion zone by SEM has been made for welding of systems Fe-Cu, Al-Ti, Fe-Al. The good agreement between calculated and experimental data has been obtained. Examples of developed technologies of welding of dissimilar materials using high-power fiber lasers were discussed also.

  18. Influence of Gold on Hydrotalcite-like Compound Catalysts for Toluene and CO Total Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Genty

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available X6Al2HT500 hydrotalcites, where X represents Mg, Fe, Cu or Zn were synthetized and investigated before and after gold deposition for toluene and CO total oxidation reactions. The samples have been characterized by specific areas, XRD measurements and Temperature Programmed Reduction. Concerning the toluene total oxidation, the best activity was obtained with Au/Cu6Al2HT500 catalyst with T50 at 260 °C. However, catalytic behavior of Au/X6Al2HT500 sample in both reactions depends mainly on the nature of the support.

  19. Do acupuncture points exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (State Key Laboratory), and Synchrotron Radiation Research Center of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu Chenglin [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Dang, Ruishan [Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Yuying; He Wei [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ding Guanghong [Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-05-07

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  20. The surface energy of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitos, Levente; Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1998-01-01

    We have used density functional theory to establish a database of surface energies for low index surfaces of 60 metals in the periodic table. The data may be used as a consistent starting point for models of surface science phenomena. The accuracy of the database is established in a comparison...... with other density functional theory results and the calculated surface energy anisotropies are applied in a determination of the equilibrium shape of nano-crystals of Fe, Cu, Mo, Ta, Pt and Ph. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. Investigation of energy thresholds of atomic and cluster sputtering of some elements under ion bombardment

    CERN Document Server

    Atabaev, B G; Lifanova, L F

    2002-01-01

    Threshold energies of sputtering of negative cluster ions from the Si(111) surface were measured at bombardment by Cs sup + , Rb sup + , and Na sup + ions with energy of 0.1-3.0 keV. These results are compared with the calculations of the similar thresholds by Bohdansky etc. formulas (3) for clusters Si sub n sup - and Cu sub n sup - with n=(1-5) and also for B, C, Al, Si, Fe, Cu atoms. Threshold energies of sputtering for the above elements were also estimated using the data from (5). Satisfactory agreement between the experimental and theoretical results was obtained. (author)

  2. Content of trace metals in medicinal plants and their extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Kostić Danijela; Mitić Snežana; Zarubica Aleksandra; Mitić Milan; Veličković Jasmina; Ranđelović Saša

    2011-01-01

    The heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) contents of selected plant species, grown in Southeast region of Serbia, that are traditionally used in alternative medicine were determined. Among the considered metals, iron content was the highest one and varied from 137.53 up to 423.32 mg/kg, while the contents of Cu, Zn and Mn were remarkably lower, and ranged from 8.91 to 62.20 mg/kg. In addition, an analysis of plants extracts showed a significant transfer of heavy metals during extraction pro...

  3. Feeding ecology of five commercial shark species of the Celtic Sea through stable isotope and trace metal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Domi, Nadège; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Das, Krishna

    2005-01-01

    In order to trace their feeding habits, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (d15N and d13C), as well as trace metal concentrations (Zn, Cd, Fe, Cu, Se and Hg) were analysed in the tissues of five commercial shark species from the Celtic Sea: the tope shark Galeorhinus galeus, the black-mouthed catshark Galeus melastomus, the starry smooth hound Mustelus asterias, the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias and the lesser-spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula. Our results were compared to previo...

  4. Corrosion and Galvanic behavior of Copper, Carbon steeland Zinc Couples in (3.5 %wt) Nacl Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Qasim M. Abbas; Jamal M. Ali

    2009-01-01

    The galvanic corrosion of the (Cu - Fe), (Cu - Zn) and (Fe - Zn) couples have been investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution, 40ºC, different velocities (Re = 5000, 10000 and 15000) and different area ratios of cathode to anode (AR= 0.5,1 and 2), by using commercial metal pipe (cylindrical tube).The Zero Resistance Ammeter has been used to measure the galvanic current (Ig) and galvanic potential (Eg) with time. The galvanic current density increases with increasing velocity (Re) and the area ra...

  5. Application of chemometric studies to metal concentrations in molluscs from the Strait of Magellan (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2007-05-01

    Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni, and Cd concentrations were determined in 126 mollusc samples belonging to five different species (Mytilus chilensis, n = 47; Nacella deaurata, n = 65; Aulacomya ater, n = 4; Fissurella picta, n = 4; Acanthina monodon, n = 6) collected from the coasts of the Strait of Magellan. The metals analysed presented significant differences between the mean concentrations for the mollusc species considered. Factor and discriminant analyses made possible the differentiation of the mollusc species. In addition, when discriminant analysis was used, good classifications were obtained according to sampling zone and weight-to-length ratio of the organisms. PMID:17375348

  6. Thermische Stabilität und Mikrostruktur von GMR-Systemen aus dünnen metallischen Filmen

    OpenAIRE

    Ebert, Jörg Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Magnetfeldsensoren für die Messung von Drehbewegungen haben in den letzten Jahren in der Automobilindustrie zunehmend an Bedeutung gewonnen. Sensoren basierend auf CoFe/Cu-Multilagen zeigen eine große Änderung des elektrischen Widerstandes in Abhängigkeit äußerer Magnetfelder, den sog. GMR-Effekt, und besitzen daher großes Potenzial für diese Anwendungen. Fortschreitende Miniaturisierung und steigende Anforderungen an Zuverlässigkeit stellen dabei eine Herausforderung an die Kontrolle der Her...

  7. Thermal stability of Py/Cu and Co/Cu giant magnetoresistance (GMR) multilayer systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vovk, V.

    2008-01-01

    NiFe/Cu und Co/Cu Multilagen werden in Bezug auf die thermische Stabilität des Riesen-Magnetowiderstand-Effekts untersucht. Die unterschiedlichen thermodynamischen Eigenschaften der betrachteten Systeme führen zu jeweils anderen Mechanismen von GMR-Effekt Abnahme. Nach den Ergebnissen der Nanoanalyse tritt der GMR-Zusammenbruch in Py/Cu-Systemen aufgrund der Verbreiterung der Grenzfläche nach der Wärmebehandlung über 200°C auf. Im Gegensatz dazu bleiben Co/Cu Mehrfachschichtsysteme wegen der ...

  8. INFLUENCE OF HEAVY METAL IONS CONCENTRATION ON GERMINATION AND PLANT GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Andra Pop

    2010-01-01

    chemical stress, provided the mechanisms of metal influences and features of the species of organism. This study focuses on the influence of the amount of heavy metals in germination and plant growth.For this study used seeds of beans, maize and cucumbers from polluted and unpolluted soils of Maramues. We followed these seed germination and growth on media enriched with heavy metal ions as Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb.Germination experiments in the presence of metal were performed on seeds of Phaseolus vul...

  9. Magnetization reversal of Fe ultrathin film on Cu (100)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Wei; Zhan Qing-Feng; Wang De-Yong; Chen Li-Jun; Cheng Zhao-Hua

    2008-01-01

    The magnetization reversal of Fe/Cu(100) ultrathin films grown at room temperature is investigated by using an in situ magneto-optical Kerr effect polarimcter with a magnet that can rotate in a plane of incidence.There occur spin reorientation transitions from out-of-plane to in-plane magnetizations in 8 and 12 monolayers (ML) thick iron films.The coercive fields axe observed to be proportional to the reciprocal of the cosine with respect to the easy axis,suggesting that the domain-wall displacement plays a main role in the magnetization reversal process.

  10. Low hysteresis FeMn-based top spin valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, V V; Krinitsina, T P; Milyaev, M A; Naumova, L I; Proglyado, V V

    2012-09-01

    FeMn-based top spin valves Ta/[FeNi/CoFe]/Cu/CoFe/FeMn/Ta with different Cu and FeMn layers thicknesses were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature. It was shown that low field hysteresis due to free layer magnetization reversal can be reduced down to (0.1 divided by 0.2) Oe keeping the GMR ratio higher 8% by using both layers thicknesses optimization and non-collinear geometry of magnetoresistance measurements. Dependence of low field hysteresis and GMR ratio on the angle between applied magnetic field and pinning direction are presented. PMID:23035516

  11. Determination of soluble elements in water by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry after preconcentration with polyvinylpyrrolidone-thionalide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the quantitative determination of soluble elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd, Sn, Te, Hg, and Pb in water is described. This method is based on preconcentrating the dissolved elements with the combined organic precipitating reagents polyvinylpyrrolidone and thionalide, filtering the precipitate to form a suitable x-ray sample, and analyzing the sample by x-ray fluorescence. Large concentrations of calcium and magnesium do not interfere when the method is applied to natural and waste water samples. X-ray fluorescence analysis can achieve detection limits in the microgram-per-liter range for all elements tested

  12. Spectroscopic analysis of element concentrations in aluminum alloy using nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenfeng; Tang, Jie; Gao, Cunxiao; Wang, Haojing; Zhao, Wei

    2010-06-01

    A plasma generated by 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser irradiation of aluminum alloy in air at atmospheric pressure was studied spectroscopically. The electron density was inferred by measuring the Stark broadened line profile of Cu(I) 324.75 nm, while the electron temperature was determined using the Boltzmann plot method with ten neutral iron lines. Based on the results, local thermodynamic equilibrium was studied. Moreover, calibration curves were presented for samples containing Si, Fe, Cu, Mn, Mg, Ni, Zn and Ti, and the limit of detection of trace elements was calculated based on experimental results.

  13. Application of in-situ XRF technique on some aeromagnetic anomalies point of Xitianshan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ X-ray fluorescence technique is a convenient, efficient and economic field survey technique. In the project the technique was applied to the determining concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Mn, Ni, in rock outcrops and soil of the aeromagnetic anomalies areas and we analysed distributions of these elements for aeromagnetic anomalies evaluation to provide the basis. It comes to a conclusion that in-situ X-ray fluorescence technique provides a convenient and fast method for aeromagnetic anomalies confirmation. (authors)

  14. Sistemas SCR y NSR-SCR para DeNOx en corrientes de escape diésel: Formulaciones, cinética y modelización

    OpenAIRE

    De La Torre Larrañaga, Unai

    2015-01-01

    314 p. En esta tesis, se estudian las características físico-químicas de diferentes catalizadores Fe,Cu/ZSM-5, BETA y SSZ-13, tanto en forma granulada como monolítica, y se analiza su comportamiento NH3-SCR en la eliminación de NOx de corrientes de gases de escape de motores de mezcla pobre. También se analizan las ventajas de colocar los catalizadores SCR corriente debajo de otro catalizador modelo Pt-BaO/Al2O3 NSR para mejorar la eficiencia de eliminación de NOx a N2, eliminando el desli...

  15. High energy permanent magnets in electromechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of fields of application of permanent magnets is given. Magnetic, electrical, mechanical and service properties of sintered hard-magnetic alloys based on rare earths and 3d metals SmCo5, Sm(Co, Fe, Cu, Zr)2 Nd2, Fe14B, Nd1.8Dy0.2Fe14B are given. The merits of high-energy magnetic materials are stated, and it is noted that it is important to improve fabrication practice of large permanent magnets

  16. STUDY ON THE SHOCK WAVE CRYSTALLIZATION OF AMORPHOUS ALLOYS BY DSC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Y. Zhao; H. Wang; Q.J. Liu; J.D. Kan; Z.Q. Liu

    2002-01-01

    Shock wave and annealing crystallization of amorphous alloys FeSiB, FeMoSiB andFeCuNbSiB were studied by isothermal and non-isothermal DSC technique. It wasfound that the shock wave crystallization is very perfect, the fraction crystallized isvery close to 100%, though the period of crystallization is very short, only about10-4-10-6 s. Their produced phases differ from the parent phase in structure andcomposition. The high velocity of the transformation is very difficult to explain by thediffusion theory of solid state phase transition.

  17. Determination of 16 Selected Trace Elements in Children Plasma from China Economical Developed Rural Areas Using High Resolution Magnetic Sector Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaobing Liu; Jianhua Piao; Zhenwu Huang; Shuang-Qing Zhang; Weidong Li; Yuan Tian; Xiaoguang Yang

    2014-01-01

    A rapid, accurate, and high performance method of high resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) combined with a small-size sample (0.1 mL) preparation was established. The method was validated and applied for the determination of 16 selected plasma trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, B, Al, Se, Sr, V, Cr, Mn, Co, As, Mo, Cd, and Pb). The linear working ranges were over three intervals, 0-1  μ g/L, 0–10  μ g/L and 0–100  μ g/L. Correlation coefficients (R 2)...

  18. Application of chemometric studies to metal concentrations in molluscs from the Strait of Magellan (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2007-05-01

    Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni, and Cd concentrations were determined in 126 mollusc samples belonging to five different species (Mytilus chilensis, n = 47; Nacella deaurata, n = 65; Aulacomya ater, n = 4; Fissurella picta, n = 4; Acanthina monodon, n = 6) collected from the coasts of the Strait of Magellan. The metals analysed presented significant differences between the mean concentrations for the mollusc species considered. Factor and discriminant analyses made possible the differentiation of the mollusc species. In addition, when discriminant analysis was used, good classifications were obtained according to sampling zone and weight-to-length ratio of the organisms.

  19. Advanced Treatment of Coking Wastewater with a Novel Heterogeneous Electro-Fenton Technology%新型非均相电-Fenton技术深度处理焦化废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海涛; 李玉平; 张安洋; 曹宏斌; 李鑫钢; 张懿

    2011-01-01

    分别采用高效氯气还原阴极PAQ/GF和形稳性阳极IrO2-RuO2-TiO2/Ti做为阴、阳极,填充非均相催化剂,研究一种阴、阳极同时催化氧化的电化学过程,并应用于焦化废水生化出水深度处理.采用在石墨毡上电聚合蒽醌制备PAQ/GF电极,并用循环伏安进行了表征.结果表明,蒽醌在电极表面具有很好的可逆性,并对电催化还原氧气生成过氧化氢(H2O2)表现很高的电催化活性;隔膜电解槽中PAQ/GF做阴极,在-0.7 V(相对饱和甘汞电极)和pH 6下电解6 h后,H2O2浓度为13.5mmol/L,电流效率>50%.采用浸渍法制备了非均相催化剂Fe-Cu/Y350,通过结晶紫褪色反应和羟自由基探针化合物(对氯苯甲酸)氧化反应验证Fe-Cu/Y350催化H 202产生了羟基自由基(·OH);使用Fe-Cu/Y350催化次氯酸钠氧化处理焦化废水,COD去除率达到26%,远高于没有催化剂时的11%.利用组装的电催化反应器对焦化废水进行处理,COD去除率达到49.4%,远高于传统的双极氧化过程(29.8%),其中阴极与阳极催化过程对COD去除的贡献率分别为26.0%和23.4%.在优化条件下(初始COD=192 mg/L、I=10 A·m-2、pH 4~5)电解1 h后,焦化废水COD去除率>50%.反应途径可能为:氧气在PAQ/GF电极上高效电催化还原为H2O2,再经Fe-Cu/Y350催化分解产生·OH,从而将有机污染物氧化分解;氯离子在IrO2-RuO2-TiO2/Ti电极氧化产生Cl2或次氯酸,并在Fe-Cu/Y350催化作用下将有机污染物氧化或有机物在阳极直接氧化降解.%A novel electro-catalytic reactor, with oxygen-reduction cathode (PAQ/GF), dimensionally stable anode (IrO2-RuO2-TiO2/Ti) and heterogeneous catalysts, is developed for advanced treatment of coking wastewater after biological process, integrating cathodic and anodic simultaneous oxidation processes. A PAQ/GF electrode was synthesized by the electro-polymerization of 2-ethyl anthraquinone on graphite felt, which was characterized with cyclic vohametry measurements

  20. In situ analysis of human teeth by external PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautray, Tapash R., E-mail: tapash77@hotmail.co [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, 2-188-1 Samduk-dong, Jung-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); ARASMIN, G. Udayagiri, Kandhamal, Orissa 762100 (India); Das, Saubhagyalaxmi [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Rautray, Alekh C. [ARASMIN, G. Udayagiri, Kandhamal, Orissa 762100 (India)

    2010-07-15

    The elemental profiles of the enamel, cementum and caries of human teeth were analysed by the external proton induced X-ray emission studies. Ten elements namely P, Ca, V, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr and Pb were estimated in the present study. P and Ca were found to be the major elements whereas all other elements were found in trace level. It was observed that the respective concentrations of elements namely P, Ca, Fe, Zn and Pb in enamel are more than those in cementum. Concentration of P ranged between 6.37% and 25% whereas Ca ranged between 12.94% and 43.36%.

  1. Zeolite-based SCR catalysts and their use in diesel engine emission treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Yang, Xiaofan

    2016-08-02

    A catalyst comprising a zeolite loaded with copper ions and at least one trivalent metal ion other than Al.sup.+3, wherein the catalyst decreases NO.sub.x emissions in diesel exhaust. The trivalent metal ions are selected from, for example, trivalent transition metal ions, trivalent main group metal ions, and/or trivalent lanthanide metal ions. In particular embodiments, the catalysts are selected from Cu--Fe-ZSM5, Cu--La-ZSM-5, Fe--Cu--La-ZSM5, Cu--Sc-ZSM-5, and Cu--In-ZSM5. The catalysts are placed on refractory support materials and incorporated into catalytic converters.

  2. A Study on Conceptual Design of Fischer-Tropsch Reactors in GTL Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jae Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GTL (Gas-to-liquid process is becoming an attractive technology which can produce liquid petroleum products using natural gas. As a part of preliminary design of GTL-FPSO application, process simulation analysis for conceptual design and optimization of reformers and F-T reactors are performed in GTL-FPSO applications by implementing the user made subroutine programs of kinetic equations into PRO/II PROVISION simulator. As for the F-T reactors, Plug Flow Reactor (PFR model is used with detailed kinetics equations over two different Fe based catalysts (Fe-Cu-K and K/Fe-Cu-Al. Dry reformer is also studied with Plug Flow Reactor (PFR model. In this study, simulation results are compared with available experimental data and found well agreed with experimental data for both reformer and FT reactor. The Peng-Robinson equation of state is also used to calculate the vapor phase non-idealities and vapor-liquid equilibrium. The optimum operating conditions and process simulation analysis are also presented.

  3. Interface driven magnetic interactions in nanostructured thin films of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desautels, R. D., E-mail: rddesautels@physics.umanitoba.ca; Lierop, J. van [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Shueh, C.; Lin, K.-W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Freeland, J. W. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    We have fabricated thin films of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix using a dual ion beam assisted deposition technique. A secondary End-Hall ion beam bombarded the iron atoms during deposition altering significantly the morphology of the films and allowing for control of the intermixing between iron and copper components. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and x-ray reflectometry experiments indicated that the morphology of the films was that of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix. Rietveld refinements of the diffraction pattern identified fcc-copper and amorphous iron. An increased amount of disorder was observed with a reduction in the amount of deposited iron from a 1:1 Fe:Cu ratio to 0.25:0.75 Fe:Cu ratio. Interfacial copper-iron alloys were identified by DC susceptibility experiments through their reduced T{sub C,Alloy} (370, 310, and 280 K) compared with that of bulk iron (∼1000 K). Element specific x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments were performed to identify the contributions to the magnetism from the iron and the copper-iron alloy.

  4. Nanoscale “Quantum” Islands on Metal Substrates: Microscopy Studies and Electronic Structure Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Jiang Liu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Confinement of electrons can occur in metal islands or in continuous films grown heteroepitaxially upon a substrate of a different metal or on a metallic alloy. Associated quantum size effects (QSE can produce a significant height-dependence of the surface free energy for nanoscale thicknesses of up to 10–20 layers. This may suffice to induce height selection during film growth. Scanning STM analysis has revealed remarkable flat-topped or mesa-like island and film morphologies in various systems. We discuss in detail observations of QSE and associated film growth behavior for Pb/Cu(111, Ag/Fe(100, and Cu/fcc-Fe/Cu(100 [A/B or A/B/A], and for Ag/NiAl(110 with brief comments offered for Fe/Cu3Au(001 [A/BC binary alloys]. We also describe these issues for Ag/5-fold i-Al-Pd-Mn and Bi/5-fold i-Al-Cu-Fe [A/BCD ternary icosohedral quasicrystals]. Electronic structure theory analysis, either at the level of simple free electron gas models or more sophisticated Density Functional Theory calculations, can provide insight into the QSE-mediated thermodynamic driving force underlying height selection.

  5. Automated Sample Preparation for Radiogenic and Non-Traditional Metal Isotopes: Removing an Analytical Barrier for High Sample Throughput

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, M. Paul; Romaniello, Stephen; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Anbar, Ariel D.; Herrmann, Achim; Martinez-Boti, Miguel A.; Anagnostou, Eleni; Foster, Gavin L.

    2014-05-01

    MC-ICP-MS has dramatically improved the analytical throughput for high-precision radiogenic and non-traditional isotope ratio measurements, compared to TIMS. The generation of large data sets, however, remains hampered by tedious manual drip chromatography required for sample purification. A new, automated chromatography system reduces the laboratory bottle neck and expands the utility of high-precision isotope analyses in applications where large data sets are required: geochemistry, forensic anthropology, nuclear forensics, medical research and food authentication. We have developed protocols to automate ion exchange purification for several isotopic systems (B, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Pb and U) using the new prepFAST-MC™ (ESI, Nebraska, Omaha). The system is not only inert (all-flouropolymer flow paths), but is also very flexible and can easily facilitate different resins, samples, and reagent types. When programmed, precise and accurate user defined volumes and flow rates are implemented to automatically load samples, wash the column, condition the column and elute fractions. Unattended, the automated, low-pressure ion exchange chromatography system can process up to 60 samples overnight. Excellent reproducibility, reliability, recovery, with low blank and carry over for samples in a variety of different matrices, have been demonstrated to give accurate and precise isotopic ratios within analytical error for several isotopic systems (B, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Pb and U). This illustrates the potential of the new prepFAST-MC™ (ESI, Nebraska, Omaha) as a powerful tool in radiogenic and non-traditional isotope research.

  6. Oxidation films morphology; Sur la morphologie des pellicules d'oxydation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paidassi, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    After studying the oxidation of several pure polyvalent metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, U) and of their oxides at high temperature and atmospheric pressure, the author suggests how to modify the usual representation of the oxide film (a piling of different oxide layers, homogeneous on a micrographic scale with a equi-axial crystallisation, free of mechanical tensions, with flat boundary surfaces) to have it nearer to reality. In this first part, the author exposes the study of the real micrographic structure of the oxidation film and gives examples of precipitation in the oxides during the cooling of the oxidised sample. (author) [French] En se basant sur les etudes qu'il a faites sur l'oxydation aux temperatures elevees et a la pression atmospherique de quelques metaux purs a valences multiples (Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, U), et de leurs oxydes, l'auteur suggere comment le schema qui representerait la pellicule comme etant une superposition de diverses couches d'oxydes, homogenes micrographiquement, a cristallisations equiaxes, depourvues de tensions mecaniques et separees par des interfaces plans, doit etre modifie pour s'ajuster a la realite. Dans cette premiere partie, l'auteur etudie la structure micrographique reelle des pellicules d'oxydation et donne des exemples de precipitation dans les oxydes au cours du refroidissement des echantillons oxydes. (auteur)

  7. 新矿物等轴铂铜矿的发现及其命名问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    红石

    1976-01-01

    Isoplatinocopper,a new mineral,has been found in a bistagite-pyroxene amplhibolite intrusive in the Yenshan Region,China,This mineral has been identified to be isometric and pale yellowish-white in color with a molecular formula of Pt4Cu5,α0=3.786A,specifie gravity=14.5,and no magnetism.In reflected light it is essentially isotropic,and yellowish-white in eclor with reflective power being 58% for green light,61% for yellow and 61.5% for red respectively,and its microhardness 127-220kg/mm2.On the ground of the data on their chemical composition and crystal structure,Pt-Fe-Cu and Pt-Cu platinum minerals are divisible into two types,i.e.tulameenite which includes those with a composition of Pt5Fe4Cu-Pt2Fe3Ci2 and Pt2FeCu,and isoplatinocopper which possesses a composition of Pt4Cu4-Pt4Cu5.5

  8. Characterization study of heavy metal-bearing phases in MSW slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Motomura, Yoshinobu; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2009-05-30

    Slag products derived from the pyrolysis/melting and plasma/melting treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Japan were examined for the characterization study of heavy metal-bearing phases using petrographic techniques. Detailed microscopic observations revealed that the shapes of heavy metal-rich inclusions are generally spherical to semi-spherical and their sizes range from submicron to scarcely large size spheres (over 100 microm). The experiments (both optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis) indicated that Fe and Cu participate in mutual substitution and different proportions, and form mainly two-phase Fe-Cu alloys that bound in the silicate glass. This alloy characterizes the composition of more than 80% of the metal-rich inclusions. Other metals and non-metals (such as Pb, Ni, Sb, Sn, P, Si, Al and S) with variable amounts and uneven distributions are also incorporated in the Fe-Cu alloy. In average, the bulk concentration of heavy metals in samples from pyrolysis/melting type is almost six times greater than samples treated under plasma/arc processing. The observations also confirmed that slag from pyrolysis origin contains remarkably higher concentration of metallic inclusions than slag from plasma treatment. In the latter, the metallic compounds are separately tapped from molten slag during the melting treatment that might lead to the generation of safer slag product for end users from environmental viewpoint. PMID:18926624

  9. Chemical portioning and speciation of some trace elements in soil and street dust from Khartoum state, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, surface soil and street dust samples were collected from Khartoum State, from areas exposed to industrial and traffic emission and from areas expected to be free from elemental emission to serve as control. Samples were digested using wet digestion method to determine the total concentration of Na, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (Aas), X-Ray fluorescence and flame photometer. Also samples were chemically fractionated using chemical specification method, and the solutions analyzed using Aas to determine the chemical form of the elements. Quality assurance of the data was achieved through the analysis of certified reference material. The range of the total concentration for Na, K, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb are 400-5175, 220-4690, 0.07-315.25, 20-250, 2050.8-46000, 0.5-2305, 4.5-280, 9.5-6200 mg/kg respectively. results obtained agree with expected emission profile as inferred from the emitting source locations. Distribution of elements from emitting source locations and control samples in different chemical fractions was carried out, and the findings reinforced by enrichment factors calculations as well by the results obtained by statistical multi-variate analysis methods such as principle compared with previous literature.(Author)

  10. Elemental concentration analysis in the brain of young and old Wistar rats by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Nuclear Instrumentation Lab.]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino J. dos [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Physics Inst.]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Carmo, Maria G.T. do [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nutrition Inst.; Rocha, Monica S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Basics and Clinic Pharmacy; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Civil Engineering Dept.; Martinez, Ana M.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Histology and Embryology

    2007-07-01

    It is well known that aging is associated with neurobehavioral deficits. The aging process of human brain is characterized by progressive neuronal loss. Furthermore, certain brain areas are more vulnerable to neuronal degeneration than others, reflecting an altered resistance to stress of the tissue itself and/or the lack of adequate immunological defense mechanisms in these regions. About the elemental levels in the brain, it is known that the excess ou deficiency of some elements are toxic for human healthy, being also related to several neurodegenerative diseases. In this way, the main goal of this work was to determine the elemental concentration in the hippocampus of young and old male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) Wistar rats by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with synchrotron radiation (SR-TXRF). These measurements were carried out at XRF beam line at Light Synchrotron Brazilian Laboratory, Campinas, Brazil. About the results, we could observe that Al, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br levels were higher in the hippocampus of the old female rats than the young ones. On the other hand, only Cu levels were higher in the hippocampus of the old male rats than the young ones. Therefore, the aging of the hippocampus of the female rats can be characterized by an accumulate for Al, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br. The excess in these elements levels are also associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer' disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. (author)

  11. Seasonal variations of heavy metal concentration in Sardinella sindensis (Day, 1878 from Balochistan coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quratulan Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations in muscle of sind sardinella [Sardinella sindensis (S. sindensis] from Balochistan coast, Pakistan. Methods: S. sindensis were collected from Balochistan coast, Pakistan, at autumn inter monsoon, north east monsoon, spring inter monsoon and south west monsoon during October 2005-September 2006. All samples were analyzed for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by AAnalyst 700 flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Generally, S. sindensis caught from Balochistan coast showed the accumulation level of Fe [(16.88 ± 5.60 µg/g], Cu [(2.74 ± 1.89 µg/g], Cd [(0.29 ± 0.25 µg/g], Zn [(4.29 ± 2.31 µg/g] and Pb [(0.24 ± 0.24 µg/g] in the muscle tissues. Conclusions: The metal concentrations in fish from Balochistan coast observed in this study were lower than the limit values. Therefore, all metal accumulations in S. sindensis have to be monitored continuously, especially in this region.

  12. Seasonal variations of heavy metal concentration in Sardinella sindensis (Day, 1878) from Balochistan coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QuratulanAhmed; Semra Benzer; Naeema Elahi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations in muscle of sind sardinella [Sardinella sindensis (S. sindensis)] from Balochistan coast, Pakistan. Methods: S. sindensis were collected from Balochistan coast, Pakistan, at autumn inter monsoon, north east monsoon, spring inter monsoon and south west monsoon during October 2005-September 2006. All samples were analyzed for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by AAnalyst 700 flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Generally, S. sindensis caught from Balochistan coast showed the accumulation level of Fe [(16.88 ± 5.60) µg/g], Cu [(2.74 ± 1.89) µg/g], Cd [(0.29 ± 0.25) µg/g], Zn [(4.29 ± 2.31) µg/g] and Pb [(0.24 ± 0.24) µg/g] in the muscle tissues. Conclusions: The metal concentrations in fish from Balochistan coast observed in this study were lower than the limit values. Therefore, all metal accumulations in S. sindensis have to be monitored continuously, especially in this region.

  13. Assessment of trace element concentration distribution in human placenta by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence: Effect of neonate weight and maternal age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace element status in human placenta is dependent on maternal-neonatal characteristics. This work was undertaken to investigate the correlation between essential trace element concentrations in the placenta and maternal-neonatal characteristics. Placenta samples were collected from total 61 healthy mothers at gestation between 37 and 41 weeks. These samples were investigated with the restriction that the mother's age was 20-40 years old and the neonate's weight was 1-4 kg. Percent concentrations of trace elements were determined using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The placenta samples were prepared and analyzed without exposure to any chemical treatment. Concentrations of Fe, Cu and Zn in placenta tissues were found statistically to vary corresponding to the age of the mother and weight of the neonate. In the subjects, the concentration of Fe and Cu were increased in heavier neonates (p<0.05) and the concentration of Zn was increased with increasing mother age (p<0.05). Consequently, the Fe, Cu and Zn elements appear to have interactive connections in human placenta.

  14. Portable x-ray fluorescence for assessing trace elements in rice and rice products: Comparison with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) was investigated as a means of assessing trace elements in rice and rice products. Using five measurement trials of 180 s real time, portable XRF was first used to detect arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in a variety of rice samples. The same samples were then microwave-digested and used to determine elemental concentrations using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentrations of As, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn determined by ICP-MS were found to be consistent with other recent studies involving various types of rice and rice products. When assessing for As, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn, comparison of results between XRF amplitude and ICP-MS concentration (wet weight) demonstrated a linear relationship with a significant correlation. A significant correlation between XRF amplitude and ICP-MS concentration was not found when assessing for Ni. - Highlights: • Portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) used to assess trace elements in rice and rice products. • Same samples tested for concentrations using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). • Linear relationship with significant correlation found between XRF amplitude and ICP-MS concentration

  15. 2种洋葱中微量元素铁·锰与铜含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻菊洪; 陈小芳; 段玲利; 郭茂霞; 李华兰

    2014-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to determine the trace elements iron, manganese and copper in two kinds of onions. [Method] The trace elements iron, manganese and copper in two kinds of onions were analyzed, with nitric and perchloric acid (4+1) decomposition of the sample, flame atomic absorption spectrometry. [Result] The contents of three kinds of trace elements in onion had significant differences. Among which, the sort of element contents in purple onion was Fe>Mn>Cu, and the sort of element contents in yellow onion was Fe>Cu>Mn. the Fe content in purple onion was more than in yellow onion, and Mn, Cu contents in purple onion were less than in yellow onion. The recoveries were between 94.8%~110.0%, RSDMn>Cu,黄皮洋葱中元素含量大小排序为Fe>Cu>Mn,紫皮洋葱中Fe的含量大于黄皮洋葱,紫皮洋葱中Mn、Cu的含量均小于黄皮洋葱,回收率在94.8%~110.0%,RSD<1.7%。[结论]紫皮洋葱、黄皮洋葱中3种微量元素含量差异为微量元素缺乏症患者进行食疗提供了一定的数据参考。

  16. Separation and recovery of uranium from wastewater using sorbent functionalized with hydroxamic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of uranium(VI) from alkaline (pH>7) dilute aqueous solution like wastewater of uranium material handling industries is a subject of considerable interest for exploring secondary uranium sources. Among different separation methods solid phase extraction (SPE) is especially attractive because of technological advantages. A new hydroxamic acids functionalized acrylic based solid phase sorbent, named as poly-acryl hydroxamic acid (PHOA) was developed through solution polymerization route for selective separation of uranium from the wastewater. The equilibrium isotherm for U(VI) in the nuclear wastewater showed favourable type. Uranium sorption was confirmed analytically as well as EDXRF analysis. Uranium(VI) sorption behaviours of the sorbent were investigated in different concentration of competitive ions like Ca++, Mg++, Fe+++, Cu++ and Mn++ and found that the sorbent is capable to extract the U(VI) efficiently in presence of high concentration of Ca++ and Mg++ ions (in g/L level) and low concentration of Fe+++, Cu++ and Mn++ ions (< 5 mg/L) along with uranium (<10 mg/L) from synthetic sample solutions. Elution behaviour was evaluated using different elution medium and compared among the mediums. HCl was found to be effective elution medium. Elution performance was studied by varying HCl concentration for uranium along with the individual competitive ions. Elution results confirmed reusability of the sorbent with about 80% sorption capacity after fourth cycle. The PHOA might be promising sorbent for removing and recovering the uranium from wastewater without pre-treatment

  17. [COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRACE ELEMENT COMPOSITION OF HAIR IN URBAN RESIDENTS OF WESTERN SIBERIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilms, E A; Gogadze, N V; Turchaninov, D V; Korchina, T Ya

    2015-01-01

    There was performed a study of the element status (hair analysis) of the population of the two cities of Western Siberia: Surgut (n = 350) and Omsk (n = 385). Detection of elements was performed by atomic emission and mass spectrometry methods. The population of Surgut when compared with residents of Omsk bioelements were characterized by a more high content of B, Cu, Co, Fe, Mg, I, Zn (p < 0.001), and a lower content of Cr, Se (p < 0.001). Scarce elements for Omsk residents were 1, Se. In hair of Surgut residents in more higher concentrations there were detected toxic and potentially harmful elements such as Pb, Hg, Be, Cd, Li, Sn (p < 0.001). At the same time there were lower than in Omsk residents values of concentrations of Al, As, V In comparison groups there are established statistically significant differences of coefficients used for the evaluation of the metabolic activity, such as the Na/K, Ca/K, Na/Mg, Fe/Cu. In a sample of the city of Surgut coefficients Ca/K, Fe/Cu and "toxicity index" had the high values. The established differences in the availability of macro- and trace elements for the population of territories are determined by climatogeographic, geochemical features and the specificity of the structure of nutrition. PMID:26856153

  18. The Effect of Fish Size and Condition on the Contents of Twelve Essential and Non Essential Elements in Aristichthys nobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naeem*, A. Salam, S. S. Tahir1 and N. Rauf 1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The correlation coefficients between fish size (body weight and total length and metal contents (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Cd and Pb in whole fish (Aristichthys nobilis were determined. A total of 71 fish samples were collected from hatcheries and fish reservoirs located in Islamabad and Fatehjung. Highly significant (P<0.001 relationship between metal concentrations and fish size was found. Most of the metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd and Pb showed an isometric increase, while Mn, Fe and Co showed an allometric increase in with increasing body weight. All metals showed isometric increase, while, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Co showed positive allometric growth in relation to total length. The correlation coefficient (r between different variables and wet body weight, condition factor was found highly significant (P<0.001 in examined fish except for Na, Ca, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb while for total length the same results found except Ca, Cd, Zn and Pb. Variance inflation factor values of regression coefficients in multiple regression analysis for each variable were lesser than 10. The metal levels of the examined fish were lower than the recommended values in fish and fishery products set by FAO.

  19. Distribution of Soil Zinc.Iron,Copper and Manganese Fractions and Its Relationship with Plant Availability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOUBANG-JI; MORUN-CANG

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of various fractions of Zn,Fe,Cu and Mn in 15 types of soils in China and its relationship with plant availability were studied.Fractions of various elements were found to have some similar characterstic distribution regularities in various types of soils,but various soil types differed to varying degrees in the distribution of each fraction.Soil physico-chemical properties,such as pH,CEC and the contents of OM,CaCO3,free Fe,free Mn and P2O5,were significantly correlated with the distribution of elemental fractions,and a significant correlation also existed between the distribution and plant availability of elemental fractions.Various fractions of each element were divided into two groups based on their plant availability.The correlation between the distribution of combination fractions and plat availability indicated a significantly or an extremely significantly positive correlation for Group I but a significantly or an extremely significantly negative correlation for Group II.Therefore,the fractions in Goup I were primary pools of available nutrients,while those in Group II could hardly provide available nutrients for plants.Decreasing the transformation of corresponding elements into fractions of Group II and increasing the storage capacity of various fractions of Group I were an important direction for regulation and controlling of soil nutrients.However,some Particular soils with too high contents of Zn,Fe,Cu and Mn should be regulated and controlled adversely.

  20. Correlations of trace elements in breast human tissues: Evaluation of spatial distribution using {mu}-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piacenti da Silva, Marina; Silva, Deisy Mara da; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo; Poletti, Martin Eduardo [Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP/USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes n. 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil); Departamento de Patologia, HCFM/USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes n. 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP/USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes n. 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-17

    The aim of this work is to investigate microscopic correlations between trace elements in breast human tissues. A synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe system ({mu}-XRF) was used to obtain two-dimensional distribution of trace element Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in normal (6 samples) and malignant (14 samples) breast tissues. The experiment was performed in X-ray Fluorescence beam line at Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, Brazil. The white microbeam was generated with a fine conical capillary with a 20 {mu}m output diameter. The samples were supported on a XYZ table. An optical microscope with motorized zoom was used for sample positioning and choice the area to be scanned. Automatic two-dimensional scans were programmed and performed with steps of 30 {mu}m in each direction (x, y) on the selected area. The fluorescence signals were recorded using a Si(Li) detector, positioned at 90 degrees with respect to the incident beam, with a collection time of 10 s per point. The elemental maps obtained from each sample were overlap to observe correlation between trace elements. Qualitative results showed that the pairs of elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by Spearman correlation tests, indicate that there is a spatial correlation between these pairs of elements (p < 0.001) suggesting the importance of these elements in metabolic processes associated with the development of the tumor.

  1. Magnetic and microwave properties of glass-coated amorphous ferromagnetic microwires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Glass-coated amorphous FeCuNbSiB microwires were prepared by Taylor-Ulitovsky technique. X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the microstructure and morphology of the glass-coated microwires respectively. The vibrating sample magnetometer and vector network analyzer were used to study the magnetostatic and microwave properties of glass-coated microwires. The experimental results show that the effective anisotropy of an array of 150 microwires of 10 mm in length is large than that of one microwire of 10 mm in diameter and an array of 150 microwires of 1 mm in diameter. The natural ferromagnetic resonance takes place as the microwave magnetic component is perpendicular to the microwires axis, and the electric dipole resonance takes place as the microwire is long or the short microwire concentration is moderate. The natural ferromagnetic resonance shifts to higher frequency with the larger microwire concentration. The electric dipole resonance is governed by the microwires length and concentration. The glass-coated FeCuNbSiB microwires can be used to design EMI filters and microwave absorbing materials.

  2. Interaction of chemical species with biological regulation of the metabolism of essential trace elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, W. [Center of Life and Food Sciences, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    Variations in the chemical speciation of dietary trace elements can result in the provision of different amounts of these micronutrients to the organism and might thus induce interactions with trace-element metabolism. The chemical species of Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn can interact with other components of the diet even before reaching the site of absorption, e.g. by formation of poorly soluble complexes with phytic acid. This might considerably modify the amount of metabolically available trace elements; differences between absorptive capacity per se toward dietary species seems to be less important. Homeostasis usually limits the quantities of Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn transported from the gut into the organism, and differences between dietary species are largely eliminated at this step. There is no homeostatic control of absorption of Se and I, and organisms seem to be passively exposed to influx of these micronutrients irrespective of dietary speciation. Inside the organism the trace elements are usually converted into a metabolically recognizable form, channeled into their biological functions, or submitted to homeostatically controlled excretion. Some dietary species can, however, be absorbed as intact compounds. As long as the respective quantities of trace elements are not released from their carriers, they are not recognized properly by trace element metabolism and might induce tissue accumulation, irrespective of homeostatic control. (orig.)

  3. Bioaccumulation of metals by Rhodophyta species at Antikyra Gulf (Greece) near an aluminium factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malea, P. [Thessaloniki Univ. (Greece). Inst. of Botany; Haritonidis, S. [Thessaloniki Univ. (Greece). Inst. of Botany; Stratis, I. [Inst. of Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1994-11-01

    The bioaccumulation of Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Na, K, Ca and Mg by seven species of red algae (Rhodophyta) was studied after their seasonal collection from 9 stations in Antikyra Gulf (Greece). This area is characterized by its bauxite substrate and the discharge of wastes from an aluminium factory. Corallina elongata, Jania rubens and Liagora viscida showed elevated concentrations of Cu, Na and Mg and low Fe, Na and K concentrations, whereas Pterosiphonia complanata, Laurencia obtusa and Vidalia volubilis displayed entirely contrary behaviour. These interspecific differences are discussed in relation to morphology, ecology, plant structure and the binding sites available on the algae. Among the nine metals, only Cd concentrations in P. complanata showed significantly positive correlation with the respective concentrations in the sediment; no metal in L. obtusa and P. complanata showed a significant correlation with the concentrations of the dissolved metals in seawater. Significant positive or negative correlations with the concentrations of several metals in L. obtusa and P. complanata were also observed, which may be attributed to metal interactions in binding to plant tissues. The concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Na and Ca in Laurencia obtusa were higher in summer or autumn; Pb and Mg followed an opposite pattern of seasonal variation, whereas Cd levels were higher in spring and summer. The red algae of Antikyra Gulf generally exhibited higher Fe, Ca, Cu, Cd and Pb concentrations than those of similar species from other geographical areas. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic viscosity studies in hard magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic viscosity behavior has been studied in several hard magnets with different magnetization reversal mechanisms including barium ferrite powders, Cu-Mn-Al, ferrite magnets, Nd-Fe-B, and SmCo5, Sm2(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr)17. The measurements were made with a vibrating sample magnetometer for times up to 60 s and a SQUID magnetometer for longer times in the range of 60--2300 s. For most of the samples the magnetization was found to vary logarithmically with time. The field and temperature dependence of the magnetic viscosity coefficient S was studied. Here, S was found to vary with the applied field and it usually peaked around the coercive field Hc. The measured values of Smax at 10 K range from 0.004 to 1.853 emu/g for Cu-Mn-Al and Sm2(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr)17, respectively. The magnetic viscosity coefficient was used together with the magnetic susceptibility to determine the activation volume

  5. Assessment oxidative stress biomarkers and metal bioaccumulation in macroalgae from coastal areas with mining activities in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete Olivares, Hernán; Moyano Lagos, Natalia; Jara Gutierrez, Carlos; Carrasco Kittelsen, Romina; Lobos Valenzuela, Gabriela; Hidalgo Lillo, María Eliana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on seaweeds Scytosiphon lomentaria and Ulva rigida of coastal waters of sites with mining activity, using oxidative stress biomarkers and heavy metal determination both in water and in tissue. The greatest bioaccumulation factors in S. lomentaria and U. rigida were founded for iron and arsenic in Quintay. Bioaccumulation factor in S. lomentaria in descending order was Fe> Cu> Zn> Cd> Cr> As> Mo and in U. rigida, in descending order, was Fe> Cu> Cd> Zn> Cr> Mo> As. Both species had higher antioxidant activity levels in areas with high mining activities. The concentration of metals in waters such as copper and arsenic in S. lomentaria, and iron, arsenic, and cadmium in U. rigida were related with oxidative stress biomarkers measured in both species. The use of both species is proposed to monitor the bioavailability and oxidative damage in coastal areas with mining activity. This work will generate a significant knowledge about the impact of mining wastes on macroalgal community in the area of north-central Chile. PMID:26661961

  6. Fundamental study of thermodynamic analysis of nonequilibrium and equilibrium organization formation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the organization formation mechanism and the controlled factors of pattern formation of Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B nano-crystal alloy and Co-Al-O granular film, they had investigated by neutron and X-ray small-angle scattering measurement, differential scanning calorimetry and electron microscope. The generation and crystallization process of amorphous were simulated by the molecular dynamic method. The more the average particle size of Fe-Si phase is small, the more the magnetic permeability of Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B nano-crystal alloy is large. The composition of Fe-Si phase is controlled by Cu clustering behavior, because nucleation of Fe-Si phase was produced on the Cu cluster. On Co-Al-O granular film, the relation between micro organization and the amount of tunnel type magnetic reluctance (TMR) of film became clear. Formation of amorphous alloy, structure relaxation and crystallization process of Ti-Al system was analyzed by the molecular dynamic method. The amorphous alloy of the system were consisted of three parts such as atoms configured to icosahedron, crystal and large free volume. They form some nanometer structures. During the relaxation process of structure, amorphous changed to two states, stable amorphous and the initial stage of crystallization, depending on amorphous formation ability. (S.Y.)

  7. Tunable characteristics of bending resonance frequency in magnetoelectric laminated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Li, Ping; Wen, Yu-Mei; Zhu, Yong

    2013-07-01

    As the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive laminated composites is mediated by mechanical deformation, the ME effect is significantly enhanced in the vicinity of resonance frequency. The bending resonance frequency (fr) of bilayered Terfenol-D/PZT (MP) laminated composites is studied, and our analysis predicts that (i) the bending resonance frequency of an MP laminated composite can be tuned by an applied dc magnetic bias (Hdc) due to the ΔE effect; (ii) the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite can be controlled by incorporating FeCuNbSiB layers with different thicknesses. The experimental results show that with Hdc increasing from 0 Oe (1 Oe=79.5775 A/m) to 700 Oe, the bending resonance frequency can be shifted in a range of 32.68 kHz bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite gradually increases from 33.66 kHz to 39.18 kHz. This study offers a method of adjusting the strength of dc magnetic bias or the thicknesses of the FeCuNbSiB layer to tune the bending resonance frequency for ME composite, which plays a guiding role in the ME composite design for real applications.

  8. Isochronal annealing of electron-irradiated dilute Fe alloys modelled by an ab initio based AKMC method: Influence of solute-interstitial cluster properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the microstructure of dilute Fe alloys under irradiation has been modelled using a multiscale approach based on ab initio and atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. In these simulations, both self interstitials and vacancies, isolated or in clusters, are considered. Isochronal annealing after electron irradiation experiments have been simulated in pure Fe, Fe-Cu and Fe-Mn dilute alloys, focusing on recovery stages I and II. The parameters regarding the self interstitial - solute atom interactions are based on ab initio predictions and some of these interactions have been slightly adjusted, without modifying the interaction character, on isochronal annealing experimental data. The different recovery peaks are globally well reproduced. These simulations allow interpreting the different recovery peaks as well as the effect of varying solute concentration. For some peaks, these simulations have allowed to revisit and re-interpret the experimental data. In Fe-Cu, the trapping of self interstitials by Cu atoms allows experimental results to be reproduced, although no mixed dumbbells are formed, contrary to the former interpretations. Whereas, in Fe-Mn, the favorable formation of mixed dumbbell plays an important role in the Mn effect.

  9. Deciphering a multistage history affecting U-Cu(-Fe) mineralization in the Singhbhum Shear Zone, eastern India, using pyrite textures and compositions in the Turamdih U-Cu(-Fe) deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dipak C.; Barton, Mark D.; Sarangi, A. K.

    2009-01-01

    The ˜200-km-long intensely deformed Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ) in eastern India hosts India’s largest U and Cu deposits and related Fe mineralization. The SSZ separates an Archaean cratonic nucleus to the south from a Mesoproterozoic fold belt in the North and has a complex geologic history that obscures the origin of the contained iron-oxide-rich mineral deposits. This study investigates aspects of the history of mineralization in the SSZ by utilizing new petrographic and electron microprobe observations of pyrite textures and zoning in the Turamdih U-Cu(-Fe) deposit. Mineralization at Turamdih is hosted in intensively deformed quartz-chlorite schist. Sulfides and oxides include, in inferred order of development: (a) magmatic Fe(-Ti-Cr) oxide and Fe-Cu(-Ni) sulfide minerals inferred to be magmatic (?) in origin; followed by (b) uranium, Fe-oxide, and Fe-Cu(-Co) sulfide minerals that predate most or all ductile deformation, and are inferred to be of hydrothermal origin; and (c) Fe-Cu sulfides that were generated during and postdating ductile deformation. These features are associated with the formation of three compositionally and texturally distinct pyrites. Pyrite (type-A), typically in globular-semiglobular composite inclusions of pyrite plus chalcopyrite in magnetite, is characterized by very high Ni content (up to 30,700 ppm) and low Co to Ni ratios (0.01-0.61). The textural and compositional characteristics of associated chalcopyrite and rare pyrrhotite suggest that this pyrite could be linked to the magmatic event via selective replacement of magmatic pyrrhotite. Alternatively, this pyrite and associated sulfide inclusions might be cogenetic with hydrothermal Fe-oxide. Type-B pyrite that forms elongate grains and irregular relics and cores of pyrite with high Co contents (up to 23,630 ppm) and high Co to Ni ratios (7.2-140.9) are interpreted to be related to hydrothermal mineralization predating ductile deformation. A third generation of pyrite (type C

  10. Alternative alkali resistant deNO{sub x} technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buus Kristensen, S.; Due-Hansen, J.; Putluru, S.S.R.; Kunov-Kruse, A.; Fehrmann, R.; Degn Jensen, A.

    2011-04-15

    The aim of the project is to identify, make and test possible alkali resistant deNO{sub x} catalysts for use in biomass, waste or fossil fuelled power plants, where the flue gas typically has a high level of potassium compounds, which rapidly de-activate the traditional V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst. Furthermore, new technologies are investigated based on a protective coating of the catalyst elements and selective reversible absorption of NO{sub x} with ionic liquids. Several promising alternative deNO{sub x} catalyst types have been made during the project: 1) V, Fe, CU based nano-TiO{sub 2} and nano-TiO{sub 2}-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} catalysts; 2) V/ZrO{sub 2}-SO{sub 2}- and V/ZrO{sub 2}-CeO{sub 2} catalysts; V, Fe, Cu based Zeolite catalysts; 4) V, Fe, Cu based Heteropoly acid catalysts. Several of these are promising alternatives to the state-of the art industrial reference catalyst. All catalysts prepared in the present project exhibit higher to much higher alkali resistance compared to the commercial reference. Furthermore, two catalysts, i.e. 20 wt% V{sub 2}O-3-TiO{sub 2} nano-catalyst and the 4 wt% CuO-Mordenite zeolite based catalyst have also a higher initial SCR activity compared to the commercial one before alkali poisoning. Thus, those two catalysts might be attractive for SCR deNO{sub x} purposes even under ''normal'' fuel conditions in power plants and elsewhere making them strong candidates for further development. These efforts regarding all the promising catalysts will be pursued after this project has expired through a one year Proof of Concept project granted by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation. Also the severe rate of deactivation due to alkali poisons can be avoided by coating the vanadium catalyst with Mg. Overall, the protective coating of SCR catalysts developed in the project seems promising and a patent application has been filed for this technology. Finally, a completely different approach to

  11. Effects of vitamin A pretreatment on nickel-induced lipid peroxidation and concentration of essential metals in liver, kidney and lung of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Changyu [Graduate Institute of Medicine and School of Technology for Medical Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 807 (Taiwan, Province of China)]|[Department of Medical Technology, Foo-Yin Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China); Huang Yeoulih; Lin Tehsien [Graduate Institute of Medicine and School of Technology for Medical Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 807 (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1998-05-01

    In the present study we report the effects of pretreatment with large doses of vitamin A (Vit A, retinol) on hepatic, renal and pulmonary lipid peroxidation, and Ni and essential metal (Fe, Cu, Zn and Ca) concentrations in mice acutely exposed to nickel. Vitamin A (250 000 IU/kg per day) was administered by oral gavage to ICR mice for 7 days. On the 8th day, NiCl{sub 2} (5 mg Ni/kg body wt.) was injected i.p. to Vit A- or vehicle-pretreated mice. Vitamin A pretreatment alone did not alter lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and lung. Lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and lung was increased after treatment with NiCl{sub 2} alone. The extent of lipid peroxidation levels in Vit A+Ni treated mice was enhanced in liver, but reduced in kidney and lung. The Ni concentration in these three organs was below the detection limit (0.09 {mu}g/g) in control and Vit A-pretreated mice. The accumulation of Ni in Vit A+Ni treated mice was increased in liver, but decreased in kidney and lung compared to Ni-treated mice. The concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn and Ca in these organs were significantly increased in Ni-treated mice. In Vit A+Ni treated mice, compared to Ni-treated mice, hepatic Fe was significantly increased while Cu, Zn and Ca levels were reduced, but still higher than those of control and Vit A-treated mice. In the kidney of Vit A+Ni treated mice, the increase of Cu, Fe, and Zn but not Ca, was reduced and not significantly different from control and Vit A-treated mice. Pretreatment with Vit A reduced the increased Fe, Cu, Zn and Ca concentration in the lung caused by Ni injection. We therefore conclude that the effect of Vit A pretreatment on Ni toxicity is organ-dependent. (orig.) With 3 figs., 4 tabs., 35 refs.

  12. Assessment of the effects of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies and trace elements on cognitive performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghadir AH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad H Alghadir,1 Sami A Gabr,1,2 Einas Al-Eisa11Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, EgyptBackground: Homeostatic imbalance of trace elements such as iron (Fe, copper (Cu, and zinc (Zn demonstrated adverse effects on brain function among older adults.Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of trace elements and the presence of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADAs in human cognitive abilities among healthy older adults.Methods: A total of 100 healthy subjects (65 males, 35 females; age range; 64–96 years were recruited for this study. Based on Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA score, the participants were classified according to cognitive performance into normal (n=45, moderate (n=30, and severe (n=25. Cognitive functioning, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA, serum trace elements – Fe, Cu, Zn, Zn/Cu, and GADAs were assessed using LOTCA battery, pre-validated physical activity (PA questionnaire, atomic absorption, and immunoassay techniques, respectively.Results: Approximately 45% of the study population (n=45 had normal distribution of cognitive function and 55% of the study population (n=55 had abnormal cognitive function; they were classified into moderate (score 62–92 and severe (score 31–62. There was a significant reduction in the level of Zn and Zn/Cu ratio along with an increase in the level of Fe, Cu, and anti-GADAs in subjects of severe (P=0.01 and moderate (P=0.01 cognitive performance. LOTCA-cognitive scores correlated positively with sex, HbA1c, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Zn/Cu ratio, and negatively with age, PA, body mass index, and anti-GADAs. Significant inter-correlation was reported between serum trace element concentrations and anti-GADAs which suggest producing a cognitive decline via oxidative and neural

  13. Deoximation Reaction in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids under Mild Conditions%Deoximation Reaction in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids under Mild Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang, Xiaoxia; Lu, Bin; Wang, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Jingxiang; Cai, Qinghai

    2011-01-01

    Deoximation in metal chloride ionic liquids based on 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium and triethylene ammonium cations, such as AmimBr(Cl)-MClx (A=ethyl, butyl, benzyl; M=Al, Fe, Cu, Sn and Zn; x=2, 3) and Et3NHCl-FeCl3 were investigated under mild conditions. Ferrate chloride ionic liquid was proved to be an effective catalyst for deoximation of cyclohexanone oxime, exhibiting high conversion of oximes and selectivity to cyclo- hexanone. Good performance for the deoximation of other oximes such as salicylald oxime, acetone oxime, benzo- phenone oxime, 4-nitrobenzald oxime, acetophenone oxime, 2-chlorobenzaldehyde oxime, Acetald oxime, 2-butanone oxime and (1R)-camphor oxime was also achieved with bmimBr-FeCl3 as catalyst and solvent. The de- oximation was determined to carry out via acid-catalytic hydrolysis and the reaction mechanism was proposed.

  14. Inductively Coupled Plasma: Fundamental Particle Investigations with Laser Ablation and Applications in Magnetic Sector Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle size effects and elemental fractionation in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are investigated with nanosecond and femtosecond laser ablation, differential mobility analysis, and magnetic sector ICP-MS. Laser pulse width was found to have a significant influence on the LA particle size distribution and the elemental composition of the aerosol and thus fractionation. Emission from individual particles from solution nebulization, glass, and a pressed powder pellet are observed with high speed digital photography. The presence of intact particles in an ICP is shown to be a likely source of fractionation. A technique for the online detection of stimulated elemental release from neural tissue using magnetic sector ICP-MS is described. Detection limits of 1 (micro)g L-1 or better were found for P, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in a 60 (micro)L injection in a physiological saline matrix

  15. An empirical method for estimating instream pre-mining pH and dissolved Cu concentration in catchments with acidic drainage and ferricrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimick, D.A.; Gurrieri, J.T.; Furniss, G.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for assessing natural background water quality of streams affected by historical mining are vigorously debated. An empirical method is proposed in which stream-specific estimation equations are generated from relationships between either pH or dissolved Cu concentration in stream water and the Fe/Cu concentration ratio in Fe-precipitates presently forming in the stream. The equations and Fe/Cu ratios for pre-mining deposits of alluvial ferricrete then were used to reconstruct estimated pre-mining longitudinal profiles for pH and dissolved Cu in three acidic streams in Montana, USA. Primary assumptions underlying the proposed method are that alluvial ferricretes and modern Fe-precipitates share a common origin, that the Cu content of Fe-precipitates remains constant during and after conversion to ferricrete, and that geochemical factors other than pH and dissolved Cu concentration play a lesser role in determining Fe/Cu ratios in Fe-precipitates. The method was evaluated by applying it in a fourth, naturally acidic stream unaffected by mining, where estimated pre-mining pH and Cu concentrations were similar to present-day values, and by demonstrating that inflows, particularly from unmined areas, had consistent effects on both the pre-mining and measured profiles of pH and Cu concentration. Using this method, it was estimated that mining has affected about 480 m of Daisy Creek, 1.8 km of Fisher Creek, and at least 1 km of Swift Gulch. Mean values of pH decreased by about 0.6 pH units to about 3.2 in Daisy Creek and by 1-1.5 pH units to about 3.5 in Fisher Creek. In Swift Gulch, mining appears to have decreased pH from about 5.5 to as low as 3.6. Dissolved Cu concentrations increased due to mining almost 40% in Daisy Creek to a mean of 11.7 mg/L and as much as 230% in Fisher Creek to 0.690 mg/L. Uncertainty in the fate of Cu during the conversion of Fe-precipitates to ferricrete translates to potential errors in pre-mining estimates of as much as 0.25 units

  16. Redox balance and blood elemental levels in atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoleão, P.; Lopes, P. A.; Santos, M.; Steghens, J.-P.; Viegas-Crespo, A. M.; Pinheiro, T.

    2006-08-01

    Oxidation of lipids and proteins represents a causative event for atherogenesis, which can be opposed by antioxidant activity. Elements, such as, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se can be involved in both mechanisms. Thus, evaluation of blood elemental levels, easily detected by PIXE, and of redox parameters may be useful in assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. A group of stable patients suffering from atherosclerosis, was matched with a cohort of normo-tensive and -lipidemic volunteers. Although no major discrepancies were observed for trace elemental levels in blood, increased concentrations of K and Ca were found in atherosclerotic group. Patients presented enhance levels of antioxidant (α-tocopherol) and decreased of protein oxidation (protein carbonyls), while for the lipid oxidation marker (malondialdehyde) no variation was observed. This study contributes to a better understanding of atherosclerosis development and its relationship with blood elemental levels, and set basis for further clinical trials with pathological groups in acute phase.

  17. Low-dimensional multiplexing: the magneto-optical Kerr effect in an individual FeCoCu nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Torres, C.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their selective and fascinating effects, metallic nanoparticles have become a very significant topic for science. A modification in morphology and structure of low-dimensional materials can result in extraordinary ultrafast physical phenomena. New findings related to electronic, optical and magnetic processes have emerged from surface plasmon resonance excitations in nanoparticles. Moreover, multi-functional systems can be obtained from the integration of different elements in a nanostructured configuration. Recently, Palmero et al (2015 Nanotechnology 26 461001) have reported magneto-optical Kerr effect explorations in individual FeCuCo nanowires; the influence of tailored morphologies exhibited by particular samples was analyzed. An important magnetization reversal action was revealed and it was concluded that the demagnetization may be responsible for vortex domain wall propagation. The report can provide a solid base for future research and immediate applications in modern spintronics or magnetic data storage can be contemplated.

  18. X-Ray Fluorescence to Determine Zn in Bolivian Children using Hair Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellería Narvaez, C.A.; Fernández Alcázar, S.; Barrientos Zamora, F.G.; Chungara Castro, J.; Luna Lauracia, I.; Mamani Tola, H.; Mita Peralta, E.; Muñoz Gosálvez, A.O. [Centro de Investigaciones y Aplicaciones Nucleares (CIAN-Viacha), Viacha (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Romero Bolaños, L.E. [Instituto Boliviano de Ciencia y Tecnología Nuclear Av. 6 de Agosto 2905, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Ramírez Ávila, G.M., E-mail: gramirez@ulb.ac.be [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, Campus Universitario Cota Cota, Casilla 8635, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2014-06-15

    As a first step in the evaluation of nutritional levels in Bolivian children (8–13 years-old), we carried out X-Ray Fluorescence measurements in hair samples of children belonging to different social classes and living either in rural areas or in cities. The aim of this study is to contribute to health policies tending to improve the global health of children and consequently avoid malnutrition. Our method intends to have maximum reliability and at the same time be as simple as possible from an experimental point of view. Additionally, we use this method to determine some other elements such as Fe, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, the latter three considered as contaminants that could be present in children living in areas which neighbor mines and industries. This work will be complemented by some biological and medical tests.

  19. Effects of cadmium on cation concentrations in sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus L.): application of EDXRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M L; Silveira, L; Casimiro, A

    2002-04-01

    Knowledge of the element content of biological systems is important in enabling understanding of uptake mechanisms and physiological response to stress conditions. In this work concentrations of mineral elements in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells grown in the presence of cadmium have been analysed and compared with concentrations in control cells. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to quantify the nutrients K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn present in the cells. The reproducibility and accuracy of the technique were demonstrated by analysis of biological reference materials. Exposure of sycamore cells to cadmium had induced variation in the content of some elements. Mn, Cu, Zn, and, particularly, Fe concentrations in cells exposed to Cd were higher than those found in control cells. Ca is adsorbed on the cell walls and the concentration of K is not affected by the presence of Cd.

  20. Direct observations of hydrothermal waters on the bottom of the Pacific Ocean (Galapagos active zone and Hess depession)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, V.V.; Demina, L.L.

    1979-06-01

    Direct geochemical evidences of hydrothermal alteration of oceanic waters above active oceanic ridges were obtained. In axial part of Galapagos fault and in Hess depression the near-bottom waters having unusually high contents of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in suspension and lowered contents of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Ni in solution (Mn was not detected in solution) were revealed. This is probably due to capture of dissolved metal by amorphous hydroxides of Fe and Mn. The length of the anomalous zone along meridional profile through the Carnegie ridge is near 100 km and its thickness above the bottom reachs 1000 m. Within Hess depression, where waters are more isolated, the alteration in metal concentrations in suspension and solution are detected at the distance 2000 to 5000 m from the bottom.

  1. Assessment of pollution level using Mytilus galloprovincialis as a bioindicator species: The case of the Gulf of Trieste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristan, Urška; Kanduč, Tjaša; Osterc, Andrej; Šlejkovec, Zdenka; Ramšak, Andreja; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2014-12-15

    A multidisciplinary approach was used to estimate the pollution level of the marine environment in the North Eastern Adriatic by measurement of the isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen (δ(13)C, δ(15)N), metal/metalloids analyses (Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, including As speciation) in the Mytilus galloprovincialis, as well by using metallothioneins (MT) concentrations, micronuclei (MN) in gill cells and biological parameters (condition index and gonadosomatic index). Concentrations of MT were in the range from 44 to 175 μg g(-1) wet matter tissue and were higher at the end of the winter season. The frequency of MN did not indicate an elevated level. Sewage sludge pollution was not confirmed. Elevated As concentrations in mussel are related to salinity and low nutrients concentrations and not to pollution. Elevated concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb were found in the Bay of Koper in comparison with the Bays of Strunjan and Piran. PMID:25444628

  2. Application of the total reflection X-ray fluorescence method to the elemental analysis of brain tumors of different types and grades of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of carcinogenesis may influence normal biochemical reactions leading to alterations in the elemental composition of the tissue. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) was applied to the elemental analysis of different brain tumors. The following elements were present in all the neoplastic tissues analyzed: K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. The results of the analysis showed that the elemental composition of a relatively small fragment of tissue represents satisfactorily the biochemical “signature” of a cancer. On the basis of the element concentrations determined, it was possible to differentiate between some types of brain tumors. - Highlights: • Elemental composition represents the biochemical signature of brain cancer. • The element levels differentiate some types of brain tumors. • TXRF spectrometry is a useful tool for elemental trace analysis of brain cancer

  3. Heavy and trace metal concentrations in three rockpool shrimp species (Palaemon elegans, Palaemon adspersus and Palaemon serratus) from Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Gonzalo; Herraiz, Elena; Hardisson, Arturo; Gutiérrez, Angel J; González-Weller, Dailos; Rubio, Carmen

    2010-09-01

    Trace metal concentrations (Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, Ni and V) were investigated in three rockpool shrimp species (Palaemon elegans, Palaemon adspersus and Palaemon serratus) from six littoral sampling sites (polluted and non-polluted) of Tenerife in the Canary Islands (Central Eastern Atlantic), Spain. Sex ratio for all three species has been determined: females predominate over males in all species and significant differences in total length and cephalothorax length was detected between sexes, being females larger than males. By other side, concentrations of trace metals were determined in whole specimens. Higher mean values for every metal were observed in P. adspersus. In males, higher values were observed in P. elegans and P. serratus, whereas in P. adspersus, mean values are higher in females. Finally, mean concentrations of trace metals studied were higher, in general terms, in the two clearly polluted stations: Santa Cruz of Tenerife commercial harbour and its fishery dock dependency.

  4. "Metals in fresh honeys from Tenerife Island, Spain".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Inmaculada; Rubio, Carmen; González-Iglesias, Tomás; Gutiérrez, Angel José; González-Weller, Dailos; Hardisson, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    Ashes and contents of Zn, Cu, Fe, Cd and Pb in 140 fresh honey samples from three different areas of Tenerife Island were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. A mean ash content of 0.35% has been determined. The mean Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations observed have been 3.37 mg kg(-1), 1.28 mg kg(-1), 2.83 mg kg(-1), 37.33 microg kg(-1), 4.38 microg kg(-1), respectively. A direct statistical correlation has been found between the Fe-Zn and Fe-Pb content, and between the Cd-Zn and Cd-Pb levels.

  5. Migration of components from cork stoppers to food: challenges in determining inorganic elements in food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, T; Iglesias, M; Anticó, E

    2014-06-18

    The inorganic elements potentially migrating from cork to a food simulant [a hydroalcoholic solution containing 12 and 20% (v/v) ethanol] have been determined by means of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) with atomic emission and mass spectrometric detection. The experimental instrumental conditions were evaluated in depth, taking into account spectroscopic and nonspectroscopic interference caused by the presence of ethanol and other components in the sample. We report concentrations ranging from 4 μg kg(-1) for Cd to 28000 μg kg(-1) for Al in the food simulant (concentrations given in kilograms of cork). The values found for Ba, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn have been compared with the guideline values stated in EU Regulation 10/2011. In all cases, cork met the general safety criteria applicable to food contact material. Finally, we have proposed water as an alternative to the hydroalcoholic solution to simplify quantification of the tested elements using ICP techniques.

  6. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress Report, covering the period up to the end of 1979 year, was sent to the IAEA according to the research agreement No. 1971 /CF. This work covered the following fields: preparation and dummy irradiation experiments with a new experimental capsule of ''CHOUCA-M'' type; measurement of temperature fields and design of specimen holders; measurement of neutron energy spectrum in the irradiation place in our experimental reactor of VVR-S type (Nuclear Research Institute) using a set of activation detectors; unification and calibration of the measurement of neutron fluence with the use of Fe, Cu, Mn-Mg and Co-Al monitors; development and improvement of the measuring apparatus and technique for the dynamic testing of pre-cracked specimens with determination of dynamic parameters of fracture mechanics; preparation and manufacture of testing specimens from the Japanese steels - forging, plate and weld metal; preparation of the irradiation capsule for assembling

  7. Positron annihilation lifetime study of low temperature irradiated metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, Eiichi [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1997-11-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime measurements have been made for electron and neutron irradiated Fe, Fe-Cr, Fe-Cu, Fe-Si, Fe-16Cr-17Ni specimens, and isochronal annealing behaviors were obtained for these metals and alloys. It was found that vacancies start to migrate at about 200 K in Fe and form microvoids, but by the addition of small amount of alloying elements this behavior was changed depending on the alloying elements. Positron lifetime calculations were made to explain the experimental results using EAM (embedded atom method) type potential for the lattice relaxation and the atomic superposition method for the lifetime calculation. Fairly good agreements were obtained for the positron lifetime in a vacancy in Fe and other alloys. (author)

  8. Leaching and recycling of zinc from liquid waste sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Bing; GAO Hui-mei; CHAI Li-yuan; SHU Yu-de

    2008-01-01

    The selective leaching and recovery of zinc in a zinciferous sediment from a synthetic wastewater treatment was investigated. The main composition of the sediment includes 6% zinc and other metal elements such as Ca, Fe, Cu, Mg. The effects of sulfuric acid concentration, temperature, leaching time and the liquid-to-solid ratio on the leaching rate of zinc were studied by single factor and orthogonal experiments. The maximum difference of leaching rate between zinc and iron, 89.85%, was obtained by leaching under 170 g/L H2SO4 in liquid-to-solid ratio 4.2 mL/g at 65 "C for 1 h, and the leaching rates of zinc and iron were 91.20% and 1.35%, respectively.

  9. ON THE CHARACTERIZATION OF METALLIC SUPERLATTICE STRUCTURES BY X—RAY DIFFRACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MINGXU; WenxueYU; 等

    1999-01-01

    To solve the problem on the microstructural characterization of metallic superlattices,taking the NiFe/Cu superlattices as example,we show that the sturctures of metallic superlattices can be characterized exactly by combining low-angle X-ray diffraction with high-angle X-ray diffraction.First,we determine exactly the total film thickness by a straightforward and precise method based on a modified Bragg law from the subsidiary maxima around the low-angle X-ray diffraction peak.Then.by combining with the simulation of high-angle X-ray diffraction.we obtain the sturctural parameters such as the superlattice period,the sublayer and buffer thickness,This characterization procedure is also applicable to other types of metallic superlattices.

  10. THEORY OF A QUODON GAS WITH APPLICATION TO PRECIPITATION KINETICS IN SOLIDS UNDER IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinko, Volodymyr; Shapovalov, Roman V.

    2014-06-17

    Rate theory of the radiation-induced precipitation in solids is modified with account of non-equilibrium fluctuations driven by the “gas” of lattice solitons (a.k.a. “quodons”) produced by irradiation. According to quantitative estimations, a steady-state density of the quodon gas under sufficiently intense irradiation can be comparable to the density of classical phonon gas. The modified rate theory is applied to modelling of copper precipitation in FeCu binary alloys under electron irradiation. In contrast to the classical rate theory, which disagrees strongly with experimental data on all precipitation parameters, the modified rate theory describes quite well both the evolution of precipitates and the matrix concentration of copper measured by different methods.

  11. Enhancement of magnetoresistance using CoFe/Ru/CoFe synthetic ferrimagnetic pinned layer in BiFeO{sub 3} based spin-valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganuma, Hiroshi; Kubota, Miho; Inami, Nobuhito; Kawada, Yuki; Oogane, Mikihiko; Ando, Yasuo [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Bae, In-Tae [Small Scale Systems Integration and Packaging Center, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Miyazaki, Takamichi [Tohoku University, Department of Instrumental Analysis, 6-6-11 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Mizukami, Shigemi [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Han, X. F. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-08-13

    SrTiO{sub 3} (100) sub/BiFeO{sub 3}/CoFe/Ru/CoFe/Cu/CoFe/Ta structure was prepared by a combination of chemical solution deposition and sputtering method, and followed by a systematical investigation for the structural, magnetic and magnetoresistance properties at room temperature (RT) as a function of CoFe and Ru thicknesses. It was revealed that introduction of synthetic CoFe/Ru/CoFe as a pinning layer increased the giant magentoresistance (MR) ratio to 8.3% at RT. This enhancement of MR ratio might be attributed to (i) the increase of pinning field, and (ii) suppression of the influence of the surface roughness of BiFeO{sub 3} by inserting the synthetic CoFe/Ru/CoFe layer.

  12. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R., E-mail: rafa_debas@yahoo.com.br; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  13. Effects of Yamase climatic condition during the pollen mother cell developmental stage on concentrations of Cs and Sr in brown rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of the Yamase climatic condition on the concentration of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals in brown rice were examined in relation to the soil-to-plant transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr. Rice plants (Oryza sativa L cv. Yumeakari) were cultivated in an artificial climate chamber, and exposed to a simulated Yamase condition for 3 or 7 d during the pollen mother cell developmental stage. In these simulated treatments, temperature and light intensity were set to 5degC lower and 50% lower than the respective control values. Fog was generated with visibility of 70±30 m. Concentrations of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and the other minor elements in brown rice samples were analyzed. Measured Cs and Sr concentrations were found to be unaffected by the Yamase treatments, while concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn and Mo were increased. (author)

  14. Determination of trace elements in hair of Wilson's disease patients using PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Yin; Liu, Pingsheng; Zhang, Runhua; Liu, Guilin; Zhang, Zhengxin; Feng, Yinkun; Liu, Guodong; Sun, Guiqin; Wang, Shizhen

    1987-03-01

    The contents of nine elements (P, S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Se, Sr) in the hair of 52 patients with Wilson's disease (HLD) and 52 well matched healthy controls were determined by the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method and they were in good agreement with published data. The apparently abnormal contents of Ca and Cu in the patient's hair were not observed. The Zn content of hair in Wilson's disease patients with splenomegaly was obviously higher than that in the matched controls ( P Wilson's disease is a disease with a multielemental metabolic disturbance. Our results provide a proper ground for treatment of Wilson's disease patients with zinc sulphate. In contrast to reports from western countries, the content of Cu in the hair of healthy females was lower than that of healthy males.

  15. Preparation of granular magnetic thin films using R.F. magnetron sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied FeCr, CuNi, AgNi, FeCrNi, FeCuNi and FeAgNi granular magnetic thin films deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering system in vacuum on a glass substrate. The film structure and percentage of composition was characterized by SEM (Scanning Eelectron Microscope and EDAX (Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis) whereas the magnetic properties were studied by a standard four point probe technique. The magnitude of GMR (Giant Magnetoresistance) is affected by the size and density of the magnetic entities which can be controlled by varying the composition and the process conditions. For application such as to MR heads a large ratio with a small applied field is desirable. (Author)

  16. Mineral Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Optimal intakes of elements, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and iodine, can reduce individual risk factors including those related to cardiovascular diseases among humans and animals. In order to meet the need for vitamins, major minerals, trace minerals, fatty acids and amino acids, it is necessary to include a full spectrum programme that can deliver all of the nutrients in the right ratio. Minerals are required for normal growth, activities of muscles, skeletal development (such as calcium), cellular activity, oxygen transport (copper and iron), chemical reactions in the body, intestinal absorption (magnesium), fluid balance and nerve transmission (sodium and potassium), as well as the regulation of the acid base balance (phosphorus). The chapter discusses the chemical and instrumentation techniques used for estimation of minerals such as N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, B and Mb. PMID:26939263

  17. APPLICATION OF MULTILAYER FILM CONFIGURATION TO PROTECT PHOTOMULTIPLIER AGAINST EXTERNAL STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Batische

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the screening constant magnetic field is multi-layered film screens system of NiFe/Cu, formed on the cylindrical housing of photomultiplier tubes, and compared with screen-based steel material – brand 80NHS permalloy. It is shown that the most effective is the screen on the basis of the multilayered film screens, which provide shielding effectiveness value 8–10 in magnetic fields with induction of 0,1–1 mT, and 80–100 – in magnetic fields with induction of 2–4 mT , which is 4–5 times higher than for the screen of the material 80NHS.

  18. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region. PMID:26041209

  19. Inductively Coupled Plasma: Fundamental Particle Investigations with Laser Ablation and Applications in Magnetic Sector Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saetveit, Nathan Joe [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Particle size effects and elemental fractionation in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are investigated with nanosecond and femtosecond laser ablation, differential mobility analysis, and magnetic sector ICP-MS. Laser pulse width was found to have a significant influence on the LA particle size distribution and the elemental composition of the aerosol and thus fractionation. Emission from individual particles from solution nebulization, glass, and a pressed powder pellet are observed with high speed digital photography. The presence of intact particles in an ICP is shown to be a likely source of fractionation. A technique for the online detection of stimulated elemental release from neural tissue using magnetic sector ICP-MS is described. Detection limits of 1 μg L-1 or better were found for P, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in a 60 μL injection in a physiological saline matrix.

  20. A rapid system of cane leaf analysis using x-ray spectrometry and infra-red reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of a non-destructive technique for the determination of the elements P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn in cane leaves using a Philips PW 1410/20 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is described. Regression analyses indicated that nutrient values determined by the X-ray method correlated well with values obtained by the chemical method (all r values greater than 0,90). Furthermore, reproducibility was acceptable with coefficients of variation ranging from 3 to 10%. Together with the infra-red reflectance analyser to determine nitrogen in cane leaves, the x-ray method provides a rapid integrated system of analysis which has replaced time consuming chemical methods. The new system will be capable of handling likely increases in the demand for leaf analysis in the foreseeable future

  1. Ion-beam-induced magnetic and structural phase transformation of Ni-stabilized face-centered-cubic Fe films on Cu(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloss, Jonas [Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Shah Zaman, Sameena [Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Jonner, Jakub; Novotny, Zbynek; Schmid, Michael [Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Varga, Peter [Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria); CEITEC BUT, Brno University of Technology, Technická 10, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Urbánek, Michal [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC BUT, Brno University of Technology, Technická 10, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2013-12-23

    Metastable face-centered cubic (fcc) Fe/Cu(100) thin films are good candidates for ion-beam magnetic patterning due to their magnetic transformation upon ion-beam irradiation. However, pure fcc Fe films undergo spontaneous transformation when their thickness exceeds 10 ML. This limit can be extended to approximately 22 ML by deposition of Fe at increased CO background pressures. We show that much thicker films can be grown by alloying with Ni for stabilizing the fcc γ phase. The amount of Ni necessary to stabilize nonmagnetic, transformable fcc Fe films in dependence on the residual background pressure during the deposition is determined and a phase diagram revealing the transformable region is presented.

  2. Fly Ash Disposal in Ash Ponds: A Threat to Ground Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. K.; Gupta, N. C.; Guha, B. K.

    2016-07-01

    Ground water contamination due to deposition of fly ash in ash ponds was assessed by simulating the disposal site conditions using batch leaching test with fly ash samples from three thermal power plants. The periodic analysis of leachates was performed for selected elements, Fe, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd in three different extraction solutions to determine the maximum amount that can be leached from fly ash. It was observed that at low pH value, maximum metals are released from the surface of the ash into leachate. The average concentration of these elements found in ground water samples from the nearby area of ash ponds shows that almost all the metals except `Cr' are crossing the prescribed limits of drinking water. The concentration of these elements at this level can endanger public health and environment.

  3. Propriedades texturais e catalíticas de óxidos de ferro contendo cromo e cobre Textural and catalytic properties of chromium and copper-doped iron oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluce Oliveira da Guarda Souza

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromium and copper-doped hematites were prepared with the aim of studying the synergistic effect of these dopants on the textural and on the catalytic properties of the iron oxides towards the high temperature shift reaction. It was found that the most active catalysts were those with the highest amount of copper. They had the Fe(II/Fe(III ratio near the stoichiometric value of magnetite, the highest surface areas under the reactional atmosphere and the greatest tendency to produce the active form; they also were poorly crystalline solids. The best performance was shown by the catalyst with Fe/Cu=10, heated at 300ºC. It can thus be concluded that copper acts both as textural and structural promoter in these catalysts.

  4. Seasonal variations in the concentrations of selected heavy metals and radionuclides in Sava River sediments upstream and downstream of NPP Krsko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Mikelic, Luka; Lulic, Stipe; Pavlovic, Gordana; Coumbassa, Nana

    2007-10-01

    In order to estimate the influence of a nuclear power plant and other industrial and agricultural anthropogenic sources on the quality of Sava River sediments, samples taken from seven locations (one upstream and six downstream of the Krsko NPP) were characterized. Seasonal variations in the sediment composition were determined on the basis of four samplings taken during the year 2004 (in February, May, October and December). Total concentrations of the elements Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Co and Pb in the sediment fractions less than 0.5 mm have been measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), while 40K, 137Cs, 131I, 7Be, 228Th, Th(228Ra), U(234Th), 226Ra and 210Pb were determined by gamma spectrometry. Mineralogical examinations of the samples were performed using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method.

  5. Seasonal variations in the concentrations of selected heavy metals and radionuclides in Sava River sediments upstream and downstream of NPP Krsko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orescanin, Visnja [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Laboratory for Radioecology, Bijenicka c. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: vobescan@irb.hr; Mikelic, Luka; Lulic, Stipe [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Laboratory for Radioecology, Bijenicka c. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pavlovic, Gordana; Coumbassa, Nana [Faculty of Science, Institute for Mineralogy and Petrography, Horvatovac bb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2007-10-15

    In order to estimate the influence of a nuclear power plant and other industrial and agricultural anthropogenic sources on the quality of Sava River sediments, samples taken from seven locations (one upstream and six downstream of the Krsko NPP) were characterized. Seasonal variations in the sediment composition were determined on the basis of four samplings taken during the year 2004 (in February, May, October and December). Total concentrations of the elements Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Co and Pb in the sediment fractions less than 0.5 mm have been measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), while {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 131}I, {sup 7}Be, {sup 228}Th, Th({sup 228}Ra), U({sup 234}Th), {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined by gamma spectrometry. Mineralogical examinations of the samples were performed using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method.

  6. Magnetic Properties of Nanocrystalline Fe{sub x}Cu{sub 1-x} Alloys Prepared by Ball Milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousif, A.; Bouziane, K., E-mail: bouzi@squ.edu.om; Elzain, M. E. [Sultan Qaboos University, Physics Department, College of Science (Oman); Ren, X.; Berry, F. J. [The Open University, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Widatallah, H. M. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Institute of Nuclear Research (Sudan); Al Rawas, A.; Gismelseed, A.; Al-Omari, I. A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Physics Department, College of Science (Oman)

    2004-12-15

    X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer and magnetization measurements were used to study Fe{sub x}Cu{sub 1-x} alloys prepared by ball-milling. The X-ray data show the formation of a nanocrystalline Fe-Cu solid solution. The samples with x{>=}0.8 and x{<=}0.5 exhibit bcc or fcc phase, respectively. Both the bcc and fcc phases are principally ferromagnetic for x{>=}0.2, but the sample with x=0.1 remains paramagnetic down to 78 K. The influence of the local environment on the hyperfine parameters and the local magnetic moment are discussed using calculations based on the discrete-variational method in the local density approximation.

  7. A multi-analytical approach for the chemical composition investigation of Byzantine and Mediaeval glazed pottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Lighea; Caliri, Claudia; Santos, Hellen Cristine; Catalano, Roberto; Giannotta, Maria Teresa; Imperiale, Marco Leo; Rizzo, Francesca; Romano, Francesco Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Glazed pottery from the mediaeval site at "Cantiere Mitello" in Otranto (Italy) have been investigated by means of several portable and non invasive techniques: X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Micro-X-Ray Fluorescence (micro-XRF) scanning and alpha Particle Induced X-ray Emission (alpha-PIXE). The results have been compared with some later sherds of Byzantine glazed pottery from the site of "Giuggianello" in Otranto (Italy). Results show that glazes present an high amount of Pb. Byzantine are also richer in Al compared to the first group. The color is generally given by Fe-Cu-Mn oxides. In general the mediaeval glazes can be considered to be in accordance with the Roman tradition. The presence of a consistent amount of SnO (3%) in a sample belonging to the first group, could suggest the use of tin as opacifier agent even at an early period.

  8. Fly Ash Disposal in Ash Ponds: A Threat to Ground Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. K.; Gupta, N. C.; Guha, B. K.

    2016-09-01

    Ground water contamination due to deposition of fly ash in ash ponds was assessed by simulating the disposal site conditions using batch leaching test with fly ash samples from three thermal power plants. The periodic analysis of leachates was performed for selected elements, Fe, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd in three different extraction solutions to determine the maximum amount that can be leached from fly ash. It was observed that at low pH value, maximum metals are released from the surface of the ash into leachate. The average concentration of these elements found in ground water samples from the nearby area of ash ponds shows that almost all the metals except `Cr' are crossing the prescribed limits of drinking water. The concentration of these elements at this level can endanger public health and environment.

  9. Kinetic study of the annealing reactions in Cu-Ni-Fe alloys; Estudio cinetico de las reacciones de recocido en aleaciones de Cu-Ni-Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, E.

    2014-07-01

    The thermal aging of a Cu-45Ni-4Fe, Cu-34Ni-11Fe and Cu-33Ni-22Fe alloys tempered from 1173 K have been studied from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and microhardness measurements. The analysis of DSC curves, from room temperature to 950 K, shows the presence of one exothermic reaction associated to the formation of FeNi{sub 3} phase nucleating from a modulate structure, and one endothermic peak attributed to dissolution of this phase. Kinetic parameters were obtained using the usual Avrami-Erofeev equation, modified Kissinger method and integrated kinetic functions. Microhardness measurements confirmed the formation and dissolution of the FeNi{sub 3} phase. (Author)

  10. Variation of mineral composition in different parts of taro (Colocasia esculenta) corms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergedus, Andrej; Kristl, Janja; Ivancic, Anton; Sober, Andreja; Sustar, Vilma; Krizan, Tomaz; Lebot, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important root crop in the humid tropics and a valuable source of essential mineral nutrients. In the presented study, we compared the mineral compositions of four main parts of taro corm: the upper, marginal, central and lower (basal) parts. The freeze-dried taro samples were analysed for eleven minerals (K, P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Cr). The upper part, which plays a critical role in vegetative propagation based on headsets, contained high levels of P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cd. The central part, which is essential for human nutrition, was characterised by higher concentrations of K, P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Cd. Ca was concentrated in the lower and marginal parts. The effect of the genotype was significant for more than half of the analysed minerals (i.e., Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn).

  11. Distribution of lead in the brain tissues from DNTC patients using synchrotron radiation microbeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari [International Innovation Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ota, Yukihide [Department of Precision Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida Honnmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan)]. E-mail: h51167@sakura.kudpc.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Ishihara, Ryoko [Department of Psychiatry, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Mizuno, Yutaka [Obu Dementia Care Research and Training Center, Obu (Japan); Takeuchi, Tohru [Department of Psychiatry, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2005-12-15

    Diffuse neurofibrillary tangles with calcification (DNTC) is a form of dementia with certain characteristics. Its pathology is characterized by cerebrum atrophy, calcification on globus pallidus and dentate nucleus and diffuse neurofibrillary tangles without senile plaques. In the present study brain tissues were prepared from patients with patients DNTC, calcified and non-calcified Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The brain tissues were examined non-destructively by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation (SR) microbeams for trace metallic elements Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb. The XRF analysis showed that there were Pb concentrations in the calcified areas in the brain tissues with both DNTC and AD but there was none in those with non-calcified AD.

  12. TEX-2 - experimental reports 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996 the FRG-1 has been operated during 262 days. Hence, numerous investigations on about 26 different projects were carried out at TEX-2. This report gives a short description of these projects. Beam time was given at about 50% for geological projects and about 50% for materials science projects. The different samples measured at TEX-2 represent a broad spectrum: Magnetite, hematite, gypsum, calcite, halite, galena, YBaCuO-superconductures, niobium, copper, titanium aluminides, intermetallic NiAl, composites (Fe-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Nb, Cu-Mg, Ag-Ni) and zircaloy. Instrumental improvements were carried out at the loading device, at special sample holders and at the slit system. (orig.)

  13. High-pressure study on some superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Li, K Q; Yao, Y S; Che, G C; Zhao, Z X

    2002-01-01

    High-pressure study has played an important role in the investigation of conventional superconductors. Since the discovery of cuprate superconductors, high-pressure study has become even more important, especially as regards high-pressure synthesis and the effect of pressure. In this report, the new materials Ca-doped Pr-123, (Fe, Cu)-1212, and MgB sub 2 - a very new and interesting system synthesized under high pressure with good quality - will be discussed. Chemical inner pressure has been thought to explain the high T sub c of Ca-doped Pr-123. As another possibility, the replacement of the physical pressure effect by a chemical effect will be discussed.

  14. X-Ray Fluorescence to Determine Zn in Bolivian Children using Hair Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a first step in the evaluation of nutritional levels in Bolivian children (8–13 years-old), we carried out X-Ray Fluorescence measurements in hair samples of children belonging to different social classes and living either in rural areas or in cities. The aim of this study is to contribute to health policies tending to improve the global health of children and consequently avoid malnutrition. Our method intends to have maximum reliability and at the same time be as simple as possible from an experimental point of view. Additionally, we use this method to determine some other elements such as Fe, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, the latter three considered as contaminants that could be present in children living in areas which neighbor mines and industries. This work will be complemented by some biological and medical tests

  15. Quantitative determination of wear metals in engine oils using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: A comparison between liquid jets and static liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) sensitivity in laminar liquid jets and at the surface of a static liquid has been performed. Limits of detection (LODs) have been estimated for Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, and Ba under similar conditions using both experimental arrangements. LODs in liquid jets are found to be four times lower on average compared to measurements at static surfaces. Data acquisition rates in jet experiments are also generally higher than for static liquids due to reduced problems with splashing effects. The use of LIBS in jets has also been investigated for quantitative analysis of used lubricants. A number of contaminants have been measured in a set of used engine oils and the results compared to analysis via ICP-AES, where a good correlation is obtained

  16. Assessment of the state of pollution by heavy metals in the surficial sediments of Algiers Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment samples were collected at 33 stations from Algiers Bay to determine potential sources of pollution. The analyses were made with X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results give information about the level of concentrations for Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb. Except for Mn and Fe which present a particular distribution (unrelated to the sedimentary facies), the distribution of the different heavy metals is irregular and depends on the bay morphology. The level of pollution by heavy metals of the bottom sediments in Algiers Bay has been shown to be significant compared with that of Surkouf, considered to be a region with low anthropogenic activity. Comparison with previous studies shows: no dependence of the assignation of Mn and Fe on sedimentary facies; high concentration of Cu, Pb and Zn in the vases and high concentration of Cr in the sands with a fine fraction between 50% and 75%

  17. Cellular distribution of arsenic and other elements in hyperaccumulator Pteris nervosa and their relations to arsenic accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tongbin; HUANG Zechun; HUANG Yuying; XIE Hua; LIAO Xiaoyong

    2003-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescencespectroscopy (SRXRF) was used to study the cellular distri-butions of arsenic and other elements in root, petiole, pinna of a newly discovered arsenic hyperaccumulator, Pteris nervosa. It was shown that there was a trend in P. nervosa totransport arsenic from cortex tissue to vascular tissue in root, and keep arsenic in vascular during transportation in petiole, and transport arsenic from vascular tissue to adaxial cortex tissues in midrib of pinnae. More arsenic was accumulated in mesophyll than in epidermis in pinnae. The distributions of some elements, such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, in petiole, midrib and pinna were similar to that of arsenic, indicating that those cations might cooperate with arsenic in those transportation processes; whereas the distributions of Cl and Br in pinna were the reverse of that of arsenic, indicating that those anions might compete with arsenic in pinna of P. nervosa.

  18. Isotopic constraints on biogeochemical cycling of copper in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Shotaro; Tanimizu, Masaharu; Hirata, Takafumi; Sohrin, Yoshiki

    2014-12-05

    Trace elements and their isotopes are being actively studied as powerful tracers in the modern ocean and as proxies for the palaeocean. Although distributions and fractionations have been reported for stable isotopes of dissolved Fe, Cu, Zn and Cd in the ocean, the data remain limited and only preliminary explanations have been given. Copper is of great interest because it is either essential or toxic to organisms and because its distribution reflects both biological recycling and scavenging. Here we present new isotopic composition data for dissolved Cu (δ(65)Cu) in seawater and rainwater. The Cu isotopic composition in surface seawater can be explained by the mixing of rain, river and deep seawater. In deep seawater, δ(65)Cu becomes heavier with oceanic circulation because of preferential scavenging of the lighter isotope ((63)Cu). In addition, we constrain the marine biogeochemical cycling of Cu using a new box model based on Cu concentrations and δ(65)Cu.

  19. Distribution of elements in needles of Pinus massoniana (Lamb.) was uneven and affected by needle age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macronutrients (P, S, K, Na, Mg, Ca), heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd) and Al concentrations as well as values of Ca/Al in the tip, middle, base sections and sheaths of current year and previous year needles of Pinus massoniana from Xiqiao Mountain were analyzed and the distribution patterns of those elements were compared. The results indicated that many elements were unevenly distributed among the different components of needles. Possible deficiency of P, K, Ca, Mn and Al toxicity occurred in needles under air pollution. Heavy metals may threaten the health of Masson pine. Needle sheaths were good places to look for particulate pollutants, in this case including Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and Al. - Pine needle sections as bioindicator for heavy metals and nutrient deficiency particularly needle sheath for particle pollutants

  20. Inertial confinement fusion program at CAEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposed by Prof. Ganchang Wang in 1964 and officially started in 1976 the ICF Program at CAEP includes research on every aspect of ICF science and technology: high power and energy laser technology, target fabrication, diagnostics, target physics, and potential applications. Two solid-state lasers have been operated since the middle of the last decade. The most of research on target physics has been focused on indirect-drive approach, covering laser-plasma coupling, parametric instabilities and suprathermal electrons, x-ray conversion and transport, plasma energetics, ablation, hydrodynamic instabilities. Neutron production experiments were conducted successfully on the Shenguang facility (2x800 J, 1 ns, and 1.053 μm) with radiation-driven targets in 1990. In addition, equation of state experiments have been performed using both laser- and x-ray-driven targets for Fe, Cu, and glass. Furthermore, a much bigger laser facility is now being considered. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Formation of iron oxides from acid mine drainage and magnetic separation of the heavy metals adsorbed iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hee Won; Kim, Jeong Jin; Kim, Young Hun [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Dong Woo [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    There are a few thousand abandoned metal mines in South Korea. The abandoned mines cause several environmental problems including releasing acid mine drainage (AMD), which contain a very high acidity and heavy metal ions such as Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb, and As. Iron oxides can be formed from the AMD by increasing the solution pH and inducing precipitation. Current study focused on the formation of iron oxide in an AMD and used the oxide for adsorption of heavy metals. The heavy metal adsorbed iron oxide was separated with a superconducting magnet. The duration of iron oxide formation affected on the type of mineral and the degree of magnetization. The removal rate of heavy metal by the adsorption process with the formed iron oxide was highly dependent on the type of iron oxide and the solution pH. A high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system successfully separated the iron oxide and harmful heavy metals.

  2. Portable XRF and principal component analysis for bill characterization in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appoloni, C R; Melquiades, F L

    2014-02-01

    Several modern techniques have been applied to prevent counterfeiting of money bills. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential of Portable X-ray Fluorescence (PXRF) technique and the multivariate analysis method of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for classification of bills in order to use it in forensic science. Bills of Dollar, Euro and Real (Brazilian currency) were measured directly at different colored regions, without any previous preparation. Spectra interpretation allowed the identification of Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. PCA analysis separated the bills in three groups and subgroups among Brazilian currency. In conclusion, the samples were classified according to its origin identifying the elements responsible for differentiation and basic pigment composition. PXRF allied to multivariate discriminate methods is a promising technique for rapid and no destructive identification of false bills in forensic science. PMID:24393811

  3. Nanostructures design by plasma afterglow-assisted oxidation of iron-copper thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, A.; Boileau, A.; Gries, T.; Ghanbaja, J.; Mangin, D.; Hussein, K.; Sezen, H.; Amati, M.; Belmonte, T.

    2016-05-01

    Oxidizing thin films made of Fe-Cu alloy with an Ar-O2 micro-afterglow operated at atmospheric pressure shows remarkable growth processes. The presence of iron in copper up to about 50% leads to the synthesis of CuO nanostructures (nanowalls, nanotowers and nanowires). Nanotowers show the presence of an amorphous phase trapped between crystalline domains. Beyond 50%, Fe2O3 iron nanoblades are also found. CuO nanowires as small as 5 nm in diameter can be synthesized. Thanks to the presence of patterned domains induced by buckling, it was possible to show that the stress level decreases when the iron content in the alloy increases. Iron blades grow from the inner Fe2O3 layer through the overlying CuO if it is thin enough.

  4. Organic substrates as electron donors in permeable reactive barriers for removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, P; Pakdeerattanamint, K; Lens, P N L; Annachhatre, A P

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to select suitable natural organic substrates as potential carbon sources for use as electron donors for biological sulphate reduction in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB). A number of organic substrates were assessed through batch and continuous column experiments under anaerobic conditions with acid mine drainage (AMD) obtained from an abandoned lignite coal mine. To keep the heavy metal concentration at a constant level, the AMD was supplemented with heavy metals whenever necessary. Under anaerobic conditions, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) converted sulphate into sulphide using the organic substrates as electron donors. The sulphide that was generated precipitated heavy metals as metal sulphides. Organic substrates, which yielded the highest sulphate reduction in batch tests, were selected for continuous column experiments which lasted over 200 days. A mixture of pig-farm wastewater treatment sludge, rice husk and coconut husk chips yielded the best heavy metal (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) removal efficiencies of over 90%. PMID:23437664

  5. Assessment of heavy metal content and DNA damage in Hypsiboas faber (anuran amphibian) in coal open-casting mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocche, Jairo José; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Hainzenreder, Giana; Mendonça, Rodrigo Ávila; Peres, Poliana Bernardo; Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims Dos; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes de

    2013-07-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the heavy metal content in the tissues of Hypsiboas faber from a coal mining area and to compare the DNA damage in the blood cells of these animals with that of animals living in an unpolluted area. The heavy metal content was detected according to the technique of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and the DNA damage was assessed by the Comet assay. Our results reveal that the specimens of H. faber collected from the coal mining area exhibited elements of order Fe>Cu>Al>Zn>Rb>Mn>Br, independently of the organ. The values of Comet assay parameters (DNA damage index and DNA damage frequency) were significantly higher in specimens collected from the coal mining area than in the reference animals. Our study concludes that the coal mining residues are genotoxic to amphibians and may have adverse effects on soil, water, vegetation and wild animals. PMID:23619523

  6. Variation of mineral composition in different parts of taro (Colocasia esculenta) corms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergedus, Andrej; Kristl, Janja; Ivancic, Anton; Sober, Andreja; Sustar, Vilma; Krizan, Tomaz; Lebot, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important root crop in the humid tropics and a valuable source of essential mineral nutrients. In the presented study, we compared the mineral compositions of four main parts of taro corm: the upper, marginal, central and lower (basal) parts. The freeze-dried taro samples were analysed for eleven minerals (K, P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Cr). The upper part, which plays a critical role in vegetative propagation based on headsets, contained high levels of P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cd. The central part, which is essential for human nutrition, was characterised by higher concentrations of K, P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Cd. Ca was concentrated in the lower and marginal parts. The effect of the genotype was significant for more than half of the analysed minerals (i.e., Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn). PMID:25306315

  7. TESTING OF CARBONACEOUS ADSORBENTS FOR REMOVAL OF POLLUTANTS FROM WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAISA NASTAS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Testing of carbonaceous adsorbents for removal of pollutants from water. Relevant direction for improving of quality of potable water is application of active carbons at various stages of water treatments. This work includes complex research dealing with testing of a broad spectrum of carbonaceous adsorbents for removal of hydrogen sulfide and nitrite ions from water. The role of the surface functional groups of carbonaceous adsorbents, their acid-basic properties, and the influence of the type of impregnated heteroatom (N, O, or metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, on removal of hydrogen sulfide species and nitrite ions have been researched. The efficiency of the catalyst obtained from peach stones by impregnation with Cu2+ ions of oxidized active carbon was established, being recommended for practical purposes to remove the hydrogen sulfide species from the sulfurous ground waters. Comparative analysis of carbonaceous adsorbents reveals the importance of surface chemistry for oxidation of nitrite ions.

  8. Microwave switching behaviors of Fe/Ag/Fe/Ag epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, D.-S. [Department of Information and Telecommunications Engineering, Ming Chuan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: dshung@mcu.edu.tw; Tsai, C.S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Yu, C.-C. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liou, Y. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shang-Fan [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chiang, P.-C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Ho, C.-S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yao, Y.-D. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2006-09-15

    In this study, Fe/Ag/Fe/Ag ferromagnetic structures were epitaxially grown on a GaAs(1 0 0) substrate. Using the Network Analyzer (Agilent 8510C), FMR (ferromagnetic resonant) signals were observed in samples as the in-plane magnetic field was applied to either hard- or easy-axes. Of interest was that our sample demonstrated a FMR-switching behavior in hard-axis but not in easy-axis. The detecting data showed that the switch magnetic field was much smaller than what has been stated previously in Fe/Cu/Fe systems by other laboratories. In addition to the frequency switch in FMR, we also observed a magnetic reversal behavior in its M-H curve. Data presented that both of the FMR and magnetic reverse took place in the same direction (hard-axis)

  9. Degradation of some typical pharmaceuticals and personal care products with copper-plating iron doped Cu2O under visible light irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing An; Qixing Zhou

    2012-01-01

    A mixture of five commonly used pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) was degraded using a new combined catalyst under visible light irradiation.Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the combined catalyst was composed of copper-plating iron doped Cu2O (FeCu/Cu2O).Compared with the Fe/C inner micro-circuit,the electric currents flowing between Cu and Fe increase the speed of anodic Fe dissolution.Moreover,due to the photochemical properties,Cu2O can accelerate the PPCPs degradation processes under the irradiation of visible light.In addition,shaking increased the dissolved oxygen concentration in the solution,which not only preconditioned the photo-catalysis reaction,but also set the stage for Fe reduction.Aocording to the experimental results,we propose the possible reaction mechanism of the reaction.

  10. Heavy metal removal from acid mine drainage by calcined eggshell and microalgae hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the use of calcined eggshells and microalgae for the removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage (AMD) and the simultaneous enhancement of biomass productivity. The experiment was conducted over a period of 6 days in a hybrid system containing calcined eggshells and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. The results show that the biomass productivity increased to ~8.04 times its initial concentration of 0.367 g/L as measured by an optical panel photobioreactor (OPPBR) and had a light transmittance of 95 % at a depth of 305 mm. On the other hand, the simultaneous percent removal of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, As, and Cd from the AMD effluent was found to be 99.47 to 100 %. These results indicate that the hybrid system with calcined eggshells and microalgae was highly effective for heavy metal removal in the AMD.

  11. Implementation of X-ray fluorescence microscopy for investigation of elemental abnormalities in central nervous system tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microbeam synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (micro-SRXRF) was applied to topographic and quantitative elemental analysis of human spinal cord tissue sections. The feasibility of this technique for the determination of elemental abnormalities caused by neurodegenerative disorder, i.e. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), was verified. The applied measurement conditions allowed detecting: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in thin tissue slices. Two-dimensional maps of the elemental distribution were recorded. Quantitative differences in elemental concentration between gray matter, nerve cells and white matter were observed for all analyzed cases. For the motor neuron bodies higher accumulation of S, Cl, K, Fe, Zn and Br was noticed. The results showed significant differences of elemental accumulation between the analyzed ALS cases. Moreover, the feasibility of using tissue sections fixed and embedded in paraffin for micro-SRXRF analysis was tested. These studies were performed on the samples of rat brain

  12. Mirror Domain Structures Induced by Interlayer Magnetic Wall Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, W. S.; Li, S. P.; Lopez-Diaz, L.; Hatton, D. C.; Bland, J. A.

    2003-05-01

    We have found that during giant magnetoresistance measurements in ˜10×10 mm2 NiFe/Cu/Co continuous film spin-valve structures, the resistance value suddenly drops to its absolute minimum during the NiFe reversal. The results reveal that the alignment of all magnetic domains in the NiFe film follow exactly that of corresponding domains in the Co film for an appropriate applied field strength. This phenomenon is caused by trapping of the NiFe domain walls through the magnetostatic interaction with the Co domain-wall stray fields. Consequently, the interlayer domain-wall coupling induces a mirror domain structure in the magnetic trilayer.

  13. Genesis of the Xinqiao Gold-Sulfide Orefield, Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG Wenshuan; WU Ganguo; ZHANG Da; LI Jinwen; ZHANG Xiangxin; LIU Aihua; ZHANG Zhongyi

    2004-01-01

    The Xinqiao S-Fe-Cu-Au orefield is located in the Tongling ore cluster in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in East China. There have been many researches regarding the genesis of the Xinqiao orefield in recent years, showing that it belongs to various types, such as sedimentary-reformed type, stratabound-skarn type, sedimentary submarine rocks-hosted exhalative type. We propose that it was formed in two periods of mineralization base on systematic field observation and Pb and S isotopic analyses in nearly ten years. The first period was formed during a syngenetic sedimentary process, whereas the massive sulphide orebodies are mainly related to the Yanshanian granitic magmatism. Sulfide metallic mineral associations show zoning around a granite intrusion, i.e. magnetite and pyrite →pyrite, chalcopyrite and native gold→ pyrite, sphalerite and galena. Gold orebodies occur outside the contact zone of the granite intrusion.

  14. The localisation and micro-mapping of copper and other trace elements in breast tumours using a synchrotron micro-XRF system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, M J; Geraki, K; Falkenberg, G; Leek, R; Harris, A

    2007-02-01

    Trace elements have critical roles in cancer biology. The quantity and distribution of the elements Cl, Ca, K, P, S, Ti, Fe, Cu and Zn in samples of primary breast cancer have been assessed. The samples were formalin fixed tissue specimens formatted as microarrays of cores 1.0 mm diameter and 10 microm thick each. The data were obtained using a synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe system. The spatial resolution of elemental maps was approximately 20 microm. Maps were compared with light transmission images of the samples and then the images were stained for cancer. The synchrotron system proved successful in producing data that could be mapped into high-resolution images where clear structure could be identified. Correlation of these distributions with the concentrations of cancer cells was achieved in some samples.

  15. Application of the total reflection X-ray fluorescence method to the elemental analysis of brain tumors of different types and grades of malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lankosz, M.W., E-mail: Marek.Lankosz@fis.agh.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Grzelak, M.; Ostachowicz, B.; Wandzilak, A.; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M.; Wrobel, P. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Radwanska, E.; Adamek, D. [Department of Neuropathology, Chair of Pathomorphology, Faculty of Medicine. Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland)

    2014-11-01

    The process of carcinogenesis may influence normal biochemical reactions leading to alterations in the elemental composition of the tissue. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) was applied to the elemental analysis of different brain tumors. The following elements were present in all the neoplastic tissues analyzed: K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. The results of the analysis showed that the elemental composition of a relatively small fragment of tissue represents satisfactorily the biochemical “signature” of a cancer. On the basis of the element concentrations determined, it was possible to differentiate between some types of brain tumors. - Highlights: • Elemental composition represents the biochemical signature of brain cancer. • The element levels differentiate some types of brain tumors. • TXRF spectrometry is a useful tool for elemental trace analysis of brain cancer.

  16. Characterization of photomultiplier tubes in a novel operation mode for Secondary Emission Ionization Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiras, E.; Dilsiz, K.; Ogul, H.; Southwick, D.; Bilki, B.; Wetzel, J.; Nachtman, J.; Onel, Y.; Winn, D.

    2016-10-01

    Hamamatsu single anode R7761 and multi-anode R5900-00-M16 Photomultiplier Tubes have been characterized for use in a Secondary Emission (SE) Ionization Calorimetry study. SE Ionization Calorimetry is a novel technique to measure electromagnetic shower particles in extreme radiation environments. The different operation modes used in these tests were developed by modifying the conventional PMT bias circuit. These modifications were simple changes to the arrangement of the voltage dividers of the baseboard circuits. The PMTs with modified bases, referred to as operating in SE mode, are used as an SE detector module in an SE calorimeter prototype, and placed between absorber materials (Fe, Cu, Pb, W, etc.). Here, the technical design of different operation modes, as well as the characterization measurements of both SE modes and the conventional PMT mode are reported.

  17. Improved magnetoelectric effect in magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composite with flux concentration effect for sensitive magnetic sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The magnetoelectric (ME composite with the flux concentration effect is designed, fabricated, and characterized for detecting weak ac magnetic-field. The high-permeability Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 (FeCuNbSiB foils act as flux concentrators and are bonded at the free ends of traditional ME laminates. With the improved ME responses in the proposed ME composite based on the flux concentration effect, the output sensitivities under zero-biased magnetic field can reach 7 V/Oe and 15.8 mV/Oe under the resonance frequency of 177.36 kHz and the off-resonance frequency of 1 kHz, respectively. The results indicate that the proposed ME composites show promising applications for high-sensitivity self-biased magnetic field sensors and ME transducers.

  18. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans

  19. A study of accumulation of trace metals in coffee plants grown on ultisols fertilized with rock phosphates by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements in soil and leaves of coffee plants have been analysed by a non-destructive Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique to study their accumulation due to repeated rock phosphate fertilization. Analysis of standard reference materials of soil and leaves through EDXRF yielded values within 5% error of the certified values. This method was therefore used to determine the trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Nb, Zr and Y) concentrations of soils, rock phosphates and leaves of coffee grown in experimental ultisols. Results indicate that rock phosphate fertilization over a period of 10 years did not contribute significantly to high trace metal concentration in plants. (author). 6 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  20. Multielemental analysis of samples from patients with dermatological pathologies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using synchrotron radiation total X-ray fluorescence (SRTXRF) technique, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in four skin lesions: seborrheic keratosis, fibroepithelial polyp, cherry angioma and dermatosis papulosa nigra. The concentrations of P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb were evaluated in 62 pairs of lesions and healthy samples, each one having been collected from the same patient. The results revealed significant differences of P, Ca, K, Fe and Cu levels as well as a common trend in their variations between lesion and control samples among the skin diseases. This study revealed a powerful tool that can be useful for skin disorders research. The measurements were conducted at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). - Highlights: • Concentrations of trace elements were measured and compared in four skin lesions. • The results revealed significant differences of P, Ca, K, Fe and Cu levels. • This study revealed a powerful tool that can be useful for skin disorders research

  1. Redox balance and blood elemental levels in atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoleao, P. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal) and Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. no 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: pnapoleao@itn.pt; Lopes, P.A. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos, M. [Centro de Quimica e Bioquimica and Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Steghens, J.-P. [Federation de Biochimie, Hopital Edouard Herriot, 3 Place d' Arsonval, 69437 03 Lyon (France); Viegas-Crespo, A.M. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pinheiro, T. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. no 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, 1700 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2006-08-15

    Oxidation of lipids and proteins represents a causative event for atherogenesis, which can be opposed by antioxidant activity. Elements, such as, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se can be involved in both mechanisms. Thus, evaluation of blood elemental levels, easily detected by PIXE, and of redox parameters may be useful in assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. A group of stable patients suffering from atherosclerosis, was matched with a cohort of normo-tensive and -lipidemic volunteers. Although no major discrepancies were observed for trace elemental levels in blood, increased concentrations of K and Ca were found in atherosclerotic group. Patients presented enhance levels of antioxidant ({alpha}-tocopherol) and decreased of protein oxidation (protein carbonyls), while for the lipid oxidation marker (malondialdehyde) no variation was observed. This study contributes to a better understanding of atherosclerosis development and its relationship with blood elemental levels, and set basis for further clinical trials with pathological groups in acute phase.

  2. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region.

  3. Interface magnetism of 3d transition metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niklasson, A. M. N.; Johansson, B.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1999-01-01

    The layered resolved magnetic spin moments of the magnetic 3d bilayer interfaces Fe/V bcc, Fe/Co bcc, Fe/Cu bcc, Co/V bcc, Co/Ni fee, Co/Cu fee, Ni/V fee, Ni/Cr fcc, Ni/Cu fee and the magnetic surfaces Fe bcc, Co bcc, Co fee, and Ni fee are calculated for the (001), (011), and (111) orientations...... by means of a first-principles Green's function method. It is shown how the magnetic profiles around the bilayer interfaces and surfaces directly can be used to predict the magnetization of more complex systems such as magnetic multilayers and clusters. Furthermore, it is shown how the magnetic interface...... moments can be estimated from data of the corresponding binary bulk alloys. The behavior of interface magnetism can thus be traced back to the understanding of magnetism in bulk alloys. [:S0163-1829(99)04005-9]....

  4. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-03-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors\\'s magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors\\'s deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor\\'s large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications.

  5. Lixiviación de potasio y contenidos nutrimentales en suelo y alfalfa en respuesta a dosis de vinaza Potassium leaching and nutrient content in soil and alfalfa's response to a dose of vinasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Flores Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Bajo condiciones de invernadero y con base a la concentración de potasio (K+ en la caracterización química de la vinaza, se evaluó el efecto de diferentes dosis (0, 250 y 500 kg ha-1 de K+ sobre el suelo, en columnas de cloruro de polivinilo (PVC, empleando lisímetros de succión a dos profundidades (23 y 46 cm y muestras al final de la columna (75 cm. En lixiviados se evaluó la concentración de K, el efecto sobre pH y conductividad eléctrica (CE, como cultivo indicador se uso alfalfa (Medicago sativa, efectuándose dos cortes, en un periodo de 120 días y una aplicación de vinaza al inicio del experimento y otra después del primer corte. En muestras de plantas las variables fueron materia seca, N T, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Zn y NO3 en suelo se consideró CE, pH, NH4, NO3, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn Mn y MO (materia orgánica. En el análisis estadístico la dosis 500 kg ha-1 de K tuvo efecto sobre la fertilidad del suelo, registrando un incremento en: MO, NH4, P, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn y K. La CE y K el mayor efecto (pUnder greenhouse conditions and based on the concentration of potassium (K+ in the chemical characterization of Vinasse, the effect of different doses (0. 250 y 500 kg ha-1 de K+ was evaluated in the soil, in columns of polyvinyl chloride (PVC, using suction lysimeters at two depths (23 and 46 cm and samples at the end of the column (75 cm. In Leaching, the K concentration, the effect on pH and the electric conductivity (CE was evaluated; as the crop indicator, alfalfa was used (Medicago sativa, making 2 cuts in a period of 120 days and applying vinasse at the beginning of the experiment and then again after the first cut. In plant samples, the variables were dry material, N T, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Zn and NO3 in soil, CE, pH, NH4, NO3, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn Mn abd MO (organic material was considered. In the statistical analysis of the K dose of 500 kg ha-1 there was an effect on the soil

  6. High-resolution analytical imaging and electron holography of magnetite particles in amyloid cores of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Ponce, Arturo; Collingwood, Joanna F.; Arellano-Jiménez, M. Josefina; Zhu, Xiongwei; Rogers, Jack T.; Betancourt, Israel; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Perry, George

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal accumulation of brain metals is a key feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Formation of amyloid-β plaque cores (APC) is related to interactions with biometals, especially Fe, Cu and Zn, but their particular structural associations and roles remain unclear. Using an integrative set of advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, including spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM), nano-beam electron diffraction, electron holography and analytical spectroscopy techniques (EDX and EELS), we demonstrate that Fe in APC is present as iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetite nanoparticles. Here we show that Fe was accumulated primarily as nanostructured particles within APC, whereas Cu and Zn were distributed through the amyloid fibers. Remarkably, these highly organized crystalline magnetite nanostructures directly bound into fibrillar Aβ showed characteristic superparamagnetic responses with saturated magnetization with circular contours, as observed for the first time by off-axis electron holography of nanometer scale particles.

  7. Distribution of Selected Heavy Metals in Sediment of the River Basin of Coastal Area of Chanthaburi Province, Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkapan Potipat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sediment samples from 24 stations in coastal area of Chanthaburi Province were collected during March 2012 to March 2013 and analyzed for heavy metal contents (Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe, Cu and Zn, pH, organic matters and grain sizes. The correlation analyses showed that heavy metal concentrations were affected by the content of organic matter and the size of clay particles. The evaluation of the quality of sediment was carried out using the geoaccumulation index (Igeo and the enrichment factor (EF as well as the comparison with those in the Thailand's sediment quality guideline (SQG values. The results of the geoaccumulation index and the enrichment factor values of the heavy metals content in the sediments revealed that the study area was unpolluted and not enriched, respectively. The relationship between the heavy metals concentration and the organic matter, and the clay particle was proposed by using the multiple regression equations.

  8. 微波消解-火焰原子吸收光谱法测定甜叶菊中6种金属元素%Determination of Six Metallic Elements in Stevia Rebaudiana by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青松; 李银保; 彭湘君; 余磊

    2009-01-01

    The sample was digested by microwave with HNO_3, six trace elements including Fe, Cu, Mg,Ca, Mn, Zn in stevia rebaudiana was direct analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The stevia rebaudiana embraces lots of trace elements which are necessary for people. The recoveries of these mieroelements are between 92.80% to 103.00%. The result of the method is accuracy and satisfactory.%用浓硝酸微波消解样品,火焰原子吸收光谱法直接测定了甜叶菊样品中Fe、Cu、Mg、Ca、Mn、zn 6种金属元素.测定的甜叶菊中含有丰富的人体必需金属元素,方法回收率在92.80%-103.00%之间.本方法简单、准确,结果令人满意.

  9. From papyrus to paper: Elemental characterization by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manso, M.; Costa, M. [Universidade de Lisboa, Centro Fisica Atomica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Carvalho, M.L. [Universidade de Lisboa, Centro Fisica Atomica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: luisa@cii.fc.ul.pt

    2007-09-21

    The use of the elemental composition, determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to characterize ancient and modern papyrus and parchment, and newspaper from three different years is reported. The concentrations of S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb were determined in these samples in order to proceed to its characterization. From this work, we can conclude that the obtained results allow distinguishing modern and ancient documents by its elemental amount. It was observed, with few exceptions, that the modern samples present lower elemental concentration than the older ones. Furthermore, in the newspaper samples the number of detected elements depends on the newspaper's age, and decreases from the oldest (1919) to the most recent (2005). X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is a good elemental technique with the main advantage of being non-destructive, which makes it the perfect tool for the elemental analysis of cultural heritage.

  10. From papyrus to paper: Elemental characterization by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, M.; Costa, M.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2007-09-01

    The use of the elemental composition, determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to characterize ancient and modern papyrus and parchment, and newspaper from three different years is reported. The concentrations of S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb were determined in these samples in order to proceed to its characterization. From this work, we can conclude that the obtained results allow distinguishing modern and ancient documents by its elemental amount. It was observed, with few exceptions, that the modern samples present lower elemental concentration than the older ones. Furthermore, in the newspaper samples the number of detected elements depends on the newspaper's age, and decreases from the oldest (1919) to the most recent (2005). X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is a good elemental technique with the main advantage of being non-destructive, which makes it the perfect tool for the elemental analysis of cultural heritage.

  11. Assessment of pollution level using Mytilus galloprovincialis as a bioindicator species: The case of the Gulf of Trieste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristan, Urška; Kanduč, Tjaša; Osterc, Andrej; Šlejkovec, Zdenka; Ramšak, Andreja; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2014-12-15

    A multidisciplinary approach was used to estimate the pollution level of the marine environment in the North Eastern Adriatic by measurement of the isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen (δ(13)C, δ(15)N), metal/metalloids analyses (Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, including As speciation) in the Mytilus galloprovincialis, as well by using metallothioneins (MT) concentrations, micronuclei (MN) in gill cells and biological parameters (condition index and gonadosomatic index). Concentrations of MT were in the range from 44 to 175 μg g(-1) wet matter tissue and were higher at the end of the winter season. The frequency of MN did not indicate an elevated level. Sewage sludge pollution was not confirmed. Elevated As concentrations in mussel are related to salinity and low nutrients concentrations and not to pollution. Elevated concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb were found in the Bay of Koper in comparison with the Bays of Strunjan and Piran.

  12. Trace metals and {sup 210}Po ({sup 210}Pb) concentrations in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) consumed at western Anatolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugur, Aysun E-mail: aysun@bornova.ege.edu.tr; Yener, G.Guengoer; Bassari, Asiye

    2002-10-01

    The mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) have been evaluated for their bioavailability as biomonitors of trace and toxic elements in coastal water of western Anatolia. The levels of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Br and Sr in the edible part of mussels were determined using X-ray fluorescence method during the period of September 1999-July 2000. Distribution of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb activities were measured by radiometric methods and their ratios were calculated. The activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb were found to vary between 52{+-}6-1344{+-}108 and 6{+-}2-167{+-}10 Bq kg{sup -1} dry wt, respectively. The highest values for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb were measured in Foca mussels and also observed the highest Fe, Zn and Br concentrations in the same species. {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb activity ratio were derived as between 3.1 and 25.0.

  13. Corrosion and Galvanic behavior of Copper, Carbon steeland Zinc Couples in (3.5 %wt Nacl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim M. Abbas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The galvanic corrosion of the (Cu - Fe, (Cu - Zn and (Fe - Zn couples have been investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution, 40ºC, different velocities (Re = 5000, 10000 and 15000 and different area ratio’s of cathode to anode (AR= 0.5,1 and 2, by using commercial metal pipe (cylindrical tube.The Zero Resistance Ammeter has been used to measure the galvanic current (Ig and galvanic potential (Eg with time. The galvanic current density increases with increasing velocity (Re and the area ratio (AR. The galvanic potential (Eg is shifted to less negative with increasing velocity (Re and the area ratio (AR. A statistical relations for the galvanic current density and galvanic potential as a function of (Re. and the area ratio had been created depending on Quasi-Newton method. There is good agreement between experimental and predicted results.

  14. Photocatalytic effect of nature and modified V-bearing rutile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Anhuai; GUO Yanjun; LIU Juan; LIU Fei; WANG Changqiu; LI Ning; LI Qiaorong

    2004-01-01

    A natural rutile TiO2, which displays photocatalysis on degrading halohydrocarbon pollutants, was reported. The rutile contains up to 1.22% V2O5 (weight percent). Substitutions of Ti by V, as well as Fe, Cu and Zn, result in lattice distortions and defects. Grinding, heating and quenching modify the surface characteristics of rutile, and consequently increase its photoactivity. It is found that the heating and quenching treatments enhance visible-light absorption of rutile, especially at 1000 and 1100 ℃. Ground rutile is effective to degrade tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene. While, heating at 1000 ℃, and quenching at 1000 and 1100 ℃ distinctly improve degradation rate of samples. The special properties of the natural rutile have particular capabilities in photocatalytic oxidation, especially in degradation of halohydrocarbons.

  15. Atherosclerosis study, applying energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence trace analysis of hair and an atherometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An atherometric system was used in the study of pathomorphology and morphometry of coronary arteries and myocardial lesions sampled from 25 autopsy subjects, in a search for possible relations with values of hair trace contents. An energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique for determination of S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr was applied to hair trace analysis. A Si(Li) semiconductor X-ray spectrometer with 55Fe and 109Cd sources was used. A computer program for quantitative analysis was developed. The values of atherometric variables measured were reported for the right coronary, left anterior descending and left circumflex arteries, and those corresponding to the heart. A statistical software package was used to correlate trace elements in hair, atherometric system variables, and lipidogram results. Correlations were found to exist between atherometric variables and hairborne trace elements (Cl, K, Fe, Br, and Sr). (author)

  16. Studi Komposisi Mineral Tepung Batu Bukit Kamang Sebagai Bahan Baku Pakan Sumber Mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine mineral content of limestone originated from natural deposit of Bukit Kamang for feedstuff. Six samples were prepared and chemically analyzed. The first was limestone in meal form as a product of local milling industry. Another five samples were deposit components with different color of blackish, dark blue, blue, light blue and white. There was 21 kinds of mineral determined which were divided into 3 groups: macros (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl and S, trace minerals (Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Co and Mo and toxic elements (As, F, Hg, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr. The results showed that Bukit Kamang’s limestone contained considerable high essential minerals of Ca, Se, Fe and Mn. The limestone consisted of 38%-40% Ca, 388 ppm Se, 295 ppm Fe and 205 ppm Mn. There were two toxic elements detected: Pb and Cd, but their concentration was found relatively low: 28 and 7 ppm, respectively.

  17. SMARTer for magnetic structure studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E G R Putra; A Ikram; J Kohlbrecher

    2008-11-01

    SMARTer, a 36-meter small angle neutron scattering (SANS) spectrometer was installed at the Neutron Scattering Laboratory (NSL), National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia – BATAN in Serpong, Indonesia and has performed the experiment for studying the magnetic structures of Cu(NiFe), CuCo and FeSiBNbCu metal alloys. The experiments were conducted at room temperature and up to 1 T (10 kOe) of external magnetic field. At zero fields, isotropic scattering identified as nuclear scattering is dominant. When a magnetic field is applied in a horizontal direction perpendicular to the neutron beam, the response of the magnetic scattering permits extraction of the field-induced re-arrangement of the magnetic moment. With increasing field the distortion is more pronounced and the magnetic scattering dominates the intensity and affects the peak position. Radial and angular averaging from experimental data are given to show the details of magnetic structures.

  18. Marine sediment contamination and dynamics at the mouth of a contaminated torrent: The case of the Gromolo Torrent (Sestri Levante, north-western Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, M; Cutroneo, L; Consani, S; Dinelli, E; Vagge, G; Carbone, C

    2016-08-15

    In this study we have examined the currents and hydrological characteristics of the water column off the mouth of the Gromolo Torrent (north-western Italy) in relation to the grain-size, mineralogical characteristics and metal distribution in the marine sediment sampled. Our purpose was to quantify and map the contamination that was carried out to sea from the abandoned Libiola Fe-Cu sulphide mine that has heavily impacted the torrent. Our results show high concentrations of Cu and Zn, and relatively high concentrations of Cd and Ni inside the bay into which the Gromolo Torrent flows. However, high concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, Mn, Pb, and V found in the northern and/or eastern parts of the study area originated from other sources. The subdivision of study stations in terms of metal and mineral contents in the bottom sediments highlighted the clear influence of the currents on their dispersion and distribution in the area. PMID:27289290

  19. Determination of toxic elements in foodstuffs in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studying samples of this work have been collected from different areas of Vietnam including industrial areas in HCM city, Dongnai, Vungtau and non-industrial area, Dalat city. The concentrations of the toxic elements as: As, Hg, Cr, Co, Fe, Cu, Cd, Se, As, Zn, Pb in many foodstuff samples together with intercomparison sample which have been distributed by National Food Administration (Sweden) were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA); Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and Anodic Stripping Voltammeter (ASV). The obtained results shown that the concentration of toxic elements in the collected samples from selected industrial areas of Vietnam are lower than the maximum permissible concentrations. (author)

  20. A method to determine the gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficients of some absorber materials was examined. → Traditional energy method and timing detection technique were used. → Timing method was successful in determination of the linear attenuation coefficient. - Abstract: In this work, gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficients of the materials such as Pb, Fe, Cu and Al were determined by means of traditional energy method and the developed timing detection technique. 1.33 MeV-energy radiation emitted from 60Co radioisotope was used in the experiments. The gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient values of the materials were calculated by using Xcom code, and the experimental results were compared with the theoretical ones.

  1. Produtividade e qualidade nutricional de cultivares de feijão em diferentes adubações Nutritional quality and yield of bean cultivars under different fertilization levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de Bastos Andrade

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O fornecimento adequado e equilibrado de nutrientes para o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. por meio da calagem e adubação pode contribuir para o aumento da produtividade e o valor nutricional dos grãos. Portanto, avaliou-se o efeito da adubação na produtividade, componentes da produção, nos teores de macro e micronutrientes, proteína e triptofano nos grãos de três cultivares de feijão (Aporé, Pérola e Rudá. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcela subdividida, sendo locados nas parcelas as diferentes adubações (N1 - não adubado; N2 - adubação para produtividade esperada de até 1.200 kg ha-1, N3 - adubação para produtividade esperada acima de 2.500 kg ha-1. As subparcelas constaram das três cultivares. As adubações utilizadas foram suficientes para alcançar os níveis de produtividade esperados. A cultivar Rudá destacou-se das demais, com os maiores teores de Mg, S, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn e B. A cultivar Aporé apresentou os maiores teores de K, N, proteína e triptofano. A cultivar Pérola obteve os maiores teores de Ca e P. A recomendação de adubação para atingir produtividade superior a 2.500 kg ha-1 de grãos proporcionou as maiores produtividades, os maiores teores de K, N, Fe, Cu, Mn, B, proteína e triptofano nos grãos de feijão.The appropriate and balanced supply of nutrients of the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L. achieved by liming and fertilization can contribute towards increasing the grain yield and nutritional value. It was evaluated the effect of the levels of fertilization on the productivity, components of the production, composition of macro and micronutrients, protein and tryptophan in the grains of three bean cultivars (Aporé, Pérola and Rudá. The experimental design was composed of random blocks, with four replicates, in split-plot design, considering the different levels of fertilization (N1 - no fertilized; N2 - fertilization level

  2. Assignment of Soret MLCT band of reduced form of copper binuclear cluster in cytochrome c oxidase film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Low concentration of dithionite results in the reduction of Cu-Cu binuclear and heme a active sites of the cytochrome c oxidase thin solid film immersed in the acidic phosphate buffer, but Fe-Cu binuclear center keeps in the oxidation state. It manifests as a negative peak at 426 nm and a positive one at ~408 nm in the difference spectra induced by dithionite. The former implies decrease of the oxidized form of heme a center, that is, Fea3+→Fea2+. And the latter results from the contribution of metal-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transition in the reduced binuclear Cu-Cu cluster, rather than from that of heme a center. This stronger Soret MLCT band must be helpful to overcoming the difficulty in distinguishing the weaker copper sign from the stronger one of iron when studying copper-iron protein.

  3. Mirror domain structures induced by interlayer magnetic wall coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, W S; Li, S P; Lopez-Diaz, L; Hatton, D C; Bland, J A C

    2003-05-30

    We have found that during giant magnetoresistance measurements in approximately 10 x 10 mm(2) NiFe/Cu/Co continuous film spin-valve structures, the resistance value suddenly drops to its absolute minimum during the NiFe reversal. The results reveal that the alignment of all magnetic domains in the NiFe film follow exactly that of corresponding domains in the Co film for an appropriate applied field strength. This phenomenon is caused by trapping of the NiFe domain walls through the magnetostatic interaction with the Co domain-wall stray fields. Consequently, the interlayer domain-wall coupling induces a mirror domain structure in the magnetic trilayer. PMID:12786582

  4. Fabrication and magnetotransport properties of ordered sub-100 nm pseudo-spin-valve element arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huixin; Wu, Yucheng; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Yugang; Li, Guanghai; Zhang, Lide

    2006-03-28

    We prepared ordered sub-100 nm pseudo-spin-valve (PSV) element arrays by electrodeposition of NiFe/Cu/Co into the pores of self-organized nanoporous anodized aluminium templates. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy reveals that the sub-100 nm PSV arrays, of uniform size, are well separated and exhibit a perfect two-dimensional array with a hexagonal pattern. The easy-axis hysteresis loops show two distinct steps related to the separate reversal of soft (NiFe) and hard (Co) layers. The switching fields of the PSV arrays are approximately -50 Oe for the NiFe and 570 Oe for the Co. The dependence of the magnetoresistance on the Cu spacer layer thickness indicates the presence of an oscillatory interlayer exchange coupling through the Cu layers. PMID:26558573

  5. Metal contamination in ground water of Korangi industrial area, Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of trace metals and major chemical constituents in 28 ground water samples of Korangi Industrial Area (KIA) and its adjoining areas were determined to assess the impact of uncontrolled disposal of industrial waste water on the quality of water. The concentration of metals viz. Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Co and Ni, were found to be excessive higher than the WHO recommended limits. The significantly higher concentration of major chemical constituents and trace metals in KIA water samples than the corresponding concentrations in the adjoining areas samples clearly indicated that the contamination in ground water of KIA was primarily due to percolation of industrial waste water into the aquifer of the area. The passive and high correlation co-efficient values(r) showed strong correlation among the metals and also suggested high and consistent trace metals concentration in the ground water under investigation. (author)

  6. Thermoluminescence induced by X-rays in silica materials with metallic impurities; Termoluminiscencia inducida por los rayos X en materiales de silice con impurezas metalicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza A, D.; Gonzalez M, P.; Espinosa P, M. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Salas, P.; Castano, V.M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Laboratorio Juriquilla, A.P. 1-1010, C.P. 76001, Queretaro (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Diverse materials of silica with Fe, Cu, Mg, and Mn impurities were synthesized by the sol-gel method, using tetraethyl orthosilicate as precursor. The materials obtained were subjected to thermal treatment at 500, 700 and 1000 Centigrade also they were irradiated with X-ray generated by a X-ray diffractometer which is installed in the ININ. The thermoluminescent signal was analysed and correlated with the type of impurities that are present in the material and with the grade of crystallinity produced by the thermal treatment in them. In according to the results obtained these materials show a thermoluminescent signal which is influenced by the crystallinity grade. It was analysed the behavior of the response for different doses, with the purpose of utilizing them to quantify very intense fields of radiation. (Author)

  7. Characterization of atom clusters in irradiated pressure vessel steels and model alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to characterize the microstructural evolution of the iron solid solution under irradiation, two pressure vessel steels irradiated in service conditions and, for comparison, low copper model alloys irradiated with neutrons and electrons have been studied. The characterization has been carried out mainly thanks to small angle neutron scattering and atom probe experiments. Both techniques lead to the conclusion that clusters develop with irradiations. In Fe-Cu model alloys, copper clusters are formed containing uncertain proportions of iron. In the low copper industrial steels, the feature is more complex. Solute atoms like Ni, Mn and Si, sometimes associated with Cu, segregate as ''clouds'' more or less condensed in the iron solid solution. These silicides, or at least Si, Ni, Mn association, may facilitate the copper segregation although the initial iron matrix contains a low copper concentration. (authors). 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Effects of Bicarbonate and High pH Conditions on Zinc and Other Nutrients Absorption in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhong-xian; MENG Fan-hua; S. VILLAREAL; WEI You-zhang; YU Xiao-ping; YANG Xiao-e; K. L. HEONG; LIN Jian-jun; HU Cui; LIU Jian-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Zinc deficiency was widely observed in calcareous soil where bicarbonate and high pH were always related with low zinc availability. In a hydroponic experiment, one zinc-efficient rice (IR36) and one zinc-inefficient rice (IR26) genotypes were employed to investigate the effects of bicarbonate and high pH conditions on absorption, transport of zinc and other nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg,Fe, Cu, Mn) in rice. As compared with the control, high pH inhibited absorption, translocation and accumulation of zinc and other nutrients in both rice genotypes. Bicarbonate had minor effect on zinc-efficient rice genotype (IR36) whereas it could decrease zinc and other nutrient absorption in zinc-inefficient rice genotype (IR26). These results implied that increasing rice tolerance to bicarbonate is one of the most important strategies to improve rice adaptation for zinc-deficit calcareous soil.

  9. Worn surface characteristics of Cu-based powder metallurgy bake materials for aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ping-ping; SHENG Hong-chao; XIONG Xiang; HUANG Bai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Cu-based powder metallurgy brake materials are used for aircraft widely and successfully. The characteristics of worn surface of Cu-based powder metallurgy brake materials for aircraft after working under service condition were studied, and two main wear mechanisms were discussed. The results show that the main components of worn surface are graphite, SiO2, Fe, Cu and oxide of Fe (Fe3O4 and FeO); the worn surface can be divided into three zones: severe wear zone, mild wear zone, and low wear zone; fatigue wear and grain wear are the main wear mechanisms of Cu-based materials. Some debris kept between brake discs reduce the wear rate to a certain extent by taking part in the regeneration of friction film.

  10. Heavy metal tolerance in metal hyperaccumulator plant, Salvinia natans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, B; Srivastava, S

    2013-06-01

    Metal tolerance capacity of Salvinia natans, a metal hyperaccumulator, was evaluated. Plants were exposed to 10, 30 and 50 mg L⁻¹ of Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Cu, Pb, and Ni. Plant biomass, photosynthetic efficiency, quantum yield, photochemical quenching, electron transport rate and elemental (%C, H and N) constitution remained unaffected in Salvinia exposed to 30 mg L⁻¹ of heavy metals, except for Cu and Zn exposed plants, where significant reductions were noted in some of the measured parameters. However, a significant decline was noted in most of the measured parameters in plants exposed to 50 mg L⁻¹ of metal concentration. Results suggest that Salvinia has fairly high levels of tolerance to all the metals tested, but the level of tolerance varied from metal to metal. PMID:23553503

  11. A physical model of the effect of irreversible changes in structure and properties of amorphous alloys caused by low-temperature treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low temperature ΔT-effect physical model for amorphous metallic alloys (AMA) is developed. Using Ni-P, Fe-Co-Si-B, Co-Ni-Fe-Si-B, Fe-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Si-B, Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B alloys the studies are carried out which results support basic concepts of the theory, namely: a motive force for atom drift, resulting in irreversible changes of a short-range order, is at the heart of longitudinal oscillations of AMA ribbon initiate the process of changing the initial short-range order. Variations of topological and short-range orders are responsible for a decrease in yield strength and Young modulus, a Curie point shift, an increase of saturation magnetization at an insignificant drop of coercive force or a significant drop of coercive force at a slight increase of saturation magnetization

  12. Reaction cross sections for protons in the energy range 220-570 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Renberg, P U; Measday, D F; Pepin, M; Serre, Claude; Schwaller, P

    1972-01-01

    Proton reaction cross sections have been measured for targets of natural isotopic abundance of the following elements and compounds: He, Be, C, Al, Fe, Cu, Ge, Sn, Pb, H/sub 2/O, B/sub 4/C and NaI. Data for proton energies between 220 and 570 MeV have been obtained with two types of transmission-counter assembly. The total errors are of the order of +or-3%. A slight increase of the reaction cross sections with energy is observed for most of the elements studied. The results interpreted in terms of the semi-classical theory of reaction cross section as function of energy clearly demonstrate the onset of pion- production above 250 MeV. (32 refs).

  13. Metals determination in coffee sample by total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo [ Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inorganic concentration in five brands of coffee, three of them nationally marketed and the others of an exportation kind. The samples were prepared by infusion with deionized water. To carry out the calibration, standard solutions were prepared with different concentrations of Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn and Se. The measurements were carried out using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Si (Li) semiconductor detector for detection. By employing Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-TXRF) it was possible to evaluate the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Ba. The detection limits for 300 s counting time were in the range of 0.03 (Ca) to 30 ng.g{sup -1} (Rb), respectively. (author)

  14. Influence Cr on Crystallization and the Phase Transformations of the Bronze BA1044

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Pisarek

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were introduced in the paper, method of thermal and derivative analysis (TDA, the process of crystallization and phase transformation in the solid state of the aluminium bronze CuA110Fe4Ni4 (BA1044 and with the addition 0.3% Cr. Two intermetallic phase were identified in the microstructure of the bronze BA1044: κFel - rich in Fe and Cu and κFe2 - rich in Fe, and in the microstructure of the bronze BA1044+0.3 % Cr only one phase κFel - rich in Fe, Cu and Cr. The presence of chrome in the bronze BA1044 reduce size the primary crystals of the phase β, reduces the dynamics of the processes of thermal phase transformation in the solid state and lengthens the time their of duration.

  15. Compositional study of Parthian silver coins using PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajivaliei, M., E-mail: mhaji65@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khademi Nadooshan, F. [Department of Archaeology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The study of the elemental composition of silver coins minted in the Ecbatana mint houses during the Parthian period can help to elucidate key questions such as provenance of the silver metal and the socio-economic situation of that period. Commercial activity and population growth increased the demand for silver, forcing the Parthian to look for new sources of this metal. The aim of this work is to study the chemical composition of some Parthian coins to find any relation between the mines used for extraction of silver and the actual silver coins minted at that time. Using PIXE technique, the metallic elements Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ag, Au, and Pb were observed. The results show that Parthian's kings used almost two types of mines for their coins.

  16. Rapid determination of major and minor elements in rare earth-cobalt magnets by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major and minor constituents, Sm, Ce, Y, Co, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zr and Hf, in typical rare earth-cobalt magnets were determined sequentially by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Sample solutions were prepared by dissolving the magnets with aqua regia followed by dilution with 1.2 M HCl to suitable concentration. Beryllium was added as an internal standard in order to improved experimental accuracy and precision, and the emission intensity of Be was measured by using an additional small monochromator attached to the original instrument system. Cobalt, Fe, Cu and Zr in the magnets were also determined by conventional spectrophotometry. The results obtained by both methods were in good agreement with each other. (author)

  17. Analysis of ancient pottery samples and reference materials by particle induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission using proton beam (1.5 and 3 MeV) from 3MV tandem accelerator at IOP was applied to ancient pottery samples for determination of major to trace element concentrations. Thick targets in graphite matrix were irradiated at about 10 nA current and characteristic X-rays were measured using a Si(Li) detector coupled to MCA. Concentrations of thirteen elements K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Rb, Sr and Zr were determined. The results of all elements including transition elements were used for grouping (same or different) the ancient potteries. IAEA RMs SL-1 and SL-3 were analyzed by PIXE as part of application and validation of method. (author)

  18. X-Ray Fluorescence to Determine Zn in Bolivian Children using Hair Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellería Narvaez, C. A.; Fernández Alcázar, S.; Barrientos Zamora, F. G.; Chungara Castro, J.; Luna Lauracia, I.; Mamani Tola, H.; Mita Peralta, E.; Muñoz Gosálvez, A. O.; Romero Bolaños, L. E.; Ramírez Ávila, G. M.

    2014-06-01

    As a first step in the evaluation of nutritional levels in Bolivian children (8-13 years-old), we carried out X-Ray Fluorescence measurements in hair samples of children belonging to different social classes and living either in rural areas or in cities. The aim of this study is to contribute to health policies tending to improve the global health of children and consequently avoid malnutrition. Our method intends to have maximum reliability and at the same time be as simple as possible from an experimental point of view. Additionally, we use this method to determine some other elements such as Fe, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, the latter three considered as contaminants that could be present in children living in areas which neighbor mines and industries. This work will be complemented by some biological and medical tests.

  19. Corrosion of LY12 aluminum alloy in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程英亮; 张昭; 曹发和; 李劲风; 张鉴清; 王建明; 曹楚南

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of LY12 alloy in sodium chloride solution and its electrochemical noise were reported. The development of the micro-pits on the alloy surface was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and electrochemical noise method. All the measurements show that the corrosion of LY12 alloy can be divided into two stages: a very reactive initial stage and a relative constant stable stage. The initial stage is corresponded to the adsorption of Cl ions and its reaction with the oxide film and the dissolution of Mg containing particles. The stable stage is corresponded to the development of the micro-pits by the galvanic attack formed by Al-Fe-Cu-Mn containing particles and the matrix. The initial stage lasts about 2-3 h while the stable stage dominates the whole corrosion process.

  20. Transition metal impurities on the bond-centered site in Ge

    CERN Document Server

    Decoster, S; De Vries, B; Emmerich, H; Wahl, U; Correia, J G; Vantomme, A

    2009-01-01

    We report on the lattice location of ion implanted Fe, Cu, and Ag impurities in germanium from a combined approach of emission channeling experiments and ab initio total energy calculations. Following common expectation, a fraction of these transition metals (TMs) was found on the substitutional Ge position. Less expected is the observation of a second fraction on the sixfold coordinated bond-centered site. Ab initio calculated heats of formation suggest this is the result of the trapping of a vacancy by a substitutional TM impurity, spontaneously forming an impurity-vacancy complex in the split-vacancy configuration. We also present an approach to displace the TM impurities from the electrically active substitutional site to the bond-centered site.

  1. Effects of glyphosate on the mineral content of glyphosate-resistant soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O; Reddy, Krishna N; Bu, Kaixuan; Cizdziel, James V

    2012-07-11

    There are conflicting claims as to whether treatment with glyphosate adversely affects mineral nutrition of glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops. Those who have made claims of adverse effects have argued links between reduced Mn and diseases in these crops. This article describes experiments designed to determine the effects of a recommended rate (0.86 kg ha(-1)) of glyphosate applied once or twice on the mineral content of young and mature leaves, as well as in seeds produced by GR soybeans (Glycine max) in both the greenhouse and field using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In the greenhouse, there were no effects of either one application (at 3 weeks after planting, WAP) or two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves sampled at 6, 9, and 12 WAP and in harvested seed. Se concentrations were too low for accurate detection in leaves, but there was also no effect of glyphosate applications on Se in the seeds. In the field study, there were no effects of two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves at either 9 or 12 WAP. There was also no effect on Se in the seeds. There was no difference in yield between control and glyphosate-treated GR soybeans in the field. The results indicate that glyphosate does not influence mineral nutrition of GR soybean at recommended rates for weed management in the field. Furthermore, the field studies confirm the results of greenhouse studies.

  2. Characterization of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kouji; Tainosho, Yoshiaki

    2004-10-01

    Tire dust is a significant pollutant, especially as a source of zinc in the urban environment. This study characterizes the morphology and chemical composition of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust and traffic-related materials (brake dust, yellow paint, and tire tread) as measured by a field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM/EDX). In 60 samples of tire dust, we detected 2288 heavy metal particles, which we classified into four groups using cluster analysis according to the following typical elements: cluster 1: Fe, cluster 2: Cr/Pb, cluster 3: multiple elements (Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Pb), cluster 4: ZnO. According to their morphologies and chemical compositions, the possible sources of each cluster were as follows: (1) brake dust (particles rich in Fe and with trace Cu, Sb, and Ba), (2) yellow paint (CrPbO(4) particles), (3) brake dust (particulate Ti, Fe, Cu, Sb, Zr, and Ba) and heavy minerals (Y, Zr, La, and Ce), (4) tire tread (zinc oxide). When the chemical composition of tire dust was compared to that of tire tread, the tire dust was found to have greater concentrations of heavy metal elements as well as mineral or asphalt pavement material characterized by Al, Si, and Ca. We conclude that tire dust consists not only of the debris from tire wear but also of assimilated heavy metal particles emitted from road traffic materials such as brake lining and road paint. PMID:15337346

  3. COMPOSIÇÃO NUTRICIONAL DE PROCEDÊNCIAS E PROGÊNIES DE ERVA-MATE (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. CULTIVADAS EM LATOSSOLO VERMELHO DISTRÓFICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Vivian Oliva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. is a forest species of great socioeconomic importance for the southern states of Brazil. This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of provenances (Ivaí, in Paraná state and Barão de Cotegipe, in Rio Grande do Sul state and their progenies in a soil in the municipality of Ivaí, PR state. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications, taking as treatment two distinct provenances and five progenies. When analyzed, the macronutrients, micronutrients, Al and Na. Foliar N, P, K, Ca and Mg were considered satisfactory, and the N, P, Ca and Mg showed significant differences for both analyzed provenances. Within provenances, progenies of Ivaí highlighted significant differences for the nutrients N, P, K, Ca and Mg. But for the progenies of Barão de Cotegipe, a significant difference was found only for Ca and Mg. For both provenances, foliar Fe, Cu and Mn were considered satisfactory. The concentration of Zn was considered low and B high. Aluminum contents were considered normal for the species. In regard to Na, there was no significant difference among provenances. The contents of Zn, Fe, Cu and Al and Na differed among the progenies of Barão de Cotegipe and Ivaí. The provenance of Ivaí showed higher levels of both, macro and micronutrients, compared to Barão de Cotegipe, indicating that a breeding program could significantly improve the quality of mate for human nutrition purposes. Comparing the average weight of green mass of the provenances, there is a significant gain in the crown of Barão de Cotegipe provenance which is not accompanied by the dry weight of 100 leaves.

  4. Heavy metals removal from acid mine drainage water using biogenic hydrogen sulphide and effluent from anaerobic treatment: Effect of pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, A.M. [Departamento de Sistemas Fisicos, Quimicos y Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide. Carretera de Utrera, km 1. 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Duran-Barrantes, M.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Sevilla, C/Profesor Garcia Gonzalez, s/n, 41071 Sevilla (Spain); Borja, R., E-mail: rborja@cica.es [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Instituto de la Grasa, Avda. Padre Garcia Tejero 4, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Sanchez, E.; Colmenarejo, M.F. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, C/Serrano, 115-duplicado, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Raposo, F. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Instituto de la Grasa, Avda. Padre Garcia Tejero 4, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Four alternatives (runs A, B, C and D) for heavy metals removal (Fe, Cu, Zn and Al) from acid mine drainage water (AMDW) produced in the mining areas of the Huelva Province, Spain, were evaluated. In run A, the anaerobic effluent from the treatment of acid mine drainage water (cheese whey added as a source of carbon) was mixed with the raw AMDW. The pH increased to 3.5 with the addition of KOH. In run B, biogas with around 30% of hydrogen sulphide obtained in the anaerobic reactor was sparged to the mixture obtained in run A, but in this case at a pH of 5.5. In run C, the pH of the raw AMDW was increased to 3.5 by the addition of KOH solution. Finally, in run D, the pH of the raw AMDW was increased to 5.5 by the addition of KOH solution and further biogas was sparged under the same conditions as in run A. It was found that heavy metal removal was a function of pH. At a pH of 3.5 most of the iron was removed while Zn and Cu were partially removed. At a pH of 5.5 the removal of all metals increased considerably. The best results were obtained in run B where the percentages of removal of Fe, Cu, Zn and Al achieved values of 91.3, 96.1, 79.0 and 99.0%, respectively. According to the experimental results obtained tentative schemas of the flow diagram of the processes were proposed.

  5. Isotopic Evidence of Unaccounted for Fe and Cu Erythropoietic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarede, F.; Telouk, P.; Lamboux, A.; Jaouen, K.; Balter, V.

    2011-12-01

    Despite its potential importance for understanding perturbations in the Fe-Cu homeostatic pathways, the natural isotopic variability of these metals in the human body remains unexplored. We measured the Fe, Cu, and Zn isotope compositions of total blood, serum, and red blood cells of ~50 young blood donors by multiple-collector ICP-MS after separation and purification by anion exchange chromatography. Zn is on average 0.2 permil heavier in erythrocytes (δ 66Zn=0.44±0.33 permil) with respect to serum but shows much less overall isotopic variability than Fe and Cu, which indicates that isotope fractionation depends more on redox conditions than on ligand coordination. On average, Fe in erythrocytes (δ 56Fe=-2.59±0.47 permil) is isotopically light by 1-2 permil with respect to serum, whereas Cu in erythrocytes (δ 65Cu=0.56±0.50 permil) is 0.8 percent heavier. Fe and Cu isotope compositions clearly separate erythrocytes of men and women. Fe and Cu from B-type men erythrocytes are visibly more fractionated than all the other blood types. Isotope compositions provide an original method for evaluating metal mass balance and homeostasis. Natural isotope variability shows that the current models of Fe and Cu erythropoiesis, which assume that erythropoiesis is restricted to bone marrow, violate mass balance requirements. It unveils unsuspected major pathways for Fe, with erythropoietic production of isotopically heavy ferritin and hemosiderin, and for Cu, with isotopically light Cu being largely channeled into blood and lymphatic circulation rather than into superoxide dismutase-laden erythrocytes. Iron isotopes provide an intrinsic measuring rod of the erythropoietic yield, while Cu isotopes seem to gauge the relative activity of erythropoiesis and lymphatics.

  6. Assays of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and co-contaminated heavy metals in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying the recombinant guinea pig aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Sayuri; Ohta, Masaya; Ohkawa, Hideo; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic Arabidopsis plant XgD2V11-6 carrying the recombinant guinea pig (g) aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was examined for assay of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and co-contaminated heavy metals. When the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were treated with PCB126 (toxic equivalency factor; TEF: 0.1) and PCB169 (TEF: 0.03), the GUS activity of the whole plants was increased significantly. After treatment with PCB80 (TEF: 0), the GUS activity was nearly the same level as that treated with 0.1% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a vehicle control. After exposure to a 1:1 mixture of PCB126 and PCB169, the GUS activity was increased additively. However, after exposure to a mixture of PCB126 and PCB80, the GUS activity was lower than that of the treatment with PCB126 alone. Thus, PCB80 seemed to be an antagonist towards AhR. When the transgenic plants were treated with each of the heavy metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb together with PCB126, Cd and Pb increased the PCB126-induced GUS activity. On the other hand, Fe, Cu and Zn did not affect the PCB126-induced GUS activity. In the presence of the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-B (MEL-B) and the carrier protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), the PCB126-induced GUS activity was increased, but the Cd-assisted PCB126-induced GUS activity was not affected. Thus, MEL-B and BSA seemed to increase uptake and transport of PCB126, respectively. PMID:22938576

  7. Quantitative determinations and imaging in different structures of buried human bones from the XVIII-XIXth centuries by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence - Postmortem evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, D; Dias, A A; Carvalho, M; Carvalho, M L; Santos, J P; Henriques, F R; Curate, F; Pessanha, S

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a non-commercial triaxial geometry energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) setup and a benchtop µ-XRF system were used to identify postmortem contamination in buried bones. For two of the individuals, unusually high concentrations of Cu and Pb, but also Zn (in one individual) were observed. The pigments of the burial shroud coverings have been identified as the source of contamination. Accurate and precise quantitative results were obtained by nondestructive process using fundamental parameters method taking into account the matrix absorption effects. A total of 30 bones from 13 individuals, buried between the mid-XVIIIth to early XIXth centuries, were analyzed to study the elemental composition and elemental distribution. The bones were collected from a church in Almada (Portugal), called Ermida do Espírito Santo, located near the Tagus River and at the sea neighbourhood. The triaxial geometry setup was used to quantify Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr and Pb of powder pressed bone pellets (n=9 for each bone). Cluster analysis was performed considering the elemental concentrations for the different bones. There was a clear association between some bones regarding Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb content but not a categorization between cortical and trabecular bones. The elemental distribution of Cu, Zn and Pb were assessed by the benchtop μ-analysis, the M4 Tornado, based on a polycapillary system which provides multi-elemental 2D maps. The results showed that contamination was mostly on the surface of the bone confirming that it was related to the burial shroud covering the individuals. PMID:27216663

  8. Estudio cinético de las reacciones de recocido en aleaciones de Cu-Ni-Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donoso, Eduardo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal aging of a Cu-45Ni-4Fe, Cu-34Ni-11Fe and Cu-33Ni-22Fe alloys tempered from 1173 K have been studied from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and microhardness measurements. The analysis of DSC curves, from room temperature to 950 K, shows the presence of one exothermic reaction associated to the formation of FeNi3 phase nucleating from a modulate structure, and one endothermic peak attributed to dissolution of this phase. Kinetic parameters were obtained using the usual Avrami-Erofeev equation, modified Kissinger method and integrated kinetic functions. Microhardness measurements confirmed the formation and dissolution of the FeNi3 phase.Mediante Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC y medidas de microdureza Vickers se ha estudiado el comportamiento durante el recocido de las aleaciones Cu-45Ni-4Fe, Cu-34Ni-11Fe y Cu-33Ni-22Fe templadas desde 1173 K. El análisis de las curvas DSC, desde temperatura ambiente hasta los 950 K, muestran la presencia de una reacción exotérmica asociada a la formación de la fase FeNi3 que nuclea a partir de una estructura modulada, y una reacción endotérmica que correspondería a la disolución de esta fase. Los parámetros cinéticos se calcularon a partir de la ecuación usual de Avrami-Erofeev, Kissinger modificado y funciones cinéticas integradas. Medidas de microdureza Vickers corroboraron la formación y disolución de fase FeNi3.

  9. Distribution of selected elements in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE/LDLR-double knockout mice subjected to dietary and pharmacological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajda, Mariusz, E-mail: mmgajda@cyf-kr.edu.pl [Department of Histology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-034 Krakow (Poland); Kowalska, Joanna [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Banas, Agnieszka; Banas, Krzysztof [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source, National University of Singapore, 5 Research Link, 117603 Singapore (Singapore); Kwiatek, Wojciech M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Kostogrys, Renata B. [Department of Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Krakow, Balicka 122, 30-149, Krakow (Poland); Mateuszuk, Lukasz; ChLopicki, Stefan [Department of Experimental Pharmacology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-531 Krakow (Poland); Litwin, Jan A. [Department of Histology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-034 Krakow (Poland); Appel, Karen [Hasylab, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607, Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Gene-targeted, apolipoprotein E and LDL receptor-double knockout (apoE/LDLR{sup -/-}) mice represent a new animal model that displays severe hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to show changes in histomorphology and in distribution of selected elements in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE/LDLR{sup -/-} mice fed egg-rich proatherosclerotic diet (5% egg-yolk lyophilisate) supplemented or not with perindopril (inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme; 2 mg/kg b.w.). Synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry was combined with histological stainings to determine distribution and concentration of trace and essential elements in atherosclerotic lesions. More advanced atherosclerotic lesions expressed by total area occupied by lipids (oil red-O staining) and by macrophages (CD68 immunohistochemistry) were observed in animals fed egg-rich diet. The perindopril treatment attenuated these effects. No significant differences were observed in the number of intimal smooth muscle cells (smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry). In animals fed egg-rich diet significantly higher concentrations of Ca and significantly lower contents of S, Cl, , Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in atheromas were seen in comparison to chow diet-fed animals. After pharmacological treatment, concentrations of S, Cl, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se showed the tendency to achieve levels like in animals fed normal diet. K level differed only in group treated with perindopril. Concentration of P did not significantly vary in all experimental groups. Perindopril showed its potency to reduce atherosclerosis, as estimated by the size of the atheroma and content of pro- and antiatherogenic elements.

  10. Thermodynamic and mechanical properties of copper precipitates in α-iron from atomistic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Paul; Marian, Jaime; Sadigh, Babak

    2013-07-01

    Precipitate hardening is commonly used in materials science to control strength by acting on the number density, size distribution, and shape of solute precipitates in the hardened matrix. The Fe-Cu system has attracted much attention over the last several decades due to its technological importance as a model alloy for Cu steels. In spite of these efforts several aspects of its phase diagram remain unexplained. Here we use atomistic simulations to characterize the polymorphic phase diagram of Cu precipitates in body-centered cubic (BCC) Fe and establish a consistent link between their thermodynamic and mechanical properties in terms of thermal stability, shape, and strength. The size at which Cu precipitates transform from BCC to a close-packed 9R structure is found to be strongly temperature dependent, ranging from approximately 4 nm in diameter (˜2700atoms) at 200 K to about 8 nm (˜22800atoms) at 700 K. These numbers are in very good agreement with the interpretation of experimental data given Monzen [Philos. Mag. APMAADG0141-861010.1080/01418610008212077 80, 711 (2000)]. The strong temperature dependence originates from the entropic stabilization of BCC Cu, which is mechanically unstable as a bulk phase. While at high temperatures the transition exhibits first-order characteristics, the hysteresis, and thus the nucleation barrier, vanish at temperatures below approximately 300 K. This behavior is explained in terms of the mutual cancellation of the energy differences between core and shell (wetting layer) regions of BCC and 9R nanoprecipitates, respectively. The proposed mechanism is not specific for the Fe-Cu system but could generally be observed in immiscible systems, whenever the minority component is unstable in the lattice structure of the host matrix. Finally, we also study the interaction of precipitates with screw dislocations as a function of both structure and orientation. The results provide a coherent picture of precipitate strength that unifies

  11. Quantitative determinations and imaging in different structures of buried human bones from the XVIII-XIXth centuries by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence - Postmortem evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, D; Dias, A A; Carvalho, M; Carvalho, M L; Santos, J P; Henriques, F R; Curate, F; Pessanha, S

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a non-commercial triaxial geometry energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) setup and a benchtop µ-XRF system were used to identify postmortem contamination in buried bones. For two of the individuals, unusually high concentrations of Cu and Pb, but also Zn (in one individual) were observed. The pigments of the burial shroud coverings have been identified as the source of contamination. Accurate and precise quantitative results were obtained by nondestructive process using fundamental parameters method taking into account the matrix absorption effects. A total of 30 bones from 13 individuals, buried between the mid-XVIIIth to early XIXth centuries, were analyzed to study the elemental composition and elemental distribution. The bones were collected from a church in Almada (Portugal), called Ermida do Espírito Santo, located near the Tagus River and at the sea neighbourhood. The triaxial geometry setup was used to quantify Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr and Pb of powder pressed bone pellets (n=9 for each bone). Cluster analysis was performed considering the elemental concentrations for the different bones. There was a clear association between some bones regarding Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb content but not a categorization between cortical and trabecular bones. The elemental distribution of Cu, Zn and Pb were assessed by the benchtop μ-analysis, the M4 Tornado, based on a polycapillary system which provides multi-elemental 2D maps. The results showed that contamination was mostly on the surface of the bone confirming that it was related to the burial shroud covering the individuals.

  12. Sintomas visuais de deficiências nutricionais em pinhão-manso Visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency in physic nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enilson de Barros Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento e caracterizar os sintomas de deficiências de macro e micronutrientes em mudas de pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas. As mudas foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva completa e, também, em soluções com omissão de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn ou Zn, pelo uso da técnica do elemento faltante. Foram avaliados os sintomas visuais de deficiência de nutrientes e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, respectivamente aos 90 e 120 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. As omissões de macro e micronutrientes provocaram sintomas visuais de deficiência nutricional comuns a outras espécies. As deficiências limitaram a produção de massa de matéria seca na seguinte ordem: Ca>Mg>K>N>P>S, para macronutrientes; e Fe>Cu>Zn>Mn>B, para micronutrientes.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the growth of physic nut (Jatropha curcas and to characterize visual symptoms of macro and micronutrient deficiencies in seedlings. The seedlings were cultivated in nutritive solution containing all required macro and micronutrients and in solutions with omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn or Zn, using the missing element technique. Visual deficiency symptoms and seedlings dry weight were evaluated at 90 and 120 days after treatments, respectively. The absences of macro and micronutrients in physic nut caused in nutritional deficiency visual symptoms known to other species. The deficiencies restricted the dry matter production according to the following order: Ca>Mg>K>N>P>S, for macronutrients, and Fe>Cu>Zn>Mn>B, for micronutrients.

  13. Perspectives on heterococcolith geochemical proxies based on high-resolution X-ray fluorescence mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchéras-Marx, B; Giraud, F; Simionovici, A; Daniel, I; Tucoulou, R

    2016-07-01

    Heterococcoliths are micron-scale calcite platelets produced by coccolithophores. They have been the most abundant and continuous fossil record over the last 215 million years (Myr), offering great potential for geochemical studies, although the heterococcolith fossil record remains underutilised in this domain. We have mapped heterococcoliths' composition using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) with a 100-nm resolution beam to decipher element distributions in heterococcoliths and to investigate the potential development of geochemical proxies for palaeoceanography. The study presents two Middle Jurassic Watznaueria britannica heterococcoliths from Cabo Mondego, Portugal. XRF analysis was performed with a 17 keV incident energy beam at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility ID22NI beamline to study elements from Sr down to S. Ca, Sr and Mn are distributed following the heterococcolith crystalline arrangement. Cl, Br and S display an homogeneous distribution, whereas K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb are concentrated at the edges and in the central area of the heterococcoliths. Distributions of K, Fe, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and to a lesser extent V and Cr are highly influenced by clay contamination and peripheral diagenetic overgrowth. Mn is related to diagenetic Mn-rich CaCO3 overgrowth on top of or between heterococcoliths shields. Cl and Br are likely to be present in heterococcoliths inside interstitial nano-domains. We assume that the cytoplasm [Cl(-) ] and [Br(-) ] are mediated and constant during heterococcolithogenesis. Assuming a linear correlation between cytoplasm [Cl(-) ] and sea water [Cl(-) ], heterococcolith Cl may have potential as a salinity proxy. As S is incorporated into heterococcoliths by sulphated polysaccharides, our study suggests a role for such polysaccharides in heterococcolithogenesis for at least 170 Myr. The low Sr/Ca in the W. britannica specimens studied here may either highlight an unusual cellular physiology of Mesozoic coccolithophores or result

  14. Monitoring ambient air pollutants and apply Woods' model in the prediction seasonal dry deposition at Chang-Hua (urban) and Kao-Mei (wetland) county, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Ying

    2014-09-01

    The main purpose for this study was to monitor ambient air particles and metallic elements (Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu and Pb) in total suspended particulate (TSP) concentration and dry deposition. In addition, the calculated/measured dry deposition flux ratios of ambient air particles and metallic elements (Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu and Pb) were evaluated using Woods' model at urban and wetland areas for the 2009-2010 period. The results indicated that the mean highest concentrations of metallic elements Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu and Pb in TSP were found in Chang-Hua (urban) sampling site. And as for the two characteristic sampling sites, the Woods' model exhibits better dry deposition of particulates of 18 µm particle size than the rest of the other particle sizes at any sampling site in this study. The average calculated/measured flux ratios for two seasons (summer and fall) by using Woods model at 2.5, 10 and 18 µm particles sizes were also studied. The results indicated that the average calculated/measured flux ratios orders for two seasons of various particles sizes were all displayed as Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > particle. And these calculated/measured flux ratios orders were Fe > Mn > Cu > Zn > Cr > Pb > particle and were Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > particle > Pb, during spring and winter seasons, respectively. Finally, in the spring and summer seasons of Gao-Mei (wetland) sampling site, the average calculated/measured flux ratios using Woods' model was found to be 2.5, 10 and 18 µm, showing the order of the calculated/measured flux ratios to be Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Cr > Pb > particle. And the calculated/measured flux ratio orders were Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > particle > Pb and were Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Cr > particle > Pb for fall and winter season, respectively.

  15. Geochemistry and petrology of the indium-bearing polymetallic skarn ores at Pitkäranta, Ladoga Karelia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkama, M.; Sundblad, K.; Cook, N. J.; Ivashchenko, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    The historic mining district of Pitkäranta in the Ladoga region, Fennoscandian Shield, was exploited for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sn and Ag in the nineteenth to twentieth centuries. The Pitkäranta region is dominated by Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks, which, together with gneissic Archaean dome structures, constitute an allochthonous terrane complex that amalgamated to the Archaean continent during the Svecokarelian orogeny at 1.9-1.8 Ga. This crustal complex was intruded by 1.8 Ga Late orogenic granites, 1.54 Ga anorogenic rapakivi granites and 1.45 Ga dolerites. The polymetallic skarn ores of Pitkäranta extend over a 25-km-long zone in Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks and formed from hydrothermal solutions, which emanated from the anorogenic rapakivi granites and reacted with marble layers. Four major ore types are recognised after the dominating metal: Fe, Cu, Sn and Zn, respectively. These types are not restricted to individual mines or mine fields but represent end members in zonation patterns within each ore body. Pitkäranta was the second discovery site in the world for indium but has been without modern documentation for more than 75 years. The indium contents in the ores are up to 600 ppm, in most cases sphalerite-hosted. The only roquesite-bearing sample in this study had an indium grade of 291 ppm and an In/Zn ratio of 51 (close to the criteria for the limiting conditions for creating an In-rich mineral). The Pitkäranta ores have a potential for future small-scale exploitation, but all such plans are hampered by high contents if Bi, Cd and As.

  16. Advanced Magnetoimpedance Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-02-01

    This thesis is concerned with the advanced topics of thin film magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors. The author proposes and develops novel MI sensors that target on the challenges arising from emerging applications such as flexible electronics, passive wireless sensing, etc. In the study of flexible MI sensor, the investigated sensors of NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layersare fabricated on three flexible substrates having different surface roughness: Kapton, standard and premiumphotopaper. Sensitivity versus substrate roughness analysis is carried out for the selection of optimal substrate material. The high magnetic sensing performance is achieved by using Kapton substrate. Stress simulation, incorporated with the theory of magnetostriction effect, reveals the material composition of Ni/Fe being as a key factor of the stress dependent MI effect for the flexible MI sensors. In the development of MI-SAW device for passive wireless magnetic field sensing, NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layersand interdigital transducers(IDT) are designed and fabricated on a single piece of LiNbO3substrate, providing a high degree of integration and the advantage of standard microfabrication. The double-electrodeIDT has been utilized and proven to have an optimal sensing performance in comparison to the bi-directional IDT design. The optimized high frequency performance of the thin film MI sensor results in a MI-SAW passive wireless magnetic sensor with high magnetic sensitivity comparing to the MI microwire approach. Benefiting from the high degree of integration of the MI thin film element, in the following study, two additional sensing elements are integrated to the SAW device to have a multifunctional passive wireless sensor with extended temperature and humidity sensing capabilities. Analytical models havebeen developed to eliminate the crossovers of different sensing signals through additional reference IDTs, resulting in a multifunctional passive wireless sensor with the capability of detecting all three

  17. Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution and Estimation of Dlmetal Values in Vegetables Impacted by Translocation and Geological Location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metals contamination in food consumables especially in vegetables is primarily due to multiple environmental factors and a matter of serious public health concern. The presented study scrutinized the heavy metals level and estimation of daily dietary intake of six main root vegetables; potato, yam, radish, turnip, beet and carrot, which are widely consumed on regular basis by community. Data was collected from three major cities of Pakistan: Karachi, Rawalpindi and Peshawar. Average heavy metals concentration in vegetables were found in order of Fe>Cu>Pb>Cd (93.62, 32.16, 11.74, 0.94) mg.kg/sup -1/ and the daily intake metals (DI metal) of root vegetables were estimated 0.0527 mg d/sup -1/, 0.018 mg d/sup -1/, 0.503 μg d/sup -1/, 6.580 μg d/sup -1/ for Fe, Cu, Cd and Pb respectively. This study highlights two main possible sources of heavy metals contamination in vegetables namely the urban area cultivation and vegetables obtained by long distance sources. The values of these metals ingestion were below the recommended maximum tolerable level that presently enforced in world anticipated by the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives (1999), hence are safe to eat yet the risk of excessive ingestion of heavy metals from root vegetables cannot be ignored. In view of this, there is need to develop legislations against malpractices and to design new regulations for translocation of vegetables and training of agribusiness personals. (author)

  18. Metal identification in small rural areas of bovine creations by EDXRF methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouk, Luana C.; Melquiades, Fabio L.; Biase, Gabriel E.V.; Antunes Junior, Osmar R. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Peres, Jayme A. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria

    2010-07-01

    Full text: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of metal pollution in the environment, from rural areas of bovine creation in the Rio das Pedras area in Serra da Esperanca, municipal district of Guarapuava - Parana. The analytical technique employed was Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Methodology with a portable equipment. Water, grass, soil, sediment and feed samples were collected from three small rural properties. Water samples were filtered for particulate matter retention and precipitation with APDC chelating agent was used for pre-concentration. For solid samples, between 0.3 g and 3 g, were placed in a cell covered with mylar film for irradiation and EDXRF direct analysis. Feed samples were analyzed without preparation. Soil and sediment samples were dried, ground and sieved for in natura EDXRF analysis. Grass samples were dried, crushed and ground up to powder form and then submitted to the same preparation as soil samples. The measurement system, from Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of UEL, consists in a Si-PIN X-ray detector (221 eV resolution for 5,9 keV line, 25 mum Be window) and a mini X-ray tube (4W, Ag target, 50 mum Ag filter). Sensitivity values were obtained from MicroMatter Standards and used for water and grass quantification. Calcium, Fe and Cu were found on water and K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Rb, Zr and Pb on grass samples. Potassium, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb,Sr, Y, Zr, Pb were identified on soil and sediment samples. In this case just Ti, Fe and Zr were quantified due to the standards available for sensitivity determination. Noting that the presence of lead was found in one of the analyzed places. (author)

  19. Distribution of selected elements in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE/LDLR-double knockout mice subjected to dietary and pharmacological treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Mariusz; Kowalska, Joanna; Banaś, Agnieszka; Banaś, Krzysztof; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Kostogrys, Renata B.; Mateuszuk, łukasz; ChŁopicki, Stefan; Litwin, Jan A.; Appel, Karen

    2011-10-01

    Gene-targeted, apolipoprotein E and LDL receptor-double knockout (apoE/LDLR -/-) mice represent a new animal model that displays severe hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to show changes in histomorphology and in distribution of selected elements in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE/LDLR -/- mice fed egg-rich proatherosclerotic diet (5% egg-yolk lyophilisate) supplemented or not with perindopril (inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme; 2 mg/kg b.w.). Synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry was combined with histological stainings to determine distribution and concentration of trace and essential elements in atherosclerotic lesions. More advanced atherosclerotic lesions expressed by total area occupied by lipids (oil red-O staining) and by macrophages (CD68 immunohistochemistry) were observed in animals fed egg-rich diet. The perindopril treatment attenuated these effects. No significant differences were observed in the number of intimal smooth muscle cells (smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry). In animals fed egg-rich diet significantly higher concentrations of Ca and significantly lower contents of S, Cl, , Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in atheromas were seen in comparison to chow diet-fed animals. After pharmacological treatment, concentrations of S, Cl, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se showed the tendency to achieve levels like in animals fed normal diet. K level differed only in group treated with perindopril. Concentration of P did not significantly vary in all experimental groups. Perindopril showed its potency to reduce atherosclerosis, as estimated by the size of the atheroma and content of pro- and antiatherogenic elements.

  20. NiFe/CoFe复合自由层自旋阀巨磁电阻效应研究%Research on the giant magnetoresistance effect of spin valve with NiFe/CoFe composite free layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金立川; 张怀武; 唐晓莉; 李晶

    2011-01-01

    The spin vavle structure magnetoresistance of buffer-layer-free NiFe/CoFe/Cu/CoFe/IrMn/Cu was fabricated using high vacuum magnetron sputtering technology. The magnetoresistance ratio of spin valve was measured by standard four-point method, and the hysteresis loop of the samples was measured by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Results revealed that composite free layer NiFe/CoFe structure can improve the giant magnetoresistance ratio efficiently. Compared with single free layer structure spin valve, the giant magnetoresistance has been increased from 2.48% to 3.3%. Composite free layer NiFe/CoFe significantly reduces the coercivity of the spin valve system.%采用高真空磁控溅射技术制备出无缓冲层NiFe/CoFe/Cu/CoFe/IrMn/Cu结构的自旋阀磁电阻薄膜.采用标准四探针法对自旋阀磁电阻比进行了测试,并利用振动样品磁强计(VSM)测量了样品的磁滞回线.结果表明:采用复合自由层NiFe/CoFe结构有效地提高了巨磁电阻比,相对于单一自由层结构自旋阀,巨磁电阻(GMR)从2.48%提高到3.3%.复合自由层NiFe/CoFe的引入明显降低了自旋阀体系的矫顽力.

  1. Effects of copper, iron and fluoride co-crystallized with sugar on caries development and acid formation in deslivated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalen, P L; Pearson, S K; Bowen, W H

    1996-11-01

    The purpose was to explore the effects of combinations of copper, iron and fluoride (Cu, Fe and F) incorporated in sucrose by co-crystallization on caries development in the deslivated rat model and to examine acid formation by bacteria in the rat mouth. Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were infected with Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 and desalivated when aged 26 days. Eight groups were placed in a König-Höfer programmed feeder and received 17 meals daily at hourly intervals, and essential nutrition (NCP No. 2) by gavage twice daily for 21 days. The groups received (1) plain sucrose, (2) F (8 parts/10(6)) co-crystallized with sucrose, (3) Fe (88 parts/10(6)) sucrose, (4) Cu (75 parts/10(6)) sucrose, (5) Cu + F sucrose, (6) Cu + L Fe sucrose, (7) F + Fe sucrose, and (8) Cu + Fe + F sucrose. At death the jaws were removed and sonicated in 0.9% saline solution for microbial assessment. In addition, organic acid assays were performed for each animal. Keyes smooth-surface and sulcal caries scores were lowest in the Cu + Fe + F sucrose group, but not statistically significantly different from those of the other Cu groups. The numbers of Strep. sobrinus found in the groups that received Cu, Cu + Fe, Cu + F, F + Fe and Cu + Fe + F sugar were lower than in the control group. Lactic acid was found in lower concentrations in Fe, Cu, Cu + F, Cu + Fe and F + Fe groups than in the other groups. It appears that combinations of Cu; Fe and F co-crystallized with sugar may have an additive effect in reducing the cariogenic potential of sugar by affecting lactic acid formation and reducing bacterial colonization.

  2. Rapid dechlorination of chlorophenols in aqueous solution by [Ni|Cu] microcell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Lifeng, E-mail: yinlifeng@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Dai, Yunrong, E-mail: daiyunrong@mail.bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Niu, Junfeng, E-mail: junfengn@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Bao, Yueping, E-mail: baoyueping@mail.bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Shen, Zhenyao, E-mail: zyshen@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid dechlorination of chlorophenols in aqueous solution can be achieved by [Ni|Cu] mixture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decomposition rates of chlorophenols by [Ni|Cu] were decuple of that by [Fe|Ni], [Fe|Cu], [Zn|Cu], or [Sn|Cu]. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni{sup 0} acts as an indirect reductant and catalyst in dechlorination reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The H* corridor mechanism from Ni to Cu is proposed based on hydrogen spillover. - Abstract: The [Ni|Cu] microcell was prepared by mixing the Ni{sup 0} and Cu{sup 0} particles. The composition and crystal form were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope. The results evidenced the zero-valence metals Ni and Cu were exposed on the surface of particles mixture. The [Ni|Cu] microcell was employed to decompose chlorophenols in aqueous solution by reductive dechlorination. The dechlorination rates of chlorophenols by [Ni|Cu] were >10 times faster than those by [Fe|Cu], [Zn|Cu], [Sn|Cu], and [Fe|Ni] mixtures under the same conditions. [Ni|Cu] is different from other zero valent metals (ZVMs) in that it performed the best at neutral pH. The main products of chlorophenol dechlorination were cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone. The reduction kinetics was between pseudo zero-order and first-order, depending on the pH, concentration, and temperature. These results, combined with electrochemical analysis, suggested that Ni{sup 0} acted as a reductant and catalyst in dechlorination reaction. The H* corridor mechanism from Ni{sup 0} to Cu{sup 0} was also proposed based on hydrogen spillover. The inhibition on the release of Ni{sup 2+} by adding natural organic matters and adjusting pH was investigated.

  3. Report on the Implementation of Homogeneous Nucleation Scheme in MARMOT-based Phase Field Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Sun, Xin

    2013-09-30

    field modeling in order to correctly capture the kinetics of precipitation. In most alloys the matrix phase and precipitate phase have different concentrations as well as different crystal structures. For example, Cu precipitates in FeCu alloys have fcc crystal structure while the matrix Fe-Cu solid solution has bcc structure at low temperature. The WBM model and KimS model, where both concentrations and order parameters are chosen to describe the microstructures, are commonly used to model precipitations in such alloys. The WBM and KimS models have not been implemented into Marmot yet. In the second part of this report, we focused on implementing the WBM and KimS models into Marmot. The Fe-Cu alloys, which are important structure materials in nuclear reactors, was taken as the model alloys to test the models.

  4. Reducing nitrate in groundwater by bimetallic nanoparticles integrated with denitrifying bacteria%纳米铁系双金属-微生物体系去除地下水NO_3~--N研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏宏彩; 金朝晖; 李铁龙; 张娜; 李宁

    2012-01-01

    采用不同液相还原法制备纳米Fe0、Fe/Ni和Fe/Cu粒子,将其与反硝化细菌混合应用于地下水NO3--N去除研究。考察3种体系对NO3--N去除速率的影响,并对其脱氮产物及RNA水平上纳米铁系双金属对反硝化细菌的毒性效应进行了分析和讨论。结果表明,9 d内纳米Fe0体系可完全将NO3--N去除,过程中伴随NO2--N先升高后降低的生成趋势,NH 4+-N生成52%;纳米Fe/Ni体系脱氮速率最快,6 d内可将NO 3--N完全去除,几乎未检测到NO 2--N的生成,而NH 4+-N的转化率高达69%;纳米Fe/Cu体系7 d内可将NO3--N去除完全,NH4+-N的生成率降低,仅39%,但是出现33%NO2--N积累。从反应前后反硝化细菌总RNA浓度变化看,3种纳米粒子对反硝化细菌的毒性大小为纳米Fe/Ni﹥纳米Fe/Cu﹥纳米Fe0。%In this study,nano-scale Fe0,Fe/Ni and Fe/Cu synthesized with different liquid-phase reduction methods,were studied integrated with denitrifying bacteria to remove nitrate from groundwater.Batch experiments were carried out to examine the removal rate of nitrate and the products of the denitrification in these three systems.Also,the total RNA content of bacteria were studied to evaluate the toxicity of bimetallic nanopaticles to the integrated bacteria.The results showed that almost 100% removal of nitrate was reached within 9 days in the Fe0 nanoparticles system with nitrite transitory accumulation,and the ratio of ammonium to TN was 52%.The Fe/Ni nanoparticles system significantly enhanced the rate of nitrate reduction,removing almostly nitrate within a period of 6 days,hardly detecting the product of nitrite,while the ammonium of the final products was high to 69%.Nano-scale Fe/Cu system took 7 days to complete 100% removal of nitrate,producing less ammonium,only 39%,but there was 33% nitrite remained in the system.Experimental results also showed that the toxicity of these three types of nanoparticles to denitrifying bacteria should be in the sequence

  5. Thermal stability and microstructure of GMR-systems consisting of thin metallic films; Thermische Stabilitaet und Mikrostruktur von GMR-Systemen aus duennen metallischen Filmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Joerg

    2007-08-31

    In this work the short-term and long-term stability of the nanoscale metallic multilayers at elevated temperatures is studied. Reasons and mechanisms for breakdown of the GMR-effect have been analyzed by different physical methods. The multilayered samples investigated in this work exhibit a GMR effect of GMR (alloy)=20.7 % which is significantly smaller than the effect of the standard system with pure Cu interlayers (GMR(Cu)=25.2 %). For protection against oxidation during the use a passivation coating consisting of SiO{sub 2} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} has been deposited by the means of plasma CVD. Typical parameters for this process are times of t{sub short-term}=1 h in the temperature range of 200 CFe/Cu basic system the CoFe/CuAgAu alloyed system the model system consisting of Fe/Cu multilayers The breakdown of the multilayered systems is passing three main stages: Samples examined directly after the preparation show mixing of different atomic species at the interfaces. This intermixing goes along with lattice disturbances, and together they cause an increased basic

  6. Bryophytes use like atmospheric indicators of heavy metals in the metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in species of frequent and abundant bryophytes in the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (MATV). The concentration of the studied metals was determined in two different seasons (cold-dry and warm-humid) in 11 sites of the MATV, 7 of them classified as urban areas, 2 as transition areas and 2 as protected natural areas. Only epiphyte organisms found to a superior height of 100 cm of the floor were considered and the species determination was realized in the Sciences Faculty of the Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, while the processing of the samples was carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The samples processing consisted on separating the bryophytes of the bark of the trees, later on each one of the samples was washed, milled and homogenized, at the end they were subjected to a digestion process accelerated by microwaves. The concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in the bryophytes was determined applying the X-rays Fluorescence technique, using a spectrometer Tx-2000 Ital-Structures, with a detector type Si (Li), a tube of Mo (40 kV, 30 m A) with 17,4 keV like excitement energy. Each sample was analyzed six times with a counting time of 500 seconds. Additionally enrichment factors were obtained using reference soils considered as not impacted by anthropogenic activities. With the obtained results space and temporary differences were established through descriptive statistic, also the enrichment factor to infer the possible origin of the metals was calculated, as well as the sites that could represent a risk for the health. The species more frequent and abundant were F. ciliaris and L. angustata, presenting the following tendency in their metals concentration Fe>Ti>Mn>Zn>Pb>V ≅ Cu>Cr, being observed that the temporality is a factor that influences in the metals concentration and that in general F. ciliaris

  7. Determination of Heavy Metals in Roach (Rutilus rutilus and Bleak (Alburnus alburnus in Zhrebchevo Dam Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi I. Zhelyazkov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the concentration of iron (Fe, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, manganese (Mn, copper (Cu, chromium (Cr, cadmium (Cd and zinc (Zn in roach (Rutilus rutilus and bleak (Alburnus alburnus as species for human consummation. Two fresh water fish species, roach and bleak were caught from Zhrebchevo Dam Lake in Bulgaria. Determination of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr and Cd in muscle samples were performed with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS. The heavy metal content in the meat of roach and bleak were found to be 0.59±0.032 - 0.69±0.128 mg kg-1 for Cu, 6.59±0.224 - 7.34±0.142 mg kg-1 for Fe, 0.03±0.025 - 0.04±0.012 mg kg-1 for Ni, 0.06±0.044 - 0.07±0.031 mg kg-1 for Pb, 4.05±0.263 - 5.46±0.388 mg kg-1 for Zn, 0.49±0.060 - 0.72±0.080 mg kg-1 for Mn, 0.09±0.036 - 0.1±0.045 mg kg-1 for Cr, 0.01±0.002 - 0.01±0.003 mg kg-1 for Cd. The data show that the differences between the content of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr and Ni in roach and bleak are significant, while these ones of Pb and Cd are not significant. The significant differences in the content of heavy metals in muscles of roach and bleak are as a result of multiple factors, including season, food, chemical properties of water or sediment. The data established during the investigation show that the edible part of fish do not carry heavy metals loads and concentrations are below the legal value for fish and fish products established by the Food and Agriculture Organization and national legislation. This paper is helpful to consumers and academics concerning the mineral of body composition of roach (Rutilus rutilus, and bleak (Alburnus alburnus.

  8. Evaluación de algunos métodos para la extracción de los micronutrimentos B, Fe, Zn, Mn y Cu en suelos de las zonas norte y centro del Valle del Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García O. Álvaro

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar el contenido de Fe, Cu, Mn y Zn disponibles en el suelo se usaron: EDTA 0.01M + NaHCD3 0.5 N, HCI 0.05 N + H2SD4, DTPA y HCI 0.1N. El B disponible fue extraído con Ca(H2PD42H20 0.008 M, HCI 0.05N y NH40Ac pH 4.8. Para la determinación de los micronutrimentos en el material vegetal se usaron como soluciones para la digestión el metanol ácido y la mezcla nítrico perclórica para Fe, Mn, Cu y Zn; para el B se usó el método de Hunter. El DTP A resultó adecuado para evaluar Fe y Cu, el doble ácido para Mn, el NaHC03 + EDTA para el Zn y el HCI 0.05N y Ca (H2P042 H20 para evaluar el B disponible en el suelo. La mezcla nítrico perclórica resultó más apropiada para la determinación de los nutrimentos en los tejidos que el metanol ácido.To evaluate available Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn was used: EDTA 00.1M + NaHC03 0.5N, HCI 0.05N + H2S04 0.025N, DTPA and HCI 0.1 N. Available B was extracted with Ca (H2P042 H2O 0.008M; HCI 0.05N and NH40Ac pH 4.8. For determination of micronutriment in the vegetal material was used as solution acid methanol and nitric – perchloric mixture for Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn; for B Hunters methods. DTPA is advantageous to evaluate Fe and Cu, double acid to Mn, NaHC03 + EDTA to Zn and HCI 0.05N and Ca(H2P042 H20 to evaluate B available in the soil. Nitric-perchloric mixture is most advantageous for determination of nutriments in the tissues than acid methanol.

  9. 黄蓝状菌几丁质酶E2纯化、性质及抗菌活性研究%Purification,properties and antifungal activity of one chitinase produeced by Talaromyces flavus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈述; 王志伟; 解文科; 唐帅; 李慧

    2011-01-01

    黄蓝状菌在SMCS液体培养基中置于恒温摇床(200r/min,27.5C)上培养13天,诱导产生大量的几丁质酶。培养滤液经硫酸铵分级沉淀,DEAE--Sepharose FastFlow阴离子交换层析、Phenyl—Sepharose Fast Flow疏水层析、Sephacryl S-100分子筛层析得到了凝胶电泳(SDS—PAGE)谱带单一的几丁质酶E2,其分子量为32KD。其最适反应温度为50℃,最适pH值是5。Mn^2+对其有明显的激活作用,Cu^2+、FeCu^2+对其有强烈的抑制作用。抗菌活性显示.其对供试病原菌具有明显的抑菌作用。%One extracellular chitinase E, was purified to SDS--PAGE homogeneous by ammonium sulfate fraction, DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow Chromatography, Phenyl-Sepharose Fast Flow Chromatography and Sephacryl S- 100 charomatogra phy when Talaromyces fiavus was grown in SMCS broth at 27.5℃ on a rotary shaker at 200r/min for 13 days. The molecular weight of the chitinase was about 32kD. The property and antifungal activity of chitinase were tested in tbis study,the results were as the followings:The optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme for hydrolysis of chitin are 5 and at 50℃ respectively. Different metal ions showed different effects on the chitinase activities, Mn2+ evidently increased activity of the chitinases, Na+,Ca2+ and K+ increased partially activitiy of the chitinase , whereasCu2-, FeCu2+ caused inhibition heavily. Thechitinases appeared to be antifungal activity against tested fungi and more effective against fungi of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht, Botryosphaeria berengeriana f. sp. Piricola Alternaria logipes and Verticillium dahliae.

  10. Composição do suco de uva caseiro de diferentes cultivares Composition of homemade grape juice from different varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Um volume considerável de uva do grupo das americanas da Serra Gaúcha é destinado para a produção de suco de uva caseiro. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das cultivares Isabel, Bordô (Ives e Concord de Vitis labrusca e Cabernet Sauvignon de Vitis vinifera, na composição do suco de uva, elaborado na Embrapa Uva e Vinho na safra de 2003. Os sucos foram avaliados quanto às análises clássicas: densidade, °Brix, acidez total, acidez volátil, pH e relação °Brix/acidez total, efetuadas através de métodos físico-químicos. Os compostos voláteis etanol, metanol e aldeído acético foram determinados através da cromatografia gasosa. Os elementos minerais Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu e Zn foram analisados por absorção atômica, enquanto que o K, Na e Rb, por emissão de chama. O P foi determinado por colorimetria. Os resultados evidenciaram variabilidade entre os sucos das diferentes cultivares. O suco de Cabernet Sauvignon diferenciou-se dos demais pelos menores teores de metanol e etanol e pelos maiores de acidez volátil e Fe. Os sucos da uva Bordô e Concord apresentaram menor teor de acidez total e de Mn.A great amount of American grapes is employed to produce homemade juice in the Serra Gaúcha Region. The purpose of this work was to evaluated the effects of Vitis labrusca cultivars (Isabel, Bordô (Ives, Concord and a Vitis vinifera cultivar (Cabernet Sauvignon, in the juice composition. The juice was prepared at Embrapa in Bento Gonçalves, RS, in the 2003 vintage. The juices had been evaluated as classic analysis: density, °Brix, total and volatile acidity, pH, °Brix total acidity ratio, made by the physical-chemical methods. The volatile components ethanol, methanol and acetaldehyde were determined by gas chromatography. The mineral elements Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn had been analysed by atomic absorption when the K, Na and Rb by flame emission. The results showed variability among juices from different grape

  11. Evolution of nutrients element content in soils dedicated to onion crop Evolución del contenido de elementos nutrientes en suelos cultivados con cebolla de bulbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Sonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the evolution of nutrient content in soils dedicated to commercial onion crop (Allium. cepa in the municipality of Tibasosa, Boyacá,Colombia, in a Sulfic endoaquepts soil, three treatments established: Without fertilization (T1, conventional fertilization used in the area (T2 and fertilization according to analysis of soils (T3. Samples were collected for analysis 20 days before plantation and 45, 90 and 120 days after sowing. The of contents macroelements showed the following order N>Ca>K>Mg>S>P and those of micronutrients, Mn>Fe>Zn>Cu>B. There were positive interactions among N/Fe, P/K, P/Ca, P/Mg, K/Mg, K/S, Mg/S, B/Zn and Cu/Mn and negative interactions among N/K, N/S, P/Fe, K/Fe, Mg/Fe, B/Fe, S/Fe, Cu/Zn and Zn/Mn affecting their concentration and availability. The results evidence that a balanced content of nutrients can increase the yield. Key words: Allium cepa, Sulfic endoaquepts, Fertility.El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la evolución del contenido de nutrientes en suelos destinados al cultivo comercial de cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa en el municipio de Tibasosa, Boyacá. En un suelo sulfic endoaquepts se establecieron tres tratamientos: Sin fertilización (T1, con fertilización convencional de la zona (T2 y fertilización con base en el análisis de suelos (T3. Se recolectaron muestras para análisis 20 días antes de la siembra y a los 45, 90 y 120 días después de la siembra (DDS. Los contenidos de macroelementos se presentaron en el orden N>Ca>K>Mg>S>P y los de micronutrientes Mn>Fe>Zn>Cu>B existiendo interacciones positivas entre N/Fe, P/K, P/Ca, P/Mg, K/Mg, K/S, Mg/S, B/Zn y Cu/Mn y negativas entre N/K, N/S, P/Fe, K/Fe, Mg/Fe, B/Fe, S/Fe, Cu/Zn y Zn/Mn afectando su concentración y disponibilidad. Los análisis permitieron inducir que un contenido adecuado de nutrientes incrementa el rendimiento en la zona. Palabras claves: Allium cepa, Sulfic endoaquepts, Fertilidad.

  12. Determination of inorganic nutrients in wheat flour by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peruchi, Lidiane Cristina; Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; Gustinelli Arantes de Carvalho, Gabriel; Guerra, Marcelo Braga Bueno; Almeida, Eduardo de; Rufini, Iolanda Aparecida [NAPTISA Research Support Center “Technology and Innovation for a Sustainable Agriculture”, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000, Piracicaba SP (Brazil); Santos, Dário [Federal University of São Paulo, R. Prof. Artur Riedel 275, 09972-270, Diadema SP (Brazil); Krug, Francisco José, E-mail: fjkrug@cena.usp.br [NAPTISA Research Support Center “Technology and Innovation for a Sustainable Agriculture”, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000, Piracicaba SP (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) were evaluated for the determination of P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn in pressed pellets of wheat flours. EDXRF and LIBS calibration models were built with analytes mass fractions determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion in a set of 25 wheat flour laboratory samples. Test samples consisted of pressed pellets prepared from wheat flour mixed with 30% mm{sup −1} cellulose binder. Experiments were carried out with a LIBS setup consisted of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and a spectrometer with Echelle optics and ICCD, and a benchtop EDXRF system fitted with a Rh target X-ray tube and a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The correlation coefficients from the linear calibration models of P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn and Zn determined by LIBS and/or EDXRF varied from 0.9705 for Zn to 0.9990 for Mg by LIBS, and from 0.9306 for S to 0.9974 for K by EDXRF. The coefficients of variation of measurements varied from 1.2 to 20% for LIBS, and from 0.3 to 24% for EDXRF. The predictive capabilities based on RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction) values were appropriate for the determination of P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn by LIBS, and for P, K, S, Ca, Fe, and Zn by EDXRF. In general, results from the analysis of NIST SRM 1567a Wheat flour by LIBS and EDXRF were in agreement with their certified mass fractions. - Highlights: • Combination of LIBS and EDXRF for quantitative analysis of wheat flour. • Validation performed for determination of P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn. • Same test samples can be used for both methods. • Appropriate limits of detection for all tested analytes. • Methods are simple and provide fast and accurate results for routine analysis.

  13. Study of clustering point defects under irradiation in dilute iron alloys; Etude de la formation sous irradiation des amas de defauts ponctuels dans les alliages ferritiques faiblement allies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duong-Hardouin Duparc, T.H.A

    1998-12-31

    In low copper steels for nuclear reactor pressure vessel, point defect clustering plays an important role in hardening. These clusters are very small and invisible by transmission electron microscopy. In order to study the hardening component which results from the clustering of freely migrating point defects, we irradiated in a high voltage electron microscope Fe, the FeCu{sub 0.13%}, FeP{sub 0.015%} and FeN{sub 33ppm} alloys and the complex FeMn{sub 1.5%}Ni{sub 0.8%}Cu{sub 0.13%}P{sub 0.01%} alloy the composition of which is close to the matrix of pressure vessel steel. We studied the nucleation of dislocation loops and their growth velocity. The observations and the analyses have shown that in the complex model alloy, the interstitial dislocation loops are smaller and their density is more important than for the others alloys. The diffusion coefficients of interstitials and vacancies are obtained with the help of a simplified model. The densities of dislocation loops and their growth velocities obtained experimentally are reproduced by means of a cluster dynamics model we have developed. This is achieved self-consistently by using as a first trial the approximated coefficients obtained with the simplified model. The results of calculations have shown that the binding energy of di-interstitials must be very important in the binary iron alloys and only 0.95 eV in iron. Copper, nitrogen and phosphorus stabilize di-interstitials in iron. Finally the distribution of interstitial loops at 290 deg C and at 2.10{sup -9} dpa/s is calculated with the diffusion coefficient of point defects adjusted in FeCu. A distribution of small loops appears which gives an increase of hardening estimated to 10 Hv instead of 33 Hv experimentally observed. This low value can be improved by assuming in agreement with molecular dynamics simulations that a little fraction of di-interstitials is created at 2.5 MeV. (author) 111 refs.

  14. Bryophytes use like atmospheric indicators of heavy metals in the metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley; Uso de briofitas como indicadores atmosfericos de metales pesados en la zona metropolitana del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poblano B, J.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in species of frequent and abundant bryophytes in the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (MATV). The concentration of the studied metals was determined in two different seasons (cold-dry and warm-humid) in 11 sites of the MATV, 7 of them classified as urban areas, 2 as transition areas and 2 as protected natural areas. Only epiphyte organisms found to a superior height of 100 cm of the floor were considered and the species determination was realized in the Sciences Faculty of the Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, while the processing of the samples was carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The samples processing consisted on separating the bryophytes of the bark of the trees, later on each one of the samples was washed, milled and homogenized, at the end they were subjected to a digestion process accelerated by microwaves. The concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in the bryophytes was determined applying the X-rays Fluorescence technique, using a spectrometer Tx-2000 Ital-Structures, with a detector type Si (Li), a tube of Mo (40 kV, 30 m A) with 17,4 keV like excitement energy. Each sample was analyzed six times with a counting time of 500 seconds. Additionally enrichment factors were obtained using reference soils considered as not impacted by anthropogenic activities. With the obtained results space and temporary differences were established through descriptive statistic, also the enrichment factor to infer the possible origin of the metals was calculated, as well as the sites that could represent a risk for the health. The species more frequent and abundant were F. ciliaris and L. angustata, presenting the following tendency in their metals concentration Fe>Ti>Mn>Zn>Pb>V ≅ Cu>Cr, being observed that the temporality is a factor that influences in the metals concentration and that in general F. ciliaris

  15. Scrutinising magnetic disorder through metastable 3d- and 4f-nanostructured alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Barquin, L., E-mail: barquinl@unican.es [CITIMAC, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander 39005 (Spain); Alba Venero, D.; Echevarria-Bonet, C.; Garcia Calderon, R. [CITIMAC, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander 39005 (Spain); Rojas, D.P. [CITIMAC, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander 39005 (Spain); Dpto. Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganes 28911 (Spain); Rodriguez-Carvajal, J. [Lab. Leon Brillouin, CE-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette 91191, France and Inst. Laue-Langevin, BP156, Grenoble 38042 (France); Pankhurst, Q.A. [Royal Inst. Great Britain, Davy Faraday Res. Lab., London W1S 4BS (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanical milling has been employed to produce 3d- and 4f-alloys in large quantities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In FeCuAg, we show a multipattern Rietveld. It is formed by Fe(Cu) nanoparticles in a Ag matrix as a super spin glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The exchange of Ag by Au results in larger particles and the behaviour resembles that of a reentrant spin glass state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 150 h milled TbAl{sub 2} shows a disordered Curie transition and a freezing associated to the nanostructure. - Abstract: Mechanical milling of magnetic alloys 3d-(Fe) and 4f-based (Tb) results in the promotion of magnetic disorder. In Fe{sub 22}Cu{sub 14}Ag{sub 64} the nanoscopic arrangement has been revealed by a very comprehensive multipattern Rietveld analysis using a combination of four sets of data including X-ray and neutron diffraction. The nanostructure is formed by Fe{sub 61}Cu{sub 39} particles of D = 4.6 nm with a collinear ferromagnetic structure in a metallic matrix constituted by D = 11.9 nm Ag nanoparticles. The creation of an ensemble of nanoparticles is favoured by the immiscible character of the starting metals. The nanostructured alloy presents a magnetic transition at around 160 K which cannot be considered as a pure single-domain blocking but affected by interparticle dipolar interactions. The latter is confirmed by the spin dynamics, displaying a critical slowing down of the AC-susceptibility and a definite peak of the non-linear susceptibility. When the matrix is alternatively formed by Au nanoparticles in the Fe{sub 14}Au{sub 86} (D = 77 nm) and Fe{sub 10}Cu{sub 10}Au{sub 80} (D = 35 nm) alloys, the magnetic response resembles that of a reentrant state as the milling time is not enough to reduce the particle size, triggering ferromagnetic interparticle coupling enhanced by a multidomain magnetic structure. In milled 4f-alloys formed by miscible Tb and Al, as TbAl{sub 2}, the production process

  16. Determination and correlation of spatial distribution of trace elements in normal and neoplastic breast tissues evaluated by {mu}-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.P.; Oliveira, M.A.; Poletti, M.E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP),Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Some trace elements, naturally present in breast tissues, participate in a large number of biological processes, which include among others, activation or inhibition of enzymatic reactions and changes on cell membranes permeability, suggesting that these elements may influence carcinogenic processes. Thus, knowledge of the amounts of these elements and their spatial distribution in normal and neoplastic tissues may help in understanding the role of these elements in the carcinogenic process and tumor progression of breast cancers. Concentrations of trace elements like Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn, previously studied at LNLS using TXRF and conventional XRF, were elevated in neoplastic breast tissues compared to normal tissues. In this study we determined the spatial distribution of these elements in normal and neoplastic breast tissues using {mu}-XRF technique. We analyzed 22 samples of normal and neoplastic breast tissues (malignant and benign) obtained from paraffin blocks available for study at the Department of Pathology HC-FMRP/USP. From the blocks, a small fraction of material was removed and subjected to histological sections of 60 {mu}m thick made with a microtome. The slices where placed in holder samples and covered with ultralen film. Tissue samples were irradiated with a white beam of synchrotron radiation. The samples were positioned at 45 degrees with respect to the incident beam on a table with 3 freedom degrees (x, y and z), allowing independent positioning of the sample in these directions. The white beam was collimated by a 20 {mu}m microcapillary and samples were fully scanned. At each step, a spectrum was detected for 10 s. The fluorescence emitted by elements present in the sample was detected by a Si (Li) detector with 165 eV at 5.9 keV energy resolution, placed at 90 deg with respect to the incident beam. Results reveal that trace elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by

  17. Determination of inorganic nutrients in wheat flour by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) were evaluated for the determination of P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn in pressed pellets of wheat flours. EDXRF and LIBS calibration models were built with analytes mass fractions determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion in a set of 25 wheat flour laboratory samples. Test samples consisted of pressed pellets prepared from wheat flour mixed with 30% mm−1 cellulose binder. Experiments were carried out with a LIBS setup consisted of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and a spectrometer with Echelle optics and ICCD, and a benchtop EDXRF system fitted with a Rh target X-ray tube and a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The correlation coefficients from the linear calibration models of P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn and Zn determined by LIBS and/or EDXRF varied from 0.9705 for Zn to 0.9990 for Mg by LIBS, and from 0.9306 for S to 0.9974 for K by EDXRF. The coefficients of variation of measurements varied from 1.2 to 20% for LIBS, and from 0.3 to 24% for EDXRF. The predictive capabilities based on RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction) values were appropriate for the determination of P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn by LIBS, and for P, K, S, Ca, Fe, and Zn by EDXRF. In general, results from the analysis of NIST SRM 1567a Wheat flour by LIBS and EDXRF were in agreement with their certified mass fractions. - Highlights: • Combination of LIBS and EDXRF for quantitative analysis of wheat flour. • Validation performed for determination of P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn. • Same test samples can be used for both methods. • Appropriate limits of detection for all tested analytes. • Methods are simple and provide fast and accurate results for routine analysis

  18. Evolución metalogenética de las Sierras Pampeanas de Córdoba y sur de Santiago del Estero: Ciclos famatiniano, gondwánico y ándico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mutti

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se propone la evolución metalogenética de las Sierras Pampeaneas de Córdoba y sur de Santiago del Estero en cinco estadios, de los cuales los dos primeros se expusieron en un trabajo anterior. El estadio metalogenético 3, que corresponde al segundo ciclo orogénico del Pampeano-Famatiniano, se caracterizó por la migración de fluidos hidrotermales y la generación y reactivación de estructuras. Durante el mismo sucedieron transformaciones en depósitos de Cr (Fe-Ti, Cu (Au-Ag, Pb-Zn (Ag-Cu-Au, Fe y Cu- Fe (Zn-Au-Ag-Co, y se originaron pegmatitas portadoras de Be-Nb-Ta-W-P-U-ETR, depósitos biextendidos de W-Bi (Mo-Cu-Sn- Zn-Au-B-F-Te y de U asociados a granitoides, depósitos metasomáticos de Fe-Cu (Ti-Au y vetas de Au (Cu-Zn-Pb-As y polimetálicas de Ag-Pb-Zn (V-Sn-Mn-Cd-Au-Cu-As-Bi-Sb-Co. Para este estadio se establece una correlación con depósitos en cinturones orogénicos. El estadio metalogenético 4, correspondiente al ciclo extensional gondwánico y vinculado con la apertura del rifting Atlántico, formó depósitos de Mn (Fe-F-Ba en vetas y de F (Fe-Mn en vetas asociados con granitos. El estadio metalogenético 5 se desarrolló durante el ciclo compresional Ándico y generó manifestaciones de Au epitermal y depósitos y manifestaciones de U-V (Mn-Fe en sedimentitas. Los sucesivos estadios de depositación y movilización de elementos metálicos definieron fajas mineralizadas que otorgan a este sector de las Sierras Pampeanas un carácter de dominio especializado en Cr, W, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ti, Au, Bi, Be, Li, U, Mn, F y B y subordinado en Sn, Mo, ETR, Ta, Nb, V, Cd, Ag, Sb, Co, P, As, S, Te, Se y Ba.

  19. Caracterização e biodigestão anaeróbia dos dejetos de caprinos Characterization and anaerobic digestion of goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. A. Orrico

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantificar e caracterizar os dejetos gerados por cabras Saanen em quatro categorias de idade e alimentadas com três dietas e na seqüência, e promover a biodigestão anaeróbia dos dejetos constituíram os objetivos deste trabalho. Para a produção de dejetos, foram utilizadas 36 cabras Saanen, com idades entre 2 e 4 (C1, 4 e 8 (C2, 8 e 12 (C3 e acima de 12 meses (C4, alimentadas com as dietas 1 (D1: 80% volumoso (Vol e 20% concentrado (Con; 2 (D2: 60% Vol e 40% Con e 3 (D3: 40% Vol e 20% Con. Foram quantificadas as produções diárias de fezes e urina e seus teores em N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn. Com a mistura das fezes e urina de todas as categorias, separadas segundo as dietas, foram abastecidos biodigestores batelada, com capacidade para 4 L de substrato em fermentação. A C1 apresentou menor (PThis study aimed quantify and characterize the manure generated by Saanen goats in four categories of age, fed with three diets and then promote the anaerobic digestion of the manures. Thirty six goats were used with ages between 2 and 4 (C1, 4 and 8 (C2, 8 and 12 (C3 and above 12 months (C4, fed with the diets 1 (D1: 80% forage (Fo and 20% concentrated (Co, 2 (D2: 60% Fo and 40% Co and 3 (D3: 40% Fo and 20% Co. The daily productions of feces and urine and its contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were quantified. A mixture of feces and urine of all the categories of age was used; separated according to the diets, for the supply of batch digesters, with capacity of 4.0 liters of substrate in fermentation. The C1 presented smaller excretion (P<0.05 of feces (164.1 g of MS/animal per day and the smallest food consumption (362.16 g MS/animal per day. The largest concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and K occurred in the feces and urine generated by goats of C4 and fed by D3. The prepared substrate with manures originating from of D3 presented 45% of reduction in the contents of volatile solids (VS. The prepared substrate with

  20. Diagnose foliar da gravioleira (Annona muricata L.: efeito da posição de ramos e folhas Part of plant to sample leaves for nutritional status evaluation in soursop (Annona muricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane de Lourdes Silva de Lima

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A carência de informações na literatura sobre a amostragem de folhas da gravioleira, particularmente, a definição da posição da folha na copa das árvores e das folhas nos ramos ainda é um fator limitante para a diagnose foliar dessa cultura. Objetivando determinar a parte da planta indicada para a amostragem de folhas e a avaliação do estado nutricional da gravioleira conduziu-se um experimento no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, em Pacajus (CE, no período de março a abril de 2003. Colheram-se folhas de três posições da copa (terço superior, terço médio e terço inferior e três posições no ramo (folhas da parte apical, mediana e basal e determinaram-se os teores de P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn. Os resultados permitem sugerir que os teores de minerais das folhas da parte mediana da copa das árvores e na posição mediana do ramo refletem melhor o estado nutricional da frutífera.The lack of information in literature about leaf sampling soursop plant in particular, the definition of the leaf position at the tree top and leaves on the branches is still a limiting factor for the diagnosis of this cultivation. Aiming to determine which is the suitable part of the plant for leaf sampling and evaluate the nutritional status of the soursop plants, an experiment was developed on the experimental farm Embrapa - CNPAT, at Pacajus-CE, in the period from March to April, 2003. One collected leaves from three positions at the top (upper third, medium third and lower third and three positions on the branches (apical part leaves, basal and medium and one determined the tenor of P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn. The results allow to suggest that the mineral levels of the medium part of leaves at the top of the trees on the medium position of the branch, reflect best nutritional status of the plant.

  1. Nutrientes foliares de espécies arbóreas de três estádios sucessionais de floresta ombrófila densa no sul do Brasil Leaf nutrient content of tree species from three successional stages of tropical rain forest in south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Torres Boeger

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As concentrações de macro e micronutrientes foliares de espécies arbóreas foram avaliadas em três estádios sucessionais (inicial, intermediário e avançado de uma floresta ombrófila densa das terras baixas, no litoral do Estado do Paraná, crescendo sobre solo arenoso e oligotrófico. Dentre as espécies arbóreas mais importantes de cada estádio sucessional (quatro iniciais; oito intermediárias; 11 avançadas, coletou-se folhas maduras de cinco diferentes indivíduos de cada estádio sucessional para a análise química dos seguintes elementos: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, C, Zn, Fe, Cu e Mn. As espécies do estádio inicial possuem as menores concentrações médias foliares de N, P, K, Zn, Fe e a maior concentração de Mg e estas concentrações são estatisticamente diferentes (p 25:1, apesar da tendência de diminuir à medida que avança a sucessão. O aumento da concentração da maioria dos nutrientes foliares analisados ao longo do gradiente sucessional está associado, possivelmente, com o incremento do acúmulo da serapilheira sobre o solo, o que proporciona ciclagem de nutrientes mais intensa e maiores concentrações de nutrientes no solo.We investigated the leaf nutrient content of trees species from three distinct successional stages (early, intermediate, late of a lowland rain forest located near the coast of Paraná State, Brazil. This forest grows on sandy soil with low nutrient content. We collected mature leaves from five different individuals of each sucessional stages of the most important tree species of each successional stage (four of the early; eight of the intermediate and 11 of the late stages for chemical analysis of following elements: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, C, Zn, Fe, Cu e Mn. The species from early sucessional stage have lower contents of N, P, K, Zn, Fe, and higher contents of Mg. These concentrations are statistically different (p 25:1, despite of the tendency to decrease as succession advances. The increment of

  2. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setala V. Naidu

    2003-01-01

    We have produced Co, Cu, and Fe nano-particles by Laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) as evidenced by TEM investigations. Sizes of the nano-particles created are in the order of 5 nm. The LISD system could generate nano-particles in quantities only in the order of a milligram. This may be mainly due to the limited photo induced reactions taking place on the surface of the solutions. We have designed experiments to use drop flow technique with LISD for nano-particle deposition on microreactors. Preliminary work has been done on Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors. We are also investigating the catalytic properties of nano-particles of FeO and CoO prepared by ball milling and dispersed into sol-gel prepared alumina granules. We have continued our investigation of catalytic reactions of Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe on alumina support. The metal oxides were first reduced with hydrogen and used for the conversion of CO/H{sub 2}. The surface area of the catalysts has been determined by nitrogen disorption. They are in the range of 200-300 m{sup 2}/g. Cu, Co, Fe, Co/Fe, Cu/Co and Cu/Fe showed increasing order of catalytic activity for CO/H{sub 2} conversion. We are also studying catalytic conversion rates for CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and CO/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} mixtures using these catalysts. Our investigations of Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors showed higher CO/H{sub 2} conversion for Fe compared to Co. We have used vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to study the magnetic characteristics of as prepared, reduced, post-reaction catalysts. Comparative study of the ferromagnetic component of these samples gives the reduction efficiency and the changes in metal centers during catalytic reactions. Magnetic studies of post-reaction Co and Fe micro-reactors show that more carbide formation occurs for iron compared to cobalt.

  3. [Determination of trace elements in Lophatherum gracile brongn from different habitat by microwave digestion-atomic absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke; Xue, Yue-Qin; Gui, Ren-Yi; Sun, Su-Qin; Yin, Ming-Wen

    2010-03-01

    A method of microwave digestion technique was proposed to determine the content of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, K, Ca, Mg, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Al, Se and As in Lophatherum gracile brongn of different habitat by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The RSD of the method was between 1.23% and 3.32%, and the recovery rates obtained by standard addition method were between 95.8% and 104.20%. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method has the advantages of simplicity, speediness and sensitivity. It is suitable for the determination of the contents of metal elements in Lophatherum gracile brongn. The experimental results also indicated that different areas' Lophantherum gracile brongn had different trace elements content. The content of trace elements K, Mg, Ca, Fe and Mn beneficial to the human body was rich. The content of the heavy metal trace element Pb in Lophantherum gracile brongn of Hunan province was slightly high. The content of the heavy metal trace element Cu in Lophantherum gracile brongn of Guangdong province and Anhui province is also slightly higher. Beside, the contents of harmful trace heavy metal elements Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and As in Lophatherum gracile brongn of different habitat are all lower than the limits of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and Green Trade Standard for Importing and Exporting Medicinal Plant and Preparation and National Food Sanitation Standard. These determination results provided the scientific data for further discussing the relationship between the content of trace elements in Lophantherum gracile brongn and the medicine efficacy.

  4. [Deactivation by SO2 of transition metal oxides modified low-temperature SCR catalyst for NOx reduction with NH3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo-xiong; Liu, Ting; Yang, Ting-ting; Xiong, Li-xian; Wang, Jing

    2009-08-15

    MnOx-CeOx/ACF catalyst was prepared by impregnation method, which exhibited high activity for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NOx over the temperature range 110-230 degrees C. Experiments results indicated that the catalyst yielded 80% NO conversion at 150 degrees C and 90% at 230 degrees C. The Oxides of Fe,Cu and V were added to the catalysts based on MnOx-CeOx/ACF. The additions of these transition metal oxides had a negative effect on the activity of the catalysts. Compared with MnOx-CeOx/ACF and Cu and V modified catalysts, NO conversion for Fe-MnOx-CeOx/ACF catalyst leveled off at nearly 75% in the first 6 h in the presence of SO2. Two mechanisms of catalyst deactivation by SO2 were discovered by the methods of X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), indicating that the catalysts were covered by ammonium sulfates and the metal oxides, acting as active components, were also sulfated by SO2 to form metal sulfates.

  5. Processes involving electron capture and multiple ionization in collisions of fast H+ and He2+ ions with lead atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, P. C. E.; Shah, M. B.; Geddes, J.; Gilbody, H. B.

    1999-12-01

    A crossed-beam technique incorporating time-of-flight analysis and coincidence counting of the collision products has been used to study Pbq+ formation with q up to 8 in collisions between ground-state Pb atoms and H+ and He2+ ions within the range 50-600 keV amu-1. The separate cross sections for simple charge transfer, transfer ionization, and pure ionization leading to the formation of Pbq+ ions have been obtained and the relative importance of these processes has been established. Accurate measurements and rigorous theoretical descriptions of these multielectron processes in such heavy atoms are difficult and data are still very limited. The present measurements have been designed to extend our previous studies of multiple ionization of a few selected heavy metal atoms and to provide a further check on the extent to which the main collision processes can be described quantitatively in terms of simple models based on an independent electron description. In our previous work with Fe, Cu, and Ga atoms using the same experimental approach, we were able to describe the formation of multiply charged ions through both transfer ionization and pure ionization with a high degree of success using an independent electron model. However, the present results for Pb show that the success of this simple approach is much more limited for these much heavier atoms.

  6. Cross-section measurements for electron-impact ionization of atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Robert S.; Wetzel, Robert C.; Shul, Randy J.; Hayes, Todd R.

    1990-04-01

    Absolute electron-impact cross sections have been measured from 0 to 200 eV for single ionization of 16 atoms (Mg, Fe, Cu, Ag, Al, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, P, As, Sb, Bi, S, Se, and Te) with an estimated accuracy of +/-10%. Combined with our recent measurements of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, F, Cl, Br, I, Ga, and In [Wetzel et al., Phys. Rev. A 35, 559 (1987); Hayes et al., ibid. 35, 578 (1987); Shul, Wetzel, and Freund, ibid. 39, 5588 (1989)], a set of 27 atomic single-ionization cross sections has now been measured with the same apparatus. In addition, cross sections are reported for double ionization of ten atoms and triple ionization of eight atoms. The measurements are made by crossing an electron beam with a 3-keV beam of neutral atoms, prepared by charge-transfer neutralization of a mass-selected ion beam. The critical measurement of absolute neutral beam flux is made with a calibrated pyroelectric crystal. The magnitudes of the single-ionization-peak cross sections decrease monotonically across rows of the periodic table from group IIIA (Al,Ga,In) to group VIIIA (Ar,Kr,Xe), varying much more than predicted by various empirical formulas and classical and quantum-mechanical theories.

  7. PHARMACEUTICAL STANDARDIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AYURVEDIC HERBOMINERAL COMPOUND TRUSHANADI LOHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Ram Subba Rao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the detailed preparation of Lohabhasma (iron oxide in cinerated iron and Trushanadi Loha. The metal concentrations present in this compound evaluated by using wavelength dispersive X-ray flourosence (WD-XRF Spectometry. A total of 19 elements, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cl, Sr and bromine from medicine were characterized. Out of 19 elements listed which are considered to be essential to the life system. 9 are macro-nutrients (Na,,Mg,Al,Si,P,S,K,Ca,Ti and 5 are defined as micro-nutrients (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni. The method was measured by Fast-Vac 34 .The sample was examined by inductively coupled plasma mass- spectrometer (ICP-MS to estimate the heavy metals and observed that the heavy metals like lead, and Cd were almost within WHO permissible limits. The Compound was analysed for organoleptic tests. The pH of compound was 2.95 and acidic in nature. The compound was negative for carbohydrates and starch & positive to tests of aikaloids, steroids, proteins, Glycosides, tannins, phynolics and Flavonides determined by phytochemical screening. The presence of bioactive compounds (after phytochemical tests in the drug has been linked to their activities against disease causing microorganisms and also offering the plants to protect themselves against infections by pathogenic microorganisms.

  8. Nuclear microprobe studies of elemental distribution in the seagrass Thalassodendron ciliatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnabas, A.D. E-mail: alban@pixie.udw.ac.za; Przybylowicz, W.J.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Pineda, C.A

    1999-09-02

    Elemental levels and distributions in various organs (leaves, upright stems, rhizomes and roots) of the seagrass Thalassodendron ciliatum were determined using the NAC nuclear microprobe. Elemental distributions were obtained using the true elemental imaging system Dynamic Analysis (DA). Cl was the most abundant element present in the organs, occurring in all tissues, but present in relatively low concentrations in epidermal cells of leaves and roots. Na, K, S and Mg were also abundant and occurred in all organ tissues. Ca concentration was highest in the leaves, especially in the epidermis. Low concentrations of P were found and its tissue distribution was limited. Although Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Br, Ti and Si were present in relatively small amounts, enrichment of the epidermis with Fe, Ti and Si in all organs, was observed. Fe concentration was the highest in rhizomes while Si concentration was highest in upright stems. The significance of these elemental distribution patterns and the value of the nuclear microprobe in elemental analysis of seagrasses are discussed.

  9. The mysterious halos in iron gall ink manuscripts: an analytical explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Marta; Cardeira, Ana Mafalda; Silva, Mara; Le Gac, Agnès; Pessanha, Sofia; Guerra, Mauro; Caldeira, Ana Teresa; Candeias, António; Carvalho, Maria Luísa

    2015-03-01

    Three historical manuscripts, two on parchment (dated 1280 and 1514) and one on paper support (dated 1589-1592), were under study. The three manuscripts were strongly attacked by microorganisms exhibiting dark brownish stains all over the surface except in the adjacent areas to some of the used inks, where a halo around the written text could be observed. In order to understand the origin of these halos, inks and manuscript supports were analyzed using portable energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Characteristic elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn) from iron gall inks were identified. Inks surrounded by a halo had in common a high amount of Zn in their composition. Microbiologic assays were performed aseptically on collected samples from the areas of the document with significant contamination and degradation. Samples were inoculated in a selective culture media, and the microorganisms developed were identified according to the macroscopic and microscopic features. For the evaluation of microflora proliferation, scanning electron microscopy was used. Furthermore, in vitro tests were carried out in the presence of zinc sulfate, revealing inhibition capacity for the majority of fungi sampled from these manuscripts.

  10. lon-beam analysis of plasma of HIV-Aids positive individual patients and comparison to CD4 counts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars, J.A.; Kunsevi-Kilola, C. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906. Bellville, 7535 (South Africa); Maqutu, M.L.; Kunsevi-Kilola, C; Mohammed, A. [HIV-Aids Unit, Cape Peninsula Universily of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535, (South Africa); Tarr, S. [National Health Training College, Private Bag A18, Maseru, Lesotho (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: HIV-Aids related diseases have claimed the lives of many individuals, especially those that are economically active. This economic burden has crippled many economies since many of the lives claimed are those of individuals with special skills. However, the pathogenesis of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infection is until present not fully understood. Elements such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se are incorporated into the structure of many enzymes and are therefore essential to the enzyme function. The focus of this study is the correlation of trace element concentrations, determined by IBA, and the CD4 count. Blood obtained from 100 HIV sero-positive males and females attending clinics at the National Health Training College in Maseru metropolis, Lesotho. The CD4 cells of the samples were determined by flow cytometry (Cytoflow SL - S using CD4/CD45 monoclonal antibody and SSC/F12 getting strategy). Afterwards the plasma specimens were freeze dried and then pulverized into palettes. The palettes were coated with carbon and then irradiated with a proton beam of 3 MeV energy. X-ray emission and backscattering data were obtained and then quantified with various computational software. (author)

  11. Metal concentrations in water, sediment and three fish species from the Danube River, Serbia: a cause for environmental concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanović, Jelena; Janjić, Jelena; Baltić, Milan; Milanov, Raša; Bošković, Marija; Marković, Radmila V; Glamočlija, Nataša

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of metal contamination in water, sediments and three different fish species. All samples were taken from the Danube River in Belgrade Region, a location upstream from Grocka. Concentrations of Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples were not detected, while concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cu and As were in the range of 0.004-0.41 mg L(-1). Iron was the most deposited metal in sediment samples (17,530.00 mg kg(-1)). For the purpose of heavy metal determination in fish tissue, silver carp, common carp and wels catfish were collected. Concentrations of Pb, Cd and As were determined in muscle, digestive tract and liver by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrophotometry (IPC-OES). The highest concentration of Pb was in the digestive tract of all three fish species, while Cd was mostly deposited in the liver. The highest concentration of Hg was in the muscle tissue of wels catfish, and these values are above the maximum residual levels prescribed by the European Union and the maximum allowed concentrations (MACs) for Serbia. Concentration of As was mostly deposited in the liver, but under the MAC.

  12. Mapping Metal Elements of Shuangbai Dinosaur Fossil by Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Qun, Y; Ablett, J

    2008-01-01

    The metal elements mapping of Shuangbai dinosaur fossil, was obtained by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF). Eight elements, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Y and Sr were determined. Elements As and Y were detected for the first time in the dinosaur fossil. The data indicated that metal elements are asymmetrical on fossil section. This is different from common minerals. Mapping metals showed that metal element As is few. The dinosaur most likely belongs to natural death. This is different from Zigong dinosaurs which were found dead from poisoning. This method has been used to find that metals Fe and Mn are accrete, and the same is true for Sr and Y. This study indicated that colloid granule Fe and Mn, as well as Sr and Y had opposite electric charges in lithification process of fossils. By this analysis, compound forms can be ascertained. Synchrotron light source x-ray fluorescence is a complementary method that shows mapping of metal elements at the dinosaur fossil, and is rapid, exact and intuitionist. This study shows that dinosaur fossil mineral imaging has a potential in reconstructing the paleoenvironment and ancient geology.

  13. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, James; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-01

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  14. Evaluation of multielement in serum of healthy population of the metropolitan area of the state of Rio de Janeiro by TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: c.canellas@uerj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.br [Instituto Estadual de Hematologia Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu, E-mail: roberta@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Bellido, Alfredo Victor B., E-mail: alfredo@ien.gov.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2013-07-01

    The determination of multielemental concentrations in physiological fluids is of considerable interest in clinical chemistry. Since it has been established this levels in human serum can be utilized as indicators for several pathological conditions. The multielement composition determination in human serum is important for the investigation of their role in human physiology and metabolism. From this research, more detailed studies on the health of individuals living in the metropolitan region of the state of Rio de Janeiro can be realized in order to improve the quality of life of these individuals. We studied three hundred and sixty healthy volunteers (162 males and 198 females) aged 18 to 60 years old. All the serum samples had been collected of people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. The measurements were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline at the Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a monochromatic beam with maximum energy of 20 keV for the excitation and an Ultra-LEGe detector with resolution of 148 eV at 5.9 keV. Standards solutions with Vanadium and Galium (Internal standards) were prepared for the calibration system. It was possible to determine the elemental concentrations of the following eleven elements: Na, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. (author)

  15. Laboratory testing of airborne brake wear particle emissions using a dynamometer system under urban city driving cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagino, Hiroyuki; Oyama, Motoaki; Sasaki, Sousuke

    2016-04-01

    To measure driving-distance-based mass emission factors for airborne brake wear particulate matter (PM; i.e., brake wear particles) related to the non-asbestos organic friction of brake assembly materials (pads and lining), and to characterize the components of brake wear particles, a brake wear dynamometer with a constant-volume sampling system was developed. Only a limited number of studies have investigated brake emissions under urban city driving cycles that correspond to the tailpipe emission test (i.e., JC08 or JE05 mode of Japanese tailpipe emission test cycles). The tests were performed using two passenger cars and one middle-class truck. The observed airborne brake wear particle emissions ranged from 0.04 to 1.4 mg/km/vehicle for PM10 (particles up to 10 μm (in size), and from 0.04 to 1.2 mg/km/vehicle for PM2.5. The proportion of brake wear debris emitted as airborne brake wear particles was 2-21% of the mass of wear. Oxygenated carbonaceous components were included in the airborne PM but not in the original friction material, which indicates that changes in carbon composition occurred during the abrasion process. Furthermore, this study identified the key tracers of brake wear particles (e.g., Fe, Cu, Ba, and Sb) at emission levels comparable to traffic-related atmospheric environments.

  16. Airborne brake wear debris: size distributions, composition, and a comparison of dynamometer and vehicle tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Paul G; Xu, Ning; Dalka, Tom M; Maricq, M Matti

    2003-09-15

    Particle size distributions of light-duty vehicle brake wear debris are reported with careful attention paid to avoid sampling biases. Electrical low-pressure impactor and micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor measurements yield consistent size distributions, and the net particulate matter mass from each method is in good agreement with gravimetric filter measurements. The mass mean diameter of wear debris from braking events representative of urban driving is 6 microm, and the number-weighted mean is 1-2 microm for three currently used classes of lining materials: low metallic, semimetallic, and non-asbestos organic (NAO). In contrast, the wear rates are very material dependent, both in number and mass of particles, with 3-4 times higher emissions observed from the low metallic linings as compared to the semimetallic and NAO linings. Wind tunnel and test track measurements demonstrate the appearance of micron size particles that correlate with braking events, with approximately 50% of the wear debris being airborne for the test vehicle in this study. Elemental analysis of the wear debris reveals a consistent presence of the elements Fe, Cu, and Ba in both dynamometer and test track samples. PMID:14524436

  17. Remote assessment of cultural heritage environments with wireless sensor array networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbota, Henoc; Mitchell, John E; Odlyha, Marianne; Strlič, Matija

    2014-01-01

    The logistics and cost of environmental monitoring can represent challenges for heritage managers, partly because of the sheer number of environmental parameters to consider. There is a need for a system, capable of monitoring the holistic impact of the environment on cultural materials while remaining relatively easy to use and providing remote access. This paper describes a dosimetric system based on piezoelectric quartz crystal technology. The prototype sensing module consists of an array of piezoelectric quartz crystals (PQC) coated with different metals (Fe, Cu, Ni and Sn) and includes a temperature and relative humidity sensor. The communication module involves an 802.15.4 low-power radio and a GPRS gateway which allows real time visualisation of the measurements online. An energy management protocol ensures that the system consumes very low power between measurements. The paper also describes the results and experiences from two heritage field deployments, at Apsley House in London, UK, and at the Royal Palaces of Abomey in Benin. Evaluation of PQC measurements, temperature, relative humidity and the rate of successful transmission over the communication systems are also reported.

  18. Micronutrient Accumulation in Conilon Coffee Berries with Different Maturation Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Braida Marré

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The number of days between anthesis and maturation of conilon coffee berries varies according to the genotype. Thus, it is believed that periods of greater nutrient demand for fruit formation also vary according to the genotype, directly influencing fertilizer management. The goal of this study was to establish accumulation curves for the micronutrients boron, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc in conilon coffee trees with different maturation cycles. The experiment was conducted in Nova Venécia, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, during the reproductive cycle of the 2010/2011 crop year. Four coffee genotypes with different maturation cycles (early, intermediate, late, and super-late were studied. A completely randomized experimental design was used with five replications. The treatments correspond to the accumulation of B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the berries every 28 days in the period from flowering to harvest. The early, intermediate, and late genotypes accumulated Fe, Cu, and Mn in a similar manner, with sigmoid curves, whereas the super-late genotype accumulated these nutrients exponentially. Zn was accumulated by all four genotypes following a sigmoid curve. The early, intermediate, and late genotypes accumulated B linearly, whereas the super-late genotype accumulated B following a sigmoid curve. The maturation cycle of the genotype must be taken into account to apply the correct rate of micronutrient fertilization in coffee plantations.

  19. Multielemental analysis of human amniotic fluid by use of Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence and Rutherford Forward Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Correlation studies between the concentrations of certain elements present in human amniotic fluid (A F) and fetal disorders are important. There is a need for a technique or a group of complementary techniques for the reliable elemental analysis of A F. In order to study the reliability of Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF), a comparison between TXRF and the well established technique of Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) has been carried out by measuring the concentrations of Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in 10 common samples of A F. Different degrees of consistency have been obtained depending on the element being analyzed. There is a need to establish the experimental conditions under which a complete agreement between TXRF and PIXE is achieved. A common weakness of TXRF and PIXE is the difficulty to obtain adequate signals from elements lighter than Aluminum. To overcome this problem, a method based on Rutherford Forward Scattering (RFS) for the quantification of elements as light as Lithium is under development. Details on the experimental configuration (beam type, beam energy, detector angle, sample preparation, etc) that leads to an appropriate mass separation by using RFS will be given. Both TXRF and RFS are extremely convenient for correlating physical and medical data because they are non-destructive multielemental techniques which require small amounts of the sample to be analyzed

  20. Bioaccumulation of 226Ra by plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around the uranium industry at Jaduguda, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study has been conducted to evaluate the 226Ra bioaccumulation among aquatic plants growing in the stream/river adjoining the uranium mining and ore-processing complex at Jaduguda, India. Two types of plant group have been investigated namely free floating algal species submerged into water and plants rooted in stream and riverbed. The highest 226Ra activity concentration (9850 Bq kg-1) was found in filamentous algae growing in the residual water of tailings pond. The concentration ratios of 226Ra in filamentous algae (activity concentration of 226Ra in plant Bq kg-1 fresh weight/activity concentration of 226Ra in water Bq l-1) widely varied i.e. from 1.1 x 103 to 8.6 x 104. Other aquatic plants were also showing wide variability in the 226Ra activity concentration. The ln-transformed filamentous algae 226Ra activity concentration was significantly correlated with that of ln-transformed water concentration (r = 0.89, p 226Ra in stream/riverbed rooted plants and the substrate. For this group, correlation between 226Ra activity concentration and Mn, Fe, Cu concentration in plants were statistically significant.

  1. Suspended particulates and trace metals in ambient air at the road sides of Varanasi City. Paper no. IGEC-1-063

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to assess the quantity of Total Suspended Particulate Matter (TSPM) and concentration of trace metals in ambient air at the road sides of Varanasi city. The air quality monitoring was carried out using High Volume Sampler (HVS). The HVS were run for two days with eight hours sampling period. The SPM deposited on EPM 2000 filter paper were analysed for trace metals using Atomic Absorption Spectro photometer (Perkin Elmer, Model 2378). The results indicate that the Varanasi city is in serious grip of air pollution due to poor road conditions and heavy traffic load. The suspended particulate matter are found to exceed the permissible limits at most of the locations. Besides SPM, some toxic metals namely Iron, Copper, Nickel, Chromium, Zinc and Lead were also studied and sampled at four different road sides covering residential (Sigra), commercial (Kutcherry), Industrial (Industrial Estate) and Sensitive (B.H.U. Campus) areas. The concentration of all the six metals were found in the order of Fe > Cu > Pb > Ni > Zn > Cr. Area wise maximum trace metal pollution load was observed at Industrial site as compared to other sites, as this area is surrounded by many industries and situated near dense traffic highway. Some preventive measures have also been suggested to reduce air pollution load. (author)

  2. Genetic relationships between skarn ore deposits and magmatic activity in the Ahar region, Western Alborz, NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollai Habib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Paleocene to Oligocene tectonic processes in northwest Iran resulted in extensive I-type calc-alkaline and alkaline magmatic activity in the Ahar region. Numerous skarn deposits formed in the contact between Upper Cretaceous impure carbonate rocks and Oligocene-Miocene plutonic rocks. This study presents new field observations of skarns in the western Alborz range and is based on geochemistry of igneous rocks, mineralogy of the important skarn deposits, and electron microprobe analyses of skarn minerals. These data are used to interpret the metasomatism during sequential skarn formation and the geotectonic setting of the skarn ore deposit related igneous rocks. The skarns were classified into exoskarn, endoskarn and ore skarn. Andraditic garnet is the main skarn mineral; the pyroxene belongs to the diopside-hedenbergite series. The skarnification started with pluton emplacement and metamorphism of carbonate rocks followed by prograde metasomatism and the formation of anhydrous minerals like garnet and pyroxene. The next stage resulted in retro gradation of anhydrous minerals along with the formation of oxide minerals (magnetite and hematite followed by the formation of hydrosilicate minerals like epidote, actinolite, chlorite, quartz, sericite and sulfide mineralization. In addition to Fe, Si and Mg, substantial amounts of Cu, along with volatile components such as H2S and CO2 were added to the skarn system. Skarn mineralogy and geochemistry of the igneous rocks indicate an island arc or subduction-related origin of the Fe-Cu skarn deposit.

  3. Annual input fluxes and source identification of trace elements in atmospheric deposition in Shanxi Basin: the largest coal base in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cong; Yang, Zhongfang; Jiang, Wei; Yu, Tao; Hou, Qingye; Li, Desheng; Wang, Jianwu

    2014-11-01

    Industrialization and urbanization have led to a great deterioration of air quality and provoked some serious environmental concerns. One hundred and five samples of atmospheric deposition were analyzed for their concentrations of 13 trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Al, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn) in Shanxi Basin, which includes six isolate basins. The input fluxes of the trace elements in atmospheric deposition were observed and evaluated. Geostatistical analysis (EF, PCA, and CA ) were conducted to determine the spatial distribution, possible sources, and enrichment degrees of trace elements in atmospheric deposition. Fe/Al and K/Al also contribute to identify the sources of atmospheric deposition. The distribution of trace elements in atmospheric deposition was proved to be geographically restricted. The results show that As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Se mainly come from coal combustion. Fe, Cu, Mn, Hg, and Co originate mainly from interactions between local polluted soils and blowing dust from other places, while the main source of Al, Cr, and Mo are the soil parent materials without pollution. This work provides baseline information to develop policies to control and reduce trace elements, especially toxic elements, from atmospheric deposition. Some exploratory analytical methods applied in this work are also worth considering in similar researches.

  4. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of water eroded soils of Sharkul area of district Mansehra, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmanullah Khan, A. Iqbal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is the major threat to agricultural sustainability because it affects the soil productivity. Present study was conducted in 2008 to evaluate physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some eroded soil series of Sharkul area district Manshera, Hazara division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Six soil series including slightly eroded (Dosera and Girari, moderately eroded (Nakholi and Sharkul and severely eroded (Ahl and Banser were selected. Soil samples were collected from surface (0-15 cm, subsurface (30-45 cm and substrata soil (60-75cm depths and were analyzed for various soil properties. Due to severity of erosion, bulk density increased, while total porosity, saturation percentage and organic matter decreased significantly. AB-DTPA extractable P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations were decreased due to the severity of erosion in surface and sub surface soils, whereas in the substrata soils (60-75 cm depth, the effect of erosion was almost non significant. Sub-surface and sub-strata soils were found deficient in available P ( Zn > Fe > Mn. The physical and chemical properties of eroded soils varied significantly and the increasing severity of erosion resulted in corresponding deterioration of soil quality.

  5. A field study to evaluate runoff quality from green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Joshi, U M; Balasubramanian, R

    2012-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs are emerging as practical strategies to improve the environmental quality of cities. However, the impact of green roofs on the storm water quality remains a topic of concern to city planners and environmental policy makers. This study investigated whether green roofs act as a source or a sink of various metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni, Li and Co), inorganic anions (NO3-, NO2-, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), Cl-, F- and Br-) and cation (NH4+). A series of green roof assemblies were constructed. Four different real rain events and several artificial rain events were considered for the study. Results showed that concentrations of most of the chemical components in runoff were highest during the beginning of rain events and subsided in the subsequent rain events. Some of the important components present in the runoff include Na, K, Ca, Mg, Li, Fe, Al, Cu, NO3-, PO4(3-) and SO4(2-). However, the concentration of these chemical components in the roof runoff strongly depends on the nature of substrates used in the green roof and the volume of rain. Based on the USEPA standards for freshwater quality, we conclude that the green roof used in this study is reasonably effective except that the runoff contains significant amounts of NO3- and PO4(3-).

  6. Descripción morfológica y nutricional del fruto de Rambutan (nephelium lappaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Vargas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó con los cultivares de rambután (Nepheliun lappaceum R- 134, R-162, R-167, Jitlee y Rongrien. La totalidad de los cultivares presentaron frutos ovalados de color rojo intenso y con espinas que cambiaron a dicho color una vez que la totalidad de la cáscara lo hubiera hecho. El peso del fruto (32,7 a 37,3 g, el porcentaje de pulpa en el fruto (40,8 a 51,9%, el porcentaje de grados Brix (18,3 a 18,6 y la fácil y total remoci ón entre la pulpa y la semilla, estuvieron en concordancia con los requerimientos para su uso como fruta fresca exportable o enlatable. El N fue el nutrimento más abundante en el fruto (77 a 87 mg, seguido en orden decreciente por el K (63 a 81 mg, el Ca (22 a 31 mg, el P (11 a 13 mg el Mg (9 a 13 mg, y el S (4 a 6 mg. Los contenidos de Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn y B ocurrieron en menor magnitud (menos de 0,38 mg .

  7. Surprisingly contrasting metal distribution and fractionation patterns in copper smelter-affected tropical soils in forested and grassland areas (Mufulira, Zambian Copperbelt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettler, Vojtěch; Konečný, Ladislav; Kovářová, Lucie; Mihaljevič, Martin; Sebek, Ondřej; Kříbek, Bohdan; Majer, Vladimír; Veselovský, František; Penížek, Vít; Vaněk, Aleš; Nyambe, Imasiku

    2014-03-01

    Six soil profiles located near Mufulira (Zambian Copperbelt) were studied to evaluate and compare the extent of environmental pollution of Cu-ore mining and smelting in both forested and grassland areas. The highest metal concentrations were detected in the uppermost soil layers with the following maxima: Co 45.8 mg kg(-1), Cu 8,980 mg kg(-1), Pb 41.6 mg kg(-1), and Zn 97.0 mg kg(-1). Numerous anthropogenic metal-bearing particles were detected in the most polluted soil layers. The spherical smelter-derived particles were mainly composed of covellite (CuS) and chalcocite (Cu2S), while the angular mining-derived particles were mostly composed of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). Additionally, Fe-Cu oxide particles predominantly corresponding to tenorite (CuO) and delafossite (Cu(1+)Fe(3+)O2), along with hydrated Fe-oxides corresponding to secondary weathering products, were detected. In contrast to smelter-affected soils in temperate climates, where forest soils are significantly more enriched in metals than tilled soils due to high canopy interception, our data indicate a higher proportion of metal-bearing anthropogenic particles and higher metal concentrations in soils from unforested sites. This phenomenon is probably related to the more frequent and intense bushfires in forested areas, leading to the mobilization of pollutants contained in the biomass-rich surface soils back into the atmosphere. PMID:24365587

  8. Characterisation and management of ash produced in the hospital waste incinerator of Athens, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kougemitrou, Irene [Harokopio University of Athens, 70 El. Venizelou Str., 17671 Athens (Greece); Godelitsas, Athanasios, E-mail: agodel@geol.uoa.gr [University of Athens, Panepistimioupoli Zographou, 15784 Athens (Greece); Tsabaris, Christos [Hellenic Center of Marine Research, 19013 Anavyssos (Greece); Stathopoulos, Vassilis [Technological Educational Institute of Chalkida, 34400 Psahna (Greece); Papandreou, Andreas [CERECO S.A. Ceramics and Refractories Technological Development Company, 34100 Chalkida (Greece); Gamaletsos, Platon [University of Athens, Panepistimioupoli Zographou, 15784 Athens (Greece); Economou, George [Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Olympic Village, 13677 Acharnai (Greece); Papadopoulos, Dimitris [APOTEFROTIRAS S.A., Ano Liossia, 19200 Elefsina (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    Bottom and fly ash samples (BASH and FASH) from the APOTEFROTIRAS S.A. medical waste incinerator (Athens, Greece) were investigated. Powder-XRD data and geochemical diagrams showed BASH to be an amorphous material, analogous to basaltic glass, and FASH consisting of crystalline compounds (mainly CaClOH). Bulk analyses by ICP-MS and point analyses by SEM-EDS indicated a high content of heavy metals, such as Fe, Cu and Cr, in both samples. However, BASH was highly enriched in Ni while FASH was additionally enriched in Zn and Pb. Gamma-ray measurements showed that the radioactivity of both ash samples, due to natural and artificial radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 57}Co), was within the permissible levels recommended by IAEA. According to EN-type leaching tests, BASH was practically inert with regard to the mobility of the hazardous elements in aqueous media. FASH, however, showed a relatively high EN (and TCLP) leachability with regard to Pb and Zn. Finally, the stabilisation method, suggested for the treatment of FASH, included compression of the powder into briquettes using an appropriate machine and embedding the briquettes into pozzolanic cement blocks. After this treatment, TCLP and EN-type tests showed minimal release of Pb and Zn, thereby demonstrating a reliable management of ash waste.

  9. Electronic and magnetic properties of 1T-HfS2 by doping transition-metal atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Wang, Tianxing; Wang, Guangtao; Dai, Xianqi; Xia, Congxin; Yang, Lin

    2016-10-01

    We explored the electronic and magnetic properties of 1T-HfS2 doped by transition metal (TM) atom using the first-principles calculation. We doped the transition metal atoms from the IIIB to VIB groups in nonmagnetic 1T-HfS2. Numerical results show that the pristine 1T-HfS2 is a semiconductor with indirect gaps of 1.250 eV. Magnetism can be observed for V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Cu doping. The polarized charges mainly arise from the localized 3d electrons of the TM atom. The strong p-d hybridization was found between the 3d orbitals of TM and 3p orbitals of S. The substituted 1T-HfS2 can be a metal, semiconductor or half-metal. Analysis of the band structure and magnetic properties indicates that TM-doped HfS2 (TM = V, Fe, Cu) are promising systems to explore two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors. The formation energy calculations also indicate that it is energetically favorable and relatively easier to incorporate transition metal atom into the HfS2 under S-rich experimental conditions. In contrast, V-doped HfS2 has relatively wide half-metallic gap and low formation energy. So V-doped 1T-HfS2 is ideal for spin injection, which is important for application in semiconductor spintronics.

  10. Volatile Constituents, Inorganic Elements and Primary Screening of Bioactivity of Black Coral Cigarette Holders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganggang Shi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Black corals (BC have been used for a long time in Chinese medicine, and may have some pharmaceutical functions when used as material for cigarette holders in southeast China. This study is aimed to investigate the bioactivities of volatile constituents in BC and to explore the folklore behind the use of BC cigarette holders (BCCHs. We extracted the volatile constituents of BC by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with carbon dioxide (CO2-SFE, then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In total, 15 components were reliably identified in BC and found to be biologically active. These included triethyl phosphate, butylated hydroxytoluene, cedrol, n-hexadecanoic acid, squalene, and cholesterol. Meanwhile 13 inorganic elements (P, Ca, Mg, S, B, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, etc. were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometer (ICPS. In the bioactivity tests, the BC extract (BCE showed a scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals and hydroxyl radicals by phenanthroline-Fe (II oxidation and moderate inhibition of Gram-positive microorganisms. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of BC, which are related to the active chemical composition, may explain the perceived benefit for cigarette smokers who use BCCHs.

  11. Trace metal analysis in human tooth enamel and dentine using EDXRF spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDXRF spectrometry is used normally to determine the concentration of the different elements in a sample with advantages of good sensitivity, multielemental capabilities, fast, non-destructive and because of this simple relation to the fundamental physics of atom-radiation interaction, make of EDXRF a highly attractive analytical technique.The aim of this work is to investigate the correlation between the tooth elemental concentration (enamel and dentine) and environmental condition, sex and dietary effects on the biological age using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (Millipore pixels of 1 mm2).The experimental set-up is based on miniaturized x ray tube of the low power (2.25 W and tungsten anode) and a Si-Li detector with an energy resolution of about 180 eV at 5.9 keV. The teeth were longitudinally cut and each slice was scanned from the inner region to the surface enamel for elemental profiles determination purposes. Both major constituents of the teeth and trace elements could be identified and partially quantified, including Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Sr. These results can be useful in dental clinic because teeth are a part of the skeleton, their trace element content should be an indicator of that in the other calcified tissues

  12. Application of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to investigate trace metal spatial distributions in human tooth enamel and dentine growth layers and pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Daniel; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri; Goodman, Alan H. [School of Natural Science, Hampshire College, 01002, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Human tooth enamel provides a nearly permanent and chronological record of an individual's nutritional status and anthropogenic trace metal exposure during development; it might thus provide an excellent bio archive. We investigated the micro-spatial distribution of trace metals (Cu, Fe, Mg, Sr, Pb, and Zn) in 196 x 339 {mu}m{sup 2} raster pattern areas (6.6 x 10{sup 4} {mu}m{sup 2}) in a deciduous tooth using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Ablated areas include prenatal and postnatal enamel, the neonatal line, the dentine-enamel junction (DEJ), dentine, and the dentine-pulp junction. Topographic variations in the surface elemental distribution of lead, zinc, strontium, and iron intensities in a deciduous tooth revealed heterogeneous distribution within and among regions. {sup 43}Ca normalized elemental intensities showed the following order: Sr>Mg>>Zn>Pb>Fe>Cu. Elevated zinc and lead levels were present in the dental pulp region and at the neonatal line. This study demonstrates the ability of LA-ICP-MS to provide unique elemental distribution information in micro spatial areas of dental hard tissues. Elemental distribution plots could be useful in decoding nutrition and pollution information embedded in their bio apatite structure. (orig.)

  13. Determination of elements in ayurvedic medicinal plants by AAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teerthe, Santoshkumar S.; Kerur, B. R., E-mail: kerurbrk@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga, and Karnataka, India – 585106 (India)

    2015-08-28

    India has a rich country for the uses of Ayurvedic medicinal plants for treatment and also the north- Karnataka boasts an unparallel diversity of medicinal plants. The present study attempts to estimate and compare the level of trace and heavy metals in some selected leaves and root samples of Ayurvedic medicinal plants such as Mg, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd. The samples are collected from different places of North-Karnataka regions and sample solutions prepared as the ratio of 1:25:25+950ml=1000ppm.the trace and heavy elemental concentration was estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) Method. The average concentrations of Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, are ranging from 2ppm to 5250.2ppm and potassium (K) has more concentration as compare to all other. The other elements likes Al, Cr, Cu, and Cd were also estimed and presented in the table. Therefore, these medicinal plants are rich in some essential minerals, especially K, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn which are essential for human health.

  14. Determination of elements in ayurvedic medicinal plants by AAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerthe, Santoshkumar S.; Kerur, B. R.

    2015-08-01

    India has a rich country for the uses of Ayurvedic medicinal plants for treatment and also the north- Karnataka boasts an unparallel diversity of medicinal plants. The present study attempts to estimate and compare the level of trace and heavy metals in some selected leaves and root samples of Ayurvedic medicinal plants such as Mg, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd. The samples are collected from different places of North-Karnataka regions and sample solutions prepared as the ratio of 1:25:25+950ml=1000ppm.the trace and heavy elemental concentration was estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) Method. The average concentrations of Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, are ranging from 2ppm to 5250.2ppm and potassium (K) has more concentration as compare to all other. The other elements likes Al, Cr, Cu, and Cd were also estimed and presented in the table. Therefore, these medicinal plants are rich in some essential minerals, especially K, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn which are essential for human health

  15. Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads for acid mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) beads were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB beads to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB beads had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of complex organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction. PMID:27058913

  16. Monitoramento da contaminação por elementos traço em ostras comercializadas em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Dias Cavalcanti

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de ostras comercializadas em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, foram monitoradas em relação ao conteúdo de elementos traço (Hg, Zn, Fe, Cu e Mn durante o período de um ano (março/2001 a fevereiro/2002. Mercúrio foi o principal contaminante encontrado nas ostras e o elemento que apresenta maior risco à saúde pública. Foram encontrados valores de concentração de Hg em ostras de até 551,12µg/kg (peso úmido. Esses valores sugerem que a ingestão de ostras deve ser feita com restrições, principalmente, pela população que vive de sua coleta como forma de subsistência, por crianças, e mulheres grávidas. A avaliação dos níveis de mercúrio em frutos do mar é um importante fator para avaliar o risco de contaminação por mercúrio em pessoas não ocupacionalmente expostas.

  17. Simulated evolution process of core-shell microstructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The evolution process of core-shell microstructures formed in monotectic alloys under the space environment condition was investigated by the numerical simula- tion method. In order to account for the effect of surface segregation on phase separation, Model H was modified by introducing a surface free energy term into the total free energy of alloy droplet. Three Fe-Cu alloys were taken as simulated examples, which usually exhibit metastable phase separation in undercooled and microgravity states. It was revealed by the dynamic simulation process that the formation of core-shell microstructures depends mainly on surface segregation and Marangoni convection. The phase separation of Fe65Cu35 alloy starts from a dispersed structure and gradually evolves into a triple-layer core-shell micro- structure. Similarly, Fe50Cu50 alloy experiences a structural evolution process of "bicontinuous phase → quadruple-layer core-shell → triple-layer core-shell", while the microstructures of Fe35Cu65 alloy transfer from the dispersed structure into the final double-layer core-shell morphology. The Cu-rich phase always forms the outer layer because of surface segregation, whereas the internal microstructural evolu- tion is controlled mainly by the Marangoni convection resulting from the tempera- ture gradient.

  18. Nutrition of women with hair loss problem during the period of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna Sabina

    2016-03-01

    During the period of menopause as an effect of changes in hormone status, one of the most common ailments for women is hair loss. Taking into consideration fact that the ingredients of diet contained in various groups of consumed food products are both precursors in steroid hormones synthesis as well as have direct impact on structure, growth and keeping hair in skin integument, this is the reason why nourishing support for women during this period of life as well as during the hair loss therapy is reasonable. Standard value proteins containing Sulphur amino-acids: cysteine and methionine as precursor to keratin hair protein synthesis are basic element of diet conditioning of hair building. Irreplaceable having impact on keeping hair in skin integument is exogenous L-lysine, mainly present in the inner part of hair root is responsible for hair shape and volume. Fats present in the diet take part in steroid hormones synthesis (from cholesterol) thus have influence on keeping hair in skin integument. Women diet should contain products rich in complex carbohydrates, with low glycemic index and load containing fiber regulating carbohydrate-lipid metabolism of the body. Vitamins also have impact on the state of hair: C vitamin, group B and A vitamins. Minerals which influence hair growth are: Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Si, Mg and Ca. It is worthwhile to pay closer attention to diet in women who besides hormone changes and undertaken pharmacotherapy are additionally exposed to chronic stress and improperly conducted cosmetic's and hairdresser's treatments. PMID:27095961

  19. Production and chemical composition of two dehydrated fermented dairy products based on cow or goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Fernández, Jorge; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, Maria J M; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D3, B6 and B12. The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food. PMID:26869113

  20. Fingernails as biological indices of metal exposure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rita Mehra; Meenu Juneja

    2005-03-01

    Metal determination in human tissues is the most common application of biological monitoring for screening, diagnosis and assessment of metal exposures and their risks. Various biopsy-materials may be used. This paper deals with the quantitative determination of Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn concentrations in nails of male subjects exposed to these metals alongwith their respective controls, while working in locomotive, carriage and roadways workshops, and lead battery factories. The levels of Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn in fingernails, assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, were compared with their respective controls by student ‘’ test. All the obtained values were correlated to the personal and medical history of the subjects under study. Significantly high levels of Cd, Pb, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn were present in smokers, compared to nonsmokers. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn and Fe were not significantly high in vegetarian subjects. It was also observed that there is no contribution of liquor towards nail-metal concentration. Significant correlations were observed between skin disease and Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu; hypertension and Cd, Mn, Cu; mental stress and Cd, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn; diabetes and Cr, Mn, Ni; chest pain and Pb; respiratory trouble and Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn; tuberculosis and Zn; acidity and Cd; and ophthalmic problems and Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn.