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Sample records for 1-3 galactosa antigal

  1. Epóxidos y aziridinas de ciclohexano relacionados estructuralmente con la galactosa como inhibidores selectivos de galactosidasas

    OpenAIRE

    Llebaria Soldevilla, Amadeu; Harrak Serifi, Youssef

    2011-01-01

    La presente invención se refiere a una familia de epóxidos y aziridinas derivadas de ciclohexano que poseen una similitud estructural con la galactosa y presentan propiedades como inhibidores de galactosidasas. Además la presente invención también se refiere al uso de estos compuestos como herramienta biotecnológica, como reactivo de biología molecular, así como, para la preparación de un medicamento para el tratamiento de enfermedades asociadas a la glicosilación de lípidos y proteínas....

  2. Acceleration of Wound Healing by α-gal Nanoparticles Interacting with the Natural Anti-Gal Antibody

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    Uri Galili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of α-gal nanoparticles to wounds and burns induces accelerated healing by harnessing the natural anti-Gal antibody which constitutes ~1% of human immunoglobulins. α-gal nanoparticles present multiple α-gal epitopes (Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R, the carbohydrate ligand of anti-Gal. Studied α-gal nanoparticles were comprised of glycolipids with α-gal epitopes, phospholipids, and cholesterol. Binding of anti-Gal to α-gal nanoparticles in wounds activates the complement cascade, resulting in formation of chemotactic complement cleavage peptides that induce rapid recruitment of many macrophages. The Fc/Fcγ receptors interaction between anti-Gal coating α-gal nanoparticles and the recruited macrophages activates macrophages to produce cytokines/growth factors that promote wound healing and recruit stem cells. Studies of wound healing by α-gal nanoparticles were feasible in α1,3galactosyltransferase knockout mice and pigs. In contrast to other nonprimate mammals, these mice and pigs lack the α-gal epitope, and thus they are not immunotolerant to it and produce anti-Gal. Treatment of skin wounds and burns with α-gal nanoparticles resulted in 40–60% decrease in healing time in comparison with control wounds treated with saline. This accelerated healing is associated with increased recruitment of macrophages and extensive angiogenesis in wounds, faster regrowth of epidermis, and regeneration of the dermis. The accelerated healing further decreases and may completely eliminate fibrosis and scar formation in wounds. Since healing of internal injuries is mediated by mechanisms similar to those in external wound healing, it is suggested that α-gal nanoparticles treatment may also improve regeneration and restoration of biological function following internal injuries such as surgical incisions, myocardial ischemia following infarction, and nerve injuries.

  3. Acceleration of wound healing by α-gal nanoparticles interacting with the natural anti-Gal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Application of α-gal nanoparticles to wounds and burns induces accelerated healing by harnessing the natural anti-Gal antibody which constitutes ~1% of human immunoglobulins. α-gal nanoparticles present multiple α-gal epitopes (Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R), the carbohydrate ligand of anti-Gal. Studied α-gal nanoparticles were comprised of glycolipids with α-gal epitopes, phospholipids, and cholesterol. Binding of anti-Gal to α-gal nanoparticles in wounds activates the complement cascade, resulting in formation of chemotactic complement cleavage peptides that induce rapid recruitment of many macrophages. The Fc/Fcγ receptors interaction between anti-Gal coating α-gal nanoparticles and the recruited macrophages activates macrophages to produce cytokines/growth factors that promote wound healing and recruit stem cells. Studies of wound healing by α-gal nanoparticles were feasible in α1,3galactosyltransferase knockout mice and pigs. In contrast to other nonprimate mammals, these mice and pigs lack the α-gal epitope, and thus they are not immunotolerant to it and produce anti-Gal. Treatment of skin wounds and burns with α-gal nanoparticles resulted in 40-60% decrease in healing time in comparison with control wounds treated with saline. This accelerated healing is associated with increased recruitment of macrophages and extensive angiogenesis in wounds, faster regrowth of epidermis, and regeneration of the dermis. The accelerated healing further decreases and may completely eliminate fibrosis and scar formation in wounds. Since healing of internal injuries is mediated by mechanisms similar to those in external wound healing, it is suggested that α-gal nanoparticles treatment may also improve regeneration and restoration of biological function following internal injuries such as surgical incisions, myocardial ischemia following infarction, and nerve injuries.

  4. Las traducciones en la antigüedad

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    Fernández Marcos, Natalio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the Western cultural heritage has been transmitted through translation. The author analyses the translation phenomenon in Antiquity, emphasizing the significance of the first translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek in Ptolemaic Alexandria. This translation is the major literary corpus translated into Greek in Antiquity and, probably, the most important as well, due to the impact it had on the West once Christianity adopted the Greek version as the official Bible. He also describes the context in which the translation was carried out, the different models utilized for the Pentateuch, its reception and influence on other translations. Finally, he points out other processes of cultural transmission through translation in late Antiquity.

    Gran parte del legado cultural de Occidente se nos ha transmitido en traducciones. El autor analiza el fenómeno de la traducción en la Antigüedad, deteniéndose en la primera traducción de la Biblia hebrea al griego en la Alejandría ptolemaica. Esta traducción es el mayor corpus de litert ratura traducido al griego en la Antigüedad y, tal vez, el más importante por el impacto que tuvo en Occidente al ser adoptada la Biblia griega como Biblia oficial del cristianismo. Describe tambt bién el contexto en el que se llevó a cabo la traducción, los modelos utilizados en el Pentateuco, la recepción y los efectos de la misma en otras traducciones. Señala por fin otros procesos de trasvase cultural mediante la traducción en la Antigüedad tardía.

  5. Anti-G antibody in alloimmunized pregnant women: Report of two cases

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    Raj Nath Makroo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-G has been reported as a possible cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN, either independently or in association with anti-D, anti-C or both. The antibody mimics the pattern of anti-C and anti-D reactivity in the identification panel and is often present along with either or both of these antibodies. The differentiation of anti-D, -C and-G in routine pretransfusion workup is particularly essential in antenatal cases. We report two antenatal cases where anti-G was identified on advanced immunohematological workup, in addition to other alloantibodies.

  6. Anti-G with concomitant anti-C and anti-D: A case report in a pregnant woman

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    Rabeya Yousuf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The G antigen of Rh blood group system is present in almost all D-positive or C-positive red cells but absent from red cells lacking D and C antigens. The differentiation of anti-D and anti-C from anti-G is not necessary for routine transfusion; however, during pregnancy, it is important because anti-G can masquerade as anti-D and anti-C with initial antibody testing. The false presence of anti-D will exclude the patient from receiving anti-D immunoglobulin (RhIG when the patient actually is a candidate for RhIG prophylaxis. Moreover, patients with positive anti-D or anti-G are at risk of developing hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn and need close monitoring. Thus, proper identification allows the clinicians to manage patients properly. This case report highlights a rare case of anti-G together with anti-D and anti-C in a pregnant woman. This report disseminates knowledge on identification of anti-G and its importance in pregnant women.

  7. Ideas de mujer. Facetas de lo femenino en la Antigüedad

    OpenAIRE

    López Gregoris, Rosario; Unceta Gómez, Luis

    2011-01-01

    En esta obra se recogen diversas perspectivas sobre el papel de la mujer en la Antigüedad grecolatina. En lugar de abordar las biografías de conocidos personajes históricos, los autores han preferido indagar en la intrahistoria cotidiana de las mujeres en los orígenes de la civilización occidental. Desde este punto de vista, se tratan divesos aspectos que determinaban la vida de estas Pandoras de la cultura griega y romana: el embarazo y la muerte, el amor y el matrimonio, el trabajo y el pod...

  8. En los orígenes de la historia social de la antigüedad en España: "Las clases trabajadoras en la antigüedad" de M. Morayta (1886)

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff Alonso, Fernando

    2000-01-01

    Se presenta uno de los primeros trabajos específicos en la historiografía española sobre historia social de la antigüedad, "Las clases trabajadoras en la Antigüedad" de Miguel de Morayta y Sagrario (1886), incluido como apéndice de su Historia de España y dedicado a tres sociedades, la china, la egipcia y la romana imperial. El artículo se divide en tres partes que preceden al texto mismo de Morayta: en la primera se apuntan algunas de las claves esenciales de la historiografía de la época, e...

  9. Las antigüedades árabes en los dibujos de la Academia

    OpenAIRE

    Almagro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Artículo sobre la exposición “El legado de al-Ándalus”, que muestra todos los dibujos de dos importantes proyectos de los siglos XVIII y XIX que habrían de convertirse en referentes esenciales para la valoración artística y la apreciación documental de los principales monumentos hispanomusulmanes: “Antigüedades Árabes de España” y “Monumentos Arquitectónicos”. La exposición fue organizada conjuntamente por la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando y la Fundación MAPFRE, con el comisari...

  10. Maternidad, aborto y ciudadanía femenina en la antigüedad

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    Patricia González Gutiérrez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Últimamente la investigación ha prestado un gran interés a la historia de género, siendo un tema ampliamente tratado el del control demográfico, pero se ha centrado más en la existencia y efectividad de los métodos usados que en el significado que esconde. Al analizar el tema del aborto y la anticoncepción en el mundo antiguo, en sociedades donde se acepta tranquilamente el infanticidio, analizaremos la relación de la maternidad con la ciudadanía femenina, así como la importancia dada a la reproducción, tanto la meramente física como la de todo el orden social que conlleva. Para ello se hace necesario analizar no solo las obras médicas o legales que hacen referencia al aborto, sino toda una serie de textos vinculados a la construcción de lo femenino en la Antigüedad. La ambigua relación entre maternidad, aborto e infanticidio nos ayuda a comprender mejor a la mujer antigua, pero también su sociedad e incluso la nuestra.

  11. Los molinos hidráulicos en la Antigüedad

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    Juan Palomo Palomo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La consideración tradicional sobre los molinos hidráulicos en la Antigüedad ha sido que, aunque conocidos, no dejaron entonces de ser una curiosidad; sería en la Edad Media cuando alcanzaran su verdadero uso y expansión. Sin embargo, el registro arqueológico ha venido a revelar, especialmente en los últimos treinta años, que además de conocidos fueron usados al menos desde el siglo I d.C. y que estuvieron plenamente difundidos por todo el mundo romano.Traditionally, watermills have been thought to be completely known in the Antiquity although only as a curiosity, but were thought not to be really used and spread out until the Middle Ages. However, archaeological research, especially in the last 30 years, has shown that watermills were not only known but also used, at least since the first century AD, and fully spread out through the Roman world.

  12. "Venationes" y juegos de toros en la Antigüedad

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    J. M. BLÁZQUEZ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los juegos romanos en los anfiteatros en los que participaban toros han sido la causa según varios autores antiguos y modernos de las actuales corridas de toros españolas. Así piensan Mariana, Huizinga, Lafaye entre otros varios. En su reciente estudio sobre los "ritos y juegos del toro" A. Alvarez de Miranda echa de menos en los diferentes intentos de conocer el origen de las corridas españolas, la presencia del Arqueólogo y del Historiador de la Historia Antigua; la lectura de las páginas de este apasionante libro nos ha sugerido recoger algunos de los documentos más significativos, ordenados por temas, de escenas de uenatio y de juego de la Antigüedad, en las que participan toros; algunas creemos se encuentran inéditas, con el fin de que las personas que se plantean el origen de las corridas españolas conozcan perfectamente este tipo de juegos. Por otra parte, falta un estudio monográfico de este género. El documento más importante que da una idea exacta del contenido y carácter de una uenatio en los anfiteatros romanos, en la que intervienen toros, es el mosaico del Bajo Imperio, hoy conservado en la Galería Borghese, que decoraba el peristilo excavado en Tenuta di Torre Nuova en el año 1834, formaba parte de un conjunto de cinco piezas, en dos de las cuales el tema de la composición eran los combates de gladiadores, en las tres restantes una uenationes en el anfiteatro.

  13. Antigüedades mexicanas: Memoria e intertextualidad en la poesía de José Emilio Pacheco

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    Valeria Añón

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the various forms in which José Emilio Pachecoïs collection of poems "Antigüedades mexicanas" interrogates the past and proposes the construction of a memory based on different moments of the history of Mexico which are approached from an ironic critical perspective. Such Mexican antiques are also ways of rewriting the American archive, a gesture that founds the relationship with the poetic word. Thus, they build a poetics which interweaves time, memory and literature as a key of reading for the present.

  14. Los aires, aguas y lugares en las Antigüedades de la Nueva España

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    Enrique Delgado López

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Hernández protagonizó, hacia 1570, una de las empresas científicas más importantes de la época moderna. Como parte de esta expedición recogió información sobre aspectos aparentemente ajenos a su formación científica; observó con peculiar maestría hechos que hoy reclamarían la historia o la antropología. En su observación a la cuenca de la Ciudad de México, plasmada en sus Antigüedades de la Nueva España, dejó un peculiar legado sobre los conceptos que la época le dictó, vigentes de alguna manera, acerca de la influencia del medio físico sobre el hombre.

  15. La colección perdida. El Museo de antigüedades del Palacio Arzobispal de Valencia

    OpenAIRE

    Arasa i Gil, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    A mediados del siglo XVIII se constituyó en Valencia una Biblioteca y un Museo de Antigüedades de carácter público en el Palacio Arzobispal. El proyecto fue inspirado por el filólogo F. Pérez Bayer, un destacado personaje de la cultura de la Ilustración, y su realización corrió a cargo de los arzobispos A. Mayoral y F. Fabián y Fuero. Con el fin de dotarlo de fondos se realizaron excavaciones en una villa romana de la población del Puig (Valencia), de donde procedían la mayor parte de las pie...

  16. Subclonación de los principales epítopes antigénicos de la proteína recombinante P27 de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Juan Mcewen

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available La paracoccidiodomicosis (PCM es una micosis sistémica frecuente en Latino América, su diagnóstico se realiza mediante la visualización microscópica del hongo, su aislamiento en cultivos y pruebas serológicas que detectan la presencia de anticuerpos, utilizando extractos crudos del hongo (1. La P27 es una de las principales proteínas antigénicas del P. Brasiliensis; por lo tanto,
    la subclonación del gen en fragmentos permitiría determinar cuáles son los epítopes más antigénicos, que podrían ser usados en una prueba diagnóstica específica y sensible.

  17. La distinta naturaleza del día y la noche en la antigüedad, y sus divisiones en horas

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    Daniel Gil Martínez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo intento explicar las diferencias religiosas entre el día y la noche, ya que los hombres de la Antigüedad nunca comprendieron que ambas conformaran una unidad. Estudio, por tanto, las características que tuvieron el día y la noche, en especial las de esta última, en algunas de las culturas más representativas de la Antigüedad –sumeria, babilónica, egipcia, hebrea, griega, romana y celta–. Así, podemos observar que básicamente todas ellas consideran el día como un momento de vida, mientras que la noche, a menudo, es entendida como muerte y maldad. Con todo ello, podemos comprender por qué el día no fue dividido en veinticuatro horas, sino en doce diurnas y doce nocturnas.

  18. Variabilidad y antigüedad de linajes holándricos en poblaciones jujeñas

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    Martínez Marignac, Verónica Lucrecia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de sistemas polimórficos del cromosoma Y ha permitido asignar el origen geográfico de ciertas mutaciones de punto tal como la sustitución T en el locus DYS199, que sólo se ha encontrado en poblaciones americanas y esquimales. Estos sistemas polimórficos son suficientemente variables para identificar linajes relacionados por ancestros comunes recientes. Se estudiaron 49 varones de cuatro localidades de Jujuy: Humahuaca (18, Susques (19, Rinconada (6 y Cochinoca (6. Se analizó el locus DYS199, y en los individuos DYS199T se caracterizaron siete microsatélites. Los linajes DYS199T estuvieron representados en el 64.3%, 66.7%, 66.7% y 94.7% de los individuos de Humahuaca, Rinconada, Cochinoca y Susques respectivamente. De los 36 linajes DYS199T analizados se distinguieron 29 haplotipos diferentes y se observó gran representación de linajes caracterizados por el alelo 14 del locus DYS393. La frecuencia de estos linajes se mostró significativamente diferente entre las muestras de Jujuy y las muestras de referencia (c 2 5GL=56,05; p<0,001. La metodología aplicada ha mostrado su utilidad en: a el análisis de la microdiferenciación regional a partir de la identificación de un grupo de linajes que parecen provenir de un ancestro común y que están prácticamente ausentes en otras poblaciones aborígenes y b la determinación de una antigüedad de 19518 años (8437-50301 para los linajes portadores del alelo 14 en el locus DYS 393.

  19. El destino de los templos paganos en Hispania durante la Antigüedad Tardía

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    López Quiroga, Jorge

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The destiny of the pagan temples in Hispania during the Late Antiquity constitutes a complex phenomenon that, from the ambiguous textual information and still the little material evidences, is less generalized with respect to other Western and Eastern areas. A systematic and programmed policy of destruction or dismantling of pagan temples through Christian religious authorities in Hispania is not stated. An important factor has been the slow progress of christianity for certain rural areas of the Iberian Peninsula and the maintenance of pagan practices and pagan spaces as much in the city as in the countryside.El destino de los templos paganos en Hispania durante la tardo-antigüedad constituye un fenómeno complejo que, a partir de la ambigua información textual y de las todavía escasas evidencias materiales, se manifiesta mucho más tardíamente y de forma menos generalizada respecto a otros ámbitos occidentales y orientales. No se constata una política sistemática y programada de destrucción o desmantelamiento de templos paganos por parte de las autoridades religiosas cristianas en Hispania. Un factor importante ha sido el lento progreso de la cristianización en el medio rural para determinadas áreas de la Península y otro, síntoma y consecuencia de lo anterior, el mantenimiento de prácticas y espacios cultuales paganos tanto en la ciudad como en el campo.

  20. Modelización de la antigüedad de las citas en la literatura científica con datos censurados a la derecha

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    Basulto Santos, Jesús

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We explore the application of Weibull model in age distribution of citations in scientific articles references, when this age is censored at the right side. The Weibull model has been applied to twelve journals in the field of applied economy, where the basic source of information comes from ISI. The censored age is due to the fact that the citations of 10 or more years appear accumulated in the ISI database. After the model has been fitted, we have built a two-dimensional analysis combining the impact factor, that picks up the short term citations, with the percentile 90, that measures the durability or validity period of the scientific articles.

    Exploramos la aplicación del modelo Weibull a la antigüedad de las citas en los artículos científicos, cuando dicha antigüedad está censurada a la derecha. Se ha aplicado el modelo Weibull a doce revistas del ámbito de economía aplicada, usando la información proveniente del ISI. La censura es debida a que las citas de 10 o más años de antigüedad aparecen agregadas en la base de datos del ISI. Una vez ajustado el modelo, hemos realizado un análisis bidimensional combinando el factor de impacto, que recoge las citas a corto plazo, con el percentil 90, que mide la durabilidad o periodo de vigencia de los artículos científicos.

  1. Panegírico y ciudad: tradición y control ideológicoen la Antigüedad tardía

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    RESUMEN: En el presente estudio se abordan las difíciles relaciones existentes a lo largo de la Antigüedad Tardía entre el poder político, sea este romano o bárbaro, católico o arriano, y las instancias de poder de la ciudad, las cuales intentarán, junto a la propia instancia gubernamental, mantener a toda costa los aspectos preeminentes de su clase dirigente, en un plano claramente feudal, pero manteniendo un conjunto de valores tradicionales representados por la serie de virtudes presentes ...

  2. Purificación y Control de Calidad de la Fracción Antigénica F1 de Yersinia pestis

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    S Seraylán

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha desarrollado la extracción y purificación de la fracción antigénica F1 de Yersinia pestis que se utilizará en la producción de un kit para el diagnóstico de peste. El proceso se realizó a partir de biomasa de una cepa patógena de Yersinia pestis, aislada en Chiclayo (1999, cuyos factores de virulencia fueron comprobados con la finalidad de determinar la presencia del antígeno en mención. La biomasa bacteriana fue inactivada con acetona fría, y la purificación parcial del antígeno se realizó mediante procesos de precipitación con sales y diálisis. Para confirmar la pureza del antígeno, éste se sometió a una electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE al 15% y se evidenció la presencia de una banda de 17 kDa. Se sensibilizó glóbulos rojos de carnero, con la fracción antigénica F1, para la titulación de un suero Anti-F1 por hemaglutinación pasiva e inhibición de la hemaglutinación.

  3. El tratado de Domingo de Andrade Excelencias, antigüedad y nobleza de la arquitectura (1695 y la tratadística de su tiempo

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    Fernández Gasalla, Leopoldo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Domingo de Andrade, chief architect of Santiago de Compostela’s Cathedral between 1677 and 1710, was de foremost artistical personality of his generation in Galicia. He also became a new kind of artist, capable of combining the practise of his art in the most brilliant way with the elaboration of theoretical approaches to it. This paper analyzes the origin of his treatise “Excelencias, Antigüedad y Nobleza de la Arquitectura” conceptual structure, as well as its relations with the previous and contemporary apologetical literature.El arquitecto Domingo de Andrade, maestro de obras de la catedral de Santiago, además de actuar como principal figura de su generación en Galicia, encarnó un nuevo tipo de artista capaz conjugar la práctica más brillante de su disciplina con la elaboración de planteamientos teóricos. Esa nueva dimensión abría las puertas del mundo de las Artes Liberales, para él y sus colegas más distinguidos. El presente artículo analiza el origen de la estructura conceptual del tratado Excelencias, Antigüedad y Nobleza de la Arquitectura, así como sus vínculos con la literatura apologética precedente y contemporánea.

  4. Protection Effects of a New Combined Anti-G Measure%新型综合抗荷措施的防护效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金朝; 李立华; 徐艳; 耿喜臣; 张立藩; 张立辉; 李宝辉; 李茜; 王红; 颜桂定; 李毅峰

    2006-01-01

    目的 研究以新型囊式抗荷系统、无胸部代偿的抗荷加压呼吸及PHP动作组成的新型综合抗荷措施防护效果;探讨采用该措施进行防护时伴有的疲劳、疼痛等问题. 方法 6名被试者在载人离心机上进行了5组+Gz暴露试验,分别为:1)基础+Gz耐力试验 (relaxed tolerance):测定被试者不使用抗荷装备,不做抗荷动作时的+Gz耐力.2)FLH-x联合救生服配KT-x抗荷调压器试验(FLH-x+KT-x):测定被试者穿FLH-x联合救生服配KT-x抗荷调压器时的+Gz耐力.3)FLH-x+KT-x+PBG试验(PBG):测定被试者穿FLH-x联合救生服配KT-x抗荷调压器,戴TK-x保护头盔、YM-x加压供氧面罩配YTQ-x氧气调节器进行抗荷加压呼吸时的+Gz耐力.4)6.5 G持续45 s试验(6.5 G 45 s):被试者使用与第3组试验相同的抗荷装备,进行+6.5 Gz持续45 s的暴露.5)9.0 G持续15 s试验(9.0 G 15 s):被试者使用与第3组试验相同的抗荷装备,做PHP动作,进行+9.0 Gz持续15 s的暴露.在每次试验结束后用主观量表记录被试者疲劳及疼痛的程度.结果 试验中没有发生G-LOC (G-induced lose of consciousness).FLH-x联合救生服配KT-x抗荷调压器的抗荷效果为2.5 G;PBG的抗荷效果为1.67 G;被试者均完成了6.5 G持续45 s及9.0 G持续15 s试验.试验中被试者的颈、腰、臂及手部在+Gz暴露时均出现过疼痛.结论 新型综合抗荷措施可以满足现代高性能战斗机的高G防护需要;该措施还应在高G导致的疼痛及颈部损伤的防护方面加以改进.%Objective To observe the protection effects of a new combined anti-G measure, which is composed of new bladder anti-G system, unassisted positive pressure breathing for G (PBG) and PHP maneuver. The problem of fatigue and pain when using this measure is also discussed. Method Each of the six fully qualified centrifuge subjects experienced 5 groups of centrifuge runs:1) relaxed +Gz tolerance without anti-G equipments and PHP maneuver;2) +Gz tolerance

  5. Rudimentary study on humanization of porcine red blood cells: Enzymatic removal of galactose-α1,3-galactose antigen from porcine red blood cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The serological and biochemical characterization of porcine red blood cells (pRBCs) are similar to human red blood cells. Porcine erythrocytes are considered as an alternative source for human blood transfusion. But there exist galactose-α1,3-galactose antigens (Galα1,3Galβ1, 4GalNAc-R, abbreviated αGal antigen) on pRBCs, which can induce anti-(Gal antibodies in human serum. The (Galepitopes are the major antigen responsible for hyperacute rejection in xenotransfusion. In this study, recombined soybean α-galactosidase (rSα-GalE) was usedto remove the (Gal antigens from pPRCs for humanization. The results showed that (Gal antigen was cleared by rSα-GalE and the structure and function of rSα-GalE treated pRBC were normal.

  6. Close-up of the alpha-1,3-Gal epitope as defined by a monoclonal chimeric IgE and human serum using saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Melanie; Michel, Yvonne; Wallach, Katharina;

    2011-01-01

    by mediator release assays, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and STD NMR analyses. The alpha-Gal-specific chimeric IgE and IgG antibodies were proven functional regarding interaction with antigen and Fc receptors. SPR measurements demonstrated affinities in the micromolar range. In contrast to a reference...... antibody, anti-Gal IgE did not induce mediator release, potentially reflecting the delayed type of anaphylaxis. The alpha-1,3-Gal epitope fine structure of both the recombinant IgE and affinity-purified serum were defined by STD NMR revealing similar contributions of carbohydrate residues and participation...

  7. Francisco Luis Laporta y su visión de la agricultura durante la Antigüedad en España: "Historia de la agricultura española" (1798)

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Escribano, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo realizamos un recorrido por la trayectoria de Francisco Luis Laporta y analizamos la visión que tenía de la agricultura durante la Antigüedad en España a través de su libro "Historia de la agricultura española" (1798).

  8. Barcino entre los siglos IV y VI d. C. Transformaciones y ascenso de una ciudad mediterránea durante la Antigüedad Tardía

    OpenAIRE

    Perich Roca, Arnau

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo se centra en la ciudad de Barcino durante la Antigüedad Tardía, entre los siglos IV y VI d. C. Su objetivo es hacer una síntesis actualizada de los procesos de transformación que vive la ciudad en este marco temporal, así como ofrecer un

  9. Purificación y control de calidad de la fracción antigénica F1 de Yersinia pestis

    OpenAIRE

    S Seraylán; L. Vargas

    1999-01-01

    Se ha desarrollado la extracción y purificación de la fracción antigénica F1 de Yersinia pestis que se utilizará en la producción de un kit para el diagnóstico de peste. El proceso se realizó a partir de biomasa de una cepa patógena de Yersinia pestis, aislada en Chiclayo (1999), cuyos factores de virulencia fueron comprobados con la finalidad de determinar la presencia del antígeno en mención. La biomasa bacteriana fue inactivada con acetona fría, y la purificación parcial del antígeno se re...

  10. Uma Odisséia pelos documentos: leituras do livro “Antigüidade Clássica: a história e a cultura a partir dos documentos”/An Odyssey by the documents: readings of the book Antigüidade Clássica: a história e a cultura a partir dos documentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renilson Rosa Ribeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo pretende realizar uma reflexão sobre o livro Antigüidade Clássica: A histó-ria e a cultura a partir dos documentos, de Pedro Paulo Abreu Funari, professor de História Antiga e Arqueologia Histórica (Universidade Estadual de Campinas a luz de suas proposições metodológicas e temáticas para o ensino de História Antiga nas universidades e escolas de edu-cação básica no Brasil. This article intends to realize an analyze about Antigüidade Clássica: A história e a cultura a partir dos documentos, published by Pedro Paulo Abreu Funari, professor of Antique History and Historical Archaeology (Campinas State University, giving special attention to his meth-odological and theoretical proposals for the studying and teaching of Antique History in Brazil-ian universities and secondary schools.

  11. Virus de la Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa de Fabricio: Relaciones antigénicas de aislados cubanos y chilenos Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: antigenic interrelationships between

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Noda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa (EIB sigue afectando la industria avícola por la aparición de variantes patogénicas y antigénicas del virus, originadas en la permanente evolución del virus producto de la presión inmunológica por el uso intensivo de vacunas. La caracterización antigénica de los virus de campo resulta esencial para la aplicación de vacunas más adecuadas en el control de la enfermedad. En este trabajo se determinaron las relaciones antigénicas de aislados cubanos y chilenos, obtenidos de poblaciones de pollos vacunados con el virus de la EIB. Los aislados virales se adaptaron a cultivos celulares y se obtuvieron antisueros monoespecíficos de cada uno de ellos y de una cepa de referencia. Las relaciones se establecieron por virusneu-tralización cruzada utilizando nueve aislados cubanos (BD, BL, 35/95, 29/96, 118/96, BF2, BF8, BF9 y 70/98, tres chilenos (G1, G2 y G4 y una cepa de referencia del serotipo 1 (Lukert. Los aislados cubanos y chilenos se adaptaron eficientemente a cultivos de fibroblastos de embrión de pollo (con excepción de BF3 y G3. Además, los aislados cubanos se adaptaron a células VERO, presentando mayores títulos infectivos en fibroblastos de embrión de pollo que en esta línea celular. Los resultados de la seroneutralización cruzada mostraron entre los aislados cubanos una relación mayor a un 80% y entre éstos y la cepa de referencia mayor de un 70%, de igual modo con los aislados chilenos G1 y G4 (mayor de 77%. El aislado G2 presentó diferencias antigénicas consideradas menores con los aislados cubanos BL, 35/95 y 29/96 (­ 69%. Ninguno de los aislados mostró relaciones antigénicas inferiores al 30% con la cepa de referencia del serotipo 1, por lo tanto no corresponden a cepas variantesInfectious Bursal Disease (IBD is still affecting the poultry industry through the appearance of pathogenic and antigenic variations of the virus. This is due to its permanent evolution as a

  12. El gobierno del caballo montado en la antigüedad clásica con especial referencia al caso de Iberia. Bocados, espuelas y la cuestión de la silla de montar, estribos y herraduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quesada Sanz, Fernando

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the different elements of the horse’s tack in Antiquity: bits, spurs, saddle, stirrups and the problem of horseshoes, with special reference to the case of Iberia.

    Se analizan los elementos de control del caballo montado en la Antigüedad: bocados, espuelas, silla y estribos, y se hace referencia al problema de las herraduras, todo ello con especial referencia al caso de la antigua Iberia.

  13. Synthesis of Some New Derivatives of 1,3-Dichloro-1,1,3,3-tetraphenyldisilazane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The reactive properties of 1,3-dichloro-1,1,3,3-tetraphenyldisilazane (DCTPS) with water, methanol, phenylamine and lithium salt of hexamethylcyclotrisilazane (D3NLi) were investigated, and four new derivatives were obtained.

  14. Microbial production of 1,3-propanediol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Michael; Marx, Hans; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of economic production processes for 1,3-propanediol is a success story for the creation of a new market for a (bulk) chemical. The compound and its favorable properties have long been known; also the fermentation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol had been described more than 120 years ago. Nevertheless, the product remained a specialty chemical until recently, when two new processes were introduced, providing 1,3-propanediol at a competitive price. Remarkably, one of the processes is in the field of white biotechnology and based on microbial fermentation, converting a renewable carbon source into a bulk chemical. This review covers the most important patents that led to the commercialization of bio-based 1,3-propanediol. Furthermore, some of the recent developments towards a sustainable industry are addressed. Similar questions arise for a variety of products if they are to be produced bio-based in large scale. However, special emphasis is given to 1,3-propanediol production.

  15. La tensión entre estática y dinámica desde la Antigüedad hasta el Renacimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Silvio Vaccaro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Que la estática es un capítulo más de la física es aceptado con total naturalidad desde que Newton estableció las bases de la mecánica clásica. Pero estas dos disciplinas, estática y dinámica, tienen historias diferentes, con encuentros y desencuentros, desde la Antigüedad hasta el Renacimiento. En este artículo, se describe parte de este proceso en relación a algunos aspectos de la mecánica, en particular de la estática. Cómo esta disciplina quedó establecida, ya en la Antigüedad, en forma rigurosa y matemática, mientras que la dinámica se enfrentó con dificultades conceptuales y empíricas que comenzaron a esclarecerse recién en el Renacimiento. Las leyes de la estática fueron establecidas inicialmente por Arquímedes utilizando un sistema axiomático riguroso. En el presente artículo, se muestra cómo la tradición arquimediana resurgió con gran impulso durante el renacimiento mientras existía la tradición rival de aquellos que estaban dispuestos a sacrificar hasta cierto punto el rigor matemático, recurriendo a principios dinámicos de fundamentación dudosa pero de eficacia heurística. Galileo fue un exponente claro de la nueva cultura renacentista y no renunció a conectar las tradiciones estática y dinámica, pero a la vez consideraba posible fundamentar rigurosa y geométricamente el estudio del movimiento, y fue quien logró resolver la crisis entre estática y dinámica, conduciendo la matemática renacentista a una realización exitosa y contribuyendo al nacimiento de una nueva física.Since Newton established the bases of classical mechanics, it has been readily accepted that statics is a chapter of physics. However, from Antiquity to the Renaissance the two disciplines, statics and dynamics, had different histories that only sometimes interacted with one another. In this article, part of this process is described whereby statics was established during Antiquity in rigorous and mathematical form, whereas

  16. 41 CFR 51-1.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disabilities (including blind) for not less than 75 percent of the work-hours of direct labor required to... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 1-GENERAL § 51-1.3 Definitions. As... employment and training opportunities for persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities...

  17. Bis(1,3-dithiole) Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Engler, E. M.; Green, D. C.;

    1977-01-01

    There is described the preparation of bis-1,3-dithiole compounds (I) which are key synthetic precursors for the preparation of new polymeric metal bis(dithiolene) (i.e., II) and tetrathiafulvalene compounds (i.e., III): (Image Omitted)...

  18. Caracterización antigénica y molecular de los virus influenza A (H3N2 circulantes en Cuba y su relación con las cepas vacunales (1995-98

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suset Oropesa-Fernández

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios antigénicos continuos que ocurren en las glicoproteínas de envoltura (hemaglutinina y neuraminidasa de los virus influenza, se deben a las mutaciones puntuales y a las promovidas por la selección positiva del sistema inmune, que dan origen a las epidemias anuales y reordenamientos de segmentos genómicos, causa de las temidas pandemias. Los intentos para controlar la influenza mediante la vacunación tienen hasta ahora un éxito limitado y son obstaculizados por estos cambios. En Cuba, país subtropical, las infecciones respiratorias agudas constituyen la primera causa de asistencia médica entre las enfermedades infecciosas y la cuarta causa de muerte asociada con la neumonía. La vigilancia para la influenza, en este país, se monitorea por el Laboratorio de Referencia Nacional de Influenza del Instituto de Medicina Tropical ¨Pedro Kouri¨. Este trabajo tiene el objetivo de caracterizar antigénica y genómicamente a 21 cepas de influenza aisladas durante 1995-96 hasta 1997-98, y conocer su similitud con las de circulación internacional, incluidas en las vacunas antigripales de igual periodo. La caracterización antigénica y genómica se realizó mediante las técnicas de inhibición de la hemaglutinación, la inmunoperoxidasa y un sistema de reverso transcripción-reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, respectivamente. Mediante las tres técnicas, el 100% de los aislamientos pertenecieron al tipo A y subtipo H3N2 y permitió clasificarlos como similares a las cepas de circulación internacional recomendadas en la composición de la vacuna antigripal correspondiente a esas temporadas.

  19. Kristallstrukturen und spektroskopische Eigenschaften von 23-Phospha-1, 3-dionaten und 1, 3-Dionaten des Calciums - ein Vergleich am Beispiel der 1, 3-Diphenyl- und 1, 3-Di(tert-butyl)-Derivate = Crystal Structures and Spectroscopic Properties of 23-Phospha-1, 3-dionates and 1, 3-Dionates of Calcium - Comparative Studies on the 1, 3-Diphenyl and 1, 3-Di(tert-butyl) Derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Gerd; Niemeyer, Mark; Mundt, Otto; Schwarz, Wolfgang; Westerhausen, Matthias; Ossberger, Manfred W.; Mayer, Peter; Nöth, Heinrich; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Der Wasserstoff-Metall-Austausch zwischen Dibenzoylphosphan und Calciumcarbid in Tetrahydrofuran (THF) ergibt nach Zusatz des Liganden 1, 3, 5-Trimethyl-1, 3, 5-triazinan (TMTA) den als Kokristallisat mit Benzol isolierten zweikernigen Komplex Bis[(tmta-N, N, N)calcium-bis(dibenzoylphosphanid)] (1a)

  20. Themistius on Aristotle physics 1-3

    CERN Document Server

    Themistius

    2013-01-01

    Themistius' treatment of Books 1-3 of Aristotle's Physics presents central features of Aristotle's thought about principles, causation, change and infinity. The tradition of synthesising and epitomising exegesis is here raised to a new level by the innovative method of paraphrase pioneered by Themistius. Taking a selective, but telling, account of the earlier Peripatetic and Presocratic tradition, Themistius creates a framework that can still be profitably used in the study of Aristotle. This volume contains the first English translation of Themistius' commentary, accompanied by a detailed int

  1. 两种新型抗荷服对下体负压耐力的影响%Effects of Two New Anti-G Suits on Lower Body Negative Pressure Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 杨长斌; 高原; 杜挺媛; 吴萍; 吴斌; 谷志明; 孙喜庆

    2013-01-01

    目的 确定绳索拉紧式和充气式2套不同类型抗荷服提高下体负压耐力的有效压力制度.方法 22名健康志愿者,随机平均分为2组,分别穿着绳索拉紧式和充气式抗荷服测定各自选定的高、低2种压力制度时的下体负压耐力,同时观察血压、心率、心脏泵血功能及自主神经功能的变化.绳索拉紧式抗荷服选定20~ 30 mmHg和30 ~ 40 mmHg两种压力制度,充气式抗荷服选定30 ~ 40 mmHg和40 ~ 50mmHg两种压力制度.结果 穿着绳索拉紧式抗荷服时高、低2种压力制度下志愿者下体负压耐受时间和累计应激指数较对照组均显著增加(P<0.01),平均动脉压和每搏量呈升高趋势,心率呈降低趋势,但均未达到显著水平.穿着充气式抗荷服时高、低2种压力制度下志愿者下体负压耐受时间和累计应激指数较对照组均显著增加(P<0.01),平均动脉压和每搏量呈升高趋势,心率在高压力制度组呈降低趋势.结论 两种抗荷服在各自的高、低压力制度下均可显著提高下体负压耐力,改善心血管功能,且高压力制度效果更明显.%Objective To evaluate the effective pressures of two anti-G suits (lacing antigravity suit and inflatable antigravity suit) which aim to improve lower body negative pressure(LBNP) tolerance. Methods Twenty-two healthy subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups with 11 subjects in each group, then wore two anti-G suits respectively at high and low level of pressure. LBNP tolerance was evaluated at 2 pressure levels of 2 kinds of anti-G suits. Parameters of basic physiology, cardiac pumping function and autonomic regulation were examined as well. The pressure of lacing anti-G suit was set at 20 ~30 mmHg and 30 ~40 mmHg, 30 ~40 mmHg and 40 ~ 50 mmHg of inflatable anti-G suit. Results As compared with those of control group, with lacing anti-G suit under 2 pressure standards, the duration of negative pressure and cumulative stress index

  2. Avaliação de frações antigênicas de Cysticercus cellulosae para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose utilizando conjugados anticorpo-lectina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Lúcio Rossi

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Um extrato bruto de Cysticercus cellulosae foi fracionado por cromatografia em coluna de Sephadex G-200, com o objetivo de se encontrar alguma fração com alta atividade antigênica para ser utilizada no imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose. O perfil de eluição proteico da cromatografia revelou dois picos distintos (frações I e III e, entre os dois uma fração bastante heterogênea composta de vários picos (fração II. Uma técnica baseada na utilização de conjugados contendo lectina com afinidade para eritrocitos (Erythro - LIT foi utilizada para a avaliação das frações. Os títulos de Erythro-LIT obtidos com o extrato bruto de cisticercos e com as frações mostraram que a maior parte dos anticorpos anti Cysticercus cellulosae, presentes em amostras de líquido cefalorraqueano de pacientes com neurocisticercose, reconheceram componentes antigênicos da fração II.

  3. TRANSPORTE DE UDP-GALACTOSA EN EL APARATO DE GOLGI DE CELULAS VEGETALES.

    OpenAIRE

    NORAMBUENA MORALES, LORENA

    2004-01-01

    En vegetales, el aparato de Golgi existe en un gran número de organelos por célula, distribuyéndose homogéneamente por todo el citoplasma. La abundancia de este organelo está en directa relación con la necesidad de depósito de componentes de pared celular 106p.

  4. 5-Isopropylidene-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d][1,3]dithiole-2-thione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Yamashita

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H6S5, contains a 5-ylidene-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d][1,3]dithiole-2-thione framework, which is an important synthetic precursor of multi-dimensional organic superconductors and conductors. The molecular framework is planar with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.012 Å for the non-H atoms. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked by short intermolecular S...S interactions [3.501 (5 and 3.581 (4 Å], constructing a zigzag molecular tape network along the c axis.

  5. Afinidades antigênicas de amostras de campo do vírus da bronquite infecciosa das galinhas com a amostra Massachusetts M41 Antigenic affinities of infectious bronchitis virus field isolates to Massachusetts M41 strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Souza

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as afinidades antigênicas entre 14 amostras de vírus da bronquite infecciosa das galinhas (VBIG isoladas de casos clínicos ocorridos entre 1972 e 1989 no Estado de Minas Gerais, sua reatividade frente a dois anticorpos monoclonais (AcMs específicos contra a glicoproteína S1 do sorotipo Massachusetts de VBIG foi examinada em ELISA. As 14 amostras de campo estudadas foram agrupadas, de acordo com o relacionamento antigênico aos AcMs, em relacionadas (três amostras e não relacionadas (onze amostras à amostra M41 do sorotipo Massachusetts. As amostras de campo não reconhecidas, considerando a alta especificidade dos AcMs à amostra M41, compõem uma diversidade que pode variar de integrantes do sorotipo Massachusetts de origem vacinal a sorotipos heterólogos. Amostras com afinidade antigênica à M41 (208-1972, PM1-1987 e PM2-1987 foram detectadas, o que configura a preservação da amostra no campo, apesar da alta variabilidade da glicoproteína S1, já que foram isoladas de surtos de doença natural nas regiões de avicultura de Minas Gerais. A detecção de antígenos de alta variabilidade que caracterizam a amostra M41, apesar das pressões da imunidade dos plantéis e da mutabilidade, pode indicar que os antígenos de alta afinidade aos receptores celulares (best fit que atingiram alto estágio evolutivo podem estar sendo preservados.Aiming to the evaluation of antigenic relationships among isolates of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV through their reactivity against Massachusetts M41 S1 glycopolypeptide specific monoclonal antibodies (Mab an ELISA was developed. Fourteen IBV isolates obtained from field cases of disease, reported from 1972 to 1989 in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were examined. The IBV isolates could be grouped into related or not to M41, based on the reactivity to M41 S1 specific Mabs. The unrecognized field isolates conform a diversity of representatives, which may range from Massachusetts

  6. Methods for promoting electrochemical properties of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO LiYing; CHE HuiQuan; HU DaoZhong; SU YueFeng; WANG Zhao; LI Ning; CHEN Shi

    2013-01-01

    One popular study of the recent research is to develop the cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.As a new cathode material for lithium-ion batteries,the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 has drawn widespread attention because of its high capacity,high cut-off voltage and high tap density.Its theoretical capacity is 277.8 mAh/g.The crystal structure of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is α-NaFeO2.The structural and morphological features of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are introduced in this paper.The emphasis is to present the methods for promoting electrochemical properties.The electrochemical properties and structure characteristics are discussed.And the prospect of layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is forecast in the end.

  7. Synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode material via oxalate precursor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chuan-fu; YANG Ping; DAI Xi; XIONG Xuan; ZHAN Jing; ZHANG Yin-liang

    2009-01-01

    Using oxalic acid and stoichiometrically mixed solution of NiCl2, CoCl2, and MnCl2 as starting materials, the triple oxalate precursor of nickel, cobalt, and manganese was synthesized by liquid-phase co-precipitation method. And then the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode materials for Li-ion battery were prepared from the precursor and LiOH-H2O by solid-state reaction. The precursor and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 were characterized by chemical analysis, XRD, EDX, SEM and TG-DTA. The results show that the composition of precursor is Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3C2O4·2H2O. The product LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, in which nickel, cobalt and manganese are uniformly distributed, is well crystallized with a-NaFeO2 layered structure. Sintering temperature has a remarkable influence on the electrochemical performance of obtained samples. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized at 900 ℃ has the best electrochemical properties. At 0.1C rate, its first specific discharge capacity is 159.7 mA·h/g in the voltage range of 2.75-4.30 V and 196.9 mA·h/g in the voltage range of 2.75-4.50 V; at 2C rate, its specific discharge capacity is 121.8 mA·h/g and still 119.7 mA·h/g after 40 cycles. The capacity retention ratio is 98.27%.

  8. Structural and thermal stabilities of layered Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 materials in 18650 high power batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan-Bing; Ning, Feng; Yang, Quan-Hong; Song, Quan-Sheng; Li, Baohua; Su, Fangyuan; Du, Hongda; Tang, Zhi-Yuan; Kang, Feiyu

    The structural and thermal stabilities of the layered Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathode materials under high rate cycling and abusive conditions are investigated using the commercial 18650 Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2/graphite high power batteries. The Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 materials maintain their layered structure even when the power batteries are subjected to 200 cycles with 10 C discharge rate at temperatures of 25 and 50 °C, whereas their microstructure undergoes obvious distortion, which leads to the relatively poor cycling performance of power batteries at high charge/discharge rates and working temperature. Under abusive conditions, the increase in the battery temperature during overcharge is attributed to both the reactions of electrolyte solvents with overcharged graphite anode and Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathode and the Joule heat that results from the great increase in the total resistance (R cell) of batteries. The reactions of fully charged Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathodes and graphite anodes with electrolyte cannot be activated during short current test in the fully charged batteries. However, these reactions occur at around 140 °C in the fully charged batteries during oven test, which is much lower than the temperature of about 240 °C required for the reactions outside batteries.

  9. Eficácia da vacina anti-rábica ERA em camundongos, frente a quatro diferentes variantes antigênicas do vírus da raiva

    OpenAIRE

    Erbolato,Elcio Benedito; Silva,Egon Vieira da; Miguel,Omar; Sureau,Pierre; Germano,Pedro Manuel Leal

    1989-01-01

    Estudou-se a eficácia da vacina anti-rábica preparada em cultura primária de tecido renal de suínos, a partir da amostra ERA, na prevenção da raiva em camundongos, frente a quatro cepas antigenicamente distintas do vírus rábico, duas originadas de cão. C/SP e C/NG, uma originada de morcego, DR-19, e uma cepa fixa, CVS (Challenge Vírus Standard). O perfil antigênico desta cepa foi determinado pela técnica dos anticorpos antirrábicos monoclonais antinucleocapside. Os animais foram vacinados, ao...

  10. Ideología e identidad : estudio del concepto de sujeto histórico en la Antigüedad Tardía a partir del registro numismático

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Morales, María

    2011-01-01

    Jornadas de Jóvenes en Investigación Arqueológica, JIA (3as : 5-7 de mayo 2010 : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona). Sesión 2. La construcción del sujeto en arqueología. El siguiente artículo, partiendo de la metodología aplicada y tras recorrer los precedentes historiográficos existentes, analizará de qué modo es posible reconstruir el sujeto histórico de la Antigüedad Tardía a través del registro monetario. Para ello, se centrará en el estudio de los anversos y reversos de mayor difusión...

  11. La Hispania entre la “Antigüedad Tardía” y la “Alta Edad Media”: balance historiográfico de las investigaciones en Brasil (1990 – 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Frighetto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Los balances historiográficos son, como sabemos, muy complejos en su organización. Y esto se debe, sobretodo, al problema del conocimiento de toda la producción académica y científica en un país tan amplio y variegado como Brasil. Por eso, hemos limitado nuestra investigación sobre los Programas de Postgrado en Historia con más amplia producción de tesis de Doctorado y disertaciones de Maestría entre los años de 1990 al 2010 que tratan del tema de la Hispania en la Antigüedad Tardía o Alta Edad Media, según los datos recaudados de las principales agencias de fomento a la investigación científica brasileñas, como la CAPES y el CNPq.

  12. Preparation of layered oxide Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 via the sol-gel process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen; LIU Hanxing; HU Chen; ZHU Xianjun; LI Yanxi

    2008-01-01

    To obtain homogenous layered oxide Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 as a lithium insertion positive electrode material,the sol-gel process using citric acid as a chelating agent was applied.The material Li(Co1/3,Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 was synthesized at different calcination temperatures.XRD experiment indicated that the hyered Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2material could he synthesized at a lower temperature of 800℃,and the oxidation state of Co,Ni,and Mn in the cathode confirmed by XPS were +3,+2,and +4,respectively.SEM observations showed that the synthesized material could form homogenous particle morphology with the particle size of about 200nm In spite of different calcination temperatures,the charge-discharge curves of all the samples for the initial cycle were similar,and the cathode synthesized at 900℃ showed a small irreversible capacity loss of 11.24% and a high discharge capacity of 212.2 mAh.g-1 in the voltage range of 2.9-4.6 V.

  13. 2,4,6-Triamino-1,3,5-triazine-1,3-diium aquapentafluoridoaluminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maisonneuve

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, (C3H8N6[AlF5(H2O], was obtained by solvothermal synthesis from the reaction of aluminium hydroxide, 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (melamine, aqueous HF and water at 323 K for 48 h. The structure consists of [AlF5(H2O]2− octahedra and diprotonated melaminium cations. Cohesion is ensured by a three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds.

  14. Electrochemical characteristics of layered LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 and with different synthesis conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Wang, Haoran; Qi, Lu; Osaka, Tetsuya

    LiNi 1/3Mn 1/3Co 1/3O 2 had been successfully prepared from spherical composite carbonate via a simple uniform-phase precipitation method [P. He, H. Wang, L. Qi, T. Osaka, J. Power Sources, in press] at normal pressure, using nickel, cobalt and manganese sulfate and ammonia bicarbonate as reactants. The preparation of spherical composite carbonate was significantly dependant on synthetic condition, such as the reaction temperature, feed rate, molar ratio of these reactants, etc. The optimized condition resulted in spherical composite carbonate of which the particle size distribution was uniform, as observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Calcination of the uniform composite carbonate with lithium carbonate at high temperature led to a well-ordered layer structured LiNi 1/3Mn 1/3Co 1/3O 2 as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), without obvious change in shape. Due to the homogeneity of the composite carbonate, the final product, LiNi 1/3Mn 1/3Co 1/3O 2, was also significantly uniform, i.e., the average particle size was of about 10 μm in diameter and the distribution was relatively narrow. As a result, the corresponding tap density was also high, approximately 2.32 g cm -3, of which the value is very near to that of commercialized LiCoO 2. In the voltage range of 2.8-4.2, 2.8-4.35 and 2.8-4.5 V, the discharge capacities of LiNi 1/3Mn 1/3Co 1/3O 2 electrode were 159, 168 and 179 mAh g -1, respectively, with good cyclability.

  15. Modification of LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode material by CeO2-coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 was coated by a layer of 1.0 wt% CeO2 via sol-gel method. The bared and coated LiMn1/3Co1/3Ni1/3O2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),cyclic voltammogram (CV) and galvanotactic charge-discharge test. The results show that the coating layer has no effect on the crystal structure,only coating on the surface; the 1.0 wt% CeO2-coated LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 exhibits better discharge capacity and cycling performance than the bared LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2. The discharge capacity of 1.0 wt% CeO2-coated cathode is 182.5 mAh.g-1 at a current density of 20 mA.g-1,in contrast to 165.8 mAh.g-1of the bared sample. The discharge capacity retention of 1.0 wt% CeO2-coated sample after 12 cycles reaches 93.2%,in comparison with 86.6% of the bared sample. CV results show that the CeO2 coating could suppress phase transitions and prevent the surface of cathode material from direct contact with the electrolyte,thus enhance the electro-chemical performance of the coated material.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of layered Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 cathode materials by spray-drying method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-min; HU Guo-rong; PENG Zhong-dong; DENG Xin-rong; LIU Ye-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Spherical Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 was prepared via the homogenous precursors produced by solution spray-drying method. The precursors were sintered at different temperatures between 600 and 1 000 ℃ for 10 h. The impacts of different sintering temperatures on the structure and electrochemical performances of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 were compared by means of X-ray diffractometry(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and charge/discharge test as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. The experimental results show that the spherical morphology of the spray-dried powers maintains during the subsequent heat treatment and the specific capacity increases with rising sintering temperature. When the sintering temperature rises up to 900 ℃, Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 attains a reversible capacity of 153 mA·h/g between 3.00 and 4.35 V at 0.2C rate with excellent cyclability.

  17. Oxidation reactions of 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dione

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Medha Rele; B S Patro; S Adhikari; G P Kalena; S Chattopadhyay; T Mukherjee

    2002-12-01

    The free radical scavenging properties and possible antioxidant activity of 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dione (1) are reported. Pulse radiolysis technique was employed to study the one-electron oxidation of 1 with various radicals viz. CCl3O$_{2}^{\\bullet}$, N$_{3}^{\\bullet}$ and ${}^{\\bullet}$OH in homogeneous aqueous solution. All these radicals reacted with 1 under ambient conditions at almost diffusion controlled rates producing transient species with an absorption maximum around 420 nm that decayed at first order rates. The transient absorption peak was shifted in the case of CCl3OO$^{\\bullet}$ radical reaction with 1 due to change in the polarity of the medium. Formation of a stable product with a broad absorption band starting from 400 nm and cut off at 230 nm was observed in the oxidation of 1 with ${}^{\\bullet}$OH and ${}^{\\bullet}$N3 radicals. In a biological system also, 1 showed significant inhibitory activity against Fe2+-mediated lipid peroxidation. Based on these observations, a suitable mechanism for the oxidation of 1 has been proposed.

  18. Effect of Various Synthesis methods on the Electrochemical Properties of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xue-shan; LIU Xing-quan

    2004-01-01

    Layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 has the isostructure of α-NaFeO2 and shows high rate capacity with stable cycleability. Furthermore, the thermal behavior of this material is milder than that of lithium nickel oxide and lithium cobalt oxide. In addition, it is expected to be stable at elevated temperatures. Therefore LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 may be the most promising cathode materials of lithium-ion secondary battery.In this research, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was prepared by solid-state reaction, sol-gel method and mixed hydroxide method. The influences of synthesis method on the physical and electrochemical properties of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), charge/discharge cycling cyclic voltammetry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). XPS studies show that the predominant oxidation states of Ni, Co and Mn in the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 compound are 2+, 3+ and 4+. From the voltage profile and cyclic voltammetry, the redox processes occurring at ~3.8V and ~4.5V are assigned to the Ni2+/Ni3+ and Co3+/Co4+ couples, respectively. Different preparation methods result in the difference in morphology (shape, particle size and specific surface area) and electrochemical behaviors. A sample prepared by solid-state reaction has the worst electrochemical performance among these three methods. Sample synthesized by mixed hydroxide method displays the better rate capacity than that prepared by sol-gel method, while the capacity retention of sample prepared by sol-gel method is superior to that synthesized by mixed hydroxide method.

  19. Guam 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Guam Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  20. Hilo, Hawaii 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Hilo, Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly...

  1. San Diego, California 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second San Diego, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  2. Newport, Oregon 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Newport, Oregon Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  3. Nawiliwili, Hawaii 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Nawiliwili Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  4. 21 CFR 172.712 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.712 1,3-Butylene glycol. The food additive 1,3-butylene glycol (CAS... 20740, or may be examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, Food and...

  5. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sources of additional information. 1.3 Section 1.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources of additional information. (a) A statement of the NRC's organization, policies,...

  6. 40 CFR 1.3 - Purpose and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and functions. 1.3 Section 1.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Purpose and functions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...

  7. Synthesis of Novel 1,3-Dioxolane Nucleoside Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡冬梅; 林昆华; 李明宗; 温集武; 李鸿艳; 尤田耙

    2004-01-01

    Novel 1,3-dioxolane C-nucleoside analogues of tiazofurin 2-(2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)-1,3-thiazole-4-carboxamide as well as N-nucleoside analogues of substituted imidazoles 1-(2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)-4-nitroimidazole and 1-(2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)-4,5-dicyanoimidazole were synthesized frommethyl acrylate through a multistep procedure. Their structures were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectra and elemental analysis.

  8. Progress in Research of Layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Cathode Material for Lithium-ion Batteries%锂离子电池正极材料层状LiN1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏伟; 习小明; 湛中魁

    2006-01-01

    对层状LiN1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2的制备方法(如高温固相合成法、溶胶-凝胶法、共沉淀法)进行了重点论述,并讨论了相应的电化学性能、结构特征和目前存在的问题.并对层状LiN1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2正极材料的发展进行了展望.

  9. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2的低温性能及动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光胤; 黄震雷; 张占军; 周恒辉

    2014-01-01

    通过高温烧结制备了锂离子电池正极材料LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2,并用XRD、SEM和恒流充放电对材料的结构、形貌和低温电性能进行了表征,通过线性极化、GITT和EIS等手段研究分析了低温下LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2性能变差的原因.结果表明,?20℃时,LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2材料的0.1、0.2、1和5 C倍率放电比容量依次为25℃时同倍率下放电比容量的83.2%、68.4%、57.2%和34.1%,放电中值电压比25℃时依次降低了0.049、0.125、0.364和0.531 V.低温充放电过程表现出明显的极化现象,其中最显著的极化来自锂离子穿过活性物质/电解液界面过程以及电荷转移过程,而非锂离子在电极材料内部的扩散过程.

  10. Perfil genotípico e antigênico de amostras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina isoladas no Rio Grande do Sul (2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Bianchi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolados do vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV apresentam grande diversidade genética e antigênica, o que pode dificultar o diagnóstico e a formulação de vacinas. O presente trabalho apresenta um perfil genotípico e antigênico de 20 amostras do BVDV isoladas no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul entre 2000 e 2010. As amostras foram oriundas de uma variedade de condições clínicas, que incluíam doença respiratória ou gastroentérica aguda ou crônica, lesões cutâneas, abortos, animais com crescimento retardado, além de animais persistentemente infectados (PI. A maioria das amostras (19 ou 95% pertence ao biótipo não-citopático (NCP; enquanto um isolado apresentou uma mistura de vírus NCP e citopático (CP. O sequenciamento e análise filogenética de uma região de 270 nucleotídeos da região 5' não-traduzida do genoma viral permitiu identificar 9 isolados de BVDV-2 (45% e 8 isolados de BVDV-2 (40%. Três amostras não agruparam filogeneticamente com nenhum dos genótipos, sendo classificados como pestivírus atípicos. Não foi possível associar os genótipos ou subgenótipos com as condições clínicas e, tanto os BVDV-1 quanto os BVDV-2 estavam envolvidos em diferentes síndromes clínico-patológicas. Análise de reatividade com um painel de 19 anticorpos monoclonais (AcMs revelou uma variabilidade marcante na glicoproteína principal do envelope (E2 entre vírus do mesmo genótipo, e sobretudo, entre vírus de genótipos diferentes. Testes de neutralização viral (SN com anti-soro de cepas de referência de BVDV-1 e BVDV-2 frente às amostras isoladas revelaram níveis variáveis de reatividade cruzada entre vírus do mesmo genótipo, e reatividade muito baixa ou ausente entre vírus de genótipos diferentes. Esses resultados indicam uma frequência semelhante de BVDV-1 e BVDV-2 na população estudada, confirmam a marcante variabilidade antigênica e reforçam a necessidade de se incluir vírus dos dois genótipos nas

  11. Hydrogenolysis of 2-tosyloxy-1,3-propanediol into 1,3-propanediol over Raney Ni catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi, Zheng; Jianli, Wang; Zhen, Lu; Min, Luo; Miao, Zhang; Lixin, Xu; Jianbing [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Biofuel, The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Chemistry-Synthesis Technology, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China)

    2013-03-15

    2-Tosyloxy-1,3-propanediol (TPD), a potential precursor for 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) production, is produced by the tosylation of glycerol with the help of protecting group techniques. In this work, the hydrogenolysis of TPD into 1,3-PD over Raney Ni catalyst is discussed at different reaction parameters to optimize the reaction conditions for selective formation of 1,3-PD. The mechanisms of the hydrogenolysis of TPD and the side reactions were also confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique (author)

  12. De la tradición sáfica a los círculos tribádicos: la búsqueda de las identidades lésbicas desde una perspectiva histórica (De la antigüedad clásica a la edad moderna)

    OpenAIRE

    Beteta Martín, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    El artículo analiza la visibilidad y percepción social del lesbianismo desde una perspectiva histórica desde la Antigüedad Clásica hasta la Edad Moderna. Se inicia con un análisis de la estigmatización que ha padecido el estudio del lesbianismo en las Ciencias Sociales y a continuación analiza el tratamiento social, político e ideológico de las relaciones lésbicas desde la Antigüedad hasta el siglo XVII a través del estudio de las fuentes literarias, jurídicas e inquisitoriales. El estudio se...

  13. PEDOT modified LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xizheng; Li, Huiqiao; Li, De; Ishida, Masayoshi; Zhou, Haoshen

    2013-12-01

    Layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was modified by poly(3,4-dioxyethylenethiophene) PEDOT via a facile method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). PEDOT modified samples exhibited both improved rate and cycle performance compared with the pristine LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2. At a charge/discharge current of 1500 mA g-1, the discharge capacity was improved from 44.3 to 73.9 mAh g-1. The sample with 2 wt% and heat treated at 300 °C showed the optimized electrochemical performance. Galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) results indicated that the battery polarization of coated samples have been suppressed obviously because the PEDOT layer facilitated the electron transfer at the interface of electrode and electrolyte.

  14. Unexpected high power performance of atomic layer deposition coated Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Woo; Travis, Jonathan J.; Hu, Enyuan; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Kim, Seul Cham; Kang, Chan Soon; Woo, Jae-Ha; Yang, Xiao-Qing; George, Steven M.; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Cho, Sung-Jin; Lee, Se-Hee

    2014-05-01

    Electric-powered transportation requires an efficient, low-cost, and safe energy storage system with high energy density and power capability. Despite its high specific capacity, the current commercially available cathode material for today's state-of-art Li-ion batteries, lithium nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide Li[Ni1/3 Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 (NMC), suffers from poor cycle life for high temperature operation and marginal rate capability resulting from irreversible degradation of the cathode material upon cycling. Using an atomic-scale surface engineering, the performance of Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 in terms of rate capability and high temperature cycle-life is significantly improved. The Al2O3 coating deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) dramatically reduces the degradation in cell conductivity and reaction kinetics. This durable ultra-thin Al2O3-ALD coating layer also improves stability for the NMC at an elevated temperature (55 °C). The experimental results suggest that a highly durable and safe cathode material enabled by atomic-scale surface modification could meet the demanding performance and safety requirements of next-generation electric vehicles.

  15. Calendering effects on the physical and electrochemical properties of Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Honghe; Tan, Li; Liu, Gao; Song, Xiangyun; Battaglia, Vincent S.

    2012-06-01

    Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 cathode laminate containing 8% PVDF and 7% acetylene black is fabricated and calendered to different porosities. Calendering effects on the physical and electrochemical properties of the Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 cathode are investigated. It is found that mechanical properties of the composite laminate strongly depend on the electrode porosity whereas the electronic conductivity is not significantly affected by calendering. Electrochemical performances including the specific capacity, the first coulombic efficiency, cycling performance and rate capability for the cathode at different porosities are compared. An optimized porosity of around 30-40% is identified. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies illustrate that calendering improves the electronic conductivity between active particles at relatively high porosities, but increases charge transfer resistance at electrode/electrolyte interface at relatively low porosities. An increase of activation energy of Li interfacial transfer for the electrode at 0% porosity indicates a relatively high barrier of activation at the electrode/electrolyte interface, which accounts for the poor rate capability of the electrode at extremely low porosity.

  16. Processing of water-based LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 pastes for manufacturing lithium ion battery cathodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fatih A Çetinel; Werner Bauer

    2014-12-01

    In order to meet the demand for more ecological and economic fabrication of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries, water is considered as an alternative solvent for electrode paste preparation. In this study, we report on the feasibility of water-based processing of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2-based pastes for manufacturing cathode electrodes. The influence of the total solid content, the amount of conductive agent and binder materials on paste rheology and the final electrode properties was investigated. Suitable paste formulations which enable favourable paste flow behaviour, appropriate electrode properties and good electrochemical performance have been found. Results show that a substitution of the conventional organic solvent-based manufacturing route for LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes by water-based processing exhibits a promising way to realise Li-ion batteries with comparable electrochemical behaviour, while avoiding toxic processing aids and reducing overall manufacturing costs.

  17. Cell immobilization for microbial production of 1,3-propanediol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungormusler-Yilmaz, Mine; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B; Azbar, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Cell and enzyme immobilization are often used for industrial production of high-value products. In recent years, immobilization techniques have been applied to the production of value-added chemicals such as 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO). Biotechnological fermentation is an attractive alternative to current 1,3-PDO production methods, which are primarily thermochemical processes, as it generates high volumetric yields of 1,3-PDO, is a much less energy intensive process, and generates lower amounts of environmental organic pollutants. Although several approaches including: batch, fed-batch, continuous-feed and two-step continuous-feed were tested in suspended systems, it has been well demonstrated that cell immobilization techniques can significantly enhance 1,3-PDO production and allow robust continuous production in smaller bioreactors. This review covers various immobilization methods and their application for 1,3-PDO production.

  18. HEALTH ASSESSMENT OF 1,3-BUTADIENE | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This assessment was conducted to review the new information that has become available since EPA's 1985 health assessment of 1,3-butadiene.1,3-Butadiene is a gas used commercially in the production of styrene-butadiene rubber, plastics, and thermoplastic resins. The major environmental source of 1,3-butadiene is the incomplete combustion of fuels from mobile sources (e.g., automobile exhaust). Tobacco smoke can be a significant source of 1,3-butadiene in indoor air.This assessment concludes that 1,3-butadiene is carcinogenic to humans by inhalation, based on the total weight of evidence. The specific mechanisms of 1,3-butadiene-induced carcinogenesis are unknown; however, it is virtually certain that the carcinogenic effects are mediated by genotoxic metabolites of 1,3-butadiene.Animal data suggest that females may be more sensitive than males for cancer effects; nevertheless, there are insufficient data from which to draw any conclusions on potentially sensitive subpopulations.The human incremental lifetime unit cancer (incidence) risk estimate is based on extrapolation from leukemias observed in an occupational epidemiologic study. A twofold adjustment to the epidemiologic-based unit cancer risk is then applied to reflect evidence from the rodent bioassays suggesting that the epidemiologic-based estimate may underestimate total cancer risk from 1,3-butadiene exposure in the general population. 1,3-Butadiene also causes a variety of reproductive and develop

  19. Regioselective synthesis of bicyclic 1,3,5-triazepine system starting from tetrachloro-2-aza-1,3-butadienes

    OpenAIRE

    Bohdan A. Demydchuk; Rusanov, Eduard B.; Julia A. Rusanova; Volodymyr S. Brovarets

    2017-01-01

    Readily available tetrachloro-2-aza-1,3-butadienes enter into directed cyclocondensation reaction with N-phenyl-1,2-cyclopentanediamine which leads to regioselective cyclopentane annulation by the 1,3,5-triazepine. The formation of the 1,3,5-triazepine derivatives was confirmed proved by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral study, elemental analysis and, in one case, single-crystal x-ray crystallographic study.

  20. Regioselective synthesis of bicyclic 1,3,5-triazepine system starting from tetrachloro-2-aza-1,3-butadienes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan A. Demydchuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Readily available tetrachloro-2-aza-1,3-butadienes enter into directed cyclocondensation reaction with N-phenyl-1,2-cyclopentanediamine which leads to regioselective cyclopentane annulation by the 1,3,5-triazepine. The formation of the 1,3,5-triazepine derivatives was confirmed proved by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral study, elemental analysis and, in one case, single-crystal x-ray crystallographic study.

  1. Copper Impurity Effects on LiNi(1/3)Mn(1/3)Co(1/3)O2 Cathode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Qina; Heelan, Joseph A; Lu, Yuan; Apelian, Diran; Wang, Yan

    2015-09-23

    The crystal structure and electrochemical properties of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) synthesized from a lithium ion battery recovery stream have been studied previously. In this report, we study the Cu impurity effects on NMC in detail. The difference in crystal structures and electrochemical properties were examined for pure and copper impurity included products. Scanning electron microscopy figures show that the precursor particles of NMC are slightly bigger than that of NMC with copper impurity. After undergoing 150 cycles at 2C, X-ray diffraction refinements results show that the lattice parameters for impurity containing NMC and pure NMC change to different extents. Furthermore, due to the minor change of lattice parameters, copper-containing NMC offers a more stable capacity retention compared to pure NMC.

  2. Degradation of 1,3-dichloropropene by Pseudomonas cichorii 170

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelarends, G.J.; Wilkens, M.; Larkin, M.J.; Elsas, van J.D.; Janssen, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas cichorii 170, isolated from soil that was repeatedly treated with the nematocide 1,3-dichloropropene, could utilize low concentrations of 1,3-dichloropropene as a sole carbon and energy source. Strain 170 was also able to grow on 3-chloroallyl alcohol, 3- chlo

  3. Degradation of 1,3-dichloropropene by Pseudomonas cichorii 170

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelarends, Gerrit J.; Wilkens, Marga; Larkin, Michael J.; Elsas, Jan Dirk van; Janssen, Dick B.

    1998-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas cichorii 170, isolated from soil that was repeatedly treated with the nematocide 1,3-dichloropropene, could utilize low concentrations of 1,3-dichloropropene as a sole carbon and energy source, Strain 170 was also able to grow on 3-chloroallyl alcohol, 3-chlor

  4. 10 CFR 960.3-1-3 - Regionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regionality. 960.3-1-3 Section 960.3-1-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... consideration to the need for, and the advantages of, a regional distribution in the siting of...

  5. Anti-GaL IgG antibodies in sera of newborn humans and baboons and its significance in pig xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minanov, O P; Itescu, S; Neethling, F A; Morgenthau, A S; Kwiatkowski, P; Cooper, D K; Michler, R E

    1997-01-27

    We have previously demonstrated that hyperacute rejection does not occur in a pig-to-newborn baboon heart transplant model, presumably because of low levels of cytotoxic antipig antibodies present in the serum of newborn baboons. Cytotoxic antipig antibodies are primarily directed to alpha-1,3-galactosyl (alpha Gal) residues on endothelial cell surface structures Twenty-one full-term humans and 5 full-term baboons were tested for complement mediated lysis (CML) of pig kidney (PK-15) cells and anti-alpha Gal activity with an ELISA using BSA-conjugated alpha Gal residues as target. To evaluate the significance of the anti-alpha Gal titers in vivo 5 newborn baboons underwent heterotopic pig cardiac xenotransplantation. Six of 21 human samples and 1 of 5 baboon samples demonstrated significant cytotoxicity to PK-15 cells. Twelve of 21 newborn humans had anti-alpha Gal IgG antibodies at titers of 1:80 or greater. None of the samples had anti-alpha Gal IgM. In newborn baboons, 1 of 5 sera had anti-alpha Gal IgG antibodies at titers greater than 1:80 and none of these samples had anti-alpha Gal IgM. Xenografts survived for an average of 3.6 days, even in the baboon with high anti-alpha Gal IgG titers. Analysis of the explanted grafts showed minimal evidence of complement-mediated hyperacute rejection (HAR), but prominent mononuclear cell infiltrates. In serum tested posttransplant there was an induced anti-alpha Gal response with cytotoxicity against PK-15 cells. These results show that anti-alpha Gal IgM is absent in newborn human and baboon sera, allowing pig grafts to avoid HAR. However, the presence of anti-alpha Gal IgG may be associated with mononuclear cell infiltration of the xenograft and its subsequent rejection.

  6. 1.3 GHz superconducting RF cavity program at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsburg, C.M.; Arkan, T.; Barbanotti, S.; Carter, H.; Champion, M.; Cooley, L.; Cooper, C.; Foley, M.; Ge, M.; Grimm, C.; Harms, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    At Fermilab, 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are prepared, qualified, and assembled into cryomodules (CMs) for Project X, an International Linear Collider (ILC), or other future projects. The 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program includes targeted R&D on 1-cell 1.3 GHz cavities for cavity performance improvement. Production cavity qualification includes cavity inspection, surface processing, clean assembly, and one or more cryogenic low-power CW qualification tests which typically include performance diagnostics. Qualified cavities are welded into helium vessels and are cryogenically tested with pulsed high-power. Well performing cavities are assembled into cryomodules for pulsed high-power testing in a cryomodule test facility, and possible installation into a beamline. The overall goals of the 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program, supporting facilities, and accomplishments are described.

  7. Waste form characteristics report, revision 1.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leider, H.R.; Stout, R.B.

    1998-07-01

    This Waste Form Characteristics Report (WFCR) update, Version 1.3, incorporates substantial additions and changes to following 10 sections of the WFCR: 2.1.3.1 Cladding Degradation; 2.1.3.2 UO2 Oxidation in Fuel; 2.1.3.5 Dissolution Release from UO{sub 2}; 2.2.1.5 Fracture /Fragmentation Studies of Glass; 2.2.2.2 Dissolution Radionuclide Release from Glass; 2.2.2.3 Soluble-Precipitated/Colloidal Species from Glass; 3.2.2 Spent-Fuel Oxidation Models; 3.4.2 Spent-Fuel Dissolution Models; 3.5.1 Glass Dissolution Experimental Parameters; and 3.5.2 Glass Dissolution Models.

  8. HANSF 1.3 user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PLYS, M.G.

    1999-05-21

    The HANSF analysis tool is an integrated model considering phenomena inside a multi-canister overpack (MCO) spent nuclear fuel container such as fuel oxidation, convective and radiative heat transfer, and the potential for fission product release. It may be used for all phases of spent fuel disposition including cold vacuum drying, transportation, and storage. This manual reflects HANSF version 1.3, a revised version of version 1.2a. HANSF 1.3 was written to add new models for axial nodalization, add new features for ease of usage, and correct errors. HANSF 1.3 is intended for use on personal computers such as IBM-compatible machines with Intel processors running under a DOS-type operating system. HANSF 1.3 is known to compile under Lahey TI and Digital Visual FORTRAN, Version 6.0, but this does not preclude operation in other environments.

  9. Heterotic $D=2 (1/3, 0)$ Susy Models

    CERN Document Server

    Sedra, M B

    2009-01-01

    Following our previous work on fractional spin symmetries (FSS) \\cite{2, 4}, we build here a superspace representation of the heterotic $D=2(1/3,0)$ superalgebra and derive a field theoretical model invariant under this symmetry.

  10. Eesti Post investeerib Kasahstani 1,3 miljonit / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Post investeerib tütarettevõtte Eesti Elektronpost vahendusel Kasahstani postiturule 1,3 miljonit krooni, et pakkuda koostöös sealse riikliku postifirmaga digitaalselt saadetud andmete printimise ning adressaatidele saatmise kompleksteenust

  11. Debottlenecking the 1,3-propanediol pathway by metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celińska, E

    2010-01-01

    The history of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) conversion from being a specialty chemical to being a bulk chemical illustrates that the concerted effort of different metabolic engineering approaches brings the most successful results. In order to metabolically tailor the 1,3-PD production pathway multiple strategies have been pursued. Knocking-out genes responsible for by-products formation, intergeneric transfer and overexpression of the genes directly involved in the pathway, manipulation with internal redox balance, introduction of a synthetic flux control point, and modification of the substrate mechanism of transport are some of the strategies applied. The metabolic engineering of the microbial 1,3-PD production exploits both native producers and microorganisms with acquired ability to produce the diol via genetic manipulations. Combination of the appropriate genes from homologous and heterologous hosts is expected to bring a desired objective of production of 1,3-PD cheaply, efficiently and independently from non-renewable resources. The state-of-the-art of the 1,3-PD pathway metabolic engineering is reviewed in this paper.

  12. Transducción de señales generadas a partir del receptor antigénico de los linfocitos T Transduction of signal generated from the antigenic receptor of T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Julio Montoya Guarín

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A diferencia de lo observado para los linfocitos B, que reconocen antígenos libres en forma nativa, los linfocitos T han evolucionado para reconocer pequeños péptidos antigénicos presentados por moléculas de histocompatibilidad en la superficie de células presentadoras especializadas o de células diana. Para ello los linfocitos T maduros cuentan con un grupo de proteínas de membrana que en conjunto se denominan complejo TCR. Este grupo de cadenas polipeptídicas se expresan en la membrana de los linfocitos T y cumplen una función doble: reconocer los fragmentos antigénicos presentados por las moléculas de histocompatibilidad y transmitir las señales de ese reconocimiento al interior del linfocito. Las consecuencias de esta señalización pueden variar desde la activación funcional hasta la anergia o la apoptosis. Gracias a una intensa investigación en esta área, en los últimos años se han revelado muchas de las proteínas involucradas en la transducción de señales en los linfocitos T y sus mecanismos de acción. En esta revisión se examinan los modelos que explican la dinámica de la ligación del TCR, las principales vías de transducción de señales, los agentes farmacológicos que han permitido su estudio y dos modelos de enfermedades humanas que presentan entre sus mecanismos fisiopatológicos alteraciones en las vías de señalización a través del TCR. T lymphocytes, in contrast to B lymphocytes which bind free antigens in a native form, recognize little antigenic peptides displayed on histocompatibility molecules in the surface of specialized or target cells. For this, mature T lymphocytes have a group of membrane proteins that together are named TCR complex. This group of polypeptide chains expresses in the membrane and has a double function: to recognize the antigenic fragments bound to histocompatibility molecules and to transmit signals arisen from the recognition to the inner of the lymphocyte. The consequences

  13. Preparation and characterization of 18650 Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2/graphite high power batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan-Bing; Tang, Zhi-Yuan; Song, Quan-Sheng; Xie, Hui; Yang, Quan-Hong; Liu, Yuan-Gang; Ling, Guo-Wei

    The commercial 18650 Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2/graphite high power batteries were prepared and their electrochemical performance at temperatures of 25 and 50 °C was extensively investigated. The results showed that the charge-transfer resistance (R ct) and solid electrolyte interface resistance (R sei) of the high power batteries at 25 °C decreased as states of charge (SOC) increased from 0 to 60%, whereas R ct and R sei increased as SOC increased from 60 to 100%. The discharge plateau voltage of batteries reduced greatly with the increase in discharge rate at both 25 and 50 °C. The high power batteries could be discharged at a very wide current range to deliver most of their capacity and also showed excellent power cycling performance with discharge rate of as high as 10 C at 25 °C. The elevated working temperature did not influence the battery discharge capacity and cycling performance at lower discharge rates (e.g. 0.5, 1, and 5 C), while it resulted in lower discharge capacity at higher discharge rates (e.g. 10 and 15 C) and bad cycling performance at discharge rate of 10 C. The batteries also exhibited excellent cycle performance at charge rate of as high as 8 C and discharge rate of 10 C.

  14. Impact of morphological changes of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 on lithium-ion cathode performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Etienne, Cabelguen; David, Peralta; Mikael, Cugnet; Pascal, Maillet

    2017-04-01

    Major advances in Li-ion battery technology rely on the nanostructuration of active materials to overcome the severe kinetics limitations of new - cheaper and safer - chemistries. However, opening porosities results in the decrease of volumetric performances, closing the door to significant applications such as portable electronics, electromobility, and grid storage. In this study, we analyze the link between morphologies and performances of model LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 materials. By quantifying exhaustively their microstructures using nitrogen adsorption, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and helium pycnometry, we can discuss how porosities and surface areas are linked to the electrochemical behavior. There is no geometrical parameters that can predict the performances of all our materials. The shape of agglomeration dictates the electrochemical behavior. A huge drop in volumetric performances is measured when microstructure is considered. We show that gravimetric and volumetric power performances are contrary to each other. Highly dense materials exhibit, by far, the best power performances in terms of volumetric figures, so that opening porosities might not be the best strategy, even in non-nanosized materials, for Li-ion battery technology.

  15. Asymmetric One-Pot Synthesis of 1,3-Oxazolidines and 1,3-Oxazinanes via Hemiaminal Intermediates

    OpenAIRE

    Nimmagadda, Sri Krishna; Zhang, Zuhui; Antilla, Jon C.

    2014-01-01

    A highly efficient method for the enantioselective one-pot synthesis of 1,3-oxazolidines and 1,3-oxazinanes has been reported. The reaction proceeds via the formation of hemiaminal intermediates obtained by the enantioselective addition of respective alcohols to imines catalyzed by a chiral magnesium phosphate catalyst, followed by intramolecular cyclization under mildly basic conditions. A wide range of substrates have been converted to the respective chiral heterocyclic products in high yie...

  16. 合成温度对LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2结构和电化学性能的影响%Effects of temperature on structure and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙学义; 卢世刚; 张向军; 庄卫东

    2012-01-01

    采用高温固相法合成了层状LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2锂离子正极材料,研究了合成温度及合成时间对材料结构(包括Li-Ni阳离子混排)以及电化学性能的影响.实验结果表明975℃7h合成的样品具有最好的电化学性能,在0.1 C时2.5~4.3 V间,其首次充放电比容量分别为173.7、149 mAh/g,前10周容量保持95%.精修结果表明所得材料存在Li-Ni阳离子混排,Li层中有5%的位置被Ni所占据.%The layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3A, cathode material for Li-ion batteries was synthesized by high temperature solid-state method. The effects of temperature on the structure and electrochemical performances of LiNi1/3CO1/3Mn1/3O2 were investigated. The results show that the sample synthesized at 975 ℃ for 7 h exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. The initial charge specific capacity is 173.7 mAh/g and the initial discharge specific capacity is 149 mAh/g at a current density of 0.1 C between 2.5-4.3 V. The discharge capacity retention is 95% after 10 cycles. Rietveld analysis of the XRD pattern shows that there is Li-Ni cation mixing in the LiNi1/3CO1/3Mn1/3O2 and 5% sites in the Li plane occupied by Ni2+ ions.

  17. M1.3--a small scaffold for DNA origami .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Hassan; Schüller, Verena J; Eber, Fabian J; Wege, Christina; Liedl, Tim; Richert, Clemens

    2013-01-07

    The DNA origami method produces programmable nanoscale objects that form when one long scaffold strand hybridizes to numerous oligonucleotide staple strands. One scaffold strand is dominating the field: M13mp18, a bacteriophage-derived vector 7249 nucleotides in length. The full-length M13 is typically folded by using over 200 staple oligonucleotides. Here we report the convenient preparation of a 704 nt fragment dubbed "M1.3" as a linear or cyclic scaffold and the assembly of small origami structures with just 15-24 staple strands. A typical M1.3 origami is large enough to be visualized by TEM, but small enough to show a cooperativity in its assembly and thermal denaturation that is reminiscent of oligonucleotide duplexes. Due to its medium size, M1.3 origami with globally modified staples is affordable. As a proof of principle, two origami structures with globally 5'-capped staples were prepared and were shown to give higher UV-melting points than the corresponding assembly with unmodified DNA. M1.3 has the size of a gene, not a genome, and may function as a model for gene-based nanostructures. Small origami with M1.3 as a scaffold may serve as a workbench for chemical, physical, and biological experiments.

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE : A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachwani Mukesh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole is a highly privileged structure the derivatives of which exhibit a wide range of biological activities including antibacterial, antitubercular, vasodialatory, antifungal, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, hypolipidemic, anticancer and ulcerogenic activities. Resistance to number of antimicrobial agents among a variety of clinically significant species of bacteria is becoming increasingly important global problem. The search for new antimicrobial agents will consequently always remain as an important and challenging task for medicinal chemists. This Review has basic information about 1,3,4-oxadiazole and its antimicrobial activity work for further development in this field.

  19. 甘油合成1,3-丙二醇%Synthesis of 1,3-Propanediol from Glycerol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国辉; 孙全

    2011-01-01

    1,3-Propanediol was synthesized from glycerol by chloration,oxidation, Clemmensen reaction and hydrolysis. The structure of the target compound was determined by method of IR and MS. The molar ratio, temperature and solvent of the reaction were investigated to optimize the reaction conditions. The optimum conditions are: for chloration: 120 ℃; for oxidation: 23 ~ 27 ℃, n ( 1,3-dichloroacetone ): n ( sodium dichromate) = 1.8:1, the amount of reaction solvent: 1.4 g 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol per 1 mL water, and for Clemmensen reaction: n (1,3-dichloropropane): n ( zinc )= 1:1.2, with water as the desirable solvent, and the overall yield of 37. 1%.%以甘油为原料,经过氯代、氧化、克莱门森还原、水解4步反应,最终合成1,3-丙二醇,并用红外光谱仪和质谱仪对目标产物进行结构确定.从反应物摩尔比、反应温度、反应溶剂等优化了反应条件.最优反应条件为:氯代反应:温度120℃;氧化反应:温度23~27℃,,n(1,3-二氯-2-丙醇):n(重铬酸钠)=1.8:1,反应溶剂用量:1 mL水溶解1.4 g 1,3-二氯-2-丙醇;克莱门森还原反应:n(1,3-二氯丙酮):n(锌)=1:1.2,水作反应溶剂最佳,在该条件下,1,3-丙二醇总产率可达37.1%.

  20. SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF POLY-1,3,5-TRIAZINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yulan; LU Fengcai

    1984-01-01

    Two new polytriazines: poly[2-methyl-4, 6-(4,' 4"-diphenylene)-1, 3, 5-triazine] (Ⅰ) and poly[2-phenyl-4, 6-(4', 4"-diphenylene)-1, 3, 5-triazine] (Ⅱ) were synthesized from the solution condensation of biphenyl-4, 4'-diamidine dihydrochloride with acetic anhydride and biphenyl-4, 4'-diamidine with benzaldehyde respectively. These two polymers were characterized by TGA, DTA, elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. They exhibited good thermal oxidative stability as shown by the fact that the powders of these polymers suffered 5.4 %, 2.4 % weight loss after isothermal aging in air at 300℃ for 200 hours. The decomposition temperature of (Ⅱ) was 583℃ in air and 590℃ in N2. These linear poly-1, 3, 5-triazines were soluble in concentrated sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid and trifluoroacetic acid whereas the crosslinked poly-1, 3, 5-triazines reported in the literature were insoluble and infusible.It is interesting that these polymers can form complexes with metal halides as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The polymer metal complex (Ⅲ). PdCl2 possesses catalytic activity for hydrogenation.

  1. Functionalization of Graphene via 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintana, Mildred; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Grzelczak, Marek; Browne, Wesley R.; Rudolf, Petra; Prato, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Few-layer graphenes (FLG) produced by dispersion and exfoliation of graphite in N-methylpyrrolidone were successfully functionalized using the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides. The amino functional groups attached to graphene sheets were quantified by the Kaiser test. These amino group

  2. Synthesis of 1,3-Amino Alcohols, 1,3-Diols, Amines, and Carboxylic Acids from Terminal Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mingshuo; Herzon, Seth B

    2015-09-04

    The half-sandwich ruthenium complexes 1-3 activate terminal alkynes toward anti-Markovnikov hydration and reductive hydration under mild conditions. These reactions are believed to proceed via addition of water to metal vinylidene intermediates (4). The functionalization of propargylic alcohols by metal vinylidene pathways is challenging owing to decomposition of the starting material and catalytic intermediates. Here we show that catalyst 2 can be employed to convert propargylic alcohols to 1,3-diols in high yield and with retention of stereochemistry at the propargylic position. The method is also amenable to propargylic amine derivatives, thereby establishing a route to enantioenriched 1,3-amino alcohol products. We also report the development of formal anti-Markovnikov reductive amination and oxidative hydration reactions to access linear amines and carboxylic acids, respectively, from terminal alkynes. This chemistry expands the scope of products that can be prepared from terminal alkynes by practical and high-yielding metal-catalyzed methods.

  3. Vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, S.Y.; Lee, H.

    1999-12-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems were measured at 60, 160, 300, and 760 mmHg at temperatures ranging from 315 to 488 K. The apparatus used in this work is a modified still especially designed for the measurement of low-pressure VLE, in which both liquid and vapor are continuously recirculated. For the analysis of salt-containing solutions, a method incorporating refractometry and gravimetry was used. From the experimental measurements, the effect of lithium bromide on the VLE behavior of water + 1,3-propanediol was investigated. The experimental data of the salt-free system were successfully correlated using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models. In addition, the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. was applied to the VLE calculation of salt-containing mixtures.

  4. On the Research Status of Anode Material of Lithium Ion Battery like LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for Lithium-ion battery%锂离子电池正极材料LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2的研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晋; 廖莉玲

    2012-01-01

    本文综述了近几年来锂离子电池正极材料LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2的研究进展,重点讨论了LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2正极材料的结构,制备方法和改性研究状况。%The progress in recent research on cathode materiall LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 lithium -ion battery have been reviewed in this paper, the strueture, prepation methods and modification status of cathode matexial LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are discussed in detail.

  5. Immune response in mice immunized with acidic antigenic fractions from Trypanosoma cruzi cytosol Resposta imune em camundongos imunizados com a fração ácida antigênica do Citosol do Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Gea

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available The humoral and cellular immune responses as well as the resistance to infection with bloodstream forms of T. cruzi were studied in mice immunized with acidic antigenic fractions from parasite cytosol, F III and F IV, plus Bordetella pertussis as adjuvant. The immunization with F III induced positive ITH and DTH responses to homologous antigens. In mice immunized with F IV, the ITH was negative and four out of six animals presented positive DTH reactions. In both groups of mice the analysis of IgG aginst T. cruzi showed that the major isotype elicited was IgG1. Specific IgE was also detected in sera from F III immunized mice, thus confirming the presence of homocytothropic antibodies. The parasitemias reached by F III and F IV immunized mice after challenge were lower than those of the controls showing in this way a partial protection against the acute infection. The histological studies of heart and skeletal muscle performed two months after the infection revealed variable mononuclear infiltration in all infected mice despite immunization.As respostas humorais e celulares, assim como a resistência à infecção a formas sanguícolas do T. cruzi foram estudadas em camundongos imunizados com as frações antigênicas ácidas do Citosol parasitário, F III e F IV com Bordetella pertussis como adjuvante. A imunização com F III induziu respostas positivas ITH e DTH aos antígenos homólogos. Em camundongos imunizados com F IV o ITH foi negativo e quatro dos seis animais apresentaram reações DTH positivas. Em ambos os grupos de camundongos a análise de IgG contra T. cruzi mostrou que o principal isotipo produzido foi IgG1. IgE específico foi também detectado em soros de camundongos imunizados com F III, portanto confirmando a presença de anticorpos homocitotrópicos. As parasitemias atingidas pelos camundongos imunizados por F III e F IV após desafio foram mais baixas do que aquelas dos controles mostrando proteção parcial contra a infec

  6. 1/3 SUBHARMONIC SOLUTION OF ELLIPTICAL SANDWICH PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李银山; 张年梅; 杨桂通

    2003-01-01

    The problem of nonlinear forced oscillations for elliptical sandwich plates is dealtwith. Based on the governing equations expressed in terms of five displacement components,the nonlinear dynamic equation of an elliptical sandwich plate under a harmonic force isderived. A superpositive-iterative harmonic balance ( SIHB ) method is presented for thesteady-state analysis of strongly nonlinear oscillators. In a periodic oscillation, the periodicsolutions can be expressed in the form of basic harmonics and bifurcate harmonics. Thus,an oscillation system which is described as a second order ordinary differential equation,can be expressed as fundamental differential equation with fundamental harmonics andincremental differential equation with derived harmonics. The 1/3 subharnonic solution ofan elliptical sandwich plate is investigated by using the methods of SIHB. The SIHB methodis compared with the numerical integration method. Finally, asymptotical stability of the1/3 subharmonic oscillations is inspected.

  7. Synthesis of Spiroisoxazolines by 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ertl

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The cycloaddition of the chiral nitrile oxide 1 to 1-R-substituted 3,3-methylene-5,5-dimethyl-2-pyrrolidinones 2 (where R is H, n-butyl-, 1,1-dimethylethoxycarbonyl-, 1-methylethenyl- and acetyl- proceeds regioselectively under the formation of spiroisoxazolines, namely 7-R-substituted-6-oxo-8,8-dimethyl-1-oxa-2,7-diazaspiro[4,4]non-2-enes 5 and 6. The asymmetric induction expected by the a-chiral centre of the nitrile oxide 1 was not very effective, diastereoisomers 5 and 6 were formed in an approximate 50:50 ratio. The stereoselectivity of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of the arylnitrile oxide 7 with the chiral lactam 3 and the achiral lactone 4 are investigated. The attack of the 1,3-dipole occurred from the less hindered face of the dipolarophile 3 and 4, giving the major isomer 8 and 10, respectively.

  8. Simulations of EBS task force BMT 1.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lempinen, A. (Marintel Ky, Turku (Finland))

    2007-08-15

    The Aespoe HRL International Joint Committee has set up a Task Force on Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS). Its long time objective is to develop effective tools for analysis of THM(C) behaviour of buffer and backfill. The idea of the Task Force is to offer a forum to develop the tools of the work groups. Bench Mark Test (BMT) 1.3 was a small-scale heating test with no external water supply. The experiment was conducted by Technical University of Catalonia. It was a thermal-hydraulic-mechanical test, although only temperature was measured continuously. Simulation results are presented here. These simulations were performed with Freefem++ software, which is a high-level programming language for solving partial differential equations with finite element method. The mathematical model used is based on continuum thermodynamics. With the model improvements for BMT 1.3, also BMT 1.2 was recalculated. (orig.)

  9. Shock initiation of 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine (TNAZ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.L.; Urtiew, P.A.; Tarver, C.M.

    1995-07-19

    The shock sensitivity of the pressed solid explosive 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine (TNAZ) was determined using the embedded manganin pressure gauge technique. At an initial pressure of 1.3 GPa, pressure buildup (exothermic reaction) was observed after ten {mu}s. At 2 GPa, TNAZ reacted rapidly and transitioned to detonation in approximately 13 mm. At 3.6 GPa, detonation occurred in less than 6 mm of shock propagation. Thus, pure TNAZ is more shock sensitive than HMX-based explosives but less shock sensitive than PETN-based explosives. The shocked TNAZ exhibited little reaction directly behind the shock front, followed by an extremely rapid reaction. This reaction caused both a detonation wave and a retonation wave in the partially decomposed TNAZ. An Ignition and Growth reactive model for TNAZ was developed to help understand this complex initiation phenomenon.

  10. Regiodivergent and Stereoselective Hydrosilylation of 1,3-Disubstituted Allenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Zachary D; Dorel, Ruth; Montgomery, John

    2015-07-27

    Methods for the highly stereoselective and regiodivergent hydrosilylation of 1,3-disubstituted allenes have been developed. The synthesis of E allylsilanes is accomplished with palladium NHC catalysts, and trisubstituted Z alkenylsilanes are accessed with nickel NHC catalysts. Unsymmetrically substituted allenes are well tolerated with nickel catalysis and afford Z alkenylsilanes. Evidence for a plausible mechanism was obtained through an isotopic double-labeling crossover study.

  11. Thermal conversions of methy1-1,3-pentadienes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnaryuk, T.S.; Grigorovich, B.A.; Moskvin, A.F.; Pankov, A.G.; Rodionova, N.M.; Stepukhovich, A.D.; Yablonskii, O.P.

    1980-01-01

    Methylcyclopentadienes (40 mole%) and isoprene (30 mole%) appear as the principal products of cracking methylpentadienes at atmospheric pressure and 650-750/sup 0/ for a contact time of 0.06-1 s. The mechanism proposed for piperylene conversion qualitatively explains the composition of the products of cracking methyl-1,3-pentadienes, the consumption of which under the studied conditions is described by a rate equation for first order irreversible reactions.

  12. 2-Phenylimidazolium hemi(benzene-1,3-dicarboxylate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C9H9N2+·0.5C8H4O4−·H2O, contains one 2-phenylimidazolium cation, half a benzene-1,3-dicarboxylate anion and one water molecule. In the crystal, components are connected by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions into a three-dimensional network.

  13. Caveolin interaction governs Kv1.3 lipid raft targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Verdaguer, Mireia; Capera, Jesusa; Martínez-Mármol, Ramón; Camps, Marta; Comes, Núria; Tamkun, Michael M; Felipe, Antonio

    2016-03-02

    The spatial localization of ion channels at the cell surface is crucial for their functional role. Many channels localize in lipid raft microdomains, which are enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Caveolae, specific lipid rafts which concentrate caveolins, harbor signaling molecules and their targets becoming signaling platforms crucial in cell physiology. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in such spatial localization are under debate. Kv1.3 localizes in lipid rafts and participates in the immunological response. We sought to elucidate the mechanisms of Kv1.3 surface targeting, which govern leukocyte physiology. Kv1 channels share a putative caveolin-binding domain located at the intracellular N-terminal of the channel. This motif, lying close to the S1 transmembrane segment, is situated near the T1 tetramerization domain and the determinants involved in the Kvβ subunit association. The highly hydrophobic domain (FQRQVWLLF) interacts with caveolin 1 targeting Kv1.3 to caveolar rafts. However, subtle variations of this cluster, putative ancillary associations and different structural conformations can impair the caveolin recognition, thereby altering channel's spatial localization. Our results identify a caveolin-binding domain in Kv1 channels and highlight the mechanisms that govern the regulation of channel surface localization during cellular processes.

  14. Studies in Sulphonamides Part VII: Synthesis of 1,3 diary1 2 (substituted sulphonamidobenzeneazo propane 1, 3 diones and evaluation of their antibacterial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaya Kabra

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Different 1, 3-diarylpropane-1, 3-diones, 1-(P-nitropheny1 3-phenyI-, p-nitropheny1 3-(p-methyI-pheny1- 1,p-nitropheny1-3-(p-methoxypheny1-, and 1-(m-nitropheny-3- (p-methyIpheny1 propane 1, 3-diones have synthesised and coupled with a number a diazotised sulphonamide bases to yield the respective 1,3-diaryI-2-(substituted sulphonamidozeneazo propane. All these substituted sulphonamidobenzence propane-1,3- diones have been screened in vitro for their antibacterial properties using cup plate agar diffusion method and some of these have been found active.

  15. La revisión de los temas de la Antigüedad en la pintura de Historia Española del siglo XIX: Entre la evocación del pasado y la legitimación del poder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Álvarez Rodríguez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente se ha considerado la pintura de historia como la parcela más importante de las artes plásticas del siglo XIX. Tanto en el Neoclasicismo como en el Romanticismo, y hasta más adelante, en pleno Realismo, se convirtió en una especie de escaparate de los avances técnicos y compositivos que caracterizaron la evolución del arte de esta centuria, así como de sus presupuestos teóricos y el aliento estético de sus obras. Pero esta misma evolución también se percibió en los propios temas que se representaron. La Antigüedad, entendida como un modelo de virtud, tanto artística como política, presidió buena parte de las creaciones de nuestros pintores. La repetición de temas heroicoscomo la caída de Numancia y de Sagunto se convirtió en una constante, deviniendo en un hito en la Historia del Arte. Nos proponemos estudiar la incidencia que alcanzaron estas representaciones de la Antigüedad a nivel nacional, una muestra de cómo los artistas españoles supieron prestar su personalidad a un género pictórico que se suele considerar eminentemente europeo en cuanto a sus orígenes, evolución y características.

  16. 1,3-甘油二酯研究进展%Research Advances on 1,3-diglyceride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程波; 王春明; 宋延玲; 郭尚敬

    2010-01-01

    甘油二酯(DG)是一种健康食用油.近年来,1,3-甘油二酯(1,3-DG) 因其广泛用途日益受到人们的重视.甘油二酯是油脂的天然成分,同时也是一种多功能添加剂,在食品、医药、化工等行业有广阔的应用前景.评述了甘油二酯的制备、纯化方法和功能研究现状,对其应用情况作了介绍,展望了其开发前景.

  17. Problem Definition Study on 1,3-Dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene and Di-n-Propyl Adipate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    0211j: NO2 1102 1102 The electron withdrawing nitro groups enhance attack by nucleo- philes. In liquid ammonia , 1,3-dinitrobenzene forms a stable... spleen enlargement, As with methemoglobinemia, individual species (and individuals within species) vary in their susceptibility to agents producing Heinz...and circulatory systems, dark (chocolate) colored blood, enlarged liver and spleen and highly colored urine. The degree of the symptoms vary depernding

  18. GITT studies on oxide cathode LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized by citric acid assisted high-energy ball milling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Weidong Zheng; Miao Shui; Jie Shu; Shan Gao; Dan Xu; Liangliang Chen; Lin Feng; Yuanlong Ren

    2013-06-01

    Layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was synthesized by a citric acid assisted solid-state method. The structure and electrochemical properties of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 materials were investigated. XRD analysis indicated the as-synthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was with the layered -NaFeO2 structure. The discharge capacity was about 154 m.Ahg-1 at 0.1 °C rate in the range of 2.0–4.5 V. The kinetics of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 materials was investigated by the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) method. The lithium ion diffusion coefficient of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was determined in the range of 10-8−10-9 cm2.s-1 as a function of voltage of 3.7−4.5 V.

  19. The unified equation by the Proportion 19 (-1:3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinoo Cameron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As mankind is created in the image of a creator, the mathematical continuum is understandably connected, not by “Strings”, but by rational coordinates of mathematics. That is what this manuscript is all about; the rationalization of the natural expanse of mathematics and the stark reality of -1. The section on the mathematical PI (π clearly proves the -1 constriction of 4-1. Definition of the Unified Theorem: “The ascension and expansion of all space (and mass is curved, spiral and warped because of the -1 zero inverse primordial constriction of all space by -1. 4-(1 =+3. Bounded space is inverse at -1, a non-collapsible curve. The value of -1 is -1 for numbers and 0.5/60(1/120 for non-linear space. The minus 1 is manifested at proportion 19 as a composite of the of the values 9 and 10, both by numbers and prime angle (1:3. The proof of -1 is and has always been in the mathematical Pi (π, corrected trigonometry, and the spiral curved ascension of Prime numbers.” This proof is clearly stated under the section for the “mathematical Pi (π where the author has clearly proven -1 by theorem.” This manuscript has been preceded by several manuscripts on Prime numbers, -1 and Prime number 19 that show the unified mathematics as a consequence of a -1 Vedic zero, and the overall -1 ( 4-3 . As the treatise on the Unified Theorem, this is all written by simple theorem .This manuscript completely disregards current mathematical theory with regard to non- linear mathematics as irrelevant to mathematics. The clear assertion is that the -1 Vedic zeros is the correct zero, but that the current null zero is in error. The inverse curved value off-set of -1 is the value that precedes the +1 value, and it is clearly stated by this author that mathematically a curve cannot ever be collapsed to null. There is no logical compromise in this regard. Essentially and mathematically the author validates the primordial -1, and the absolute primordial value of

  20. 2-(1,3-Benzothiazol-2-ylsulfanyl-1-phenylethanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Loghmani-Khouzani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the molecule of the title compound, C15H11NOS2, the 1,3-benzothiazole ring is oriented at a dihedral angle of 6.61 (6° with respect to the phenyl ring. In the crystal structure, intermolecular C—H...O interactions link the molecules in a herring-bone arrangement along the b axis and π–π contacts between the thiazole and phenyl rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.851 (1 Å] may further stabilize the structure.

  1. Simplicius on Aristotle on the heavens 1-3-4

    CERN Document Server

    Simplicius

    2013-01-01

    This is the first English translation of Simplicius responses to Philoponus Against Aristotle on the Eternity of the World. The commentary is published in two volumes: Ian Muellers previous book in the series, Simplicius: On Aristotle On the Heavens 1.2-3, and this book on 1.3-4. Philoponus, the Christian, had argued that Aristotles arguments do not succeed. For all they show to the contrary, Christianity may be right that the heavens were brought into existence by the only divine being and one moment in time, and will cease to exist at some future moment. Simplicius upholds the pagan view tha

  2. Lateral resonances in initial stressed 1-3 piezocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-yan; SHEN Ya-peng; YIN Guan-sheng

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the lateral resonances in 1-3 piezocomposites with poling initial stress is conducted using the Bloch wave theory. Based on the linear piezoelectricity theory, theoretical formulations that include initial stress for the propagation of acoustic plane waves are made. Numerical calculations are performed to study the effects of the initial stress on the lateral mode frequencies and the stop band. It is found that lateral mode frequencies increase with the piezoelectricity of the piezocomposites,but decrease with the poling initial stress. The influence of the initial shear stress on the lateral mode frequencies is minimal, and can thus be neglected.

  3. 2-Methyl-1,3-benzoxazol-4-yl diphenylphosphinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewald J. Kleinhans

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C20H16NO3P, was synthesized by the addition of diphenylphosphine chloride to a tetrahydrofuran solution of Et3N and 2-methyl-1,3-benzoxazol-4-ol at 233 K. In the molecule, the almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.010 Å benzoxazole moiety is attached to the slightly distorted tetrahedral P atom [C—P—C—C torsion angle = 132.20 (18°]. The crystal structure does not exhibit any significant intermolecular interactions.

  4. Polymers Containing 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole Rings for Advanced Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Dana Damaceanu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the synthesis, properties and potential applications of new polymers containing 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole rings, tacking into account the requirements of the modern technologies. Two classes of polymers containing oxadiazole rings were approached: polyamides and polyimides. All the polymers were characterized with respect to the identification of their chemical structure, solubility, molecular weights, film forming ability, thermal, dielectric and optical properties, and the behaviour of polyoxadiazole films upon irradiation with pulsed KrF laser. All the properties were discussed in correlation with their chemical structure and compared with those of related polymers.

  5. Diazidobis(propane-1,3-diaminecopper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Ullah Khan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Cu(N32(C3H10N22], the CuII ion resides on a centre of symmetry and is in a Jahn–Teller distorted octahedral coordination environment comprising two N atoms from azide anions in axial positions and four N atoms from propane-1,3-diamine (tn ligands in equatorial positions. Intermolecular N—H...N hydrogen bonds produce R21(6, R22(8, R22(12 and R42(8 rings, generating a two-dimensional layer.

  6. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of 1,3,5-Trisubstituted- 1,3,5-hexahydrotriazine-2-N-nitroimines%Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of 1,3,5-Trisubstituted- 1,3,5-hexahydrotriazine-2-N-nitroimines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛思佳; 马旭波; 步洪飞; 刘丽; 许效

    2011-01-01

    A new series of 1,3,5-trisubstituted-l,3,5-hexahydrotriazine-2-N-nitroimines (3a--3j) were designed and synthesized as novel neonicotinoid analogues, and their structures were characterized by 1H NMR, IR, elemental analysis and MS. The preliminary bioassay tests showed that most of the target compounds had good insecticidal activities against Nilaparvata lugens as well as Aphis medicaginis at 500 mg/L, while compound 3i had 100% mortality against Nilaparvata lugens at 20 mg/L.

  7. Efficient plasma-enhanced method for layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathodes with sulfur atom-scale modification for superior-performance Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qianqian; Chen, Ning; Liu, Dongdong; Wang, Shuangyin; Zhang, Han

    2016-06-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as a lithium insertion positive electrode material, atom-scale modification was realized to obtain the layered oxysulfide LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx using a novel plasma-enhanced doping strategy. The structure and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx are investigated systematically, which confirms that the S doping can make the structure stable and benefit the electrochemical performance. The phys-chemical characterizations indicate that oxygen atoms in the initial LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 have been partially replaced by S atoms. It should be pointed out that the atom-scale modification does not significantly alter the intrinsic structure of the cathode. Compared to the pristine material, the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx shows a superior performance with a higher capacity (200.4 mA h g(-1)) and a significantly improved cycling stability (maintaining 94.46% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles). Moreover, it has an excellent rate performance especially at elevated performance, which is probably due to the faster Li(+) transportation after S doping into the layered structure. All the results show that the atom-scale modification with sulfur atoms on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, which significantly improved the electrochemical performance, offers a novel anionic doping strategy to realize the atom-scale modification of electrode materials to improve their electrochemical performance.

  8. Bis(propane-1,3-diaminedisaccharinatonickel(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Kaştaş

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Ni(C7H4NO3S2(C3H10N22] or [Ni(sac2(pen2] (sac = saccharinate or 1,1,3-trioxo-2,3-dihydro-1λ6,2-benzothiazol-2-ide and pen = propane-1,3-diamine, the NiII ion sits on an inversion center, being coordinated by two N atoms of the sac ligands, which occupy trans positions, and four N atoms of the bidentate pen ligands to define a distorted octahedral geometry. The pen ligands chelate the metal ion, forming a six-membered ring which adopts a half-chair conformation, while the sac ligands adopt the most common coordination mode. The crystal packing is stabilized by N—H...O hydrogen bonds, which form a one-dimensional network along [010]. It is also supported by an N—H...S hydrogen bond between the amine group of the pen ligand and the sulfonyl group of the sac ligand.

  9. Microwave assisted solvent free synthesis of 1,3-diphenylpropenones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Jadab C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 1,3-Diphenylpropenones (chalcones are well known for their diverse array of bioactivities. Hydroxyl group substituted chalcones are the main precursor in the synthesis of flavonoids. Till date various methods have been developed for the synthesis of these very interesting molecules. Continuing our efforts for the development of simple, eco-friendly and cost-effective methodologies, we report here a solvent free condensation of aryl ketones and aldehydes using iodine impregnated alumina under microwave activation. This new protocol has been applied to a variety of substituted aryl carbonyls with excellent yield of substituted 1,3-diphenylpropenones. Results Differently substituted chalcones were synthesized using iodine impregnated neutral alumina as catalyst in 79-95% yield in less than 2 minutes time under microwave activation without using any solvent. The reaction was studied under different catalytic conditions and it was found that molecular iodine supported over neutral alumina gives the best yield. The otherwise difficult single step condensation of hydroxy substituted aryl carbonyls is an attractive feature of this protocol to obtain polyhydroxychalcones in excellent yields. In order to find out the general applicability of this new endeavor it was successfully applied for the synthesis of 15 different chalcones including highly bioactive prenylated hydroxychalcone xanthohumol. Conclusion A new, simple and solvent free method was developed for the synthesis of substituted chalcones in environmentally benign way. The mild reaction conditions, easy work-up, clean reaction profiles render this approach as an interesting alternative to the existing methods.

  10. Bis[2-(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-ylethyl] phthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C28H20N2O8, was synthesized by the reaction of isobenzofuran-1,3-dione and 2-aminoethanol in a one-pot reaction. The benzene and five-membered rings are slightly twisted to each other, making dihedral angles of 2.77 (9 and 1.77 (10°. The rings of the phthalimide groups make dihedral angle of 57.64 (7 and 83.46 (7° with the central benzene ring. Weak C—H...O, C—H...π and π–π [centroid–centroid distance = 3.446 (1 and 3.599 (1 Å] interactions reinforce the cohesion of the crystal.

  11. Dimethyl 3-acetyl-3-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylpentanedioate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Izaaryene

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H17NO5S, was one of two condensation products from the reaction of 1-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylpropan-2-one with methyl chloroacetate. The non-H atoms in each of the four substituent groups on the central quaternary C atom are virtually coplanar. The maximum deviations from the least-squares planes are 0.015 (2 and 0.020 (2 Å for the methyl C atoms in the methyl acetate substituents and 0.033 (1 Å for the linked C atom of the benzothiazole substituent. The S, C and N atoms in the thiazole ring of the benzothiazole substituent lie −0.037 (2, 0.046 (2 and −0.028 (2 Å, respectively, from the mean plane defined by the benzene ring atoms.

  12. Oxidation of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine by hypochlorite ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheidorov, V. P.; Ershov, Yu. A.; Chalyi, G. Yu.; Titorovich, O. V.

    2011-08-01

    The kinetics of the oxidative conversion of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine upon treatment with hypochlorite ions (OCl-) in aqueous medium at 283-298 K and pH 8.2 was studied. The reaction order with respect to each component was determined and proved to be 1. It was established that the temperature dependence of the reaction rate follows the Arrhenius equation. The activation parameters of the reaction were measured: E a = 33.58 kJ/mol, Δ H ≠ = 31.12 kJ/mol, Δ S ≠ = -170.02 J/(K mol), Δ G ≠ = 81.45 kJ/mol. The stoichiometry of the reaction was studied, and the chemistry of the oxidative conversion of caffeine treated with OCl- is discussed.

  13. METAL COMPLEXES OF HETEROCYCLIC UNSATURATED 1, 3- DIKETONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Krishnakumar*and Mathew Paul

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present investigation is mainly on the synthesis, characterization and anti-microbial screening of certain new curcuminoid analogues containing imidazole, pyrrole and thiophene rings and their metal complexes. The ability of such heterocyclic β-dicarbonyl compounds and their metal ions to influence many of complex reaction upon which the vital processes of micro-organisms depends is the motivation behind the work. A series of 5- hetero aryl-1-phenyl-4-pentene-1,3-diones(1a-c and their Cu (II, Ni (II complexes of ML2 stoichiometry were synthesized and characterized by UV, IR, mass and 1H NMR spectroscopies. Analytical and spectral data suggest neutral bidentate coordination for unsaturated diketone with metals. Anti-microbial screening was carried out by using Kirby-Bauer disc plate method. All the ligands and their metal complexes showed significant anti-microbial action. Further complexation; seem to augment the antimicrobial activity of the compounds.

  14. 2-(1,3-Benzoxazol-2-yl-1-phenylethenyl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Ghorbani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecule, C22H15NO3, the configuration about the ethylenic double bond is Z configuration and it is approximately coplanar with the adjacent phenyl ring and benzoxazole ring system as indicated by the C(H=C(O—Cphenyl—Cphenyl and Obenzoxazole—C—C(H=C(O torsion angles of 179.88 (15 and 5.7 (2°, respectively. The dihedral angle between the essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.080 Å 2-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl-1-phenylethenyl group and the benzoate phenyl ring is 61.51 (6°. A short intramolecular O...O non-bonded interaction of 2.651 (2 Å is present.

  15. Preparation and Properties of 1, 3, 5, 7-Tetranitro-1, 3, 5, 7-Tetrazocane-based Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Shi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new insensitive explosive based on octahydro-1, 3, 5, 7-tetranitro-1, 3, 5, 7-tetrazocine (HMX was prepared by spray drying using Viton A as a binder. The HMX sample without binder (HMX-1 was obtained by the same spray drying process also. The samples were characterised by Scanning Electron Microscope, and X-ray diffraction. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry and the impact sensitivity of HMX-1 and nanocomposites were also being tested. The nanocomposite morphology was found to be microspherical (1 μm to 7 μm diameter and composed of many tiny particles, 100 nm to 200 nm in size. The crystal type of HMX-1 and HMX/Viton A agrees with raw HMX. The activation energy of raw HMX, HMX-1 and HMX/Viton A is 523.16 kJ mol-1, 435.74 kJ mol-1 and 482.72 kJ mol-1, respectively. The self-ignition temperatures of raw HMX, HMX-1 and HMX/Viton A is 279.01 °C, 277.63 °C, and 279.34 °C, respectively. The impact sensitivity order of samples is HMX/Viton A < HMX-1 < raw HMX from low to high.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 2, March 2015, pp.131-134, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.7843

  16. Dissociative Electron Attachment to the Nitroamine HMX (Octahydro-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine)

    CERN Document Server

    Postler, J; Matias, C; Mauracher, A; da Silva, F Ferreira; Scheier, P; Limão-Vieira, P; Denifl, S

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, dissociative electron attachment (DEA) measurements with gas phase HMX, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, $C_4H_8N_8O_8$, have been performed by means of a crossed electron-molecular beam experiment. The most intense signals are observed at 46 and 176u and assigned to $NO_{2}^{-}$ and $C_3H_6N_5O_{4}^{-}$, respectively. Anion efficiency curves for 15 negatively charged fragments have been measured in the electron energy region from about 0-20 eV with an energy resolution of ~0.7 eV. Product anions are observed mainly in the low energy region, near 0 eV, arising from surprisingly complex reactions associated with multiple bond cleavages and structural and electronic rearrangement. The remarkable instability of HMX towards electron attachment with virtually zero kinetic energy reflects the highly explosive nature of this compound. Substantially different intensity ratios of resonances for common fragment anions allow distinguishing the nitroamines HMX and royal demolition e...

  17. ALMA 1.3 mm observations of the Fomalhaut System

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jacob; Boley, Aaron C.; Ford, Eric B.; Payne, Matthew John; Dent, William; Corder, Stuartt

    2016-10-01

    We present ALMA Band 6 (1.3 mm) observations of Fomalhaut and its debris disk. Since the system is relatively close at 7.7 pc, it has been the target of numerous studies at multiple wavelengths, and can serve as a testbed for debris disk evolution models and planet-disk interactions. Outstanding issues that need to be resolved to properly characterize the debris include tightening constraints on the spectral index in the submm/mm regime and determining whether there is indeed excess over the stellar emission, indicating the presence of an inner debris disk or ring.These ALMA 1.3 mm observations provide the highest resolution observations to date of the mm grains the outer ring. Tight constraints are placed on the geometry of the disk and on the mm-wavelength spectral index. We explore fitting the debris disk model in the image plane in addition to the standard method of fitting the visibilities. The results are compared and potential advantages/disadvantages of each approach are discussed.The central emission detected is indistinguishable from a point source, with 0.89 mJy being the best fit flux of the host star for Fomalhaut itself. This implies that any inner debris component must contribute little to the total central emission. Moreover, the stellar flux is less than 70% of that predicted by extrapolating a blackbody from the constrained photosphere temperature and just over 70% of the flux if extrapolating from the far infrared. This behavior is similar to that seen in the Sun for submm/mm wavelengths, but even more pronounced. Currently, insufficient data exists to properly constrain the degree to which stellar atmospheres affect the observed flux in the submm/mm regime. This result is part of an ongoing larger project focused on measuring the emission from stellar atmospheres at submm/mm wavelengths, which directly impacts inferred excesses for debris disk studies.

  18. Electrochemical performance and 7Li NMR studies on an inverse spinel LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, George Ting-Kuo; Muralidharan, P.; Cho, Yung-Da; Chang, Pai-Ching; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    A new inverse spinel LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 cathode material was synthesized through a citric acid assisted polyethylene glycol (CA:PEG; 3:1, 3:0.5 and 3:0) polymeric method, followed by calcination at 723 K for 5 h in air. The synthesized compound was characterized by TG/DTGA, XRD, FTIR, TEM, and 7Li NMR techniques. TG/DTGA curves showed that the formation of LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 occurred between 523 and 673 K and the phase pure crystalline formed at 723 K, as also confirmed by XRD analysis which showed that the crystalline phase peaks formed when heated at 723 K for 5 h in air. TEM images revealed that nanosized particles ranged ∼170-190 nm. FTIR spectra showed that all organic residues were removed and LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 formed. The 7Li MAS NMR spectrum of the LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 sample revealed that the paramagnetic effect is small and small side band manifolds were observed. The galvanostatic cycling study suggests that the cycle stability and capacity retention were enhanced for LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 prepared with a CA:PEG molar ratio of 3:1 when it was cycled between 2.8 and 4.9 V (versus Li) at a 0.15 C rate. The electrochemical impedance behavior suggested that a passive layer was formed on the surface of the cathode materials during continuous cycling.

  19. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbon Coatings on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for Li-Ion Battery Composite Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, M.M.; Kostecki, R.; Marcinek, M.; Wilcoc, J.D.

    2008-12-10

    In this paper, we report results of a novel synthesis method of thin film conductive carbon coatings on LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} cathode active material powders for lithium-ion batteries. Thin layers of graphitic carbon were produced from a solid organic precursor, anthracene, by a one-step microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method. The structure and morphology of the carbon coatings were examined using SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The composite LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} electrodes were electrochemically tested in lithium half coin cells. The composite cathodes made of the carbon-coated LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} powder showed superior electrochemical performance and increased capacity compared to standard composite LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} electrodes.

  20. Crystal structure of 4,4-dibromo-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-2-azabuta-1,3-diene-1-carbonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Chaabene

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H10Br2N2O2, represents an example of a planar π-conjugated 2-azabutadiene molecule, which is both an interesting starting material for further organic transformations and a potential ligand in organometallic coordination chemistry. Its metric molecular parameters are typical for the family of 2-azabuta-1,3-dienes not substituted at the (CH 3-position. In the crystal, the almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0658 Å azadiene molecules form one-dimensional double-wide ribbons through intermolecular halogen bonds (C—Br...O and C—Br...Br—C, which then stack in a slipped manner through weak C—H...Br and π–π interactions to generate a three-dimensional network.

  1. Asymmetrical reaction pathways for thermal and photocyclization of 1,3,5-hexatriene to 1,3-cyclohexadiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichko, V.A.; Simkin, B.Ya.; Minkin, V.I.

    1987-08-01

    The theory of conservation of orbital symmetry in concerted reactions, outlined by Woodward and Hoffman, plays the dominant role in the prediction of the stereospecificity of these reactions both in the ground state and in excited states. Despite the importance of this theory with regard to preference for the conrotatory or dysrotatory pathway of cyclization, quantum chemical calculations of the critical portions of the potential energy surface of the ground and excited states become necessary in understanding the detailed mechanism of both thermal and photochemical transformations. The authors use these calculations to find, in the absence of symmetry, the potential energy surfaces of these states for 1,3,5-hexatriene and analyze the allowed and forbidden reaction pathways in its cyclization.

  2. Theoretical studies of excited state 1,3 dipolar cycloadditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belluccci, Michael A.

    The 1,3 dipolar photocycloaddition reaction between 3-hydroxy-4',5,7-trimethoxyflavone (3-HTMF) and methyl cinnamate is investigated in this work. Since its inception in 2004 [JACS, 124, 13260 (2004)], this reaction remains at the forefront in the synthetic design of the rocaglamide natural products. The reaction is multi-faceted in that it involves multiple excited states and is contingent upon excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in 3-HTMF. Given the complexity of the reaction, there remain many questions regarding the underlying mechanism. Consequently, throughout this work we investigate the mechanism of the reaction along with a number of other properties that directly influence it. To investigate the photocycloaddition reaction, we began by studying the effects of different solvent environments on the ESIPT reaction in 3-hydroxyflavone since this underlying reaction is sensitive to the solvent environment and directly influences the cycloaddition. To study the ESIPT reaction, we developed a parallel multi-level genetic program to fit accurate empirical valence bond (EVB) potentials to ab initio data. We found that simulations with our EVB potentials accurately reproduced experimentally determined reaction rates, fluorescence spectra, and vibrational frequency spectra in all solvents. Furthermore, we found that the ultrafast ESIPT process results from a combination of ballistic transfer and intramolecular vibrational redistribution. To investigate the cycloaddition reaction mechanism, we utilized the string method to obtain minimum energy paths on the ab initio potential. These calculations demonstrated that the reaction can proceed through formation of an exciplex in the S1 state, followed by a non-adiabatic transition to the ground state. In addition, we investigated the enantioselective catalysis of the reaction using alpha,alpha,alpha',alpha'-tetraaryl-1,3-dioxolan-4,5-dimethanol alcohol (TADDOL). We found that TADDOL lowered the energy

  3. Reviews on the synthesis method of layered Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 as cathode material for lithium ion batteries%层状Li[Ni1/3CO1/3Mn1/3] O2锂离子电池正极材料制备方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽; 邓超; 孙言虹; 尚雨

    2011-01-01

    层状结构Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2是目前国内外锂电池正极材料的研究热点.制备这种三元系材料的方法是热点中的重点.本文主要综述了不同的制备方法以及这些方法的简单对比,并探讨了Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2的应用前景.%Layered structure of Li [Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 at home and abroad is the research hotspot of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. Preparation of this three yuan of material is key hot in the. This paper mainly reviews the different preparation method and the method of simple comparison, and to explore the Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 application prospect.

  4. A 1.3 cm Line Survey toward Orion KL

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Y; Thorwirth, S; Spezzano, S; Menten, K M; Walmsley, C M; Wyrowski, F; Mao, R Q; Klein, B

    2015-01-01

    Orion KL has served as a benchmark for spectral line searches throughout the (sub)millimeter regime. The main goal is to systematically study spectral characteristics of Orion KL in the 1.3 cm band. We carried out a spectral line survey (17.9 GHz to 26.2 GHz) with the Effelsberg-100 m telescope towards Orion KL. We find 261 spectral lines, yielding an average line density of about 32 spectral features per GHz above 3$\\sigma$. The identified lines include 164 radio recombination lines (RRLs) and 97 molecular lines. A total of 23 molecular transitions from species known to exist in Orion KL are detected for the first time in the interstellar medium. Non-metastable 15NH3 transitions are detected in Orion KL for the first time. Based on the velocity information of detected lines and the ALMA images, the spatial origins of molecular emission are constrained and discussed. A narrow feature is found in SO2 ($8_{1,7}-7_{2,6}$), possibly suggesting the presence of a maser line. Column densities and fractional abundanc...

  5. Centrifugal barrel polishing of 1.3 GHz Nb cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamashevich, Yegor; Foster, Brian [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany); Navitski, Aliaksandr; Steder, Lea; Elsen, Eckhard [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities are the key components of particle accelerators such as the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL, under construction) and the planned future International Linear Collider (ILC). Steady progress in surface treatment techniques of SRF cavities in both the achievable quality factor Q and the accelerating electric field Eacc makes new accelerators and ambitious projects feasible. One of the alternative surface preparation techniques which is actually being explored is centrifugal barrel polishing (CBP) pioneered at KEK in Japan in mid-nineties by T. Hiuchi et al. CBP is a mechanical polishing of cavities and results in around 10 x smaller surface roughness and mirror-like surface as compared to chemistry alone. Q and E{sub acc} are expected to be at least as high as for chemically treated cavities. CBP eliminates the bulk chemistry and has the potential to completely replace the chemistry. The University of Hamburg is installing a CBP machine to study it as a cavity preparation and repair technique for 9-cell 1.3 GHz SRF cavities at the Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY). The setup and first commissioning tests will be presented and discussed.

  6. Transport of DESY 1.3 GHZ Cryomodule at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, M.W.; Arkan, T.; Borissov, E.; Leibfritz, J.; Schappert, W.; /Fermilab; Barbanotti, S.; /LASA, Segrate /INFN, Milan

    2009-05-01

    In an exchange of technology agreement, Deutsches Elektron-Synchrotron (DESY) Laboratory in Hamburg Germany has provided a 1.3 GHz cryomodule 'kit' to Fermilab. The cryomodule components (qualified dressed cavities, cold mass parts, vacuum vessel, etc.) sent from Germany in pieces were assembled at Fermilab's Cryomodule Assembly Facility (CAF). The cavity string was assembled at CAF-MP9 Class 10 cleanroom and then transported to CAF-ICB cold mass assembly area via a flatbed air ride truck. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) studies were implemented to define location of instrumentation for initial cold mass transport, providing modal frequencies and shapes. Subsequently, the fully assembled cryomodule was transported to the SRF Accelerator Test Facility at New Muon Lab (NML). Internal geophones (velocity sensors) were attached during the coldmass assembly for transport (warm) and operational (cold) measurements. A description of the isolation system that maintained alignment during transport and protected fragile components is provided. Shock and vibration measurement results of each transport and modal analysis are discussed.

  7. Photoluminescence of 1,3-dimethyl pyrazoloquinoline derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koscien, E. [1st Liceum, Sobieskiego 22, 42-700 Lubliniec (Poland); Gondek, E.; Pokladko, M. [Institute of Physics, Technical University of Krakow, Podhorazych 1, 30-084 Krakow (Poland); Jarosz, B. [Department of Chemistry, Hugon Kollotaj Agricultural University, Al. Mickiewicza 24/28, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Vlokh, R.O. [Institute of Physical Optics, Dragomanova 23, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Kityk, A.V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 17, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland)], E-mail: kityk@ap.univie.ac.at

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents absorption and photoluminescence of 6-F, 6-Br, 6-Cl, 7-TFM and 6-COOEt derivatives of 1,3-dimethyl-1H-Pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline (DMPQ). The measured absorption and emission spectra are compared with the quantum chemical calculations performed by means of the semi-empirical methods (AM1 or PM3) that are applied either to the equilibrium conformations in vacuo (T = 0 K) or combined with the molecular dynamics simulations (T = 300 K). The spectra calculated by the AM1 method appear to be for all dyes in practically excellent agreement with the measured ones. In particular, the position of the first absorption band is obtained with the accuracy up to a few nanometers, whereas the calculated photoluminescence spectra predict the positions of the emission maxima for a gas phase with the accuracy up to 10-18 nm. The photoemission spectra of DMPQ dyes are considerably less solvatochromic comparing to phenyl-containing pyrazoloquinoline derivatives. According to the quantum chemical analysis the reason for such behaviour lies in a local character of the electronic transitions of DMPQ dyes which are characterized by a relatively small difference between the excited state and ground state dipole moments. Importantly that the rotational dynamics of both methyl subunits does not change this situation.

  8. Species differences in metabolism of 1,3-butadiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F.

    1995-02-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a 4-carbon gaseous compound with two double bonds. Used in high tonnage to make styrene-butadiene polymers in the rubber industry. Because of large amounts in use, BD was tested for toxicity in 2-year inhalation exposures of both Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F{sub 1} mice. The results of the two-species studies were dramatically different. In the initial study in mice, BD was shown to be a potent multiple-site carcinogen at exposure levels of 625 and 1250 ppM. There were increased incidences of neoplasia in the heart, lung, mammary gland, and ovary; malignant lymphomas resulted in early deaths of the mice so that the planned 2-year study was stopped after only 61 weeks of exposure. The second study in mice was conducted at much lower exposure concentrations (6.25, 20, 62.5, 200, and 625 ppM) and lasted 104 weeks. Increased incidences of hemangiosarcomas of the heart and lung neoplasia were observed in males exposed to 62.5 ppM BD, while females had increased lung neoplasia even at the 6.25 ppM exposure level. Early deaths from lymphomas were again observed at the high exposure concentration (625 ppm). A noncancer toxicity observed in mice was a macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia.

  9. 1-3 Piezocomposite transducers for AUV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazol, Brian; Lannaman, Ken; Doust, Barry

    2001-05-01

    Sonar systems on board AUVs present interesting challenges to the transducer designer because of their small size, low weight requirements, and limited available power. 1-3 piezocomposite transducers offer many performance characteristics which make them ideal for deployment in AUVs. Piezocomposite transducers are light weight, have broad bandwidth, have high efficiency, and can be conformed to fit the curvature of the vehicle. The broad bandwidths and low sidelobes made possible by piezocomposites result in sharper images with less distortion. The piezocomposite material is mechanically robust and can survive the rigors of normal operations as well as AUV deployment and retrieval. In addition, the conformal configuration substantially reduces hydrodynamic drag. As a conformal array, there is nothing to get knocked off during deployment and retrieval operations, or entangled with natural or man-made objects suspended in the water column. This contributes directly to improving the operational endurance of the AUV system, thereby enhancing overall system utility. MSI has produced and tested a variety of piezocomposite transducers for use in obstacle avoidance, mine hunting, and acoustic communications. An overview of piezocomposites and recent results of piezocomposite transducers will be presented.

  10. Bis[1,3-bis(2-cyanophenyltriazenido]mercury(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Rofouei

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Hg(C14H8N52], the central atom is four-coordinated by two bidentate 1,3-bis(2-cyanophenyltriazenide ligands in a distorted square-planar geometry. The asymmteric unit is composed of one ligand molecule and one HgII ion, which is disordered over two sites, one lying on an inversion center and the other on a general position with site-occupancy factors of 0.2378 (7 and 0.3811 (7, respectively. The monomeric molecules of the complex are linked into pairs through non-classical C—H...N hydrogen bonds. The resulting dimeric units are assembled by translation along the crystallographic c axis into chains linked through secondary π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.685 (2 and 3.574 (2 Å], as well as C—H...π stacking interactions, resulting in a two-dimensional architecture.

  11. Zn-Doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Composite as Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Battery: Preparation, Characterization, and Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn-doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 composite, Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/31–xZnxO2 (x = 0.02; 0.05; 0.08, is synthesized by the sol-gel method. The crystal structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance are investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, cyclic voltammetry (CV, and constant current charge/discharge experiment. The result reveals that Zn-doping cathode material can reach the initial charge/discharge capacity of 188.8/162.9 mAh·g−1 for Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.98Zn0.02O2 and 179.0/154.1 mAh·g−1 for Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.95Zn0.05O2 with the high voltage of 4.4 V at 0.1 C. Furthermore, the capacity retention of Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.98Zn0.02O2 is 95.1% at 0.5 C after 50 cycles at room temperature. The improved electrochemical properties of Zn-doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are attributed to reduced electrode polarization, enhanced capacity reversibility, and excellent cyclic performance.

  12. Eficácia da vacina anti-rábica ERA em camundongos, frente a quatro diferentes variantes antigênicas do vírus da raiva Evaluation of ERA anti-rabies vaccine against four different antigenic strains of rabies virus in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Elcio Benedito Erbolato; Egon Vieira da Silva; Omar Miguel; Pierre Sureau; Pedro Manuel Leal Germano

    1989-01-01

    Estudou-se a eficácia da vacina anti-rábica preparada em cultura primária de tecido renal de suínos, a partir da amostra ERA, na prevenção da raiva em camundongos, frente a quatro cepas antigenicamente distintas do vírus rábico, duas originadas de cão. C/SP e C/NG, uma originada de morcego, DR-19, e uma cepa fixa, CVS (Challenge Vírus Standard). O perfil antigênico desta cepa foi determinado pela técnica dos anticorpos antirrábicos monoclonais antinucleocapside. Os animais foram vacinados, ao...

  13. Polar switching in trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitié, Carel F C; Roelofs, W S Christian; Magusin, Pieter C M M; Wübbenhorst, Michael; Kemerink, Martijn; Sijbesma, Rint P

    2012-04-01

    The hydrogen-bonded hexagonal columnar LC (Col(hd)) phases formed by benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) derivatives can be aligned uniformly by an electric field and display switching behavior with a high remnant polarization. The polar switching in three symmetrically substituted BTAs with alkyl chains varying in length between 6 and 18 carbon atoms (C6, C10, and C18) was investigated by electro-optical switching experiments, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), and solid-state NMR. The goal was to characterize ferroelectric properties of BTA-based columnar LCs, which display a macroscopic axial dipole moment due to the head-to-tail stacking of hydrogen-bonded amides. The Col(hd) phase of all three BTAs can be aligned uniformly by a dc field ∼30 V/μm. Moreover, C10 and C18 display extrinsic polar switching characterized by a remnant polarization and coercive field of 1-2 μC/cm(2) and 20-30 V/μm, respectively. In the absence of an external field, the polarization is lost in 1-1000 s, depending on device details and temperature. DRS revealed a columnar glass transition in the low-temperature region of the LC phase related to collective vibrations in the hydrogen-bonded columns that freeze out below 41-54 °C. At higher temperatures, a relaxation process is present originating from the collective reorientation of amide groups along the column axis (inversion of the macrodipole). Matching activation energies suggest that the molecular mechanism underlying the polar switching and the R-processes is identical. These results illustrate that LC phases based on BTAs offer the unique possibility to integrate polarization with other functionalities in a single nanostructured material.

  14. Genetic toxicity of 1,3-butadiene and styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norppa, H; Sorsa, M

    1993-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene and styrene (vinyl benzene) are indirect genotoxins, which require metabolic activation to an epoxide form in order to bind covalently to DNA. Styrene 7,8-oxide, the active metabolite of styrene, is a carcinogen in rodents and has been shown to be genotoxic in most in-vitro test systems and at various genetic endpoints. The few studies available on the genotoxicity of styrene 7,8-oxide in vivo have yielded negative or (in mice) weakly positive results. Styrene is not usually genotoxic in vitro in assays employing a microsomal preparation from rat liver for metabolic activation, but positive effects have been obtained when other sources of metabolic activation, such as human erythrocytes, were provided. In vivo, styrene has been found repeatedly to be weakly genotoxic in the assay for sister chromatid exchange, especially in mice. Cytogenetic damage (usually chromosomal aberrations) has been reported in many studies of workers, mainly from the reinforced plastics industry where ambient concentrations of styrene may be high (50-100 ppm), while most negative findings are associated with exposure to lower levels. Butadiene is metabolized to two reactive forms, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene and further to 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane, both of which are genotoxic in various test systems in vitro. The lowest effective dose of the latter is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of the respective monoepoxide. Butadiene itself has not been tested extensively for genotoxicity in vitro. A species-specific difference in the responses of mice and rats at various cytogenetic end-points is seen in vivo, the lowest effective concentrations in rats being clearly higher than those in mice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Crystal structure of 1,3-bis(4-methylbenzyl-1H-1,3-benzimidazol-3-ium bromide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Türktekin Çelikesir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title hydrated symetrically substituted 1,3-bis(4-methylbenzylbenzimidazolium salt, C23H23N2+·Br−·H2O, the dihedral angles between the benzimidazole ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å and the pendant benzene rings are 73.18 (16 and 77.52 (16°. Both benzene rings lie to the same side of the benzimidazole ring system, giving the cation an overall U-shape. In the crystal, the cation is linked to the water molecule by a short C—H...O hydrogen bond and the water molecule forms O—H...Br hydrogen bonds. Together, these interactions lead to [010] chains. The packing is consolidated by C—H...Br hydrogen bonds and aromatic π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.5401 (17 and 3.8815 (18 Å], generating a three-dimensional network.

  16. Quantitation of DNA Adducts Induced by 1,3-Butadiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaraju, Dewakar; Villalta, Peter W.; Wickramaratne, Susith; Swenberg, James; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2014-07-01

    Human exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) present in automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, and forest fires is of great concern because of its potent carcinogenicity. The adverse health effects of BD are mediated by its epoxide metabolites such as 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), which covalently modify genomic DNA to form promutagenic nucleobase adducts. Because of their direct role in cancer, BD-DNA adducts can be used as mechanism-based biomarkers of BD exposure. In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based methodology was developed for accurate, sensitive, and precise quantification of EB-induced N-7-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl) guanine (EB-GII) DNA adducts in vivo. In our approach, EB-GII adducts are selectively released from DNA backbone by neutral thermal hydrolysis, followed by ultrafiltration, offline HPLC purification, and isotope dilution nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 analysis on an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. Following method validation, EB-GII lesions were quantified in human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells treated with micromolar concentrations of EB and in liver tissues of rats exposed to sub-ppm concentrations of BD (0.5-1.5 ppm). EB-GII concentrations increased linearly from 1.15 ± 0.23 to 10.11 ± 0.45 adducts per 106 nucleotides in HT1080 cells treated with 0.5-10 μM DEB. EB-GII concentrations in DNA of laboratory rats exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm BD were 0.17 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08, and 0.50 ± 0.04 adducts per 106 nucleotides, respectively. We also used the new method to determine the in vivo half-life of EB-GII adducts in rat liver DNA (2.20 ± 0.12 d) and to detect EB-GII in human blood DNA. To our knowledge, this is the first application of nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 Orbitrap methodology to quantitative analysis of DNA adducts in vivo.

  17. Synthesis of Novel 2,5-Disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazoles Clubbed 1,2,4-Triazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, 1,3,4-Oxadiazole and/or Schiff Base as Potential Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjet Rezki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a new series of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazole tethered 1,2,4-triazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole and Schiff base derivatives were synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and elemental analyses. All compounds were screened for their antibacterial, antifungal and antiproliferative activity. Some of the synthesized derivatives have displayed promising biological activity.

  18. A novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from the cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xihua; Xie, Yongbing; Cao, Hongbin; Nawaz, Faheem; Zhang, Yi

    2014-09-01

    To solve the recycling challenge for aqueous binder based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from the cathode scraps generated during manufacturing process is proposed in this study. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is employed to separate the cathode material from the aluminum foil. The effects of TFA concentration, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, reaction temperature and time on the separation efficiencies of the cathode material and aluminum foil are investigated systematically. The cathode material can be separated completely under the optimal experimental condition of 15vol.% TFA solution, L/S ratio of 8.0 mL g(-1), reacting at 40°C for 180 min along with appropriate agitation. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is successfully resynthesized from the separated cathode material by solid state reaction method. Several kinds of characterizations are performed to verify the typical properties of the resynthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 powder. Electrochemical tests show that the initial charge and discharge capacities of the resynthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are 201 mAh g(-)(1) and 155.4 mAh g(-1) (2.8-4.5 V, 0.1C), respectively. The discharge capacity remains at 129 mAh g(-1) even after 30 cycles with a capacity retention ratio of 83.01%.

  19. Partial chemical characterization of antigenic preparations of chromoblastomycosis agents Caracterização química parcial de preparações antigênicas de agentes da cromoblastomicose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Fraga BARROS

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Antigenic preparations (saline, methylic, metabolic and exoantigens of four agents of chromoblastomycosis, Fonsecaea pedrosoi, Phialophora verrucosa, Cladophialophora (Cladosporium carrionii and Rhinocladiella aquaspersa were obtained. Partial chemical characterization of these antigenic preparations was obtained by determination of the levels of total lipids, protein, and carbohydrates, and identification of the main sterols and carbohydrates. Methylic antigens presented the highest lipid contents, whereas metabolic antigens showed the highest carbohydrate content. Total lipid, protein, and carbohydrate levels were in the range of 2.33 to 2.00mg/ml, 0.04 to 0.02 mg/ml and 0.10 to 0.02 mg/ml, respectively, in the methylic antigens and in the range of 0.53 to 0.18mg/ml, 0.44 to 0.26mg/ml, and 1.82 to 1.02 mg/ml, respectively, in saline antigens. Total lipid, protein, and carbohydrate contents were in the range of 0.55 to 0.20mg/ml, 0.69 to 0.57mg/ml and 10.73 to 5.93mg/ml, respectively, in the metabolic antigens, and in the range of 0.55 to 0.15mg/ml, 0.62 to 0.20mg/ml and 3.55 to 0.42mg/ml, respectively, in the exoantigens. Phospholipids were not detected in the preparations. Saline and metabolic antigens and exoantigens presented hexose and the methylic antigen revealed additional pentose units in their composition. The UV light absorption spectra of the sterols revealed squalene and an ergosterol fraction in the antigens. The characterization of these antigenic preparations may be useful for serological evaluation of patients of chromoblastomycosis.Preparações antigênicas (antígenos salinos, metílicos, metabólicos e exoantígenos de quatro agentes da cromoblastomicose, Fonsecaea pedrosoi, Phialophora verrucosa, Cladophialophora (Cladosporium carrionii e Rhinocladiella aquaspersa foram obtidos e foi determinada a caracterização química parcial dos mesmos. Os antígenos metílicos apresentaram os maiores teores de lípides enquanto os

  20. Análise antigênica e molecular de amostras citopáticas do vírus da diarréia viral bovina Antigenic and molecular analysis of cytopathic isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Tobias

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Sete amostras citopáticas do vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina (BVDV isoladas de casos clínicos e do sangue de bezerros de rebanhos com problemas reprodutivos foram analisadas. Todas as amostras caracterizadas possuíam uma mistura de vírus citopáticos (cp e não-citopáticos (ncp, que foram clonados biologicamente, originando populações puras de vírus de cada biotipo. Os clones cp e ncp obtidos foram caracterizados antigenicamente com um painel de anticorpos monoclonais (MAbs e quanto à expressão da proteína não-estrutural NS3. A análise de reconhecimento pelos MAbs revelou dois padrões de reatividade: 1. Em cinco casos, os vírus cp e ncp de uma mesma amostra mostraram-se antigenicamente muito semelhantes entre si, indicando tratar-se de verdadeiros "pares" de vírus, nos quais o vírus cp origina-se do ncp através de mutações ou recombinações; 2. Duas amostras, no entanto, continham vírus cp e ncp com diferenças antigênicas consideráveis entre si. A análise de polipeptídeos não-estruturais das amostras ncp através de Western immunoblot revelou uma única banda de reatividade, de massa aproximada de 125kDa, correspondente à proteína nãoestrutural NS23. As amostras cp expressaram, além da NS23, um polipeptídeo de massa aproximada de 80kDa, correspondente à NS3. Duas amostras cp apresentaram diferenças na migração da NS23. Uma amostra apresentou a NS23 com massa menor do que 125kDa, enquanto outra amostra apresentou duas bandas de reatividade, com massas menor e maior que a NS23 dos demais vírus, respectivamente. Esses resultados confirmam achados anteriores de que amostras de campo citopáticas do BVDV geralmente possuem vírus dos dois biotipos e que o fenótipo citopático está associado à expressão da proteína NS3. O isolamento de amostras citopáticas do sangue de animais clinicamente normais e de um feto, no entanto, demonstra que a ocorrência de vírus cp não se restringe à casos da Doença das

  1. A novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} from the cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xihua [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xie, Yongbing, E-mail: ybxie@ipe.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); Cao, Hongbin, E-mail: hbcao@ipe.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); Nawaz, Faheem [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yi [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • A simple process to recycle cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries. • Complete separation of the cathode material from the aluminum foil is achieved. • The recovered aluminum foil is highly pure. • LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} is directly resynthesized from the separated cathode material. - Abstract: To solve the recycling challenge for aqueous binder based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} from the cathode scraps generated during manufacturing process is proposed in this study. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is employed to separate the cathode material from the aluminum foil. The effects of TFA concentration, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, reaction temperature and time on the separation efficiencies of the cathode material and aluminum foil are investigated systematically. The cathode material can be separated completely under the optimal experimental condition of 15 vol.% TFA solution, L/S ratio of 8.0 mL g{sup −1}, reacting at 40 °C for 180 min along with appropriate agitation. LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} is successfully resynthesized from the separated cathode material by solid state reaction method. Several kinds of characterizations are performed to verify the typical properties of the resynthesized LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} powder. Electrochemical tests show that the initial charge and discharge capacities of the resynthesized LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} are 201 mAh g{sup −1} and 155.4 mAh g{sup −1} (2.8–4.5 V, 0.1 C), respectively. The discharge capacity remains at 129 mAh g{sup −1} even after 30 cycles with a capacity retention ratio of 83.01%.

  2. Leaching process for recovering valuable metals from the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode of lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Po; Sun, Shu-Ying; Song, Xing-Fu; Yu, Jian-Guo

    2017-03-18

    In view of the importance of environmental protection and resource recovery, recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and electrode scraps generated during manufacturing processes is quite necessary. An environmentally sound leaching process for the recovery of Li, Ni, Co, and Mn from spent LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-based LIBs and cathode scraps was investigated in this study. Eh-pH diagrams were used to determine suitable leaching conditions. Operating variables affecting the leaching efficiencies for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn from LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, such as the H2SO4 concentration, temperature, H2O2 concentration, stirring speed, and pulp density, were investigated to determine the most efficient conditions for leaching. The leaching efficiencies for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn reached 99.7% under the optimized conditions of 1M H2SO4, 1vol% H2O2, 400rpm stirring speed, 40g/L pulp density, and 60min leaching time at 40°C. The leaching kinetics of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 were found to be significantly faster than those of LiCoO2. Based on the variation in the weight fraction of the metal in the residue, the "cubic rate law" was revised as follows: θ(1-f)(1/3)=(1-kt/r0ρ), which could characterize the leaching kinetics optimally. The activation energies were determined to be 64.98, 65.16, 66.12, and 66.04kJ/mol for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn, respectively, indicating that the leaching process was controlled by the rate of surface chemical reactions. Finally, a simple process was proposed for the recovery of valuable metals from spent LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-based LIBs and cathode scraps.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Mg_3(PO_4)_2-coated Li_(1.05)Ni_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)Co_(1/3)O_2 Cathode Material for Li-ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yuhong; TANG Zhiyuan; ZHANG Guoqing; ZHANG Xuemei; CHEN Ruizhen; LIU Yuangang; LIU Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Mg_3(PO_4)_2-coated Li_(1.05)Ni_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)Co_(1/3)O_2 cathode materials were synthesized via co-precipitation method.The morphology,structure,electrochemical performance and thermal stability were characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM),X-ray diffraction(XRD),cyclic voltammetry(CV),electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS),charge/discharge cycling and differential scanning calorimeter(DSC).SEM analysis shows that Mg_3(PO_4)_2-coating changes the morphologies of their particles and increases the grains size.XRD and CV results show that Mg_3(PO_4)_2-coating powder is homogeneous and has better layered structure than the bare one. Mg_3(PO_4)_2-coating improved high rate discharge capacity and cycle-life performance.The reason why the cycling performance of Mg_3(PO_4)_2-coated sample at 55℃was better than that of room temperature was the increasing of lithium-ion diffusion rate and charge transfer rate with temperature rising. Mg_3(PO_4)_2-coating improved the cathode thermal stability,and the result was consistent with thermal abuse tests using Li-ion cells:the Mg_3(PO_4)_2 coated Li_(1.05)Ni_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)Co_(1/3)O_2 cathode did not exhibit thermal runaway with smoke and explosion,in contrast to the cells containing the bare Li_(1.05)Ni_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)Co_(1/3)O_2.

  4. Efficient Synthesis of Complex Bridged 1,3-Oxazabicycles via Reactions of N-Alkyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium Halides with Cyclic 1,3-Diketones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ping; HUI Li; GAO Xing; YAN Chao-guo

    2012-01-01

    Complex bridged 1,3-oxazabicycles and 1,4-disubstituted 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives were efficiently prepared by the reactions of N-methyl or N-benzylphenanthrolinium halides with cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in a K2CO3/CH3CN system.

  5. Long-Term Selenium-Deficient Diet Induces Liver Damage by Altering Hepatocyte Ultrastructure and MMP1/3 and TIMP1/3 Expression in Growing Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Liang, Hua; Yi, Jianhua; Tan, Wuhong; He, Shulan; Wang, Sen; Li, Feng; Wu, Xiaofang; Ma, Jing; Shi, Xiaowei; Guo, Xiong; Bai, Chuanyi

    2017-02-01

    The effects of selenium (Se)-deficient diet on the liver were evaluated by using growing rats which were fed with normal and Se-deficient diets, respectively, for 109 days. The results showed that rats fed with Se-deficient diet led to a decrease in Se concentration in the liver, particularly among male rats from the low-Se group. This causes alterations to the ultrastructure of hepatocytes with condensed chromatin and swelling mitochondria observed after low Se intake. Meanwhile, pathological changes and increased fibrosis in hepatic periportal were detected by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining in low-Se group. Furthermore, through immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, higher expressions of metalloproteinases (MMP1/3) and their tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP1/3) were observed in the hepatic periportal of rats from the low-Se group. However, higher expressions of MMP1/3 and lower expressions of TIMP1/3 were detected in hepatic central vein and hepatic sinusoid. In addition, upregulated expressions of MMP1/3 and downregulated expressions of TIMP1/3 at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels also appeared to be relevant to low Se intake. In conclusion, Se-deficient diet could cause low Se concentration in the liver, alterations of hepatocyte ultrastructure, differential expressions of MMP1/3 and TIMP1/3 as well as fibrosis in the liver hepatic periportal.

  6. Poly(,'-dibromo--ethyl-benzene-1,3-disulphonamide) and ,,','-tetrabromobenzene-1,3-disulphonamide as novel catalysts for synthesis of quinoxaline derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramin Ghorbani-Vaghei; Somaye Hajinazari

    2013-03-01

    Poly(,'-dibromo--ethyl-benzene-1,3-disulphonamide) [PBBS] and ,,','-tetrabromobenzene-1,3-disulphonamide [TBBDA] were used as efficient catalysts for the synthesis of quinoxaline derivatives in excellent yields from 1,2-diamines and 1,2-dicarbonyls under aqueous and solvent-free conditions.

  7. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of Na(Fe1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 as cathode materials for sodium ion batteries%钠离子电池正极材料Na(Fe1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2的制备及电化学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮艳莉; 胡聪; 郑斌; 刘萍

    2016-01-01

    采用溶胶-凝胶法合成钠离子电池正极材料Na(Fe1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2,通过扫描电镜、充放电测试等方法,对Na(Fe1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2材料的表面形貌以及电化学性能进行研究,并探索络合剂柠檬酸用量对材料电化学性能的影响.结果表明:当柠檬酸与该材料中过渡金属总摩尔比为1∶1时,合成的Na(Fe1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2材料晶粒分散均匀,粒径均一,颗粒大小约为0.5μm.电化学性能测试表明该产物具有高的放电比容量、优良的循环性能和倍率性能.在10 mA/g的电流密度下首次放电比容量为132.2 mAh/g,25次循环之后容量仍能达到112.2 mAh/g,容量保持率达到84.9%.在1 C的放电倍率下,其放电比容量仍能达到84.1 mAh/g.%Na(Fe1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 was synthesized by a sol-gel method and the morphology and electrochemical performances of Na(Fe1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 was investigated by scanning electron microscope and charge-discharge test. The influence of the amount of citric acid on the electrochemical performance of the samples was also discussed. The study showed that the prepared Na (Fe1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3) O2 grains dispersed evenly, and the particle size was relatively uniform about 0.5μm. When the mole ratio of citric acid and the total transition metal equals 1∶1,and these small grains will effectively increase the specific surface area. The electrochemical tests showed that the product displayed a higher discharge capacity,a better cycling performance and rate performance. The initial discharge capacity was 132.2 mAh/g and the capacity retention rate was 84.9%!after 25 cycles at the current density of 10 mA/g. Even at a high discharge rate of 1 C,it still delivered a discharge capacity of 84.1 mAh/g.

  8. 1,3,5-Triethylbenzene Transformation Reactions Compared to Its Transalkylation Reaction with Ethylbenzene

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, M. Naseem

    2009-08-20

    The transalkylation of 1,3,5-triethylbenzene (1,3,5-TEB) with ethylbenzene (EB) has been studied over USYtype catalysts using a riser simulator that mimics the operation of a fluidized-bed reactor. The reaction mixture EB and 1,3,5-TEB was used at a molar ratio of 1:1, which is equivalent to 40:60 wt % of EB/1,3,5-TEB, respectively. The reaction temperature was varied from 350 to 500 °C with a time on stream ranging from 3-15 s. The effect of reaction conditions on 1,3,5-TEB conversion, DEB selectivity, and isomerization of 1,3,5-TEB is reported. The transalkylation of 1,3,5-TEB with EB has been compared to the transformation reaction of pure 1,3,5-TEB and EB. The experimental results have revealed that reactivity of 1,3,5-TEB and selectivity of DEB is increased during the transalkylation reaction (EB + 1,3,5-TEB) as compared to the transformation reaction of pure EB or 1,3,5-TEB. The 1,3,5-TEB undergoes isomerization and a cracking reaction to produce DEB and EB but does not undergo any appreciable disproportionation reaction. The isomerization of 1,3,5-TEB is more active at low temperatures, while cracking is more active at high temperatures. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  9. Structure and Electrochemistry of LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M=Ti, Al, Fe) Positive Electrode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, James; Patoux, Sebastien; Doeff, Marca

    2009-01-14

    A series of materials based on the LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M = Ti,Al,Fe) system has been synthesized and examined structurally and electrochemically. It is found that the changes in electrochemical performance depend highly on the nature of the substituting atom and its effect on the crystal structure. Substitution with small amounts of Ti4+ (y = 1/12) leads to the formation of a high-capacity and high-rate positive electrode material. Iron substituted materials suffer from an increased antisite defect concentration and exhibit lower capacities and poor rate capabilities. Single-phase materials are found for LiNi1/3Co1/3-yAlyMn1/3O2 when y<_ 1/4 and all exhibit decreased capacities when cycled to 4.3 V. However, an increase in rate performance and cycle stability upon aluminum substitution is correlated with an improved lamellar structure.

  10. Preparation of Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 powders for cathode material in secondary battery by solid-state method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARK Sook Hee; KANG Chan Hyoung

    2006-01-01

    Employing Li2CO3, NiO, Co3O4, and MnCO3 powders as starting materials, Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 was synthesized by solid-state reaction method.Various grinding aids were applied during milling in order to optimize the synthesis process.After successive heat treatments at 650 and 950 ℃, the prepared powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy.The powders prepared by adding salt (NaCl) as grinding aid exhibit a clear R3m layer structure.The powders by other grinding aids like heptane show some impurity peaks in the XRD pattern.The former powders show a uniform particle size distribution of less than 1 μm average size while the latter shows a wide distribution ranging from 1 to 10 μm.Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysiss show that the ratio of Ni, Co, and Mn content in the powder is approximately 1/3, 1/3, and 1/3, respecively.The EDX data indicate no incorporation of sodium or chlorine into the powders.Charge-discharge tests gave an initial discharge capacity of 160 mAh·g-1 for the powders with NaCl addition while 70 mAh·g-1 for the powders with heptane.

  11. Estudo do efeito de distintos períodos de fixação em formalina e métodos de recuperação antigênica na técnica de imuno-histoquímica Study of the effect of different fixation times in formalin and methods of antigen retrieval in immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa de Seixas Alves

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do tempo de fixação em formalina neutra tamponada a 10% e dos diferentes métodos de resgate de sítio antigênico induzido pelo calor [heat induced epitope retrieval (HIER] para a imunoexpressão dos anticorpos anti-antígeno nuclear de proliferação celular (PCNA e anti-AE1AE3 (citoqueratinas, empregados por apresentarem imunocoloração nuclear e citoplasmática ou submembranosa. Foram estudadas cinco tonsilas provenientes de amigdalectomias realizadas no Hospital São Paulo da Escola Paulista de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM, as quais foram seccionadas em 0,5cm² cada, fixadas em formalina, por períodos de tempo de seis, 12, 18, 24 e 48 horas e embebidas em parafina. Foram feitos cortes com 4mim em lâminas silanizadas. Para o estudo imuno-histoquímico utilizamos os anticorpos anti-PCNA e AE1AE3, empregando os três métodos de resgate de sítio antigênico: banho-maria, microondas e panela de pressão. A positividade na imunoexpressão do PCNA foi avaliada através da relação núcleos corados/total de núcleos x 100. A intensidade da coloração resultante foi avaliada através da utilização dos programas Corel Photo Paint 9 e UT Morph 2.0. Com relação à recuperação antigênica, concluímos que, para o anticorpo anti-PCNA no material fixado nos períodos de nosso estudo, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o uso do microondas. O aumento do tempo de fixação interferiu na queda da imunopositividade do PCNA, em especial após o período de 24 horas. Em relação ao parâmetro intensidade de coloração para AE1AE3 nenhum dos métodos foi superior. A metodologia estudada para a análise semiquantitativa na intensidade da reação coincidiu com os resultados obtidos na avaliação criteriosa de cada uma das lâminas.The effects of fixation time in buffered formaline at 10% on different methods of antigenic site retrieval induced by heat (HIER for the detection of the expression

  12. Caracterização antigênica e molecular de oito amostras do vírus da doença de Aujeszky isoladas no estado do Rio Grande do Sul em 2003 Antigenic and molecular characterization of eight samples of Aujeszky's disease virus isolated in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra D'Ávila da Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Aujeszky ou pseudoraiva (DA, causada pelo vírus da pseudoraiva (PRV é a maior preocupação na produção de suínos. No estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, a DA foi somente detectada em 1954, em bovino. Em 2003, ocorreram dois surtos de encefalite em granjas na região norte do estado, fronteira com o estado de Santa Catarina. O vírus da doença de Aujeszky (VDA foi isolado a partir de animais coletados em oito granjas distintas da região e submetido a análises antigênicas e moleculares. As amostras de VDA isoladas foram comparadas com as amostras padrão NIA-3 e NP. A caracterização antigênica dos mesmos foi realizada com testes de imunoperoxidase frente a um painel de anticorpos mono-clonais (Mabs preparado contra epitopos de glicoproteinas virais (gB, gC, gD e gE. A caracterização genômica foi realizada através da análise restrição enzimática (REA sobre o genoma total das amostras, com a enzima de restrição (REA Bam HI. O perfil antigênico das oito amostras isoladas no Rio Grande do Sul, bem como os apresentados pelas amostras padrão NIA-3 e NP, foram similares. A REA revelou que todos as oito amostras do Rio Grande do Sul apresentaram um arranjo genômico do tipo II, genótipo frequentemente encontrado em surtos prévios de DA em outros estados do Brasil. Os resultados aqui obtidos indicam que as oito amostras isoladas no Rio Grande do Sul são similares.Pseudorabies or Aujeszky's disease (AD, caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV is a major concern in swine production. In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, AD was only detected in 1954, in cattle. In 2003 two outbreaks of encephalitis occurred on the northern region of the state, close to the border with the state of Santa Catarina. Pseudorabies virus (PRV was isolated from distinct farms within the region and subjected to antigenic and genomic analyses. These isolates were compared with prototype strains NIA-3 and NP. Antigenic characterization with a

  13. Kailua-Kona, Hawaii 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Kailua-Kona Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  14. Imunodiagnóstico da leptospirose humana através do teste ELISA-IgM, empregando-se diferentes preparações antigênicas a partir de sorotipos prevalentes de Leptospira interrogans Immunodiagnostic of human leptospirosis by ELISA-IgM, employing: different antigenic preparations as from prevalent serovars of Leptospira interrogans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius da Silva

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo comparativo de diferentes sorotipos de Leptospira interrogans utilizados na preparação de antígenos empregados no teste ELISA, para a detecção de anticorpos da classe IgM, em amostras de soro na fase precoce e tardia da leptospirose humana. Foram utilizados dez sorotipos, escolhidos entre os que apresentaram maior reatividade na soroaglutinação microscópica (SAM, na cidade de São Paulo. Os cinco sorotipos que apresentaram melhores resultados individualmente no teste ELISA-IgM (canicola, hebdomadis, icterohaemorrhagiae, cynopteri e brasiliensis, foram também estudados em mistura antigênica. Os antígenos não tratados apresentaram maior reatividade do que os antígenos tratados com Triton X - 100 (4% à temperatura de 50ºC, durante 4 horas. O teste ELISA-IgM empregando os sorotipos não tratados, isoladamente, e em mistura antigênica, mostrou-se altamente sensível, podendo ser empregado como teste de triagem para o diagnóstico precoce da leptospirose humana. Outra aplicação do teste é permitir a detecção do início de situações epidêmicas ou de surtos, possibilitando acionar medidas de vigilância epidemiológica.A comparative study among different serovars of Leptospira interrogans was performed in order to prepare antigens to detect IgM antibodies by ELISA in early and late phase of human leptospirosis. Ten serovars were chosen among the most prevalent detected by microscopic seroagglutination (SAM in São Paulo city. Using ELISA-IgM five of them showed better results (canicola, hebdomadis, icterohaemorrhagiae, cynopteri and brasiliensis. These ones were also studied in a pool. The non-treated antigens showed higher reactivity than the Triton X-100 (4%/50ºC/4h. ELISA-IgM using individually or pool of non treated antigens proved to be reliable with high sensitivity and should be used for an earlier diagnosis of leptospirosis, as a trial test. Faster diagnostic elucidation can be useful to detect

  15. 48 CFR 970.1504-1-3 - Special considerations: Laboratory management and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Laboratory management and operation. 970.1504-1-3 Section 970.1504-1-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504-1-3 Special considerations: Laboratory management and operation. (a) For the...

  16. 爆燃法制备纳米LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2正极材料%Defiagration Synthesis of Nanocrystalline LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/302 Cathode Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李节宾; 徐友龙; 杜显峰; 丁茂元

    2011-01-01

    The homogenous precursor has been prepared using a mixed aqueous solution of Ni(NO3)2·6H2O, Co(NO3)2 6H2O, Mn(NO3)2 and LiNO3 as metal sources and citric acid as chelating agent and fuel. The nanocrystalline LiNi1/3Co1/3 Mn1/3O2 powder was rapidly synthesized by deflagrating the dried precursor in oxygen. The annealed LiNi1/3Co1/3ln1/3O2 powder was mainly consisted of particle agglomerates with the primary particles size of 100~300 nm. The high initial capacities of 208.0 mAh·g-1 (2.8~4.6 V) and 173.6 mAh·g-1 (2.8~4.3 V) were discharged at the rate of 0.05 C respectively. Its capacity retentions were 89.3% and 93.4% within the voltage range of 2.8~4.6 V and 2.8~4.3 V at 0. 1 C after 20 cycles respectively.%以Ni(NO)·6HO、Co(NO)·6HO、Mn(NO)和LiNO为金属原料,以柠檬酸为鳌合剂和燃料制备出均一的前驱体.前驱体经干燥后在氧弹中快速爆燃制备出纳米LiNiCoMnO粉体,并生成了高结晶度的LiNiCoMnO材料,其平均粒径约为200nm.将其分别在2.8~4.6V和2.8~4.3V电压范围内以0.05C速率恒流充放电,首次放电比容量分别为208.0mAh·g和173.6mAh·g;以0.1C速率分别在2.8~4.6V和2.8~4.3V电压范围内循环20周后,容量保持率分别为89.3%和93.4%.

  17. Biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and its mononitroso derivative hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine by Klebsiella pneumoniae strain SCZ-1 isolated from an anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Halasz, Annamaria; Paquet, Louise; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal

    2002-11-01

    In previous work, we found that an anaerobic sludge efficiently degraded hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), but the role of isolates in the degradation process was unknown. Recently, we isolated a facultatively anaerobic bacterium, identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae strain SCZ-1, using MIDI and the 16S rRNA method from this sludge and employed it to degrade RDX. Strain SCZ-1 degraded RDX to formaldehyde (HCHO), methanol (CH3OH) (12% of total C), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) (72% of total C), and nitrous oxide (N2O) (60% of total N) through intermediary formation of methylenedinitramine (O(2)NNHCH(2)NHNO(2)). Likewise, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) was degraded to HCHO, CH3OH, and N2O (16.5%) with a removal rate (0.39 micromol. h(-1). g [dry weight] of cells(-1)) similar to that of RDX (0.41 micromol. h(-1). g [dry weight] of cells(-1)) (biomass, 0.91 g [dry weight] of cells. liter(-1)). These findings suggested the possible involvement of a common initial reaction, possibly denitration, followed by ring cleavage and decomposition in water. The trace amounts of MNX detected during RDX degradation and the trace amounts of hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine detected during MNX degradation suggested that another minor degradation pathway was also present that reduced -NO2 groups to the corresponding -NO groups.

  18. 1,3-Propanediol production from crude glycerol from Jatropha biodiesel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Anand; Kannabiran, Mithra; Rangaswamy, Vidhya

    2011-01-31

    The present report describes production of 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 15380 from crude glycerol from jatropha biodiesel process. Optimization resulted in a yield of up to 56g/L of 1,3-propanediol. A conversion rate of 0.85mol 1,3-propanediol/mol of glycerol has been obtained. Downstream processing to isolate 1,3-propanediol from the fermentation broth resulted in 99.7% pure product with a recovery of 34%. The pure 1,3-propanediol was polymerized with terephthalic acid successfully to yield polytrimethylene terephthalate.

  19. A Convenient Method for the Synthesis of 1,3,2-Oxazaphospholidin-[3,2-a]-8-oxo-10-thio(or seleno)-[1,3,2]-benzodiazaphosphorines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A Convenient method for the synthesis of fused phosphorusheterocycle 1,3,2-oxazaphosphorin-[3,2-a]-8-oxo-10-thio(or seleno)-[1,3,2]-benzodiazaphosphorines was carried out in one pot by the reaction of Tris(diethylamino)phosphine with multifunctional compounds 2-(N-(βor γ-hydroxyl) alkylene) amino-benzamides 1.When PCL3 was used, only chlorinated product was obtained.

  20. EFFECTS OF SOME PHENYLETHYNYLSILICON COMPOUNDS ON HEAT-CURABLE SILICONE RUBBER Ⅲ 1,1,3,3-TETRAMETHYL- 1,3-DIPHENYLETHYNYL-DISILOXANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Shengyu; YU Shuqi; LI Shijun; ZHANG Shengyou; CHEN Jianhua; DU Zuodong

    1995-01-01

    We have shown that some phenylethynylsilicon compounds are good cure crosslinkers of heat-curable silicone rubber(HCSR). In this paper the effects of 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl1,3-diphenylethynyldisiloxane (TMDPDS) as a crosslinker on HCSR were studied. The vulcanizates with fine mechanical properties could be obtained with suitable amounts of TMDPDS. Sol fractions, and crosslinking density of vulcanizates and vulcanization retardation effect of TMDPDS on hydrosilation curing silicone rubber were also discussed.

  1. Determination of lithium and transition metals in Li1 Ni1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 (NCM) cathode material for lithium-ion batteries by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vortmann-Westhoven, Britta; Lürenbaum, Constantin; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we present a novel electrophoretic method that was developed for the determination of lithium and transition metals in LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 cathode material after microwave digestion. The cations in the digested LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 material were separated by CE and the element content was determined by UV/Vis detection. To characterize the precision of the measurements, the RSDs and concentrations were calculated and compared to those obtained with ICP-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Furthermore, a certified reference material (BCR 176R-fly ash) was investigated for all techniques. For active material components, the LOD and LOQ were determined. The LODs and LOQs for the metals determined by CE were as follows: lithium (LOD/LOQ): 17.41/62.70 μg/L, cobalt (LOD/LOQ): 348.4/1283 μg/L, manganese (LOD/LOQ): 540.2/2095 μg/L, and nickel (LOD/LOQ): 838.0/2982 μg/L. Recovery rates for lithium were in the range of 95-103%. It could be proven that with the new technique, the results for the determination of the lithium content of active material were comparable with those obtained by ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Furthermore, the recovery rates of the transition metals were determined to be between 96 and 110% by CE and ICP-OES.

  2. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine and Its Mononitroso Derivative Hexahydro-1-Nitroso-3,5-Dinitro-1,3,5-Triazine by Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain SCZ-1 Isolated from an Anaerobic Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    In previous work, we found that an anaerobic sludge efficiently degraded hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), but the role of isolates in the degradation process was unknown. Recently, we isolated a facultatively anaerobic bacterium, identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae strain SCZ-1, using MIDI and the 16S rRNA method from this sludge and employed it to degrade RDX. Strain SCZ-1 degraded RDX to formaldehyde (HCHO), methanol (CH3OH) (12% of total C), carbon dioxide (CO2) (72% of total...

  3. Unconventional EGF-induced ERK1/2-mediated Kv1.3 endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Mármol, Ramón; Comes, Núria; Styrczewska, Katarzyna; Pérez-Verdaguer, Mireia; Vicente, Rubén; Pujadas, Lluís; Soriano, Eduardo; Sorkin, Alexander; Felipe, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The potassium channel Kv1.3 plays roles in immunity, neuronal development and sensory discrimination. Regulation of Kv1.3 by kinase signaling has been studied. In this context, EGF binds to specific receptors (EGFR) and triggers tyrosine kinase-dependent signaling, which down-regulates Kv1.3 currents. We show that Kv1.3 undergoes EGF-dependent endocytosis. This EGF-mediated mechanism is relevant because is involved in adult neural stem cell fate determination. We demonstrated that changes in Kv1.3 subcellular distribution upon EGFR activation were due to Kv1.3 clathrin-dependent endocytosis, which targets the Kv1.3 channels to the lysosomal degradative pathway. Interestingly, our results further revealed that relevant tyrosines and other interacting motifs, such as PDZ and SH3 domains, were not involved in the EGF-dependent Kv1.3 internalization. However, a new, and yet undescribed mechanism, of ERK1/2-mediated threonine phosphorylation is crucial for the EGF-mediated Kv1.3 endocytosis. Our results demonstrate that EGF triggers the down-regulation of Kv1.3 activity and its expression at the cell surface, which is important for the development and migration of adult neural progenitors.

  4. Adenovirus-mediated expression of pig α(1, 3) galactosyltransferase reconstructs Gal α(1, 3) Gal epitope on the surface of human tumor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Gal α(1,3)Gal(gal epitope)is a carbohydrate epitope and synthesized in large amount by α(1,3)galactosyltransferase [α(1,3)GT] enzyme on the cells of lower mammalian animals such as pigs and mice.Human has no gal epitope due to the inactivation of α(1,3)GT gene but produces a large amount of antibodies(anti-Gal)which recognize Gal α(1,3)Gal structures specifically.In this study,a replicationdeficient recombinant adenoviral vector Ad5sGT containing pig α(1,3)GT cDNA was constructed and characterized.Adenoviral vector-mediated transfer of pig α(1,3)GT gene into human tumor cells such as malignant melanoma A375,stomach cancer SGC-7901,and lung cancer SPC-A-1 was reported for the first time.Results showed that Gal epitope did not increase the sensitivity of human tumor cells to human complement-mediated lysis,although human complement activation and the binding of human IgG and IgM natural antibodies to human tumor cells were enhanced significantly after Ad5sGT transduction.Appearance of gal epitope on the human tumor cells changed the expression of cell surface carbohydrates reacting with Ulex europaeus I(UEA I)lectins,Vicia villosa agglutinin(VVA),Arachis hypogaea agglutinin(PNA),and Glycine max agglutinin(SBA)to different degrees.In addition,no effect of gal epitope on the growth in vitro of human tumor cells was observed in MTT assay.

  5. A Multi-Component Additive to Improve the Thermal Stability of Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-Based Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the safety of lithium ion batteries, a multi-component (MC additive (consisting of vinylene carbonate (VC, 1,3-propylene sulfite (PS and dimethylacetamide (DMAC is used in the baseline electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6/ethylene carbonate (EC + diethyl carbonate (DEC. The electrolyte with the MC additive is named safety electrolyte. The thermal stabilities of fully charged Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM mixed with the baseline electrolyte and safety electrolyte, respectively, are investigated using a C80 micro-calorimeter. The electrochemical performances of the NCM/baseline electrolyte/Li and NCM/safety electrolyte/Li half cells are evaluated using galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and alternating current (AC impedance. The experimental results demonstrate that the fully charged NCM-safety electrolyte system releases less heat and reduces the main sharp exothermic peak value to a great extent, with a reduction of 40.6%. Moreover, the electrochemical performances of NCM/safety electrolyte/Li half cells are not worse, and are almost as good as that of the NCM/baseline electrolyte/Li half cells.

  6. Preparation of thick-film LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 electrodes by aerosol deposition and its application to all-solid-state batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Shinya; Hamanaka, Tadashi; Yamakawa, Tomohiro; West, William C.; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Motoyama, Munekazu; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Iriyama, Yasutoshi

    2014-12-01

    We prepared thick and dense-crystalline LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) composite films at room temperature that can work well as cathodes in all-solid-state battery cells. The thick films were fabricated by aerosol deposition using NMC powder (D50 = 10.61 μm) as a source material. Commercially-obtained NMC powder did not form films at all on silicon wafer substrates, and cracking of the substrates was observed. However, a few tens of nanometer coating with amorphous niobium oxide resulted in the deposition of 7 μm-thick crystalline dense composite films. The films were successfully fabricated also on Li+-conductive glass-ceramic sheets with 150 μm in thickness, and all-solid-state batteries were fabricated. The solid-state battery provided a cathode-basis discharge capacity of 152 mAh g-1 (3.0-4.2 V, 0.025 C, 333 K) and repeated charge-discharge cycles for 20 cycles.

  7. Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of LiNi_(1/3)Co_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)O_2 Cathode Material by Soft Template Assisted Sol-Gel Method%溶胶凝胶-软模板法制备LiNi_(1/3)Co_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)O_2正极材料及其电化学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 黄可龙; 刘素琴; 罗燕

    2009-01-01

    在溶胶凝胶法中引入了软模板十二烷基磺酸钠(SDS)制备了LiNi_(1/3)Co_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)O_2.2正极材料.采用X射线衍射法(XRD),扫描电镜法(SEM),循环伏安法(CV),交流阻抗法(ElS)及充放电测试等手段对材料进行了表征.结果表明,在750℃下煅烧12 h加入或不加SDS都能得到结晶较好具有六方层状a-NaFeO_2结构的LiNi_(1/3)Co_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)O_2.SEM显示引入SDS辅助制备的目标材料颗粒细小.约60-300 nm,分散均匀.部分颗粒呈类球状形貌.而没有添加表面活性剂制备的材料粒径范围约250-600 nm,并且部分颗粒有团聚现象.在2.8-4.3 V(vs Li/Li~+),0.5C倍率下,SDS辅助制备和没有添加表面活性剂制备的材料首次放电比容量分别为136.8、123.4 mAh·g_(-1),50次循环后容量保持率分别为90.3%.73.8%.2C和5C下的充放电测试结果都显示SDS的加入能有效改善材料的倍率性能.归因于颗粒更细小.分散更均匀及较小的晶胞体积.SDS辅助制备的材料电荷传递阻抗远小于无表面活性剂辅助制备的材料是其倍率性能得到明显提高的重要原因.%Soft template(sodium dodecyl sulfonate,SDS)assisted Sol-Gel method was provided in this paper to obtain LiNi_(1/3)Co_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)O_2 cathode material.Related characters of products were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron macroscopy(SEM),cyclic voltametry(cv),electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)and charge-discharge testing.XRD results showed that the samples with SDS and without surfaetant caclined 750℃for 12 h both were indexed to pure LiNi_(1/3)Co_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)O_2 with well hexagonal structure (α-NaFeO_2).As observed by SEM,the particle sizes of those with SDS surfactant and without surfactant were in a range of 60-300 nm and 250-600 nm,respectively.Meanwhile,the particle distribution of that with SDS Was moreuniform than that of without surfactant.It'S also observed that material prepared without surfactant showed some the

  8. Synthesis, photophysical property study of novel fluorescent 4-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)-2-phenylnaphtho[1,2-][1,3]oxazole derivatives and their antimicrobial activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kiran R Phatangare; Bhushan N Borse; Vikas S Padalkar; Vikas S Patil; Vinod D Gupta; Prashant G Umape; N Sekar

    2013-01-01

    A series of 4-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)-2-phenylnaphtho[1,2-][1,3]oxazole derivatives have been synthesized from intermediate 1-amino-3-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)naphthalen-2-ol. This intermediate was obtained by coupling 3-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)naphthalen-2-ol with 4-sulphobenzenediazonium chloride followed by reduction with sodium dithionate in water at pH 8-9. 3-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)naphthalen-2-ol was synthesized from 3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid and 2-amino phenol in the presence of PCl3 in chlorobenzene at 130-135°C. All these compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, mass spectral and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds are fluorescent which absorbs in the range of 296 to 332 nm while emits in the ranges of 368 to 404 nm with excellent quantum yield. All compounds were evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains and in vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger strains by using serial dilution method.

  9. New Tolan-type Liquid Crystals with 1,3-Dithiane Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Heng-Feng(李衡峰); LI,Heng-Feng; LIU,Ke-Gang(刘克刚); LIU,Ke-Gang; WANG,Kan(王侃); WANG,Kan; WEN,Jian-Xun(闻建勋); WEN,Jian-Xun

    2001-01-01

    Two new tolan-type liquid crystalline ( LC ) materials, 2-[4-(4-pentoxypheayl)ethynylphenyl]-5-pentyl-1,3-dithiane ( A )and 2-[ 4-( 4-pentoxy-2, 3, 5, 6-tetrafluorophenyl ) ethynylphenyl]-5-pentyl-1,3-dithiane (B) were synthesized and theirmesomorphic behavior was determined. The 1,3-dithiane-type compound A exhibits only nenatic phase .The compund B,fiuorosubstuted in the LC core, shows the same nematic phase hnnge.

  10. Catabolism of 1,3-dinitrobenzene by Rhodococcus sp. QT-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickel, O; Knackmuss, H J

    1991-01-01

    The 1,3-dinitrobenzene-degrading Rhodococcus strain QT-1 was isolated under nitrogen limiting conditions from contaminated soil samples. Experimental data indicate tha 1,3-dinitrobenzene is metabolized via 4-nitrocatechol. Both compounds were oxidized by resting cells and nitro groups were completely eliminated as nitrite. Strain QT-1 utilizes both 1,3-dinitrobenzene and 4-nitrocatechol as source of nitrogen in the absence as well as in the presence of high amounts of ammonia. Growth on 4-nitrocatechol does not induce the enzyme(s) for the initial oxidation of 1,3-dinitrobenzene.

  11. Molecular Consequences of Proprotein Convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) Inhibition in Macrophages for Application to Cancer Immunotherapy: A Proteomic Study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhamel, Marie; Rodet, Franck; Delhem, Nadira; Vanden Abeele, Fabien; Kobeissy, Firas; Nataf, Serge; Pays, Laurent; Desjardins, Roxanne; Gagnon, Hugo; Wisztorski, Maxence; Fournier, Isabelle; Day, Robert; Salzet, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages provide the first line of host immune defense. Their activation triggers the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines recruiting other immune cells. In cancer, macrophages present an M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype promoting tumor growth. In this way, strategies need to be develop to reactivate macrophages. Previously thought to be expressed only in cells with a neural/neuroendocrine phenotype, the proprotein convertase 1/3 has been shown to also be expressed in macrophages and regulated as a function of the Toll-like receptor immune response. Here, we investigated the intracellular impact of the down-regulation of the proprotein convertase 1/3 in NR8383 macrophages and confirmed the results on macrophages from PC1/3 deficient mice. A complete proteomic study of secretomes and intracellular proteins was undertaken and revealed that inhibition of proprotein convertase 1/3 orient macrophages toward an M1 activated phenotype. This phenotype is characterized by filopodial extensions, Toll-like receptor 4 MyD88-dependent signaling, calcium entry augmentation and the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors. In response to endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide, these intracellular modifications increased, and the secreted factors attracted naïve T helper lymphocytes to promote the cytotoxic response. Importantly, the application of these factors onto breast and ovarian cancer cells resulted in a decrease viability or resistance. Under inhibitory conditions using interleukin 10, PC1/3-knockdown macrophages continued to secrete inflammatory factors. These data indicate that targeted inhibition of proprotein convertase 1/3 could represent a novel type of immune therapy to reactivate intra-tumoral macrophages. PMID:26330543

  12. Enzymatic Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Polycarbonates Derived from 5-Allyloxy-1,3-dioxan-2-one and 5,5-Dimethyl-1,3-dioxan-2-one

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ping WANG; Feng HE; Gang LIU; Ren Xi ZHUO

    2006-01-01

    Novel polycarbonates from 5-allyloxy-1, 3-dioxan-2-one (ATMC) with 5, 5-dimethyl1, 3-dioxan-2-one (DTC) were successfully synthesized for the first time using immobilized porcine pancreas lipase (IPPL) as catalyst. The resulting copolymers were characterized by IR,1HNMR, 13C NMR and GPC. The molecular weight (Mn) of the copolymer with molar feed ratio of 10:90 (ATMC:DTC) was 9300 and the polydispersity was 1.31, while the Mn increased to 14300 and polydispersity of 1.25 with the feed ratio of 50:50. Moreover, the composition of the copolymers agreed well with the monomer feed.

  13. Mapping the Interaction Anatomy of BmP02 on Kv1.3 Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B.; Wu, B. F.; Feng, Y. J.; Tao, J.; Ji, Y. H.

    2016-07-01

    The potassium channel Kv 1.3 plays a vital part in the activation of T lymphocytes and is an attractive pharmacological target for autoimmune diseases. BmP02, a 28-residue peptide isolated from Chinese scorpion (Buthus martensi Karsch) venom, is a potent and selective Kv1.3 channel blocker. However, the mechanism through which BmP02 recognizes and inhibits the Kv1.3 channel is still unclear. In the present study, a complex molecular model of Kv1.3-BmP02 was developed by docking analysis and molecular dynamics simulations. From these simulations, it appears the large β-turn (residues 10–16) of BmP02 might be the binding interface with Kv 1.3. These results were confirmed by scanning alanine mutagenesis of BmP02, which identified His9, Lys11 and Lys13, which lie within BmP02’s β-turn, as key residues for interacting with Kv1.3. Based on these results and molecular modeling, two negatively charged residues of Kv1.3, D421 and D422, located in turret region, were predicted to act as the binding site for BmP02. Mutation of these residues reduced sensitivity of Kv 1.3 to BmP02 inhibition, suggesting that electrostatic interactions play a crucial role in Kv1.3-BmP02 interaction. This study revealed the molecular basis of Kv 1.3 recognition by BmP02 venom, and provides a novel interaction model for Kv channel-specific blocker complex, which may help guide future drug-design for Kv1.3-related channelopathies.

  14. First-cycle defect evolution of Li1-xNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 lithium ion battery electrodes investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidlmayer, Stefan; Buchberger, Irmgard; Reiner, Markus; Gigl, Thomas; Gilles, Ralph; Gasteiger, Hubert A.; Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    In this study the structure and evolution of vacancy type defects in lithium ion batteries are investigated in respect of crystallographic properties. The relation between positron annihilation and electronic structure is discussed in terms of structural dynamics during the lithiation process. Samples of Li1-xNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC-111) electrodes with decreasing lithium content (x = 0-0.7) covering the whole range of state of charge were electrochemically prepared for the non-destructive analysis using positron coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy (CDBS). The positron measurements allowed us to observe the evolution of the defect structure caused by the delithiation process in the NMC-111 electrodes. The combination of CDBS with X-ray diffraction for the characterization of the lattice structures enabled the analysis of the well-known kinetic-hindrance-effect in the first charge-discharge cycle and possible implications of vacancy ordering. In particular, CDBS revealed the highest degree of relithiation after discharge to 3.0 V at 55 °C. For the first time, we report on the successful application of CDBS on NMC-111 electrodes yielding new insights in the important role of defects caused by the delithiation process and the kinetic hindrance effect.

  15. 1,3,8-Triazaspiro[4.5]decane-2,4-diones as efficacious pan-inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase 1-3 (HIF PHD1-3) for the treatment of anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachal, Petr; Miao, Shouwu; Pierce, Joan M; Guiadeen, Deodial; Colandrea, Vincent J; Wyvratt, Matthew J; Salowe, Scott P; Sonatore, Lisa M; Milligan, James A; Hajdu, Richard; Gollapudi, Anantha; Keohane, Carol A; Lingham, Russell B; Mandala, Suzanne M; DeMartino, Julie A; Tong, Xinchun; Wolff, Michael; Steinhuebel, Dietrich; Kieczykowski, Gerard R; Fleitz, Fred J; Chapman, Kevin; Athanasopoulos, John; Adam, Gregory; Akyuz, Can D; Jena, Dhirendra K; Lusen, Jeffrey W; Meng, Juncai; Stein, Benjamin D; Xia, Lei; Sherer, Edward C; Hale, Jeffrey J

    2012-04-12

    The discovery of 1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decane-2,4-diones (spirohydantoins) as a structural class of pan-inhibitors of the prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) family of enzymes for the treatment of anemia is described. The initial hit class, spirooxindoles, was identified through affinity selection mass spectrometry (AS-MS) and optimized for PHD2 inhibition and optimal PK/PD profile (short-acting PHDi inhibitors). 1,3,8-Triazaspiro[4.5]decane-2,4-diones (spirohydantoins) were optimized as an advanced lead class derived from the original spiroindole hit. A new set of general conditions for C-N coupling, developed using a high-throughput experimentation (HTE) technique, enabled a full SAR analysis of the spirohydantoins. This rapid and directed SAR exploration has resulted in the first reported examples of hydantoin derivatives with good PK in preclinical species. Potassium channel off-target activity (hERG) was successfully eliminated through the systematic introduction of acidic functionality to the molecular structure. Undesired upregulation of alanine aminotransferese (ALT) liver enzymes was mitigated and a robust on-/off-target margin was achieved. Spirohydantoins represent a class of highly efficacious, short-acting PHD1-3 inhibitors causing a robust erythropoietin (EPO) upregulation in vivo in multiple preclinical species. This profile deems spirohydantoins as attractive short-acting PHDi inhibitors with the potential for treatment of anemia.

  16. Countering the Segregation of Transition-Metal Ions in LiMn1/3 Co1/3 Ni1/3 O2 Cathode for Ultralong Life and High-Energy Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong; Fang, Shaohua; Tamiya, Yu; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    High-voltage layered lithium transition-metal oxides are very promising cathodes for high-energy Li-ion batteries. However, these materials often suffer from a fast degradation of cycling stability due to structural evolutions. It seriously impedes the large-scale application of layered lithium transition-metal oxides. In this work, an ultralong life LiMn1/3 Co1/3 Ni1/3 O2 microspherical cathode is prepared by constructing an Mn-rich surface. Its capacity retention ratio at 700 mA g(-1) is as large as 92.9% after 600 cycles. The energy dispersive X-ray maps of electrodes after numerous cycles demonstrate that the ultralong life of the as-prepared cathode is attributed to the mitigation of TM-ions segregation. Additionally, it is discovered that layered lithium transition-metal oxide cathodes with an Mn-rich surface can mitigate the segregation of TM ions and the corrosion of active materials. This study provides a new strategy to counter the segregation of TM ions in layered lithium transition-metal oxides and will help to the design and development of high-energy cathodes with ultralong life.

  17. The effect of different binders on electrochemical properties of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathode material in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chou, Shu-Lei; Gu, Qin-fen; Liu, Hua-Kun; Dou, Shi-Xue

    2013-03-01

    LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries has been synthesized by the sol-gel method. The X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinement results indicated that single-phase NMC with hexagonal layered structure was obtained. Scanning electron microscope images revealed well crystallized NMC with uniform particle size in the range of 100-200 nm. The performance of the NMC electrodes with sodium carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), and alginate from brown algae as binders was compared. Constant current charge-discharge test results demonstrated that the NMC electrode using CMC as binder had the highest rate capability, followed by those using alginate and PVDF binders, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy test results showed that the electrode using CMC as the binder had lower charge transfer resistance and lower apparent activation energy than the electrodes using alginate and PVDF as the binders. The apparent activation energies of NMC electrodes using CMC, alginate, and PVDF as binders were calculated to be 27.4 kJ mol-1, 33.7 kJ mol-1, and 36 kJ mol-1, respectively.

  18. Spin glass transition in the rhombohedral LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bie, Xiaofei; Yang, Xu [Key Laboratory of Advanced Batteries Physics and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Han, Bing [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Chen, Nan; Liu, Lina; Wei, Yingjin; Wang, Chunzhong [Key Laboratory of Advanced Batteries Physics and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Chen, Hong [College of Physics, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Du, Fei, E-mail: dufei@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Batteries Physics and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Chen, Gang [Key Laboratory of Advanced Batteries Physics and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2013-09-25

    Highlights: •The Rietveld analysis of XRD data reveals a single phase with rhombohedral structure. •Dc susceptibility data suggest a spin glass behavior at low T in the 333 compound. •The ac susceptibility measurements have been observed in the typical SG system. •Three models have been employed to study the behavior of the spin glass state. •Both geometrical frustration and disorder play important role in the formation of SG. -- Abstract: Layered LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} has been synthesized by co-precipitation method, and the magnetic properties were comprehensively studied by dc and ac susceptibilities. The dc magnetization curves show the irreversibility and spin freezing behavior at 109 K and 9 K. The evolution of real and imaginary part of ac susceptibility under different frequencies indicates a spin glass transition at low temperature. Three models (the Néel–Arrhenius law, the Vogel–Fulcher law, and the power law) have been employed to study the relaxation behavior of the spin glass state. Both frustration and disorder play important role in the formation of spin glass.

  19. Unraveling transition metal dissolution of Li1.04Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM 111) in lithium ion full cells by using the total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evertz, Marco; Horsthemke, Fabian; Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Börner, Markus; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2016-10-01

    In this work we investigated the transition metal dissolution of the layered cathode material Li1.04Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 in dependence on the cycle number and cut-off cell voltage during charge by using the total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique for the elemental analysis of the specific lithium ion battery degradation products. We could show that with ongoing cycling transition metal dissolution from the cathode increased over time. However, it was less pronounced at 4.3 V compared to elevated charge cut-off voltages of 4.6 V. After a maximum of 100 cycles, we detected an overall transition metal loss of 0.2 wt‰ in relation to the whole cathode active material for cells cycled to 4.3 V. At an increased charge cut-off voltage of 4.6 V, 4.5 wt‰ transition metal loss in relation to the whole cathode active material could be detected. The corresponding transition metal dissolution induced capacity loss at the cathode could thus be attributed to 1.2 mAh g-1. Compared to the overall capacity loss of 80 mAh g-1 of the complete cell after 100 galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles the value is quite low. Hence, the overall full cell capacity fade cannot be assigned exclusively to the transition metal dissolution induced cathode fading.

  20. The impact of calendar aging on the thermal stability of a LiMn2O4-Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2/graphite lithium-ion cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Patrick; Stiaszny, Barbara; Ziegler, Jörg C.; Baba, Nilüfer; Lagaly, Paul; Wiemhöfer, Hans-Dieter

    2014-12-01

    Aging of lithium-ion cells is an inevitable phenomenon limiting the lifetime. Undesirable side reactions during cycle or calendar aging may affect the performance of all components of the lithium-ion cell. This results in a decreased capacity and an increase in the overall cell impedance. Based on electrochemical and physical characterization methods, the aging behavior during calendar aging of a 18650-cell, containing a blend of LiMn2O4 and Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 (NMC) as cathode material and graphite as anode material was systematically investigated. To understand how the safety behavior of a lithium-ion cell changes with aging, accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were applied. With these methods the thermal stability behavior of the complete lithium-ion cell and its respective cathode and anode material were investigated. The focus of this work was it to generate first cause-effect relations between the aging under one exemplary aging condition and the thermal stability of a lithium-ion battery both on cell and material level.

  1. Beta-1,3-glucan1,3-glucan, a druggable target, forms a trabecular scaffold in the oocyst walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a human pathogen that spreads by ingestion of oocysts in cat feces or tissue cysts in raw meat. Eimeria species are major pathogens of livestock that also spread by infectious oocysts. Beta-1,3-glucan, a major component of fungal and plant walls, is the target of anti-fungal dr...

  2. The voltage-gated potassium channel subunit, Kv1.3, is expressed in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Morten; Rasmussen, Hanne B; Hay-Schmidt, Anders;

    2003-01-01

    The Shaker-type voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv1.3, is believed to be restricted in distribution to lymphocytes and neurons. In lymphocytes, this channel has gained intense attention since it has been proven that inhibition of Kv1.3 channels compromise T lymphocyte activation. To investigate...

  3. REDUCING 1,3-D AND CHLOROPICRIN EMISSIONS WITH SUBSURFACE DRIP AND VIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grape growers in central California fumigate their fields with shank injection of 1,3-D and CP to control soil-borne pests during vineyard replant. Potential 1,3-D emission losses have not been studied under this cropping system. The objective of this study was to quantify the emission rates and e...

  4. Research on AIEOa-coated LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O2 as Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries%A12O3包覆LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄希; 谭艳; 陈燕梅; 季山; 吕维忠; Vladimir Linkov

    2012-01-01

    The research situation and progress of Al203-coated LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O2 cathode material for lithium-ion batteries are summarized. Preparation methods and modification of LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O2 were reviewed. The performance improving mechanism of coated cathode material was discussed. Some problems about research and development of this cathode material are put forward, and their prospect of applications was given.%综述了A1203包覆LiNi(1/3)Cows)Mn(1/3)O2锂离子电池正极材料的研究现状与进展,并评述了其制备方法和包覆改性:讨论了包覆改善该正极材料性能的机理:提出了这种正极材料的研发过程中的一些问题并对其未来的发展前景作了展望。

  5. Tris{4-[(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylmethylene]-41-aminobiphenyl}amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya P. Veettil

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Tris{4-[(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylmethylene]-41-aminobiphenyl}amine was synthesized from N-(4-bromophenyl-N-[(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylmethylene]amine and tris(4-bromophenylamine based on Ullmann coupling reaction. The synthesized compound was characterized by NMR, IR, MS and elemental analysis.

  6. Preparation and performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/Li4Ti5O12 Li-ion battery%LiN i1/3CO1/3M n1/3O2/Li4Ti5O12锂离子电池的制备与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永胜; 韩恩山; 黄金辉

    2011-01-01

    18650 type high power Li-ion battery was prepared with LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 and Li4Ti5O12 as positive and negative activated material, respectively. The charge-discharge performance at different temperatures and discharge rates was tested, the cycle performance and safety performance was investigated.The prepared battery had fine fast charge,rate discharge ability and discharge performance at high and low temperatures. When cycled at 1 C at 1.20 ~2.80 V,the capacity retention rate was more than 93 % in 200 cycles at normal temperature, the capacity retention rate was 98.28 % after 60 cycles at high temperature of 55 ℃. The battery neither exploded nor caught fire in external short circuit, overcharge and acupuncture test, the skin temperature didn t exceed 60 ℃.%分别以LiNi1/3 Co1/3M n1/3 O2、Li4Ti5O12为正、负极活性物质,制备了18650型高功率锂离子电池.测试了不同倍率及温度下的充放电性能,考察了安全性能.制备的电池有良好的快速充电、倍率放电及高低温放电性能.以1C在1.20~2.80 V循环,在常温下循环200次的容量保持率在93%以上;在高温55℃下循环60次的容量保持率为98.28%.电池在短路、过充、针刺测试中均不起火、不爆炸,表面温度最高不超过60 ℃.

  7. Substituent effects on singlet-triplet gaps and mechanisms of 1,2-rearrangements of 1,3-oxazol-2-ylidenes to 1,3-oxazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Fillmore; Lau, Desirae J; Patel, Atitkumar R; Pavia, Paulo R; Willey, Justin D

    2008-09-18

    Electronic structures, partial atomic charges, singlet-triplet gaps (Delta E ST), substituent effects, and mechanisms of 1,2-rearrangements of 1,3-oxazol-2-ylidene ( 5) and 4,5-dimethyl- ( 6), 4,5-difluoro- ( 7), 4,5-dichloro- ( 8), 4,5-dibromo- ( 9), and 3-methyl-1,3-oxazol-2-ylidene ( 10) to the corresponding 1,3-oxazoles have been studied using complete-basis-set methods (CBS-QB3, CBS-Q, CBS-4M), second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation method (MP2), hybrid density functionals (B3LYP, B3PW91), coupled-cluster theory with single and double excitations (CCSD) and CCSD plus perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)], and the quadratic configuration interaction method including single and double excitations (QCISD) and QCISD plus perturbative triple excitations [QCISD(T)]. The 6-311G(d,p), 6-31+G(d,p), 6-311+G(d,p), and correlation-consistent polarized valence double-xi (cc-pVDZ) basis sets were employed. The carbenes have singlet ground states, and the CBS-QB3 and CBS-Q methods predict Delta E ST values for 5- 8 and 10 of 79.9, 79.8, 74.7, 77.0, and 82.0 kcal/mol, respectively. CCSD(T), QCISD(T), B3LYP, and B3PW91 predict smaller Delta E ST values than CBS-QB3 and CBS-Q, with the hybrid density functionals predicting the smallest values. The concerted unimolecular exothermic out-of-plane 1,2-rearrangements of singlet 1,3-oxazol-2-ylidenes to their respective 1,3-oxazoles proceed via cyclic three-center transition states. The CBS-predicted barriers to the 1,2-rearrangements of singlet carbenes 5- 9 to their respective 1,3-oxazoles are 41.4, 40.4, 37.8, 40.4, and 40.5 kcal/mol, respectively. During the 1,2-rearrangements of singlet 1,3-oxazol-2-ylidenes 5- 9, there is a decrease in electron density at oxygen, N3 (the migration origin), and C5 and an increase in electron density at C2 (the migration terminus), C4, and the partially positive migrating hydrogen.

  8. Computational methods to calculate accurate activation and reaction energies of 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of 24 1,3-dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yu; Zou, Lufeng; Cao, Yang; Houk, K N

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical calculations were performed on the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of 24 1,3-dipoles with ethylene and acetylene. The 24 1,3-dipoles are of the formula X≡Y(+)-Z(-) (where X is HC or N, Y is N, and Z is CH(2), NH, or O) or X═Y(+)-Z(-) (where X and Z are CH(2), NH, or O and Y is NH, O, or S). The high-accuracy G3B3 method was employed as the reference. CBS-QB3, CCSD(T)//B3LYP, SCS-MP2//B3LYP, B3LYP, M06-2X, and B97-D methods were benchmarked to assess their accuracies and to determine an accurate method that is practical for large systems. Several basis sets were also evaluated. Compared to the G3B3 method, CBS-QB3 and CCSD(T)/maug-cc-pV(T+d)Z//B3LYP methods give similar results for both activation and reaction enthalpies (mean average deviation, MAD, < 1.5 kcal/mol). SCS-MP2//B3LYP and M06-2X give small errors for the activation enthalpies (MAD < 1.5 kcal/mol), while B3LYP has MAD = 2.3 kcal/mol. SCS-MP2//B3LYP and B3LYP give the reasonable reaction enthalpies (MAD < 5.0 kcal/mol). The B3LYP functional also gives good results for most 1,3-dipoles (MAD = 1.9 kcal/mol for 17 common 1,3-dipoles), but the activation and reaction enthalpies for ozone and sulfur dioxide are difficult to calculate by any of the density functional methods.

  9. Secondary organic aerosol formation from the photooxidation of isoprene, 1,3-butadiene, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene under high NOx conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Cocker III

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from atmospheric oxidation of isoprene has been the subject of multiple studies in recent years; however, reactions of other conjugated dienes emitted from anthropogenic sources remain poorly understood. SOA formation from the photooxidation of isoprene, isoprene-1-13C, 1,3-butadiene, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene is investigated for high NOx conditions. The SOA yield measured in the 1,3-butadiene/NOx/H2O2 irradiation system (0.089–0.178 was close to or slightly higher than that measured with isoprene under similar NOx conditions (0.077–0.103, suggesting that the photooxidation of 1,3-butadiene is a possible source of SOA in urban air. In contrast, a very small amount of SOA particles was produced in experiments with 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene. Off-line liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry analysis revealed oligoesters as the major SOA products observed from all dienes investigated. The oligoesters originate from the unsaturated aldehyde gas-phase diene reaction products, which undergo oligoester formation through heterogeneous oxidation under high NOx conditions. Oligoesters produced by the dehydration reaction between nitrooxypolyol and 2-methylglyceric acid monomer or its oligomer were also discovered in these experiments with isoprene as the starting diene. These oligomers are possible sources of the 2-methyltetrols found in ambient aerosol samples collected under high NOx conditions. Furthermore, in low-temperature experiments also conducted in this study, the SOA yield measured with isoprene at 278 K was 2–3 times as high as that measured at 300 K under similar concentration conditions. Although oligomerization plays an important role in SOA formation from isoprene photooxidation, the observed temperature dependence of SOA yield is largely explained by gas/particle partitioning of semi-volatile compounds.

  10. DFT Study of Hydrogen-Bonded 1,3,5-Triazine-Water Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Quan; HU,Jing-Dan; ZHAO,Ke-Qing

    2007-01-01

    The 1,3,5-triazine-water hydrogen bonding interactions have been investigated using the density functional theory B3LYP method and 6-31 + + G** basis, obtaining one, two and seven energy minima of the ground states for the 1,3,5-triazine-water, 1,3,5-triazine-(water)2 and 1,3,5-triazine-(water)3 complexes respectively. The fully optimized geometries and binding energies were reported for the various stationary points. The global minima of 1,3,5-triazine-(water)2 and 1,3,5-triazine-(water)3 complexes have a hydrogen bond N…H-O and a chain of water molecules, terminated by a hydrogen bond O…H-C. The binding energies are 13.38, 39.52 and 67.79 kJ/mol for the most stable 1,3,5-triazine-water, 1,3,5-triazine-(water)2 and 1,3,5-triazine-(water)3 complexes respectively, after the basis set superposition error and zero point energy corrections. The H-O symmetric stretching modes of water in the complexes are red-shifted relative to those of the monomer water. In addition, the NBO analysis indicates that inter-molecule charge transfer is 0.02145 e, 0.02501 e and 0.02777 e for the most stable 1∶1, 1∶2 and 1∶3 complexes between 1,3,5-triazine and water, respectively.

  11. 1,3-Propanediol production by Escherichia coli using genes from Citrobacter freundii atcc 8090.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przystałowska, Hanna; Zeyland, Joanna; Kośmider, Alicja; Szalata, Marlena; Słomski, Ryszard; Lipiński, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Compared with chemical synthesis, fermentation has the advantage of mass production at low cost, and has been used in the production of various industrial chemicals. As a valuable organic compound, 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) has numerous applications in the production of polymers, lubricants, cosmetics and medicines. Here, conversion of glycerol (a renewable substrate and waste from biodiesel production) to 1,3-PDO by E. coli bacterial strain carrying altered glycerol metabolic pathway was investigated. Two gene constructs containing the 1,3-PDO operon from Citrobacter freundii (pCF1 and pCF2) were used to transform the bacteria. The pCF1 gene expression construct contained dhaBCE genes encoding the three subunits of glycerol dehydratase, dhaF encoding the large subunit of the glycerol dehydratase reactivation factor and dhaG encoding the small subunit of the glycerol dehydratase reactivating factor. The pCF2 gene expression construct contained the dhaT gene encoding the 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase. Expression of the genes cloned in the above constructs was under regulation of the T7lac promoter. RT-PCR, SDS-PAGE analyses and functional tests confirmed that 1,3-PDO synthesis pathway genes were expressed at the RNA and protein levels, and worked flawlessly in the heterologous host. In a batch flask culture, in a short time applied just to identify the 1,3-PDO in a preliminary study, the recombinant E. coli bacteria produced 1.53 g/L of 1,3-PDO, using 21.2 g/L of glycerol in 72 h. In the Sartorius Biostat B Plus reactor, they produced 11.7 g/L of 1,3-PDO using 24.2 g/L of glycerol, attaining an efficiency of 0.58 [mol1,3-PDO/molglycerol].

  12. Caracterização antigênica e fenotípica de cepas de Pasteurella multocida isoladas de pulmões de suínos com pneumonia e/ou pleurite Antigenic and phenotypic characterization of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from the lungs of pigs with pneumonia and/or pleuritic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Borowski

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi analisada a variabilidade antigênica e fenotípica de 22 cepas de Pasteurella multocida isoladas de pulmões de suínos com pneumonia e/ou pleurite. Os testes fenotípicos foram realizados pela determinação de características bioquímicas e sensibilidade a agentes antimicrobianos. Todos os isolados fermentaram manitol e sorbitol, mas nenhum arabinose; 14 foram capazes de metabolizar xilose, quatro trealose, dois dulcitol e um maltose. A análise destas características permitiu agrupar os isolados em 5 padrões bioquímicos distintos. Quanto à sensibilidade a nove agentes antimicrobianos, verificou-se grande variação, com apenas 50% dos isolados sensíveis a pelo menos sete dos nove antibióticos testados. Nenhum princípio ativo foi capaz de inibir todos os isolados. A melhor eficiência foi observada com a amoxicilina (30 mg; 72,7% dos isolados se mostraram sensíveis. A menor eficiência foi demonstrada pela espectinomicina (100 mg com 45,5%. A caracterização antigênica consistiu na sorotipagem capsular e determinação de variabilidade do gene de proteína de membrana externa (ompH pela reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR e digestão com cinco enzimas de restrição. Das 22 cepas, 21 foram compatíveis com sorotipo capsular A e uma com D. A caracterização do gene ompH agrupou os isolados em sete padrões distintos que apresentaram boa correlação com os testes bioquímicos.The antigenic and phenotypic variation among 22 strains of Pasteurella multocida isolated from pig lungs with pneumonia and/or pleuritic lesions was studied. Phenotypic tests consisted of biochemical assays and antimicrobial sensitivity tests. All isolates fermented mannitol and sorbitol, but none fermented arabinose. Fourteen fermented xylose, 4 trehalose, 2 dulcitol and 1 maltose. Analyzing these characteristics, 5 different biochemical groups were revealed. There was a wide variation in the results of antimicrobial sensitivity testing to 9 products

  13. Vacinas com marcadores antigênicos contra o vírus da rinotraqueíte infecciosa bovina e o vírus da doença de Aujeszky Vaccines with antigenic markers against bovine herpesvírus type-1 and pseudorabies vírus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Reis Ciacci Zanella

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Vacinas contra o herpes vírus bovino tipo-1 (IBRV, vírus da rinotraqueíte infecciosa e o herpesvírus suíno (PRV, vírus da doença de Aujeszky têm sido amplamente utilizadas em vários países para minimizar as perdas associadas à essas infecções. As vacinas tradicionais, no entanto, induzem uma resposta humoral indistinguível da resposta à infecção natural, o que não permite a distinção entre animais vacinados dos infectados naturalmente. Isto tem dificultado o estabelecimento de medidas de controle e erradicação dessas enfermidades. Nos últimos anos, a manipulação genética desses vírus tem permitido a obtenção de mutantes com marcadores antigênicos específicos. A estratégia consiste na deleção de uma ou mais glicoproteínas do envelope viral que não são essenciais para a replicação do vírus e o uso desses mutantes como vacinas. A utilização de um teste sorológico específico para a glicoproteína deletada permite a distinção entre animais vacinados dos infectados com o vírus de campo. A utilização de vacinas com marcadores antigênicos, também chamadas de vacinas diferenciais, tem sido a base de programas de controle e erradicação da doença de Aujeszky em vários países e começa a ser utilizada no controle da rinotraqueíte infecciosa bovina. Este artigo apresenta uma breve revisão sobre as bases moleculares e biológicas das vacinas diferenciais para o IBRV e PRV, assim como possíveis aplicações dessas vacinas no controle dessas enfermidades no Brasil em um futuro próximo.Vaccination has been widely used to minimize the economic losses caused by bovine herpesvírus type-1 (IBRV and pseudorabies virus (PR V infections. The traditional vaccines, however, induce a humoral response that is indistinguishable from that induced by the natural infection. The impossibility of distinction between vaccinated and naturally infected animais has impaired the establishment of control and eradication

  14. Preliminary antigenic characterisation of an adult worm vomit preparation of Fasciola hepatica by infected human sera Caracterização antigênica preliminar de preparação de vômito de verme adulto de Fasciola hepatica por soros humanos infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra De Almeida

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is an emerging/re-emerging vector-borne disease with the widest known distribution. Approximately 17 million people are infected around the world, being the Andean region the most affected area. There is an important necessity to develop sensitive and specific diagnostic tools to treat patients early and to avoid complications. In this paper we evaluated the immune response of infected humans against two antigenic preparations: the total soluble extract (FhTSE and the adult worm vomit (FhAWV in order to identify antigenic fractions specific for Fasciola hepatica. Both preparations were processed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot with human sera with fascioliasis (F, other parasitosis and healthy individuals. In the immunoblot of FhTSE, sera F recognised 16 bands with MW between eight and 110 kDa, from which those of 8, 9, 10, 38, 45 and 57 kDa were specific. In the preparation FhAWV, sera F recognised nine bands with MW from eight to 85 kDa, from which those of 8, 12, 15 and 24 kDa were specific. Some bands of cross-reaction were evident with sera from patients with other parasitoses, more frequent with the FhTSE. Bands within the MW mentioned, particularly that of eight kDa, have been shown to be specific by others, and deserve additional characterisation for their potential use in immunodiagnosis.Fasciolíase é uma doença emergente/re-emergente transmitida por vetores com a distribuição sabidamente mais ampla. Existem aproximadamente 17 milhões de pessoas infectadas em todo mundo, sendo a região andina a área mais afetada. Há uma necessidade importante para desenvolver ferramentas diagnósticas sensíveis e específicas para tratar cedo os pacientes e para evitar complicações. Neste trabalho avaliamos a resposta imune de seres humanos infectados comparando a duas preparações antigênicas: o extrato solúvel total (FhTSE e o vômito (FhAWV do verme adulto a fim de identificar as frações antigênicas específicas para

  15. β-1,3 : 1,4-Glucan Synthase Activity in Rice Seedlings under Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpara, Tomoya; Aohara, Tsutomu; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hoson, Takayuki; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Kotake, Toshihisa

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The metabolism of β-1,3 : 1,4-glucan regulates the mechanical properties of cell walls, and thereby changes the elongation growth of Poaceae plants. A previous study has shown that elongation growth of rice coleoptiles under water is enhanced by increased activity of β-1,3 : 1,4-glucan hydrolases; however, the involvement of β-1,3 : 1,4-glucan synthase activity in elongation growth under water has not yet been clarified. Methods The β-1,3 : 1,4-glucan synthase activity in a microsomal fraction prepared from rice seedlings grown under water was compared with that from control seedlings grown in air. The change under water in the relative expression level of CslF6, a major isoform of the β-1,3 : 1,4-glucan synthase genes, was examined by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR. Key Results The level of β-1,3 : 1,4-glucan synthase activity in submerged seedlings decreased to less than 40 % of that of the control seedlings and was accompanied by a significant reduction in the amount of β-1,3 : 1,4-glucan in the cell walls. Under water, the expression of CslF6 was reduced to less than 20 % of the unsubmerged control. Bubble aeration partially restored both β-1,3 : 1,4-glucan synthase activity and the expression of CslF6 under water, correlating with suppression of the submergence-induced elongation growth of coleoptiles. Conclusions Submergence down-regulates the expression of the CslF6 gene, leading to a decreased level of β-1,3 : 1,4-glucan synthase activity. Together with the increased activity of β-1,3 : 1,4-glucan hydrolases, the decreased activity of β-1,3 : 1,4-glucan synthase contributes to the decrease in the amount of β-1,3 : 1,4-glucan in the cell walls under water. The suppression of β-1,3 : 1,4-glucan synthesis under water may be mainly due to oxygen depletion. PMID:18487614

  16. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Ce-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3C01/3O2 cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Shengkui; WANG You; LIU Jiequn; WAN Kang; L(U) Fan

    2011-01-01

    The layered material of Ce-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 with α-NaFeO2 was synthesized by a co-precipitation method.X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Ce-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 had the same layered structure as the undoped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2.The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images exhibited that the particle size of Ce-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 was smaller than that of the undoped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2.The Ce-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 samples were investigated on the Li extraction/insertion performances through charge/discharge,cyclic voltammogram (CV),and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS).The optimal doping content of Ce was x=0.02 in the LiNi1/3-xMn1/3Co1/3CexO2 samples to achieve high discharge capacity and good cyclic stability.The electrode reaction reversibility was enhanced,and the charge transfer resistance was decreased through Ce-doping.The improved electrochemical performances of the Ce-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathode materials were attributed to the addition ofCe4+ ion by stabilizing the layer structure.

  17. Análisis de técnicas de recuperación antigénica para la detección inmunohistoquímica del virus de la diarrea viral bovina Analysis of antigen retrieval techniques for the immunohistochemical detection of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Marini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evaluaron diferentes métodos de recuperación antigénica para permitir la inmunodetección del virus de la Diarrea Viral Bovina (vDVB en materiales fijados con formol. Se analizó el efecto de la aplicación de digestión proteolítica (ficina, tripsina, pepsina, proteinasa K y su combinación con tratamiento en un horno microondas empleando diferentes concentraciones y tiempos de incubación para el anticuerpo primario. El tratamiento más efectivo fue el realizado con proteinasa K, utilizando diluciones de 1:30 para los anticuerpos primarios, con incubación durante toda la noche a temperatura ambiente. Concluimos que la fijación formólica afecta la antigenicidad del vDVB pero estos efectos pueden ser revertidos por digestión proteolítica específica permitiendo la utilización de la inmunohistoquímica como técnica de rutina para el diagnóstico de la enfermedad.In the present work different methods of antigen retrieval were evaluated to allow the immunodetection of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus (BVDv in materials fixed with formol. The effect of the application of proteolytic digestion was analyzed (ficin, trypsin, pepsin, proteinase K and its combination with treatment in a microwave oven using different concentrations and times of incubation for the primary antibody. The most effective treatment was the one carried out with proteinase K, using 1:30 dilution for the primary antibodies, with overnight incubation at room temperature. We conclude that the formol fixation affects the antigenicity of the BVDv but these effects can be reverted by specific proteolytic digestion allowing the use of the immunohistochemical routine technique for the diagnosis of the disease.

  18. Absorption cross-sections of the C-h overtone of volatile organic compounds: 2 methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene), 1,3-butadiene, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cias, Pawel; Wang, Chuji; Dibble, Theodore S

    2007-02-01

    Many molecules or transient radicals have well-documented absorption cross-sections in the ultraviolet (UV) region, but their absorption cross-sections in the near-infrared (NIR) region are much less often known and are difficult to measure. We propose a method to determine the unknown NIR absorption cross-sections using the known absorption cross-sections in the UV region, in which single-path UV absorption spectroscopy and NIR continuous wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) are employed in a cross-arm reaction chamber for simultaneous measurements. Without knowing the actual sample partial pressures (or concentrations), the NIR absorption cross-sections can be accurately determined through the two sets of measurements. The method is demonstrated by measuring the NIR absorption cross-section of the first overtone of the asymmetric C-H stretch of 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene) (3.24 (+/-0.16) x 10(-22) cm(2) molecule(-1)) at 1651.52 nm using the known value of the absorption cross-section at 220 nm. The diode laser wavelength was calibrated by atmospheric cavity ringdown spectra of CH(4), CO(2), and H(2)O. By comparison with sample pressure measurements, this method can also be used as a pressure calibration means for the reaction chamber, and this has been demonstrated with two additional measurements of the absorption cross-sections of 1,3-butadiene and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene (2.50 (+/- 0.08) x 10(-22) and 2.82 (+/-0.16) x 10(-22) cm(2) molecule(-1), respectively) at 1651.52 nm. The applicability of the method to determining absorption cross-sections using the simultaneous measurements of cw-CRDS and single-path absorption spectroscopy is discussed.

  19. Fatigue in 0.5Li2MnO3:0.5Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 positive electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekehr, Lars; Liu, Jinlong; Schwarz, Björn; Sigel, Florian; Kerkamm, Ingo; Xia, Yongyao; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    Two different Li-rich nickel-cobalt-manganese-oxide (Li-rich NCM) active materials with the same nominal composition 0.5Li2MnO3:0.5Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 but different pristine nano structure have been analyzed structurally and electrochemically in different cycling states. For structural characterization, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution synchrotron powder diffraction (S-XRD) experiments were conducted. The changes in structure with increasing cycle number are correlated with characteristic features in the corresponding electrochemical dQ/dV-profiles that were obtained by galvanostatically cycling the two different active materials. The presented data demonstrates that structural changes upon cycling, e.g. LiMnO2 and spinel formation, strongly depend on the degree oxygen is involved in the reversible charge compensation for delithiation/lithiation. According to our data, firstly a twin-like environment with nanometer dimensions is formed within the R-3m matrix during the initial cycle, which then gradually transforms into a spinel-like structure with increasing cycle number. As another result, we can show that Li2MnO3 to LiMnO2 transformation is not directly dependent in the irreversible oxygen loss in the first cycle but more importantly on transition metal migration. A model is presented explaining the dependency of LiMnO2 and spinel formation on the ability of Li-rich active materials to include oxygen in the charge compensation process.

  20. Single crystal PMN-PT/epoxy 1-3 composite for energy-harvesting application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kailiang; Liu, Yiming; Geng, Xuecang; Hofmann, Heath F; Zhang, Qiming M

    2006-03-01

    One key parameter in using electroactive materials to harvest electric energy from mechanical sources is the energy conversion efficiency. Recently, it was shown that, in the relaxor ferroelectric PMN-PT single crystals, a very high longitudinal electromechanical coupling factor (>90%) can be obtained. This paper investigates energy harvesting using 1-3 composites of PMN-PT single crystals in a soft epoxy matrix. It is shown that 1-3 composites enable the single crystals operating in the longitudinal mode to achieve high efficiency for energy harvesting, and the soft-polymer, matrix-supported single-crystal rods maintain high mechanical integrity under different external loads. For comparison, 1-3 composites with piezoceramic PZT also are investigated in energy-harvesting applications, and the results show that the high coupling factor of single crystal PMN-PT 1-3 composites leads to much higher electric energy output for similar mechanical energy input. The harvested energy density of 1-3 composite with single crystal (22.1 mW/cm3 under a stress of 40.4 MPa) is about twice of that harvested with PZT ceramic 1-3 composite (12 mW/cm3 under a stress of 39 MPa). At a higher stress level, the harvested-energy density of 1-3 PMN-PT single crystal composite can reach 96 mW/cm3.

  1. Crystal and magnetic structures of Cr1/3NbSe2 from neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubkin, A. F.; Proskurina, E. P.; Kousaka, Y.; Sherokalova, E. M.; Selezneva, N. V.; Miao, P.; Lee, S.; Zhang, J.; Ishikawa, Y.; Torii, S.; Kamiyama, T.; Campo, J.; Akimitsu, J.; Baranov, N. V.

    2016-01-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements of the Cr intercalated niobium diselenide Cr1/3NbSe2 together with magnetization measurements have revealed that this compound exhibits ferromagnetic ordering below TC = 96 K unlike a chiral helimagnetic order observed in the sulfide compound Cr1/3NbS2. As derived from neutron diffraction data, the Cr magnetic moments μCr = 2.83 ± 0.03 μB in Cr1/3NbSe2 are aligned within basal plane. The discrepancy in the magnetic states of Cr1/3NbS2 and Cr1/3NbSe2 is ascribed to the difference in the preferential site occupation of Cr ions in crystal lattices. In Cr1/3NbSe2, the Cr ions are predominantly distributed over 2b Wyckoff site, which determines a centrosymmetric character of the crystal structure unlike Cr1/3NbS2, where the Cr ions are mainly located in 2c position and the crystal structure is non-centrosymmetric.

  2. Case of allergic contact dermatitis due to 1,3-butylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Atsuko; Ito, Akiko; Masui, Yukiko; Ito, Masaaki

    2014-09-01

    1,3-Butylene glycol (1,3-BG) is widely used in cosmetics, including low-irritant skin care products and topical medicaments, as an excellent and low-irritation humectant. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by 1,3-BG. A 28-year-old woman suffered from an itchy erythematous eruption on her face. By 2 days of closed patch testing, her own cosmetics and many of the hypo-irritant skin care products showed positive results. A second patch testing showed positive reaction to 1,3-BG (1% and 5%). 1,3-BG was a common component in most of the products that had elicited a positive reaction in the first patch testing. Although allergic contact dermatitis due to 1,3-BG is not so common, we have to consider 1,3-BG as a possible contact allergen in the patients presenting with allergic contact dermatitis due to various cosmetics.

  3. Purification and Characterization of β-1,3-Glucanase from the Antagonistic Fungus Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI WAHYUNI BUDIARTI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma enzymes that inhibit fungal cell walls have been suggested to play an important role in mycoparasitic action against fungal root rot pathogen Ganoderma philippii. This experiment was aimed to purify and characterize the β-1,3-glucanase of T. reesei. Extracellular β-1,3-glucanase was produced by growing mycoparasite T. reesei isolate T13 in colloidal chitin and sucrose as carbon sources. The enzyme was then purified to its homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, followed by gel filtration chromatography and chromatofocusing. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE 12% was used to confirm the purity of enzyme at each stage of preparation and to characterize purified protein. The results showed that T. reesei produced at least three extracellular β-1,3-glucanases. Estimation of molecular weight based on SDS-PAGE 12% have three isoform of β-1,3-glucanase were 90 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-I, 75 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-II, and 64 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-III. Their optimum pH and temperature were 5 and 50 oC, respectively.

  4. Glutathione transferases and glutathionylated hemoglobin in workers exposed to low doses of 1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Alessandra; Fustinoni, Silvia; Biroccio, Antonino; Ballerini, Sabrina; Urbani, Andrea; Bernardini, Sergio; Federici, Giorgio; Capucci, Enrico; Manno, Maurizio; Lo Bello, Mario

    2008-11-01

    We evaluated glutathione transferase (GST) activities and the levels of glutathionylated hemoglobin in the RBC of 42 workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene in a petrochemical plant, using 43 workers not exposed to 1,3-butadiene and 82 foresters as internal and external controls, respectively. Median 1,3-butadiene exposure levels were 1.5, 0.4, and 0.1 microg/m3 in 1,3-butadiene-exposed workers, in workers not directly exposed to 1,3-butadiene, and in foresters, respectively. In addition, we determined in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of the same individuals the presence of GST polymorphic genes GSTT1 and GSTM1 and the distribution of GSTP1 allelic variants. Comparing the mean values observed in petrochemical workers with those of control foresters, we found a marked decrease of GST enzymatic activity and a significant increase of glutathionylated hemoglobin in the petrochemical workers. A weak but significant negative correlation was found between levels of 1,3-butadiene exposure and GST activity, whereas a positive correlation was found between 1,3-butadiene exposure and glutathionylated hemoglobin. A negative correlation was also observed between GST activity and glutathionylated hemoglobin. No influence of confounders was observed. Using a multiple linear regression model, up to 50.6% and 41.9% of the variability observed in glutathionylated hemoglobin and GST activity, respectively, were explained by 1,3-butadiene exposure, working setting, and GSTT1 genotype. These results indicate that occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene induces an oxidative stress that impairs the GST balance in RBC, and suggest that GST activity and glutathionylated hemoglobin could be recommended as promising biomarkers of effect in petrochemical workers.

  5. Ab initio study of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of the 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Abdelsalam; Ågren, Hans; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of the 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) C 3H 6N 6O 6 molecule is studied by ab initio methods. The results are compared to available experimental observations and against calculations and experimental observations of the conventional non-resonant Raman spectrum for RDX. It is found that all intense bands in the observed CARS spectrum and all Raman differential cross sections are well reproduced by the calculations. The features of the resonant CARS signal vary strongly from the corresponding Raman signal, and are obtained with a considerably larger cross section, a fact that could further facilitate the use of CARS spectroscopy in applications of stand-off detection of gaseous samples at ultra-low concentrations.

  6. Computational Investigation of 1,3-H and 1,5-H Shifts in Isom-erization of Enol Acetate of 2-Aceto-1,3-cyclohexanedione

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yanhua; CHEN Xuesong; LI Li; ZOU Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of the isomerization of the enol acetate of 2-aceto-1,3-cyclohexanedione has been discussed in detail. The possible 1,3-H and 1,5-H shifts in isomerization were investigated systematically. It seems that this mechanism includes two successive 1,5-sigmatropic shifts,i.e. 1,5-acetyl and 1,5-H shifts. Density functional the-ory calculations have been performed to evaluate the reasonability of the proposed mechanisms. The effect of the solvent upon the rate-determining steps has been also considered. In addition, the relative stabilities of the reactant, the product as well as the intermediates in the proposed mechanism have been examined and discussed.

  7. Carburization of tungsten filaments in a hot-wire chemical vapor deposition process using 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-1,3-disilacyclobutane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, L; Shi, Y J

    2009-09-01

    The alloying of tungsten filament when using 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-1,3-disilacyclobutane (TMDSCB) in a hot-wire chemical vapor deposition reactor was systematically studied by scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, analysis of the power consumed by the filament, and in situ mass spectrometric measurements of the gas-phase species produced in the process. Only carburization of the W filament was observed. The carburization is mainly caused by the interaction of methyl radicals with the filament. Graphite as well as both WC and W2C alloys can form on the filament surface, depending on the filament temperatures and source gas pressures. Both WC and graphite are converted to W2C with the diffusion of C into the filament. It is shown that filament carburization affects the consumption rate of the source gas and the intensities of gas-phase reaction products. Gas-phase reactions dominate at T or = 1800 degrees C.

  8. Crystal structure of 1,3-bis(3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzyl-1,3-diazinan-5-ol monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Rivera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title hydrate, C28H42N2O3·H2O, the central 1,3-diazinan-5-ol ring adopts a chair conformation with the two benzyl substituents equatorial and the lone pairs of the N atoms axial. The dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 19.68 (38°. There are two intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bonds, each generating an S(6 ring motif. In the crystal, classical O—H...O hydrogen bonds connect the 1,3-diazinane and water molecules into columns extending along the b axis. The crystal structure was refined as a two-component twin with a fractional contribution to the minor domain of 0.0922 (18.

  9. Novel Reaction of N,N'-Bisarylmethanediamines with Formaldehyde. Synthesis of Some New 1,3,5-Triaryl-1,3,5-hexahydrotriazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Olyaei

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The acid-catalyzed cyclocondensation of N,N'-bisaryl (aryl = 2-pyrimidinyl, 2- pyrazinyl and 4-nitrophenyl methanediamines 5a-c with aqueous formaldehyde in refluxing acetonitrile leads to the formation of the corresponding 1,3,5-triaryl-1,3,5-hexa- hydrotriazines 6a-c. The stoichiometric reactions of 2-aminopyrimidine and 2-amino- pyrazine with aqueous formaldehyde in acetonitrile under reflux conditions also afforded 6a and 6b, respectively. Treatment of 2-aminopyrimidine with aqueous formaldehyde in a 3:2 ratio yielded N,N',N"-tris(2-pyrimidinyldimethylenetriamine (7a as a sole product, which upon subsequent reaction with formaldehyde also afforded 6a. The reaction of N,N'-biphenylmethanediamine with formaldehyde was also investigated.

  10. Studies on the interactions of 2,5-diphenyl 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 2,5-diphenyl 1,3-oxazole with β-cyclodextrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Interactions of 2,5-diphenyl 1,3,4-oxadiazole (PPD) and 2,5-diphenyl 1,3-oxazole (PPO) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) are studied by 1H-NMR and steady-state fluorescence measurements, and the stoichiometries and the association constants are estimated. It is found that the hydrophobic interaction is the main driving force for the formation of inclusion complexes of PPD and PPO with β-CD. In the presence of aliphatic alcohols (from 1-propanol to 1-pentanol), PPD and PPO transfer from the CD cavity to the aqueous phase. Quenching experiments of PPD and PPO by iodide further prove the above conclusions. The results suggest that stereo effect is the crucial factor to the inexistence of nanotube in PPD (or PPO)-β-CD systems.

  11. Synthesis of new 4,6-disubstituted-1,3-oxazinan-2-one analogues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Jyoti Borah; Prodeep Phukan

    2013-11-01

    1,3-Oxazinan-2-one analogues are important heterocyclic compounds having significant biological activities. This study reports the synthesis of eight new 4,6-disubstituted -1,3-oxazinan-2-one analogues from corresponding homoallylic carbamates. Homoallylic carbamates were synthesized via a three-component reaction of aldehyde, allyltrimethylsilane and benzyl carbamate in presence of iodine as catalyst. In the next step, homoallylic carbamates were subjected to Sharpless dihydroxylation (racemic) to produce 3,4-dihydroxybutylcarbamate derivatives. This product was then treated with NaH in tetrahydrofuran (THF) to produce the desired 6-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-oxazinan-2-one in high yield.

  12. 1,3-Propanediol production by new recombinant Escherichia coli containing genes from pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przystałowska, Hanna; Zeyland, Joanna; Szymanowska-Powałowska, Daria; Szalata, Marlena; Słomski, Ryszard; Lipiński, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) is an organic compound, which is a valuable intermediate product, widely used as a monomer for synthesizing biodegradable polymers, increasing their strength; as well as an ingredient of textile, cosmetic and medical products. 1,3-PDO is mostly synthesized chemically. Global companies have developed technologies for 1,3-PDO synthesis from petroleum products such as acrolein and ethylene oxide. A potentially viable alternative is offered by biotechnological processes using microorganisms capable of synthesizing 1,3-PDO from renewable substrates (waste glycerol, a by-product of biofuel production, or glucose). In the present study, genes from Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were introduced into Escherichia coli bacteria to enable the synthesis of 1,3-PDO from waste glycerol. These strains belong to the best 1,3-PDO producers, but they are pathogenic, which restricts their application in industrial processes. The present study involved the construction of two gene expression constructs, containing a total of six heterologous glycerol catabolism pathway genes from C. freundii ATCC 8090 and K. pneumoniae ATCC 700721. Heterologous genes encoding glycerol dehydratase (dhaBCE) and the glycerol dehydratase reactivation factor (dhaF, dhaG) from C. freundii and gene encoding 1,3-PDO oxidoreductase (dhaT) from K. pneumoniae were expressed in E. coli under the control of the T7lac promoter. An RT-PCR analysis and overexpression confirmed that 1,3-PDO synthesis pathway genes were expressed on the RNA and protein levels. In batch fermentation, recombinant E. coli bacteria used 32.6gl(-1) of glycerol to produce 10.6 gl(-1) of 1,3-PDO, attaining the efficiency of 0.4 (mol₁,₃-PDO molglycerol(-1)). The recombinant E. coli created is capable of metabolizing glycerol to produce 1,3-PDO, and the efficiency achieved provides a significant research potential of the bacterium. In the face of shortage of fossil fuel supplies and climate warming

  13. Highly stereoselective synthesis of functionalized 1,3-dienes from a new allyl bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Fray

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available New and highly functionalized 1,3-dienes 3 and 4 have been synthesized via two different pathways starting from allyl bromide 1. Firstly, the reaction of allyl bromide 1 with triethylphosphite leads to an allylphosphonate 2, which undergoes the Wittig-Horner reaction with a range of saturated and unsaturated aldehydes gives rise to the corresponding 1,3-dienes 3. Secondly, a highly stereoselective reaction between allyl bromide 1 and nitroalkane salts, offers the possibility to obtaining functionalized (E-1,3-dienes 4.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Mono- and Bicycle Heterocyclic Derivatives Containing 1, 2,4-Triazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazine and 1,3-Thiazole Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navabeh Nami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of tartaric acid with thiocarbohydrazide (2 and thiosemicarbazide (6 afforded 1,2-bis(4-amino-5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl-ethane-1,2-diol (3 and 1,2-bis(5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl-ethane-1,2-diol (7. Reaction of compounds 3 and 7 with DMAD (dimethylacety lendi carboxylate and DEAD (diethylacetylendicarboxylate gave 1,2-bis(7-[(z-methoxycarbonylmethylen]-5,6-dihydro-5H-6-one-[1,2,4] riazolo[3,4-b] [1,3,4] thiadiazin-3-yl-ethan-1,2-diol (4, 1,2-bis(7-[(z-ethoxycarbonylmethylen] -5,6-dihydro -5H-6-one-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazin-3-yl-ethan-1,2- diol (5 and 1,2-bis(6-[(z-methoxycarbonylmethylen]-5-oxo-[1,3]thiazolo[2,3-c] [1,2,4]triazol-3-yl-ethan-1,2-diol (8 in good yields.

  15. Contourlet-1.3纹理图像检索系统%Contourlet-1.3 texture image retrieval system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新武; 李湘英; 龚俊斌; 田金文

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on the low retrieval rate of contourlet texture image retrieval system,an anti-aliasing Contourlet-1.3 transform based texture image retrieval system is proposedln the system,the Contourlet-1.3 transform is constructed by anti-aliasing critical subsampled Laplacian pyramid cascaded by critical subsampled directional filter banks, sub-bands energy and standard deviations in contourlet domain are cascaded to form feature vectors,and the similarity metric is Canberra distance.Experimental results show that anti-aliasing contourlet transform based image retrieval system is superior to those of the original contourlet transform, nun-subsampled contourlet system and Contourlet-2.3 under the same system structure with almost same length of feature vectors,retrieval time and memory needed; and anti-aliasing contourlet decomposition structure parameter can make significant effects on retrieval rates.%针对轮廓波变换纹理图像检索系统检索率较低的问题,提出了一种基于较强抗混叠能力的Contourlet- 1.3纹理图像检索系统.该系统采用的Contourlet-1.3变换由抗混叠临界下采样拉普拉斯金字塔级联临界下采样方向滤波器构成,特征向量采用变换域子带系数的能量和标准偏差连接而成,以Canberra距离为相似度度量标准.实验结果表明:在特征向量长度、检索时间、所需存储空间基本相同的情况下,基于抗混叠Contourlet-1.3的检索系统比相同架构的轮廓波变换、无下采样轮廓波变换以及Contourlet-2.3检索系统具有更高的检索率;该检索系统中抗混叠Contourlet变换分解结构参数的选择对于检索率也有较大影响.

  16. A Comparative Study of the Inclusion Complexes of 2-[5'-benzylidene-2'-phenyl-4'-oxo-1', 3'-thiazolidine]-1, 3-benzothiazole and 2-[5'-(p-N,N-dimethylamino- benzylidene-2'-phenyl-4'-oxo-1', 3'-thiazolidine]-1, 3-benzothiazole withβ-Cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Panda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The compounds 2-[5'-benzylidene-2'-phenyl-4'-oxo-1', 3'-thiazolidine]-1, 3-benzothiazole and 2-[5'-(p-N,N-dimethylamino- benzylidene-2'-phenyl-4'-oxo-1', 3'-thiazolidine]-1, 3-benzothiazole have been synthesized in their purest forms starting from 2-aminobenzothiazole. The inclusion complexes of the above compounds have been prepared with β-cyclodextrin to increase their solubility and bioaccessibility in polar medium. The formation of inclusion complexes have been ascertained by study of spectral characteristic before and after inclusion complex formation. The stability of inclusion complexes and nature of interaction between the host and guest are known from the determination of thermodynamic parameters. Further the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the compounds are determined which is found to increase significantly after inclusion complex formation

  17. Toxins Targeting the Kv1.3 Channel: Potential Immunomodulators for Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yipeng; Huang, Jie; Yuan, Xiaolu; Peng, Biwen; Liu, Wanhong; Han, Song; He, Xiaohua

    2015-05-19

    Autoimmune diseases are usually accompanied by tissue injury caused by autoantigen-specific T-cells. KV1.3 channels participate in modulating calcium signaling to induce T-cell proliferation, immune activation and cytokine production. Effector memory T (TEM)-cells, which play major roles in many autoimmune diseases, are controlled by blocking KV1.3 channels on the membrane. Toxins derived from animal venoms have been found to selectively target a variety of ion channels, including KV1.3. By blocking the KV1.3 channel, these toxins are able to suppress the activation and proliferation of TEM cells and may improve TEM cell-mediated autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and type I diabetes mellitus.

  18. 1, 3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reaction between Vinyl Acetate and N-Alkyl Hydroxypyridinium Halide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    1, 3 Dipolar cycloaddition reaction between vinyl acetate and 3-hydroxypyridiniun betaine was performed under solid-liquid phase transfer catalytic condition. This reaction has been successfully used on the synthesis of an analogue of Bao-Gong-Teng A.

  19. Toxins Targeting the KV1.3 Channel: Potential Immunomodulators for Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases are usually accompanied by tissue injury caused by autoantigen-specific T-cells. KV1.3 channels participate in modulating calcium signaling to induce T-cell proliferation, immune activation and cytokine production. Effector memory T (TEM-cells, which play major roles in many autoimmune diseases, are controlled by blocking KV1.3 channels on the membrane. Toxins derived from animal venoms have been found to selectively target a variety of ion channels, including KV1.3. By blocking the KV1.3 channel, these toxins are able to suppress the activation and proliferation of TEM cells and may improve TEM cell-mediated autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and type I diabetes mellitus.

  20. Properties of quasi 1-3 piezoelectric PZT-epoxy composites obtained by dielectrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Bory, B.F.; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2010-01-01

    The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of piezoelectric particleepoxy polymer composites structured into 1-3 composites via dielectrophoresis during curing are reported. The dielectrophoretic alignment induces a textured microstructure in the composite, with particles forming chains in the dire

  1. Iridium-catalyzed annulation of salicylimines with 1,3-dienes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebe, Yusuke; Nishimura, Takahiro

    2014-07-01

    Iridium-catalyzed annulation of salicylimines with 1,3-dienes gave high yields of the corresponding 4-aminochromanes with high stereoselectivity. The use of a chiral diene ligand enabled the asymmetric reaction to give 4-aminochromanes with high enantioselectivity.

  2. Solvent-free one-pot 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of dihydropyran derived nitrone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhaskar Chakraborty; Prawin Kumar Sharma; Neelam Rai; Chiran Devi Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Microwave-induced 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of dihydropyran derived nitrone with various activated alkenes have been studied in situ and found to afford new isoxazolidine derivatives with moderate selectivity.

  3. β1,3-GLUCAN ANTICANCER EFFICACIES AND SYNERGIES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Story Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available β1,3-glucans from fungi, cereals, seaweeds and bacteria have been shown to possess favourable biological and anti-carcinogenic activities including upregulation of phagocytosis, cytokine production enhancement, superoxide and nitrite production; antibody secretion and stimulation of signalling pathways associated with proto-oncogene expression. However, human dietary supplements containing β1,3-glucans vary in efficacy due to glucan source, the lifecycle stage of the source at extraction, extraction methods, purity, concentration and combination with other immunomodulators. A review of efficacy of some commercially available β1,3-glucan products is presented. Three apparently efficacious products in which β1,3-glucan was the only immunomodulator were identified: Glucan #300®, Maitake Gold 404® (diluted Yukiguni Maitake MD Fraction® and Betamune®. A trial of Maitake Gold 404® produced evidence of standardisation problems. It is recommended that Yukiguni Maitake MD Fraction® (a more standardised alternative, Glucan #300® and Betamune® be comparatively trialled at optimal doses across immunological measures and tumor reduction. β1,3-glucans have been shown to be synergistic with conventional cancer therapies and monoclonal antibodies, as well as immunomodulators including vitamin C, transresveratrol, humic acids and Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera. Trialled commercially available products containing immunomodulator combinations have been shown to be inefficacious, apart from RVB300®, a β1,3-glucan/transresveratrol/vitamin C combination. The efficacies of various combinations of β1,3-glucans with other immunomodulators and the details of specific β1,3-glucan/monoclonal antibody synergies in treating particular cancer cell lines, require systematic elucidation.

  4. The 1:1 adduct of caffeine and 2-(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-ylacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moazzam H. Bhatti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title adduct [systematic name: 2-(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-ylacetic acid–1,3,7-trimethyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purine-2,6-dione (1/1], C8H10N4O2·C10H7NO4, the components are linked by an O—H...N hydrogen-bond and no proton transfer occurs.

  5. Effectiveness of the KiVa Antibullying Program: Grades 1-3 and 7-9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kärnä, A.; Voeten, M.J.M.; Little, T.D.; Alanen, E.; Poskiparta, E.H.; Salmivalli, C.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the KiVa Antibullying Program in two samples of students, one from Grades 1-3 (7-9 years old, N = 6,927) and the other from Grades 7-9 (13-15 years old, N = 16, 503). The Grades 1-3 students were located in 74 schools and Grades 7-9 students in 73 schools

  6. Analysis of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Various Foodstuffs Using GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooseok; Jeong, Yun A; On, Jiwon; Choi, Ari; Lee, Jee-Yeon; Lee, Joon Goo; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Pyo, Heesoo

    2015-09-01

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) are not only produced in the manufacturing process of foodstuffs such as hydrolyzed vegetable proteins and soy sauce but are also formed by heat processing in the presence of fat and low water activity. 3-MCPD exists both in free and ester forms, and the ester form has been also detected in various foods. Free 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP are classified as Group 2B by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Although there is no data confirming the toxicity of either compound in humans, their toxicity was evidenced in animal experimentation or in vitro. Although few studies have been conducted, free 3-MCPD has been shown to have neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and carcinogenicity. In contrast, 1,3-DCP only has mutagenic activity. The purpose of this study was to analyze 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in various foods using gas chromatography -mass spectrometry. 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP were analyzed using phenyl boronic acid derivatization and the liquid-liquid extraction method, respectively. The analytical method for 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP was validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation, accuracy and precision. Consequently, the LODs of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in various matrices were identified to be in the ranges of 4.18~10.56 ng/g and 1.06~3.15 ng/g, respectively.

  7. RP-HPLC Determination of 1,3-Dideoxygalactonojirimycin in Bombycis Faeces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Hui; ZHAO Hui; DING Zhen-ying; ZHU Yuan-yuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a simple and rapid method for the determination of 1,3-dideoxygalactonojirimycin in Bombycis Faeces, a potent glucosidase inihibitor, by HPLC. Methods A RP-HPLC method with fluorescence detection has been developed. Results The HPLC method developed in this research has a good reliability including accuracy and precision. The detection limit was less than 72 ng. Conclusion This method is sufficiently sensitive for determining 1,3-dideoxygalactonojirimycin in Bombycis Faeces and other related products.

  8. Glycerol assimilation and production of 1,3-propanediol by Citrobacter amalonaticus Y19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainala, Satish Kumar; Ashok, Somasundar; Ko, Yeounjoo; Park, Sunghoon

    2013-06-01

    Citrobacter amalonaticus Y19 (Y19) was isolated because of its ability for carbon monoxide-dependent hydrogen production (water-gas shift reaction). This paper reports the assimilation of glycerol and the production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) by Y19. Genome sequencing revealed that Y19 contained the genes for the utilization of glycerol and 1,2-propanediol (pdu operon) along with those for the synthesis of coenzyme B12 (cob operon). On the other hand, it did not possess the genes for the fermentative metabolism of glycerol of Klebsiella pneumoniae, which consists of both the oxidative (dhaD and dhaK) and reductive (dhaB and dhaT) pathways. In shake-flask cultivation under aerobic conditions, Y19 could grow well with glycerol as the sole carbon source and produced 1,3-PDO. The level of 1,3-PDO production was improved when vitamin B12 was added to the culture medium under aerobic conditions. Under anaerobic conditions, cell growth and 1,3-PDO production on glycerol was also possible, but only when an exogenous electron acceptor, such as nitrate or fumarate, was added. This is the first report of the glycerol metabolism and 1,3-PDO production by C. amalonaticus Y19.

  9. Development of 1.3GHz high-Tc rf SQUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xin-Yuan; Xie Fei-Xiang; Meng Shu-Chao; Dai Yuan-Dong; Li Zhuang-Zhi; Ma Ping; Yang Tao; Nie Rui-Juan; Wang Fu-Ren

    2004-01-01

    @@ A new high-Tc (HTc) rf SQUID working at around 1.3GHz has been developed to avoid electromagnetic interference such as growing mobile communication jamming. This new system works in a frequency range from 1.23 to 1.42GHz (centred at 1.3GHz), which is not occupied by commercial communication. The sensor used in the 1.3GHz rf SQUID is made of a HTc coplanar superconducting resonator and a large-area HTc superconducting film concentrator. We have achieved in the 1.3GHz HTc rf SQUID system a minimal flux noise of 2.5×10-5φ0/√Hz and a magnetic field sensitivity of 38fT/√Hz in white noise range, respectively. The effective area of the concentrator fabricated on a 15×15mm2 substrate is 1.35mm2. It is shown that the 1.3GHz rf SQUID system has a high field sensitivity. Design and implementation of 1.3GHz HTc rf SQUID offers a promising direction of rf SQUID development for higher working frequency ranges.

  10. Inhibition of Kv1.3 Channels in Human Jurkat T Cells by Xanthohumol and Isoxanthohumol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsiorowska, Justyna; Teisseyre, Andrzej; Uryga, Anna; Michalak, Krystyna

    2015-08-01

    Using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we investigated influence of selected compounds from groups of prenylated chalcones and flavonoids: xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol on the activity of Kv1.3 channels in human leukemic Jurkat T cells. Obtained results provide evidence that both examined compounds were inhibitors of Kv1.3 channels in these cells. The inhibitory effects occurred in a concentration-dependent manner. The estimated value of the half-blocking concentration (EC50) was about 3 μM for xanthohumol and about 7.8 μM for isoxanthohumol. The inhibition of Kv1.3 channels by examined compounds was not complete. Upon an application of the compounds at the maximal concentrations equal to 30 μM, the activity of Kv1.3 channels was inhibited to about 0.13 of the control value. The inhibitory effect was reversible. The application of xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol did not change the currents' activation and inactivation rate. These results may confirm our earlier hypothesis that the presence of a prenyl group in a molecule is a factor that facilitates the inhibition of Kv1.3 channels by compounds from the groups of flavonoids and chalcones. The inhibition of Kv1.3 channels might be involved in antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of the compounds observed in cancer cell lines expressing these channels.

  11. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M.; Wilbanks, Mitchell S. [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209 (United States); Perkins, Edward J. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Meyer, Sharon A., E-mail: meyer@ulm.edu [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ∼ 50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs = 47 mg/kg) in female Sprague–Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs = 24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte–erythrocyte–monocyte–megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1{sup +}) or erythroid (CD71{sup +}) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Highlights: ► Acute oral exposure to munitions RDX causes myelosuppression. ► Environmental degradation product MNX is comparable in effect. ► RDX and MNX are cytotoxic to both myeloid and erythroid

  12. Cleavage of carbon-nitrogen bond in 1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane by copper(I) bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatua, Suman; Majumdar, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Reactions of CuCl, CuCl2 and CuBr2 with 1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (tBu3tach) resulted in the formation of [(tBu3tach-H)+(CuCl2)] (1), [(tBu3tach)(CuCl2)] (2) and [(tBu3tach-H)+(CuBr2)] (3) respectively. Interestingly, CuBr was found to mediate the cleavage of the C-N bonds of tBu3tach in a vast range of solvents, namely, chloroform, dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile and methanol to yield [Cu4Br4(tBuNCH2)4] (4) and stands as an example of C-N bond cleavage of 1,3,5-triazacyclohexane rings by copper salts. Compounds 1 and 3 contains amidinium cations and are unstable in solution towards the release of copper. The release of copper from 3 in solution was confirmed by the isolation of the compound, [CuBr(MeCN)] (5). Formation of the amidinium cations [(tBu3tach-H)+] in 1 and 3 may be avoided by the use of PPh3 to yield [(tBu3tach)Cu(PPh3)](PF6) (6), while the coordinated N-tert-butylmethanimine (tBuNCH2) in 4 could be replaced by PPh3 to yield [Cu4Br4(PPh3)4] (7). Complexes 1-7 are characterized by a combination of single crystal X-ray structure determination and/or elemental analysis, NMR, IR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Mass spectrometry.

  13. Dietary Beta-1,3/1,6-Glucans Reduce Clinical Signs of Canine Atopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Beynen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There was evidence that beta-1,3/1,6-glucans modulate inflammatory activity. In an open, non-controlled trial, purified beta-1,3/1,6-glucans were found to improve the clinical signs of dogs with undefined chronic skin disorders. Given the design of that study, further work was required on the efficacy of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans in the treatment of canine atopy. Approach: The influence of a purified preparation of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans (MacroGard® on canine atopy was assessed in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Privately owned dogs were used and the clinical signs of atopic dermatitis were evaluated by the owners. For a period of 8 weeks, the dogs daily received a complete dry food without (n = 16 or with 800 ppm beta-1,3/1,6-glucans (n = 15. During the trial, all dogs were treated three times with the use of a flea remedy in order to exclude any influence of flea-bite allergy. To assess the severity of atopic dermatitis, the clinical signs scored were itching, redness, scaling, thickening and stripping of skin. Results: For all five clinical signs, the group-mean improvement, expressed as change of severity score over time, was greater in the test group than in the controls. Within each group, the changes for the five clinical signs were added up to arrive at an overall index of improvement of atopic dermatitis. The extra improvement caused by the ingestion of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans was 63%. The difference between the pooled group-mean changes of the scores for the control and test dogs was statistically significant (PConclusion: Beta-1,3/1,6-glucans can be considered safe and it is put forward that a dose of 800 ppm in a dry food is beneficial for dogs with atopic dermatitis.

  14. Conversion of 1,3-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Long; Li, Zhenjun; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek

    2014-10-09

    The adsorption of 1,3-propylene glycol (1,3-PG) on partially reduced TiO2(110) and its conversion to products have been studied by a combination of molecular beam dosing and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). When the Ti surface sites are saturated by 1,3-PG, ~80% of the molecules undergo further reactions to yield products that are liberated during the TPD ramp. In contrast to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2- propylene glycol (1,2-PG) that yield only alkenes and water at very low coverages (< 0.05 ML), two additional products, HCHO and C2H4, along with propylene (CH3CHCH2) and water are observed for 1,3-PG. Identical TPD line shapes and desorption yields for HCHO and C2H4 suggest that these products result from C-C bond cleavage and are coupled. At higher 1,3-PG coverages (> 0.1 ML), propanal (CH3CH2CHO) and two additional products, 1-propanol (CH3CH2CH2OH) and acrolein (CH2CHCHO), are observed. The desorption of 1-propanol is found to be coupled with the desorption of acrolein, suggesting that these products are formed by the disproportionation of two 1,3-PG molecules. The coverage dependent TPD results further show that propylene formation dominates at low coverages (< 0.3 ML), while the decomposition and disproportionation channels increase rapidly at higher coverages and reach yields comparable to that of propylene at the 1,3-PG saturation coverage of 0.5 ML. The observed surface chemistry clearly shows how the molecular structure of glycols influences their reaction pathways on oxide surfaces.

  15. Microwave assisted synthesis of core–shell LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4}/C nanocomposite cathode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huanhuan [Automotive Engineering Research Institute, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li, Yunxing [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Chen, Long; Jiang, Haobin [Automotive Engineering Research Institute, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wei, Jinping [Institute of New Energy Material Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang, Hongbo [China Aviation Lithium Battery Co. Ltd., Luoyang 471003 (China); Wang, Yaping, E-mail: wangyaping@ujs.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • We firstly report a fast microwave heating way to prepare LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4}/C. • The reversible discharge capacity of LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4}/C is about 169 mA h g{sup −1}. • LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4}/C nanocomposite elucidates excellent cyclic stability. • LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4}/C nanocomposite exhibits attractive rate capability. - Abstract: A microwave assisted method is developed for synthesizing pure LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4} and LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4}/C nanocomposite. Olivine LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4} coated with uniform amorphous carbon film of ∼5 nm in thickness with an average size of ∼200 nm is successfully obtained. Compared with pure LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4}, LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4}/C composite presents enhanced electrochemical Li-ion intercalation performances. It exhibits a high discharge capacity of 169 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C (theoretical capacity is 170 mA h g{sup −1}). The capacity retention is 99% after 30 cycles. Furthermore, the capacities are still retained 101 at 5 C and 76 mA h g{sup −1} and 20 C, respectively. Carbon coating can significantly improve the Li-ion diffusion, the reversibility of lithium extraction/insertion and electrical conductivity of LiCo{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Fe{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4}.

  16. Platinum(0-1,3-divinyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane Complex as a Pt Source for Pt/SnO2 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Martyla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new preparation method of Pt/SnO2, an important catalytic system. Besides of its application as a heterogenic industrial catalyst, it is also used as a catalyst in electrochemical processes, especially in fuel cells. Platinum is commonly used as an anode catalyst in low temperature fuel cells, fuelled with alcohols of low molecular weight such as methanol. Platinum(0-1,3-divinyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane complex was used as a precursor of metallic phase. The aim of the research was to obtain a highly active in electrochemical system Pt/SnO2 catalyst with low metal load. Considering small size of Pt crystallites, it should result in high activity of Pt/SnO2 system. The presented method of SnO2 synthesis allows for obtaining support consisting of nanoparticles. The effect of the thermal treatment on activity of Pt/SnO2 gel was demonstrated. The system properties were investigated using TEM, FTIR (ATR, and XRD techniques to describe its thermal structural evolution. The results showed two electrocatalytical activity peaks for drying at a temperature of 430 K and above 650 K.

  17. Accurately Predicting the Density and Hydrostatic Compression of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine from First Principles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG HuarJie; HUANG Feng-Lei

    2011-01-01

    @@ We predict the densities of crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine(RDX)by introducing a factor of(1+1.5×10(-4)T)into the wavefunction-based potential of RDX constructed from first principles using the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory and the Williams-Stone-Misquitta method.The predicted values are within an accuracy of 1%of the density from O to 430K and closely reproduced the RDX densities under hydrostatic compression.This work heralds a promising approach to predicting accurately the densities of high explosives at temperatures and pressures to which they are often subjected,which is a long-standing issue in the field of energetic materials.%We predict the densities of crystalline hexahydro-l,3,5-trinitro-l,3,5-triazine (RDX) by introducing a factor of (1+1.5 x 10~* T) into the wavefunction-based potential of RDX constructed from first principles using the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory and the Williams-Stone-Misquitta method. The predicted values are within an accuracy of 1% of the density from 0 to 430 K and closely reproduced the RDX densities under hydrostatic compression. This work heralds a promising approach to predicting accurately the densities of high explosives at temperatures and pressures to which they are often subjected, which is a long-standing issue in the Beld of energetic materials.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (RDX) using a combined Sorescu-Rice-Thompson AMBER force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Paras M; Rice, Betsy M; Zheng, Lianqing; Thompson, Donald L

    2006-12-28

    We present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (RDX) using the SRT-AMBER force field (P. M. Agrawal et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, 5721), which combines the rigid-molecule force field developed by Sorescu-Rice-Thompson (D. C. Sorescu, B. M. Rice, and D. L. Thompson, J. Phys. Chem. B 1997, 101, 798) with the intramolecular interactions obtained from the Generalized AMBER Force Field (Wang et al., J. Comput. Chem. 2004, 25, 1157). The calculated crystal density at room conditions is about 10% lower than the measured value, while the lattice parameters and thermodynamic melting point are within about 5% at ambient pressure. The chair and inverted chair conformation, bond lengths, and bond angles of the RDX molecule are accurately predicted; however, there are some inaccuracies in the calculated orientations of the NO2 groups. The SRT-AMBER force field predicts overall reasonable results, but modifications, probably in the torsional parameters, are needed for a more accurate force field.

  19. Fate of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soil and bioaccumulation in bush bean hydroponic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.; Bean, R.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Soils amended with [[sup 14]C]hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) were sampled over 60 d and subjected to exhaustive Soxhlet extraction followed by HPLC analysis. RDX was the only radiolabeled compound observed in soil extracts. Emission of volatile organics and [sup 14]CO[sub 2] from soil accounted for only 0.31 % of the amended radiolabel. Mass balance for RDX-amended soil was better than 84% throughout the two-month study. The analytical method developed for plants involved acid hydrolysis, solvent extraction, fractionation on Florisil adsorbent and separation by HPLC. The described methodology allowed for RDX recovery of 86 [+-] 3% from fortified bush bean leaf tissue. Further experiments were conducted with bush bean plants maintained on RDX-containing hydroponic solutions. Hydroponic plants did not emit detectable amounts of [sup 14]CO[sub 2] or radiolabeled volatile organics. Analysis of the plant tissue indicated bioaccumulation of RDX in the aerial tissues of hydroponic plants exposed for either 1 or 7 d. Metabolism of RDX to polar metabolites was observed in plants exposed for 7 d.

  20. Biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by a prospective consortium and its most effective isolate Serratia marcescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.M.; Ogden, K.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Unkefer, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.

    1997-03-05

    The biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) has been observed in liquid culture by a consortium of bacteria found in horse manure. Five types of bacteria were found to predominate in the consortium and were isolated. The most effective of these isolates at transforming RDX was Serratia marcescens. The biotransformation of RDX by all of these bacteria was found to occur only in the anoxic stationary phase. The process of bacterial growth and RDX biotransformation was quantified for the purpose of developing a predictive type model. Cell growth was assumed to follow Monod kinetics. All of the aerobic and anoxid growth parameters were determined: {mu}{sub max}, K{sub s}, and Y{sub x/s}. RDX was found to competitively inhibit cell growth in both atmospheres. Degradation of RDX by Serratia marcescens was found to proceed through the stepwise reduction of the three nitro groups to nitroso groups. Each of these reductions was found to be first order in both component and cell concentrations. The degradation rate constant for the first step in this reduction process by the consortium was 0.022 L/g cells {center_dot} h compared to 0.033 L/g cells {center_dot} h for the most efficient isolate.

  1. Evaluation of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation To Stimulate Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine Degradation in an Aerobic Groundwater Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsen, Mandy M; King, Aaron S; Rule, Rebecca A; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Istok, Jack D

    2016-07-19

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine (RDX) is a toxic and mobile groundwater contaminant common to military sites. This study compared in situ RDX degradation rates following bioaugmentation with Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 (henceforth KTR9) to rates under biostimulation conditions in an RDX-contaminated aquifer in Umatilla, OR. Bioaugmentation was achieved by injecting site groundwater (6000 L) amended with KTR9 cells (10(8) cells mL(-1)) and low carbon substrate concentrations (15 mM fructose) carbon substrate concentrations in an effort to stimulate aerobic or anaerobic microbial activity, respectively. Single-well push-pull tests were conducted to measure RDX degradation rates for each treatment. Average rate coefficients were 1.2 day(-1) for bioaugmentation and 0.7 day(-1) for high carbon biostimulation; rate coefficients for low carbon biostimulation were not significantly different from zero (p values ≥0.060). Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with KTR9 is a feasible strategy for in situ biodegradation of RDX and, at this site, is capable of achieving RDX concentration reductions comparable to those obtained by high carbon biostimulation while requiring ~97% less fructose. Bioaugmentation has potential to minimize substrate quantities and associated costs, as well as secondary groundwater quality impacts associated with anaerobic biostimulation processes (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methane production) during full-scale RDX remediation.

  2. Performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules for removal of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An Chunjiang [Department of Environmental Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada); He Yanling [Department of Environmental Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Huang Guohe, E-mail: gordon.huang@uregina.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Sino-Canada Research Academy of Energy and Environmental Studies, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Liu Yonghong [Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Polytechnic University, Xi' an 710048 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules to degrade octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) was investigated under various conditions. The results of batch experiments showed that anaerobic granules were capable of removing HMX from aqueous solution with high efficiency. Both biotic and abiotic mechanisms contributed to the removal of HMX by anaerobic granules under mesophilic conditions. Adsorption appeared to play a significant role in the abiotic process. Furthermore, HMX could be biodegraded by anaerobic granules as the sole substrate. After 16 days of incubation, 99.04% and 96.42% of total HMX could be removed by 1 g VSS/L acclimated and unacclimated granules, respectively. Vancomycin, an inhibitor of acetogenic bacteria, caused a significant inhibition of HMX biotransformation, while 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid, an inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria, only resulted in a slight decrease of metabolic activity. The presence of the glucose, as a suitable electron donor and carbon source, was found to enhance the degradation of HMX by anaerobic granules. Our study showed that sulfate had little adverse effects on biotransformation of HMX by anaerobic granules. However, nitrate had significant inhibitory effect on the extent of HMX removal especially in the initial period. This study offered good prospects of using high-rate anaerobic technology in the treatment of munition wastewater.

  3. Electrochemical investigations of antioxidant interactions with radical anion and dianion of 1,3-dinitrobenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshad, Nasima [Department of Chemistry, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Janjua, Naveed Kausar [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: nkausarjanjua@yahoo.com; Ahmed, Safeer [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, Athar Yaseen [Department of Chemistry, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Skibsted, Leif H. [Food Chemistry, Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-11-01

    Interactions of five antioxidants (AO), quercetin (Q), morin (M), rutin (R), ascorbic acid (AA) and {beta}-carotene ({beta}-C) with anion radical and dianion of 1,3-dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB) in two aprotic solvents - dimethyl formamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) - have been studied by cyclic voltammetry using glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical parameters - peak potential (E{sub p}), half-wave potential (E{sub 1/2}), and peak current (i{sub p}) - for the reduction of 1,3-DNB before and after the addition of various concentrations of antioxidants, were evaluated. A gradual decrease in the oxidation peak current and finally irreversibility in 1,3-DNB radical anion and dianion systems upon the addition of antioxidant, reveals their interactions. The homogeneous bi-molecular rate constant (k{sub 2}) was determined from electrochemical data. In comparison to all other antioxidants used, enhanced homogeneous second order rate constant for the interaction of morin with 1,3-DNB anion radical and dianion, was observed. This aspect is attributable to protonation initiated by hydrogen bonding and greater acidic nature of morin.

  4. Strain gauges of GaSbFeGa{sub 1.3} eutectic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliyev, M.I.; Khalilova, A.A.; Arasly, D.H.; Rahimov, R.N. [National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics of Azerbaijan, Baku (Azerbaijan); Tanoglu, M. [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir (Turkey); Ozyuzer, L. [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Izmir (Turkey)

    2004-12-01

    A needle-shaped metallic FeGa{sub 1.3} phase oriented in a specific direction and uniformly distributed within a GaSb matrix was grown by a vertical Bridgman method. Strain-gauge characteristics, such as strain-sensitivity coefficient (S), temperature coefficient of strain sensitivity (TCS) and temperature coefficient of resistance, of GaSb and GaSbFeGa{sub 1.3} eutectic alloy have been investigated in the range of 200 to 400 K under deformation up to strains of 1.3 x 10{sup -3}. The value of S of the GaSbFeGa{sub 1.3} composition is measured to be 40{+-}5 and its TCS is about 0.2% deg{sup -1} when the current is perpendicular to the needles and the needles are parallel to the plane of the gauge substrate. The strain-sensitivity characteristics are linear and hysteresis free in the investigated temperature range in the aforementioned direction. It was found that GaSbFeGa{sub 1.3}-based strain gauges possess better deformation characteristics than GaSb-based gauges. (orig.)

  5. Aromatic ring formation in opposed-flow diffusive 1,3-butadiene flames

    KAUST Repository

    Moshammer, Kai

    2016-10-17

    This paper is concerned with the formation of one- and two-ring aromatic species in near atmospheric-pressure opposed-flow diffusion flames of 1,3-butadiene (1,3-CH). The chemical structures of two different 1,3-CH/Ar-O/Ar flames were explored using flame-sampling molecular-beam mass spectrometry with both electron and single-photon ionization. We provide mole fraction profiles of 47 components as function of distance from the fuel outlet and compare them to chemically detailed modeling results. To this end, the hierarchically developed model described by Seidel et al. [16] has been updated to accurately comprise the chemistry of 1,3-butadiene. Generally a very good agreement is observed between the experimental and modeling data, allowing for a meaningful reaction path analysis. With regard to the formation of aromatic species up to naphthalene, it was essential to improve the fulvene and the C chemistry description in the mechanism. In particular, benzene is found to be formed mainly via fulvene through the reactions of the CH isomers with CH The n-CH radical reacts with CH forming 1,3-pentadiene (CH), which is subsequently oxidized to form the naphthalene precursor cyclopentadienyl (CH). Oxidation of naphthalene is predicted to be a contributor to the formation of phenylacetylene (CH), indicating that consumption reactions can be of similar importance as molecular growth reactions.

  6. Dissociation of cephamycin C and clavulanic acid biosynthesis by 1,3-diaminopropane in Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Carla A; Cavallieri, André P; Baptista, Amanda S; Araujo, Maria L G C

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces clavuligerus produces simultaneously cephamycin C (CephC) and clavulanic acid (CA). Adding 1,3-diaminopropane to culture medium stimulates production of beta-lactam antibiotics. However, there are no studies on the influence of this diamine on coordinated production of CephC and CA. This study indicates that 1,3-diaminopropane can dissociate CephC and CA productions. Results indicated that low diamine concentrations (below 1.25 g l(-1)) in culture medium increased CA production by 200%, but not that of CephC. Conversely, CephC production increased by 300% when 10 g l(-1) 1,3-diaminopropane was added to culture medium. Addition of just L-lysine (18.3 g l(-1)) to culture medium increased both biocompounds. On the other hand, while L-lysine plus 7.5 g l(-1) 1,3-diaminopropane increased volumetric production of CephC by 1100%, its impact on CA production was insignificant. The combined results suggest that extracellular concentration of 1,3-diaminopropane may trigger the dissociation of CephC and CA biosynthesis in S. clavuligerus.

  7. Developmental expression of proprotein convertase 1/3 in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Y C; Damholt, A B; Billestrup, N;

    1999-01-01

    in the developing pancreas. Thus, we have identified a novel PC1/3 mRNA transcript in the rat by using sequence-specific probes and have demonstrated that the developmental expression of prohormone convertase PC1/3 is confined primarily to pancreas and intestine, suggesting that it may play a possible role...... described previously. RT-PCR of RNA isolated from rat embryonic tissues using a primer set corresponding to the 3' end of the PC1/3 sequence showed a steady increase of expression in fetal pancreas and intestine during the course of development. In contrast, comparatively high and constant levels of PC1......We have isolated a clone that has 3' end sequence identity with prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) from a rat islet cDNA library. Northern blot analysis and immunocytochemical studies have confirmed its presence in the endocrine pancreas. Analysis of poly A mRNA from various adult tissues...

  8. Separation of 1,3-Propanediol from Aqueous Solutions by Ion Exchange Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukowicz Beata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 1,3-propanediol is a promising monomer with many applications and can be produced by bioconversion of renewable resources. The separation of this product from fermentation broth is a difficult task. In this work, the application of cation exchange resin for the separation of 1,3-propanediol from model aqueous solution was examined. The best effect of separation of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol using sorption method was obtained for H+ resin form, although the observed partition coefficient of 1,3-propanediol was low. On the basis of the results of the sorption of 1,3-propanediol, the ionic forms of the resin were selected and used in the next experiments (H+, Ca2+, Ag+, Na+, Pb2+, Zn2+. The best results in ion exchange chromatography were obtained for cation exchange resin in H+ and Ca2+ form. The use of smaller particle size of resin and a longer length of the column allows to obtain better separation of mixtures.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of xLi2MnO3·(1-x)Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries%锂离子电池正极材料xLi2MnO3·(1-x)Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2的制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昭; 吴锋; 苏岳锋; 包丽颖; 陈来; 李宁; 陈实

    2012-01-01

    以过渡金属乙酸盐和乙酸锂为原料,柠檬酸为螯合剂,通过溶胶-凝胶法结合高温煅烧法制备了锂离子电池富锂锰基正极材料xLi2MnO3·(1 -x)Li[Ni1/3Mn1mCo1/3]O2,采用X射线衍射(XRD),扫描电子显微镜(SEM)和电化学性能测试对所得样品的结构,形貌及电化学性能进行了表征.结果表明:x=0.5时,在900℃下煅烧12h得到颗粒均匀细小的层状xLi2MnO3·(1 -x)Li[Ni1/3Mn1/nCo1/3]O2材料,并具有良好的电化学性能,在室温下以20mA· g-1的电流密度充放电,2.0-4.8V电位范围内首次放电比容量高达260.0 mAh·g-1,循环40次后放电比容量为244.7 mAh·g-1,容量保持率为94.12%.%The lithium rich cathode materials xLi2Mn03 (I-xJLifNii/sMn^CoioJOz (x=0.4, 0.5, 0.6) were successfully synthesized via sol-gel method with calcination in air. The transition metal acetate, lithium acetate, and citric acid were used as raw materials. The as-prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scaning electron microscopy (SEM), and electrochemical tests. The material 0.5Li2MnO3' 0.5LiNiiraMni/3COio]O2, which was obtained after calcination at 900 °C for 12 h, exhibited fine microstructures and good electrochemical performance. When cycled at 2.0-4.8 V with a current density of 20 Ma-g"1 at room temperature, 0.5Li2MnO3'0.5LiNii/3lv1ni/3Coi/3]C>2 delivered a initial discharge specific capacity of 260.0 mAh-g"1, and maintained a capacity of 244.7 mAh-g"1 after 40 cycles (capacity retention 94.12%).

  10. Planar cell polarity genes, Celsr1-3, in neural development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Feng; Qi Han; Libing Zhou

    2012-01-01

    flamingo is among the ‘core' planar cell-polarity genes,protein of which belongs to a unique cadherin subfamily.In contrast to the classic cadherins,composed of several cxtracellular cadhcrin repcats,one transmembrane domain and one cytoplasmic segment linked to catenin binding,Drosophila Flamingo has seven transmembrane segments and a cytoplasmic tail with no catenin-binding sequence.In Drosophila,Flamingo has pleotropic roles in controlling epithelial polarity and neuronal morphogenesis.Three mammalian orthologs of flamingo,Celsr1-3,are widely expressed in the nervous system.Recent work has shown that Celsr1-3 play important roles in neural development,such as in axon guidance,neuronal migration,and cilium polarity.Celsr1-3 single-gene knockout mice exhibit different phenotypes,but there are cooperative interactions among these genes.

  11. Density Functional Theory Study of Hydrogen Bonds of Bipyridine with 1,3,5-Benzenetricarboxylic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Quan; ZHAO Keqing

    2009-01-01

    The hydrogen-bonded dimer and trimer formed between 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid and bipyridine have been investigated using a density functional theory(DFT)method and 6-31++G** basis set.The interaction enerstretching modes in the dimer and trimer red-shifted relative to those of the 1,3,5-benzenetricarhoxylic acid monomer.The natural bond orbit analysis shows that the inter-molecular charge transfers are 0.60475e and 1.20225e for the dimer and trimer,respectively.Thermodynamic analysis indicates that the formation of trimer is an exothermic H-O intermolecular hydrogen bonds between bipyridine and 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid,which is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Mn(III-Initiated Facile Oxygenation of Heterocyclic 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Aminul Haque

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mn(III-initiated aerobic oxidation of heterocyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, such as 4-alkyl-1,2-diphenylpyrazolidine-3,5-diones, 1,3-dialkylpyrrolidine-2,4-diones, 3-alkyl-1,5-dimethylbarbituric acids, and 3-butyl-4-hydroxy-2-quinolinone gave excellent to good yields of the corresponding hydroperoxides, which were gradually degraded by exposure to the metal initiator after the reaction to afford the corresponding alcohols. The synthesis of 30 heterocyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, the corresponding hydroperoxides and the 10 alcohols, their characterization, and the limitations of the procedure are described. In addition, the mechanism of the hydroperoxidation and the redox decomposition of the hydroperoxides are discussed.

  13. Diastereoselective synthesis of substituted 2-amino-1,3-propanediols from Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paioti, Paulo H.S.; Rezende, Patricia; Coelho, Fernando [Laboratorio de Sintese de Produtos Naturais e Farmacos, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    We report herein a new diastereoselective approach to substituted 2-amino-1,3-propanediols with anti relative stereochemistry from Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) adducts. These structural moieties have been used as intermediates for the synthesis of several compounds with relevant pharmacological and commercial interest. In this strategy, substituted anti 2-amino-1,3-propanediols were readily prepared via ozonolysis of allylic diols obtained from MBH adducts, followed by a diastereoselective reductive amination of the substituted 2-oxo-1,3-propanediols. To demonstrate the synthetic utility of these aminodiols, they were transformed into substituted oxazolidine-2-ones, which were also used in the indirect determination of the relative stereochemistry of the aminodiols. (author)

  14. Synthesis and distribution of tritiated N,N`-dibenzoyl-1,3-diaminopropan-2-ol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.M.; Gallez, Bernard [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Dept. des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1996-10-01

    Tritiated N,N`-dibenzoyl-1,3-diaminopropan-2-ol, a compound mimicking a diacylglycerol moiety used as a lipid drug carrier was prepared from N,N`-dibenzoyl-1,3-diaminopropan-2-ol by isotopic exchange in the presence of rhodium chloride. Preliminary preparation of the deuterated analog was made in order to assess the position of the substitution. A biodistribution study was carried out in mice after intravenous administration. Five minutes after administration, the level found in the brain was about 9% of the injected dose per g organ. This value decreases to 1 % 3 hours after administration while at the same time radioactive levels measured in the urine increased. (author).

  15. Proprotein convertase 1/3 inhibited macrophages: A novel therapeutic based on drone macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Duhamel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated here thanks to proteomic, that proprotein convertase 1/3 knockdown macrophages present all the characteristic of activated pro-inflammatory macrophages. TLR4 and TLR9 signaling pathways can be enhanced leading to the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors and antitumor factors. We can control their activation by controlling one enzyme, PC1/3. In a tumor context, PC1/3 inhibition in macrophages may reactivate them and lead to a cytokine storm after stimulation “at distance” with a TLR ligand. Therefore, we name these proprotein convertase inhibited macrophages the “drone macrophages”. They constitute an innovative cell therapy to treat efficiently tumors.

  16. Silicon-containing alka-1,3-dienes and their functional derivatives in organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnichuk, M. D.; Voropaeva, T. I.

    1995-01-01

    Data on the synthesis and chemical reactions of silicon-containing 1,3-dienes are surveyed for the first time in the present review. It is shown that the addition reactions of 1- and 2-triorganosilylalka-1,3-dienes and their derivatives are the most interesting and promising in fine organic synthesis. The application of the trialkylsilyl group as a protecting group and as a new reaction centre, which makes it possible to obtain carbon-carbon or carbon-heteroatom bonds, is examined. It has been found that the double bonds remote from the silicon atom are the most reactive in addition reactions and that regardless of the nature of the reagent the attacking species always binds to the terminal carbon atom of the buta-1,3-diene fragment. The bibliography includes 329 references.

  17. Planar cell polarity genes, Celsr1-3, in neural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jia; Han, Qi; Zhou, Libing

    2012-06-01

    flamingo is among the 'core' planar cell-polarity genes, protein of which belongs to a unique cadherin subfamily. In contrast to the classic cadherins, composed of several extracellular cadherin repeats, one transmembrane domain and one cytoplasmic segment linked to catenin binding, Drosophila Flamingo has seven transmembrane segments and a cytoplasmic tail with no catenin-binding sequence. In Drosophila, Flamingo has pleotropic roles in controlling epithelial polarity and neuronal morphogenesis. Three mammalian orthologs of flamingo, Celsr1-3, are widely expressed in the nervous system. Recent work has shown that Celsr1-3 play important roles in neural development, such as in axon guidance, neuronal migration, and cilium polarity. Celsr1-3 single-gene knockout mice exhibit different phenotypes, but there are cooperative interactions among these genes.

  18. Genetic effects of 1,3-butadiene on the mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, M H; Anderson, D; Hughes, J A; Jackson, L I; Yu, T W; Nieschlag, E

    1998-01-16

    1,3-Butadiene is a known male mouse germ-cell mutagen, to which humans may either be occupationally or environmentally exposed. Prolonged exposure to moderate or high doses in male mice can cause dominant lethal mutations and one report has indicated that 10 week inhalation administration of low doses can result in the production of malformed foetuses. The present study had dual purposes: (a) to attempt to clarify the suspected ability of sub-chronic (6 h/day, 5 days/wk, 10 weeks) low-dose exposure to 1,3-butadiene to induce heritable mutations in mouse male germ cells: (b) investigation of the relationships between testicular DNA damage, testicular DNA repair and foetal outcome. Adult male mice were exposed to low or moderate doses of 1,3-butadiene by inhalation sub-chronically or for a single 6 h period and either used for mating (sub-chronic exposure only) or for studies of DNA damage and repair. Litter size, dominant lethality and numbers of abnormal foetuses were determined the day preceding the normal day of parturition. Testicular DNA damage and repair were assessed by the Comet assay (for DNA damage) and the unscheduled DNA synthesis assay (for DNA repair). 1,3-Butadiene caused a statistically significant increase in dominant lethality at 125 ppm but not 12.5 ppm. No significant increase in DNA repair was found with either dose level or exposure period while only 6 h exposure to 125 ppm caused a small but significant increase in DNA damage as detected by the Comet assay. These effects demonstrate the reproductive genotoxicity of (125 ppm) 1,3-butadiene but do not confirm its ability to cause abnormalities in the offspring via the sperm. It is suggested that the relationship between 1,3-butadiene-induced DNA damage, DNA repair and heritable defects in the offspring may depend on the pattern of metabolites produced.

  19. Recombinant β-1,3-1,4-glucanase from Theobroma cacao impairs Moniliophthora perniciosa mycelial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Dahyana Santos; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Dos Santos, Tassiara Pereira; Pungartnik, Cristina; Cascardo, Júlio Cezar M; Micheli, Fabienne; Gesteira, Abelmon S

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we identified a gene from Theobroma cacao L. genome and cDNA libraries, named TcGlu2, that encodes a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase. The TcGlu2 ORF was 720 bp in length and encoded a polypeptide of 239 amino acids with a molecular mass of 25.58 kDa. TcGlu2 contains a conserved domain characteristic of β-1,3-1,4-glucanases and presented high protein identity with β-1,3-1,4-glucanases from other plant species. Molecular modeling of TcGlu2 showed an active site of 13 amino acids typical of glucanase with β-1,3 and 1,4 action mode. The recombinant cDNA TcGlu2 obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and whose sequence was confirmed by mass spectrometry, has a molecular mass of about 22 kDa (with His-Tag) and showed antifungal activity against the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the witches' broom disease in cacao. The integrity of the hyphae membranes of M. perniciosa, incubated with protein TcGlu2, was analyzed with propidium iodide. After 1 h of incubation, a strong fluorescence emitted by the hyphae indicating the hydrolysis of the membrane by TcGlu2, was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study of a cacao β-1,3-1,4-glucanase expression in heterologous system and the first analysis showing the antifungal activity of a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase, in particular against M. perniciosa.

  20. The structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 81 endo-β-1,3-glucanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Chen, Zhongzhou; Yan, Qiaojuan; Yang, Shaoqing; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2013-10-01

    Endo-β-1,3-glucanases catalyze the hydrolysis of β-1,3-glycosidic linkages in glucans. They are also responsible for rather diverse physiological functions such as carbon utilization, cell-wall organization and pathogen defence. Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 81 mainly consists of β-1,3-glucanases from fungi, higher plants and bacteria. A novel GH family 81 β-1,3-glucanase gene (RmLam81A) from Rhizomucor miehei was expressed in Escherichia coli. Purified RmLam81A was crystallized and the structure was determined in two crystal forms (form I-free and form II-Se) at 2.3 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. Here, the crystal structure of a member of GH family 81 is reported for the first time. The structure of RmLam81A is greatly different from all endo-β-1,3-glucanase structures available in the Protein Data Bank. The overall structure of the RmLam81A monomer consists of an N-terminal β-sandwich domain, a C-terminal (α/α)6 domain and an additional domain between them. Glu553 and Glu557 are proposed to serve as the proton donor and basic catalyst, respectively, in a single-displacement mechanism. In addition, Tyr386, Tyr482 and Ser554 possibly contribute to both the position or the ionization state of the basic catalyst Glu557. The first crystal structure of a GH family 81 member will be helpful in the study of the GH family 81 proteins and endo-β-1,3-glucanases.

  1. Evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from petrol-fuelled motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y.; Galbally, I. E.; Weeks, I. A.; Duffy, B. L.; Nelson, P. F.

    This study reports the identification and quantification of 1,3-butadiene in petrol and in the evaporative emissions from Australian light-duty passenger vehicles. The mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in each of the different grades of any brand of Australian petrol was found to be relatively constant for a given marketing area. However, the mass fractions vary significantly between the different brands (or refineries) from 0.004±0.001% to 0.047±0.008%. The measurements of the evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from in-service motor vehicles were performed using standard Australian Design Rule 37/00 (ADR 37/00) Sealed Housing Evaporative Determination (SHED) tests. For post-1985 catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with unleaded petrol, average evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene were 9.4 (0.7-22) and 5.0 (0.1-23) mg per test for diurnal and hot soak SHED tests, respectively. The corresponding average evaporative emissions for the older, pre-1986 non-catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with leaded petrol were 26.5 (11.7-45.4) and 9.2 (4.3-13.1) mg per test, respectively, about double the observed emissions from newer vehicles. For the complete vehicle set (all ages), the average mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in the total hydrocarbon (sum of C 1-C 10 hydrocarbons) emission was 0.21±0.14% from the diurnal phase and was 0.11±0.06% from the hot-soak phase. Evaporative emissions were estimated to contribute about 4% (ranging from 1-15%) of the total (exhaust and evaporative) emissions of 1,3-butadiene from Australian motor vehicles.

  2. Trapping efficiency of 1,3-dichloropropene isomers by XAD-4 sorbent tubes for air sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S.; Pflaum, T.; Qin, R.

    2011-08-01

    Emission monitoring is necessary to evaluate the impact of air pollutants such as soil fumigants on the environment. Quantifying fumigant emissions often involves the use of air sampling tubes filled with sorbents to trap fumigants. 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) are being increasingly used in combination in soil fumigation since the phase-out of methyl bromide. Charcoal and XAD-4 resins are used for trapping 1,3-D and CP, respectively. If one sampling tube can trap both chemicals, the number of samples, the amount of work, and associated costs can be significantly reduced. The objective of this research was to determine the efficiency of XAD-4 sorbent tubes for trapping cis- and trans-1,3-D isomers as a function of flow rate (100-1000 ml min -1) and sampling time period (10-360 min). The results showed that XAD-4 could trap both 1,3-D isomers as efficiently as charcoal, but breakthrough occurred depending on the amount of sorbent materials in a tube, fumigant amount, flow rate and sampling time period. No significant breakthrough was observed from either small (120 mg) or large (600 mg) XAD-4 sorbent tubes over short sampling time periods (≤30 min) at any flow rate. Longer sampling period at low flow rates (100 ml min -1) resulted in ≥50% breakthrough from the small tubes during a 3 h sampling period; but no remarkable breakthrough from the large XAD-4 tubes up to 6 h sampling period when 3.0 mg 1,3-D isomers were tested. Field data showed agreement with laboratory tests. At high flow rates (1000 ml min -1), >40% breakthrough was observed from large XAD-4 sorbent tubes during 3 h trapping tests suggesting that short sampling time intervals are necessary to avoid potential breakthrough of fumigants from the sampling tubes.

  3. Synthesis and Structure Characterization of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing 1,3-Dioxolane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; JIAN Fang-fang; NIU Shu-yan; JIANG Zhi-guo

    2004-01-01

    Five novel triazole compounds containing group 1,3-dioxolane were designed and synthesized by taking difenoconazole as the start compound and changing diphenyl ether for benzyl phenyl ether. Their structures were confirmed by elemental analyses, 1H NMR and IR spectra. The single crystal structure of 2-[4-(2,4-dichlorophenylmethoxy]phenyl-2- (1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) methane-1, 3-dioxolane was determined by means of X-ray diffraction. The preliminary bioassays showed that the synthesized compounds exhibited some activities of fungicides and plant growth regulators.

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of β -aroylpropionic acid based 1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, two new series, 1-(4-benzylphenyl-3-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl-1-propanone and 1-(4-ethylphenyl-3-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl-1-propanone from β-(4-benzylbenzoylpropionic acid and β-(4-ethylbenzoylpropionic acid, respectively, were synthesized and tested for antiinflammatory, analgesic, lipid peroxidation, ulcerogenic and antibacterial actions. A fair number of compounds were found to have good antiinflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test, while a few compounds showed significant antibacterial activity. The newly synthesized compounds showed very low ulcerogenic action.

  5. Alpha-defensins 1-3 release by dendritic cells is reduced by estrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperling Rhoda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During pregnancy the immune system of the mother must protect any activation that may negatively affect the fetus. Changes in susceptibility to infection as well as resolution of some autoimmune disorders represent empirical evidence for pregnancy related alterations in immunity. Sex hormones reach extremely high levels during pregnancy and have been shown to have direct effects on many immune functions including the antiviral response of dendritic cells. Among the immunologically active proteins secreted by monocyte derived DCs (MDDC are the alpha-defensins 1-3. This family of cationic antimicrobial peptides has a broad spectrum of microbicidal activity and has also been shown to link innate to adaptive immunity by attracting T cells and immature DCs, which are essential for initiating and polarizing the immune response. Methods We compare culture-generated monocyte derived DCs (MDDCs with directly isolated myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs and measure their alpha-defensins 1-3 secretion by ELISA both, in basal situations and after hormone (E2 or PG treatments. Moreover, using a cohort of pregnant women we isolated mDCs from blood and also measure the levels of these anti-microbial peptides along pregnancy. Results We show that mDCs and pDCs constitutively produce alpha-defensins 1-3 and at much higher levels than MDDCs. Alpha-defensins 1-3 production from mDCs and MDDCs but not pDCs is inhibited by E2. PG does not affect alpha-defensins 1-3 in any of the populations. Moreover, alpha-defensins 1-3 production by mDCs was reduced in the later stages of pregnancy in 40% of the patients. Conclusions Here, we demonstrate that mDCs and pDCs secrete alpha-defensins 1-3 and present a novel effect of E2 on the secretion of alpha-defensins 1-3 by dendritic cells.

  6. 3,3′-Oxybi[isobenzofuran-1(3H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkuan Li

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H10O5, consists of two isobenzofuran-1(3H-one moieties which are linked by a bridging O atom. The two halves of the molecule display approximate non-crystallographic mirror symmetry. The dihedral angle between the two isobenzofuran-1(3H-one ring systems is 53.18 (6 Å. Two chiral carbon centres are observed in the compound, but their absolute configurations could not be determined. In the crystal structure, intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds link molecules into zigzag chains along c. Additional C—H...O interactions connect adjacent chains.

  7. Identification of 1,3-dioxane and 1,3-dioxolanes as compounds causing tastes and odors in drinking water supplies; Identificacion de 1,3-dioxanos y 1,3-dioxolanos como compuestos causantes de gustos y olores en aguas destinadas a abastecimiento publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, F.; Romero, J.; Caixach, J.; Rivera, J.; Gode, L. X.; Ninerola, J. M.; Costa, C.

    1998-12-31

    A study of organic compounds imparting odor problems in river and groundwater has been conducted. The Tordera aquifer was polluted by 2-alkyl-5,5-dimethyl-1,3-dioxanes and 2-alkyl-4-methyl-1,3-dioxolanes coming from a resin manufacturing plant in the upper course of the river. This study shows the evolution of the groundwater quality after two years of the incidents and how the concentration levels of dioxanes and dioxolanes were lowered after a better treatment of wastewaters by the company. Additional improvements of the analytical methodology are also shown. (Author) 18 refs.

  8. Pathway for inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate and 1,4-bisphosphate metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Inhorn, R C; Bansal, V S; Majerus, P W

    1987-01-01

    We prepared [3H]inositol-,3-[32P]phosphate-and 4-[32P]phosphate-labeled inositol phosphate substrates to investigate the metabolism of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate and inositol 1,4-bisphosphate. In crude extracts of calf brain, inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate is first converted to inositol 3,4-bisphosphate, then the inositol 3,4-bisphosphate intermediate is further converted to inositol 3-phosphate. Similarly, inositol 1,4-bisphosphate is converted to inositol 4-phosphate, and no inositol 1-phos...

  9. myo-Inositol 1,3-acetals as early intermediates during the synthesis of cyclitol derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurale, Bharat P; Sardessai, Richa S; Shashidhar, Mysore S

    2014-11-18

    Synthetic sequences starting from commercially available myo-inositol necessarily involve protection-deprotection strategies of its six hydroxyl groups. Several strategies have been developed/attempted over the last several decades leading to the synthesis of naturally occurring phosphoinositols, their analogs, and cyclitol derivatives. Of late, myo-inositol 1,3-acetals, which can be obtained by the reductive cleavage of myo-inositol orthoesters have emerged as early intermediates for the synthesis of phosphorylated and other inositol derivatives. This mini-review is an attempt to illustrate the economy and convenience of using myo-inositol 1,3-acetals as early intermediates during syntheses from myo-inositol.

  10. Synthesis of isoxazolidines by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and their bioactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Chunsheng; Li Zhinian; Shu Jinyan; Li Tao; Zhang Baoyan

    2006-01-01

    A series of new isoxazolidines was prepared by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of different mono-substituted styrenes with 1,3-dipolar compounds that were prepared by the reaction of N-methylhydroxylamine sulfate with aromatic carbonyl substances.This synthetic pathway for the preparation of isoxazolidines was an ideal process of green chemistry.The synthetic products were 5-substituted isoxazolidines and their structures were characterized by mass and NMR (1H-,13C-,COSY,HSQC,and DEPT) spectrometry,and their bioactivity was investigated indicating that some new compounds inhibited Botrytis cinerea effectively.

  11. Electroacoustic response of 1-3 piezocomposite transducers for high power applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Lee, Hyeong; Zhang, Shujun; Geng, Xuecang; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    The electroacoustic performance of 1-3 piezoelectric composite transducers with low loss polymer filler was studied and compared to monolithic Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) piezoelectric transducers. The 1-3 composite transducers exhibited significantly high electromechanical coupling factor (kt ∼ 0.64) when compared to monolithic counterparts (kt ∼ 0.5), leading to the improved bandwidth and loop sensitivity, being on the order of 67% and −24.0 dB versus 44% and −24.8 dB, respectively. In addition, the ...

  12. Tandem dinucleophilic cyclization of cyclohexane-1,3-diones with pyridinium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Kiamehr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The cyclization of cyclohexane-1,3-diones with various substituted pyridinium salts afforded functionalized 8-oxa-10-aza-tricyclo[7.3.1.02,7]trideca-2(7,11-dienes. The reaction proceeds by regioselective attack of the central carbon atom of the 1,3-dicarbonyl unit to 4-position of the pyridinium salt and subsequent cyclization by base-assisted proton migration and nucleophilic addition of the oxygen atom to the 2-position, as was elucidated by DFT computations. Fairly extensive screening of bases and additives revealed that the presence of potassium cations is essential for formation of the product.

  13. Eu(Ⅲ) complexes involving 1,3,5-triazine diphosphine oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.Pietraszkiewicz; M.Pietraszkiewicz; J.Karpiuk; M.Jesie(n)

    2009-01-01

    The 1,3,5-triazine diphosphine oxide ligands with donor-acceptor properties formed strong complexes with europium(Ⅲ) ion in acetonitrile.Spectrophotometric titrations and mass spectra indicated that two ligands coordinated to one europium ion.The stability constants varied from 11.64 to 14.60 (log β).Binary complexes exhibited rather weak luminescence in solution.1,3,5-triazine diphosphine oxides engaged as co-ligands in Eu(Ⅲ) (2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)3 complex contributed to the overall photoluminescence and allowed for excitation with longer wavelengths than the parent complex.

  14. 1,3-Diphenylethenylcarbazolyl-Based Monomer for Cross-Linked Hole Transporting Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryte Daskeviciene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new cross-linkable monomer containing 1,3-diphenylethenylcarbazolyl-based hole-transporting moieties and four reactive epoxy groups, was prepared by a multistep synthesis route from 1,3-bis(2,2-diphenylethenyl-9H-carbazol-2-ol and its application for the in situ formation of cross-linked hole transporting layers was investigated. A high concentration of flexible aliphatic epoxy chains ensures good solubility and makes this compound an attractive cross-linking agent. The synthesized compounds were characterized by various techniques, including differential scanning calorimetry, xerographic time of flight, and electron photoemission in air methods.

  15. catena-Poly[[aqua(imidazolecadmium(II]-μ3-benzene-1,3-dicarboxylato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfang Zeng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Cd(C8H4O4(C3H4N2(H2O]n, the CdII ion is seven-coordinated by five O atoms from three crystallographically independent benzene-1,3-carboxylate ligands, one N atom from the imidazole ligand and one coordinated water molecule. Neighboring CdII ions are bridged by the benzene-1,3-dicarboxylate ligands, forming a zigzag polymeric chain structure. These chains are further extended into a three-dimensional supramolecular structure through O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  16. Multicomponent Synthesis of 3,6-Dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans J. J. de Kanter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-fused 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones constitute a so far rather unexplored class of compounds, with the latest report dating back more than two decades. Thiazine-2-thiones contain an endocyclic dithiocarbamate group, which is often found in pesticides, in substrates for radical chemistry and in synthetic intermediates towards thioureas and amidines. We now report the multicomponent reaction (MCR of in situ-generated 1-azadienes with carbon disulfide. With this reaction, a one-step protocol towards the potentially interesting 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones was established and a small library was synthesized.

  17. Multicomponent synthesis of 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruithof, Art; Ploeger, Marten L; Janssen, Elwin; Helliwell, Madeleine; de Kanter, Frans J J; Ruijter, Eelco; Orru, Romano V A

    2012-02-08

    Non-fused 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones constitute a so far rather unexplored class of compounds, with the latest report dating back more than two decades. Thiazine-2-thiones contain an endocyclic dithiocarbamate group, which is often found in pesticides, in substrates for radical chemistry and in synthetic intermediates towards thioureas and amidines. We now report the multicomponent reaction (MCR) of in situ-generated 1-azadienes with carbon disulfide. With this reaction, a one-step protocol towards the potentially interesting 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones was established and a small library was synthesized.

  18. Fabrication and Performances of 1-3-2 Piezoelectric Ceramic/Polymer Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Likun Wang; Guang Li; Hongliang Du; Lei Qin; Shuxiang Li

    2006-01-01

    A novel 1-3-2 piezoelectric composite has been developed, which consists of piezoelectric ceramic plate and 1-3 piezoelectric composite. The composite was fabricated by dicing PZT ceramic along mutual perpendicular two directions and then filling epoxy into grooves. The piezoelectric and electromechanical properties of the novel composite were determined.The results show a coefficient d33 of 405 pC/N, a vibration displacement of 113.5 pm, an acoustic impendence of 13.3 Mraly,a bandwidth of 12 kHz and a thickness electromechanical coupling coefficient of 0.56.

  19. 2-[3-(1,3-Benzothiazol-2-yl-2,2-dimethylpropyl]-2-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1,3-benzothiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammer Yousuf

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H22N2S2, the five-membered thiazole ring of the 2-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1,3-benzothiazole unit has an envelope conformation. The dihedral angle between the planar [maximum deviation of 0.014 (1 Å for the S atom] benzothiazole ring system and the benzene ring is 78.37 (12°. Two intramolecular C—H...S hydrogen bonds are observed, forming rings of graph-set motif S(6. In the crystal, the molecules are consolidated in pairs through N—H...N hydrogen bonds and are arranged parallel to the b axis.

  20. Thermal Behaviors of 2-(Dinitromethylene)-1,3- diazacycloheptane (DNDH)%Thermal Behaviors of 2-(Dinitromethylene)-1,3- diazacycloheptane (DNDH)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕磊; 徐抗震; 王刚; 罗金安; 宋纪蓉; 王伯周; 赵凤起

    2011-01-01

    2-(Dinitromethylene)-1,3-diazacycloheptane (DNDH) was prepared by the reaction of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitro- ethylene (FOX-7) with 1,4-diaminoethane in NMP. Thermal decomposition behavior of DNDH was studied under the non-isothermal conditions with DSC method, and presents only one intensely exothermic decomposition process The kinetic equation of the decomposition reaction is da/dT= 103388× 3a2/3exp(--3.353 ×10^5/RT)/fl. The critical temperature of thermal explosion is 215.97℃. Specific heat capacity of DNDH was studied with micro-DSC method and theoretical calculation method, and the molar heat capacity is 215.40 Jomol-1,K-1 at 298.15 K. Adiabatic time-to-explosion was calculated to be 92.07 s. DNDH has same thermal stability to FOX-7.

  1. 5-tert-Butyl-2-[5-(5-tert-butyl-1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl-2-thienyl]-1,3-benzoxazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Fang Jian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C26H26N2O2S, was prepared by the reaction of thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid and 2-amino-4-tert-butylphenol. One of the tert-butyl groups is disordered over two conformations, with occupancies of 0.539 (1 and 0.461 (2. The two 1,3-benzoxazole rings are almost planar, with dihedral angles of 0.83 (18 and 1.64 (17° between the five- and six-membered rings. The thiophene ring makes dihedral angles of 21.54 (19 and 4.49 (18° with the planes of the five-membered oxazole rings. The crystal packing is controlled by π–π stacking interactions involving the thiophene and benzene rings, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.748 (2 Å.

  2. Alternative fruit and vegetables consumption for 1-3 year old Indonesian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:World Health Organization merekomendasikan konsumsi sayur dan buah paling sedikit 400 gr atau 5 (lima porsi sayur dan buah sehari. Penelitian ini untuk menentukan alternatif jumlah dan jenis anjuran konsumsi sayur dan buah dan kecukupan vitamin A, vitamin C, potasium, asam folat dan serat yang dapat dipenuhi untuk kelompok umur 1-3 tahun anak Indonesia. Metode:Penelitian menggunakan data konsumsi sayur dan buah dari data Riskesdas tahun 2010. Analisis data menggunakan analisis linier programming untuk memperoleh lima alternatif jumlah dan jenis sayur dan buah untuk anak usia 1-3 tahun.Hasil:Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lima jenis buah yang paling banyak dikonsumsi anak usia 1-3 tahun adalah pisang, jeruk, pepaya, apel dan semangka. Lima jenis sayur yang paling banyak dikonsumsi anak usia 1-3 tahun adalah sayur bayam, sayur sop, sayur kangkung, sayur daun singkong, dan sayur asam. Jumlah anjuran konsumsi sayur dan buah untuk anak usia 1-3 tahun adalah 100-200 gram sayuran dan 150-200 gram buah Kesimpulan: Alternatif anjuran konsumsi sayur dan buah untuk anak usia 1-3 tahun adalah 100-200 gram (1-2 mangkok sayuran dan 150-200 gram (3-4 potong buah. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:74-7Kata kunci: anjuran, konsumsi, sayur, buah, anak usia 1-3 tahunAbstractBackground: WHO recommends the daily consumption of fruit and vegetables at least 400 grams or 5 servings. Based on national health survey Indonesia in 2007, means of daily portion of fruit and vegetable for Indonesian was less than 5 portion. This study was conducted to assess consumption of fruit and vegetables in 1-3 year old Indonesian children, and adequacy of daily requirement of vitamin A, vitamin C, potasium, folic acid and fiber. Methods: The study used consumption data from 2010 National Health Survey Indonesia. Using linier programming, we then could present 5 alternatives of combination of fruits and vegetables. Result:  The  study  found  five  kind  of

  3. High dynamic range emission measurements of shocked energetic materials: Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2016-06-01

    A new emission apparatus with high time resolution and high dynamic range was used to study shock-induced ignition of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine in the form of ultrafine powder (4 ± 3 μm particle size), over a range of impact velocities (0.8-4.3 km s-1) and impact durations (2.5-16 ns). A graybody model was used to extract graybody emissivities and time-dependent temperatures from a few ns to 100 μs. The emission transients consisted of three parts: a 6700 K nanosecond burst during the shocks, a 4000-4500 K temperature spike near 0.3 μs followed by a ˜3300 K tail extending out to ˜100 μs. These temperatures varied remarkably little with impact velocity and duration, while the emission intensities and emissivities changed by over an order of magnitude. The emissivity changes were interpreted with a hot spot model, where hot spot temperatures reached a maximum of 6700 K and the hot spot volume fractions increased from 5% to 100% as impact velocity increased from 1 to 3 km s-1. Changing shock durations in the 2.5-16 ns range had noticeable effects on the microsecond emission. The 0.3 μs temperature spike was much smaller or absent with 2.5 ns shocks, but prominent with longer durations. An explanation for these effects was put forth that invoked the formation of carbon-rich clusters during the shock. In this view, cluster formation was minimal with 2.5 ns shocks, but longer-duration shocks produced increasingly larger clusters, and the 0.3 μs temperature spikes represented cluster ignition.

  4. Neutralization of haemorrhagic activity of viper venoms by 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-oxo-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, Kabburalli; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Gaonkar, Santosh Laxman; Sebastin Santhosh, Martin; Suresh Kumar, Muthuvel; Basappa; Priya, Babu Shubha; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal Subbegowda; Nanjunda Swamy, Shivananju; Girish, Kesturu Subbaiah

    2011-10-01

    Viper envenomation undeniably induces brutal local manifestations such as haemorrhage, oedema and necrosis involving massive degradation of extracellular matrix at the bitten region and many a times results in dangerous systemic haemorrhage including pulmonary shock. Snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) are being considered to be the primary culprits for the venom-induced haemorrhage. As a consequence, the venom researchers and medical practitioners are in deliberate quest of SVMP inhibitors. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-oxo-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile (DFD) on viper venom-induced haemorrhagic and PLA(2) activities. DFD effectively neutralized the haemorrhagic activity of the medically important viper venoms such as Echis carinatus, Echis ocelatus, Echis carinatus sochureki, Echis carinatus leakeyi and Crotalus atrox in a dose-dependent manner. The histological examinations revealed that the compound DFD effectively neutralizes the basement membrane degradation, and accumulation of inflammatory leucocytes at the site of Echis carinatus venom injection further confirms the inhibition of haemorrhagic activity. In addition, DFD dose dependently inhibited the PLA(2) activities of Crotalus atrox and E. c. leakeyi venoms. According to the docking studies, DFD binds to hydrophobic pocket of SVMP with the ki of 19.26 × 10(-9) (kcal/mol) without chelating Zn(2+) in the active site. It is concluded that the clinically approved inhibitors of haemorrhagins could be used as a potent first-aid agent in snakebite management. Furthermore, a high degree of structural and functional homology between SVMPs and their relatives, the MMPs, suggests that DFD analogues may find immense value in the regulation of multifactorial pathological conditions like inflammation, cancer and wound healing.

  5. 1,3,5-Tri- and 1,3,4,5-tetra-substituted 1,4-diazepin-2-one solid-phase synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iden, Hassan S; Lubell, William D

    2008-01-01

    Solid-phase syntheses of 1,3,5-tri-substituted and 1,3,4,5-tetra-substituted 1,4-diazepin-2-ones 15-18 have been accomplished by employing inexpensive commercially available alpha- and beta-amino acids on Wang resin. Reductive amination of the imine formed by condensation of Wang aldehyde resin respectively with beta-alaninate 2 and beta-homophenylalaninate 3, followed by aminoacylation with a set of alpha-N-Boc amino acids (Phe epsilon-( Z)-Lys, and Leu) gave tertiary amide resins 7 and 8. Exposure of resins 7 and 8 to an excess of vinyl magnesium bromide in the presence of copper cyanide gave the corresponding gamma,delta-unsaturated ketone resins 9 and 10 by way of a cascade addition. Diazepinones were made by Boc deprotection and intramolecular reductive amination. To diversify the heterocycle, N-alkylation was performed using a series of alkyl halides. Alternatively, diazepinones 15e-g were obtained from treatment of methyl beta-alaninate resins 4 and 20 under similar copper-catalyzed cascade conditions to afford the gamma,delta-unsaturated ketone 21, which was acylated using alpha-N-Fmoc-amino acids (Phe, Trp, gamma-(t-Bu)-Glu). Formation of diazepinones 15 followed a similar protocol, after Fmoc removal with piperidine. Cleavage of the heterocycles with TFA/TES 95:5 gave the N1-p-hydroxybenzyl diazepinones 15-18 in overall isolated yields from 6 to 24% after purification in purities ranging from 81 to 100% according to LCMS analysis.

  6. Biodegradation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: new insight into the degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Diane; Halasz, Annamaria; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Manno, Dominic; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-08-01

    Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) is a recalcitrant energetic chemical that tends to accumulate in soil, close to the surface. The present study describes the aerobic biodegradability of HMX using Phanerochaete chrysosporium. When added to 7 day old static P. chrysosporium liquid cultures, HMX (600 nmol) degraded within 25 days of incubation. The removal of HMX was concomitant with the formation of transient amounts of its mono-nitroso derivative (1-NO-HMX). The latter apparently degraded via two potential routes: the first involved N-denitration followed by hydrolytic ring cleavage, and the second involved alpha-hydroxylation prior to ring cleavage. The degradation of 1-NO-HMX gave the ring-cleavage product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB), nitrite (NO2 -), nitrous oxide (N2O), and formaldehyde (HCHO). Using [14C]-HMX, we obtained 14CO2 (70% in 50 days), representing three C atoms of HMX. Incubation of real soils, contaminated with either HMX (403 micromol kg(-1)) (military base soil) or HMX (3057 micromol kg(-1)), and RDX (342 micromol kg(-1)) (ammunition soil) with the fungus led to 75 and 19.8% mineralization of HMX (liberated 14CO2), respectively, also via the intermediary formation of 1-NO-HMX. Mineralization in the latter soil increased to 35% after the addition of glucose, indicating that a fungus-based remediation process for heavily contaminated soils is promising. The present findings improve our understanding about the degradation pathway of HMX and demonstrate the utility of using the robust and versatile fungus P. chrysosporium to develop effective remediation processes for the removal of HMX.

  7. Chongqing Clothing Enterprises Grasp 1.3-billion-yuan Orders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Fashion Festival of Chongqing held on Sep. 25th provides the city with a platform for international communication, bringing business opportunities. At the negotiation meeting & the signing ceremony among the firms processing export garment, the signed 1.3-billion-yuan orders attracted people's attention.

  8. Chongqing Clothing Enterprises Grasp 1.3-billion-yuan Orders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Fashion Festival of Chongqing held on Sep. 25th provides the city with a platform for international communication, bringing business opportunities. At the negotiation meeting & the signing ceremony among the firms processing export garment, the signed 1.3-billion-yuan orders attracted people’s attention.

  9. The Self-Assembly Properties of a Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide Derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stals, Patrick J. M.; Haveman, Jan F.; Palmans, Anja R. A.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments involving the synthesis and characterization of a benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide derivative and its self-assembly properties are reported. These laboratory experiments combine organic synthesis, self-assembly, and physical characterization and are designed for upper-level undergraduate students to introduce the topic of…

  10. A kinetic study of 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions in micellar media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, T; Engberts, JBFN

    2003-01-01

    The kinetics of the 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions (DC) of benzonitrile oxide with a series of N-substituted maleimides in micellar media have been investigated. Surfactants studied include anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate, cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and a series of nonionic alkyl poly(ethyl

  11. Regioselective synthesis and evaluation of 3-alkylidene-1, 3-dihydroisobenzofurans as potential antidepressant agents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Praveen; C Iyyappan; K Girija; K Suresh Kumar; P T Perumal

    2012-03-01

    3-Alkylidene-1,3-dihydroisobenzofurans exhibited moderate antidepressant activity as evaluated by forced swim and tail suspension test methods. Virtual screening was carried out by docking the designed compounds into the serotonin binding sites of arabinase protein to predict the analogue binding mode of the compounds to the SSRIs.

  12. Organocatalytic Asymmetric α-Chlorination of 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds Catalyzed by 2-Aminobenzimidazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Serrano Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bifunctional chiral 2-aminobenzimidazole derivatives 1 and 2 catalyze the enantioselective stereodivergent α-chlorination of β-ketoesters and 1,3-diketone derivatives with up to 50% ee using N-chlorosuccinimide (NCS or 2,3,4,4,5,6-hexachloro-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one as electrophilic chlorine sources.

  13. [Induction, purification and antifungal activity of beta-1, 3-glucanase from wheat leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bin; Li, Duo-Chuan; Ci, Xiao-Yan; Guo, Run-Fang; Wang, Ying

    2004-08-01

    Treatment with mercuric chloride (0.01%), salicylic acid (10.0 mg/mL) or riboflavin (1 mmol/L) induced the beta-1, 3-glucanase activity in all the three wheat varieties i.e. 331, Kangdao 680 and Lumai 23 tested, with the strongest inductive effect on variety 331 by treatment with mercuric chloride (0.01%) for 24 h. From leaves of variety 331 treated with mercuric chloride (0.01%) for 24 h, a kind of beta-1, 3-glucanase was purified by fractional precipitation with ammonium sulphate, Phenyl-Sepharose chromatography (Phenyl-Sepharose Fast Flow), ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow) and gel-filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S-100). Through SDS-PAGE and gel filtration, the molecular weight of the purified beta-1, 3-glucanase was determined to be about 52.0-53.6 kD. The purified beta-1, 3-glucanase showed antifungal activity against both Alternaria longipes and Rhizoctonia cerealis on tested plates, and inhibited the germ tube elongation and spore germination of Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium omysporum f.sp cucumerinum.

  14. Kinetic solvent effects on 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of benzonitrile oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, T; Engberts, JBFN

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of benzonitrile oxide with a series of N-substituted maleimides and with cyclopentene are reported for water, a wide range of organic solvents and binary solvent mixtures. The results indicate the importance of both solvent polarity and specific hydrogen-bo

  15. Synthesis of Some Benzimidazole Derivatives Bearing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moiety as Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochona, Bereket; Mazzio, Elizabeth; Gangapurum, Madhavei; Mateeva, Nelly; Redda, K K

    2015-04-01

    In an effort to establish new benzimidazole related structural leads with improved anticancer activity, several new benzimidazole derivatives (5a-i) with 1,3,4-oxadiazole scaffold incorporated were synthesized and studied for their anticancer activity. The anticancer screening against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines showed that compound (5c) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity.

  16. Biomonitoring of benzene and 1,3-butadiene exposure and early biological effects in traffic policemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arayasiri, Manaswee; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Navasumrit, Panida; Autrup, Herman; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this study was to determine benzene and 1,3-butadiene exposure through ambient air and personal air monitoring, as well as through biomarkers of exposure, and to evaluate the potential health risk of exposure through the use of biomarkers of early biological effects in central Bangkok traffic policemen. Ambient air concentrations of benzene and 1,3-butadiene at the roadsides were significantly higher than in police offices used as control sites (pbutadiene (median 3.08 microg/m(3)) than office policemen (median 6.17 microg/m(3) for benzene and 0.37 microg/m(3) for 1,3-butadiene) (pbutadiene metabolite, monohydroxy-butenyl mercapturic acid. Biomarkers of early biological effects, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in leukocytes (8-OHdG), DNA-strand breaks, and DNA-repair capacity, measured as an increase in gamma ray-induced chromosome aberrations were significantly higher in traffic policemen than controls (pbutadiene exposure were significantly associated with 8-OHdG and olive tail moment at pbutadiene on DNA damage. These results indicated that traffic policemen, who are exposed to benzene and 1,3-butadiene at the roadside in central Bangkok, are potentially at a higher risk for development of diseases such as cancer than office policemen.

  17. SIRT1/3 Activation by Resveratrol Attenuates Acute Kidney Injury in a Septic Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Siqi; Wei, Siwei; Dai, Xingui

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis often results in damage to multiple organ systems, possibly due to severe mitochondrial dysfunction. Two members of the sirtuin family, SIRT1 and SIRT3, have been implicated in the reversal of mitochondrial damage. The aim of this study was to determine the role of SIRT1/3 in acute kidney injury (AKI) following sepsis in a septic rat model. After drug pretreatment and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model reproduction in the rats, we performed survival time evaluation and kidney tissue extraction and renal tubular epithelial cell (RTEC) isolation. We observed reduced SIRT1/3 activity, elevated acetylated SOD2 (ac-SOD2) levels and oxidative stress, and damaged mitochondria in RTECs following sepsis. Treatment with resveratrol (RSV), a chemical SIRT1 activator, effectively restored SIRT1/3 activity, reduced acetylated SOD2 levels, ameliorated oxidative stress and mitochondrial function of RTECs, and prolonged survival time. However, the beneficial effects of RSV were greatly abrogated by Ex527, a selective inhibitor of SIRT1. These results suggest a therapeutic role for SIRT1 in the reversal of AKI in septic rat, which may rely on SIRT3-mediated deacetylation of SOD2. SIRT1/3 activation could therefore be a promising therapeutic strategy to treat sepsis-associated AKI. PMID:28003866

  18. Design and discovery of 1,3-benzodiazepines as novel dopamine antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhaoning; Sun, Zhong-Yue; Ye, Yuanzan; McKittrick, Brian; Greenlee, William; Czarniecki, Michael; Fawzi, Ahmad; Zhang, Hongtao; Lachowicz, Jean E

    2009-09-01

    A series of novel 1,3-benzodiazapine based D1 antagonists was designed according to the understanding of pharmacophore models derived from SCH 23390 (1b), a potent and selective D1 antagonist. The new design features an achiral cyclic-amidine that maintains desired basicity. Solid phase synthesis was developed for SAR development of the novel dopamine antagonists.

  19. 75 FR 51388 - 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which there is... and eyes. Based on the results of a dermal sensitization study in guinea pigs, 2- methyl-1,3... acute and chronic dietary assessment (food and drinking water), or for the short, intermediate, and...

  20. A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur Jaiswal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic compounds possess diverse biological properties that has lead to intense study and research of these compounds. One of these compounds is oxadiazole which has been found to exhibit various pharmacological activities. Oxadiazole is a five membered heterocyclic ring which is a versatile lead compound for designing potent bioactive agents. It exists in four isomeric forms. Out of its four isomers 1, 3, 4-oxadizole exhibited a wide range of biological activities which includes antibacterial, antitubercular, anticonvulsant, hypoglycemic, antiallergic, enzyme inhibitor, vasodialatory, antifungal, cytotoxic, antiinflammatory, analgesic, hypolipidemic, anticancer, insecticidal, ulcerogenic activities etc. The 1,3,4-Oxadiazole have shown significant antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of microorganisms like fungi, Gram +ve strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus lintus and Gram –ve strains such as Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Oxadiazole derivatives and investigation of their chemical and biological behavior have gained more importance in recent decades for biological, medical and agricultural reasons. A large number of drugs used clinically have oxadiazole ring as a structural building block. The capacity of 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole nucleus to undergo variety of chemical reactions including electrophillic substitution, nucleophilic substitution, thermal and photochemical which make it medicinal backbone on which a number of potential molecules can be constructed. Present review is flooded with reports of antimicrobial activity of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives published in various journals.

  1. Structural characterization and catalytic properties of bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium) dichromate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Ståhl, Kenny; Boghosian, Soghomon

    2011-01-01

    The structure of bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium) dichromate was determined from powder X-ray diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P21/n) with a = 10.79714 (15) Å, b = 11.75844 (16) Å, c = 8.15097 (11) Å, β = 109.5248 (6)º. The structure consists of...

  2. Intracellular transport and processing of a tobacco vacuolar β-1,3-glucanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticher, L; Hinz, U; Meyer, A D; Meins, F

    1992-11-01

    The class I β-1,3-glucanases are basic, vacuolar enzymes implicated in the defense of plants against pathogen infection. The tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) enzyme is synthesized as a preproprotein with an N-terminal signal peptide for targeting to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and an N-glycosylated C-terminal extension which is lost during protein maturation. The transport and processing of β-1,3-glucanase in cellsuspension cultures of the tobacco cultivar Havana 425 was investigated by pulse-chase labelling and cell fractionation. We verified that mature β-1,3-glucanase is localized in the vacuole of the suspension-cultured cells. Comparison of the time course of processing in homogenates, the soluble fraction, and membrane fractions indicates that proglucanase is transported from the endoplasmic reticulum via the Golgi compartment to the vacuole. Processing to the mature form occurs in the vacuole. Treatment of cells with tunicamycin, which inhibits N-glycosylation, and digestion of the (35)S-labelled processing intermediates with endoglycosidase H indicate that β-1,3-glucanase has a single N-glycan attached to the C-terminal extension. Glycosylation is not required for proteolytic processing or correct targeting to the vacuole.

  3. Investigation of Isomerization of 2-Seleno-1, 3, 2-diazaphospholidine Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the isomerization of 1, 3, 2-diazaphospholidine-2-selenide derivatives in refluxing benzene in the presence of trace water was observed. The structures of isomerized products were determined by IR, 1H NMR, 31P NMR, elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography. The mechanism of isomerization was also proposed.

  4. 6-Nitro-4H-benzo[d][1,3]thiazin-2-amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kumar Gnanasekaran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and cost-effective synthesis of 6-nitro-4H-benzo[d][1,3]thiazin-2-amine based on a sequential SN2-SNAr process is reported. The synthesis is accomplished with an overall yield of 80%.

  5. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A. 721.3805 Section 721.3805 Protection of Environment... with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A (PMN P-00-0738; CAS No. 259871-68-6) is subject to reporting under this...

  6. The output of lead storage battery in China accounts for 1/3 in the world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>China has now become the world largest manu- facturer and exporter of lead storage battery, with its output taking 1/3 in the world.Accord- ing to incomplete statistics,there are about 1500 lead storage battery manufacturers in China and the output has been growing at a

  7. Domino [Pd]-Catalysis: One-Pot Synthesis of Isobenzofuran-1(3H)-ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendar, Lodi; Satyanarayana, Gedu

    2016-09-02

    An efficient domino [Pd]-catalysis for the synthesis of isobenzofuran-1(3H)-ones is presented. The strategy shows broad substrate scope and is amenable to o-bromobenzyl tertiary/secondary/primary alcohols. Significantly, the method was applied to the synthesis of antiplatelet drug n-butyl phthalide and cytotoxic agonist 3a-[4'-methoxylbenzyl]-5,7-dimethoxyphthalide.

  8. The nonexistence of rank 4 IP tensors in signature (1,3)

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Let V be a real vector space of dimension 4 with a nondegenerate symmetric bilinear form of signature (1,3). We show that there exists no algebraic curvature tensor R on V so that its associated skew-symmetric operator R(⋅) has rank 4 and constant eigenvalues on the Grassmannian of nondegenerate 2-planes in V.

  9. 14 CFR Sec. 1-3 - General description of system of accounts and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-3 General description of system of accounts and... reflect the varying needs and capacities of different air carriers without impairing basic accounting... and loss elements which are recorded during the current accounting year are subclassified as...

  10. A Novel Photoproduct of 1, 3-Dimethyluracil in Phosphate Buffered-saline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1, 3-Dimethyluracil (DMU) in phosphate buffered-saline (PBS, pH=8) was irradiated by a medium pressure mercury lamp (MPML) and produced a novel compound C6H9N2O6P. The composition and structure of the compound has been identified by elemental analysis, EIMS, UV,IR, 1H and 31p-NMR.

  11. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of 1,3-benzodioxole derivatives. Note II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micale, Nicola; Zappalà, Maria; Grasso, Silvana

    2003-05-01

    A series of 1,3-benzodioxoles (2-12) were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro ability to inhibit the growth of three human tumor cell lines. No cytotoxic effects were noticed with any of the test compounds at a concentration of 10(-4) M.

  12. The sizes, masses and specific star formation rates of massive galaxies at 1.3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLure, R. J.; Pearce, H. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Cirasuolo, M.; Curtis-Lake, E.; Bruce, V. A.; Caputi, K. I.; Almaini, O.; Bonfield, D. G.; Bradshaw, E. J.; Buitrago, F.; Chuter, R.; Foucaud, S.; Hartley, W. G.; Jarvis, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a comprehensive study of the relationship between galaxy size, stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR) at redshifts 1.3

  13. (Z-3-Amino-5-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hirsova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 3-Aminorhodanine reacts with aldehydes to form either 5-[(arylalkylidene]-substituted products or Schiff bases or derivatives substituted at both the 3-amino group and the 5-methylene group, depending on the reaction conditions. In this note, synthesis and characterization of 3-amino-5-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one is reported.

  14. The nonexistence of rank 4 IP tensors in signature (1,3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Jeanne Pearson

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Let V be a real vector space of dimension 4 with a nondegenerate symmetric bilinear form of signature (1,3. We show that there exists no algebraic curvature tensor R on V so that its associated skew-symmetric operator R(⋅ has rank 4 and constant eigenvalues on the Grassmannian of nondegenerate 2-planes in V.

  15. Chronic kidney disease stages 1-3 increase the risk of venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocak, G.; Verduijn, M.; Vossen, C. Y.; Lijfering, W. M.; Dekker, F. W.; Rosendaal, F. R.; Gansevoort, R. T.; Mahmoodi, B. K.

    2010-01-01

    P>Background: End-stage renal disease has been associated with venous thrombosis (VT). However, the risk of VT in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CKD patients with stage 1-3 disease are at increased risk

  16. Effects of beta-1,3-glucan from Septoria tritici on structural defence responses in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, N.P.; Jensen, J.D.; Knudsen, A.;

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of the pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase and structural defence responses were studied in leaves of wheat either resistant or susceptible to the hemibiotrophic pathogen Septoria tritici. Resistance was associated with an early accumulation of beta...

  17. 4-[5-(2-Methoxyphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]benzohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 4-(5-(2-Methoxyphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylbenzohydrazide (5 was synthesized by three steps. The synthesis started with 2-methoxybenzohydrazide to form hydrazone (3 which was then cyclized to oxadiazole (4 and finally, treatment of oxadiazole (4 with hydrazine hydrate afforded the final product (5.

  18. Valence isomerization of cyclohepta-1,3,5-triene and its heteroelement analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Jansen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The valence isomerization of the all-carbon and heteroelement analogues of cyclohepta-1,3,5-triene into the corresponding bicyclo[4.1.0]hepta-2,4-dienes is reviewed to show the impact of the heteroatom on the stability of both valence isomers. The focus is on the parent systems and their synthetic applications.

  19. The Effect of Feature Complexity in Spanish Spelling in Grades 1-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia; Huang, Francis L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored a possible continuum of spelling features that children receiving literacy instruction in Spanish might be expected to master in Grades 1-3. We administered a developmental spelling inventory representing nine distinct Spanish spelling features to 864 students in bilingual and dual language schools across the U.S.…

  20. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)(1)-1 - $3,000 limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)(1)-1 $3,000... $3,000 for employment performed in 1956. The $2,500 paid in 1955 is subject to tax in 1955....

  1. Capture–Collapse Heterocyclization: 1,3-Diazepanes by C–N Reductive Elimination from Rhodacyclopentanones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Rhodacyclopentanones derived from carbonylative C–C activation of cyclopropyl ureas can be “captured” by pendant nucleophiles prior to “collapse” to 1,3-diazepanes. The choice of N-substituent on the cyclopropane unit controls the oxidation level of the product, such that C4–C5 unsaturated or saturated systems can be accessed selectively. PMID:27589060

  2. Error threshold estimation by means of the [[7,1,3

    CERN Document Server

    Salas, P J; Salas, Pedro J.; Sanz, Angel L.

    2004-01-01

    The states needed in a quantum computation are extremely affected by decoherence. Several methods have been proposed to control error spreading. They use two main tools: fault-tolerant constructions and concatenated quantum error correcting codes. In this work, we estimate the threshold conditions necessary to make a long enough quantum computation. The [[7,1,3

  3. Design of low-loss 1-3 piezoelectric composites for high-power transducer applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun

    2012-09-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT)/polymer 1-3 composites have improved electromechanical properties compared with monolithic counterparts, but possess a low mechanical quality factor, limiting their use in high-power transducer applications. The goal of this work was to improve the mechanical quality factor of 1-3 PZT/polymer composites by optimizing the polymer materials. Theoretical analysis and modeling were performed for optimum composite design and various polymers were prepared and characterized. 1-3 piezocomposites were constructed and their electromechanical properties were experimentally determined. The results demonstrated that the composites with high-thermal-conductivity polymers generally have degraded electromechanical properties with significantly decreased mechanical quality factors, whereas the composites filled with low-loss and low-moduli polymers were found to have higher mechanical quality factors with higher electromechanical coupling factors: Q(m) ~ 200 and k(t) ~ 0.68 for PZT4 composites; Q(m) ~ 400 and k(t) ~ 0.6 for PZT8 composites. The improved mechanical quality factor of 1-3 piezocomposites may offer improved performance and thermal stability of transducers under high-drive operation.

  4. 1.3μm Superluminescence Diode with Butterfly Package for Fiber Gyroscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Superluminescence diode(SLD) modules with wide spectrum characteristics are required in fiber gyroscopes. A 1.3μm butterfly packaged superluminescence diode with the spectrum width over 30nm is reported and recent advances in process of SLD is described in the paper. The SLD modules have been applied to fiber gyroscopes.

  5. A novel synthesis of 2'-hydroxy-1',3'-xylyl crown ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leij, van der M.; Oosterink, H.J.; Hall, R.H.; Reinhoudt, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Six novel 2' - hydroxy - 1',3' - xylyl crown ethers (8a–e and 13)1 have been synthesized utilizing the allyl group to protect the OH function during the cyclization reaction. The macrocycles 6a-e were formed in yields of 26 to 52%, by intermolecular reaction of 4 - chloro - 2,6 - bis(bromomethyl) -

  6. 5,5-Dimethyl-2-methylseleno-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinan-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Cholewinski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C6H13O3PSe, was obtained in the reaction of 5,5-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-seleno-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinane potassium salt with methyl iodide. The selenomethyl group is in the axial position in relation to the six-membered dioxaphosphorinane ring.

  7. Effect of methamphetamine on the microglial damage: role of potassium channel Kv1.3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (Meth abusing represents a major public health problem worldwide. Meth has long been known to induce neurotoxicity. However, the mechanism is still remained poorly understood. Growing evidences indicated that the voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv were participated in neuronal damage and microglia function. With the whole cell patch clamp, we found that Meth significantly increased the outward K⁺ currents, therefore, we explored whether Kv1.3, one of the major K⁺ channels expressed in microglia, was involved in Meth-induced microglia damage. Our study showed that Meth significantly increased the cell viability in a dose dependent manner, while the Kv blocker, tetraethylamine (TEA, 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP and Kv1.3 specific antagonist margatoxin (MgTx, prevented against the damage mediated by Meth. Interestingly, treatment of cells with Meth resulted in increasing expression of Kv1.3 rather than Kv1.5, at both mRNA and protein level, which is partially blocked by MgTx. Furthermore, Meth also stimulated a significant increased expression of IL-6 and TNF-α at protein level, which was significantly inhibited by MgTx. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Kv1.3 was involved in Meth-mediated microglial damage, providing the potential target for the development of therapeutic strategies for Meth abuse.

  8. Solvent-free production of 1,3-diglyceride of CLA: Strategy consideration and protocol design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zheng; Sun, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic production of a homogeneous 1,3-diglyceride of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was carried out using Novozym 435 as biocatalyst and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a model fatty acid. Three different operation modes, namely, magnetic stirring under vacuum, vacuum-driven N2 bubblin...

  9. Interfacial enhancement of carbon fiber composites by generation 1-3 dendritic hexamethylenetetramine functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lichun; Meng, Linghui; Fan, Dapeng; He, Jinmei; Yu, Jiali; Qi, Meiwei; Chen, Zhongwu; Huang, Yudong

    2014-03-01

    PAN-based carbon fibers (CF) were functionalized with generation (n) 1-3 dendritic hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) (denoted as CF-Gn-HMTA, n = 1, 2 and 3) in an attempt to improve the interfacial properties between carbon fibers and epoxy matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic contact angle analysis (DCA), interfacial shear strength (IFSS) and single fiber tensile testing were carried out to investigate the functionalization process of carbon fibers and the interfacial properties of the composites. Experimental results showed that generation (n) 1-3 dendritic hexamethylenetetramine was grafted uniformly on the fiber surface through the chemical reaction, and then it increased significantly the fiber surface polarity and roughness. The surface energy and IFSS of carbon fibers increased obviously after the graft CF-G3-HMTA, by 147.6% and 81%, respectively. Generation (n) 1-3 dendritic hexamethylenetetramine enhanced effectively the interfacial adhesion of the composites by improving resin wettability, increasing chemical bonding and mechanical interlocking, and the interfacial adhesion increased with dendritic generation number. Moreover, the grafting of generation (n) 1-3 dendritic hexamethylenetetramine on the carbon fiber surface improved the fiber tensile strength, which is beneficial to the in-plane properties of the resulting composites.

  10. Microbial Purification of Postfermentation Medium after 1,3-PD Production from Raw Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Szymanowska-Powałowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD is an important chemical product which can be used to produce polyesters, polyether, and polyurethanes. In the process of conversion of glycerol to 1,3-PD by Clostridium large number of byproducts (butyric, acetic and lactic acid are generated in the fermentation medium. The aim of this work was to isolate bacteria strains capable of the utilization of these byproducts. Screening of 30 bacterial strains was performed using organic acids as carbon source. Selected isolates were taxonomically characterized and identified as Alcaligenes faecalis and Bacillus licheniformis. The most active strains, Alcaligenes faecalis JP1 and Bacillus licheniformis JP19, were able to utilize organic acids almost totally. Finally, it was find out that by the use of coculture (C. butyricum DSP1 and A. faecalis JP1 increased volumetric productivity of 1,3-PD production (1.07 g/L/h and the yield equal to 0.53 g/g were obtained in bioreactor fermentation. Moreover, the only by-product present was butyric acid in a concentration below 1 g/L.

  11. Novel pyrazole integrated 1,3,4-oxadiazoles: synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningaiah, Srikantamurthy; Bhadraiah, Umesha K; Doddaramappa, Shridevi D; Keshavamurthy, Shubakara; Javarasetty, Chethan

    2014-01-01

    A novel series of 2-(5-methyl-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazoles 7(a-m) were synthesized either by cyclization of N'-benzoyl-5-methyl-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbohydrazide 4a using POCl3 at 120°C or by oxidative cyclization of hydrazones derived from various arylaldehyde and (E)-N'-benzylidene-5-methyl-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbohydrazide 5(a-d) using chloramine-T as oxidant. Newly synthesized compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral (IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and LC-MS) methods. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity and were compared with standard drugs. The compounds demonstrated potent to weak antimicrobial activity. Among the synthesized compounds, compound 7m emerged as an effective antimicrobial agent, while compounds 7d, 7f, 7i and 7l showed good to moderate activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the compounds was in the range of 20-50μgmL(-1) against bacteria and 25-55μgmL(-1) against fungi. The title compounds represent a novel class of potent antimicrobial agents.

  12. Patriot Script 1.0.13 User Guide for PEM 1.3.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, Timothy James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kubicek, Deborah Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stroud, Phillip David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cuellar-Hengartner, Leticia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mathis, Mark [Descartes Labs, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-02

    This document provides an updated user guide for Patriot Script Version 1.0.13, for release with PEM 1.3.1 (LAUR-1422817) that adds description and instructions for the new excursion capability (see section 4.5.1).

  13. On the design of 1-3 piezo-composites using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Torquato, S.; Aksay, I.A.

    1998-01-01

    We use a topology optimization method to design 1-3 piezocomposites with optimal performance characteristics for hydrophone applications. The performance characteristics we focus on are the hydrostatic charge coefficient d(h)((*)), the hydrophone figure of merit d(h)((*))g(h)((*)), and the electr...

  14. Exposure and risk assessment of 1,3-butadiene in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Haruyuki; Mita, Kazuaki; Yoshikado, Hiroshi; Iwata, Mitsuo; Nakanishi, Junko

    2007-03-20

    1,3-Butadiene is on the list of Substances Requiring Priority Action published by the Central Environmental Council of Japan in 1996. Emission of 1,3-butadiene has been controlled by a voluntary reduction program since 1997. Although the industrial emission of 1,3-butadiene in Japan has decreased in recent years, primarily due to a voluntary industrial emissions reduction program, the risks of exposure to it remain largely unknown. We assessed the risks and consequences of exposure to 1,3-butadiene on human health. A remarkable advantage of our risk assessment approach is the detailed assessment of exposure. Previously, we developed two different models that can be applied for the assessment of exposure: the first, the AIST-ADMER model estimates regional concentration distributions, whereas the second, the METI-LIS model estimates concentration distributions in the vicinity of factories. Both models were used for the assessment of exposure to 1,3-butadiene. Using exposure concentration and carcinogenic potency determined and reported by Environment Canada and Health Canada, we evaluated the excess lifetime cancer risk for persons exposed to 1,3-butadiene over the course of a lifetime. The results suggested that the majority of the population in Japan has an excess lifetime cancer risk of less than 10(-5), whereas a small number of people living close to industrial sources had a risk of greater than 10(-5). The results of the present assessment also showed that 1,3-butadiene in the general environment originates primarily from automobile emissions, such that a countermeasure of reducing emissions from cars is expected to be effective at reducing the total cancer risk among Japanese. On the other hand, individual risks among a population living in the vicinity of certain industrial sources were found to be significantly higher than those of the population living elsewhere, such that a reduction in emissions from a small number of specific industrial sources should be

  15. Emission of 1,3-butadiene from petrol-driven motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y.; Galbally, I. E.; Weeks, I. A.

    This study reports the measurement of 1,3-butadiene emissions from 30 petrol-driven vehicles from the Australian car fleet using the Australian Design Rule 37/00 vehicle test procedure. Six of the cars tested were not equipped with catalytic converters and used leaded petrol as fuel. The remaining 24 cars were fitted with catalytic converters and used unleaded petrol. 1,3-Butadiene in exhaust samples was found to degrade rapidly in SUMMA treated stainless steel canisters and the degradation followed first-order kinetics. The rate coefficient of the decay can be represented by a linear dependence on the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust ( r2 = 0.79, n = 43), and the gas-phase reaction of NO 2 and 1,3-butadiene may have a major role in this loss. The 1,3-butadiene concentrations used to estimate vehicle emissions were corrected for this loss using the decay rate constant either observed from replicate analyses or from the NO x concentrations in the samples. The measurements showed that 1,3-butadiene was emitted at a rate of 20.7 ± 9.2 mg km -1 from 6 non-catalyst vehicles. There was considerable scatter in the observations from catalyst equipped vehicles and we infer that this was due to the malfunction of the emission control devices on some vehicles. The 19 vehicles that appeared to have functioning catalyst emission control devices had an average emission rate of 2.1 ± 1.5 mg km -1. These emission rates are consistent with atmospheric observations and are much higher than those reported previously. We calculate that more than 90% of the 1,3-butadiene in engine exhaust comes from the common alkane and aromatic constituents of the fuel. A comparison of emissions in the different phases of the drive cycle indicates that current emission controls remove more than 90% of the 1,3-butadiene from the initial exhaust mixture.

  16. Antigüedades de Ríotinto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio BLANCO FREIJEIRO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La importancia de la región de Huelva como centro cultural de la prehistoria y protohistoria de nuestro Mediodía, está sobradamente acreditada por testimonios literarios y por hallazgos arqueológicos tan elocuentes como las armas de bronce extraídas de la ría onubense; el casco corintio, del siglo VI, conservado en la Real Academia de la Historia y los jarros piriformes, de bronce, que desde Niebla penetran y se difunden por el oeste peninsular hasta más arriba del Tajo. Todo ello tiene sobrado peso específico para sustentar la hipótesis, defendible también interpretando las fuentes de acuerdo con la topografía de la ría de Huelva, de que la legendaria metrópoli de los tartesios, estaba situada en aquellos parajes. Sobre este punto trata a reglón seguido de este trabajo, J. M. Luzon, que conoce muy a fondo esta provincia y sus problemas protohistóricos, y puede arrojar nueva luz sobre un tema que no por antiguo deja de tener actualidad, especialmente ahora que la cuenca del Guadalquivir, en su zona baja, se revela como extremadamente pobre en industrias metálicas -muy rica en cambio como región agrícola y ganadera- y por consecuencia, como territorio de expansión del gran emporio metalúrgico que según las fuentes históricas era la capital de los tartesios.

  17. Effects of Anti-G Measures on Gas Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    position (+lGz), and the endotracheal tube was connected to a Rudolf valve arranged so that expired gas passed through a heated pneumotachograph and a... Steiner , 1960; Peterson, Bishop and Erickson, 1977). Data presented in Table 111-I suggest that application of the G-sult abdominal bladder tended to...accelerations. Aerospace Med. 31: 213-219, 1960. 18. Hershgold, E.J. and S.H. Steiner . Cardiovascular changes during acceleration stress in dogs. J

  18. Phase transition and proton exchange in 1,3-diazinium hydrogen chloranilate monohydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaji, T., E-mail: asaji@chs.nihon-u.ac.jp; Hoshino, M. [Nihon University, Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Integrated Basic Sciences (Japan); Ishida, H. [Okayama University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Japan); Konnai, A. [National Maritime Research Institute, Navigation and System Engineering Department (Japan); Shinoda, Y. [Bruker AXS K. K. (Japan); Seliger, J. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics (Slovenia); Zagar, V. [Jozef Stefan Institute (Slovenia)

    2010-06-15

    In the hydrate crystal of 1:1 salt with 1,3-diazine and chloranilic acid (H{sub 2}ca), (1,3-diazineH){center_dot}H{sub 2}O{center_dot}Hca, an unique hydrogen-bonded molecular aggregate is formed. There exists proton disorder in the N-H...O hydrogen bond between 1,3-diazinium ion and water (H{sub 2}O) of crystallization. In order to reveal dynamic aspect of this disorder, {sup 35}Cl NQR measurements were conducted. Two resonance lines observed at 35.973 and 35.449 MHz at 321 K split into four lines below T{sub c} = 198 K clearly showing occurrence of a solid-solid phase transition; 36.565, 36.357, 36.011, 35.974 MHz at 77 K. Temperature dependence of spin-lattice relaxation time T{sub 1} in high-temperature phase was observed to obey an Arrhenius-type relation with the activation energy of 8.5 kJ mol{sup - 1}. This result leads to the conclusion that proton exchange in the N-H...O hydrogen bond takes place in the high-temperature phase. Specific heat measurements by DSC resulted in the transition entropy {Delta}S = 1.3 J K{sup - 1} per 1 mole [(1,3-diazineH){center_dot}H{sub 2}O{center_dot}Hca]{sub 2} which is far less than 2R ln2 = 11.5 J K{sup - 1} mol{sup - 1}. It is expected that proton exchange in the two hydrogen bonds within the aggregate does not occur independently but concertedly with strong correlation in the high-temperature phase.

  19. Comparación antigénica y de la respuesta inmune en ratones desafiados con virus CVS y aislados «calle» y «fijo»presumiblemente atípicos del virus rábico Antigenic comparison and immune response in challenges mice with virus CVS and "street" and "fixed" isolates presumably atipics of rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. MARTINEZ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la rabia presenta diferencias antigénicas que han sido detectadas en diferentes regiones y países, lo que podría acarrear un serio problema en relación a las vacunas antirrábicas empleadas en terreno que no se corresponden con las cepas actuantes pudiendo provocar fracaso del tratamiento vacunal preventivo o post-exposición. Ante la sospecha de la existencia de virus rabia presuntamente atípicos en nuestro país, nos planteamos como objetivo estudiar el comportamiento antigénico de aislados vírales "calle" y "fijo" en relación a la cepa estándar, Challenge Virus Standar, frente a las vacunas antirrábicas veterinaria y de referencia nacional, y el suero antirrábico hiperinmune de referencia nacional. Se estudiaron 6 aislados de virus rábico presuntamente atípicos (5 de murciélagos y 1 de gato obtenidos en 1985 en el Instituto de Salud Pública y mantenidos a -70ºC en cerebro de ratón lactante. Para ello, primeramente, con la finalidad de lograr la fijación de los aislados a los animales de laboratorio, se procedió a realizar pasajes sucesivos en CRL, confirmando en cada pasaje la causa de muerte a través de la prueba de inmunofluorescencia directa. Para determinar la protección conferida en ratones, por las vacunas tradicionales frente a los aislados presuntamente atípicos, se compararon las respuestas de ratones vacunados y desafiados con los 6 aislados en su forma "calle" y "fija", con las respuestas de los ratones vacunados y desafiados con la cepa de referencia del virus estándar de desafío CVS. Para conocer la capacidad de neutralización del suero de referencia nacional frente a los aislados vírales "fijo", se compararon los resultados de neutralización en ratones, de cada uno de los aislados enfrentados al suero de referencia nacional, con la neutralización de la cepa CVS enfrentada al mismo suero. La fijación se logró en el pasaje Nº 16, para los aislados 85/423, 85/433, 85/684, 85/882, 85

  20. Microwave, infrared, and Raman spectra, structural parameters, vibrational assignments and theoretical calculations of 1,1,3,3-tetrafluoro-1,3-disilacyclopentane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, Brooks H.; Seifert, Nathan A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Guirgis, Gamil A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Deodhar, Bhushan S.; Klaassen, Joshua J.; Darkhalil, Ikhlas D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Crow, Joseph A. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Wyatt, Justin K.; Dukes, Horace W. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Durig, James R., E-mail: durigj@umkc.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States)

    2013-04-18

    Highlights: • Structural parameters have been determined for the stable twist conformer. • Rotational constants for the six isotopologues for the twist conformer were determined from the microwave spectra. • Vibrational assignments are given for the molecule. • Ab intio and density functional theory calculations have been carried out for all possible conformers. - Abstract: The FT-microwave spectrum of 1,1,3,3-tetrafluoro-1,3-disilacyclopentane (c-C{sub 3}H{sub 6}Si{sub 2}F{sub 4}) has been recorded and 339 transitions for 6 isotopologues have been assigned for the twist conformation. The ground state rotational constants were determined with values for the normal species: A = 2102.74026(68), B = 751.34319(32), C = 736.51478(31). Adjusted r{sub 0} parameters are reported with distances (Å): rC{sub α}–Si = 1.859(2), rSi–C{sub β} = 1.864(2), rSi–F{sub 1} = 1.583(3), rSi–F{sub 2} = 1.578(3), and rC{sub β}–C{sub β} = 1.559(3), and angles (°): ∠SiC{sub α}Si = 102.8(3), ∠C{sub α}SiC{sub β} = 104.3(3), ∠SiC{sub β}C{sub β′} = 106.6(3), τC{sub β}SiC{sub α}Si = 10.7(3), and τ SiC{sub β}C{sub β′}Si = 40.8(3). The conformational stabilities have been predicted from ab initio calculations utilizing several various basis sets. Vibrational assignments have been provided for the observed bands for the twist conformer which are supported by ab initio calculations to predict harmonic force constants, vibrational wavenumbers, infrared intensities, Raman activities and depolarization ratios. The results are discussed and compared to the corresponding properties of some related molecules.

  1. Computational prediction of probabilistic ignition threshold of pressed granular Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) under shock loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seokpum; Miller, Christopher; Horie, Yasuyuki; Molek, Christopher; Welle, Eric; Zhou, Min

    2016-09-01

    The probabilistic ignition thresholds of pressed granular Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine explosives with average grain sizes between 70 μm and 220 μm are computationally predicted. The prediction uses material microstructure and basic constituent properties and does not involve curve fitting with respect to or prior knowledge of the attributes being predicted. The specific thresholds predicted are James-type relations between the energy flux and energy fluence for given probabilities of ignition. Statistically similar microstructure sample sets are computationally generated and used based on the features of micrographs of materials used in actual experiments. The predicted thresholds are in general agreement with measurements from shock experiments in terms of trends. In particular, it is found that grain size significantly affects the ignition sensitivity of the materials, with smaller sizes leading to lower energy thresholds required for ignition. For example, 50% ignition threshold of the material with an average grain size of 220 μm is approximately 1.4-1.6 times that of the material with an average grain size of 70 μm in terms of energy fluence. The simulations account for the controlled loading of thin-flyer shock experiments with flyer velocities between 1.5 and 4.0 km/s, constituent elasto-viscoplasticity, fracture, post-fracture contact and friction along interfaces, bulk inelastic heating, interfacial frictional heating, and heat conduction. The constitutive behavior of the materials is described using a finite deformation elasto-viscoplastic formulation and the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. The ignition thresholds are determined via an explicit analysis of the size and temperature states of hotspots in the materials and a hotspot-based ignition criterion. The overall ignition threshold analysis and the microstructure-level hotspot analysis also lead to the definition of a macroscopic ignition parameter (J) and a microscopic

  2. Identification and enzymatic characterization of an endo-1,3-β-glucanase from Euglena gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takumi; Nakano, Yuki; Takahashi, Machiko; Konno, Naotake; Sakamoto, Yuichi; Arashida, Ryo; Marukawa, Yuka; Yoshida, Eriko; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kengo

    2015-08-01

    Euglena produces paramylon as a storage polysaccharide, and is thought to require β-1,3-glucan degrading enzymes to release and utilize the accumulated carbohydrate. To investigate β-1,3-glucan degradation in Euglena, endo-1,3-β-glucanases were partially purified from Euglena gracilis by hydrophobic, gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. Tryptic digests and mass-spectrometric analysis identified three proteins in the purified fraction as a member of glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 17 and two members of GH81. These genes were cloned from an Euglena cDNA pool by PCR. EgCel17A fused with a histidine-tag at the carboxy terminus was heterologously produced by Aspergillus oryzae and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Purified EgCel17A had a molecular weight of about 40kDa by SDS-PAGE, which was identical to that deduced from its amino acid sequence. The enzyme showed hydrolytic activity towards β-1,3-glucans such as laminarin and paramylon. Maximum activity of laminarin degradation by EgCel17A was attained at pH 4.0-5.5 and 60°C after 1h incubation or 50°C after 20h incubation. The enzyme had a Km of 0.21mg/ml and a Vmax of 40.5units/mg protein for laminarin degradation at pH 5.0 and 50°C. Furthermore, EgCel17A catalyzed a transglycosylation reaction by which reaction products with a higher molecular weight than the supplied substrates were initially generated; however, ultimately the substrates were degraded into glucose, laminaribiose and laminaritriose. EgCel17A effectively produced soluble β-1,3-glucans from alkaline-treated Euglena freeze-dried powder containing paramylon. Thus, EgCel17 is the first functional endo-1,3-β-glucanase to be identified from E. gracilis.

  3. The electronic, structural and magnetic properties of La(1-1/3)Sr(1/3)MnO3 film with oxygen vacancy: a first principles investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia

    2016-03-01

    We have systematically investigated the influence of oxygen vacancy defects on the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of La(1-x)Sr(x)MnO3 (x = 1/3) film by means of ab initio calculations using bare GGA as well as GGA+U formalism, in the latter of which, the on-site Coulombic repulsion parameter U for Mn 3d orbital has been determined by the linear response theory. It is revealed that the introduction of the vacancy defects causes prominent structural changes including the distortion of MnO6 octahedra and local structural deformation surrounding the oxygen vacancy. The GGA+U formalism yields a significantly larger structural change than the bare GGA method, surprisingly in contrast with the general notion that the inclusion of Hubbard U parameter exerts little influence on structural properties. The distortion of MnO6 octahedra leads to a corresponding variation in the hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p, which gets strengthened if the Mn-O distance becomes smaller and vice versa. The magnetic moments of the Mn atoms located in three typical sites of the vacancy-containing supercell are all larger than those in the pristine system. We have characterized the O-vacancy defect as a hole-type defect that forms a negative charge center, attracting electrons.

  4. Early-type galaxies at z = 1.3. I. The Lynx supercluster: cluster and groups at z=1.3. Morphology and color-magnitude relation

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Simona; Holden, Brad P; Raichoor, Anand; Postman, Marc; Nakata, Fumiaki; Finoguenov, Alexis; Ford, Holland C; Illingworth, Garth D; Kodama, Tadayuki; Rosati, Piero; Tanaka, Masayuki; Huertas-Company, Marc; Rettura, Alessandro; Shankar, Francesco; Carrasco, E Rodrigo; Demarco, Ricardo; Eisenhardt, Peter; Jee, Myungkook J; Koyama, Yusei; White, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    We confirm the detection of 3 groups in the Lynx supercluster, at z~1.3, and give their redshifts and masses. We study the properties of the group galaxies as compared to the central clusters, RXJ0849+4452 and RXJ0848+4453, selecting 89 galaxies in the clusters and 74 galaxies in the groups. We morphologically classify galaxies by visual inspection, noting that our early-type galaxy (ETG) sample would have been contaminated at the 30% -40% level by simple automated classification methods (e.g. based on Sersic index). In luminosity selected samples, both clusters and groups show high fractions of Sa galaxies. The ETG fractions never rise above ~50% in the clusters, which is low compared to the fractions observed in clusters at z~1. However, ETG plus Sa fractions are similar to those observed for ETGs in clusters at z~1. Bulge-dominated galaxies visually classified as Sas might also be ETGs with tidal features or merger remnants. They are mainly red and passive, and span a large range in luminosity. Their star ...

  5. High Frequency PMN-PT 1-3 Composite Transducer for Ultrasonic Imaging Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Wang, Gaofeng; Wu, Dawei; Zhu, Benpeng; Hu, Changhong; Liu, Changgeng; Djuth, Frank T; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

    2010-01-01

    Development of PMN-PT single crystal/epoxy 1-3 composites for high-frequency ultrasonic transducers application is presented. The composite was fabricated by using a DRIE dry etching process with a 45% volume fraction of PMN-PT. A 35 MHz ultrasound flat transducer was fabricated with the composite, which was found to have an effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of 0.81, an insertion loss of 18 db, and a -6 dB bandwidth as high as 100%. Tungsten wire phantom image shows that the transducer had an axial resolution of 30 μm, which was in good agreement with the theoretical expectation. The initial results showed that the PMN-PT/epoxy 1-3 composite has many attractive properties over conventional piezoelectric materials for medical imaging applications.

  6. New 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Based Photosensitizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,3,4-Oxadiazole based photosensitizers with biphenyl, naphthalene, anthracene, and triphenylamine as the electron-donating moiety were synthesized for solar cell applications. In these photosensitizers, cyano groups were introduced as the electron acceptor and the anchor group because of their high electron-withdrawing ability and strong bonding to the semiconductor. Oxadiazole isomers were used as the π-conjugation system, which bridges the donor-acceptor systems. The electrochemical and optical properties of the sensitizers were investigated both in their native form and upon incorporation into dye sensitized solar cells. The results of UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements, and photocurrent voltage characteristics indicate that 1,3,4-oxadiazole pi-spacer with the anthracene moiety has the highest efficiency of 2.58%. Density functional theory was employed to optimize the structures of the sensitizers and the TiO2 cluster.

  7. Design of benzothiazole-1,3,4-thiadiazole conjugates: synthesis and anticonvulsant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Nadeem; Ahuja, Priya; Malik, Sachin; Arya, Satish K

    2013-11-01

    Various 2-[(6-substituted-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)amino]-N-[5-substituted-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]acetamides were synthesized with a prospective exploration of "lead hopping", using pharmacophoric elements for in vivo anticonvulsant activity. This yielded three potent candidates (5i, 5t, and 5u) in the preliminary screening employing the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test, showing minimal neurotoxicity. Their quantitative study indicated an increase of nearly 2-10 times for the MES test and 7- to 67-fold for the scPTZ test in the protective index, the keystone in drug discovery for anticonvulsant activity.

  8. 1,3-Dien-5-ynes: Versatile Building Blocks for the Synthesis of Carbo- and Heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Enrique; Sanz, Roberto; Fernández-Rodríguez, Manuel A; García-García, Patricia

    2016-07-27

    1,3-Dien-5-ynes have been extensively used as starting materials for the synthesis of a wide number of different carbo- and heterocycles. The aim of this review is to give an overview of their utility in organic synthesis, highlighting the variety of compounds that can be directly accessed from single reactions over these systems. Thus, cycloaromatization processes are initially commented, followed by reactions directed toward the syntheses of five-membered rings, other carbocycles and, finally, heterocycles. The diverse methodologies that have been developed for the synthesis of each of these types of compounds from 1,3-dien-5-ynes are presented, emphasizing the influence of the reaction conditions and the use of additional reagents in the outcome of the transformations.

  9. Transverse ultrasonic anomaly in La1/3Sr2/3MnO3

    CERN Document Server

    Hui, Kong

    2014-01-01

    The charge ordering (CO) transition in polycrystalline La1/3Sr2/3MnO3 has been studied by measuring the resistivity, magnetization and transverse ultrasonic velocity. At about 235K, a conspicuous increase in resistivity was observed, while the magnetization shows a cusp structure, corresponding to an antiferromagnetic charge ordering transition. Around this transition temperature, dramatic anomaly in transverse sound velocity was observed. The simultaneous occurrence of electron, magnon and phonon anomalous features implies strong spin-phonon coupling and electron-phonon in La1/3Sr2/3MnO3. The analysis suggests that the spin-phonon interaction is due to single-ion magnetostriction, and electron-phonon coupling originates from the Jahn-Teller effect of Mn3+.

  10. Doubly excited 2s2p 1,3p1 resonances in photoionization of helium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Jian-Jie; Dong Chen-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    The multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method is implemented to study doubly excited 2s2p 1,3P1 resonances of the helium atom and the interference between photoionization and photoexcitation autoionization processes.In order to reproduce the total photoionization sprectra,the excited energies from the ground ls2 1 S0 state to the doubly excited 2s2p 1'3P1 states and the relevant Auger decay rates and widths are calculated in detail. Furthermore,the interference profile determined by the so-called Fano parameters q and p2 is also reproduced. Good agreement is found between the present results and other available theoretical and experimental results. This indeed shows a promising way to investigate the Fano resonances in photoionization of atoms within the MCDF scheme,although there are some discrepancies in the present calculations of the 2s2p 3P1 state.

  11. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoguo Tong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of new sulfone compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties were synthesized. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic data (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and elemental analyses. Antifungal tests indicated that all the title compounds exhibited good antifungal activities against eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi, and some showed superiority over the commercial fungicide hymexazol. Among them, compounds 5d, 5e, 5f, and 5i showed prominent activity against B. cinerea, with determined EC50 values of 5.21 μg/mL, 8.25 µg/mL, 8.03 µg/mL, and 21.00 µg/mL, respectively. The present work demonstrates that sulfone derivatives such as 5d containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety can be used as possible lead compounds for the development of potential agrochemicals.

  12. High extraction ability of 1,3-dialkynyl calixarene towards mercury(Ⅱ) ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Bo Gong; Shu Ling Gong; Qin Zheng; Xiong Li; Yuan Yin Chen

    2007-01-01

    The reaction of 1,3-dipropyn-2-yloxycalix[4]arene with mercury(Ⅱ) acetate could give mercury-containing alkynyl calixarene polymer. The extraction behavior of 1,3-dipropyn-2-yl-oxycalix[4]arene towards mercury(H) ion was examined. When the mole ratio of Hg2+/calixarene was 1∶1, the extractive percent can reach to 99.1%, and the extraction capacity was up to 431 mg/g. It could also decrease the Hg2+ concentration from 5 to 0.85 mg/L, which was only 17% of the national standard of effluent and satisfied the national standard of drinking water. The extraction process included chemical reaction.

  13. Sonochemical synthesis of novel pyrano[3,4-e][1,3]oxazines: A green protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Tamer S; Al-Bogami, Abdullah S; Mekky, Ahmed E M; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z

    2017-05-01

    The atom-efficient and green protocol for formation of pyrano[3,4-e][1,3]oxazines utilizing dimethyl carbonate under ultrasound irradiation in a presence of KF/basic alumina was reported. We provide a novel series of pyrano[3,4-e][1,3]oxazine derivatives interesting for biological screening tests. In general, it was found that ultrasound irradiations enable the reactions to occur which could not be carried out under silent conditions. These remarkable effects appeared in sonicated reactions can be reasonably interpreted in terms of acoustic cavitation phenomenon. Structures of the products were established on analytical and spectral data. This protocol offers several advantages attain many principles of green chemistry including, save energy, atom economy, clean reactions, inexpensive green reagent and use catalysts rather than stoichiometric reagents.

  14. Electrochemical performance of compounds Ho6Fe23-xCox (x=0,1,3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Wei; ZHAO Yunhong; HUANG Jinli; ZHANG Yongzhi; ZENG Lingmin

    2011-01-01

    Alloys with composition of Ho6Fe23-xCox(x=0, 1, 3) were prepared and e xamined by X-ray diffraction technique and automatic battery testing instrument. The compounds Ho6Fe23-xCox(x=0, 1, 3) crystallized in cubic Th6Mn23-type structure with space group Fm(-3)m (No. 225). The electrochemical properties of these alloys such as discharge capacity, cycling performance and high rate dischargeability were investigated by battery testing instruments in alkaline electrolyte. Substitution of small amounts of Co for Fe in Ho6Fe23-xCox improved the activation, discharge capacity and the high rate dischargeability. The alloy with x=3 (Ho6Fe20Co3) had better discharge capacity, HRD and plateau pressure at discharge current density of 150 mA/g.

  15. The Scorpion Toxin Tf2 from Tityus fasciolatus Promotes Nav1.3 Opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Thalita S; Bosmans, Frank; Rego, Solange C; Mourão, Caroline B F; Schwartz, Elisabeth F

    2015-01-01

    We identified Tf2, the first β-scorpion toxin from the venom of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus fasciolatus. Tf2 is identical to Tb2-II found in Tityus bahiensis. We found that Tf2 selectively activates human (h)Nav1.3, a neuronal voltage-gated sodium (Nav) subtype implicated in epilepsy and nociception. Tf2 shifts hNav1.3 activation voltage to more negative values, thereby opening the channel at resting membrane potentials. Seven other tested mammalian Nav channels (Nav1.1-1.2; Nav1.4-1.8) expressed in Xenopus oocytes are insensitive upon application of 1 μM Tf2. Therefore, the identification of Tf2 represents a unique addition to the repertoire of animal toxins that can be used to investigate Nav channel function.

  16. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 5,7-Dichloro-1,3-benzoxazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Jayanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of 5,7-dichloro-1,3-benzoxazole derivatives 4–11 were synthesized by fusing 5,7-dichloro-2-hydrazino-1,3-benzoxazole 3 nucleus with aliphatic acids, active methylene compounds, and with selected esters to form heterocyclic ring systems like 1,2,4-triazoles, pyrazoles, and triazine moieties. The compound 3 on diazotization reaction affords the tetrazole compound. The synthesized compounds were characterized by 1H NMR, IR, Mass, and 13C NMR spectral data and screened for cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antilipase activities. The compounds 4, 5, and 8 have shown significant antimicrobial activities, whereas compounds 6 and 8 have been emerged as leading cytotoxic agents. The compounds 9, 10, and 11 were found to be strong enzyme inhibitors.

  17. Demonstrating compliance with WAPS 1.3 in the Hanford waste vitrification plant process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, M.F.; Piepel, G.F.; Simpson, D.B.

    1996-03-01

    The high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant at the Hanford Site was being designed to immobilize transuranic and high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. This document describes the statistical procedure to be used in verifying compliance with requirements imposed by Section 1.3 of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS, USDOE 1993). WAPS 1.3 is a specification for ``product consistency,`` as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT, Jantzen 1992b), for each of three elements: lithium, sodium, and boron. Properties of a process batch and the resulting glass are largely determined by the composition of the feed material. Empirical models are being developed to estimate some property values, including PCT results, from data on feed composition. These models will be used in conjunction with measurements of feed composition to control the HLW vitrification process and product.

  18. Symbiont-derived beta-1,3-glucanases in a social insect: mutualism beyond nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca B Rosengaus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Termites have had a long co-evolutionary history with prokaryotic and eukaryotic gut microbes. Historically, the role of these anaerobic obligate symbionts has been attributed to the nutritional welfare of the host. We provide evidence that protozoa (and/or their associated bacteria colonizing the hindgut of the dampwood termite Zootermopsis angusticollis, synthesize multiple functional beta-1,3-glucanases, enzymes known for breaking down beta-1,3-glucans, the main component of fungal cell walls. These enzymes, we propose, may help in both digestion of ingested fungal hyphae and protection against invasion by fungal pathogens. This research points to an additional novel role for the mutualistic hindgut microbial consortia of termites, an association that may extend beyond ligno-cellulolytic activity and nitrogen fixation to include a reduction in the risks of mycosis at both the individual- and colony-levels while nesting in and feeding on microbial-rich decayed wood.

  19. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Herbicidal Activities of 2-Cyanoacrylates Containing 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tingting; Miao Wenke; Wu Shanshan; Bing Guifang; Zhang Xin; Qin Zhenfang; Yu Haibo; Qin Xue; Fang Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Three series of novel 2-cyanoacrylates 7a-7f, 9a-9f, 10a-10f containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring moieties were synthesized as herbicidal inhibitors of photosystem Ⅱ (PS Ⅱ) electron transportation. Their structures were clearly verified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis (or HRMS analysis) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Bioassay showed that a suitable group at the 3-position of acrylates was essential for high herbicidal activ-ity. In particular, compound 7e showed the best herbicidal activities and gave 100% inhibitory activity against rape and amaranth pigweed at a dose of 1.5 kg/ha. Introduction of substituent with higher polarity such as sulfinyl or sulfonyl to the 5-position of 1,3,4-thiadiazole decreased herbicidal activities.

  20. On the (1 + 3) threading of spacetime with respect to an arbitrary timelike vector field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejancu, Aurel [Kuwait University, Department of Mathematics, P.O.Box 5969, Safat (Kuwait); Calin, Constantin [Technical University ' ' Gh.Asachi' ' , Department of Mathematics, Iasi (Romania)

    2015-04-15

    We develop a newapproach on the (1 + 3) threading of spacetime (M, g) with respect to a congruence of curves defined by an arbitrary timelike vector field. The study is based on spatial tensor fields and on theRiemannian spatial connection ∇*, which behave as 3D geometric objects. We obtain new formulas for local components of the Ricci tensor field of (M, g) with respect to the threading frame field, in terms of the Ricci tensor field of ∇* and of kinematic quantities. Also, new expressions for time covariant derivatives of kinematic quantities are stated. In particular, a new form of Raychaudhuri's equation enables us to prove Lemma 6.3, which completes a well-known lemma used in the proof of the Penrose-Hawking singularity theorems. Finally, we apply the new (1 + 3) formalism to the study of the dynamics of a Kerr-Newman black hole. (orig.)

  1. A Convenient Synthesis of Benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-wei; ZHAO Xiu-xiu; LIN Zhi-hui; PANG Si-ping; SUN Cheng-hui; LI Sheng-hua

    2013-01-01

    Benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide was synthesized from 2-bromonitrobenzene,which is converted to 2-bromo-1-( tert-butyl-NNO-azoxy)benzene by a three-step standem reaction. Amination of 2-bromo-1-( tert-butyl-NNO-azoxy)benzene with aqueous ammonia using Cu2 O as the catalyst yielded 2-amino-1-(tert-butyl-NNO-azoxy)benzene,that was cyclized with nitration agents N2O5 or NO2BF4 to give benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide. A mild and convenient route was developed. Moreover,the target compound was identified by 1 H NMR,13 C NMR,IR, MS-EI and elemental analysis.

  2. N-[(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl]benzenesulfonamide: an analogue of capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella H. Maganhi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H13NO4S, an analogue of capsaicin, differs from the latter by having a 1,3-benzodioxole ring rather than a 2-methoxyphenol moiety, and having a benzenesulfonamide group instead of an aliphatic amide chain. The five-membered ring is in an envelope conformation with the methylene C atom lying 0.221 (6 Å out of the plane formed by the other four atoms. The dihedral angle between the phenyl ring and the mean plane of the 1,3-benzodioxole fused-ring system is 84.65 (4°. In the crystal, molecules aggregate into supramolecular layers in the ac plane through C—H...O, N—H...O and C—H...π interactions.

  3. Control of 1,3-cyclohexadiene photoisomerization using light-induced conical intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jaehee; White, James L; Petrovic, Vladimir S; Martinez, Todd J; Bucksbaum, Philip H

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the photo-induced isomerization from 1,3-cyclohexadiene to 1,3,5-hexatriene in the presence of an intense ultrafast laser pulse. We find that the laser field can suppress isomerization if it is both polarized parallel to the excitation dipole and present 50 fs after the initial photoabsorption, at the time when the system is expected to be in the vicinity of a conical intersection that mediates this structural transition. A modified ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) method shows that the laser induces a resonant coupling between the excited state and the ground state, which is a light-induced conical intersection. The theory accounts for the timing and direction of the effect.

  4. Short-term toxicity and reproduction studies in rats with hexachloro-(1,3)-butadiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harleman, J.H.; Seinen, W.

    1979-01-01

    In rats given daily doses of 0. 0.4, 1.0, 2.5, 6.3, and 15.6 mg of hexachloro-(1,3)-buta-diene (HCBD)/kg by gavage for 13 weeks, no effect levels of 1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg were established for females and males, respectively. Inhibition of growth occurred in both sexes at the two highest doses and degene

  5. Structure and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; BI Wen-zhao; SHANG Yu-qing; ZHAI Zhi-wei; YI Xu

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen novel triazole compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole groups were synthesized from 2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-y1)acetohydrazide and carbon disulfide by several step reactions. The target compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, MS, and X-ray crystallography. The results of preliminary biological tests show that all the compounds exhibit certain fungicidal activities.

  6. 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition in the Preparation of New Fused Heterocyclic Compounds via Thermal Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Porubský

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis of precursors with a benzo[b]furan skeleton for the intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides prepared from N-substituted 3-allyl-aminobenzo[b]furan-2-aldehydes and secondary amines derived from α-amino acid esters. Reactions were initiated by heating. The products consisted of four fused rings with three stereogenic centers. Their structure and stereochemistry were determined by NMR spectra and X-ray measurements.

  7. 2-Amino-6-methyl-1,3-benzothiazole–octanedioic acid (2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Geng Wang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cocrystallization of 2-amino-6-methy-1,3-benzothiazole with octanedioic acid in a mixed methanol–water medium afforded the title 2:1 cocrystal, 2C8H8N2S·C8H14O4. The octanedioic acid molecule is located on an inversion centre. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds connect the components into a three-dimensional network.

  8. 2-Amino-6-nitro-1,3-benzothiazol-3-ium hydrogen sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Fen Qian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecular salt, C7H6N3O2S+·HSO4−, the 2-amino-6-nitro-1,3-benzothiazole ring system is essentially planar [mean deviation = 0.0605 (4 Å]. In the crystal, N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions result in a layer motif.

  9. Identification of a novel group of putative Arabidopsis thaliana beta-(1,3)-galactosyltransferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Yongmei; Egelund, Jack; Gilson, Paul R;

    2008-01-01

    ,3)-GalT activity. This bioinformatic/molecular study of CAZy GT-family-31 was validated by the recent report of Strasser et al. (Plant Cell 19:2278-2292, 2007) that another member of this family (At1g26810; GALT1) encodes a beta-(1,3)-GalT involved in the biosynthesis of the Lewis a epitope of N...

  10. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TRIAZOLE CONTAINING LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYMERS THROUGH 1,3-DIPOLAR CYCLOADDITION POLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devamani; Srividhya; Sundaram; Manjunathan; Sivashankaran; Nithyanandan; Subramanan; Balamurugan; Sengodan; Senthil

    2009-01-01

    Liquid crystalline polymers containing 1,2,3-triazole units as linking groups have been synthesized from the monomers containing triad ester diazide and flexible dialkyne ester by 1,3-cycloaddition reaction and were characterized. Click reaction of azide and alkyne functionals catalyzed by Cu(I) yielded target polyesters with 1,2,3-triazole groups.The structure of the polymer was confirmed by spectral techniques.GPC analysis reveals that the polymers have moderate molecular weight with narrow distributio...

  11. A 1/3 PURE SUBHARMONIC SOLUTION AND TRANSIENT PROCESS FOR THE DUFFING'S EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yuxiu(徐玉秀); BAO Wenbo(鲍文博); W.Schiehlen; HU Haiyan(胡海岩)

    2001-01-01

    The 1/3 subharmonic solution for the Duffing' s equation is investigated by using the methods of harmonic balance and numerical integration. The sensitivity of parameter variation for the transient process and the transient process for the perturbance initial conditions are studied. Over and above, the precision of numerical integration method is discussed and the numerical integration method is compared with the harmonic balance method. Finally, asymptotical stability of the pure subharmonic oscillations element is inspected.

  12. Quantum dynamic of massive particle On 1+3 De Sitter space-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rabeie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  The phase space which is related to the motion of massive particle on 1+3- De sitter space is a 3-dimensional complex sphere. Our main aim in this study is discribing this movement in the frame quantum mechanics. Transfering from classical mechanic to quantum mechanics is possible by means of coherent states. Thus, after determination of this state, we quantize some of the classical observables.

  13. Quantum dynamic of massive particle On 1+3 De Sitter space-time

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

     The phase space which is related to the motion of massive particle on 1+3- De sitter space is a 3-dimensional complex sphere. Our main aim in this study is discribing this movement in the frame quantum mechanics. Transfering from classical mechanic to quantum mechanics is possible by means of coherent states. Thus, after determination of this state, we quantize some of the classical observables.

  14. 2D self-assembly of 1,3,2-dioxaborine derivatives on HOPG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU JiQun; YAN CunJi; YAN HuiJuan; WAN LiJun

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) self-assembly of two 1,3,2-dioxaborine derivatives was investigated by STM. The molecules consist of π system and steric end groups. A droplet of toluene solution containing the molecules was deposited onto HOPG for preparing the assemblies. STM images showed that the molecular structures affect the assembly structure. The dipole-dipole interaction and steric repulsion played important roles in the formation of the self-assembled monolayers.

  15. High performance 1.3 μm InGaAsN superluminescent diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    High performance 1.3 μm InGaAsN superluminescent diodes (SLDs) were fabricated with Schottky contact. The structure was grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Output power of 3 mW was obtained in continuous wave (CW) mode at room temperature. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the emission spectrum was 30 nm. The devices operated up to 100℃.

  16. Stereo- and regio-selectivity in the photosensitized dimerization of 1, 3-dimethylthymine in solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEI Xiaoming; SONG Qinhua; TANG Wenjian; WANG Hongbo; GUO Qingxiang; YU Shuqin

    2005-01-01

    The effects of reaction pathway and temperature on stereo- and regio-selectivity of photocycloaddition of 1, 3-dimethylthymine (DMT) which gives four cyclobutane type dimers in solution using acetone as the photosensitizer, are investigated by measuring the product distribution. It is demonstrated that the ground-state aggregation between DMT molecules mainly leads to (h-t)dimers, and the diffusion-controlled triplet dimerization is favorable to the formation of (h-h) dimers.

  17. Bis[1,3-bis(diphenylphosphanylpropane]copper(I tetrachloridogallate(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Nian Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Cu(C27H26P22][GaCl4], the CuI atom in the complex cation is P,P′-chelated by two 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphanylpropane ligands in a distorted tetrahedral geometry, while the GaIII cation is coordinated by four chloride anions in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. In the crystal, weak C—H...π interactions occur between adjacent complex cations.

  18. SCAMPI Upgrade Team: Scoping and Sampling in SCAMPI Version 1.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    2010 Carnegie Mellon University SCAMPI Upgrade Team: Scoping and Sampling in SCAMPI Version 1.3 Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University , Software ... University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Webinar - May 25, 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the

  19. A facile regioselective synthesis of novel spiroacenaphthene pyrroloisoquinolines through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrafi, Yaghoub; Asghari, Asieh; Sadatshahabi, Marzieh, E-mail: ysarrafi@umz.ac.ir [Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamzehloueian, Mahshid [Department of Chemistry, Jouybar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Jouybar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alimohammadi, Kamal [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Shariati Branch, University of Farhangian, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    An efficient one-pot three-component procedure for the synthesis of novel spiroacenaphthene pyrroloisoquinolines with high regioselectivity is described. These compounds were prepared from 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of an azomethine ylide generated from acenaphthenequinone and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline via [1,5]-H shift, with chalcone and nitrostyrene derivatives as dipolarophiles. The structure and stereochemistry of the cycloadducts have been established by single crystal X-ray structure and spectroscopic techniques. (author)

  20. In vitro activity of 1,3-bisaryloxypropanamines against Trypanosoma cruzi-infected L929 cultures

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We describe herein the antitrypanosomal activity of 20 novel 1,3-bis(aryloxy)propan-2-amine derivatives. Compounds 2, 4, 6, 12, 15, 16 and 19 were significantly active against amastigote and trypomastigote forms, with half maximal inhibitory concentrationvalues in the range of 6-18 µM. In the cytotoxicity tests against L929 cells, only compound 4 presented selectivity index value above 10, indicating low toxicity.

  1. High performance 1.3 μm InGaAsN superluminescent diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Yi; LI Hui; J.X.Zhang; BO BaoXue; GAO Xin; LIU GuoJun

    2009-01-01

    High performance 1.3 μm InGaAsN superluminescent diodes(SLDs)were fabricated with Schottkycontact.The structure was grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition(MOCVD).Output power of 3 mW was obtained in continuous wave(CW)mode at room temperature.The full width at half maximum(FWHM)of the emission spectrum was 30 nm.The devices operated up to 100℃.

  2. Experiment data report for LOFT nonnuclear test L1-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, G. M.

    1977-04-01

    Test L1-3 was the third in a series of five nonnuclear isothermal blowdown tests conducted by the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. For this test the LOFT Facility was configured to simulate a loss-of-coolant accident in a large pressurized water reactor resulting from a 200 percent double-ended shear break in a cold leg of the primary coolant system. A hydraulic core simulator assembly was installed in place of the nuclear core. The initial conditions in the primary coolant system intact loop were: temperature at 540/sup 0/F, pressure at 2256 psig, and loop flow at 2.34 x 10/sup 6/ lbm/hr. During system depressurization, emergency core cooling water was specified to be injected into the lower plenum of the reactor vessel using an accumulator, a low-pressure injection system pump, and a high-pressure injection system pump to provide data on the effects of emergency core cooling on the system thermal-hydraulic response. Injection into the lower plenum was initiated from the high- and low-pressure injection systems. Injection from the accumulator, however, was not initiated because a valve was inadvertently left closed. The experiment, therefore, was not completely successful in that one of the objectives outlined in the experiment operating specification for this test was not accomplished. Test L1-3 was repeated at Test L1-3A to meet the experimental requirements. Despite these difficulties, Test L1-3 did provide very valuable data to verify experiment repeatability.

  3. Synthesis of Silsesquioxane Cages from Phenyl-cis-tetrol,1,3-Divinyltetraethoxydisiloxane and Cyclopentyl Resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-hua; Alan R. Bassindale; Peter G. Taylor

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of Ts, T10 and T12 silsesquioxane cages from a range of starting materials: phenyl-cistetrol, 1,3-divinyltetraethoxydisiloxane and cyclopentyl T resins by using tetra n-butylammonium fluoride (TBAF) as the catalyst is described in this paper. The reaction yields obtained via the current route are better compared to those via the literature routes. Some of the cage compounds have been characterized by X-ray crystallography.

  4. Continuous recrystallization in pure Al-1.3% Mn investigated by local orientation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Local orientation analysis was used to investigate the continuous recrystallization process in a pure Al-1.3% Mn alloy with the emphasis on the influence of matrix orientations on the subgrain growth and precipitation. Results show that the differences of (mis)orientations in deformed matrices give rise to inhomogeneous subgrain growth and precipitation with respect to precipitate density and morphologies. Moreover, no apparent high angle grain boundaries were developed by accumulation of misorientations during subgrain growth.

  5. 1.3 Billion People: A Weighty Responsibility——China's Population Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2005-01-01

    A sample survey of the 2004 population increase releasedby the State Statistics Bureau shows that by the end of 2004 the total population of the Chinese mainland was 1.29988 billion, and that it was increasing by 208,000 people per day. According to this data,on January 6, 2005,China's population(excluding HongKong, Macao andTaiwan) reached 1.3 billion.

  6. Molycorp to acquire leading rare earth processor Neo Material Technologies in $1.3 Billion Deal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Molycorp, Inc. ("Molycorp") and /Neo Material Technologies Inc. ("Neo Materials,' or "Neo") announced on March 8th the signing of a definitive agreement under which Molycorp will acquire Neo Materials for approximately CDN $1.3 billion. This will create one of the most technologically advanced, vertically integrated rare earth companies in the world.

  7. Synthesis of the Naturally Occurring (-)-1,3,5-Tri-O-Caffeoylquinic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummond, Kay M; Deforrest, Jolie E

    2009-02-11

    Ribonuclease H (RNase H) is an essential component to the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and only a few inhibitors of this enzyme are known. Millenia Hope Pharmaceuticals Inc. found that (-)-1,3,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid is a potent RNase H inhibitor and antiviral agent. A facile route leading to this inhibitor from commercially available (-)-quinic acid is reported within.

  8. Synthesis of the Naturally Occurring (–)-1,3,5-Tri-O-Caffeoylquinic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForrest, Jolie E.

    2009-01-01

    Ribonuclease H (RNase H) is an essential component to the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and only a few inhibitors of this enzyme are known. Millenia Hope Pharmaceuticals Inc. found that (–)-1,3,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid is a potent RNase H inhibitor and antiviral agent. A facile route leading to this inhibitor from commercially available (–)-quinic acid is reported within. PMID:20157344

  9. Highly stable supramolecular hydrogels formed from 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid and hydroxyl pyridines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ming Tang; Yu Jiang Wang

    2009-01-01

    New supramolecular hydrogels with the maximal sol-gel transition temperature (T_(gel)) of 95 ℃ were obtained by using gelators formed from 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTA) and para-hydroxyl pyridine (PHP) or meta-hydroxyl pyridine (MHP). The single crystal structure of the complex formed from BTA and ortho-hydroxyl pyridine (OHP) indicated that the molecules assembled into superstructure via both hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking interaction.

  10. NMR studies on 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxides to norbornenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gucma, Miroslaw; Golebiewski, W. Marek; Krawczyk, Maria, E-mail: golebiewski@ipo.waw.pl [Institute of Industrial Organic Chemistry, Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of nitrile oxides to norbornenes substituted with an acrylate-derived moiety was examined. Only adducts to norbornene system were formed with a good exo selectivity and complete site-selectivity. Structures of the products were elucidated by an extensive application of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and 2D {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). (author)

  11. 3-Anilinomethyl-5-chloro-1,3-benzoxazol-2(3H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Büyükgüngör

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C14H11ClN2O2, the 2,3-dihydro-1,3-benzoxazole ring system is essentially planar [maximum deviation = 0.009 (2 Å] and makes a dihedral angle of 79.15 (7° with the phenyl ring. Intermolecular N—H...O and weak C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds occur in the crystal structure.

  12. Soluble Polymer-Supported Synthesis of Pyrazoles via 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN,Xu-Feng(林旭锋); WANG,Yan-Guang(王彦广); DING,Han-Feng(丁寒锋)

    2004-01-01

    Rapid parallel liquid-phase synthesis of pyrazoles has first been developed.The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between nitrilimines generated in situ and soluble polymer-supported alkynyl or alkenyl dipolarophiles in parallel one-pot fashion gave the corresponding PEG-supported regioisomeric pyrazoles or regiospecific pyrazolines.The latter was assuredly oxidated by DDQ to PEG-supported regiospecific pyrazoles.Cleavage from the support under mild conditions afforded pyrazoles in good yields and high purity.

  13. File list: ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.1-3h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.1-3h_embryos dm3 All antigens Embryo 1-3h embryos SRX474520,SRX474...521,SRX474527,SRX474524,SRX474523,SRX474525 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.1-3h_embryos.bed ...

  14. An isotopic dilution approach for 1,3-butadiene tailpipe emissions and ambient air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riservato, Manuela; Rolla, Antonio; Davoli, Enrico

    2004-01-01

    An isotopic dilution approach for 1,3-butadiene analysis in gaseous samples is presented. The methodology is based on active sampling on sorbent tubes and subsequent analysis by thermal desorption into a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system. By adding a perdeuterated internal standard onto the sorbent tubes before sampling, and using mass spectrometric detection, the methodology gives high accuracy for this unstable analyte. The method has been used to monitor 1,3-butadiene ambient air concentrations in a residential area in proximity to a heavy-traffic roadway over a one-week period, for comparison with other traffic-related pollutants analysed by standard procedures. It has also been used to determine tailpipe emissions of two vehicles by standard emission testing procedures in a dynamometer. These vehicles were chosen as examples of low- and high-end emission rate vehicles, i.e., an old no-catalytic converter Otto engine and a new direct-injection diesel engine with catalytic converter. Exhaust gas emissions were 0.052 and 35.85 mg/km, reflecting differences in fuel, engine design, age, and presence (or not) of a catalytic abatement system. The ambient air results showed a weekly average concentration of 1,3-butadiene of 0.53 microg/m(3).

  15. Enhanced hydrogen and 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol by fermentation using mixed cultures

    KAUST Repository

    Selembo, Priscilla A.

    2009-12-15

    The conversion of glycerol into high value products, such as hydrogen gas and 1,3-propanediol (PD), was examined using anaerobic fermentation with heat-treated mixed cultures. Glycerol fermentation produced 0.28 mol-H 2/mol-glycerol (72 mL-H2/g-COD) and 0.69 mol-PD/mol-glycerol. Glucose fermentation using the same mixed cultures produced more hydrogen gas (1.06 mol-H2/mol-glucose) but no PD. Changing the source of inoculum affected gas production likely due to prior acclimation of bacteria to this type of substrate. Fermentation of the glycerol produced from biodiesel fuel production (70% glycerol content) produced 0.31 mol-H 2/mol-glycerol (43 mL H2/g-COD) and 0.59 mol-PD/mol-glycerol. These are the highest yields yet reported for both hydrogen and 1,3-propanediol production from pure glycerol and the glycerol byproduct from biodiesel fuel production by fermentation using mixed cultures. These results demonstrate that production of biodiesel can be combined with production of hydrogen and 1,3-propanediol for maximum utilization of resources and minimization of waste. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Induction of beta-1,3-glucanase in barley in response to infection by fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutidamrongphan, W; Andersen, J B; Mackinnon, G; Manners, J M; Simpson, R S; Scott, K J

    1991-05-01

    The sequence of a partial cDNA clone corresponding to an mRNA induced in leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare) by infection with fungal pathogens matched almost perfectly with that of a cDNA clone coding for beta-1,-3-glucanase isolated from the scutellum of barley. Western blot analysis of intercellular proteins from near-isogenic barley lines inoculated with the powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei) showed a strong induction of glucanase in all inoculated lines but was most pronounced in two resistant lines. These data were confirmed by beta-1,3-glucanase assays. The barley cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to detect mRNAs in barley, wheat (Triticum aestivum), rice (oryza sativus), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which are induced by infection with the necrotrophic pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana. These results demonstrate that activation of beta-1,3-glucanase genes may be a general response of cereals to infection by fungal pathogens.

  17. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of 1,3-butadiene in mice: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Clark, M.L.; Decker, J.R.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1987-11-01

    Maternal toxicity, reproductive performance and developmental toxicology were evaluated in CD-1 mice following whole-body, inhalation exposures to 0, 40, 200 and 1000 ppM of 1,3-butadiene. The female mice, which had mated with unexposed males were exposed to the chemical for 6 hours/day on 6 through 15 dg and sacrificed on 18 dg. Maternal animals were weighed prior to mating and on 0, 6, 11 and 18 dg; the mice were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity during exposure and examined for gross tissue abnormalities at necropsy. Live fetuses were weighed and subjected to external, visceral and skeletal examinations to detect growth retardation and morphologic anomalies. Significant concentration-related decreases were detected in a number of maternal body weight measures. There was a significant concentration-related depression of fetal body weights and placental weights. Body weights of male fetuses of all exposed groups were significantly lower than values for control fetuses; weights of female fetuses were significantly depressed in the mice exposed to 200 and 1000 ppM. In the 200- and 1000-ppM exposure groups, weights of placentas of male fetuses were significantly decreased, but placental weights of female fetuses were significantly affected only in litters exposed to the highest 1,3-butadiene concentration. This exposure regimen produced significant signs of maternal toxicity at concentrations of 200 and 1000 ppM 1,3-butadiene.

  18. 1.3 µm Raman-bismuth fiber amplifier pumped by semiconductor disk laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorovskiy, A; Rautiainen, J; Rantamäki, A; Golant, K M; Okhotnikov, O G

    2011-03-28

    A hybrid Raman-bismuth fiber amplifier pumped in co-propagation configuration by a single 1.22 µm semiconductor disk laser is presented. The unique attribute of this dual-gain system is that both amplifiers require the pump source with the same wavelength because pump-Stokes spectral shift in 1.3 µm Raman amplifier and pump-gain bandwidth separation in 1.3 µm bismuth fiber amplifier have the same value. Residual pump power at the output of Raman amplifier in this scheme is efficiently consumed by bismuth-doped fiber thus increasing the overall conversion efficiency. The small-signal gain of 18 dB at 1.3 W of pump power has been achieved for hybrid scheme which is by 9 dB higher as compared with isolated Raman amplifier without bismuth fiber. Low noise performance of pump semiconductor disk laser with RIN of -150 dB/Hz combined with nearly diffraction-limited beam quality and Watt-level output powers allows for efficient core-pumping of a single-mode fiber amplifier systems and opens up new opportunities for amplification in O-band spectral range.

  19. POLYAMIDES WITH PENDANT 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE AND PYRIDINE MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yagoub Mansoori; Behzad Koohi-Zargar; Hemayat Shekaari; Mohammad Reza Zamanloo; Gholam Hassan Imanzadeh

    2012-01-01

    A novel aromatic diamine,2-(5-(3,5-diaminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yl)pyridine (POBD),containing a pyridine ring and a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety,was synthcsized.It was used in a polycondensation with various aromatic and aliphatic diacid chlorides to generate a series of new aromatic polyamides with pendant 1,3,4-oxadiazole groups.The prepared polyamides were characterized by IR,elemental analysis and through the synthesis of model compounds.Thermophysical properties of the synthesized polyamides have been studied by DSC,TGA and inherent viscosity measurements.Relatively high inherent viscosity values (0.76-1.62 dL/g,in 0.125% H2SO4 at 25℃) were observed for these compounds.Number average molecular weight (Mn) of the polymers was measured by vapor phase osmometry (VPO).The introduction of bulky side chains in the structure of aromatic polyamides led to increased solubility of these polymers in common polar and aprotic solvents,such as DMF,DMSO,NMP and DMAc,which allowed thin films to be cast from polymer solutions.The highest molecular weight (Mn =51190) was observed for polymer (Ⅸ),which was prepared from pyridine-2,6-dichlorocarbonyl.

  20. Theoretical study of an energetic material di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computations by density functional theory (DFT method are performed on a series of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives with different substituents and linkages. The heat of formation (HOF is predicted by the designed isodesmic reactions. The predicted results reveal that –N3 and –NN– groups are effective structural units for increasing the HOF values of the di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The HOMO–LUMO gap is affected by the substituents and linkage groups. Detonation performance is evaluated using the Kamlet–Jacobs approach based on the calculated density and HOF. The results indicate that –NO2, –NF2, –NH–, –NH–NH– and –NN– groups are helpful for enhancing the detonation properties of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The bond dissociation energy and bond order of the weakest bonds are analyzed to investigate their stability. It is observed that the –CH2–, –CH2–CH2– and –CHCH– groups are effective structural units for improving the stabilities of these derivatives. Considering the detonation performance and the stability, five compounds are screened as the potential candidates for high energy density materials.

  1. Theoretical study of an energetic material di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua ZHOU; Zhong-liang MA; Jian-long WANG; Dong WANG

    2014-01-01

    Computations by density functional theory (DFT) method are performed on a series of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives with different sub-stituents and linkages. The heat of formation (HOF ) is predicted by the designed isodesmic reactions. The predicted results reveal that eN3 and eN]Ne groups are effective structural units for increasing the HOF values of the di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The HOMOeLUMO gap is affected by the substituents and linkage groups. Detonation performance is evaluated using the KamleteJacobs approach based on the calculated density and HOF. The results indicate that eNO2, eNF2, eNHe, eNHeNHe and eN]Ne groups are helpful for enhancing the detonation properties of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The bond dissociation energy and bond order of the weakest bonds are analyzed to investigate their stability. It is observed that the eCH2e, eCH2eCH2e and eCH]CHe groups are effective structural units for improving the stabilities of these derivatives. Considering the detonation performance and the stability, five compounds are screened as the potential candidates for high energy density materials.

  2. Study of 1-3 PZT fibre/epoxy composite force sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, S. H.; Chan, H. L. W.; Ng, M. W.; Liu, P. C. K.

    2005-09-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibres were prepared by a powder-based extrusion method. Pre-sintered PZT powder mixed with poly(acrylic acid) was spun in a spinnerette to produce fibres. The fibre of ˜400 μm diameter was used to fabricate 1-3 PZT fibre/epoxy composite discs with different volume fractions (ϕ) of PZT. Since the ceramic fibres are rather brittle, their elastic properties cannot be measured directly. In order to determine the properties of the ceramic fibres, effective properties of the fibres/epoxy 1-3 composite were measured. By using a modified series and parallel model, the properties of 1-3 composites can be calculated. Then, the elastic coefficient s33,fibreE, relative permittivity ɛ33,fibreT and piezoelectric strain coefficient d33,fibre of the ceramic fibre could be found. Ring-shaped PZT fibre/epoxy materials composites with different ϕ were fabricated to be used as the sensing material in force sensor applications. The ring-shape composite with ϕ=0.5 was installed into a housing and the sensor was calibrated by different methods and its sensitivity was found to be 144 pC/N within the frequency range of 0.5 6.4 kHz which is much higher than that of a quartz force sensor with a similar structure.

  3. Early-type galaxies at z~1.3. IV. Scaling relations in different environments

    CERN Document Server

    Raichoor, A; Stanford, S A; Holden, B P; Nakata, F; Rosati, P; Shankar, F; Ford, H; Huertas-Company, M; Illingworth, G; Kodama, T; Postman, M; Rettura, A; Blakeslee, J P; Demarco, R; Jee, M J; Tanaka, M; White, R L

    2011-01-01

    We present the Kormendy and mass-size relations for early-type galaxies (ETGs) as a function of environment at z ~ 1.3. Our sample includes 76 ETGs in the Lynx supercluster and in the GOODS/CDF-S field, 31 ETGs in clusters, 18 in groups and 27 in the field, all with multi-wavelength photometry and HST/ACS observations and masses in the range 10^10 < M/Msun < 10^11.5. The Kormendy relation, in place at z ~ 1.3, does not depend on the environment. The mass-size relation reveals that ETGs overall appear to be more compact in denser environments: cluster ETGs have sizes on average twice as smaller than in the local universe, whereas field ETGs show a mass-size relation with a similar distribution than the local one. Our results imply that (1) the mass-size relation in the field did not evolve overall from z ~ 1.3 to present; (2) in denser environments, either ETGs sizes have evolved on average to twice their size, or more ETGs have been formed within the dense environment from not ETG progenitors or larger ...

  4. Usefulness of targeting lymphocyte Kv1.3-channels in the treatment of respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Itsuro; Tamada, Tsutomu; Tachi, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    T lymphocytes predominantly express delayed rectifier K(+)-channels (Kv1.3) in their plasma membranes. Patch-clamp studies revealed that the channels play crucial roles in facilitating the calcium influx necessary to trigger lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Using selective channel inhibitors in experimental animal models, in vivo studies further revealed the clinically relevant relationship between the channel expression and the development of chronic respiratory diseases, in which chronic inflammation or the overstimulation of cellular immunity in the airways is responsible for the pathogenesis. In chronic respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, diffuse panbronchiolitis and cystic fibrosis, in addition to the supportive management for the symptoms, the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolide antibiotics were shown to be effective against the over-activation or proliferation of T lymphocytes. Recently, we provided physiological and pharmacological evidence that macrolide antibiotics, together with calcium channel blockers, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, effectively suppress the Kv1.3-channel currents in lymphocytes, and thus exert anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory effects. In this review article, based on the findings obtained from recent in vivo and in vitro studies, we address the novel therapeutic implications of targeting the lymphocyte Kv1.3-channels for the treatment of chronic or acute respiratory diseases.

  5. The study of similitude 1-3 piezo-composites transducer%准1-3复合型压电换能器的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕彦; 周益明; 童晖; 翁汝莲

    2012-01-01

    水声高频换能器在水声领域具有广泛运用,然而常规厚度振动高频换能器在高频段存在强烈的高次径向耦合振动,制作出的换能器出现了阻抗曲线杂乱,相位一致性差,电声效率低的问题.设计制作了一种单一振动模态的换能器,通过将常规厚度振动换能器陶瓷片切割成密排矩形颗粒,再用环氧树脂将切缝填充满.制作两片直径为55mm的准1-3复合材料,由该材料制作的换能器谐振频率为293 kHz,谐振点阻抗50Ω,-3 dB阻抗带宽23.5 kHz,-3dB开角为5.75°,50W电功率输出声源级达到217.5dB.通过该工艺可以消除高频厚度振动换能器的高次径向耦合振动,提高高频厚度振动换能器的电声转换效率和一致性,并能实现批量制作,为高频换能器在水声领域的广泛运用提供了新的手段.%For conventional high-frequency thickness vibration transducers, the strong presence of high-order radial coupled vibration at high frequencies leads to the problems of disordered transducer impedance curve, poor phase co-herence and low electro-acoustic efficiency. A transducer with a single thickness vibration mode is developed. The ce-ramic of the conventional thickness vibration transducer is cut into close-packed rectangular particles through a special process, and then all joints are filled with epoxy resin. Two pieces of 55mm diameter quasi 1-3 composite material are produced, with the transducer resonant frequency achieved to 293 kHz, resonant impedance 50Ω, -3dB impedance bandwidth of 23.5 kHz, -3dB open angle of 5.75°, and output source level of 217.5dB for 50 watts of electric power. This process may eliminate the high-order radial coupled vibration of the high frequency thickness vibration transducer, and advance the electric-acoustic conversion efficiency and consistency. Batch manufacturing can be realized, which provides a new device for underwater acoustic applications.

  6. Synthesis of 2,2-Difluoropropan-1,3-diamine%2,2-二氟丙烷-1,3-二胺的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐德志; 刘立芬; 许丹倩; 高从堦

    2012-01-01

    The common aromatic polyamide composite reverse osmosis ( RO) membrane is liable to oxidation. 2, 2-difluoropropan-l ,3-diamine ( DFPDA) as a key functional monomer can be used to prepare the chlorine-resistant composite reverse osmosis membrane by way of interfaeial polymerization technology. In this study, DFPDA was synthesized through three reactions including fluorination, amidation and reduction. The diethyl malonate as substrate first reacted with the fluorination reagent of selectfluor to get the first intermediate 2,2-difluoro-diethyl-malonate ( DFDEM) ,and then the DFDEM was amidated by ammonia water to prepare the second intermediate 2,2-difluoro-malonamide( DFMA). Lastly,the resulting DFMA was reduced via boron hydride(BH3) to obtain the final product DFPDA. The total yield of the product DFPDA reached 45% . The reaction conditions of the three reactions were investigated. Furthermore,the chemical structures of all the products were identified via infrared spectra (IR) ,hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance( HNMR) and mass spectrograph( MS).%该文经氟化、酰胺化和还原3步反应合成了2,2-二氟丙烷-1,3-二胺( DFPDA).以丙二酸二乙酯为基本原料,首先经选择性氟化剂1-氯甲基-4-氟-1,4-二氮双环[2.2.2]辛烷双氟硼酸盐(Selectfluor)氟化得第一中间体2,2-二氟丙二酸二乙酯(DFDEM),DFDEM再经氨水酰胺化反应得到第二中间体2,2-二氟丙二酰胺(DFMA),最后以硼烷为还原剂,将中间体DFMA还原得到最终产品2,2-二氟丙烷-1,3-二胺( DFPDA),总收率最高可达45%.考察了3步反应的工艺条件对产品收率的影响,结果表明,较理想的反应条件为:氟化反应温度0℃,n(丙二酸二乙酯)∶n(氧化钠)∶n (Selectfluor)=1∶3∶3,氟化反应收率达58.18%;酰胺化反应8h,n(氨水)∶n(DFDEM)=5∶1,酰胺化反应收率可达96%以上;在65℃还原反应3-4h,n(DFMA)∶n(BH3)=1∶7.5,还原反应收率达91.1%.用IR、1HNMR和GC-MS分析了每个产物的化学结构.

  7. Halophilic biohydrogen and 1,3-propanediol production from raw glycerol: A genomic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivisto, A.

    2013-11-01

    Glycerol is produced in large amounts as a by-product in biodiesel industry (10 kg per 100 kg biodiesel). By-products and waste materials are typically economical substrates for bioprocesses. Furthermore, microorganisms are able to combine the degradation of organic material with production of a wide range of metabolites and other cellular products. The current biotechnological interest of industrial glycerol lies on bioprocesses yielding environmentally friendly energy carrier molecules (hydrogen, methane, ethanol, butanol) and reduced chemicals (1,3-propanediol, dihydroxyacetone). Industrial glycerol also called as raw or crude glycerol, however, is a challenging substrate for microorganisms due to its impurities including alcohol, soaps, salts and metals. Halophiles (the salt-loving microorganisms) require salt for growth and heavy metal resistances have been characterized for numerous halophiles. Therefore, halophiles are potentially useful for the utilization of raw glycerol from biodiesel waste streams without pre-processing. Another challenge for large-scale microbial bioprocesses is a potential contamination with unfavorable microorganisms. For example, H{sub 2}-producing systems tend to get contaminated with H{sub 2}-consuming microorganisms. Extremophiles are organisms that have been adapted for life under extreme conditions, such as high salinity, high or low temperature, asidic or basic pH, dryness or high pressure. For extremophilic pure cultures contamination and thus the need to ensure a sterile environment might not be a problem due to the extreme process conditions that efficiently prevent the growth of most other bacteria. In addition, hypersaline environments (above 12 % NaCl) do not support the growth of H{sub 2} utilizing methanogens due to bioenergetic reasons. Halophilic fermentative H{sub 2} producers, on the other hand, have been shown to be active up to near salt saturation. The aims of the present study can be divided into two categories

  8. SYNTHESIS THROUGH MICROWAVE IRRADIATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF 2-PHENYL-1, 3-BENZOXAZOLE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Sana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of 2-phenyl-1,3-benzoxazoles were synthesized by the reaction of 2-aminophenol and acyl chlorides using microwave irradiation. Purity of compounds was determined by TLC. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral analysis (FTIR, 1H-NMR . The compounds were evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis (Gram positive; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram negative and Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by agar-well diffusion method at 2.5, 5, 10mg/ml. Compounds 2-(2-methoxyphenyl-1,3-benzoxazole, 2-(4-bromophenyl-1,3-benzoxazole, 2-(3-cholorophenyl-1,3-benzoxazole, 2-(2-nitrophenyl-1,3-benzoxazole have been found to have good antibacterial activity. Compounds 2-pheny-1,3-benzoxazole, 2-(4-bromophenyl-1,3-benzoxazole, were potent antifungal compounds amongst the series.

  9. Diversidade antigênica de amostras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina isoladas no Brasil: implicações para o diagnóstico e estratégias de imunização Antigenic diversity of Brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV: implications for diagnosis and immunization strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Flores

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Seqüenciamento e análise filogenética de 17 amostras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV isoladas no Brasil identificaram quatro amostras (23,5% do genótipo 1a (BVDV-1a, nove amostras (52,9% do genótipo 1b (BVDV tipo 1b e quatro amostras (23,5% do genótipo 2 (BVDV tipo 2. As amostras brasileiras de BVDV tipo 2 apresentaram-se genotipicamente distintas dos BVDV tipo 2 até então identificados na América do Norte e Europa, sugerindo pertencerem a um novo subgenótipo. A caracterização antigênica dessas amostras por neutralização cruzada revelou reatividade sorológica muito reduzida com cepas vacinais do BVDV. O anti-soro produzido contra três cepas vacinais do BVDV apresentou atividade neutralizante muito reduzida contra várias amostras brasileiras de BVDV tipos 1 e 2. Diferenças de até 128 vezes nos títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes foram observadas entre cepas vacinais e amostras brasileiras do BVDV. Nos testes de soroneutralização (SN contra o vírus dos tipos 1 e 2, de 1134 amostras testadas, 280 (24,7% possuiam anticorpos neutralizantes anti-BVDV e dessas, 215 (76,8% apresentaram atividade neutralizante contra ambos os vírus, 37 (13,2% reagiram apenas contra o BVDV tipo 2 e 28 amostras (10% foram positivas apenas contra o BVDV tipo 1. Esses resultados demonstram que testes de SN utilizando vírus de apenas um genótipo podem resultar em um número significativo de falsos-negativos e indica a necessidade da formulação de vacinas com amostras locais de BVDV e/ou contendo vírus dos dois genótipos.Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 17 Brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV identified four isolates (23.5% belonging to genotype 1a (BVDV-1a, nine isolates (52.9% of the genotype 1b (BVDV-1b and four isolates (23.5% belonging to genotype 2 (BVDV-2. The Brazilian BVDV type 2 isolates were shown to be genotypically different from the BVDV type 2 identified so far in North America and

  10. 1,3-二氯苯对芦苇湿地土壤生物活性的影响%Influences of 1,3-dichlorobenzene on biological activity in reed wetland soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁慧星; 陈爱辉; 丁成; 李朝霞; 吴小芹

    2011-01-01

    With traditional microbiological culture and enzyme method, the effect of 1,3-dichlorobenzene (1,3-DCB) on reed wetland soil microbial and enzyme activities was studied. Results demonstrated that different groups of oil microorganisms have different responses to 1,3-DCB, in which the actinomycetes was significantly inhibited. When the 1,3-DCB concentration was higher than 120 μg/g, the bacterial amounts were significantly inhibited. The soil fungi amounts were initially increased at the beginning of the experiment but inhibited with time. During the experiment, 1,3-DCB treatment could significantly inhibit the soil catalase and polyphenol oxidase activity. Results indicated that these two enzymes are sensitive to 1,3-DCB contamination.%采用传统微生物培养及酶学方法,研究了1,3-二氯苯(1,3-DCB)对芦苇湿地土壤微生物及酶活的影响.结果表明,1,3-DCB处理芦苇湿地土壤对微生物不同类群影响不同,其中对细菌和放线茵生长具有抑制作用,各浓度1,3-DCB处理对放线菌的抑制较为显著,浓度高于120μg/g显著抑制对细菌的生长.1,3-DCB对真菌表现为先刺激后抑制.在实验过程中,1,3-DCB可显著抑制湿地土壤过氧化氢酶和多酚氧化酶的活性,表明这2种酶是1,3-DCB污染芦苇湿地土壤的敏感指标.

  11. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1.3. IV. SCALING RELATIONS IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Huertas-Company, M. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 92190 Meudon Cedex (France); Stanford, S. A.; Rettura, A.; Jee, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Holden, B. P.; Illingworth, G. [UCO/Lick Observatories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95065 (United States); Nakata, F.; Kodama, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Rosati, P. [European South Observatory, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Shankar, F. [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Astrophysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Tanaka, M. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Ford, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Postman, M.; White, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Blakeslee, J. P. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Demarco, R., E-mail: anand.raichoor@brera.inaf.it [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2012-02-01

    We present the Kormendy and mass-size relations (MSR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) as a function of environment at z {approx} 1.3. Our sample includes 76 visually classified ETGs with masses 10{sup 10} < M/M{sub Sun} < 10{sup 11.5}, selected in the Lynx supercluster and in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey/Chandra Deep Field South field; 31 ETGs in clusters, 18 in groups, and 27 in the field, all with multi-wavelength photometry and Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys observations. The Kormendy relation, in place at z {approx} 1.3, does not depend on the environment. The MSR reveals that ETGs overall appear to be more compact in denser environments: cluster ETGs have sizes on average around 30%-50% smaller than those of the local universe and a distribution with a smaller scatter, whereas field ETGs show an MSR with a similar distribution to the local one. Our results imply that (1) the MSR in the field did not evolve overall from z {approx} 1.3 to present; this is interesting and in contrast to the trend found at higher masses from previous works; (2) in denser environments, either ETGs have increased in size by 30%-50% on average and spread their distributions, or more ETGs have been formed within the dense environment from non-ETG progenitors, or larger galaxies have been accreted to a pristine compact population to reproduce the MSR observed in the local universe. Our results are driven by galaxies with masses M {approx}< 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} and those with masses M {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} follow the same trends as that of the entire sample. Following the Valentinuzzi et al. definition of superdense ETGs, {approx}35%-45% of our cluster sample is made up of superdense ETGs.

  12. Chiral 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ones as highly selective FAAH inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jayendra Z; Parkkari, Teija; Laitinen, Tuomo; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Saario, Susanna M; Savinainen, Juha R; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Cipriano, Mariateresa; Leppänen, Jukka; Koshevoy, Igor O; Poso, Antti; Fowler, Christopher J; Laitinen, Jarmo T; Nevalainen, Tapio

    2013-11-14

    In the present study, identification of chiral 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ones as potent and selective FAAH inhibitors has been described. The separated enantiomers showed clear differences in the potency and selectivity toward both FAAH and MAGL. Additionally, the importance of the chirality on the inhibitory activity and selectivity was proven by the simplification approach by removing a methyl group at the 3-position of the 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one ring. The most potent compound of the series, the S-enantiomer of 3-(1-(4-isobutylphenyl)ethyl)-5-methoxy-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-one (JZP-327A, 51), inhibited human recombinant FAAH (hrFAAH) in the low nanomolar range (IC50 = 11 nM), whereas its corresponding R-enantiomer 52 showed only moderate inhibition toward hrFAAH (IC50 = 0.24 μM). In contrast to hrFAAH, R-enantiomer 52 was more potent in inhibiting the activity of hrMAGL compared to S-enantiomer 51 (IC50 = 4.0 μM and 16% inhibition at 10 μM, respectively). The FAAH selectivity of the compound 51 over the supposed main off-targets, MAGL and COX, was found to be >900-fold. In addition, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) indicated high selectivity over other serine hydrolases. Finally, the selected S-enantiomers 51, 53, and 55 were shown to be tight binding, slowly reversible inhibitors of the hrFAAH.

  13. Galectin-1, -3 and -9 Expression and Clinical Significance in Squamous Cervical Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Punt

    Full Text Available Galectins are proteins that bind β-galactoside sugars and provide a new type of potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cancer. Galectin-1, -3 and -9 have become the focus of different research groups, but their expression and function in cervical cancer is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotype of galectin-1, -3 and -9 expressing cells and the association with clinico-pathological parameters in cervical cancer. Galectin expression was scored in tumor cells, tumor epithelium infiltrating immune cells and stromal cells in squamous cervical cancer (n = 160. Correlations with clinico-pathological parameters and survival were studied according to the REMARK recommendations. We additionally investigated whether the galectins were expressed by tumor cells, fibroblasts, macrophages and T cells. Galectin-1 and -9 were both expressed by tumor cells in 11% of samples, while 84% expressed galectin-3. Strong galectin-1 expression by tumor cells was an independent predictor for poor survival (hazard ratio: 8.02, p = 0.001 and correlated with increased tumor invasion (p = 0.032 and receiving post-operative radiotherapy (p = 0.020. Weak and positive tumor cell galectin-3 expression were correlated with increased and decreased tumor invasion, respectively (p = 0.012. Tumor cell expression of galectin-9 showed a trend toward improved survival (p = 0.087. The predominant immune cell type expressing galectin-1, -3 and -9 were CD163+ macrophages. Galectin-1 and -3 were expressed by a minor population of T cells. Galectin-1 was mainly expressed by fibroblasts in the tumor stroma. To conclude, while tumor cell expression of galectin-9 seemed to represent a beneficial response, galectin-1 expression might be used as a marker for a more aggressive anti-cancer treatment.

  14. Docking and Antiherpetic Activity of 2-Aminobenzo[de]-isoquinoline-1,3-diones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad Al-Salahi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As part of our search for new compounds having antiviral effects, the prepared 2-aminonaphthalimide series was examined for its activity against the herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 and HSV-2. This represents the first study of the antiviral effects of this class of compounds. The new series of 2-amino-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-diones was examined against HSV-1 and HSV-2 using a cytopathic effect inhibition assay. In terms of effective concentration (EC50, furaldehyde, thiophene aldehyde and allyl isothiocyanide derivatives 14‒16 showed potent activity against HSV-1 (EC50 = 19.6, 16.2 and 17.8 μg/mL, compared to acyclovir as a reference drug (EC50 = 1.8 μg/mL. Moreover, 14 and 15 were found to exhibit valuable activity against HSV-2. Many of the tested compounds demonstrated weak to moderate EC50 values relative to their inactive parent compound (2-amino-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione, while compounds 7, 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 21 and 22 were the most active set of antiviral compounds throughout this study. The cytotoxicity (CC50, EC50, and the selectivity index (SI values were determined. In a molecular docking study, the ligand-receptor interactions of compounds 1–24 and their parent with the HSV-1 thymidine kinase active site were investigated using the Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD software. Based on the potent anti-HSV properties of the previous naphthalimide condensate products, further exploration of this series of 2-amino-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-diones is warranted.

  15. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies of 1,3-butadiene in the rat: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Clark, M.L.; Decker, J.R.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1987-11-01

    Maternal toxicity, reproductive performance and developmental toxicology were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley-derived rats during and following 6 hours/day, whole-body, inhalation exposures to 0, 40, 200, and 1000 ppM of 1,3-butadiene. The female rats (Ns = 24 to 28), which had mated with unexposed males, were exposed to the chemical from 6 through 15 dg and sacrificed on 20 dg. Maternal animals were weighed prior to mating and on 0, 6, 11, 16 and 20 dg; the rats were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity during exposure and examined for gross tissue abnormalities at necropsy. Live fetuses were weighed and subjected to external, visceral and skeletal examinations to detect growth retardation and morphologic anomalies. There were no significant differences among treatment groups in maternal body weights or extragestational weights of rats exposed to 1,3-butadiene concentrations of 40 or 200 ppM, but, in animals exposed to 1000 ppM, significantly depressed body weight gains were observed during the first 5 days of exposure and extragestational weight gains tended to be lower than control values. These results, and the absence of clinical signs of toxicity, were considered to indicate that there was no maternal toxicity at exposure levels of 200 ppM or lower. The percentage of pregnant animals and the number of litters with live fetuses were unaffected by treatment. Under the conditions of this exposure regimen, there was no evidence for a teratogenic response to 1,3-butadiene exposure.

  16. N-(4,6-Dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl-1,3-benzothiazol-2-amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaaban K. Mohamed

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H12N4S, an amino N atom is connected to a 1,3-benzothiazole fused-ring system and a dimethyl-substituted pyrimidine ring, these components being aligned [interplanar dihedral angle = 1.9 (1°]. The secondary amino N atom forms an intermolecular N—H...N hydrogen bond to an N atom of the fused ring of an adjacent molecule, generating a centrosymmetric cyclic hydrogen-bonded dimer [graph set R22(8].

  17. Synthesis and nonlinear optical characterization of new 1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Chandrakantha; Arun M Isloor; Reji Philip; M Mohesh; Prakash Shetty; A M Vijesh

    2011-07-01

    A new series of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives containing 2-fluoro-4-methoxy phenyl were synthesized by refluxing mixture of acid hydrazide 3 with different aromatic carboxylic acids (a–e) in phosphorous oxychloride. These newly synthesized compounds were characterized by NMR, mass spectral, and IR spectral studies, and also by C, H, N analyses. The open-aperture z-scan experiment was employed to measure the optical nonlinearity of the samples at 532 nm, using 5 ns laser pulses. The measurements indicate that compound 4a, which contains Bromine, behaves as an optical limiter at this wavelength, with potential applications in optoelectronics.

  18. Equations of motion with respect to the (1 + 1 + 3) threading of a 5D universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejancu, Aurel [Kuwait University, Department of Mathematics, Safat (Kuwait)

    2016-01-15

    We continue our research work started in Bejancu (Eur Phys J C 75:346, 2015), and obtain in a covariant form the equations of motion with respect to the (1+1+3) threading of a 5D universe (anti M, anti g). The natural splitting of the tangent bundle of anti M leads to the study of three categories of geodesics: spatial geodesics, temporal geodesics, and vertical geodesics. As an application of the general theory, we introduce and study what we call the 5D Robertson-Walker universe. (orig.)

  19. 3-Bromo-7-methoxy-2-phenylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Bunev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecule, C16H11BrN2OS, the central imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazole tricycle is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.021 Å. The terminal phenyl ring is twisted at 36.18 (5° from the mean plane of the tricycle. In the crystal, pairs of eak C—H...O hydrogen bonds link molecules into centrosymmetric dimers, which are further packed into stacks along the a axis.

  20. Heteroarylazo derivatives of cyclohexane-1,3-dione and their metal complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummathur Muhammed Basheer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupling of diazotized 2-aminothiazole and 2-aminobenzo-thiazole with cyclohexane-1,3-dione yielded a new type of tridentate ligand systems (HL. Analytical, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data indicate the existence of the compounds in the intramolecularly hydrogen bonded azo-enol tautomeric form. Monobasic tridentate coordination of the compounds in their [CuL(OAc] and [ML2] complexes [M = Ni(II and Zn(II] has been established on the basis of analytical and spectral data. The Zn(II chelates are diamagnetic while Cu(II and Ni(II complexes showed normal paramagnetic moment.

  1. Concomitant polymorphs of 1,3-bis(3-fluorophenyl)urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacci-Daniel, Christina A; Bertke, Jeffery A; Dehghan, Shoaleh; Hiremath-Darji, Rupa; Swift, Jennifer A

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen bonding between urea functionalities is a common structural motif employed in crystal-engineering studies. Crystallization of 1,3-bis(3-fluorophenyl)urea, C13H10F2N2O, from many solvents yielded concomitant mixtures of at least two polymorphs. In the monoclinic form, one-dimensional chains of hydrogen-bonded urea molecules align in an antiparallel orientation, as is typical of many diphenylureas. In the orthorhombic form, one-dimensional chains of hydrogen-bonded urea molecules have a parallel orientation rarely observed in symmetrically substituted diphenylureas.

  2. Triazol-substituted titanocenes by strain-driven 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Gansäuer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An operationally simple, convenient, and mild strategy for the synthesis of triazole-substituted titanocenes via strain-driven 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions between azide-functionalized titanocenes and cyclooctyne has been developed. It features the first synthesis of titanocenes containing azide groups. These compounds constitute ‘second-generation’ functionalized titanocene building blocks for further synthetic elaboration. Our synthesis is modular and large numbers of the complexes can in principle be prepared in short periods of time. Some of the triazole-substituted titanocenes display high cyctotoxic activity against BJAB cells. Comparison of the most active complexes allows the identification of structural features essential for biological activity.

  3. Preparation and Reaction Chemistry of Novel Silicon-Substituted 1,3-Dienes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha P. Choudhury

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 2-Silicon-substituted 1,3-dienes containing non transferrable groups known to promote transmetallation were prepared by Grignard chemistry and enyne metathesis. These dienes participated in one pot metathesis/Diels-Alder reactions in regio- and diastereoselective fashions. Electron-rich alkenes showed the fastest rates in metathesis reactions, and ethylene, a commonly used metathesis promoter slowed enyne metathesis. 2-Pyridyldimethylsilyl and 2-thienyldimethylsilyl substituted Diels-Alder cycloadducts participated in cross-coupling chemistry and the 2-thienyldimethylsilyl substituted cycloadducts underwent cross-coupling under very mild reaction conditions.

  4. Methyl 2-(4,6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylaminoacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio M. F. Vilela

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C6H6Cl2N4O2, was prepared by the nucleophilic substitution of 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine by glycine methyl ester hydrochloride, and was isolated from the reaction by using flash chromatography. The crystal structure at 150 K reveals the presence two crystallographically independent molecules in the asymmetric unit which differ in the orientation of the pendant methoxycarbonyl group. Each molecular unit is engaged in strong and highly directional N—H...N hydrogen-bonding interactions with a symmetry-related molecule, forming supramolecular dimers which act as the synthons in the crystal packing.

  5. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Mouse Interstrain Variability in Genotoxicity of the Environmental Toxicant 1,3-Butadiene

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a common environmental contaminant classified as “carcinogenic to humans.” Formation of BD-induced DNA adducts plays a major role in its carcinogenicity. BD is also an epigenotoxic agent (i.e., it affects DNA and histone methylation in the liver). We used a panel of genetically diverse inbred mice (NOD/LtJ, CAST/EiJ, A/J, WSB/EiJ, PWK/PhJ, C57BL/6J, and 129S1/SvImJ) to assess whether BD-induced genotoxic and epigenotoxic events may be subject to interstrain differences. ...

  6. Pilot 1.3-cm IDVObservation of Two Dozens of AGNs at Urumqi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M.-Q. Lin; X. Liu; J. Liu

    2014-09-01

    We carried out a pilot 1.3-cm IDV observations of two dozens of AGNs at Urumqi from 23 to 25 November 2011. Six sources, namely J0136+4751, J0217+0144, J1058+0133, J1751+0939, J1833−2103 and DA193 were detected as IDV sources at a 99% confidence level (about 3 level). The weather was fine during the observation period, but the system noise after calibration remained which could be due to the data sampled are relatively sparse for each source in the observations.

  7. Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moger, Manjunath [Mangalore University, Karnataka (India). Department of Chemistry; Satam, Vijay; Paniraj, A.S.; Gopinath, Vadiraj S.; Hindupur, Rama Mohan; Pati, Hari N., E-mail: hari.pati@advinus.com [Advinus Therapeutics Ltd., 21 and 22, Phase II, Peenya Industrial Area, Karnataka (India); Govindaraju, Darshan Raj C. [Department of Bio-Medicinal Research, Vidya Herbs Pvt. Ltd., Karnataka (India)

    2014-01-15

    A series of ten novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety were synthesized using linear as well as convergent synthesis approach. All the compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry, infrared (IR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR) spectroscopies and elemental analysis. These compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among ten analogs, four compounds, namely, 8a, 8d, 8e and 8j were found to be highly active antibacterial and antifungal agents (author)

  8. A Cluster of 1.3 cm Continuum Sources in OMC1 South

    CERN Document Server

    Zapata, L A; Kurtz, S E; O'Dell, C R; Ho, P T P; Zapata, Luis A.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Kurtz, Stanley E.; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2004-01-01

    We present sensitive 1.3 cm radio continuum observations of the region OMC1 South (OMC-1S) in Orion using the Very Large Array in its B configuration. We detect eleven radio sources clustered in a $30{''} \\times 30{''}$ region, of which only three had been detected previously at radio wavelengths in deep 3.6 cm observations. The eight new radio sources are compact ($\\theta_s \\leq 0\\rlap.{''}1$) and we set lower limits to their spectral indices, $\\alpha > 0.8 \\pm 0.3$ (with $S_\

  9. Synthesis of diversely 1,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazoles via 5-exo-dig cyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkin, Dmitry A; Puscau, Mirela; Carlson, Alena; Solan, Agnes; Wheeler, Kraig A; Török, Béla; Dembinski, Roman

    2012-06-21

    5-Exo-dig cyclocondensation of alk-3-yn-1-ones with hydrazines, in the presence of montmorillonite K-10, provides an effective method with a high atom economy for the synthesis of diversely 1,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazoles. The microwave-accelerated reaction proceeds in the absence of solvent and leads to 5-benzyl substituted pyrazoles with good yields (72-91%). The regiochemistry of the process was confirmed by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of 1-(2-fluorophenyl)-5-(4-methylbenzyl)-3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole.

  10. Studies on Epitaxial Polymerization of 1,3-Bis(3-quinolyl)-1,4-butadiyne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tie-Sheng; Shuji Okada; Hachiro Nakanishi

    2004-01-01

    During investigating what causes the low yield of the polymerization product of 1,4-bis (quinolyl)-1, 3-butadiyne(DQ), we found that the DQ crystals formed on the surface of PDQ cauld be polymerized to give blue crystals, in which DQ could be sublimated and crystallized on the surface of PDQ film. According to the experimental results, the reason why the DQ crystals can be polymerized is that the sublimation of DQ changes the molecular orientation of DQ in the crystal. The crystals formed in epitaxial growth on the surface of DQ or PDQ during sublimation of DQ are suitable for 1,4-addition polymerization.

  11. Synthesis and Bioassay of a New Class of Furanyl-1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galila A. Yacout

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase enzyme is a monophenol monoxygenase enzyme, which plays an important role in human as a rate limiting step enzyme for different specific metabolic pathways, as well as its useful application in industry and agriculture. So this study was carried out to test the effect of newly prepared compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazoles with different substituted groups on tyrosinase enzyme activity, hoping to use them in the treatment of some diseases arising from tyrosinase activity disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, autism, attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, and cancer.

  12. Glenn Goddard TDRSS Waveform 1.1.3 On-Orbit Performance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed is to study the development, testing, and operation of software defined radios (SDRs) and their associated appliations in the operational space environment to reduce cost and risk for future space missions. This report covers the results of on-orbit performance testing completed using the Glenn Goddard Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) waveform version 1.1.3 in the ground and space environments. The Glenn Goddard TDRSS (GGT) waveform, operating on the SCaN Testbed Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) SDR, is capable of a variety of data rates and frequencies, operating using Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK).

  13. Synthesis of Novel Fuctionalized Glycosides Based on 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition reaction is one of the most common methods for preparing various five membered heterocycles,and provides a conveniet protocols for constructing C-C bond with functional groups.The reaction has also been successfully used in the syntheses of C-glycosides and other sacharride derivatives.We wish to present herein our recent approaches on the synthesis of novel C-amino-glycosides,C-aminodisaccharides,spiro heterocyclic glycosides and heterocycle linked C-disaccharides,et...

  14. Metal-insulator transition of fermions on a kagome lattice at 1/3 filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Satoshi; Nakamura, Masaaki; O'Brien, Aroon; Fulde, Peter

    2010-05-14

    We discuss the metal-insulator transition of the spinless fermion model on a kagome lattice at 1/3 filling. The system is analyzed by using exact diagonalization, density-matrix renormalization group methods, and random-phase approximation. In the strong-coupling region, the charge-ordered ground state is consistent with the predictions of an effective model, i.e., plaquette order. We find that the qualitative properties of the metal-insulator transition are totally different depending on the sign of the hopping matrix elements, reflecting the difference in the band structure near the Fermi level.

  15. Magnetic transitions in the topological magnon insulator Cu(1,3-bdc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnell, R.; Helton, J. S.; Freedman, D. E.; Singh, D. K.; Demmel, F.; Stock, C.; Nocera, D. G.; Lee, Y. S.

    2016-06-01

    Topological magnon insulators are a new class of magnetic materials that possess topologically nontrivial magnon bands. As a result, magnons in these materials display properties analogous to those of electrons in topological insulators. Here we present magnetization, specific heat, and neutron scattering measurements of the ferromagnetic kagome magnet Cu(1,3-bdc). Our measurements provide a detailed description of the magnetic structure and interactions in this material and confirm that it is an ideal prototype for topological magnon physics in a system with a simple spin Hamiltonian.

  16. Three-Photon Absorption and Upconversion Fluorescence Properties of Series 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei; LU Chang-Gui; QIAN Ying; LIU Chang; WANG Zhu-Yuan; CUI Yi-Ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ A newly synthesized 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives have been studied using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser system.The series molecules present strong three-photon absorption and frequency upconversion fluorescence at wavelengths from 1205nm to 1575nm.Furthermore,there is no proportional relationship between three-photon absorption cross sections and the chemical structure transformation from monomer,dimer to trimer.Effective charge-transfer distance by π-conjugation bonds may be the contributing factor.In the experimental design,the far-field intensity distribution of femtosecond laeer beam has been taken into account.

  17. Corrosion Inhibition Property of Some 1, 3, 4- Thiadiazolines on Mild Steel in Acidic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shamitha Begum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the corrosion behavior of mild steel in acidic medium. The inhibitive effect of substituted 1, 3, 4-Thiadiazol-2-amines on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 has been studied by weight loss and electrochemical methods. The electrochemical parameters for mild steel in acidic solution with and without inhibitor were calculated. The effect of temperature on the corrosion rate, activation energy and free energy of adsorption were also calculated. The synergistic effect has been studied by weight loss and electrochemical methods. The electrochemical parameters for mild steel in acidic solution were also calculated.

  18. Synthesis and Single Crystal Structures of Substituted-1,3-Selenazol-2-amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxiong Hua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and X-ray single crystal structures of a series of new 4-substituted-1,3-selenazol-2-amines is reported. The efficient preparation of these compounds was carried out by two-component cyclization of the selenoureas with equimolar amounts of α-haloketones. The selenoureas were obtained from the reaction of Woollins’ reagent with cyanamides, followed by hydrolysis with water. All new compounds have been characterized by IR spectroscopy, multi-NMR (1H, 13C, 77Se spectroscopy, accurate mass measurement and single crystal X-ray structure analysis.

  19. Lipschitz equivalence of generalized {1,3,5}-{1,4,5} self-similar sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the Lipschitz equivalence of generalized {1,3,5}-{1,4,5} self-similar sets D = (r1D) ∪ (r2D + (1 + r1 - r2 - r3)/2) ∪ (r3D + 1 - r3) and E = (r1E) ∪ (r2E + 1 - r2 -r3) ∪ (r3E + 1 - r3),and proves that D and E areLipschitz equivalent if and only if there are positive integers m and n such that rm1= rn3.

  20. Computational Insights of the Interaction among Sea Anemones Neurotoxins and Kv1.3 Channel

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Sea anemone neurotoxins are peptides that interact with Na+ and K+ channels, resulting in specific alterations on their functions. Some of these neurotoxins (1ROO, 1BGK, 2K9E, 1BEI) are important for the treatment of about 80 autoimmune disorders because of their specificity for Kv1.3 channel. The aim of this study was to identify the common residues among these neurotoxins by computational methods, and establish whether there is a pattern useful for the future generation of a treatment for a...

  1. $(1+3)$D topological superconductors: screening and confinement in presence of external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Gaete, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the gauge-invariant and path-dependent variables formalism, we compute the interaction energy for a topological field theory describing $(1+3)$D topological superconductors in presence of external fields. As a result, in the case of a constant electric field- strength expectation value, we show that the interaction energy describes a purely screening phase, encoded in a Yukawa potential. On the other hand, in the case of a constant magnetic field-strength and for a very small Josephson coupling constant, the particle-antiparticle binding potential displays a linear term leading to the confinement of static charge probes along with a screening contribution.

  2. Syntheses, Characterization and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Some 1, 3, 5-Trisubustituted Pyrazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vertika Gautam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1, 3, 5-trisubustituted pyrazole derivatives were synthesized and screened for antimicrobial activity. The compounds (2j-o were evaluated against two gram-positive and two gram-negative bacteria and one fungus, at concentrations of 10 µg/mL and 50 µg/mL. The compounds were founds to be inactive against P. aeruginosa and A. niger but exhibited moderate activity against B. subtilis, E. coli and S. aureus. It can be concluded that the newly synthesized compounds possess promising antimicrobial activity.

  3. Theoretical Study of 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition of Hydrazoic Acid to Substituted Ynamines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang Chen; Kun Yang; Keli Han

    2009-01-01

    The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of various substituted ynamines with hydrazoic acid were theoretically investigated with the high-accuracy CBS-QB3 method. Two regioisomers,4-amine, and 5-amine substituted adducts, were obtained, with the former as the preferred yield. This regioselectivity is rationalized by the frontier molecular orbital theory. The reactivity and synchronicity are enhanced with the increase of the electron-withdrawing character of the substitute on ynamine fragment. The calculations also show that the effect of solvent increases the activation energy, and the reaction becomes even harder in polar solvent.

  4. Theoretical Study of 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition of Hydrazoic Acid to Substituted Ynamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-fang; Yang, Kun; Han, Ke-li

    2009-04-01

    The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of various substituted ynamines with hydrazoic acid were theoretically investigated with the high-accuracy CBS-QB3 method. Two regioisomers, 4-amine, and 5-amine substituted adducts, were obtained, with the former as the preferred yield. This regioselectivity is rationalized by the frontier molecular orbital theory. The reactivity and synchronicity are enhanced with the increase of the electron-withdrawing character of the substitute on ynamine fragment. The calculations also show that the effect of solvent increases the activation energy, and the reaction becomes even harder in polar solvent.

  5. Cyclic Bis-1,3-dialkylpyridiniums from the Sponge Haliclona sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongheon Shin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight novel cyclic bis-1,3-dialkylpyridiniums, as well as two known compounds from the cyclostellettamine class, were isolated from the sponge Haliclona sp. from Korea. Structures of these novel compounds were determined using combined NMR and FAB-MS/MS analyses. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxic and antibacterial activities against A549 cell-line and Gram-positive strains, respectively. The structure-activity relationships of cyclostellettamines are discussed based on their bioactivities.

  6. Synthesis of conformationally locked carbocyclic 1,3-diazepinone nucleosides as inhibitors of cytidine deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludek, Olaf R; Schroeder, Gottfried K; Wolfenden, Richard; Marquez, Victor E

    2008-01-01

    We synthesized a series of carbocyclic nucleoside inhibitors of cytidine deaminase (CDA) based on a seven-membered 1,3-diazepin-2-one moiety. In the key step, the seven-membered ring was formed by a ring-closing-metathesis reaction. Therefore, the bis-allyl-urea moiety had to be protected by benzoylation in order to obtain an orientation suitable for ring closure. To our surprise, the analogue built on a flexible sugar template (4) showed a 100-fold stronger inhibition of CDA than the derivative with the preferred south-conformation.

  7. Synthesis of conformationally locked carbocyclic 1,3-diazepinone nucleosides as inhibitors of cytidine deaminase

    OpenAIRE

    Ludek, Olaf R.; Schroeder, Gottfried K.; Wolfenden, Richard; Marquez, Victor E.

    2008-01-01

    We synthesized a series of carbocyclic nucleoside inhibitors of cytidine deaminase (CDA) based on a seven-membered 1,3-diazepin-2-one moiety. In the key step, the seven-membered ring was formed by a ringclosing- metathesis reaction. Therefore, the bis-allylurea moiety had to be protected by benzoylation in order to obtain an orientation suitable for ring closure. To our surprise, the analogue built on a flexible sugar template (4) showed a 100-fold stronger inhibition of CDA than the derivati...

  8. Synthesis of O- and C-glycosides derived from β-(1,3)-D-glucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marca, Eduardo; Valero-Gonzalez, Jessika; Delso, Ignacio; Tejero, Tomás; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramon; Merino, Pedro

    2013-12-15

    A series of β-(1,3)-d-glucans have been synthesized incorporating structural variations specifically on the reducing end of the oligomers. Both O- and C-glucosides derived from di- and trisaccharides have been obtained in good overall yields and with complete selectivity. Whereas the O-glycosides were obtained via a classical Koenigs-Knorr glycosylation, the corresponding C-glycosides were obtained through allylation of the anomeric carbon and further cross-metathesis reaction. Finally, the compounds were evaluated against two glycosidases and two endo-glucanases and no inhibitory activity was observed.

  9. Properties of dysprosium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide fiber amplifiers operating at 1.3 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, B N; Schweizer, T; Hewak, D W; Laming, R I

    1997-05-15

    In light of recent progress in the fabrication of gallium lanthanum sulfide (GaLaS) fibers, we have modeled the performance of dysprosium-doped GaLaS fiber amplifiers operating at 1.3 microm . Based on experimental data, we find that the incorporation of a codopant (terbium) in the fiber core significantly shortens the optimum amplifier length from >30 m to approximately 3 m . Such a device may be practical, given the fiber losses currently achieved in GaLaS fibers.

  10. Synthesis of 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5- trinitrobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TATB is perhaps the most thermostable and insensitive explosive known. Its low sensibility to shock makes it suitable for military and civil applications. TATB application is done either alone or in combination with another high energetic material. This study aimed at reporting the review about many processes to produce TATB and the problems associated with them, as well as suggest techniques like Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, which can be useful in the characterization of this energetic compound.

  11. THE HYDROSILYLATION REACTION OF LADDERLIKE POLYVINYLSILSESQUIOXANE WITH 1,1,3,3-TETRAMETHYLDISILOXANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The hydrosilylation reaction of ladderlike polyvinylsilsesquioxane (Vi-T) with 1, 1, 3, 3-tetramethyldisiloxane (H-MM) catalyzed by dicyclopentadienyl-dichloroplat inium (Cp2PtCl2) was carried out well in tetrahydrofuran (THF) to produce a soluble white solid. This product was characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 29Si-NMR, DSC, X-ray diffraction method, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), vapour pressure osmometry (VPO), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular simulation. These results prove that the product contains nanoscale tubular structure.

  12. Raman Scattering from 1,3-Propanedithiol at a Hot Spot: Theory Meets Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2013-08-21

    We compute the Raman spectra of 1,3-propanedithiol (PDT) in the gas phase, in methanol, linked either to the face or vertex of a finite tetrahedral Ag20 cluster, and linking two Ag20 clusters using tools of density functional theory. The calculated normal mode-dependent molecular polarizability derivative tensors are employed to simulate single molecule surface-enhanced Raman (SERS) spectra. This is achieved by rotating the polarizability tensors of an individual molecule with respect to explicitly defined vector components of the incident and scattered radiation. Our results provide a basis for understanding commonly observed phenomena in single molecule SERS spectroscopy.

  13. New Piperazine Derivatives Synthesized from Thio-Substituted Polyhalogeno-2-nitro-1,3-butadienes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Goksin Aydinli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that polyhalogeno-nitro-1,3-butadienes are important starting materials for the synthesis of polyfunctionalized bioactive heterocycles. Novel N,S-substituted nitrobutadienes (4a-j were synthesized from the reaction of the monothio-substituted nitrodiene derivatives (2a and (2b with some piperazine derivatives. These new compounds are stable and the structures of these products were characterized by spectroscopic data. The structure of the novel N,S-substituted nitrodiene compound (4g synthesized in this study was also elucidated by single crystal x-ray analysis.

  14. On the collective mode spectrum for composite fermions at 1/3 filling factor

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Martínez, A; Guerra, V; Martinez, Aurora Perez; Cabo, Alejandro; Guerra, Valia

    1995-01-01

    The collective mode spectrum of the composite fermion state 1/3 filling factor is evaluated. At zero momentum, the result coincides with the cyclotron energy at the external magnetic field value, and not at the effective magnetic field, in spite of the fact that only the former enters in the equations, thus, the Kohn theorem is satisfied. Unexpectedly, in place of a magneto roton minimum, the collective mode gets a treshold indicating the instability of the mean field composite fermion state under the formation of crystalline structures. However, the question about if if this outcome only appears within the mean field approximation should be further considered.

  15. 1,3-dioxolane pretreatment to improve the interfacial characteristics of a lithium anode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Fei; LIU Yuwen; HU Xinguo

    2006-01-01

    1,3-dioxolane (DOL) was originally used to pretreat a lithium metal electrode to improve its interfacial characteristics. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) measurements revealed that, after the DOL pretreatment, the lithium electrode had better interfacial stability during immersion in electrolyte and as repeated charge/discharge cycles. It was proved by SEM that the pretreated one has smoother morphology and less dendrite after repeated charge/discharge cycles.Consequentially, benefiting from the better interface characteristics of the lithium electrode, the rechargeable lithium cell with a DOL-pretreated lithium anode had the obviously enhanced discharging performance and better cyclability.

  16. PZT-Polymer 1-3 Composite for High Resolution Ultrasonic Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shinan Wang; Jing-Feng Li; Katsuhiro Wakabayashi; Masayoshi Esashi

    2000-01-01

    @@ A novel process has been developed to construct PZT-polymer 1-3 micro composites for high-resolution ultrasonic imaging for medical diagnosis. The key technology is the lost silicon (Si) mold process, by which PZT micro-rod arrays have been successfully fabricated with the finest rod size being 7 μm, the highest aspect ratio exceeding 15. Such fine-scale high-aspect-ratio PZT structures, which are essential for realizing high imaging performance, have never been realized by any conventional technique.

  17. Excitation Localization/Delocalization Isomerism in a Strongly Coupled Covalent Dimer of 1,3-Diphenylisobenzofuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrauben, Joel N.; Akdag, Akin; Wen, Jin; Havlas, Zdenek; Ryerson, Joseph L.; Smith, Millie B.; Michl, Josef; Johnson, Justin C.

    2016-05-26

    Two isomers of both the lowest excited singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) states of the directly para, para'-connected covalent dimer of the singlet-fission chromophore 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran have been observed. In one isomer, excitation is delocalized over both halves of the dimer, and in the other, it is localized on one or the other half. For a covalent dimer in solution, such 'excitation isomerism' is extremely rare. The vibrationally relaxed isomers do not interconvert, and their photophysical properties, including singlet fission, differ significantly.

  18. On the Effect of Fluorination of 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Christian B.

    2015-04-22

    The 4,7-dithieno-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (DTBT) moiety and its fluorinated counterpart are important pi-conjugated building blocks in the field of organic electronics. Here we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation into fundamental properties relating to these two molecular entities and discuss the potential impact on extended π-conjugated materials and their electronic properties. While the fluorinated derivative, in the solid state, packs with a smaller co-facial overlap than DTBT, we report experimental evidence for stronger optical absorption as well as stronger intra- and intermolecular contacts upon fluorination.

  19. A 1.3GHz Inductive Output Tube for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Sobieradzki, Edward

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing requirement for RF power sources in the L-band frequency range for operation in particle accelerators. The paper describes the development and presents test results of a new inductive output tube (IOT) for use at 1.3GHz. A target specificationof 16kW cw output power at an efficiency of 60% was set. The paper discusses progress to date having used an electron gun geometry that minimizes transit time effects in the cathode to grid gap.

  20. Chlorido(1,3-dimethylthiourea-κSbis(triphenylphosphine-κPcopper(I acetonitrile hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Skelton

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [CuCl(C3H8N2S(C18H15P2]·0.5CH3CN, was prepared by the reaction of copper(I chloride with 1,3-dimethylthiourea (dmtu and triphenylphosphine (PPh3 in acetonitrile. The CuI atom has a distorted tetrahedral environment formed by two P atoms from triphenylphosphine, one S atom from the dmtu ligand and one Cl atom. In addition, the molecules exhibit intra- and intermolecular N—H...Cl interactions.

  1. Multicomponent Synthesis of 3,6-Dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones

    OpenAIRE

    Frans J. J. de Kanter; Eelco Ruijter; Orru, Romano V A; Madeleine Helliwell; Elwin Janssen; Marten L. Ploeger; Art Kruithof

    2012-01-01

    Non-fused 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones constitute a so far rather unexplored class of compounds, with the latest report dating back more than two decades. Thiazine-2-thiones contain an endocyclic dithiocarbamate group, which is often found in pesticides, in substrates for radical chemistry and in synthetic intermediates towards thioureas and amidines. We now report the multicomponent reaction (MCR) of in situ-generated 1-azadienes with carbon disulfide. With this reaction, a one-step...

  2. Why humans and Catarrhini lack the Galα1-3Gal epitope, related to xenograft rejection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Suchanowska

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Galα1-3Gal epitope (Galβ1-3Galα1-4GlcNAc-R is an oligosaccharide determinant present on the cell surface of most mammalian species with the exception of the higher primates, including Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. The synthesis of Galα1-3Gal epitope is catalyzed by α1,3-galactosyltransferase (α1,3GT. Inactivation of the α1,3GT gene in humans and the production of natural anti-Gal1-3Gal antibodies against the Galα1-3Gal epitope has resulted in the formation of a unique immunological barrier that prevents the transplantation of tissues and organs from Galα1-3Gal-positive animals to humans. The gene encoding α1,3-galactosyltransferase in higher primates is inactive due to point mutations and deletions leading to a change of reading frame. The human transcript of this gene consists of several splicing variants, most of which does not contain an exon encoding the catalytic domain. Thus no active protein is produced.

  3. T Cell Subset and Stimulation Strength-Dependent Modulation of T Cell Activation by Kv1.3 Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung-Leung, Wai-Ping; Edwards, Wilson; Liu, Yi; Ngo, Karen; Angsana, Julianty; Castro, Glenda; Wu, Nancy; Liu, Xuejun; Swanson, Ronald V.; Wickenden, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    Kv1.3 is a voltage-gated potassium channel expressed on T cells that plays an important role in T cell activation. Previous studies have shown that blocking Kv1.3 channels in human T cells during activation results in reduced calcium entry, cytokine production, and proliferation. The aim of the present study was to further explore the effects of Kv1.3 blockers on the response of different human T cell subsets under various stimulation conditions. Our studies show that, unlike the immune suppressor cyclosporine A, the inhibitory effect of Kv1.3 blockers was partial and stimulation strength dependent, with reduced inhibitory efficacy on T cells under strengthened anti-CD3/CD28 stimulations. T cell responses to allergens including house dust mites and ragweed were partially reduced by Kv1.3 blockers. The effect of Kv1.3 inhibition was dependent on T cell subsets, with stronger effects on CCR7- effector memory compared to CCR7+ central memory CD4 T cells. Calcium entry studies also revealed a population of CD4 T cells resistant to Kv1.3 blockade. Activation of CD4 T cells was accompanied with an increase in Kv1.3 currents but Kv1.3 transcripts were found to be reduced, suggesting a posttranscriptional mechanism in the regulation of Kv1.3 activities. In summary, Kv1.3 blockers inhibit T cell activation in a manner that is highly dependent on the T cell identity and stimulation strength, These findings suggest that Kv1.3 blockers inhibit T cells in a unique, conditional manner, further refining our understanding of the therapeutic potential of Kv1.3 blockers. PMID:28107393

  4. Micromachined high frequency PMN-PT/epoxy 1-3 composite ultrasonic annular array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Djuth, Frank; Li, Xiang; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and performance of miniature micromachined high frequency PMN-PT/epoxy 1-3 composite ultrasonic annular arrays. The PMN-PT single crystal 1-3 composites were made with micromachining techniques. The area of a single crystal pillar was 9×9 μm. The width of the kerf among pillars was ∼5 μm and the kerfs were filled with a polymer. The composite thickness was 25 μm. A six-element annular transducer of equal element area of 0.2 mm(2) with 16 μm kerf widths between annuli was produced. The aperture size the array transducer is about 1.5 mm in diameter. A novel electrical interconnection strategy for high density array elements was implemented. After the transducer was attached to the electric connection board and packaged, the array transducer was tested in a pulse/echo arrangement, whereby the center frequency, bandwidth, two-way insertion loss (IL), and cross talk between adjacent elements were measured for each annulus. The center frequency was 50 MHz and -6 dB bandwidth was 90%. The average insertion loss was 19.5 dB at 50 MHz and the crosstalk between adjacent elements was about -35 dB. The micromachining techniques described in this paper are promising for the fabrication of other types of high frequency transducers, e.g. 1D and 2D arrays.

  5. Quantum dynamics study of singlet-triplet transitions in s-trans-1,3-butadiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoobakht, Behnam; Köppel, Horst

    2016-05-01

    The intersystem crossing dynamics of s-trans-1,3-butadiene in its lowest singlet and triplet states is studied theoretically, employing a fully quantal approach for the first time. The electronic states 21Ag, 11Bu, 13Bu and 13Ag, which interact vibronically and via the spin-orbit coupling are treated in the calculation, thus covering the lowest spin-forbidden electronic transitions. Up to five nuclear degrees of freedom, including out-of-plane dihedral angles are included in our investigation. The calculation of potential energy surfaces relies on the CASPT2 method, and the evaluation of spin-orbit coupling matrix elements using the full two-electron Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian is performed by utilizing the MRCI wavefunction. The latter dependence on the nuclear coordinates is included for the first time. An electronic population transfer on the sub-picosecond time scale due to intersystem crossing is obtained, a mechanism that can contribute to the singlet-triplet transitions in the electron energy loss spectrum of s-trans-1, 3-butadiene. It is found that the dependence of the spin-orbit coupling on the out-of-plane coordinates plays a dominant role in these singlet-triplet transitions. The amount of population transfer to the 13Ag and 13Bu states is roughly of the same order of magnitude.

  6. Final Report on Models, Periodic Progress, Report No D1.3, Globeman21, ESPRIT 26509

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Dahl; Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan

    1999-01-01

    This deliverable D1.3 is the third and final deliverable of WP1 - Global Manufacturing Concept of the European part of the Globeman21 project. The report essentially presents the final models on generic Extended Enterprise Management (EEM) and generic Product Life Cycle Management (PLCM), a colle......This deliverable D1.3 is the third and final deliverable of WP1 - Global Manufacturing Concept of the European part of the Globeman21 project. The report essentially presents the final models on generic Extended Enterprise Management (EEM) and generic Product Life Cycle Management (PLCM......), a collection of practical experiences, and requirements for enhanced methods and tools for modelling. First, the deliverable outlines the GM21 understanding regarding extended enterprises and virtual enterprises. This is done by extracting and synthesising the essence of key definitions and concepts...... enterprise context. Through the set of recommended activities for individual life cycle phases of respectively the network entity, the VE entity, and the product entity of the Extended Enterprise Framework, the methodology supports realisation of extended enterprises. The time sequenced planning...

  7. Synthesis and activity of benzimidazole-1,3-dioxide inhibitors of separase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ha T; Zhang, Nenggang; Pati, Debananda; Gilbertson, Scott R

    2016-09-15

    Due to the oncogenic activity of cohesin protease, separase in human cancer cells, modulation of separase enzymatic activity could constitute a new therapeutic strategy for targeting resistant, separase-overexpressing aneuploid tumors. Herein, we report the synthesis, structural information, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of separase inhibitors based on modification of the lead molecule 2,2-dimethyl-5-nitro-2H-benzimidazole-1,3-dioxide, named Sepin-1, (1) identified from a high-throughput-screen. Replacement of -NO2 at C5 with other functional groups reduce the inhibitory activity in separase enzymatic assay. Substitution of the two methyl groups with other alkyl chains at the C2 moderately improves the effects on the inhibitory activity of those compounds. Modifications on 2H-benzimidazole-1,3-dioxide or the skeleton have variable effect on inhibition of separase enzymatic activity. Density-functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest there may be a correlation between the charges on the oxide moieties on these compounds and their activity in inhibiting separase enzyme.

  8. Reactions of organyl and silyl alanes with 1,3,4,5,6-pentamethyl-2-aminoborazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Maomin; Duesler, Eileen N; Nöth, Heinrich; Paine, Robert T

    2010-03-15

    The reactions of (Me(3)Si)(3)Al, Me(3)Al, Et(3)Al, and i-Bu(3)Al with 1,3,4,5,6-pentamethyl-2-aminoborazine have been examined. An amine alane adduct (Me(3)Si)(3)Al.NH(2)B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3) (1) and several elimination products [(Me(3)Si)(2)AlN(H)B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3)](2) (2), [(Me(3)SiAl)(4)(Me(3)SiN)(3)NH] (3), [Me(2)AlN(H) B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3)](2) (4), [Et(2)AlN(H) B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3)](2) (5), and [i-Bu(2)AlN(H) B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3)](2) (6) have been isolated. Compounds 1, 2, 4-6 have been spectroscopically characterized, and single crystal X-ray diffraction structure determinations have been completed for 1-4 and 6. The molecular chemistry provides insight into the reaction of Me(3)Al and 1,3,5-N-trimethyl-2,4,6-B-triaminoborazine that, upon pyrolysis, produces AlN/BN composite ceramic materials.

  9. N7-guanine adducts of the epoxy metabolites of 1,3-butadiene in mice lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, P; Peltonen, K

    2001-06-01

    Epoxy metabolites of 1,3-butadiene are electrophilic and can bind to nucleophilic sites in DNA forming DNA adducts. In this study, guanine N7 adducts of epoxy butene and guanine N7 adducts of epoxy butanediol were measured in lung tissues of mice inhalation exposed to various concentrations of 1,3-butadiene. 32P-postlabeling of DNA adducts were used to demonstrate that the DNA adducts derived from epoxybutene and epoxybutanediol were formed in a dose dependent manner. More than 98% of all adducts detected were formed from epoxybutanediol. Enantiomeric distribution of the adducts formed in vivo differs from that of in vitro experiments demonstrated before. In the case of epoxybutene most of the adducts were formed to the terminal carbon of the S-epoxybutene enantiomer. Most of the adducts derived from epoxybutanediol were formed from the 2S-3R enantiomer. The data demonstrates that enzymatic processes involved with activation and/or detoxification of the metabolites are enantiospecific and/or DNA repair machinery repairs the damage with stereochemical considerations. These are the crucial factors if interspecies differences in tumor sensitiveness is concerned.

  10. A possible upgrade of FLASH for harmonic lasing down to 1.3 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Schneidmiller, E A

    2012-01-01

    We propose the 3rd harmonic lasing in a new FLASH undulator as a way to produce intense, narrow-band, and stable SASE radiation down to 1.3 nm with the present accelerator energy of 1.25 GeV. To provide optimal conditions for harmonic lasing, we suggest to suppress the fundamental with the help of a special set of phase shifters. We rely on the standard technology of gap-tunable planar hybrid undulators, and choose the period of 2.3 cm and the minimum gap of 0.9 cm; total length of the undulator system is 34.5 m. With the help of numerical simulations we demonstrate that the 3rd harmonic lasing at 1.3 nm provides peak power at a gigawatt level and the narrow intrinsic bandwidth, 0.1% (FWHM). Pulse duration can be controlled in the range of a few tens of femtoseconds, and the peak brilliance reaches the value of 10^31 photons/(s mrad^2 mm^2 0.1%BW). With the given undulator design, a standard option of lasing at the fundamental wavelength to saturation is possible through the entire water window and at longer ...

  11. Ambident PCN heterocycles: N- and P-phosphanylation of lithium 1,3-benzazaphospholides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluri, Bhaskar R; Burck, Sebastian; Gudat, Dietrich; Niemeyer, Mark; Holloczki, Oldamur; Nyulaszi, Laszlo; Jones, Peter G; Heinicke, Joachim

    2009-11-16

    Synthetic and structural aspects of the phosphanylation of 1,3-benzazaphospholides 1(Li), ambident benzofused azaphosphacyclopentadienides, are presented. The unusual properties of phospholyl-1,3,2-diazaphospholes inspired us to study the coupling of 1(Li) with chlorodiazaphospholene 2, which led to the N-substituted product 3. Reaction of 1(Li) with chlorodiphenyl- and chlorodicyclohexylphosphane likewise gave N-phosphanylbenzazaphospholes 4 and 5, whereas with the more bulky di-tert-butyl- and di-1-adamantylchlorophosphanes, the diphosphanes 6 and 7 are obtained; in the case of 7 they are isolated as a dimeric LiCl(THF) adduct. Structural information was provided by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and solution NMR spectroscopy experiments. 2D exchange spectroscopy confirmed the existence of two rotamers of the aminophosphane 5 at room temperature; variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy studies of 6 revealed two dynamic processes, low-temperature inversion at ring phosphorus (DeltaH( not equal)=22 kJ mol(-1), DeltaS( not equal)=2 J K(-1) mol(-1)) and very low-temperature rotation of the tBu(2)P group. Quantum chemical studies give evidence that 2-unsubstituted benzazaphospholides prefer N-phosphanylation, even with bulky chlorophosphanes, and that substituents at the 2-position of the heterocycle are crucial for the occurrence of P-N rotamers and for switching to alternative P-substitution, beyond a threshold steric bulk, by both P- and 2-position substituents.

  12. Functional analysis of {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferase VI in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Qiya; Guo, Bin; Wang, Yingming; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Wenjun; Zhao, Shenan [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Qiao, Shouyi, E-mail: syqiao@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Yanhua, E-mail: yanhuawu@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human FUT6 is up-regulated in HCC tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of FUT6 promotes G0/G1-S transition and cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 confers a growth advantage in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 suppresses p21 expression through modulating PI3K/Akt signaling. -- Abstract: The {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferases (FUT) subfamily are key enzymes in cell surface antigen synthesis during various biological processes. A novel role of FUTs in tumorigenesis has been discovered recently, however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized FUT6, a member of {alpha}1,3/4-FUT subfamily, in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In HCC tissues, the expression levels of FUT6 and its catalytic product SLe{sup x} were significantly up-regulated. Overexpression of FUT6 in HCC cells enhanced S-phase cell population, promoted cell growth and colony formation ability. Moreover, subcutaneously injection of FUT6-overexpressing cells in nude mice promoted cell growth in vivo. In addition, elevating FUT6 expression markedly induced intracellular Akt phosphorylation, and suppressed the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor p21. Bath application of the PI3K inhibitor blocked FUT6-induced Akt phosphorylation, p21 suppression and cell proliferation. Our results suggest that FUT6 plays an important role in HCC growth by regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  13. Survey of IRAC-Selected Galaxy Cluster Candidates at z>1.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papovich, Casey; Brodwin, Mark; Lotz, Jennifer; Momcheva, Ivelina; Rudnick, Gregory; Tran, Kim Vy; Willmer, Christopher; McCarthy, Patrick; Khan, Sophia; Rieke, Marcia; Sivanandam, Suresh

    2008-08-01

    We request 2 nights with Magellan/IMACS to target candidate galaxy clusters at z>1.3 selected as overdensities of galaxies with red SPITZER/IRAC colors (mone - mtwo > -0.1 AB mag) from the 50 deg^2 SPITZER Wide Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) survey. This simple, highly efficient IRAC color selection identifies >90% of galaxies with z>1.3 and it is sensitive to red and blue galaxies nearly equally, avoiding possible biases associated with other high- redshift cluster searches. These cluster candidates show strong angular clustering consistent with expectations for the progenitors of present- day galaxy clusters, and therefore they represent real physical structures (and not projections of galaxies along the line of sight). Here, we propose a pilot program to measure the redshifts of >200 galaxies in 18 candidate galaxy clusters, which would double the known number of spectroscopically confirmed clusters at these redshifts. Our primary goal is to use the deep spectroscopy to confirm the candidate clusters in redshift space (requiring >5 galaxies per cluster) and to verify our cluster-selection algorithm, enabling further studies using the full 50 deg^2 SWIRE fields. We will also use these data to compare the properties of passively evolving versus star-forming galaxies in these clusters to those in the field, and to study estimators of cluster masses.

  14. BEBERAPA PILIHAN MAKANAN FORMULA LANJUTAN UNTUK ANAK USIA 1-3 TAHUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi R. Apriyantono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hasil penelitian terdahulu menunjukkan adanya khasiat makanan formula tempe (MFT dalam membantu penyembuhan diare kronik pada penderita gizi kurang dan gizi buruk, disamping dapat menaikkan berat badan, kadar hemoglobin dan status immunitas. Laporan pelaksanaan pemberian MFT pada anak KEP, diketahui bahwa setelah tercapai berat badan normal anak satu tahun maka percepatan kenaikannya melambat. Suatu makanan formula lanjutan yang sesuai untuk anak usia 1-3 tahun akan sangat membantu perkembangan berat badan selanjutnya, sehingga diharapkan tidak akan terjadi hambatan pertumbuhan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memformulasikan makanan campuran yang siap hidang yang memenuhi syarat makanan untuk anak usia 1-3 tahun dari segi gizi, cita rasa dan tampilan fisiknya. Dari hasil penghitungan dan formulasi diperoleh 7 formula yang sesuai dengan persyaratan Codex Alimentarius Commission. Setelah dianalisis kandungan zat gizi makro, kadar karotin, mutu organoleptik dan tampilan fisiknya, maka terpilih 3 formula terbaik yaitu campuran tempe + terigu + susu skim + pisang ambon; tempe + terigu + susu skim + pisang ambon + wortel dan tempe + tepung beras + susu skim + wortel. Dalam 100 g ketiga formula ini mengandung energi sebesar 423±13 kal, protein 18±1.2 g, lemak 11.1±2.7 g, karotin 1393±1140 ug, dengan nilai NDpKal sebesar 7.8±0.1. Untuk pengembangan selanjutnya akan dipikirkan kemungkinan penambahan sumber asam lemak n-3 dan bahan pemantap dari jenis gum, sehingga formula yang dihasilkan akan lebih mempunyai nilai tambah.

  15. Unidirectional growth and characterization of 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, V.; Dhatchayani, S.; Sarala, N.; Sankaranarayanan, K.

    2016-05-01

    1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene single crystals has been grown by both conventional slow evaporation and Unidirectional Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy method. Colourless, highly transparent crystal of size 20 mm × 10 mm × 3mm with well defined morphology was grown from slow evaporation solution method and -oriented unidirectional bulk single crystal of size 23 mm length and 23 mm diameter was grown by the SR method. From the PXRD measurement the material has been crystallized in orthorhombic crystal system. The functional groups were assessed by the use of FTIR analysis. The optical parameter of the grown crystal was obtained from UV-visible spectral analysis and the cutoff wavelength was observed at 247 nm. Mechanical and thermal properties of the grown crystals were carried out from Vicker's hardness test method and TG-DSC analysis respectively. From the TG-DSC studies, the melting points were confirmed at 172°C and no decompose or dissociation was observed. The powder Kurtz method confirms that 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene has second harmonic generation (SHG) and the SHG efficiency was found to be 0.7 times that of KDP.

  16. Synthesis and antitubercular evaluation of imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun M. Patel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a series of imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole derivatives 5(a–j were synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral technique. The compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain by using Alamar Blue susceptibility test as part of the TAACF TB screening program under direction of the US National Institutes of Health, the NIAID division. Among the tested compounds, 2-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl-6-(4-nitrophenylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole (5f has shown the highest (98% inhibitory activity with MIC of 3.14 μg/ml as compared to other tested compounds. Further, some potent compounds were also assessed for their cytotoxic activity against a mammalian Vero cell line using MTT assay. The results reveal that these compounds exhibit anti-tubercular activity at non-cytotoxic concentrations.

  17. Stereoselective Synthesis of Substituted 1,3,5,7,9-Decapentaenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xiaoping; WANG Xiaolong; WANG Feng; YANG Yuying; Liu Dong

    2001-01-01

    @@ Conjugated 1,3,5,7,9-decapentaene is an important structural unit in various of natural products such as phytoene, aurenin, vitamin At and A2[1]. It has been shown that conjugated polyenes are potentially useful compounds for non-linear optical materials. In the meantime the study of well-defined molecules has advanced into a strong field on its own right, because of the promising electronic and optical properties of these compounds[2]. It also attracts the interests of physical chemists as a calculation model[3] during the past decades. In the literature, there are only a few general strategies for the stereocontrolled construction of the decapentaene unit. This is mainly due to the instability and the facile (E)-(Z) isomerization of pentaene system. Synthetic methods for the construction of conjugated decapentaenes relied on the Wittig olefination[4], the Heck coupling reaction[5], the mixed crossed aldol condensation between conjugated esters and aldehydes[6], opening reaction of fulvalene complexes[7]. In our previous studies[8] on stereoseletive synthesis of polyene, we reported that conjugated trienes and enediynes could be prepared by our modified Ramberg-Backlund reaction from corresponding diallylic sulfones and dipropagylic sulfones. This synthetic method was applied to the synthesis of natural products containing a conjugated triene unit such as Galbanolenes. Reported here are our finding that bis-dienylic sulfones when submitted our Ramberg-Backlund conditions, provide decapentaenes in good yield. We use this synthetic method to synthesize 1,3,5,7,9-dec apentaene.

  18. THERMALLY STABLE POLYMERS CONTAINING 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE UNITS OBTAINED FROM HUISGEN REACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Mansoori; G.Barghian; B.Koohi-Zargar; Gh.Imanzadeh; M.Zamanloo

    2012-01-01

    Thermally stable polymers containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole units have been synthesized through Huisgen reaction of thc aromatic/aliphatic bis-tetrazole compounds with the aromatic/aliphatic bis-acid chlorides in pyridine as solvent.The obtained polymers are insoluble or slightly soluble even in polar aprotic solvents such as DMSO and DMF.Relatively high inherent viscosity values (0.61-1.33 dL/g,in 0.125% H2SO4 at 25℃) were observed for these compounds.Thermal analyses of the polymers using DSC and TGA techniques showed that the polymers have improved thermal stabilities.The glass transition temperature has not been observed in the fully aromatic polymers,but the polymers obtained from 5-[6-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)hexyl]-1H-tetrazole (Ⅳ) showed very clear Tg.A model reaction was also investigated and the resulting bis-1,3,4-oxadiazole compound was characterized by conventional spectroscopy methods.

  19. VLA observations of Jupiter at 1.3 - 20 cm wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depater, Imke

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the vertical distribution of ammonia as a function of Jovian latitude, high resolution images were obtained with the VLA at 1.3, 2, 6 and 20 cm wavelengths. Although the interpretation of the data is quite complicated due to Jupiter's synchrotron radiation, which in fact is the dominant source of radiation at 29 cm, the belt-zone structure is clearly present at 2 and 6 cm wavelengths. At 1.3 cm near the center of the ammonia band, the structure is less pronounced, and at 20 cm it is absent. The data is currently being fitted with model atmosphere calculations. Since one probes in and through the visible cloud layers at these wavelengths (temperatures of 135 to 400 K), and the opacity is likely all provided by ammonia gas, a detailed vertical distribution of this gas can be obtained as a function of Jovian latitude. This ought to give insight in the formation processes of the white cloud layers in the zones and their absence above the belts.

  20. The Galaxy Cluster Mid-Infrared Luminosity Function at 1.3

    CERN Document Server

    Wylezalek, Dominika; De Breuck, Carlos; Stern, Daniel; Brodwin, Mark; Galametz, Audrey; Gonzalez, Anthony H; Jarvis, Matt; Hatch, Nina; Seymour, Nick; Stanford, Spencer A

    2014-01-01

    We present 4.5 {\\mu}m luminosity functions for galaxies identified in 178 candidate galaxy clusters at 1.3 1.3. The luminosity functions are derived for different redshift and richness bins, and the IRAC imaging reaches depths of m*+2, allowing us to measure the faint end slopes of the luminosity functions. We find that {\\alpha} = -1 describes the luminosity function very well in all redshifts bins and does not evolve significantly. This provides evidence that the rate at which the low mass galaxy population grows through star formation, gets quenched and is replenished by in-falling field galaxies does not have a major net effect on the shape of the luminosity function. Our measurements for m* are consistent with passive evolution models and high formation redshifts z_f ~ 3. We find a slight trend towards fainter m* for the richest clusters, implying that the most massive clusters in our sample could contain older stellar populations, yet another example of cosmic downsizing. Modelling shows that a contribu...