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Sample records for 1-3 brain metastasis

  1. Whole brain radiotherapy with a conformational external beam radiation boost for lung cancer patients with 1-3 brain metastasis: a multi institutional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the outcome of patients with brain metastasis (BM) from lung cancer treated with an external beam radiotherapy boost (RTB) after whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). A total of 53 BM patients with lung cancer were treated sequentially with WBRT and RTB between 1996 and 2008 according to our institutional protocol. Mean age was 58.8 years. The median KPS was 90. Median recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) and graded prognostic assessment (GPA) grouping were 2 and 2.5, respectively. Surgery was performed on 38 (71%) patients. The median number of BM was 1 (range, 1-3). Median WBRT and RTB combined dose was 39 Gy (range, 37.5 - 54). Median follow-up was 12.0 months. During the period of follow-up, 37 (70%) patients died. The median overall survival (OS) was 14.5 months. Only 13 patients failed in the brain. The majority of patients (n = 29) failed distantly. The 1-year OS, -local control, extracranial failure rates were 61.2%, 75.2% and 60.8%, respectively. On univariate analysis, improved OS was found to be significantly associated with total dose (≤ 39 Gy vs. > 39 Gy; p < 0.01), age < 65 (p < 0.01), absence of extracranial metastasis (p < 0.01), GPA ≥ 2.5 (p = 0.01), KPS ≥ 90 (p = 0.01), and RPA < 2 (p = 0.04). On multivariate analysis, total dose (p < 0.01) and the absence of extracranial metastasis (p = 0.03) retained statistical significance. The majority of lung cancer patients treated with WBRT and RTB progressed extracranially. There might be a subgroup of younger patients with good performance status and no extracranial disease who may benefit from dose escalation after WBRT to the metastatic site

  2. Concurrent whole brain radiotherapy and bortezomib for brain metastasis

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    Survival of patients with brain metastasis particularly from historically more radio-resistant malignancies remains dismal. A phase I study of concurrent bortezomib and whole brain radiotherapy was conducted to determine the tolerance and safety of this approach in patients with previously untreated brain metastasis. A phase I dose escalation study evaluated the safety of bortezomib (0.9, 1.1, 1.3, 1.5, and 1.7 mg/m2) given on days 1, 4, 8 and 11 of whole brain radiotherapy. Patients with confirmed brain metastasis were recruited for participation. The primary endpoint was the dose-limiting toxicity, defined as any ≥ grade 3 non-hematologic toxicity or grade ≥ 4 hematologic toxicity from the start of treatment to one month post irradiation. Time-to-Event Continual Reassessment Method (TITE-CRM) was used to determine dose escalation. A companion study of brain diffusion tensor imaging MRI was conducted on a subset of patients to assess changes in the brain that might predict delayed cognitive effects. Twenty-four patients were recruited and completed the planned therapy. Patients with melanoma accounted for 83% of all participants. The bortezomib dose was escalated as planned to the highest dose of 1.7 mg/m2/dose. No grade 4/5 toxicities related to treatment were observed. Two patients had grade 3 dose-limiting toxicities (hyponatremia and encephalopathy). A partial or minor response was observed in 38% of patients. Bortezomib showed greater demyelination in hippocampus-associated white matter structures on MRI one month after radiotherapy compared to patients not treated with bortezomib (increase in radial diffusivity +16.8% versus 4.8%; p = 0.0023). Concurrent bortezomib and whole brain irradiation for brain metastasis is well tolerated at one month follow-up, but MRI changes that have been shown to predict delayed cognitive function can be detected within one month of treatment

  3. Ion Channels in Brain Metastasis.

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    Klumpp, Lukas; Sezgin, Efe C; Eckert, Franziska; Huber, Stephan M

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer, lung cancer and melanoma exhibit a high metastatic tropism to the brain. Development of brain metastases severely worsens the prognosis of cancer patients and constrains curative treatment options. Metastasizing to the brain by cancer cells can be dissected in consecutive processes including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, evasion from the primary tumor, intravasation and circulation in the blood, extravasation across the blood-brain barrier, formation of metastatic niches, and colonization in the brain. Ion channels have been demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed in tumor cells where they regulate neoplastic transformation, malignant progression or therapy resistance. Moreover, many ion channel modulators are FDA-approved drugs and in clinical use proposing ion channels as druggable targets for future anti-cancer therapy. The present review article aims to summarize the current knowledge on the function of ion channels in the different processes of brain metastasis. The data suggest that certain channel types involving voltage-gated sodium channels, ATP-release channels, ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors and gap junction-generating connexins interfere with distinct processes of brain metastazation. PMID:27618016

  4. Brain metastasis treated with Cyberknife

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-zhen; YUAN Zhi-yong; ZHANG Wen-cheng; YOU Jin-qiang; WANG Ping

    2009-01-01

    Background Cyberknife can greatly raise the fractional dose of stereotactic radiosurgery,thus improving its clinical efficacy.We retrospectively analyzed clinical outcomes of brain metastasis treated with Cyberknife.Methods We analyzed 40 cases of brain metastases treated with Cyberknife in the Tianjin Cancer Hospital from August 1,2006 to August 1,2007,for a total of 68 lesions with maximal diameter of 0.4-7.5 cm (average 1.88 cm).Total hypofractional radiated dosage was 18-36 Gy (5-25 Gy/F,1-5 F) by Cyberknife.We evaluated the remission rate of clinical symptoms,correlation factors to new loci,3-month local control rates,and 3-month and 1-year survival rates.All patients were followed up for more than 14 months.Results After 1 week,clinical remission was 90.0% (36/40).After 3 months,the local control rate and therapeutic effective rate were 77.9% (53/68) and 94.1% (64/68),respectively,as observed by cranium augmentation CT or MRI.The three-month,six-month and 1-year survival rates were 97.5% (39/40),82.5% (33/40) and 67.5% (27/40),respectively.Fourteen patients had neopathy outside the original lesion after 3 months.Neopathy was not correlated with age,whole-brain radiotherapy,number of original lesions,maximum diameter of the original lesion,therapeutic dose per fraction,therapeutic frequency or total therapeutic dose.Conclusions Cyberknife got perfect clinical outcomes by higher dosage per fraction.It is an appropriate and valid treatment shortcut for brain metastasis.

  5. Computational systems biology in cancer brain metastasis.

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    Peng, Huiming; Tan, Hua; Zhao, Weiling; Jin, Guangxu; Sharma, Sambad; Xing, Fei; Watabe, Kounosuke; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases occur in 20-40% of patients with advanced malignancies. A better understanding of the mechanism of this disease will help us to identify novel therapeutic strategies. In this review, we will discuss the systems biology approaches used in this area, including bioinformatics and mathematical modeling. Bioinformatics has been used for identifying the molecular mechanisms driving brain metastasis and mathematical modeling methods for analyzing dynamics of a system and predicting optimal therapeutic strategies. We will illustrate the strategies, procedures, and computational techniques used for studying systems biology in cancer brain metastases. We will give examples on how to use a systems biology approach to analyze a complex disease. Some of the approaches used to identify relevant networks, pathways, and possibly biomarkers in metastasis will be reviewed into details. Finally, certain challenges and possible future directions in this area will also be discussed.

  6. Brain metastasis: new opportunities to tackle therapeutic resistance.

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    Seoane, Joan; De Mattos-Arruda, Leticia

    2014-09-12

    Brain metastasis is a devastating complication of cancer with unmet therapeutic needs. The incidence of brain metastasis has been rising in cancer patients and its response to treatment is limited due to the singular characteristics of brain metastasis (i.e., blood-brain-barrier, immune system, stroma). Despite improvements in the treatment and control of extracranial disease, the outcomes of patients with brain metastasis remain dismal. The mechanisms that allow tumor cells to promulgate metastases to the brain remain poorly understood. Further work is required to identify the molecular alterations inherent to brain metastasis in order to identify novel therapeutic targets and explicate the mechanisms of resistance to systemic therapeutics. In this article, we review current knowledge of the unique characteristics of brain metastasis, implications in therapeutic resistance, and the possibility of developing biomarkers to rationally guide the use of targeted agents.

  7. Treatment of Brain Metastasis from Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain metastases are not only the most common intracranial neoplasm in adults but also very prevalent in patients with lung cancer. Patients have been grouped into different classes based on the presence of prognostic factors such as control of the primary tumor, functional performance status, age, and number of brain metastases. Patients with good prognosis may benefit from more aggressive treatment because of the potential for prolonged survival for some of them. In this review, we will comprehensively discuss the therapeutic options for treating brain metastases, which arise mostly from a lung cancer primary. In particular, we will focus on the patient selection for combined modality treatment of brain metastases, such as surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) combined with whole brain irradiation; the use of radiosensitizers; and the neurocognitive deficits after whole brain irradiation with or without SRS. The benefit of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and its potentially associated neuro-toxicity for both small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are also discussed, along with the combined treatment of intrathoracic primary disease and solitary brain metastasis. The roles of SRS to the surgical bed, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, WBRT with an integrated boost to the gross brain metastases, as well as combining WBRT with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, are explored as well

  8. Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma with brain metastasis

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    Xiao-ling YAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study clinicopathological features, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and prognosis of mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC.  Methods One case of MANEC with brain metastasis was reported focusing on the following aspects: clinical manifestations, histopathological features and immunophenotypes, and the relevant literatures were reviewed.  Results A 35-year-old male presented headache and vomiting, and his head CT scan showed a lesion located in the right temporal lobe. The tumor was detected after separating the cerebral cortex during the surgery. The tumor diameter was 3 cm. The tumor was soft and rubbery with ill-defined margins, and rich in blood supply. Under optical microscopy, the tumor was consisted of small round cells of the same size, with focal tumor cells arranged around blood vessels in a pseudorosette manner or papillary manner with brisk mitotic activity. The boundary between tumor and brain tissue was ill-defined. By using immunohistochemical staining, the tumor cells were diffusely positive for synaptophysin (Syn and CD56, and negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, pan cytokeratin (PCK, CD3, CD20, vimentin (Vim, leukocyte common antigen (LCA, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, S-100 protein (S-100, neurofilament (NF, nestin (Nes, CK5/6, CK8/18 and CD99. Ki-67 labeling index was about 62%. Sigmoidoscopy was performed later in another hospital and showed a mass in the patient's colon. The colon tumor was biphasic in appearance, and was consisted of two distinct components: isomorphic small round cells and low-middle differentiated adenocarcinoma cells. The small round tumor cells were diffusely positive for Syn and CD56, and negative for PCK. The adenocarcinoma cells showed opposite results.  Conclusions MANEC is a rare tumor, which is defined in 2010 by WHO Classification of Digestive, and to the best of our knowledge, MANEC of the colon with brain metastasis has never been described

  9. Incidence of brain metastasis in patients with esophageal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ron S Smith; Robert C Miller

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine the incidence of brain metastasis in a contemporary group of patients with carcinoma of the esophagus. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 53 patients with esophageal carcinoma who received radiotherapy as a component of treatment between 1998 and 2007, including patient and tumor characteristics, and subsequent diagnosis of brain metastasis. The association between the histological type of esophageal cancer and the incidence of brain metastasis was assessed using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Forty-four of the fifty-three patients in this study had adenocarcinoma and nine had squamous cell carcinoma, ranging from stage ⅡA-ⅣB. Primary treatment was surgery with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (trimodality therapy) in 19% of patients; chemoradiotherapy in 42%; and surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy in 7%. Twenty-five percent of patients in this study received palliative radiotherapy. The overall incidence of brain metastasis in this cohort was 13%. Adenocarcinoma was the primary tumor histology in all of the patients who developed brain metastasis, representing an incidence of 16% in this subgroup. No patients with squamous cell carcinoma received trimodality therapy. The association between histology and brain metastasis was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The incidence of brain metastasis in this contemporary cohort of patients with esophageal carcinoma is higher than previously reported and was confined to those with adenocarcinoma.

  10. Differential Reactions of Microglia to Brain Metastasis of Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    He, Bei Ping; Wang, Jian Jun; Zhang, Xian; Wu, Yan; Wang, Miao; Bay, Boon-Huat; Chang, Alex Yuang-Chi

    2006-01-01

    The brain is a common metastatic site for various types of cancers, especially lung cancer. Patients with brain metastases have a poor prognosis in spite of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. It is postulated that immune cells in the brain may play a major role in cancer metastasis, dormancy, and relapse. Although microglia may serve as a major component in the brain immune system, the interaction between metastatic cancer cells and microglia is still largely unknown and remains to be elucidat...

  11. The role of radiotherapy in patients with brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain metastases are the most frequent metastatic neurologic complication of systemic cancer. Even if the prognosis of brain metastases is grave, with available treatments, most patients experience effective palliation of neurologic symptoms and meaningful extension of life. We evaluated the clinical features and prognostic factors of the patients who were diagnosed as solid tumors with brain metastasis and received radiotherapy for brain metastases. Between January 1987 and January 1998, 71 patients with brain metastases from solid malignancy were included. We reviewed neurologic symptoms and signs of patients and evaluated improvement of neurologic symptoms and signs. Survival durations after brain metastasis were analysed according to several factors such as age, performance status, primary malignancies, the presence of brain metastasis at initial diagnosis of primary tumor, multiplicity of brain metastases, the presence of metastases other than brain, and treatment method. Frequent symptoms associated with brain metastasis were headache (47.9%), motor weakness (40.8%), nausea and vomiting (19.7%) and mental change (19.7%). Palliation of these symptoms was accomplished in 64.9% of cases. The overall median survival time was 16 weeks and 1- and 2-year survival rates were 15.0% and 5.1 % respectively. Patients without extra cranial metastases (n==27) had longer median survival than patients with extracranial metastases (33 weeks vs 10 weeks, P=(WJ18). In patients with single brain metastasis (n=37), the median survival time was longer in patients treated with surgery plus radiotherapy than in patients treated with radiotherapy alone (40 weeks vs 16 weeks, p=O.0438L Patients who has. brain metastases only constitute a prognostically favorable group and they may be benefited from radiotherapy and surgery if indicated

  12. Non-coding RNAs in cancer brain metastasis.

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    Wu, Kerui; Sharma, Sambad; Venkat, Suresh; Liu, Keqin; Zhou, Xiaobo; Watabe, Kounosuke

    2016-01-01

    More than 90% of cancer death is attributed to metastatic disease, and the brain is one of the major metastatic sites of melanoma, colon, renal, lung and breast cancers. Despite the recent advancement of targeted therapy for cancer, the incidence of brain metastasis is increasing. One reason is that most therapeutic drugs can't penetrate blood-brain-barrier and tumor cells find the brain as sanctuary site. In this review, we describe the pathophysiology of brain metastases to introduce the latest understandings of metastatic brain malignancies. This review also particularly focuses on non-coding RNAs and their roles in cancer brain metastasis. Furthermore, we discuss the roles of the extracellular vesicles as they are known to transport information between cells to initiate cancer cell-microenvironment communication. The potential clinical translation of non-coding RNAs as a tool for diagnosis and for treatment is also discussed in this review. At the end, the computational aspects of non-coding RNA detection, the sequence and structure calculation and epigenetic regulation of non-coding RNA in brain metastasis are discussed. PMID:26709907

  13. BRAIN METASTASIS FROM HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA: A RARE CASE

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    A. Kh. Bekyashev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma ranks 5th in prevalence and 3rd in cancer mortality worldwide. The prognosis of this disease is very poor: the 5-year survival rate was not more than 3–5%. Metastases generally occur in the lung, in the lymph nodes of the abdomen, chest, and neck, in the vertebrae, kidneys, and adrenals. The cases of brain metastasis from hepatocellular cancer are very rare. Overall, the prognosis is very poor for patients with brain metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma. Nevertheless, solitary brain metastases and good hepatic function are favorable survival criteria; thus, the treatment of this group of patients may lead to their better survival. The paper describes a clinical case of brain metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient receiving the combination treatment involving neurosurgical treatment and targeted therapy. 

  14. The vascular basement membrane as "soil" in brain metastasis.

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    W Shawn Carbonell

    Full Text Available Brain-specific homing and direct interactions with the neural substance are prominent hypotheses for brain metastasis formation and a modern manifestation of Paget's "seed and soil" concept. However, there is little direct evidence for this "neurotropic" growth in vivo. In contrast, many experimental studies have anecdotally noted the propensity of metastatic cells to grow along the exterior of pre-existing vessels of the CNS, a process termed vascular cooption. These observations suggest the "soil" for malignant cells in the CNS may well be vascular, rather than neuronal. We used in vivo experimental models of brain metastasis and analysis of human clinical specimens to test this hypothesis. Indeed, over 95% of early micrometastases examined demonstrated vascular cooption with little evidence for isolated neurotropic growth. This vessel interaction was adhesive in nature implicating the vascular basement membrane (VBM as the active substrate for tumor cell growth in the brain. Accordingly, VBM promoted adhesion and invasion of malignant cells and was sufficient for tumor growth prior to any evidence of angiogenesis. Blockade or loss of the beta1 integrin subunit in tumor cells prevented adhesion to VBM and attenuated metastasis establishment and growth in vivo. Our data establishes a new understanding of CNS metastasis formation and identifies the neurovasculature as the critical partner for such growth. Further, we have elucidated the mechanism of vascular cooption for the first time. These findings may help inform the design of effective molecular therapies for patients with fatal CNS malignancies.

  15. Melanoma Brain Metastasis: Mechanisms, Models, and Medicine.

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    Kircher, David A; Silvis, Mark R; Cho, Joseph H; Holmen, Sheri L

    2016-01-01

    The development of brain metastases in patients with advanced stage melanoma is common, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for their development are poorly understood. Melanoma brain metastases cause significant morbidity and mortality and confer a poor prognosis; traditional therapies including whole brain radiation, stereotactic radiotherapy, or chemotherapy yield only modest increases in overall survival (OS) for these patients. While recently approved therapies have significantly improved OS in melanoma patients, only a small number of studies have investigated their efficacy in patients with brain metastases. Preliminary data suggest that some responses have been observed in intracranial lesions, which has sparked new clinical trials designed to evaluate the efficacy in melanoma patients with brain metastases. Simultaneously, recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of melanoma cell dissemination to the brain have revealed novel and potentially therapeutic targets. In this review, we provide an overview of newly discovered mechanisms of melanoma spread to the brain, discuss preclinical models that are being used to further our understanding of this deadly disease and provide an update of the current clinical trials for melanoma patients with brain metastases. PMID:27598148

  16. Brain metastasis detection by resonant Raman optical biopsy method

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    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; Cheng, Gangge; Zhou, Lixin; Zhang, Chunyuan; Pu, Yang; Li, Zhongwu; Liu, Yulong; Li, Qingbo; Wang, Wei; Alfano, Robert R.

    2014-03-01

    Resonant Raman (RR) spectroscopy provides an effective way to enhance Raman signal from particular bonds associated with key molecules due to changes on a molecular level. In this study, RR is used for detection of human brain metastases of five kinds of primary organs of lung, breast, kidney, rectal and orbital in ex-vivo. The RR spectra of brain metastases cancerous tissues were measured and compared with those of normal brain tissues and the corresponding primary cancer tissues. The differences of five types of brain metastases tissues in key bio-components of carotene, tryptophan, lactate, alanine and methyl/methylene group were investigated. The SVM-KNN classifier was used to categorize a set of RR spectra data of brain metastasis of lung cancerous tissues from normal brain tissue, yielding diagnostic sensitivity and specificity at 100% and 75%, respectively. The RR spectroscopy may provide new moleculebased optical probe tools for diagnosis and classification of brain metastatic of cancers.

  17. A rare metastasis from a rare brain tumour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Kristine; Hahn, Christoffer Holst

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents the story of a patient with an oligodendroglioma metastasizing to the bone marrow and to lymph nodes of the neck. The patient had undergone primary brain surgery 13 years prior to the discovery of metastases and radiotherapy directed at the brain tumour two months prior........ Oligodendroglioma are rare primary brain tumours of which extraneural metastasis is even more rare. The incidence of cases like this may be increasing because of better treatment and thus longer survival of patients with oligodendroglioma....

  18. Brain metastasis from breastcancer. Effect of radiotherapy

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    Kaasa, S.; Melsom, H.; Lund, E.

    1988-04-01

    Cerebral metastases often lead to considerable morbidity with development of neurological symptoms. The expected survival is short and treatment should be considered as symptomatic. A retrospective analysis of 39 patients with breastcancer and brain metastases was undertaken. The patients were treated with total cranial irradiation. The median survival was 5.3 months. In five patients the tumor was resected before radiotheraphy. This group of patients had a median survival of 13.5 months. Selected groups of patients with long relapse-free interval solitary brain metastases and no other systemic disease, should be considered for neurosurgery. Dexamethasone may be effective as initial treatment. Patients with relatively long expected survival, assessed from the extracranial disease, should be considered for cranial irradiation.

  19. Brain metastasis in two patients with stage IA papillary serous carcinoma of the uterus

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    Narasimhulu, Deepa M.; Neekianund Khulpateea; Keith Meritz; Yiquing Xu

    2015-01-01

    We report two cases of brain metastasis in patients initially diagnosed with extremely early stage UPSC after extensive staging surgery. They did not receive either adjuvant chemotherapy or adjuvant pelvic or vaginal cuff radiation. At the same time that these patients were diagnosed with systemic metastasis, they both had a local “drop” metastasis in the vulva or the vaginal cuff. After the initial response to palliative chemotherapy, they both developed brain metastasis. The pattern of recu...

  20. The impact of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery on the management of brain metastasis with maintaining brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the utility of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (RSRS), assisted with a careful monitoring by MRI, in the management of brain metastases. Thirty-seven patients harboring brain metastasis received RSRS. RSRS at the same site was performed in 14. The cumulative 5-year survival rate was 29% and the median survival time was 32 months. Cause of death was as follows: 14 uncontrolled extracranial disease and 2 progressed brain metastases. There were no severe adverse events. For 16 patients, neurocognitive function was examined and the most recent results revealed that 88% was not associated with impaired neurocognition. RSRS appears a preferred option to manage brain metastases with maintaining brain function. (author)

  1. Brain metastasis from uterine serous carcinoma: A case report and review of literature

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    Tania Sierra; Long Nguyen; Justin Mascitelli; Tamara Kalir; David Fishman

    2015-01-01

    Highlights • Brain metastasis from UPSC is rare, with 9 cases in the literature. • UPSC may resemble other endometrial cancers in regard to brain metastatic behavior. • When appropriate, it seems that multimodal therapy offers the best outcomes.

  2. Experience on breast cancer with brain metastasis in Kanagawa Cancer Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the relationship between clinicopathologic findings and effect of adjuvant therapy on brain metastasis in breast cancer in order to clarify risk factors for brain metastasis in breast cancer patients. We divided patients into a group treated up until December 1999 (Group 1) and a group treated after January 2000 (Group 2), in whom adjuvant therapy was not generalized. Estrogen receptor-negative patients and cases more advanced than T2 showed a high risk of brain metastasis. The time interval to brain metastasis in Group 1 and 2 were 25 and 49.6 months, respectively, showing a significant difference. Taxan derivatives were used in 1.6% of Group 1 and 76% of Group 2. Estrogen receptor negativity, cancer more advanced than T2, and adjuvant therapy are risk factors for brain metastasis. (author)

  3. Gamma knife surgery for brain metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma.

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    Qingsheng Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The authors evaluated the results of Gamma knife surgery (GKS for the treatment of metastatic brain tumors from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. METHODS AND RESULTS: The authors conducted a retrospective review of the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in 14 patients with metastatic brain tumors from HCC who underwent GKS. Twelve (85.7% patients were male. The mean age of the patients was 53±12 years. There were totally 22 brain metastases in 14 patients and 8 patients (57.1% presented with a single brain lesion. Intracranial hemorrhages occurred in 13 (59.1% of the 22 lesions. The mean KPS score was 81±14 (range 50-100. Eleven (78.6% patients were classified as RTOG RPA Class 2. The mean tumor volume was 8.16±8.15 cm(3 (range 0.59-27.0 cm(3. The mean marginal dose prescribed was 18.7±3.2 Gy (range 10.0-22.0 Gy. The mean number of shots administered was 10±9 (range 1-27. The median overall survival time after GKS was 5.0±0.93 months (95% CI 3.2-6.8. No complications related to the radiosurgical treatment were identified. Multivariate analysis showed that the total volume of brain metastases, the RTOG RPA class and serum AFP level were significantly correlated with patients' survival time. CONCLUSIONS: Although survival was extremely poor in patients with brain metastasis (BM from HCC, GKS was shown to lead to prolongation of the survival time. Accordingly, GKS can be considered as a valuable treatment option for proper patients with HCC BM.

  4. Brain metastasis in two patients with stage IA papillary serous carcinoma of the uterus.

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    Narasimhulu, Deepa M; Khulpateea, Neekianund; Meritz, Keith; Xu, Yiquing

    2015-08-01

    We report two cases of brain metastasis in patients initially diagnosed with extremely early stage UPSC after extensive staging surgery. They did not receive either adjuvant chemotherapy or adjuvant pelvic or vaginal cuff radiation. At the same time that these patients were diagnosed with systemic metastasis, they both had a local "drop" metastasis in the vulva or the vaginal cuff. After the initial response to palliative chemotherapy, they both developed brain metastasis. The pattern of recurrence with the lack of adjuvant treatment underscores the urgent need in further evaluation of the potential benefits of adjuvant treatment, including chemotherapy and possibly in combination with radiation in this highly aggressive disease. PMID:26425708

  5. Whole brain radiation therapy in management of brain metastasis: results and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the prognostic factors associated with overall survival in patients with brain metastasis treated with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and estimate the potential improvement in survival for patients with brain metastases, stratified by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class. From January 1996 to December 2000, 270 medical records of patients with diagnosis of brain metastasis, who received WBRT in the Hospital do Cancer Sao Paulo A.C. Camargo in the period, were analyzed. The surgery followed by WBRT was used in 15% of patients and 85 % of others patients were submitted at WBRT alone; in this cohort 134 patients (50%) received the fractionation schedule of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. The most common primary tumor type was breast (33%) followed by lung (29%), and solitary brain metastasis was present in 38.1% of patients. The prognostic factors evaluated for overall survival were: gender, age, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), number of lesions, localization of lesions, primary tumor site, surgery, chemotherapy, absence extracranial disease, RPA class and radiation doses and fractionation. The OS in 1, 2 and 3 years was 25, 1%, 10, 4% e 4, 3% respectively, and the median survival time was 4.6 months. The median survival time in months according to RPA class after WBRT was: 6.2 class I, 4.2 class II and 3.0 class III (p < 0.0001). In univariate analysis, the significant prognostic factors associated with better survival were: KPS higher than 70 (p < 0.0001), neurosurgery (p < 0.0001) and solitary brain metastasis (p = 0.009). In multivariate analysis, KPS higher than 70 (p < 0.001) and neurosurgery (p = 0.001) maintained positively associated with the survival. In this series, the patients with higher perform status, RPA class I, and treated with surgery followed by whole brain radiotherapy had better survival. This data suggest that patients with cancer and a single metastasis to the brain may be treated

  6. Diagnostic study with CT and MR on the metastasis of malignant brain tumors

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    Miyagami, Mitsusuke; Kasahara, Eishi; Tazoe, Makoto; Tsubokawa, Takashi (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-08-01

    Forty cases of malignant brain tumors with metastasis which involved 14 malignant gliomas, 15 medulloblastomas and 11 germ cell tumors were studied on CT and MRI. In malignant glioma, transventricular metastasis was seen most frequently, estimating 8 cases (57%) of 14 malignant gliomas with metastasis and showing ependymal-subependymal enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT (CECT). Most of the medulloblastoma with metastasis demonstrated diffuse subarachnoid seeding in the craniospinal space and on image analysis diffuse sulcal-cisternal enhancement was characterized. Trans-ventricular metastasis in medulloblastoma was less than in malignant glioma showing 3 cases (20%) of 15 medulloblastomas, which in most cases showed a nodular tumor in the ventricular wall by metastasis. There were six patients who, on the first admission, were found to have germ cell tumors of the broad infiltrating type with multiple lesions. The tumor sites of metastasis were different from those with malignant gliomas, being frequently localized in the pineal and/or the suprasellar region, on the ventricular wall and in the basal ganglia. Metastasis to a remote area in germ cell tumors was to spinal cords, to the ventricular wall and basal cistern around the brain stem by CSF dissemination, to the lung by hematogenous metastasis and to the peritoneal wall or organs through V-P shunt tube. T{sub 1}-weighted Gd-DTPA MRI was more useful and sensitive than CECT for diagnosis of the leptomeningeal metastasis, particularly for sulcal-cisternal and spinal metastasis. It will be used more often as the first choice for diagnosis of intrathecal metastasis in the future. (author).

  7. Brain metastasis from uterine serous carcinoma: A case report and review of literature.

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    Sierra, Tania; Nguyen, Long; Mascitelli, Justin; Kalir, Tamara; Fishman, David

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastasis from UPSC is rare, with 9 cases in the literature.•UPSC may resemble other endometrial cancers in regard to brain metastatic behavior.•When appropriate, it seems that multimodal therapy offers the best outcomes. PMID:26076093

  8. Brain metastasis as initial presentation of papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung: case report

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    Bispo, Irving Gabriel Araujo; Nascimento, Diego Teixeira; Ferreira, Karina Oliveira; Fakhouri, Ricardo; Godinho, Atilano Salvador; Ferrao, Thiago de Oliveira, E-mail: irvingbispo@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (HU-UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Hospital Universitario

    2013-09-15

    The authors describe the case of a 33-year-old patient with history of seizures alone without any previous symptom, being diagnosed with brain metastases from primary papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung. Emphasis is given to the diagnostic investigation for brain metastasis and prognostic evaluation of papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung, and a brief literature review on such diseases is performed. (author)

  9. The metastatic microenvironment: Claudin-1 suppresses the malignant phenotype of melanoma brain metastasis.

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    Izraely, Sivan; Sagi-Assif, Orit; Klein, Anat; Meshel, Tsipi; Ben-Menachem, Shlomit; Zaritsky, Assaf; Ehrlich, Marcelo; Prieto, Victor G; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Pirker, Christine; Berger, Walter; Nahmias, Clara; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Hoon, Dave S B; Witz, Isaac P

    2015-03-15

    Brain metastases occur frequently in melanoma patients with advanced disease whereby the prognosis is dismal. The underlying mechanisms of melanoma brain metastasis development are not well understood. Identification of molecular determinants regulating melanoma brain metastasis would advance the development of prevention and therapy strategies for this disease. Gene expression profiles of cutaneous and brain-metastasizing melanoma variants from three xenograft tumor models established in our laboratory revealed that expression of tight junction component CLDN1 was lower in the brain-metastasizing variants than in cutaneous variants from the same melanoma. The objective of our study was to determine the significance of CLDN1 downregulation/loss in metastatic melanoma and its role in melanoma brain metastasis. An immunohistochemical analysis of human cells of the melanocyte lineage indicated a significant CLDN1 downregulation in metastatic melanomas. Transduction of melanoma brain metastatic cells expressing low levels of CLDN1 with a CLDN1 retrovirus suppressed their metastatic phenotype. CLDN1-overexpressing melanoma cells expressed a lower ability to migrate and adhere to extracellular matrix, reduced tumor aggressiveness in nude mice and, most importantly, eliminated the formation of micrometastases in the brain. In sharp contrast, the ability of the CLDN1-overexpressing cells to form lung micrometastases was not impaired. CLDN1-mediated interactions between these cells and brain endothelial cells constitute the mechanism underlying these results. Taken together, we demonstrated that downregulation or loss of CLDN1 supports the formation of melanoma brain metastasis, and that CLDN1 expression could be a useful prognostic predictor for melanoma patients with a high risk of brain metastasis. PMID:25046141

  10. Brain metastasis in two patients with stage IA papillary serous carcinoma of the uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa M. Narasimhulu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of brain metastasis in patients initially diagnosed with extremely early stage UPSC after extensive staging surgery. They did not receive either adjuvant chemotherapy or adjuvant pelvic or vaginal cuff radiation. At the same time that these patients were diagnosed with systemic metastasis, they both had a local “drop” metastasis in the vulva or the vaginal cuff. After the initial response to palliative chemotherapy, they both developed brain metastasis. The pattern of recurrence with the lack of adjuvant treatment underscores the urgent need in further evaluation of the potential benefits of adjuvant treatment, including chemotherapy and possibly in combination with radiation in this highly aggressive disease.

  11. Selective permeabilization of the blood-brain barrier at sites of metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sibson, NR; Vallis, KA; Hamilton, A.; Seymour, L.; Anthony, DC; Connell, JJ; Chatain, G

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effective chemotherapeutics for primary systemic tumors have limited access to brain metastases because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to develop a strategy for specifically permeabilizing the BBB at sites of cerebral metastases. METHODS: BALB/c mice were injected intracardially to induce brain metastases. After metastasis induction, either tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or lymphotoxin (LT) was administered intravenously, and 2 to 24 hours later gadoliniu...

  12. Brain metastasis from differentiated thyroid cancer in patients treated with radioiodine for bone and lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) often is detected during treatment of other remote lesions. We examined the prevalence, risk factors and treatment outcome of this disease encountered during nuclear medicine practice. Of the 167 patients with metastasis to lung or bone treated 1-14 times with radioactive iodine (RAI), 9 (5.4%) also had lesions in the brain. Five were males and 4 females, aged 49-84, out of the original population of 49 males and 118 females aged 10-84 (mean 54.7) years. Three of them underwent removal of their brain tumors, 5 received conventional external beam irradiation, and 2 had stereotactic radiosurgery with supervoltage X-ray. None of the brain lesions showed significant uptake of RAI despite demonstrable accumulation in most extracerebral lesions. Seven patients died 4-23 (mean 9.4) months after the discovery of cerebral metastasis, brain damage being the primary or at least a contributing cause. The 8th and 9th patients remained relatively well for more than 42 and 3 months, respectively, without any evidence of intracranial recurrence. Our results confirmed that the brain is a major site of secondary metastasis from DTC. No statistically significant demographic risk factor was detected. Any suspicious neurological symptoms in the course of RAI treatment warrant cerebral computed tomography. As for therapy, from out initial experience, radiosurgery seemed promising as an effective and less invasive alternative to surgical removal. (author)

  13. Serum S100B, lactate dehydrogenase and brain metastasis are prognostic factors in patients with distant melanoma metastasis and systemic therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weide

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prognostic factors of melanoma with distant metastasis and systemic treatment are only poorly established. This study aimed to analyse the impact of S100B, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and the type of treatment on survival in advanced patients receiving systemic treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analysed overall survival of 499 patients from the university department of dermatology in Tuebingen, Germany, with unresectable melanoma at the time point of initiation of first-line systemic therapy. Only patients who started treatment between the years 2000 and 2010 were included. Disease-specific survival was calculated by bivariate Kaplan Meier survival probabilities and multivariate Cox hazard regression analysis. RESULTS: In univariate analysis LDH, S100B, the site of distant metastasis (soft tissue vs. lung vs. other visceral, the presence of brain metastases and the type of treatment (monochemotherapy, polychemotherapy, immunotherapy or biochemotherapy were associated with overall survival (all p<0.001. In multivariate analysis LDH (Hazard ratio [HR] 1.6 [1.3-2.1]; p<0.001, S100B (HR 1.6 [1.2-2.1]; p<0.001 and the presence of brain metastases (HR 1.5 [1.1-1.9]; p = 0.009, but not the type of treatment had significant independent impact. Among those factors normal S100B was the best indicator of long-term survival, which was 12.3% after 5 years for this subgroup. CONCLUSION: Serum S100B is a prognostic marker predicting survival at the time of initiation of first-line treatment in unresectable melanoma patients. Compared to the other independent factors LDH and the presence of brain metastases it is most appropriate to predict long-term survival and requires further prospective investigation in patients treated with new and more potent drugs in metastatic melanoma.

  14. [Targeted Therapy and Immunotherapy for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer 
with Brain Metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qi; Jiao, Shunchang; Li, Fang

    2016-08-20

    Brain metastasis, a common complication of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with an incidence rate of 30%-50%, significantly affects the patients' quality of life. The prognosis of patients of NSCLC with brain metastasis is extremely poor, the average median survival is only 1 m-2 m without treatment. The targeted therapy based on lung cancer driven gene is a new treatment. Besides, the immunotherapy which can enhance the effect of anti-cancer by simulating the immune system is a new approach. The combination of targeted therapy and immunotherapy can greatly benefit patients in clinical work. PMID:27561803

  15. Short-time focused ultrasound hyperthermia enhances liposomal doxorubicin delivery and antitumor efficacy for brain metastasis of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu SK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sheng-Kai Wu,1 Chi-Feng Chiang,1 Yu-Hone Hsu,1,4 Tzu-Hung Lin,2 Houng-Chi Liou,2 Wen-Mei Fu,2 Win-Li Lin1,3 1Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and College of Engineering, 2Institute of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan; 4Department of Neurosurgery, Cheng-Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: The blood–brain/tumor barrier inhibits the uptake and accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs. Hyperthermia can enhance the delivery of chemotherapeutic agent into tumors. In this study, we investigated the effects of short-time focused ultrasound (FUS hyperthermia on the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD for brain metastasis of breast cancer. Murine breast cancer 4T1-luc2 cells expressing firefly luciferase were injected into female BALB/c mice striatum tissues and used as a brain metastasis model. The mice were intravenously injected with PLD (5 mg/kg with/without 10-minute transcranial FUS hyperthermia on day 6 after tumor implantation. The amounts of doxorubicin accumulated in the normal brain tissues and tumor tissues with/without FUS hyperthermia were measured using fluorometry. The tumor growth for the control, hyperthermia, PLD, and PLD + hyperthermia groups was measured using an IVIS spectrum system every other day from day 3 to day 11. Cell apoptosis and tumor characteristics were assessed using immunohistochemistry. Short-time FUS hyperthermia was able to significantly enhance the PLD delivery into brain tumors. The tumor growth was effectively inhibited by a single treatment of PLD + hyperthermia compared with both PLD alone and short-time FUS hyperthermia alone. Immunohistochemical examination further demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of PLD plus short-time FUS hyperthermia for brain metastasis of breast cancer. The

  16. Management of brain metastasis in a patient with advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma by gamma-knife radiosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaou Marinos; Stamenković Srđan; Stergiou Christos; Skarleas Christos; Torrens Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Brain metastases from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are rare events. We present a rare case of single ovarian cancer metastasis to the brain treated with gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Case Outline. A 65-year-old woman with advanced EOC presented with severe neurologic symptoms. A single brain metastasis of 3.2 cm with surrounding edema in the left parietal lobe was detected by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan during the work-up...

  17. Brain metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma: the role of surgery as a prognostic factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of brain metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is expected to increase as a result of prolonged survival due to the recent advances in HCC treatment. However, there is no definite treatment strategy for brain metastasis from HCC mainly due to its rarity and dismal prognosis. To provide helpful recommendations in treatment of brain metastasis from HCC, the authors aimed to identify prognostic factors that influence survival rates with a review of the recently published data. Thirty-three cases of brain metastasis, whose incidence was 0.65%, were selected from a total of 5015 HCC patients and reviewed retrospectively in terms of clinical and radiological features. Median overall survival time after diagnosis of brain metastasis was 10.4 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.1-15.7 weeks) with 1-, 6- and 12-month survival rates, of 79%, 24% and 6%, respectively. Median survival of the patients treated with surgical resection or surgical resection followed by whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) (25.3 weeks; range, 15.8-34.8 weeks) was longer than that of the patients treated with gamma knife surgery (GKS), WBRT, or GKS followed by WBRT (10.4 weeks; range, 7.5-13.3 weeks) as well as that of patients treated with only steroids (1 week; range, 0.0-3.3 weeks) (p < 0.001). Child-Pugh’s classification A group had a longer median survival time than Child-Pugh’s classification B or C group (14.4 weeks vs 8.4 weeks, p = 0.038). RPA class I & II group had also a longer median survival time than RPA class III group did (13.4 weeks vs 2.4 weeks, p = 0.001). Surgical resection (hazard ratio [HR] 0.23, 95% CI 0.08-0.66, p = 0.006) and good liver function at the time of brain metastasis (HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09-0.69, p = 0.007) were found to be the powerful prognostic factors for favorable survival in the multivariate analysis. In addition, presence of intratumoral hemorrhage was a statistically significant prognostic factor for survival. Although HCC

  18. Treatment for brain metastasis from lung cancer in the era of radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Iwai, Yoshiyasu; Nakajima, Hideki [Osaka City General Hospital (Japan)] (and others)

    2001-07-01

    The treatment for brain metastasis has undergone remarkable changes since the development of radiosurgery. We investigated the results of treatment for brain metastasis from lung cancer since the initiation of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) and we discuss the usefulness of GKRS combined with other treatments in cases with recurrence. We treated 142 patients with brain metastasis from lung cancer. Sixteen patients were treated surgically, 11 patients were treated with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), and 115 patients were treated with GKRS. Our treatment plan is to use GKRS in cases with less than 5 lesions and lesions less than 3 cm in mean diameter. We use WBRT in cases with 5 or more lesions, and surgery in cases with lesions 3 cm or larger. If new lesions or tumor regrowth appeared after the initial treatment, we retreated them with one of the methods mentioned above. Twice or three-time treatments were performed in 30 patients. Median survival including all cases was 10 months and the number of deaths due to local treatment failure was only 5 (6.5%) out of the total 77 deaths which occurred. We were able to carry out less invasive treatment for brain metastasis from lung cancer by utilizing GKRS. Though we have to consider the indications for other treatments, we can say that radiosurgery is usually the treatment of first choice for brain metastasis from lung caner. When new lesions appear in cases where a particular initial treatment was used, it is possible to maintain or improve the quality of life by retreatment, using a combination of GKRS, surgery or WBRT, to prolong the patient's life. (author)

  19. MicroRNA and protein profiling of brain metastasis competent cell-derived exosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Camacho

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small membrane vesicles released by most cell types including tumor cells. The intercellular exchange of proteins and genetic material via exosomes is a potentially effective approach for cell-to-cell communication and it may perform multiple functions aiding to tumor survival and metastasis. We investigated microRNA and protein profiles of brain metastatic (BM versus non-brain metastatic (non-BM cell-derived exosomes. We studied the cargo of exosomes isolated from brain-tropic 70W, MDA-MB-231BR, and circulating tumor cell brain metastasis-selected markers (CTC1BMSM variants, and compared them with parental non-BM MeWo, MDA-MB-231P and CTC1P cells, respectively. By performing microRNA PCR array we identified one up-regulated (miR-210 and two down-regulated miRNAs (miR-19a and miR-29c in BM versus non-BM exosomes. Second, we analyzed the proteomic content of cells and exosomes isolated from these six cell lines, and detected high expression of proteins implicated in cell communication, cell cycle, and in key cancer invasion and metastasis pathways. Third, we show that BM cell-derived exosomes can be internalized by non-BM cells and that they effectively transport their cargo into cells, resulting in increased cell adhesive and invasive potencies. These results provide a strong rationale for additional investigations of exosomal proteins and miRNAs towards more profound understandings of exosome roles in brain metastasis biogenesis, and for the discovery and application of non-invasive biomarkers for new therapies combating brain metastasis.

  20. Brain metastasis. Prognostic value of the number of involved extracranial organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the prognostic role for survival of the number and the type of involved extracranial organs in patients with brain metastasis. Material and methods: The data of 1146 patients who received whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) alone for brain metastasis have been retrospectively analyzed. In addition to the number of involved extra cranial organs, seven potential prognostic factors were investigated including WBRT regimen, age, gender, Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS), primary tumor type, number of brain metastases, and the interval from cancer diagnosis to WBRT. Additionally, subgroup analyses were performed for patients with involvement of one (lung vs. bone vs. liver vs. other metastasis) and two (lung + lymph nodes vs. lung + bone vs. lung + liver vs. liver + bone vs. other combinations) extracranial organs. Results: The 6-month survival rates for the involvement of 0, 1, 2, 3, and ≥ 4 extracranial organs were 51, 30, 16, 13, and 10 %, respectively (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of involved extracranial organs maintained significance (risk ratio 1.26; 95 % confidence interval 1.18-1.34; p < 0.001). According to the multivariate analysis, age (p < 0.001), gender (p = 0.002), and KPS (p < 0.001) were also independent prognostic factors for survival. In the subgroup analyses of patients with involvement of one and two extracranial organs, survival was not significantly different based on the extracranial organ involved. Conclusion: The number of involved extracranial organs proved to be an independent prognostic factor in patients with brain metastasis, regardless of the organs involved. The number of involved extracranial organs should be considered in future trials designed for patients with brain metastasis. (orig.)

  1. A case of leukoencephalopathy caused by radiation and chemotherapy for brain metastasis of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Shigeru; Sonoo, Hiroshi; Nomura, Tsunehisa; Ohkubo, Sumiko; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Kurebayashi, Junichi; Hiratsuka, Junichi [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    A case of treatment-related leukoencephalopathy is presented. A patient with breast cancer metastasis to the brain, liver, bone and distant lymph nodes was treated with whole brain radiation and docetaxcel. Eleven months after radiation, magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse leukoencephalopathy. Twenty-two months after radiation, the patient had gait disturbance, parkinsonism, dementia and urinary incontinence. From this experience, stereotactic radiosurgery such as cyber knife and gamma knife therapy, representing a new modality for delivering intense focal radiation, should be come preferred techniques for treating patients with brain metastases, to avoid the potential cognitive side effects of fractionated whole-brain radiotherapy. (author)

  2. Gamma Knife Surgery for Brain Metastasis from Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Qingsheng Xu; Pan Wu; Yiping Feng; Ke Ye; Ying Tong; Yongqing Zhou

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The authors evaluated the results of Gamma knife surgery (GKS) for the treatment of metastatic brain tumors from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS AND RESULTS: The authors conducted a retrospective review of the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in 14 patients with metastatic brain tumors from HCC who underwent GKS. Twelve (85.7%) patients were male. The mean age of the patients was 53±12 years. There were totally 22 brain metastases in 14 patients and 8 patien...

  3. Management of brain metastasis: past lessons, modern management, and future considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, Eugene; Sulman, Erik P

    2012-02-01

    Brain metastasis is a major challenge for patients, physicians, and the broader health care system, with approximately 170,000 new cases per year. After a diagnosis of brain metastasis, patients have a poor prognosis, but modern management has made significant advances in the past two decades to improve palliative efficacy and patient survival through a multidisciplinary approach. A number of factors must be taken into consideration in the treatment approach, including the number of intracranial lesions, the control of extracranial disease, and the patient's overall health, while weighing the benefits of treatment against the toxicities, both acute and chronic. With quality of life as an emphasis, emerging concepts for modern management of brain metastasis have sought to minimize long-term toxicities. The economic impact of such strategies for patients and the health care system has been demonstrated in some studies, but has not been a consistent area of focus. Each of these strategies, as well as novel therapeutics, has embraced the concept of personalized treatment. This review will discuss the current knowledge of modern multidisciplinary management of brain metastasis and look forward to emerging concepts.

  4. Brain metastasis from pheochromocytoma in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, S; Rainero, I; Savi, L; Rivoiro, C; Pinessi, L

    2001-12-01

    Neurological involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndrome is uncommon. Notalgia paresthetica (pruritus localized in an area between D2 and D6 dermatomes) is the neurological symptom more frequently described in patients with MEN 2A. The authors report the unusual case of a MEN 2A patient with a brain metastasis from a pheochromocytoma. PMID:11677427

  5. Brain metastasis as initial presentation of papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irving Gabriel Araujo Bispo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the case of a 33-year-old patient with history of seizures alone without any previous symptom, being diagnosed with brain metastases from primary papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung. Emphasis is given to the diagnostic investigation for brain metastasis and prognostic evaluation of papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung, and a brief literature review on such diseases is performed.

  6. Role of KCNMA1 gene in breast cancer invasion and metastasis to brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couraud Pierre-Olivier

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognosis for patients with breast tumor metastases to brain is extremely poor. Identification of prognostic molecular markers of the metastatic process is critical for designing therapeutic modalities for reducing the occurrence of metastasis. Although ubiquitously present in most human organs, large-conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channel (BKCa channels are significantly upregulated in breast cancer cells. In this study we investigated the role of KCNMA1 gene that encodes for the pore-forming α-subunit of BKCa channels in breast cancer metastasis and invasion. Methods We performed Global exon array to study the expression of KCNMA1 in metastatic breast cancer to brain, compared its expression in primary breast cancer and breast cancers metastatic to other organs, and validated the findings by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed to study the expression and localization of BKCa channel protein in primary and metastatic breast cancer tissues and breast cancer cell lines. We performed matrigel invasion, transendothelial migration and membrane potential assays in established lines of normal breast cells (MCF-10A, non-metastatic breast cancer (MCF-7, non-brain metastatic breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, and brain-specific metastatic breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-361 to study whether BKCa channel inhibition attenuates breast tumor invasion and metastasis using KCNMA1 knockdown with siRNA and biochemical inhibition with Iberiotoxin (IBTX. Results The Global exon array and RT-PCR showed higher KCNMA1 expression in metastatic breast cancer in brain compared to metastatic breast cancers in other organs. Our results clearly show that metastatic breast cancer cells exhibit increased BKCa channel activity, leading to greater invasiveness and transendothelial migration, both of which could be attenuated by blocking KCNMA1. Conclusion Determining the relative abundance of BKCa channel expression in breast

  7. The fibrinolytic system facilitates tumor cell migration across the blood-brain barrier in experimental melanoma brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with metastatic tumors to the brain have a very poor prognosis. Increased metastatic potential has been associated with the fibrinolytic system. We investigated the role of the fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin in tumor cell migration across brain endothelial cells and growth of brain metastases in an experimental metastatic melanoma model. Metastatic tumors to the brain were established by direct injection into the striatum or by intracarotid injection of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells in C57Bl mice. The role of plasminogen in the ability of human melanoma cells to cross a human blood-brain barrier model was studied on a transwell system. Wild type mice treated with the plasmin inhibitor epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) and plg-/- mice developed smaller tumors and survived longer than untreated wild type mice. Tumors metastasized to the brain of wild type mice treated with EACA and plg-/- less efficiently than in untreated wild type mice. No difference was observed in the tumor growth in any of the three groups of mice. Human melanoma cells were able to cross the human blood-brain barrier model in a plasmin dependent manner. Plasmin facilitates the development of tumor metastasis to the brain. Inhibition of the fibrinolytic system could be considered as means to prevent tumor metastasis to the brain

  8. A Phase I trial of dose escalation of topotecan combined with whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastasis in lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohui Ge; Wenyan Zhao; Xiaocang Ren; Yongqiang Wang; Zhigang Li; Yanqi Li; Yuee Liu; Qiang Lin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to define the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and observe the toxicity of escalating topotecan combined whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastasis in lung cancer. Methods: Patients with brain metastasis of lung cancer received conventional fractionation radiotherapy, with 5 daily fractions of 2 Gy per week, the total radiation dose was 40 Gy, while the larger lesions were boosted to 50-60 Gy. The initial dose of topotecan was 1.0 mg/m2. Escalation dose was 0.25 mg/m2. Every cohort contained at least 3 patients.If no dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was observed,the next dose level was opened for entry. These courses were repeated until DLT appeared. MTD was declared as one dose level below which DLT appeared. Results: Eighteen patients were recruited. Two cases of grade 3 leucopenia/neutropenia was observed as DLT at the level of topotecan 2.0 mg/m2. MTD of topotecan was defined as 1.75 mg/m2.The major side effects were leucopenia/neutropenia, nausea and vomiting. Conclusion: Topotecan combined with whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastasis in lung cancer is well tolerated. Maximum-tolerated dose of topotecan is 1.75 mg/m2, once a week of a total of four.

  9. Endoscopy-verified occult subependymal dissemination of glioblastoma and brain metastasis undetected by MRI: prognostic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacoangeli M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Maurizio Iacoangeli,1 Alessandro Di Rienzo,1 Roberto Colasanti,1 Antonio Zizzi,2 Maurizio Gladi,1 Lorenzo Alvaro,1 Niccolò Nocchi,1 Lucia Giovanna Maria Di Somma,1 Marina Scarpelli,2 Massimo Scerrati11Department of Neurosurgery, 2Department of Pathology, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Umberto I General Hospital, Ancona, ItalyAbstract: Although various prognostic indices exist for patients with malignant brain tumors, the prognostic significance of the subependymal spread of intracranial tumors is still a matter of debate. In this paper, we report the cases of two intraventricular lesions, a recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM and a brain metastasis, each successfully treated with a neuroendoscopic approach. Thanks to this minimally invasive approach, we achieved good therapeutic results: we obtained a histological diagnosis; we controlled intracranial hypertension by treating the associated hydrocephalus and, above all, compared with a microsurgical approach, we reduced the risks related to dissection and brain retraction. Moreover, in both cases, neuroendoscopy enabled us to identify an initial, precocious subependymal tumor spreading below the threshold of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI detection. This finding, undetected in pre-operative MRI scans, was then evident during follow-up neuroimaging studies. In light of these data, a neuroendoscopic approach might play a leading role in better defining the prognosis and optimally tailored management protocols for GBM and brain metastasis.Keywords: subependymal spreading, glioblastoma, brain metastasis, endoscopy, minimally invasive surgery, prognosis

  10. Morphological and functional MRI, MRS, perfusion and diffusion changes after radiosurgery of brain metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae Wook [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: tw227.kang@samsung.com; Kim, Sung Tae [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: st7.kim@hotmail.com; Byun, Hong Sik [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hongsik5474.byun@samsung.com; Jeon, Pyoung [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: pyoung.jeon@samsung.com; Kim, Keonha [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: somatom.kim@samsung.com; Kim, Hyungjin [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hyungjin1219.kim@samsung.com; Lee, Jung II [Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jilee.lee@samsung.com

    2009-12-15

    Radiosurgery is a noninvasive procedure where spatially accurate and highly conformal doses of radiation are targeted at brain lesions with an ablative intent. Recently, radiosurgery has been established as an effective technique for local treatment of brain metastasis. After radiosurgery, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an important role in the assessment of the therapeutic response and of any complications. The therapeutic approach depends on the imaging findings obtained after radiosurgery, which have a role in the decision making to perform additional invasive modalities (repeat resection, biopsy) to obtain a definite diagnosis and to improve the survival of patients. Conventional MR imaging findings are mainly based on morphological alterations of tumors. However, there are variable imaging findings of radiation-induced changes including radiation necrosis in the brain. Radiologists are sometimes confused by radiation-induced injuries, including radiation necrosis, that are seen on conventional MR imaging. The pattern of abnormal enhancement on follow-up conventional MR imaging closely mimics that of a recurrent brain metastasis. So, classifying newly developed abnormal enhancing lesions in follow-up of treated brain metastasis with correct diagnosis is one of the key goals in neuro-oncologic imaging. To overcome limitations of the use of morphology-based conventional MR imaging, several physiological-based functional MR imaging methods have been used, namely diffusion-weighted imaging, perfusion MR imaging, and proton MR spectroscopy, for the detection of hemodynamic, metabolic, and cellular alterations. These imaging modalities provide additional information to allow clinicians to make proper decisions regarding patient treatment.

  11. [Brain metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma with acute intracerebral hemorrhage: a surgical case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, Masashi; Mino, Masaki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2012-05-01

    We report a rare case of brain metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma with intracerebral hemorrhage. A 79-year-old woman presented with sudden headache and monoplegia of the right upper limb 10 years after diagnosis of thyroid papillary adenocarcinoma. Despite the known metastatic lesions in the cervical lymph nodes and lungs, she had been well for 10 years since thyroidectomy, focal irradiation and internal radiation of 131I. CT demonstrated intracerebral hemorrhage in the left temporal lobe. Magnetic resonance imaging showed marked signal heterogeneity. She underwent radical surgery on the day of the onset and the histological diagnosis was metastatic brain tumor of thyroid papillary carcinoma. Postoperative course was uneventful, and the monoplegia was improved. Papillary thyroid carcinoma has a relatively benign course, and surgical removal of the brain metastasis is able to contribute to longer survival times for patients.

  12. Analysis of radiation therapy in a model of triple-negative breast cancer brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, DeeDee; Garcia-Glaessner, Alejandra; Palmieri, Diane; Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J; Kramp, Tamalee; Gril, Brunilde; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Lyle, Tiffany; Hua, Emily; Cameron, Heather A; Camphausen, Kevin; Steeg, Patricia S

    2015-10-01

    Most cancer patients with brain metastases are treated with radiation therapy, yet this modality has not yet been meaningfully incorporated into preclinical experimental brain metastasis models. We applied two forms of whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) to the brain-tropic 231-BR experimental brain metastasis model of triple-negative breast cancer. When compared to sham controls, WBRT as 3 Gy × 10 fractions (3 × 10) reduced the number of micrometastases and large metastases by 87.7 and 54.5 %, respectively (both p radiation dose of 15 Gy × 1 (15 × 1) was less effective, reducing metastases by 58.4 % (p radiation regimens. The nature of radiation resistance was investigated by ex vivo culture of tumor cells that survived initial WBRT ("Surviving" cultures). The Surviving cultures surprisingly demonstrated increased radiosensitivity ex vivo. In contrast, re-injection of Surviving cultures and re-treatment with a 3 × 10 WBRT regimen significantly reduced the number of large and micrometastases that developed in vivo, suggesting a role for the microenvironment. Micrometastases derived from tumor cells surviving initial 3 × 10 WBRT demonstrated a trend toward radioresistance upon repeat treatment (p = 0.09). The data confirm the potency of a fractionated 3 × 10 WBRT regimen and identify the brain microenvironment as a potential determinant of radiation efficacy. The data also nominate the Surviving cultures as a potential new translational model for radiotherapy.

  13. Oncocytic-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN-derived invasive oncocytic pancreatic carcinoma with brain metastasis - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Kun-Chun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pancreatic cancer is a lethal disease without effective treatments at present. It ranks as s as 4th and 5th in cancer-related mortality in the western countries and worldwide. Locally advanced pancreatic duct carcinoma (PDAC and metastatic PDAC, usually found the metastases over liver, peritoneum, or lung, have been shown to be with dismal prognosis. Brain metastasis is a rare entity and most cases reported before were found post-mortem. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN has been deemed as a precursor of PDAC with very slow progression rate. Here we reported a case diagnosed with IPMN-derived PDAC with brain metastasis. After surgeries for PDAC and brain metastasis, subsequent chemotherapy and radiotherapy were also given. One and half year after surgery, this patient is still living with good performance status, which may warrant individualization of therapeutic strategy for PDAC with only brain metastasis.

  14. SU-E-T-56: Brain Metastasis Treatment Plans for Contrast-Enhanced Synchrotron Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeid, L; Adam, J [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, La Tronche, Rhone-Alpes (France); Tessier, A [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, La Tronche, Rhone-Alpes (France); Vautrin, M; Benkebil, M [DOSIsoft, Cachan, Ile de France (France); Sihanath, R [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, La Tronche, Rhone- Alpes (France)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Iodine-enhanced radiotherapy is an innovative treatment combining the selective accumulation of an iodinated contrast agent in brain tumors with irradiations using monochromatic medium energy x-rays. The aim of this study is to compare dynamic stereotactic arc-therapy and iodineenhanced SSRT. Methods: Five patients bearing brain metastasis received a standard helical 3D-scan without iodine. A second scan was acquired 13 min after an 80 g iodine infusion. Two SSRT treatment plans (with/without iodine) were performed for each patient using a dedicated Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning system (TPS) based on the ISOgray TPS. Ten coplanar beams (6×6 cm2, shaped with collimator) were simulated. MC statistical error objective was less than 5% in the 50% isodose. The dynamic arc-therapy plan was achieved on the Iplan Brainlab TPS. The treatment plan validation criteria were fixed such that 100% of the prescribed dose is delivered at the beam isocentre and the 70% isodose contains the whole target volume. The comparison elements were the 70% isodose volume, the average and maximum doses delivered to organs at risk (OAR): brainstem, optical nerves, chiasma, eyes, skull bone and healthy brain parenchyma. Results: The stereotactic dynamic arc-therapy remains the best technique in terms of dose conformation. Iodine-enhanced SSRT presents similar performances to dynamic arc-therapy with increased brainstem and brain parenchyma sparing. One disadvantage of SSRT is the high dose to the skull bone. Iodine accumulation in metastasis may increase the dose by 20–30%, allowing a normal tissue sparing effect at constant prescribed dose. Treatment without any iodine enhancement (medium-energy stereotactic radiotherapy) is not relevant with degraded HDVs (brain, parenchyma and skull bone) comparing to stereotactic dynamic arc-therapy. Conclusion: Iodine-enhanced SSRT exhibits a good potential for brain metastasis treatment regarding the dose distribution and OAR criteria.

  15. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor is necessary but not sufficient for production and growth of brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, S; Shinohara, H; Herbst, R S; Kuniyasu, H; Bucana, C D; Ellis, L M; Davis, D W; McConkey, D J; Fidler, I J

    2000-09-01

    We investigated the molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis in experimental brain metastasis. Cells from six different human cancer cell lines (proven to produce visceral metastasis) were injected into the internal carotid artery of nude mice. Colon carcinoma (KM12SM) and lung adenocarcinoma (PC14PE6 and PC14Br) cells produced large, fast-growing parenchymal brain metastases, whereas lung squamous cell carcinoma (H226), renal cell carcinoma (SN12PM6), and melanoma (TXM13) cells produced only a few slow-growing brain metastases. Rapidly progressing brain metastases contained many enlarged blood vessels. The expression of VEGF mRNA and protein by the tumor cells directly correlated with angiogenesis and growth of brain metastasis. Causal evidence for the essential role of VEGF in this process was provided by transfecting PC14PE6 and KM12SM cells with antisense-VEGF165 gene, which significantly decreased the incidence of brain metastasis. In contrast, transfection of H226 human lung squamous carcinoma cells with sense-VEGF121 or sense-VEGF165 neither enhanced nor inhibited formation of brain metastases. Collectively, the results indicate that VEGF expression is necessary but not sufficient for the production of brain metastasis and that the inhibition of VEGF represents an important therapeutic target. PMID:10987313

  16. Low Expression of Slit2 and Robo1 is Associated with Poor Prognosis and Brain-specific Metastasis of Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fengxia; Zhang, Huikun; Ma, Li; Liu, Xiaoli; Dai, Kun; Li, Wenliang; Gu, Feng; Fu, Li; Ma, Yongjie

    2015-09-24

    Brain metastasis is a significant unmet clinical problem in breast cancer treatment. It is always associated with poor prognosis and high morbidity. Recently, Slit2/Robo1 pathway has been demonstrated to be involved in the progression of breast carcinoma. However, until present, there are no convincing reports that suggest whether the Slit2/Robo1 axis has any role in brain metastasis of breast cancer. In this study, we investigated the correlation between Slit2/Robo1 signaling and breast cancer brain metastasis for the first time. Our results demonstrated that (1) Invasive ductal carcinoma patients with low expression of Slit2 or Robo1 exhibited worse prognosis and brain-specific metastasis, but not liver, bone or lung. (2) Lower expression of Slit2 and Robo1 were observed in patients with brain metastasis, especially in their brain metastasis tumors, compared with patients without brain metastasis. (3) The interval from diagnosis of breast cancer to brain metastasis and brain metastasis to death were both much shorter in patients with low expression of Slit2 or Robo1 compared with the high expression group. Overall, our findings indicated that Slit2/Robo1 axis possibly be regarded as a significant clinical parameter for predicting brain metastasis in breast cancer patients.

  17. Identification and analysis of signaling networks potentially involved in breast carcinoma metastasis to the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    Full Text Available Brain is a common site of breast cancer metastasis associated with significant neurologic morbidity, decreased quality of life, and greatly shortened survival. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underpinning brain colonization by breast carcinoma cells are poorly understood. Here, we used 2D-DIGE (Difference in Gel Electrophoresis proteomic analysis followed by LC-tandem mass spectrometry to identify the proteins differentially expressed in brain-targeting breast carcinoma cells (MB231-Br compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cell line. Between the two cell lines, we identified 12 proteins consistently exhibiting greater than 2-fold (p<0.05 difference in expression, which were associated by the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA with two major signaling networks involving TNFα/TGFβ-, NFκB-, HSP-70-, TP53-, and IFNγ-associated pathways. Remarkably, highly related networks were revealed by the IPA analysis of a list of 19 brain-metastasis-associated proteins identified recently by the group of Dr. A. Sierra using MDA-MB-435-based experimental system (Martin et al., J Proteome Res 2008 7:908-20, or a 17-gene classifier associated with breast cancer brain relapse reported by the group of Dr. J. Massague based on a microarray analysis of clinically annotated breast tumors from 368 patients (Bos et al., Nature 2009 459: 1005-9. These findings, showing that different experimental systems and approaches (2D-DIGE proteomics used on brain targeting cell lines or gene expression analysis of patient samples with documented brain relapse yield highly related signaling networks, suggest strongly that these signaling networks could be essential for a successful colonization of the brain by metastatic breast carcinoma cells.

  18. Eribulin Mesylate Combined with Local Treatment for Brain Metastasis from Breast Cancer: Two Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kyung-Do; Ahn, Sung Gwe; Baik, Hyung Joo; Lee, Anbok; Bae, Ki Beom; An, Min Sung; Kim, Kwang Hee; Shin, Jae Ho; Park, Ha Kyoung; Cho, Heunglae; Jeong, Joon; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The prognosis associated with brain metastasis arising from breast cancer is very poor. Eribulin is a microtubule dynamic inhibitor synthesized from halichondrin B, a natural marine product. In a phase III study (EMBRACE), eribulin improved overall survival in patients with heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancers. However, these studies included few patients with brain metastases. Metastatic brain tumors (MBT) were detected during first-line palliative chemotherapy in a 43-year-old woman with breast cancer metastasis to the lung and mediastinal nodes; the genetic subtype was luminal B-like human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative. Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) followed by eribulin treatment continuously decreased the size, and induced regression, of the MBT with systemic disease stability for 12 months. Another 48-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer (HER2+ subtype) presented with MBT. Following surgical resection of the tumor, eribulin with concurrent WBRT showed regression of the MBT without systemic progression for 18 months. PMID:27382400

  19. Efficacy of XELOX plus Bevacizumab in Brain Metastasis from Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Yoshida

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastasis (BM is rare in colorectal cancer (CRC patients. Although BM from CRC is a late-stage phenomenon with an extremely poor prognosis, some subsets of patients would benefit from a multidisciplinary management strategy. The prognosis of patients with BM from CRC was associated with the curability of the therapy for BM and the number of metastatic organs. Metastatic brain tumors are generally treated with radiotherapy because many anticancer drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. Here, we present a case treated with XELOX (capecitabine and oxaliplatin plus bevacizumab for BM from rectal cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient who was successfully treated for BM from CRC without radiotherapy. The findings could lead to a paradigm shift in the use of chemotherapy for BM from CRC.

  20. Management of brain metastasis with magnetic resonance imaging and stereotactic irradiation attenuated benefits of prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Yuichi; Omae, Minako; Fujii, Masato; Matsui, Takashi; KATO, Masato; Sagisaka, Shinya; Asada, Kazuhiro; Karayama, Masato; Shirai, Toshihiro; Yasuda, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Yutaro; Inui, Naoki; Yamada, Kazunari; Yokomura, Koshi; Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables a more sensitive detection of brain metastasis and stereotactic irradiation (SRI) efficiently controls brain metastasis. In limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC), prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with good responses to initial treatment is recommended based on the survival benefit shown in previous clinical trials. However, none of these trials evaluated PCI effects using the management of brain metastasis with MRI...

  1. Comparative analysis of survival, treatment, cost and resource use among patients newly diagnosed with brain metastasis by initial primary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Saurabh; Dacosta-Byfield, Stacey; Ganguli, Arijit; Bonthapally, Vijayveer; Teitelbaum, April

    2013-08-01

    Brain metastases are a frequent complication of many systemic cancers and portend a poor prognosis. This retrospective analysis of health claims data compared survival, treatment and health care utilization and costs in patients with brain metastasis by primary tumor site. Adult commercial and Medicare Advantage enrollees newly diagnosed with brain metastasis in 01 Jan 2004 through 30 Apr 2010 were identified. Inclusion required at least 2 claims that identified the same primary cancer site prior to diagnosis of brain metastasis and no evidence of primary brain tumors. Health care utilization rates and costs were calculated at the patient level for each month of follow-up. Differences among primary cancer site cohorts were assessed by ANOVA (continuous variables), Chi square test (proportions) and the Poisson distribution (utilization rates). The primary cancer cohorts comprised 1,031 lung cancer, 93 melanoma and 395 female breast cancer patients. During the 6 months prior to brain metastasis diagnosis, 59 % of lung cancer patients had no evidence of lymph node involvement or other metastatic disease compared to 55 and 42 % of melanoma and breast cancer patients (P < 0.001). Survival after brain metastasis diagnosis was less than 3 months for 52, 43 and 39 % for lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma, respectively (P < 0.001). Melanoma patients had the highest rate of inpatient stays and outpatient visits (P ≤ 0.003). Total monthly all-cause costs were: melanoma, $23,426; breast cancer $19,708; lung cancer, $17,007 (P = 0.003). Health care utilization and costs after brain metastasis diagnosis were substantial and differed by primary tumor site.

  2. P08.10SINGLE BRAIN METASTASIS 9 YEARS AFTER ORTHOTOPIC LIVER TRANSPLANT WITH HISTOLOGICAL NEGATIVE EXPIANTED LIVER: CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, R.; Agnoletti, A.; Specchia, F.M. Calamo; Garbossa, D.; Lanotte, M.; Ducati, A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of a 67 years old man, that underwent orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) in 2004 for cirrhosis. Native liver hystological examination was negative for focal hepatocarcinoma (HCC) areas. In 2008, during regular follow up, pulmonary lesions were found and diagnosed as hepatocarcinoma metastasis.In 2013, patient accused vertigo and dizziness: neuroimaging showed a cerebellar lesion. Hystological diagnosis was HCC metastases. The peculiarity is the onset of lung metastasis after transplant, with negative analysis on native liver, and brain metastasis after stable disease. This case is also relevant due to long survival related to the unavailability of many oncologic therapies in transplanted patients.

  3. The role of MMP-1 in breast cancer growth and metastasis to the brain in a xenograft model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain metastasis is an increasingly common complication for breast cancer patients; approximately 15– 30% of breast cancer patients develop brain metastasis. However, relatively little is known about how these metastases form, and what phenotypes are characteristic of cells with brain metastasizing potential. In this study, we show that the targeted knockdown of MMP-1 in breast cancer cells with enhanced brain metastatic ability not only reduced primary tumor growth, but also significantly inhibited brain metastasis. Methods Two variants of the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line selected for enhanced ability to form brain metastases in nude mice (231-BR and 231-BR3 cells were found to express high levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1. Short hairpin RNA-mediated stable knockdown of MMP-1 in 231-BR and 231-BR3 cells were established to analyze tumorigenic ability and metastatic ability. Results Short hairpin RNA-mediated stable knockdown of MMP-1 inhibited the invasive ability of MDA-MB 231 variant cells in vitro, and inhibited breast cancer growth when the cells were injected into the mammary fat pad of nude mice. Reduction of MMP-1 expression significantly attenuated brain metastasis and lung metastasis formation following injection of cells into the left ventricle of the heart and tail vein, respectively. There were significantly fewer proliferating cells in brain metastases of cells with reduced MMP-1 expression. Furthermore, reduced MMP-1 expression was associated with decreased TGFα release and phospho-EGFR expression in 231-BR and BR3 cells. Conclusions Our results show that elevated expression of MMP-1 can promote the local growth and the formation of brain metastases by breast cancer cells.

  4. Targeting Kv1.3 channels to reduce white matter pathology after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Thomas M; Trimmer, Patricia A; Colley, Beverly S; Phillips, Linda L

    2016-09-01

    Axonal injury is present in essentially all clinically significant cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI). While no effective treatment has been identified to date, experimental TBI models have shown promising axonal protection using immunosuppressants FK506 and Cyclosporine-A, with treatment benefits attributed to calcineurin inhibition or protection of mitochondrial function. However, growing evidence suggests neuroprotective efficacy of these compounds may also involve direct modulation of ion channels, and in particular Kv1.3. The present study tested whether blockade of Kv1.3 channels, using Clofazimine (CFZ), would alleviate TBI-induced white matter pathology in rodents. Postinjury CFZ administration prevented suppression of compound action potential (CAP) amplitude in the corpus callosum of adult rats following midline fluid percussion TBI, with injury and treatment effects primarily expressed in unmyelinated CAPs. Kv1.3 protein levels in callosal tissue extracts were significantly reduced postinjury, but this loss was prevented by CFZ treatment. In parallel, CFZ also attenuated the injury-induced elevation in pro-inflammatory cytokine IL1-β. The effects of CFZ on glial function were further studied using mixed microglia/astrocyte cell cultures derived from P3-5 mouse corpus callosum. Cultures of callosal glia challenged with lipopolysaccharide exhibited a dramatic increase in IL1-β levels, accompanied by reactive morphological changes in microglia, both of which were attenuated by CFZ treatment. These results support a cell specific role for Kv1.3 signaling in white matter pathology after TBI, and suggest a treatment approach based on the blockade of these channels. This therapeutic strategy may be especially efficacious for normalizing neuro-glial interactions affecting unmyelinated axons after TBI. PMID:27302680

  5. Brain metastasis in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: from biology to treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Tae Ryool [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Hallym University Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Ah [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is found in about 20% of breast cancer patients. With treatment using trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, systemic control is improved. Nonetheless, the incidence of brain metastasis does not be improved, rather seems to be increased in HER2-positive breast cancer. The mainstay treatment for brain metastases is radiotherapy. According to the number of metastatic lesions and performance status of patients, radiosurgery or whole brain radiotherapy can be performed. The concurrent use of a radiosensitizer further improves intracranial control. Due to its large molecular weight, trastuzumab has a limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. However, small tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as lapatinib, has been noted to be a promising agent that can be used as a radiosensitizer to affect HER2-positive breast cancer. This review will outline general management of brain metastases and will focus on preclinical findings regarding the radiosensitizing effect of small molecule HER2 targeting agents.

  6. Clinical Significance of KISS1 Protein Expression for Brain Invasion and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulasov, Ilya V.; Kaverina, Natalya V.; Pytel, Peter; Thaci, Bart; Liu, FeiFei; Hurst, Douglas R.; Welch, Danny R.; Sattar, Husein A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Baryshnikov, Anatoly Y.; Kadagidze, Zaira G.; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metastases to the brain represent a feared complication and contribute to the morbidity and mortality of breast cancer. Despite improvements in therapy, prognostic factors for development of metastases are lacking. KISS1 is a metastasis suppressor that demonstrates inhibition of metastases formation in several types of cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of KISS1 expression in breast cancer progression and the development of intracerebral lesions. METHODS In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of 47 brain metastases and 165 primary breast cancer specimens by using the antihuman KISS1 antibody. To compare KISS1 expression between different groups, we used a 3-tier score and the automated score computer software (ACIS) evaluation. To reveal association between mRNA and protein expression, we used quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. Significance of immunohistochemistry stainings was correlated with clinicopathological data. RESULTS We identified that KISS1 expression is significantly higher in primary breast cancer compared with brain metastases (P < .05). The mRNA analysis performed on 33 selected ductal carcinoma brain metastatic lesions and 36 primary ductal carcinomas revealed a statistically significant down-regulation of KISS1 protein in metastatic cases (P = .04). Finally, we observed a significant correlation between expression of KISS1 and metastasis-free survival (P = .04) along with progression of breast cancer and expression of KISS1 in primary breast cancer specimens (P = .044). CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, our study shows that breast cancer expresses KISS1. Cytoplasmic expression of KISS1 may be used as a prognostic marker for increased risk of breast cancer progression. PMID:21928364

  7. Identification and validation of S100A7 associated with lung squamous cell carcinoma metastasis to brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Wang, Yinping; Chen, Yue; Sun, Suozhu; Li, Na; Lv, Dongxia; Liu, Chuanjun; Huang, Lingyun; He, Dacheng; Xiao, Xueyuan

    2007-07-01

    To identify potential markers associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastasis to brain, comparative proteome analysis on two lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines, NCI-H226 and H226Br (the brain metastatic cell line of NCI-H226), was performed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by a tandem mass spectrometer with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) source. Twenty differential proteins were identified, of which 6 proteins were up-regulated in H226Br cell compared with NCI-H226 cells, whereas 14 proteins were down-regulated. S100A7 and 14-3-3sigma, two of candidate proteins significantly upregulated and downregulated in H226Br cell, were selected to verify the liability of the differential proteins by Western blot. The results were in accordance with 2-D data. To determine whether S100A7 overexpression is actually associated with SCC metastasis to brain, S100A7 protein was testified in 10 brain metastasis tissues from NSCLC, 38 primary NSCLC tissues including half matched local positive lymph nodes, 5 primary brain tumors and 2 non-cancer brain tissues by immunohistochemistry. Of particular interest to us was that the positive staining of S100A7 could be found in 3/5 (60%) brain metastases tissue from SCC and 8/21 (38%) the primary lung SCC tissues, while no positive staining was observed in the brain metastases tissue from Ad (n=5), the primary adenocarcinoma (Ad) tissues (n=17), the primary brain tumors (n=5), all local positive lymph nodes from the primary NSCLC (n=19) and non-cancer brain tissues (n=2). These findings suggest that S100A7 expression is closely associated with SCC metastasis to brain and may be a potential biomarker for monitoring the development of SCC. PMID:17418446

  8. Surgery Versus Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Single Synchronous Brain Metastasis from Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui LI; Sheng-cai HOU; Bin HU; Tong LI; Yang Wang; Jin-bai Miao; Bin You; Yi-li Fu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of surgery with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for patients with a single synchronous brain metastasis from successfully treated non-small cell lung cancer.Methods: Between 1995 and 2002, 53 patients underwent resection of both primary non-small cell lung cancer and the associated single brain metastasis. There were 33 men and 20 women with a mean age of 57 years (range, 32(85 years). At the time of diagnosis, 42 patients experienced lung cancer related symptoms, whereas 11 patients experienced brain metastases-related symptoms. 42 patients had received thoracic surgery first, and 11 patients had undergone neurosurgery or radiosurgery first. Pneumonectomy was performed in 9 out of 42 patients (21.4%), lobectomies in 30 (71.4%), and wedge resection in 3 (7.2%). 48 patients (90.5%) underwent complete lymphadenectomy. 35 patients underwent brain metastasectomy. 18 underwent SRS.Results: There was no postoperative mortality and severe complications after either lung or brain surgery. Histology showed 34 adenocarcinomas, 16 squamous cell carcinomas, and 3 large cell lung cancers. 15 patients (28.3%) had no evidence of lymph node metastases (N0), 20 patients (37.7%) had hilar metastases (N1), and 18 patients (34%) had mediastinal metastases (N2). The 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were 49%, 19%, 10%, and 5%, respectively. The corresponding data for neurosurgery group were 55%, 17%, 11%, and 6%, respectively. The median survival time was 13 months. For SRS group the corresponding data were 44.8%, 20.9% 10.5%, and 2%, respectively. The median survival time was 14 months. The differences between the two groups were not significant (P>0.05). In lymph node negative patients (N0), the overall 5-year survival rate was 10%, as compared with a 1% survival rate in patients with lymph node metastases (N1(2). The difference was significant (P0.05).Conclusion: Although the overall survival rate for

  9. Whole brain radiotherapy with adjuvant or concomitant boost in brain metastasis: dosimetric comparison between helical and volumetric IMRT technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare and evaluate the possible advantages related to the use of VMAT and helical IMRT and two different modalities of boost delivering, adjuvant stereotactic boost (SRS) or simultaneous integrated boost (SIB), in the treatment of brain metastasis (BM) in RPA classes I-II patients. Ten patients were treated with helical IMRT, 5 of them with SRS after whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and 5 with SIB. MRI co-registration with planning CT was mandatory and prescribed doses were 30 Gy in 10 fractions (fr) for WBRT and 15Gy/1fr or 45Gy/10fr in SRS or SIB, respectively. For each patient, 4 “treatment plans” (VMAT SRS and SIB, helical IMRT SRS and SIB) were calculated and accepted if PTV boost was included in 95 % isodose and dose constraints of the main organs at risk were respected without major deviations. Homogeneity Index (HI), Conformal Index (CI) and Conformal Number (CN) were considered to compare the different plans. Moreover, time of treatment delivery was calculated and considered in the analysis. Volume of brain metastasis ranged between 1.43 and 51.01 cc (mean 12.89 ± 6.37 ml) and 3 patients had double lesions. V95% resulted over 95 % in the average for each kind of technique, but the “target coverage” was inadequate for VMAT planning with two sites. The HI resulted close to the ideal value of zero in all cases; VMAT-SIB, VMAT-SRS, Helical IMRT-SIB and Helical IMRT-SRS showed mean CI of 2.15, 2.10, 2.44 and 1.66, respectively (optimal range: 1.5–2.0). Helical IMRT-SRS was related to the best and reliable finding of CN (0.66). The mean of treatment time was 210 s, 467 s, 440 s, 1598 s, respectively, for VMAT-SIB, VMAT-SRS, Helical IMRT-SIB and Helical IMRT-SRS. This dosimetric comparison show that helical IMRT obtain better target coverage and respect of CI and CN; VMAT could be acceptable in solitary metastasis. SIB modality can be considered as a good choice for clinical and logistic compliance; literature’s preliminary data are confirming

  10. Prognostic factors to predict survival in non-small-cell lung cancer with brain metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiantian Li; Xuezhen Ma; Yuan Yao

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The purpose of the study was to assess prognostic factors to predict overal survival (OS) and progres-sion-free survival (PFS) in non-smal-celllung cancer (NSCLC) with brain metastasis (BM). Methods:From November 2011 to March 2013, the clinical data of 31 NSCLC cases with BM treated with multiple modalities including brain radiotherapy alone, systemic chemotherapy, whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) combined with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKIs). The ef icacy and adverse reaction were evaluated after treatment. Results:In terms of intracranial lesions, the objective response rate (ORR) and the disease control rate (DCR) were 22.6%and 90.3%, respectively. As for systemic disease, ORR and DCR were 32.3%and 93.5%, respectively. The median time to progression-free survival (PFS) was 298 days (95%CI:258.624-337.376 days), whereas in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation patients was 331 days. Patients who received EGFR-TKIs combined with brain radiation had better response rate (RR) than those only brain radiation. Univariate analysis showed that the EGFR-mutations could predictive factors for PFS, and not to other clinical pathological features. The most common toxici-ties were rash and diarrhea, but al were wel-tolerated. Conclusion:EGFR-mutations is the independent prognostic factors af ecting the survival rates of NSCLC patients with BM. Through the clinical observation, icotinib combined with WBRT may be ef ective on brain metastases in NSCLC patients, and toxicities are tolerable, which worth further study.

  11. Management of brain metastasis in a patient with advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma by gamma-knife radiosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaou Marinos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Brain metastases from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC are rare events. We present a rare case of single ovarian cancer metastasis to the brain treated with gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKRS. Case Outline. A 65-year-old woman with advanced EOC presented with severe neurologic symptoms. A single brain metastasis of 3.2 cm with surrounding edema in the left parietal lobe was detected by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan during the work-up. The decision to perform GKRS was due to a surgical inaccessibility of intracranial lesion. Twelve weeks after the procedure, the MRI scan showed reduction in the diameter of brain metastasis and surrounding edema and the patient returned to good mental and motor performance. The patient survived for 22 months following treatment and died from a progressive intra-abdominal disease. Prognosis of ovarian cancer patients with brain metastases is generally poor regardless of treatment. Conclusion. Our case shows that GKRS as primary treatment modality for the control of ovarian cancer metastases to the brain was effective and can be considered as a treatment of choice if international selection criteria are followed.

  12. Survival following gamma knife radiosurgery for brain metastasis from breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of brain metastases in the United States. Although breast cancer induced brain metastases represent an incurable condition, some patients experience prolonged survival. In this retrospective study, we examine a cohort of patients with brain metastases from breast cancer treated with Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery to identify factors that predict better outcomes. A retrospective database of 100 patients treated for brain metastases due to breast cancer via Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) from July 1998 through March 2009 was reviewed. Patients who received radiosurgery as sole treatment, as a planned boost after whole brain radiotherapy or surgical resection, or as salvage after prior whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) or surgical resection were included. Prognostic factors identified to be significant for survival in previous brain metastasis studies were analyzed for significance by univariate and multivariate Cox analysis. Overall, the median brain progression-free survival time was 7.1 months and the median survival time was 12.3 months. No prognostic variables were significant for brain progression-free survival. For patients treated with a planned GKS after WBRT, GKS as sole treatment, GKS salvage after WBRT, GKS boost after surgery, or GKS for surgical salvage the median survival times (MSTs) were as follows: 12.2 months, 12.4 months, 9.5 months, 27.6 months and 33.4 months respectively. Differences between the groups were not significant (p = 0.06); however, GKS boost after surgery and GKS for salvage after surgery did have a trend toward better overall survival. The MST for patients of age <65 years was 14.5 months, compared to age ≥65 which was 7.7 months (p = 0.06) and remained a significant prognostic factor for overall survival on multivariate analysis. The MST for patients with a single lesion was 16.9 months, not significantly different than the MST of 14.5 months for patients with 2–3 lesions

  13. Peptic ulcer disease and other complications in patients receiving dexamethasone palliation for brain metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzner, R.D.; Lipsett, J.A.

    1982-11-01

    A retrospective analysis was done of 106 patients who received radiation therapy for brain metastasis. Dexamethasone therapy was instituted in 97 patients. Peptic ulcer disease developed in 5 of 89 patients (5.6 percent) who received a dosage of at least 12 mg a day, but did not occur in patients who received a lower dose or in those who did not receive steroids. The interval between institution of dexamethasone therapy and the development of peptic ulcer disease ranged from three to nine weeks. Two patients had perforated ulcers, one of whom required surgical resection. Peptic ulcer disease contributed to the general deterioration and death of three of the five patients. Overall, in 14 of the 89 patients (15.7 percent) a complication of steroid therapy developed in the form of peptic ulcer disease, steroid myopathy or diabetes mellitus (or a combination of these).

  14. Peptic ulcer disease and other complications in patients receiving dexamethasone palliation for brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective analysis was done of 106 patients who received radiation therapy for brain metastasis. Dexamethasone therapy was instituted in 97 patients. Peptic ulcer disease developed in 5 of 89 patients (5.6 percent) who received a dosage of at least 12 mg a day, but did not occur in patients who received a lower dose or in those who did not receive steroids. The interval between institution of dexamethasone therapy and the development of peptic ulcer disease ranged from three to nine weeks. Two patients had perforated ulcers, one of whom required surgical resection. Peptic ulcer disease contributed to the general deterioration and death of three of the five patients. Overall, in 14 of the 89 patients (15.7 percent) a complication of steroid therapy developed in the form of peptic ulcer disease, steroid myopathy or diabetes mellitus (or a combination of these)

  15. Radiotherapeutic palliation of brain metastasis: a retrospective quality of life analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: To assess quality of life effects of radiation therapy on patients with brain metastasis. Not only is data on this subject rare, there is also no psychometrically tested brain metastasis symptom scale. We report data using a scale of our own design. MATERIALS and METHODS: Over 200 charts of patients treated for brain metastasis from various primary sites between 1990 and 1995 were reviewed. Seventy-two patients met the criteria for evaluation. They were all treated with radiotherapy and steroids. The majority of patients received a median dose of 30 Gy (Range 20 - 55) to the whole brain. Treatment over 40 Gy was delivered via a boost, either external beam or stereotactic. Pre and post-therapy symptoms of impaired vision, speech, sensation, motor strength, gait, cranial nerves, headache, seizure, lethargy, mentation, and nausea and vomiting were scored. Each symptom was evaluated separately. Following therapy, patients were noted to have improvement, no change, or worsening symptoms. Steroid and anti-seizure medication use pre and post-therapy were also recorded. RESULTS: Patient characteristics: median age is 62 (Range 27 - 82 years); Female: Male 1.4:1; Single: Multiple metastasis = 1:2.3. The primary sites included: lung=56%, breast=15%, unknown=11%, and various=18%. The histologies included: adenocarcinoma=26%, squamous cell carcinoma=21%, small cell carcinoma=15%, infiltrating ductal=14%, and various=24%. All patients had a minimum of one month post-treatment follow up (Range 1 - 24 mths). Sixteen patients are still living. Eighty-nine percent were symptomatic at presentation and 36% presented with only one symptom. The incidence of symptoms before treatment was: altered mentation=26%, decreased motor strength=26%, headache=24%, seizure=21%, altered gait=20%, nausea/vomiting=18%, speech deficit=15%, lethargy=11%, visual change=8%, altered sensation=7%, and cranial nerve deficits=3%. A statistically significant improvement in mentation (p<0

  16. Brain Metastasis in Bone and Soft Tissue Cancers: A Review of Incidence, Interventions, and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Shweikeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone and soft tissue malignancies account for a small portion of brain metastases. In this review, we characterize their incidence, treatments, and prognosis. Most of the data in the literature is based on case reports and small case series. Less than 5% of brain metastases are from bone and soft tissue sarcomas, occurring most commonly in Ewing’s sarcoma, malignant fibrous tumors, and osteosarcoma. Mean interval from initial cancer diagnosis to brain metastasis is in the range of 20–30 months, with most being detected before 24 months (osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, chordoma, angiosarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma, some at 24–36 months (malignant fibrous tumors, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and alveolar soft part sarcoma, and a few after 36 months (chondrosarcoma and liposarcoma. Overall mean survival ranges between 7 and 16 months, with the majority surviving < 12 months (Ewing’s sarcoma, liposarcoma, malignant fibrous tumors, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, angiosarcoma and chordomas. Management is heterogeneous involving surgery, radiosurgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. While a survival advantage may exist for those given aggressive treatment involving surgical resection, such patients tended to have a favorable preoperative performance status and minimal systemic disease.

  17. Dosimetric comparison of Helical Tomotherapy and Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery for single brain metastasis

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    Linskey Mark E

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helical Tomotherapy (HT integrates linear accelerator and computerized tomography (CT technology to deliver IMRT. Targets are localized (i.e. outlined as gross tumor volume [GTV] and planning target volume [PTV] on the planning kVCT study while daily MVCT is used for correction of patient's set-up and assessment of inter-fraction anatomy changes. Based on dosimetric comparisons, this study aims to find dosimetric equivalency between single fraction HT and Gamma Knife® stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS for the treatment of single brain metastasis. Methods The targeting MRI data set from the GKSRS were used for tomotherapy planning. Five patients with single brain metastasis treated with GKSRS were re-planned in the HT planning station using the same prescribed doses. There was no expansion of the GTV to create the PTV. Sub-volumes were created within the PTV and prescribed to the maximum dose seen in the GKSRS plans to imitate the hot spot normally seen in GKSRS. The PTV objective was set as a region at risk in HT planning using the same prescribed dose to the PTV periphery as seen in the corresponding GKSRS plan. The tumor volumes ranged from 437–1840 mm3. Results Conformality indices are inconsistent between HT and GKSRS. HT generally shows larger lower isodose line volumes, has longer treatment time than GKSRS and can treat a much larger lesion than GKSRS. Both HT and GKSRS single fraction dose-volume toxicity may be prohibitive in treating single or multiple lesions depending on the number and the sizes of the lesions. Conclusion Based on the trend for larger lower dose volumes and more constricted higher dose volumes in HT as compared to GKSRS, dosimetric equivalency was not reached between HT and GKSRS.

  18. Prognostic predictors for non-small cell lung cancer patients with brain metastasis after radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhong FAN

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Brain metastasis (BM is often found in the patients with lung cancer. Radiotherapy is regular and effective means of therapy and it aims at palliating symptoms and prolonging survival time. However, now there are different viewpoints on protocols of radiotherapy and prognostic factors. A retrospective analysis is used to evaluate the results of treatment for 82 cases with brain metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and explore the prognostic factors to establish a prognostic index (PI model. Methods From Feb.1995 to Oct. 2006, 82 patients irradiated for BM from NSCLC, with both complete medical charts and follow-up data available, were eligible for this retrospective analysis. A number of potential factors which might affect prognosis after irradiation were evaluated. The significance of prognostic variables in the survival resulted from both univariate analysis by Kaplan-Meier combining with log-rank test and multivariate Cox regression model. The prognostic index (PI was established based on Cox regression analysis and subgrouping values. Results The follow-up time was 1-120 months. For the entire cohort, the median survival from the start of radiation for BM was 10.5 months, and the actuarial overall survival rate was 50.8%, 23.7% and 5.1% at 0.5, 1 and 2 years respectively. Univariate analysis showed KPS, control of primary tumor, interval from the beginning of diagnostic to BM, extracranial systemic metastasis, counts of lymphocyte and solitary BM were predictors of prognosis. However, in the Cox multivariate analysis, only KPS, control of primary tumor, interval from the beginning of diagnostic to BM and solitary BM were significant prognostic factors. The prognostic index was established based on Cox regression analysis and 82 patients were stratified good, intermediate and poor prognostic sub-groups. The difference of survival rate among 3 subgroups is significant (P<0.001. Conclusion Radiotherapy is

  19. A Rare Case of Solitary Epidural Brain Metastasis of Neuroepithelioma Tumor in A 14 Years Old Man

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    R. Barikbin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available By definition, a peripheral neuroepithelioma is a primary neuroectodermal tumor (PNET arising from peripheral, nonautonomic neural tissue. PNETs are classified into central and peripheral types. Peripheral PNETs are unusual, often highly aggressive, malignant neoplasms, rarely presenting in the head and neck. Soft tissues PNETs arise from nonautonomic nervous system. In this case, we report a 14-years-old male known case of cervical soft tissue neuroepithelioma presenting with a rare form of metastatic disease as extra axial, epidural metastasis to the brain. On histochemichal analysis of this solitary metastasis, as well as original tumor specimens, markers consistent with PNET tumors were identified.

  20. Brain metastasis from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the dorsum. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Maurizio; Caroli, Emanuela; Paone, Cristina; Frati, Alessandro; Ferrante, Luigi; Giangaspero, Felice; Delfini, Roberto

    2005-06-01

    The majority of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are diagnosed early and cured using local treatment, although a minority of cases metastasize to regional structures. In this report the authors describe an unknown feature of skin SCC, namely, distant brain metastasis. This 54-year-old man, who had undergone surgery for moderately differentiated SCC of the dorsum (T2NOM0 stage), was admitted to our institution 11 months later with headache, vomiting, and ataxia. A magnetic resonance image documented a cerebellar lesion, which was totally removed. Results of histological studies revealed SCC. The patient received whole-brain radiotherapy (30 Gy over 2 weeks using a linear accelerator). A metastatic work-up showed enlarged inguinal and para-aortic lymph nodes that were histologically examined using excisional biopsy. Inguinal lymph nodes were tumor-positive and were dissected. The patient was subjected to two cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin (75 mg/m2). After 3 months, a significant reduction in the size of the para-aortic lymph nodes was documented on control computerized tomography studies. Although the described case is unique, knowledge of the potential for this uncommon behavior in cutaneous SCC may be useful, especially because of its increasing incidence.

  1. Brain metastasis: an evaluation of the preoperative diagnostic work-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a retrospective study of the evaluation of various preoperative diagnostic tests in locating the primary lesion in 50 patients with a solitary brain lesion seen on computerized tomography and suspected to be metastatic. These patients underwent craniotomy and 54% had primary tumors 40% metastatic tumors and 6.1% non-neoplastic lesions. Of 20 patients with metastasis, the primary was identified in 19 patients with the following locations: 11 pulmonary, 3 breast, 2 thyroid and 2 colon. In 2 patients, no primary was identified. Using simple conditional probability theory, it was established that the probability of a brain metastatic lesion in patients without a previous history of diagnosed non-nervous system cancer, negative chest x-ray, and normal CEA was 14.7%. However, in patients with a previous history of diagnosed non-nervous system cancer, the probability of having a metastatic lesion is high (88%). Extensive testing preoperatively may be justified in these cases because of its value in surgical decision-making and long-term prognosis. (Author)

  2. MRI diagnosis of solitary brain metastasis%单发脑转移瘤的MRI诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许思祥

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨单发脑转移瘤( solitary brain metastasis,SBM)的MRI表现,提高对其诊断的准确性。方法:回顾性分析经临床综合确诊的38例SBM的MRI平扫及增强表现,分析病灶的部位、大小、瘤周水肿程度和瘤体的强化特点。结果:本组38例SBM中,发生于幕上31例,其中位于脑皮质和皮质下区28例;幕下7例。瘤体直径3.0cm 7例。增强扫描所有病灶均出现强化,其中结节型强化19例,环型强化11例,混合型强化8例。瘤周无水肿7例,轻度水肿11例,中度水肿13例,重度水肿7例。结论:SBM的MRI表现具有一定的特征性,MRI增强扫描对其诊断和鉴别诊断具有重要价值。%Objective:To evaluate the MRI performance of solitary brain metastasis( SBM) ,and to improve the di-agnostic and differential diagnosis accuracy of SBM. Methods:Retrospectively review the MRI scan and enhanced scan of 38 cases of SBM by clinical comprehensive diagnosis. Analyze the location of tumor,size,peritumoral edema as well as findings after contrast enhancement. Results:In 38 cases,31 lesions were located at supratentorial regions,in which 28 tumors were located in cortex and subcortex. Seven lesions located at infratentorial regions. The diameter was less than 1. 0 cm in 12 cases,between 1. 0 cm to 3. 0 cm in 19 cases,and larger than 3 cm in 7 cases. All lesions showed enhancement,among which nodular enhancement was in 19 lesions,ring-like enhancement in 11 lesions,and mixed-shape enhancement in 8 lesions. Seven cases had no peritumoral edema,11 cases with mild edema,13 cases with moderate edema,and 7 cases with severe edema. Conclusion:The MRI performance of SBM had certain charac-teristics,and MRI enhanced scan had important value for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of SBM.

  3. Stereotactic Irradiation of the Postoperative Resection Cavity for Brain Metastasis: A Frameless Linear Accelerator-Based Case Series and Review of the Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Paul J., E-mail: pkelly@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Lin Yijie Brittany; Yu, Alvin Y. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Alexander, Brian M.; Hacker, Fred; Marcus, Karen J.; Weiss, Stephanie E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is the standard of care after resection of a brain metastasis. However, concern regarding possible neurocognitive effects and the lack of survival benefit with this approach has led to the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to the resection cavity in place of WBRT. We report our initial experience using an image-guided linear accelerator-based frameless stereotactic system and review the technical issues in applying this technique. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the setup accuracy, treatment outcome, and patterns of failure of the first 18 consecutive cases treated at Brigham and Women's Hospital. The target volume was the resection cavity without a margin excluding the surgical track. Results: The median number of brain metastases per patient was 1 (range, 1-3). The median planning target volume was 3.49 mL. The median prescribed dose was 18 Gy (range, 15-18 Gy) with normalization ranging from 68% to 85%. In all cases, 99% of the planning target volume was covered by the prescribed dose. The median conformity index was 1.6 (range, 1.41-1.92). The SRS was delivered with submillimeter accuracy. At a median follow-up of 12.7 months, local control was achieved in 16/18 cavities treated. True local recurrence occurred in 2 patients. No marginal failures occurred. Distant recurrence occurred in 6/17 patients. Median time to any failure was 7.4 months. No Grade 3 or higher toxicity was recorded. A long interval between initial cancer diagnosis and the development of brain metastasis was the only factor that trended toward a significant association with the absence of recurrence (local or distant) (log-rank p = 0.097). Conclusions: Frameless stereotactic irradiation of the resection cavity after surgery for a brain metastasis is a safe and accurate technique that offers durable local control and defers the use of WBRT in select patients. This technique should be tested in larger prospective studies.

  4. Crizotinib Treatment Combined with Resection and Whole-brain Radiation Therapy 
in A ROS1 Rearranged Lung Adenocarcinoma with Brain Metastasis: 
Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min ZHANG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer with brain metastasis had poor prognosis. Crizotinib had been confirmed to be used in ROS1 (C-ros oncogene 1 receptor tyrosine kinase rearranged lung adenocarcinoma, but its efficacy in lung cancer with brain metastasis was poor due to the blood brain barrier. In the present study, we reported one case of ROS1 fusion lung adenocarcinoma with symptomatic brain matastasis, who was treated with brain metastases resection, crizotinib, and whole brain radiotherapy plus boost to residual brain metastasis. The safety and efficacy was summarized. Methods At first, surgical resection was used to relive mass effect and to biopsy. Then crizotinib (250 mg, bid was chosen for the existence of ROS1 fusion gene. Whole brain radiotherapy plus boost to residual brain metastasis were used after surgery. Objective response was evaluated by Response Evaluation Criteriation in Solid Tumours (RECIST v1.1 and brain metastasis were evaluated by computer tomography (CT/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI image. Adverse events were evaluated according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTC AE v4.0. Results After taking crizotinib for 3 months, the lung lesions were close to complete response (CR, the brain metastasis were partial response (PR, the abdomen metastasis were CR and the symptom of blurred vision relieved. Conclusion Crizotinib combined with palliative operation and radiation therapy (WBRT plus boost to residual brain metastasis in the treatment of ROS1 fusion gene positive lung adenocarcinoma with symptomatic brain metastases, can effectively control intracranial lesions with good tolerance.

  5. Integrating Structure to Protein-Protein Interaction Networks That Drive Metastasis to Brain and Lung in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    H Billur Engin; Emre Guney; Ozlem Keskin; Baldo Oliva; Attila Gursoy

    2013-01-01

    Integrating Structure to Protein-Protein Interaction Networks That Drive Metastasis to Brain and Lung in Breast Cancer H. Billur Engin1, Emre Guney2, Ozlem Keskin1, Baldo Oliva2, Attila Gursoy1* 1 Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics and College of Engineering, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey, 2 Structural Bioinformatics Group (GRIB), Universitat Pompeu Fabra Abstract Blocking specific protein interactions can lead to human diseases. Accordingly, protein i...

  6. Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 is upregulated in the endothelium and tumor cells in melanoma brain metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick N Harter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The cytokine receptor tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (TNFRSF9 is mainly considered to be a co-stimulatory activation marker in hematopoietic cells. Several preclinical models have shown a dramatic beneficial effect of treatment approaches targeting TNFRSF9 with agonistic antibodies. However, preliminary clinical phase I/II studies were stopped after the occurrence of several severe deleterious side effects. In a previous study, it was demonstrated that TNFRSF9 was strongly expressed by reactive astrocytes in primary central nervous system (CNS tumors, but was largely absent from tumor or inflammatory cells. The aim of the present study was to address the cellular source of TNFRSF9 expression in the setting of human melanoma brain metastasis, a highly immunogenic tumor with a prominent tropism to the CNS. Methods: Melanoma brain metastasis was analyzed in a cohort of 78 patients by immunohistochemistry for TNFRSF9 and its expression was correlated with clinicopathological parameters including sex, age, survival, tumor size, number of tumor spots, and BRAF V600E expression status. Results: Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 was frequently expressed independently on both melanoma and endothelial cells. In addition, TNFRSF9 was also present on smooth muscle cells of larger vessels and on a subset of lymphomonocytic tumor infiltrates. No association between TNFRSF9 expression and patient survival or other clinicopathological parameters was seen. Of note, several cases showed a gradual increase in TNFRSF9 expression on tumor cells with increasing distance from blood vessels, an observation that might be linked to hypoxia-driven TNFRSF9 expression in tumor cells. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the cellular source of TNFRSF9 in melanoma brain metastasis largely exceeds the lymphomonocytic pool, and therefore further careful (re- assessment of potential TNFRSF9 functions in cell types other than

  7. Prognostic factors and survival of patients with brain metastasis from breast cancer who underwent craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, José Pablo; Lee, Adrian V; Brufsky, Adam M

    2015-07-01

    Brain metastasis (BM) in patients with breast cancer is a catastrophic event that results in poor prognosis. Identification of prognostic factors associated with breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) could help to identify patients at risk. The aim of this study was to assess clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and survival of patients with BCBM who had craniotomy and resection in a series of patients treated with modern multimodality therapy. We analyzed 42 patients with BCBM who underwent resection. Patients were diagnosed with breast cancer between April 1994 and May 2010. Cox proportional hazards regression was selected to describe factors associated with time to BM, survival from the date of first recurrence, and overall survival (OS). Median age was 51 years (range 24-74). Median follow-up was 4.2 years (range 0.6-18.5). The proportion of the biological subtypes of breast cancer was ER+/HER2- 25%, ER+/HER2+ 15%, ER-/HER2+ 30%, and ER-/HER2- 30%. Median OS from the date of primary diagnosis was 5.74 years. Median survival after diagnosis of BM was 1.33 years. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, stage was the only factor associated with shorter time to the development of BM (P = 0.033), whereas age was the only factor associated with survival from the date of recurrence (P = 0.027) and with OS (P = 0.037). Stage at primary diagnosis correlated with shorter time to the development of BM, while age at diagnosis was associated with shorter survival in BCBM. None of the other clinical factors had influence on survival.

  8. Medical and health economic assessment of radiosurgery for the treatment of brain metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radiotherapy for patients suffering from malignant neoplasms has developed greatly during the past decades. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS is one important radiotherapeutic option which is defined by a single and highly focussed application of radiation during a specified time interval. One of its important indications is the treatment of brain metastases. Objectives: The objective of this HTA is to summarise the current literature concerning the treatment of brain metastasis and to compare SRS as a single or additional treatment option to alternative treatment options with regard to their medical effectiveness/efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness as well as their ethical, social and legal implications. Methods: A structured search and hand search of identified literature are performed from January 2002 through August 2007 to identify relevant publications published in English or German. Studies targeting patients with single or multiple brain metastases are included. The methodological quality of included studies is assessed according to quality criteria, based on the criteria of evidence based medicine. Results: Of 1,495 publications 15 medical studies meet the inclusion criteria. Overall study quality is limited and with the exception of two randomized controlleed trials (RCT and two meta-analyses only historical cohort studies are identified. Reported outcome measures are highly variable between studies. Studies with high methodological quality provide evidence, that whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT in addition to SRS and SRS in addition to WBRT is associated with improved local tumour control rates and neurological function. However, only in patients with single brain metastasis, RPA-class 1 (RPA = Recursive partitioning analysis and certain primary tumour entities, this combination of SRS and WBRT is associated with superior survival compared to WBRT alone. Studies report no significant differences in adverse events between

  9. Short-time focused ultrasound hyperthermia enhances liposomal doxorubicin delivery and antitumor efficacy for brain metastasis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Kai; Chiang, Chi-Feng; Hsu, Yu-Hone; Lin, Tzu-Hung; Liou, Houng-Chi; Fu, Wen-Mei; Lin, Win-Li

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain/tumor barrier inhibits the uptake and accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs. Hyperthermia can enhance the delivery of chemotherapeutic agent into tumors. In this study, we investigated the effects of short-time focused ultrasound (FUS) hyperthermia on the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) for brain metastasis of breast cancer. Murine breast cancer 4T1-luc2 cells expressing firefly luciferase were injected into female BALB/c mice striatum tissues and used as a brain metastasis model. The mice were intravenously injected with PLD (5 mg/kg) with/without 10-minute transcranial FUS hyperthermia on day 6 after tumor implantation. The amounts of doxorubicin accumulated in the normal brain tissues and tumor tissues with/without FUS hyperthermia were measured using fluorometry. The tumor growth for the control, hyperthermia, PLD, and PLD + hyperthermia groups was measured using an IVIS spectrum system every other day from day 3 to day 11. Cell apoptosis and tumor characteristics were assessed using immunohistochemistry. Short-time FUS hyperthermia was able to significantly enhance the PLD delivery into brain tumors. The tumor growth was effectively inhibited by a single treatment of PLD + hyperthermia compared with both PLD alone and short-time FUS hyperthermia alone. Immunohistochemical examination further demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of PLD plus short-time FUS hyperthermia for brain metastasis of breast cancer. The application of short-time FUS hyperthermia after nanodrug injection may be an effective approach to enhance nanodrug delivery and improve the treatment of metastatic cancers. PMID:25278753

  10. Short-time focused ultrasound hyperthermia enhances liposomal doxorubicin delivery and antitumor efficacy for brain metastasis of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Kai; Chiang, Chi-Feng; Hsu, Yu-Hone; Lin, Tzu-Hung; Liou, Houng-Chi; Fu, Wen-Mei; Lin, Win-Li

    2014-01-01

    The blood–brain/tumor barrier inhibits the uptake and accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs. Hyperthermia can enhance the delivery of chemotherapeutic agent into tumors. In this study, we investigated the effects of short-time focused ultrasound (FUS) hyperthermia on the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) for brain metastasis of breast cancer. Murine breast cancer 4T1-luc2 cells expressing firefly luciferase were injected into female BALB/c mice striatum tissues and used as a brain metastasis model. The mice were intravenously injected with PLD (5 mg/kg) with/without 10-minute transcranial FUS hyperthermia on day 6 after tumor implantation. The amounts of doxorubicin accumulated in the normal brain tissues and tumor tissues with/without FUS hyperthermia were measured using fluorometry. The tumor growth for the control, hyperthermia, PLD, and PLD + hyperthermia groups was measured using an IVIS spectrum system every other day from day 3 to day 11. Cell apoptosis and tumor characteristics were assessed using immunohistochemistry. Short-time FUS hyperthermia was able to significantly enhance the PLD delivery into brain tumors. The tumor growth was effectively inhibited by a single treatment of PLD + hyperthermia compared with both PLD alone and short-time FUS hyperthermia alone. Immunohistochemical examination further demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of PLD plus short-time FUS hyperthermia for brain metastasis of breast cancer. The application of short-time FUS hyperthermia after nanodrug injection may be an effective approach to enhance nanodrug delivery and improve the treatment of metastatic cancers. PMID:25278753

  11. SNPs in the TGF-β signaling pathway are associated with increased risk of brain metastasis in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianxia Li

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Brain metastasis (BM from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is relatively common, but identifying which patients will develop brain metastasis has been problematic. We hypothesized that genotype variants in the TGF-β signaling pathway could be a predictive biomarker of brain metastasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We genotyped 33 SNPs from 13 genes in the TGF-β signaling pathway and evaluated their associations with brain metastasis risk by using DNA from blood samples from 161 patients with NSCLC. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess brain metastasis risk; Cox hazard analyses were used to evaluate the effects of various patient and disease characteristics on the risk of brain metastasis. RESULTS: The median age of the 116 men and 45 women in the study was 58 years; 62 (39% had stage IIIB or IV disease. Within 24 months after initial diagnosis of lung cancer, brain metastasis was found in 60 patients (37%. Of these 60 patients, 16 had presented with BM at diagnosis. Multivariate analysis showed the GG genotype of SMAD6: rs12913975 and TT genotype of INHBC: rs4760259 to be associated with a significantly higher risk of brain metastasis at 24 months follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 2.540, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.204-5.359, P = 0.014; and HR 1.885, 95% CI 1.086-3.273, P = 0.024, compared with the GA or CT/CC genotypes, respectively. When we analyzed combined subgroups, these rates showed higher for those having both the GG genotype of SMAD6: rs12913975 and the TT genotype of INHBC: rs4760259 (HR 2.353, 95% CI 1.390-3.985, P = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: We found the GG genotype of SMAD6: rs12913975 and TT genotype of INHBC: rs4760259 to be associated with risk of brain metastasis in patients with NSCLC. This finding, if confirmed, can help to identify patients at high risk of brain metastasis.

  12. Optical pathology of human brain metastasis of lung cancer using combined resonance Raman and spatial frequency spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; Pu, Yang; Cheng, Gangge; Zhou, Lixin; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Ke; Alfano, Robert R.

    2016-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy has become widely used for diagnostic purpose of breast, lung and brain cancers. This report introduced a new approach based on spatial frequency spectra analysis of the underlying tissue structure at different stages of brain tumor. Combined spatial frequency spectroscopy (SFS), Resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopic method is used to discriminate human brain metastasis of lung cancer from normal tissues for the first time. A total number of thirty-one label-free micrographic images of normal and metastatic brain cancer tissues obtained from a confocal micro- Raman spectroscopic system synchronously with examined RR spectra of the corresponding samples were collected from the identical site of tissue. The difference of the randomness of tissue structures between the micrograph images of metastatic brain tumor tissues and normal tissues can be recognized by analyzing spatial frequency. By fitting the distribution of the spatial frequency spectra of human brain tissues as a Gaussian function, the standard deviation, σ, can be obtained, which was used to generate a criterion to differentiate human brain cancerous tissues from the normal ones using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. This SFS-SVM analysis on micrograph images presents good results with sensitivity (85%), specificity (75%) in comparison with gold standard reports of pathology and immunology. The dual-modal advantages of SFS combined with RR spectroscopy method may open a new way in the neuropathology applications.

  13. Nosocomial infection in patients with brain metastasis%脑转移瘤患者医院感染分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁维军; 杨伟芳; 于长辉

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨脑转移瘤患者医院感染的相关因素.方法 回顾性分析510例脑转移瘤患者医院感染的临床资料.结果 78例患者并发医院感染,感染率为15.3%;其中呼吸道感染53例,占67.9%.结论 脑转移瘤患者年龄大、血糖增高、留置导尿易导致医院感染,必须加强医院感染的管理,积极控制血糖,减少留置导尿,规范抗菌药物的应用,减少医院感染的发生.%OBJECTIVE To analyze the clinical features of nosocomial infection in patients with brain metastasis. METHODS The clinical data of 510 brain metastasis tumor patients were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS Nosocomial infection occurred in 78 patients with the infection rate of 15. 3%. The respiratory infection was the major infection which accounting for 67. 9%. CONCLUSION The incidence of nosocomial infection in brain metastasis patients is high. The elder age, hyperglycemia, and indwelling catheterization are important risk factors for nosocomial infection. To reduce the occurrence of nosocomial infection, the following strategies need to be strengthened including treating hyperglycemia with standard care, reducing indwelling caterterization and rationally using the antibiotics.

  14. Lapatinib-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles for the prevention and treatment of triple-negative breast cancer metastasis to the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xu; Zheng, Xiaoyao; Pang, Xiaoyin; Pang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Jingjing; Zhang, Zheming; Jiang, Tao; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Qizhi; Jiang, Xinguo

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastasis from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has continued to lack effective clinical treatments until present. However, the feature of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) frequently overexpressed in TNBC offers the opportunity to employ lapatinib, a dual-tyrosine kinase inhibitor of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) and EGFR, in the treatment of brain metastasis of TNBC. Unfortunately, the low oral bioavailability of lapatinib and drug efflux by blood-brain barrier have resulted in low drug delivery efficiency into the brain and limited therapeutic effects for patients with brain metastasis in clinical trials. To overcome such disadvantages, we developed lapatinib-loaded human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles, named LHNPs, by modified nanoparticle albumin-bound (Nab) technology. LHNPs had a core-shell structure and the new HSA/phosphatidylcholine sheath made LHNPs stable in bloodstream. Compared to free lapatinib, LHNPs could inhibit the adhesion, migration and invasion ability of high brain-metastatic 4T1 cells more effectively in vitro. Tissue distribution following intravenous administration revealed that LHNPs (i.v., 10 mg/kg) achieved increased delivery to the metastatic brain at 5.43 and 4.36 times the levels of Tykerb (p.o., 100 mg/kg) and lapatinib solution (LS, i.v., 10 mg/kg), respectively. Compared to the marketed Tykerb group, LHNPs had markedly better inhibition effects on brain micrometastasis and significantly extended the median survival time of 4T1 brain metastatic mice in consequence. The improved anti-tumor efficacy of LHNPs could be partly ascribed to down-regulating metastasis-related proteins. Therefore, these results clearly indicated that LHNPs could become a promising candidate for clinical applications against brain metastasis of TNBC. PMID:27086917

  15. STAT3 pathway regulates lung-derived brain metastasis initiating cell capacity through miR-21 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohini; Garg, Neha; Venugopal, Chitra; Hallett, Robin; Tokar, Tomas; McFarlane, Nicole; Mahendram, Sujeivan; Bakhshinyan, David; Manoranjan, Branavan; Vora, Parvez; Qazi, Maleeha; Arpin, Carolynn C; Page, Brent; Haftchenary, Sina; Rosa, David A; Lai, Ping-Shan; Gómez-Biagi, Rodolfo F; Ali, Ahmed M; Lewis, Andrew; Geletu, Mulu; Murty, Naresh K; Hassell, John A; Jurisica, Igor; Gunning, Patrick T; Singh, Sheila K

    2015-09-29

    Brain metastases (BM) represent the most common tumor to affect the adult central nervous system. Despite the increasing incidence of BM, likely due to consistently improving treatment of primary cancers, BM remain severely understudied. In this study, we utilized patient-derived stem cell lines from lung-to-brain metastases to examine the regulatory role of STAT3 in brain metastasis initiating cells (BMICs). Annotation of our previously described BMIC regulatory genes with protein-protein interaction network mapping identified STAT3 as a novel protein interactor. STAT3 knockdown showed a reduction in BMIC self-renewal and migration, and decreased tumor size in vivo. Screening of BMIC lines with a library of STAT3 inhibitors identified one inhibitor to significantly reduce tumor formation. Meta-analysis identified the oncomir microRNA-21 (miR-21) as a target of STAT3 activity. Inhibition of miR-21 displayed similar reductions in BMIC self-renewal and migration as STAT3 knockdown. Knockdown of STAT3 also reduced expression of known downstream targets of miR-21. Our studies have thus identified STAT3 and miR-21 as cooperative regulators of stemness, migration and tumor initiation in lung-derived BM. Therefore, STAT3 represents a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of lung-to-brain metastases. PMID:26314961

  16. In Vitro Treatment of Melanoma Brain Metastasis by Simultaneously Targeting the MAPK and PI3K Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjit Daphu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer, with a high propensity to metastasize to the brain. More than 60% of melanomas have the BRAFV600E mutation, which activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway [1]. In addition, increased PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway activity has been demonstrated, through the loss of activity of the tumor suppressor gene, PTEN [2]. Here, we treated two melanoma brain metastasis cell lines, H1_DL2, harboring a BRAFV600E mutation and PTEN loss, and H3, harboring WT (wild-type BRAF and PTEN loss, with the MAPK (BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib and the PI3K pathway associated mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus. Combined use of the drugs inhibited tumor cell growth and proliferation in vitro in H1_DL2 cells, compared to single drug treatment. Treatment was less effective in the H3 cells. Furthermore, a strong inhibitory effect on the viability of H1_DL2 cells, when grown as 3D multicellular spheroids, was seen. The treatment inhibited the expression of pERK1/2 and reduced the expression of pAKT and p-mTOR in H1_DL2 cells, confirming that the MAPK and PI3K pathways were inhibited after drug treatment. Microarray experiments followed by principal component analysis (PCA mapping showed distinct gene clustering after treatment, and cell cycle checkpoint regulators were affected. Global gene analysis indicated that functions related to cell survival and invasion were influenced by combined treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that combined therapy with vemurafenib and temsirolimus is effective on melanoma brain metastasis cells in vitro. The presented results highlight the potential of combined treatment to overcome treatment resistance that may develop after vemurafenib treatment of melanomas.

  17. Long-term survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and synchronous brain metastasis treated with whole-brain radiotherapy and thoracic chemoradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain metastases occur in 30-50% of Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and confer a worse prognosis and quality of life. These patients are usually treated with Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) followed by systemic therapy. Few studies have evaluated the role of chemoradiotherapy to the primary tumor after WBRT as definitive treatment in the management of these patients. We reviewed the outcome of 30 patients with primary NSCLC and brain metastasis at diagnosis without evidence of other metastatic sites. Patients were treated with WBRT and after induction chemotherapy with paclitaxel and cisplatin for two cycles. In the absence of progression, concurrent chemoradiotherapy for the primary tumor with weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin was indicated, with a total effective dose of 60 Gy. If disease progression was ruled out, four chemotherapy cycles followed. Median Progression-free survival (PFS) and Overall survival (OS) were 8.43 ± 1.5 and 31.8 ± 15.8 months, respectively. PFS was 39.5% at 1 year and 24.7% at 2 years. The 1- and 2-year OS rates were 71.1 and 60.2%, respectively. Three-year OS was significantly superior for patients with N0-N1 stage disease vs. N2-N3 (60 vs. 24%, respectively; Response rate [RR], 0.03; p= 0.038). Patients with NSCLC and brain metastasis might benefit from treatment with WBRT and concurrent thoracic chemoradiotherapy. The subgroup of N0-N1 patients appears to achieve the greatest benefit. The result of this study warrants a prospective trial to confirm the benefit of this treatment

  18. Neurobiological study of fish brains gives insights into the nature of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1-3 neurons.

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    Tomomi eKarigo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that up to three different molecular species of GnRH peptides encoded by different paralogs of gnrh genes are expressed by anatomically distinct groups of GnRH neurons in the brain of one vertebrate species. They are called gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3. Recent evidence from molecular, anatomical, and physiological experiments strongly suggests that each GnRH system functions differently. Here, we review recent advancement in the functional studies of the three different GnRH neuron systems, mainly focusing on the electrophysiological analysis of the GnRH-green fluorescent protein (GFP transgenic animals. The introduction of GFP transgenic animals for the electrophysiological analysis of GnRH neurons greatly advanced our knowledge on their anatomy and electrophysiology, especially of gnrh1 neurons, which has long defied detailed electrophysiological analysis of single neurons because of their small size and scattered distribution. Based on the results of recent studies, we propose that different electrophysiological properties, especially the spontaneous patterns of electrical activities and their time-dependent changes, and the axonal projections characterize the different functions of GnRH1-3 neurons; GnRH1 neurons act as hypophysiotropic neuroendocrine regulators, and GnRH2 and GnRH3 neurons act as neuromodulators in wide areas of the brain.

  19. Hemorrhage of brain metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer post gefitinib therapy: two case reports and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Xin-Biao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gefitinib is one of the small molecule inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR TKIs. Clinical trials have demonstrated it is effective for treatment of a subset of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Gefitinib has been generally considered to be a relatively safe agent. Besides a small proportion of fatal interstitial pneumonia, the common adverse drug reactions of gefitinib include diarrhea and skin rash, which are generally mild and reversible. Herein, we report the first two cases of brain metastasis hemorrhage that might be involved with the use of gefitinib. Case presentation Two patients with brain metastasis from NSCLC developed brain hemorrhage after gefitinib therapy. The hemorrhage in one case occurred one month after gefitinib combined with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT, and in the another case hemorrhage developed slowly within brain metastases eight months post gefitinib monotherapy for diffuse pulmonary metastasis from a lung cancer undergone surgical removal previously. Conclusion We speculate brain hemorrhage could be one of the adverse drug reactions of gefitinib treatment for NSCLC and suggest clinicians be aware of this possible rare entity. More data are needed to confirm our findings, especially when gefitinib is used in the settings of brain metastases from NSCLC or other origins.

  20. Clinical study of upper extremity lymph nodes metastasis in breast cancer patients staging pN1~3%N1~3期乳腺癌患者合并上肢淋巴结转移的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧林洋; 雷睿文; 黄湛; 杨传盛; 李敏; 张凯; 陈卓荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective Through the study of upper extremity lymph nodes metastasis in the patients with pN1~3 breast cancer, to provide theoretical basis for the preserving upper extremity lymph nodes in positive axillary lymph nodes patients in axillary lymph nodes dissection (ALND). Methods Forty-five newly diagnosed breast cancer pa-tients with axillary lymph nodes metastasis were included. Using carbon nanoparticles suspension for axillary reverse mapping, 42 patients were labelled successfully and performed axillary lymph nodes dissection (included arm lym-phtics). 1~3 blue dye arm lymph nodes were checked out, and the average number was (2±0.9). 15~37 not-dyed axil-lary lymph nodes were checked out, and the average number was (26±6.9). Lymph nodes of the two groups were per-formed pathological section to study the statuses of the upper extremity lymph nodes metastasis and the stages of axil-lary lymph nodes. Results Twenty-six patients were graded as pN1, one of which was detected with upper extremity lymph nodes metastasis. Ten patients were graded as pN2, 2 of which were detected with upper extremity lymph nodes metastasis. Six patients were graded as pN3, 5 of which were detected with upper extremity lymph nodes metastasis. Conclusion It's feasible to use carbon nanoparticles suspension to carry out axillary reverse mapping during ALND for breast cancer patients staging pN1~3. Axillary lymph nodes metastasis might merge upper extremity lymph nodes metastasis, indicating the communications of the two. Accordingly, it's not rigorous to decide whether preserve the up-per extremity lymph nodes during ALND by pathologic axillary lymph node staging for these patients only. It's re-quired to search for more reliable methods to evaluate the axillary reverse mapping.%目的:通过研究N1~3期乳腺癌患者上肢淋巴结转移情况,为腋窝淋巴结阳性患者在行腋窝淋巴结清扫术(ALND)中的上肢淋巴结保留术提供理论依据。方法45例初诊伴

  1. The metastasis-promoting S100A4 protein confers neuroprotection in brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Pankratova, Stanislava; Owczarek, Sylwia;

    2012-01-01

    Identification of novel pro-survival factors in the brain is paramount for developing neuroprotective therapies. The multifunctional S100 family proteins have important roles in many human diseases and are also upregulated by brain injury. However, S100 functions in the nervous system remain...... unclear. Here we show that the S100A4 protein, mostly studied in cancer, is overexpressed in the damaged human and rodent brain and released from stressed astrocytes. Genetic deletion of S100A4 exacerbates neuronal loss after brain trauma or excitotoxicity, increasing oxidative cell damage and...... downregulating the neuroprotective protein metallothionein I+II. We identify two neurotrophic motifs in S100A4 and show that these motifs are neuroprotective in animal models of brain trauma. Finally, we find that S100A4 rescues neurons via the Janus kinase/STAT pathway and, partially, the interleukin-10...

  2. Comparison of Clinical Outcomes of Surgery Followed by Local Brain Radiotherapy and Surgery Followed by Whole Brain Radiotherapy in Patients With Single Brain Metastasis: Single-Center Retrospective Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Data comparing the clinical outcomes of local brain radiotherapy (LBRT) and whole brain RT (WBRT) in patients with a single brain metastasis after tumor removal are limited. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed to compare the patterns of treatment failure, cause of death, progression-free survival, median survival time, and Karnofsky performance status for long-term survivors among patients who underwent surgery followed by either LBRT or WBRT between 1990 and 2008 at the National Cancer Center Hospital. Results: A total of 130 consecutive patients were identified. The median progression-free survival period among the patients who received postoperative LBRT (n = 64) and WBRT (n = 66) was 9.7 and 11.5 months, respectively (p = .75). The local recurrence rates (LBRT, 9.4% vs. WBRT, 12.1%) and intracranial new metastasis rate (LBRT, 42.2% vs. WBRT, 33.3%) were similar in each arm. The incidence of leptomeningeal metastasis was also equivalent (LBRT, 9.4% vs. WBRT, 10.6%). The median survival time for the LBRT and WBRT patients was 13.9 and 16.7 months, respectively (p = .88). A neurologic cause of death was noted in 35.6% of the patients in the LBRT group and 36.7% of the WBRT group (p = .99). The Karnofsky performance status at 2 years was comparable between the two groups. Conclusions: The clinical outcomes of LBRT and WBRT were similar. A prospective evaluation is warranted.

  3. Exercise modulates redox-sensitive small GTPase activity in the brain microvasculature in a model of brain metastasis formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Wolff

    Full Text Available Tumor cell extravasation into the brain requires passage through the blood-brain barrier (BBB. There is evidence that exercise can alter the oxidation status of the brain microvasculature and protect against tumor cell invasion into the brain, although the mechanisms are not well understood. In the current study, we focused on the role of microenvironment generated by exercise and metastasizing tumor cells at the levels of brain microvessels, influencing oxidative stress-mediated responses and activation of redox-sensitive small GTPases. Mature male mice were exercised for four weeks using a running wheel with the average voluntary running distance 9.0 ± 0.3 km/day. Mice were then infused with 1.0 × 10(6 D122 (murine Lewis lung carcinoma cells into the brain microvasculature, and euthanized either 48 hours (in short-term studies or 2-3 weeks (in long-term studies post tumor cell administration. A significant increase in the level of reactive oxygen species was observed following 48 hours or 3 weeks of tumor cells growth, which was accompanied by a reduction in MnSOD expression in the exercised mice. Activation of the small GTPase Rho was negatively correlated with running distance in the tumor cell infused mice. Together, these data suggest that exercise may play a significant role during aggressive metastatic invasion, especially at higher intensities in pre-trained individuals.

  4. Patent foramen ovale as a preferential mechanism for increasing the likelihood of brain tumor metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Rigatelli, Gianluca; Rossi, Andrea; Dell'Avvocata, Fabio; Cardaioli, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Metastases are the most common tumors of the central nervous system which may lie dormant behind the brain blood- barrier sheltering from chemiotherapeutic drugs, and whose presence usually indicates a poor prognosis. Development of brain metastases includes the intravasation of the cancer cells through the tumor blood vessels, their circulation within the venous system, passing through the pulmonary filter thus reaching the systemic circulation. Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a natural commun...

  5. The Largest Known Survival Analysis of Patients with Brain Metastasis from Thyroid Cancer Based on Prognostic Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhyun Choi

    Full Text Available To analyze the clinical features and prognostic factors associated with the survival of patients with a very rare occurrence of brain metastasis (BM from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC.A total of 37 patients with DTC who were diagnosed with BM between 1995 and 2014 were included. We reviewed the clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and image findings of BM. Factors associated with survival were evaluated, and the patients were divided into three prognostic groups (Groups A, B, and C for comparative analysis.The median age at BM was 63 years, and the median time from initial thyroid cancer diagnosis to BM was 3.8 years. The median survival and the 1-year actuarial survival rate after BM were 8.8 months and 47%, respectively. According to univariate and multivariate analyses, four good prognostic factors (GPFs were identified including age ≤ 60 years, PS ≤ ECOG 2, ≤ 3 BM sites, and without extracranial metastasis prior to BM. Three prognostic groups were designed based on age and number of remaining GPFs: patients ≤ 60 years of age with at least 2 GPFs (Group A had the most favorable prognosis with a median survival of 32.8 months; patients ≤ 60 years of age with fewer than 2 GPFs and those > 60 years of age with at least 2 GPFs (Group B had an intermediate prognosis with a median survival of 9.4 months; and patients > 60 years of age with fewer than 2 GPFs (Group C had the least favorable prognosis with a median survival of 1.5 months.The survival of patients with BM form DTC differed among the prognostic groups based on the total number of good prognostic factors.

  6. Assessment of the Molecular Expression and Structure of Gangliosides in Brain Metastasis of Lung Adenocarcinoma by an Advanced Approach Based on Fully Automated Chip-Nanoelectrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamfir, Alina D.; Serb, Alina; Vukeli, Željka; Flangea, Corina; Schiopu, Catalin; Fabris, Dragana; Kalanj-Bognar, Svjetlana; Capitan, Florina; Sisu, Eugen

    2011-12-01

    Gangliosides (GGs), sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, are known to be involved in the invasive/metastatic behavior of brain tumor cells. Development of modern methods for determination of the variations in GG expression and structure during neoplastic cell transformation is a priority in the field of biomedical analysis. In this context, we report here on the first optimization and application of chip-based nanoelectrospray (NanoMate robot) mass spectrometry (MS) for the investigation of gangliosides in a secondary brain tumor. In our work a native GG mixture extracted and purified from brain metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma was screened by NanoMate robot coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight MS. A native GG mixture from an age-matched healthy brain tissue, sampled and analyzed under identical conditions, served as a control. Comparative MS analysis demonstrated an evident dissimilarity in GG expression in the two tissue types. Brain metastasis is characterized by many species having a reduced N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) content, however, modified by fucosylation or O-acetylation such as Fuc-GM4, Fuc-GM3, di- O-Ac-GM1, O-Ac-GM3. In contrast, healthy brain tissue is dominated by longer structures exhibiting from mono- to hexasialylated sugar chains. Also, significant differences in ceramide composition were discovered. By tandem MS using collision-induced dissociation at low energies, brain metastasis-associated GD3 (d18:1/18:0) species as well as an uncommon Fuc-GM1 (d18:1/18:0) detected in the normal brain tissue could be structurally characterized. The novel protocol was able to provide a reliable compositional and structural characterization with high analysis pace and at a sensitivity situated in the fmol range.

  7. In vivo MRI of cancer cell fate at the single-cell level in a mouse model of breast cancer metastasis to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyn, Chris; Ronald, John A; Ramadan, Soha S; Snir, Jonatan A; Barry, Andrea M; MacKenzie, Lisa T; Mikulis, David J; Palmieri, Diane; Bronder, Julie L; Steeg, Patricia S; Yoneda, Toshiyuki; MacDonald, Ian C; Chambers, Ann F; Rutt, Brian K; Foster, Paula J

    2006-11-01

    Metastasis (the spread of cancer from a primary tumor to secondary organs) is responsible for most cancer deaths. The ability to follow the fate of a population of tumor cells over time in an experimental animal would provide a powerful new way to monitor the metastatic process. Here we describe a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that permits the tracking of breast cancer cells in a mouse model of brain metastasis at the single-cell level. Cancer cells that were injected into the left ventricle of the mouse heart and then delivered to the brain were detectable on MR images. This allowed the visualization of the initial delivery and distribution of cells, as well as the growth of tumors from a subset of these cells within the whole intact brain volume. The ability to follow the metastatic process from the single-cell stage through metastatic growth, and to quantify and monitor the presence of solitary undivided cells will facilitate progress in understanding the mechanisms of brain metastasis and tumor dormancy, and the development of therapeutics to treat this disease. PMID:17029229

  8. Concomitant treatment of brain metastasis with Whole Brain Radiotherapy [WBRT] and Temozolomide [TMZ] is active and improves Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montella Liliana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain metastases (BM represent one of the most frequent complications related to cancer, and their treatment continues to evolve. We have evaluated the activity, toxicity and the impact on Quality of Life (QoL of a concomitant treatment with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT and Temozolomide (TMZ in patients with brain metastases from solid tumors in a prospective Simon two stage study. Methods Fifty-nine patients were enrolled and received 30 Gy WBRT with concomitant TMZ (75 mg/m2/day for ten days, and subsequently TMZ (150 mg/m2/day for up to six cycles. The primary end points were clinical symptoms and radiologic response. Results Five patients had a complete response, 21 patients had a partial response, while 18 patients had stable disease. The overall response rate (45% exceeded the target activity per study design. The median time to progression was 9 months. Median overall survival was 13 months. The most frequent toxicities included grade 3 neutropenia (15% and anemia (13%, and only one patient developed a grade 4 thrombocytopenia. Age, Karnofsky performance status, presence of extracranial metastases and the recursive partitioning analysis (RPA were found to be predictive factors for response in patients. Overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS were dependent on age and on the RPA class. Conclusion We conclude that this treatment is well tolerated, with an encouraging objective response rate, and a significant improvement in quality of life (p

  9. Medical and health economic assessment of radiosurgery for the treatment of brain metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias; Willich, Stefan N.; Vauth, Christoph; Ernst, Iris; Schwarzbach, Christoph; Bockelbrink, Angelina; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2009-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy for patients suffering from malignant neoplasms has developed greatly during the past decades. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is one important radiotherapeutic option which is defined by a single and highly focussed application of radiation during a specified time interval. One of its important indications is the treatment of brain metastases . Objectives The objective of this HTA is to summarise the current literature concerning the treatment of b...

  10. TTF-1 may not be a Reliable Marker for Differentiating Metastasis from Brain Tumors

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    Betül ÜNAL

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: TTF-1 is widely used as an immunohistochemical marker of lung and thyroid tumors. However, TTF-1 expression has been described in tumors from other sites. The presence of TTF-1 expression in primary brain tumors is largely unclear and has not been clearly specified yet. We characterized expression of two TTF-1 clones in primary brain tumors with relevance to tumor types and grades. Material and Method: We studied immunohistochemistry with tissue micro-array, using both clones (8G7G3/1 and SPT24 in 45 primary brain tumors of different types and grades. Our cases consisted of 1 grade I, 7 grade II, 4 grade III, 20 grade IV astrocytic tumors; 9 meningiomas, 2 oligodendrogliomas, 1 schwannoma and 1 medulloblastoma. Results: We have found TTF-1 nuclear staining using the SPT24 clone in 4 cases (3 cases were grade IV and 1 was grade III. Focal and weak staining was seen in three cases and moderate-strong and diffuse staining was seen in one case. All the tumors were negative with clone 8G7G3/1. Clone SPT24 was more sensitive but less specific. Conclusion: TTF-1 can also be expressed in primary brain tumors, particularly grade III to IV tumors. TTF-1 expression was a rare finding in previous studies, however strong and diffuse staining was not observed until today. We think that TTF-1 nuclear expression in high-grade astrocytic tumors cannot rule out primaries even when diffuse and strong staining. Clinical and pathological parameters should be evaluated together.

  11. Brain Metastasis is Predetermined in Early-Stages of Cutaneous Melanoma by CD44v6 Expression through Epigenetic Regulation of the Spliceosome

    OpenAIRE

    Marzese, Diego M.; Liu, Michelle; Huynh, Jamie L.; Hirose, Hajime; Donovan, Nicholas C.; Huynh, Kelly T.; Kiyohara, Eiji; Chong, Kelly; Cheng, David; Tanaka, Ryo; Morton, Donald L.; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Daniel F. Kelly; Hoon, Dave S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma brain metastasis (MBM) is frequent and has a very poor prognosis with no current predictive factors or therapeutic molecular targets. Our study unravels the molecular alterations of cell-surface glycoprotein CD44 variants during melanoma progression to MBM. High expression of CD44 splicing variant 6 (CD44v6) in primary melanoma (PRM) and regional lymph node metastases from AJCC Stage IIIC patients significantly predicts MBM-development. The expression of CD44v6 also enhances the migr...

  12. Lack of adrenomedullin in mouse endothelial cells results in defective angiogenesis, enhanced vascular permeability, less metastasis, and more brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Callejero, Laura; Pozo-Rodrigálvarez, Andrea; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo; Martínez, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a vasodilating peptide involved in the regulation of circulatory homeostasis and in the pathophysiology of certain cardiovascular diseases. AM plays critical roles in blood vessels, including regulation of vascular stability and permeability. To elucidate the autocrine/paracrine function of AM in endothelial cells (EC) in vivo, a conditional knockout of AM in EC (AM(EC-KO)) was used. The amount of vascularization of the matrigel implants was lower in AM(EC-KO) mice indicating a defective angiogenesis. Moreover, ablation of AM in EC revealed increased vascular permeability in comparison with wild type (WT) littermates. In addition, AM(EC-KO) lungs exhibited significantly less tumor growth than littermate WT mice using a syngeneic model of metastasis. Furthermore, following middle cerebral artery permanent occlusion, there was a significant infarct size decrease in animals lacking endothelial AM when compared to their WT counterparts. AM is an important regulator of EC function, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis, and brain response to ischemia. Studies of AM should bring novel approaches to the treatment of vascular diseases. PMID:27640364

  13. Differentiation of solitary brain metastasis from glioblastoma multiforme: a predictive multiparametric approach using combined MR diffusion and perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Adam Herman; Moser, Franklin G.; Maya, Marcel [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Erly, William; Nael, Kambiz [University of Arizona Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Solitary brain metastasis (MET) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) can appear similar on conventional MRI. The purpose of this study was to identify magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion and diffusion-weighted biomarkers that can differentiate MET from GBM. In this retrospective study, patients were included if they met the following criteria: underwent resection of a solitary enhancing brain tumor and had preoperative 3.0 T MRI encompassing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE), and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion. Using co-registered images, voxel-based fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), K{sup trans}, and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) values were obtained in the enhancing tumor and non-enhancing peritumoral T2 hyperintense region (NET2). Data were analyzed by logistic regression and analysis of variance. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the optimal parameter/s and threshold for predicting of GBM vs. MET. Twenty-three patients (14 M, age 32-78 years old) met our inclusion criteria. Pathology revealed 13 GBMs and 10 METs. In the enhancing tumor, rCBV, K{sup trans}, and FA were higher in GBM, whereas MD was lower, neither without statistical significance. In the NET2, rCBV was significantly higher (p = 0.05) in GBM, but MD was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in GBM. FA and K{sup trans} were higher in GBM, though not reaching significance. The best discriminative power was obtained in NET2 from a combination of rCBV, FA, and MD, resulting in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.98. The combination of MR diffusion and perfusion matrices in NET2 can help differentiate GBM over solitary MET with diagnostic accuracy of 98 %. (orig.)

  14. Radiotherapy for asymptomatic brain metastasis in epidermal growth factor receptor mutant non-small cell lung cancer without prior tyrosine kinase inhibitors treatment: a retrospective clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with brain metastasis (BM) harboring an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation shows good response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This study is to assess the appropriate timing of brain radiotherapy (RT) for asymptomatic BM in EGFR mutant NSCLC patients. There were 628 patients diagnosed with EGFR mutant NSCLC between October 2005 and December 2011. Treatment outcomes had been retrospectively evaluated in 96 patients with asymptomatic BM without prior TKI treatment. 39 patients received first-line brain RT, 23 patients received delayed brain RT, and 34 patients did not receive brain RT. With a median follow-up of 26 months, the 2-year OS was 40.6 %. Univariate analyses revealed that ECOG performance status (p = 0.006), other distant metastases (p = 0.002) and first line systemic treatment (p = 0.032) were significantly associated with overall survival (OS). Multivariate analyses revealed that other sites of distant metastases (p = 0.030) were prognostic factor. The timing of brain RT was not significantly related to OS (p = 0.246). The 2-year BM progression-free survival (PFS) was 26.9 %. Brain RT as first-line therapy failed to demonstrate a significant association with BM PFS (p = 0.643). First-line brain RT failed to improve long-term survival in TKI-naïve EGFR mutant NSCLC patients with asymptomatic BM. Prospective studies are needed to validate these clinical findings

  15. Ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscopy for brain imaging at 6 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um resolution (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Akkin, Taner; Magnain, Caroline V.; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Cramer, Avilash; Wang, Ruopeng; Sakadžic, Sava; Boas, David A.

    2016-03-01

    Neuroanatomical pathways form the basis for functional activity of brain circuits. In the past, we developed a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography with serial scanning to achieve large-scale brain imaging. The system was able to visualize 3D fiber tracts of ~20 um in diameter. To investigate the neuroanatomical pathways at finer scales, we have now built a polarization-maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscope (PS-OCM) at 1300 nm. The PS-OCM has an axial resolution of 3.5 um in tissue. The detection setup consists of two spectrometers, acquiring spectral interference on orthogonal polarization channels. With a single measurement, the setup generates four contrasts: reflectivity, cross-polarization, retardance and optic axis orientation. To investigate the capability of PS-OCM at different resolutions, we used three microscope objectives that yield lateral resolutions of 6.0 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um. Blocks of formalin fixed mouse brain and human brain were scanned. The cross-polarization and retardance images clearly depict the neuronal fiber structures, which are comparable with that generated by the maximum projection of volumetric reflectivity data. The optic axis orientation quantifies the in-plane fiber orientation. With the lateral resolution of 1.3 um, the retardance contrast is weak in white matter due to the shallow depth of focus. Overall, the ultra-high resolution PS-OCM provides a new tool to reveal neuroanatomical maps in the brain at cellular resolution.

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulation of Kv1.3 channel is disregulated by adaptor proteins Grb10 and nShc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marks David R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotrophins are important regulators of growth and regeneration, and acutely, they can modulate the activity of voltage-gated ion channels. Previously we have shown that acute brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF activation of neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB suppresses the Shaker voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv1.3 via phosphorylation of multiple tyrosine residues in the N and C terminal aspects of the channel protein. It is not known how adaptor proteins, which lack catalytic activity, but interact with members of the neurotrophic signaling pathway, might scaffold with ion channels or modulate channel activity. Results We report the co-localization of two adaptor proteins, neuronal Src homology and collagen (nShc and growth factor receptor-binding protein 10 (Grb10, with Kv1.3 channel as demonstrated through immunocytochemical approaches in the olfactory bulb (OB neural lamina. To further explore the specificity and functional ramification of adaptor/channel co-localization, we performed immunoprecipitation and Western analysis of channel, kinase, and adaptor transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK 293. nShc formed a direct protein-protein interaction with Kv1.3 that was independent of BDNF-induced phosphorylation of Kv1.3, whereas Grb10 did not complex with Kv1.3 in HEK 293 cells. Both adaptors, however, co-immunoprecipitated with Kv1.3 in native OB. Grb10 was interestingly able to decrease the total expression of Kv1.3, particularly at the membrane surface, and subsequently eliminated the BDNF-induced phosphorylation of Kv1.3. To examine the possibility that the Src homology 2 (SH2 domains of Grb10 were directly binding to basally phosphorylated tyrosines in Kv1.3, we utilized point mutations to substitute multiple tyrosine residues with phenylalanine. Removal of the tyrosines 111–113 and 449 prevented Grb10 from decreasing Kv1.3 expression. In the absence of either adaptor protein

  17. 不同类型肺癌脑转移瘤的多层螺旋CT表现%Study on manifestations of multislice spiral CT scanning in different types of lung cancer with brain metastasis.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博; 李晶

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the manifestations of CT scanning in brain metastasis of different types of lung cancers. Methods Fifty five patients with brain metastasis were chosen in this study, all of them had performed spiral CT scanning. Their pathological results as the standard were compared with the lesions of different types of brain metastasis, distribution of single lesion and multiple lesions in brain, enhanced features and peritumoral edema. Results ①There were 65 lesions of adenocarcinoma with brain metastasis including 26 lesions of squamous cell carcinoma with brain metastasis, 6 lesions of small cell carcinoma with hrain metastasis. ②Large cell carcinoma with brain metastasis had been seen in 9 lesions of adenosquamous carcinoma. The most commonly seen locality was parietal brain metastasis followed by frontal and occipital lobes. The distribution of metastatic tumors was as follows: single in 26 cases and multiple in 29 cases, and adenocarcinoma accounted for 34. 55% , squamous cell carcinoma with single lesion accounted for 23. 64% . ③The characteristic manifestations of brain metastasis in CT scanning were as follows: higher proportion ( 52.73% ) of metastasis manifested as nodular enhancement, and smaller proportion ( 3. 64% ) manifested as no enhancement. The adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma manifested mainly as nodular enhancement, squamous cell carcinoma mainly manifested as ring enhancement. ④Among peritumor edema in brain metastasis, the peritumoral edema of brain metastasis in higher proportion ( 50. 91% ) manifested as severe edema, and lowest proportion ( 9.09% ) as mild edema. Conclusion Different pathological types of brain metastasis have different characteristics in cerebral CT scanning.%目的 分析肺癌脑转移瘤颅内病灶的CT图像特点.方法 选择肺癌脑转移患者55例,所有患者均接受螺旋CT检查,以病理学结果为标准,观察不同类型脑转移瘤病灶数量及在脑内分布情况,比较不

  18. Stereotactic Irradiation of the Postoperative Resection Cavity for Brain Metastasis: A Frameless Linear Accelerator-Based Case Series and Review of the Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is the standard of care after resection of a brain metastasis. However, concern regarding possible neurocognitive effects and the lack of survival benefit with this approach has led to the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to the resection cavity in place of WBRT. We report our initial experience using an image-guided linear accelerator-based frameless stereotactic system and review the technical issues in applying this technique. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the setup accuracy, treatment outcome, and patterns of failure of the first 18 consecutive cases treated at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. The target volume was the resection cavity without a margin excluding the surgical track. Results: The median number of brain metastases per patient was 1 (range, 1–3). The median planning target volume was 3.49 mL. The median prescribed dose was 18 Gy (range, 15–18 Gy) with normalization ranging from 68% to 85%. In all cases, 99% of the planning target volume was covered by the prescribed dose. The median conformity index was 1.6 (range, 1.41–1.92). The SRS was delivered with submillimeter accuracy. At a median follow-up of 12.7 months, local control was achieved in 16/18 cavities treated. True local recurrence occurred in 2 patients. No marginal failures occurred. Distant recurrence occurred in 6/17 patients. Median time to any failure was 7.4 months. No Grade 3 or higher toxicity was recorded. A long interval between initial cancer diagnosis and the development of brain metastasis was the only factor that trended toward a significant association with the absence of recurrence (local or distant) (log-rank p = 0.097). Conclusions: Frameless stereotactic irradiation of the resection cavity after surgery for a brain metastasis is a safe and accurate technique that offers durable local control and defers the use of WBRT in select patients. This technique should be tested in larger prospective

  19. Increased survival with the combination of stereotactic radiosurgery and gefitinib for non-small cell lung cancer brain metastasis patients: a nationwide study in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole brain irradiation (WBRT) either with or without resection has historically been the treatment for brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The effect of gamma knife (GK) radiosurgery, chemotherapy, or the combination remains incompletely defined. In this study, we assessed the outcome of brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer treated by WBRT followed by GK, gefitinib, or the combination of GK and gefitinib. We retrieved the records of NSCLC patients with brain metastases from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan from 2004 to 2010. WBRT either with or without resection was the first line treatment for nearly all patients. The decision to add GK and/or gefitinib treatment was at the discretion of the treating physician and based upon a patient’s medical records and imaging data. These patients were classified into four groups including WBRT, WBRT + gefitinib, WBRT + GK, WBRT + gefitinib + GK. These data was evaluated for difference in survival and factors that portended an extended survival from the time of brain metastasis diagnosis. Of the 60194 patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC, 23874 (39.6 %) developed brain metastases. The distribution of patients for the groups was WBRT for 20241, WBRT + gefitinib for 3379, WBRT + GK for 155, and WBRT+ gefitinib + GK for 99 patients. The median survival for the time of brain metastasis diagnosis for WBRT, WBRT+ gefitinib, WBRT+ GK, WBRT+ gefitinib + GK groups was 0.53, 1.01, 1.46, and 2.25 years, respectively (p < 0.0001). The hazard ratio (95 % CI) for survival was 1, 0.56, 0.43, and 0.40, respectively (p < 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio (95 % CI) by age, sex and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) was 1, 0.73, 0.49, and 0.42, respectively (p < 0.001). Patients with brain metastases from NSCLC receiving GK or gefitinib demonstrated extended survival. The improved survival seen with GK and gefitinib suggests a survival benefit in selected patients receiving the

  20. Pharmacologic inhibition of MLK3 kinase activity blocks the in vitro migratory capacity of breast cancer cells but has no effect on breast cancer brain metastasis in a mouse xenograft model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Hyoe Rhoo

    Full Text Available Brain metastasis of breast cancer is an important clinical problem, with few therapeutic options and a poor prognosis. Recent data have implicated mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3 in controlling the in vitro migratory capacity of breast cancer cells, as well as the metastasis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells from the mammary fat pad to distant lymph nodes in a mouse xenograft model. We therefore set out to test whether MLK3 plays a role in brain metastasis of breast cancer cells. To address this question, we used a novel, brain penetrant, MLK3 inhibitor, URMC099. URMC099 efficiently inhibited the migration of breast cancer cells in an in vitro cell monolayer wounding assay, and an in vitro transwell migration assay, but had no effect on in vitro cell growth. We also tested the effect of URMC099 on tumor formation in a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer brain metastasis. This analysis showed that URMC099 had no effect on the either the frequency or size of breast cancer brain metastases. We conclude that pharmacologic inhibition of MLK3 by URMC099 can reduce the in vitro migratory capacity of breast cancer cells, but that it has no effect on either the frequency or size of breast cancer brain metastases, in a mouse xenograft model.

  1. Differentiation of local tumor recurrence from radiation-induced changes after stereotactic radiosurgery for treatment of brain metastasis: case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases frequently displays local changes in the area of applied irradiation, which are often difficult to interpret (e.g., local tumor recurrence, radiation-induced changes). The use of stereotactic biopsy for histological assessment of these changes has a high diagnostic accuracy and can be considered as method of choice. In order to solve this relevant clinical problem non-invasively, advanced MRI techniques and amino acid positron-emission-tomography (PET) are increasingly used. We report the long-term follow-up of a patient who had been treated with linear accelerator based SRS for cerebral metastases of a lung cancer. Fifty-eight months after SRS, the differentiation of local recurrent brain metastasis from radiation-induced changes using structural MRI was difficult. For further differentiation, perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and 11C-methyl-L-methionine (MET) PET was performed. Due to artifacts and technical limitations, PWI MRI and MRS findings were not conclusive. In contrast, MET PET findings were suggestive for radiation-induced changes. Finally, a stereotactic biopsy for histological assessment of these changes demonstrated clearly a radiation-induced necrosis and the absence of vital tumor. The use of stereotactic biopsy for histological assessment of indistinguishable lesions on structural MRI after SRS for treatment of brain metastasis represents a highly reliable method to differentiate local tumor recurrence from radiation-induced changes. In this field, results of studies with both advanced MRI techniques and amino acid PET suggest encouraging results. However, artifacts and technical limitations (e.g., lesion size) are still a problem and comparative studies are needed to investigate the relationship, diagnostic performance, and complementary character of advanced MRI techniques and amino acid PET

  2. SU-E-QI-21: Iodinated Contrast Agent Time Course In Human Brain Metastasis: A Study For Stereotactic Synchrotron Radiotherapy Clinical Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeid, L; Esteve, F; Adam, J [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, La Tronche, Isere (France); Tessier, A; Balosso, J [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, La Tronche, Isere (France)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy (SSRT) is an innovative treatment combining the selective accumulation of heavy elements in tumors with stereotactic irradiations using monochromatic medium energy x-rays from a synchrotron source. Phase I/II clinical trials on brain metastasis are underway using venous infusion of iodinated contrast agents. The radiation dose enhancement depends on the amount of iodine in the tumor and its time course. In the present study, the reproducibility of iodine concentrations between the CT planning scan day (Day 0) and the treatment day (Day 10) was assessed in order to predict dose errors. Methods: For each of days 0 and 10, three patients received a biphasic intravenous injection of iodinated contrast agent (40 ml, 4 ml/s, followed by 160 ml, 0.5 ml/s) in order to ensure stable intra-tumoral amounts of iodine during the treatment. Two volumetric CT scans (before and after iodine injection) and a multi-slice dynamic CT of the brain were performed using conventional radiotherapy CT (Day 0) or quantitative synchrotron radiation CT (Day 10). A 3D rigid registration was processed between images. The absolute and relative differences of absolute iodine concentrations and their corresponding dose errors were evaluated in the GTV and PTV used for treatment planning. Results: The differences in iodine concentrations remained within the standard deviation limits. The 3D absolute differences followed a normal distribution centered at zero mg/ml with a variance (∼1 mg/ml) which is related to the image noise. Conclusion: The results suggest that dose errors depend only on the image noise. This study shows that stable amounts of iodine are achievable in brain metastasis for SSRT treatment in a 10 days interval.

  3. Clinical outcomes of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients with brain metastasis treated with lapatinib and capecitabine: an open-label expanded access study in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro Jungsil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate efficacy in patients with brain metastasis (BM on entry into the lapatinib expanded access program (LEAP. Methods LEAP is a worldwide, single-arm, open-label study. HER2-positive, locally-advanced or metastatic breast cancer patients with progression after an anthracycline, taxane, and trastuzumab were eligible. Patients received capecitabine 2000 mg/m2 daily in two divided doses, days 1–14, every 21 days and lapatinib 1250 mg once daily. Results Among 186 patients enrolled in 6 Korean centers, 58 had BM. Progression-free survival (PFS was 18.7 weeks in patients with BM and 19.4 weeks without BM (P = 0.88. In patients with BM, brain response was synchronized with systemic responses (P = 0.0001. Overall survival (OS was 48.9 weeks in patients with BM and 64.6 weeks without BM (P = 0.23. Multivariable analysis found hormone receptor positivity (P = 0.003 and clinical benefit rate (CBR of combined systemic and brain disease (P  Conclusion Lapatinib plus capecitabine is equally effective in patients with or without BM. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00338247

  4. In vitro release of 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea sustained-release microspheres and the distribution in rat brain tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Li; Liping Guo; Qin Li

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The implantation of released chemotherapeutic drugs, which takes biodegradable polymer as vector, into the tumor site can get high concentration and release the drug for a long time, it can directly act on the tumor cells, and reduce the general toxicity.OBJECTIVE: To explore the in vitro and in vivo course of 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) sustained-release from BCNU-loaded polylactide (PLA) microspheres (MS) and location in rat brain tissue.DESIGN: A repetitive measurement.SETTING: Central Pharmacy, General Hospital of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces.MATERIALS: Thirty male SD rats were used. PLA (Mr5000, batch number: KSL8377) was produced by Wako Pure Chemical Inc.,Ltd. (Japan); BCNU (batch number: 021121) by Tianjin Jinyao Amino Acid Co., Ltd.;BCNU-PLA-MS was prepared by the method of solvent evaporation and pressed into tablets (10 mg/tablet).High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Agilent 1100 (USA); LS9800 liquid-scintillation radiometric apparatus (Beckman). Chromatographic conditions: Elite Hypersil ODS2 C18 chromatographic column (5 μm,4.6 mm ×150 mm); Mobile phase: methanol: water (50:50), flow rate was 1.0 mL per minute, wave length of ultraviolet detection was 237 nm, and the inlet amount of samples was 10 μL.METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the experimental animal center of the General Hospital of Chinese Armed Police from May 2004 to July 2005. ① In vitro BCNU-PLA-MS release test: BCNU-PLA-MS was prepared by the method of solvent evaporation, then placed in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffered solution (PBS, pH 7.4, 37 ℃), part of MS were taken out at 1, 2, 3, 7, 10 and 15 days respectively, and the rest amount of BCNU in MS was determined by HPLC, then the curve of BCNU-PLA-MS release was drawn. ②In vivo BCNU-PLA-MS release and distribution test: The rats were anesthetized, then BCNU-PLA-MS were implanted to the site 1 mm inferior to the cortex of frontal lobe. Five rats were killed postoperatively

  5. [Biology of cancer metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    Metastatic dissemination represents the true cause of the malignant character of cancers. Its targeting is much more difficult than that of cell proliferation, because metastasis, like angiogenesis, involves a number of complex interactions between tumour and stroma; the contribution of adhesion and motility pathways is added to that of proliferation and survival pathways. Long distance extension, discontinuous in respect to the primitive tumour, is a major feature of cancer and the main cause of patients' death. Cancer cells use two main dissemination pathways: the lymphatic pathway, leading to the invasion of the lymph nodes draining the organs where the tumour evolves; and the blood pathway, leading to the invasion of distant organs such as liver, brain, bone or lung. Metastasis is inscribed within the properties of the primitive tumour, as shown by the comparative molecular analysis of the primitive tumour and its own metastases: their similarity is always more important than what could be expected from the general activation of "metastasis genes" or the inhibition of "metastasis suppressor genes". Among the signalling pathways involved in metastasis, one can mention the integrin pathway, the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) pathway, the chemokine pathway, the dependence receptor pathway and many others. These pathways allow the possibility of therapeutic targeting, thanks to therapeutic antibodies or small molecules inhibiting the kinases involved in these signalling pathways, but not a single properly anti-metastatic drug has yet been proposed: the complexity and the diversity of the processes allowing metastasis emergence, as well as the fact that the activation mechanisms are more often epigenetic than genetic and are generally physiological processes misled by the malignant cell, render especially difficult the therapeutic approach of metastasis.

  6. Brain metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma detected after liver transplantation Metástase cerebral de carcinoma hepatocelular após transplante de fígado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Vianey Callado França

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We report the case of a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma submitted to liver transplantation, who subsequently manifested tumor recurrence initially as brain metastasis. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 48-year-old male cirrhotic patient with hepatitis C infection, and two focal hepatic lesions, had a cytologic and histologic diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Before transplant, he was submitted to adjuvant treatment with a combination of arterial embolization and intratumoral ethanol injection. In the 3rd month post-liver transplantation, the patient developed headache, nausea and vomiting, without any neurological impairment. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging identified an expansive hypervascular lesion with internal bleeding. Evaluation of the surgical explant revealed macroscopic invasion of portal vessels. CONCLUSION: Brain metastasis of a hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation may occur. This metastasis may have occurred before or soon after the transplant. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, awaiting liver transplant, should be screened for cerebral metastasis. Vascular invasion may indicate hematogenic dissemination of the tumor.OBJETIVO: Relatar o caso de paciente com carcinoma hepatocelular submetido a transplante de fígado, que subseqüentemente manifestou recurrência tumoral em cérebro após o transplante. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Homem de 48 anos de idade, com cirrose hepática secundária à infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C, com duas lesões focais hepáticas diagnosticadas como carcinoma hepatocelular pela citologia e histologia. Antes do transplante, foi submetido a tratamento coadjuvante com embolização da artéria hepática e injeção intra-tumoral de etanol. No terceiro mês pós-transplante, o paciente apresentou cefaléia, náuseas e vômitos, sem déficit neurológico focal. Tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética de crânio identificaram lesão expansiva

  7. Secondary Analysis of RTOG 9508, a Phase 3 Randomized Trial of Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy Versus WBRT Plus Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Patients With 1-3 Brain Metastases; Poststratified by the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperduto, Paul W., E-mail: psperduto@mropa.com [Metro-Minnesota CCOP and Minneapolis Radiation Oncology, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Shanley, Ryan [Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Luo, Xianghua [Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Andrews, David [Thomas Jefferson University, Department of NeuroOncology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Valicenti, Richard [UC Davis Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sacramento, California (United States); Bahary, Jean-Paul [CHUM Hospital Notre Dame, Quebec (Canada); Souhami, Luis [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Won, Minhee [NRG Oncology Statistics and Data Management Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mehta, Minesh [University of Maryland Medical System, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9508 showed a survival advantage for patients with 1 but not 2 or 3 brain metastasis (BM) treated with whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) versus WBRT alone. An improved prognostic index, the graded prognostic assessment (GPA) has been developed. Our hypothesis was that if the data from RTOG 9508 were poststratified by the GPA, the conclusions may vary. Methods and Materials: In this analysis, 252 of the 331 patients were evaluable by GPA. Of those, 211 had lung cancer. Breast cancer patients were excluded because the components of the breast GPA are not in the RTOG database. Multiple Cox regression was used to compare survival between treatment groups, adjusting for GPA. Treatment comparisons within subgroups were performed with the log-rank test. A free online tool ( (brainmetgpa.com)) simplified GPA use. Results: The fundamental conclusions of the primary analysis were confirmed in that there was no survival benefit overall for patients with 1 to 3 metastases; however, there was a benefit for the subset of patients with GPA 3.5 to 4.0 (median survival time [MST] for WBRT + SRS vs WBRT alone was 21.0 versus 10.3 months, P=.05) regardless of the number of metastases. Among patients with GPA 3.5 to 4.0 treated with WBRT and SRS, the MST for patients with 1 versus 2 to 3 metastases was 21 and 14.1 months, respectively. Conclusions: This secondary analysis of predominantly lung cancer patients, consistent with the original analysis, shows no survival advantage for the group overall when treated with WBRT and SRS; however, in patients with high GPA (3.5-4), there is a survival advantage regardless of whether they have 1, 2, or 3 BM. This benefit did not extend to patients with lower GPA. Prospective validation of this survival benefit for patients with multiple BM and high GPA when treated with WBRT and SRS is warranted.

  8. Short-time focused ultrasound hyperthermia enhances liposomal doxorubicin delivery and antitumor efficacy for brain metastasis of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu SK; Chiang CF; Hsu YH; Lin TH; Liou HC; Fu WM; Lin WL

    2014-01-01

    Sheng-Kai Wu,1 Chi-Feng Chiang,1 Yu-Hone Hsu,1,4 Tzu-Hung Lin,2 Houng-Chi Liou,2 Wen-Mei Fu,2 Win-Li Lin1,3 1Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and College of Engineering, 2Institute of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan; 4Department of Neurosurgery, Cheng-Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: The blood&nd...

  9. A multimodality imaging model to track viable breast cancer cells from single arrest to metastasis in the mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, Katie M.; Hamilton, Amanda M.; Makela, Ashley V.; Chen, Yuanxin; Foster, Paula J.; Ronald, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular MRI involves sensitive visualization of iron-labeled cells in vivo but cannot differentiate between dead and viable cells. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) measures cellular viability, and thus we explored combining these tools to provide a more holistic view of metastatic cancer cell fate in mice. Human breast carcinoma cells stably expressing Firefly luciferase were loaded with iron particles, injected into the left ventricle, and BLI and MRI were performed on days 0, 8, 21 and 28. The number of brain MR signal voids (i.e., iron-loaded cells) on day 0 significantly correlated with BLI signal. Both BLI and MRI signals decreased from day 0 to day 8, indicating a loss of viable cells rather than a loss of iron label. Total brain MR tumour volume on day 28 also correlated with BLI signal. Overall, BLI complemented our sensitive cellular MRI technologies well, allowing us for the first time to screen animals for successful injections, and, in addition to MR measures of cell arrest and tumor burden, provided longitudinal measures of cancer cell viability in individual animals. We predict this novel multimodality molecular imaging framework will be useful for evaluating the efficacy of emerging anti-cancer drugs at different stages of the metastatic cascade. PMID:27767185

  10. Swept-source optical coherence tomography powered by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser enables 2.3-mm-deep brain imaging in mice in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-10-01

    We report noninvasive, in vivo optical imaging deep within a mouse brain by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), enabled by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). VCSEL SS-OCT offers a constant signal sensitivity of 105 dB throughout an entire depth of 4.25 mm in air, ensuring an extended usable imaging depth range of more than 2 mm in turbid biological tissue. Using this approach, we show deep brain imaging in mice with an open-skull cranial window preparation, revealing intact mouse brain anatomy from the superficial cerebral cortex to the deep hippocampus. VCSEL SS-OCT would be applicable to small animal studies for the investigation of deep tissue compartments in living brains where diseases such as dementia and tumor can take their toll.

  11. Metastasis of Pregnancy-Associated Breast Cancer (Suspected to Be Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer) to the Brain, Diagnosed at 18 Weeks' Gestation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohiro Okuda; Sakura Yamamoto; Seiki Matsuo; Hisashi Kataoka; Jo Kitawaki

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of pregnancy-associated breast cancer with metastasis to the brain, likely resulting from hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). A 35-year-old woman (gravida 2, para 0-1-0-1) underwent a right mastectomy and right axillary dissection after a cesarean section at 30 years of age; her mother died at 47 years of age due to breast cancer. Histopathological examination indicated an invasive ductal carcinoma with triple-negative cancer (cancer stage 2B [pT3N0M0]). The patient ...

  12. AEG-1与CXCR4对乳腺癌脑转移的影响%Effect of AEG-1 and CXCR4 Gene on Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲明阳; 李森; 赵胜男; 邢光明

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨AEG-1与CXCR4基因表达对乳腺癌脑转移的影响.方法 对1997~2007年收治的乳腺癌患者进行随访,以发生脑转移的33例患者作为病例组,以未发生脑转移的45例患者作为对照组.通过免疫组化法,对照分析AEG-1及CXCR4对脑转移的影响.结果 脑转移组中AEG-1及CXCR4的阳性表达率分别为63.6%和60.6%,与其在对照组中表达(31.1%和33.3%)差异显著(P<0.05).logistic回归分析结果显示,AEG-1和CXCR4回归系数分别为1.242和1.545.结论 AEG-1和CXCR4阳性表达是乳腺癌发生脑转移的独立危险因子,AEG-1及CXCR4有望成为针对乳腺癌脑转移的高特异性早期诊断指标及基因治疗靶点.%Objective Explore the effect of AEG-1 and CXCR4 gene on brain metastasis in breast cancer. Methods 33 breast cancer patients with brain metastasis and 45 patients without brain metastasis in our hospital from 1997 to 2007 were chosen randomly for the case control study by immunohisto chemical method. Results the expression rate for AEG-land CXCR4 in the two groups were 63. 6% ,60. 6% and 31. 1% ,33. 3% respectively,with a notebly difference be observed, the regression coefficient for AEG-1 and CXCR4 was 1. 242 and 1. 545. Conclusion AEG-1 and CXCR4 were independent risk factors and may be specific diagnosis index and gene treatment taget for brain metastasis in breast cancer.

  13. Whole brain radiation with supplementary boost for patients for unique brain metastasis from a primitive lung cancer; Experience de l'irradiation encephalique totale avec escalade de dose focalisee pour le traitement des metastases cerebrales uniques d'un carcinome bronchopulmonaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, A.; Lamproglou, I. [Service de radiotherapie, groupe hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, 47-83, boulevard de l' Hopital, 75013 Paris (France); Chargari, C. [Service de radiotherapie, groupe hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, 47-83, boulevard de l' Hopital, 75013 Paris (France); Service de radiotherapie, hopital d' instruction des armees Val-de-Grace, 75005 Paris (France); Mazeron, J.J. [Service de radiotherapie, groupe hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, 47-83, boulevard de l' Hopital, 75013 Paris (France); Universite Pierre-et-Marie-Curie Paris 6, 4, place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Krzisch, C. [Service de radiotherapie, CHU d' Amiens-Picardie, place Victor-Pauchet, 80054 Amiens cedex (France); Assouline, A. [Service de radiotherapie, groupe hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, 47-83, boulevard de l' Hopital, 75013 Paris (France); Universite Pierre-et-Marie-Curie Paris 6, 4, place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Service de radiotherapie, CHU d' Amiens-Picardie, place Victor-Pauchet, 80054 Amiens cedex (France)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose. - To assess the potential benefit of a boost in patients treated with whole brain irradiation by a conventional linear accelerator for lung cancer solitary brain metastasis. Patients and methods. - From 2002 to 2006, a retrospective analysis was carried out from 64 unselected consecutive patients with secondary brain metastasis from lung cancer, treated with whole brain irradiation without surgical resection. Thirty patients (47%) received a boost in their brain metastases. Three potential prognostic factors were studied: sex, RPA score and improvement of neurological symptoms after radiotherapy. An analysis was conducted to determine whether an additional dose may improve survival in the absence of surgical resection. Results. - The mean follow-up was 4.9 months. The median overall survival was 8.5 months (6.4 to 10.7 months). The total dose of radiotherapy was the only significant prognostic factor for overall survival. The median overall survival was 6.2 months for patients without additional radiation versus 11.2 months for patients receiving a boost dose (p = 0.011). Sex, RPA score and improvement of neurological symptoms after radiotherapy were not found as prognostic factors for overall survival. Conclusions. - Boost delivered after whole brain radiation therapy by a conventional particle accelerator may provide a benefit in selected patients, especially for centres that do not have radiotherapy techniques in stereotactic conditions. This warrants further prospective assessment. (authors)

  14. Metastasis of Pregnancy-Associated Breast Cancer (Suspected to Be Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer to the Brain, Diagnosed at 18 Weeks’ Gestation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Okuda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of pregnancy-associated breast cancer with metastasis to the brain, likely resulting from hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC. A 35-year-old woman (gravida 2, para 0-1-0-1 underwent a right mastectomy and right axillary dissection after a cesarean section at 30 years of age; her mother died at 47 years of age due to breast cancer. Histopathological examination indicated an invasive ductal carcinoma with triple-negative cancer (cancer stage 2B [pT3N0M0]. The patient refused adjuvant therapy because of the risk of infertility. After 4 years, she became pregnant naturally. At 18 weeks’ gestation, she experienced aphasia and dyslexia due to brain metastasis. The pregnancy was terminated at 21 weeks’ gestation after thorough counseling. Her family history, young-onset disease, and histopathological findings suggested HBOC. She declined genetic testing for BRCA1/2, though genetic counseling was provided. In cases of pregnancy-related breast cancer, consideration must be given to whether the pregnancy should be continued and to posttreatment fertility. HBOC should also be considered. Genetic counseling should be provided and the patient should be checked for the BRCA mutation, as it is meaningful for the future of any potential children. Genetic counseling should be provided even if the cancer is advanced or recurrent.

  15. A phase II multi-institutional study assessing simultaneous in-field boost helical tomotherapy for 1-3 brain metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues George

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our research group has previously published a dosimetric planning study that demonstrated that a 60 Gy/10 fractions intralesional boost with whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT to 30 Gy/10 fractions was biologically equivalent with a stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS boost of 18 Gy/1 fraction with 30 Gy/10 fractions WBRT. Helical tomotherapy (HT was found to be dosimetrically equivalent to SRS in terms of target coverage and superior to SRS in terms of normal tissue tolerance. A phase I trial has been now completed at our institution with a total of 60 enrolled patients and 48 evaluable patients. The phase II dose has been determined to be the final phase I cohort dose of 60 Gy/10 fractions. Methods/Design The objective of this clinical trial is to subject the final phase I cohort dose to a phase II assessment of the endpoints of overall survival, intracranial control (ICC and intralesional control (ILC. We hypothesize HT would be considered unsuitable for further study if the median OS for patients treated with the HT SIB technique is degraded by 2 months, or the intracranial progression-free rates (ICC and ILC are inferior by 10% or greater compared to the expected results with treatment by whole brain plus SRS as defined by the RTOG randomized trial. A sample size of 93 patients was calculated based on these parameters as well as the statistical assumptions of alpha = 0.025 and beta = 0.1 due to multiple statistical testing. Secondary assessments of toxicity, health-related quality-of-life, cognitive changes, and tumor response are also integrated into this research protocol. Discussion To summarize, the purpose of this phase II trial is to assess this non-invasive alternative to SRS in terms of central nervous system (CNS control when compared to SRS historical controls. A follow-up phase III trial may be required depending on the results of this trial in order to definitively assess non-inferiority/superiority of this approach

  16. Slit2在乳腺组织的表达与乳腺癌脑转移的关系%Slit2 Expression in breast cancer and its relationship to brain metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐; 马勇杰; 孙增峰; 刘芳芳; 付丽; 李文良; 谷峰

    2010-01-01

    Objective To detect the expression of Slit2 in breast tumors and its association with the breast cancer brain metastasis. Methods Immunohistochemistry staining was performed for Slit2 expression on specimens from 24 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with brain metastasis, 71 cases of IDC without brain metastasis, 22 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 23 cases of fibroadenoma.Results ( 1 ) The expression level of Slit2 in IDC with brain metastasis ( 13% ) was significantly lower than that in IDC without brain metastasis ( 59% ), P < 0. 05. (2) The expression level of Slit2 in IDC (48%) and DCIS (59%) was significantly lower than that in adenofibroma (87%),P <0.05. The expression of Slit2 in IDC was lower than that in DCIS, but had no significant difference,P > 0.05. (3) The expression of Slit2 was significantly higher in more than 50 year-old-group (62%) than that in less than 50 year-old-group (34%) of IDC patients, and highly related with the duration of IDC patients,P <0.05. No correlation was found between the Slit2 expression and the tumor size, lymph node metastasis, pathologic stage and histological grade, P > 0.05. Conclusion The Slit2 expression correlates negatively with IDC brain metastasis, and positively with the age and duration of IDC patients. Slit2 could be applied as a marker in evaluating the IDC invasiveness and brain metastasis, and could be a new therapeutic target.%目的 检测神经轴突导向蛋白2(Slit2)在不同乳腺肿瘤组织中的表达,探讨Slit2与乳腺癌脑转移的相关性.方法 采用免疫组织化学LSAB法检测对24例发生脑转移的乳腺浸润性导管癌(IDC)、71例未发生脑转移的乳腺浸润性导管癌、22例乳腺导管内癌和23例乳腺腺纤维瘤组织中Slit2的表达.结果 Slit2在浸润性导管癌中有脑转移患者的阳性表达率(13%)明显低于无脑转移患者(59%)(P<0.05);在乳腺导管内癌和浸润性导管癌中的阳性表达率(59%和48%)

  17. Decoding Melanoma Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damsky, William E. Jr. [Department of Dermatology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont (United States); Rosenbaum, Lara E.; Bosenberg, Marcus, E-mail: Marcus.Bosenberg@yale.edu [Department of Dermatology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2010-12-30

    Metastasis accounts for the vast majority of morbidity and mortality associated with melanoma. Evidence suggests melanoma has a predilection for metastasis to particular organs. Experimental analyses have begun to shed light on the mechanisms regulating melanoma metastasis and organ specificity, but these analyses are complicated by observations of metastatic dormancy and dissemination of melanocytes that are not yet fully malignant. Additionally, tumor extrinsic factors in the microenvironment, both at the site of the primary tumor and the site of metastasis, play important roles in mediating the metastatic process. As metastasis research moves forward, paradigms explaining melanoma metastasis as a step-wise process must also reflect the temporal complexity and heterogeneity in progression of this disease. Genetic drivers of melanoma as well as extrinsic regulators of disease spread, particularly those that mediate metastasis to specific organs, must also be incorporated into newer models of melanoma metastasis.

  18. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  19. 非小细胞肺癌脑转移122例预后因素分析%Analysis of prognostic factors in 122 non-small-cell lung cancer patients with brain metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋鹏; 吴阳; 辛勇; 姚元虎; 章龙珍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the prognostic factors of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastasis. Methods 122 NSCLC patients with brain metastasis from Jan 2007 to Dec 2012 were incorporated, and followed with death as the end. The influence factors of prognosis were retrospective analyzed. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis, the Log-rank test for single factor analysis,and Cox regression model for multiple factors analysis. Results The single-factor and multi-factor analysis showed that the influence factors of prognosis were age, pathological type, number of intracranial metastasis, presence of extracranial metastasis, treatment, Karnofsky score, the original site control situation (P0.05). The average survival times of patients with palliative symptomatic treatment, simple whole brain radiotherapy, whole brain radiotherapy local lesion plus the amount of radiation, whole brain radiotherapy local lesion plus the amount of radiation combined with chemotherapy were (2.14 ±0.19) months, (7.28 ±0.60) months, (16.90 ±1.35) months, (17.7±1.12) months, 1 year survival rates were 0, 8.5%, 71.0%, 93.3%. Survival analysis showed that there was statistical significance among the four groups (P= 0.000). Conclusion The age, pathological type, number of intracranial metastasis, presence of extracranial metastasis, treatment, Karnofsky score, the original site control situation are the prognosis factors in NSCLC patients with brain metastasis, therefore the treatment of these patients should be comprehensively analyzed.%目的:探讨非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)脑转移患者预后的影响因素。方法回顾性分析2007年1月至2012年12月收治的122例NSCLC脑转移患者临床及随访资料,以死亡为结局,NSCLC脑转移患者预后的影响因素。以Kaplan-Meier方法进行生存分析,Log-rank检验进行单因素分析,Cox回归模型进行多因素分析。结果经单因素及多因素分析显示影响NSCLC脑

  20. 转移性乳腺癌出现脑转移相关危险因素分析%Analysis of the risk factors for brain metastasis among patients with metastatic breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞霞; 魏素菊

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed at retrospective analysis of some metastatic breast cancer cases,investigated the recurrence of brain metastases of metastatic breast cancer in patients with risk factors,and provided a reference for the implementation of prevention strategies in the treatment plan and a reasonable choice.Methods A total of 796 breast cancer cases was visited,of whom 456 patients with recurrent metastatic breast cancer,in which 61 patients were with brain metastasis.The follow-up data were analyzed with SPSS13.0 software.x2 was used to test the age,estrogen receptor (ER),progesterone receptor (PR),cerbB-2 expression,lymph node metastasis,and brain metastasis.The COX proportional hazard model was used to analyze the recurrence and metastasis in patients with single-factor,multi-factor analysis,in order to obtain the independent prognostic factors.Results The x2 tests that group age ≤ 35 years,hormone receptor-negative,CerbB-2 (2 +)/(3 +) has a higher risk than another group (x2 =24.92,8.28,4.02,P <0.01 orP <0.05).COX univariate analysis showed that patient age,tumor size,ER and PR expression,CerbB-2 expression,lung metastases were looked.as the first metastatic site and hormone therapy.Those were significant factors whether the patient suffered from brain metastasis (P < 0.05).COX multivariate analysis showed that age,ER and PR expression,CerbB-2 expression,and lung metastases were looked as the first metastatic site acted as an independent prognostic factor for brain metastasis (P <0.05).Conclusions Age,ER and PR expression,CerbB-2 expression,lung metastases as the first metastatic site are the independent prognostic factors for brain metastasis.%目的 对转移性乳腺癌病例进行回顾性分析,探讨其再发生脑转移的危险因素,以便于预防策略的实施和合理治疗计划的选择.方法 随访的796例乳腺癌患者中有456例出现转移,其中再出现脑转移者61例.将随访资料录入SPSS 13.0软

  1. Intracranial metastasis from a sacrococcygeal chordoma. Case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Mahmoud Hamdy

    2012-02-03

    Chordoma is a locally invasive tumor of low metastatic potential. Only six cases of chordoma that metastasized to the brain are found in the English literature. Most of these lesions were clinically silent and all were associated with extraneural metastases. The authors report a case of symptomatic brain metastasis from a sacrococcygeal chordoma in the absence of other metastases. The incidence, sites, and factors predictive of chordoma metastasis are discussed.

  2. Astrocytes Directly Influence Tumor Cell Invasion and Metastasis In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ling; Cossette, Stephanie M.; Rarick, Kevin R.; Gershan, Jill; Michael B Dwinell; Harder, David R.; Ramchandran, Ramani

    2013-01-01

    Brain metastasis is a defining component of tumor pathophysiology, and the underlying mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are not well understood. Current dogma is that tumor cells stimulate and activate astrocytes, and this mutual relationship is critical for tumor cell sustenance in the brain. Here, we provide evidence that primary rat neonatal and adult astrocytes secrete factors that proactively induced human lung and breast tumor cell invasion and metastasis capabilities. Among wh...

  3. GAMMA KNIFE RADIOSURGERY OF BRAIN METASTASIS FROM MALIGNANT PLEURAL MESOTHELIOMA – REPORT OF THREE CASES WITH AUTOPSY STUDY IN A CASE –

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; TSUGAWA, TAKAHIKO; Hashizume, Chisa; Toriyama, Takanobu; Asai, Masami; Mori, Yoshimasa; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The median survival time of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has been 9 months. Given the short survival, there have been only few cases in which brain metastases have been diagnosed and treated before death. Three cases of brain metastases treated by gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) are reported. Case 1 showed a metastatic lesion in the right frontal lobe which was treated by GKR two years after diagnosis of MPM. The lesion markedly reduced and the symptoms were improved, But the ...

  4. Cancer stem cells and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Katia; Fodde, Riccardo

    2012-06-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subpopulation of tumour cells endowed with self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capacity but also with an innate resistance to cytotoxic agents, a feature likely to pose major clinical challenges towards the complete eradication of minimal residual disease in cancer patients. Operationally, CSCs are defined by their tumour-propagating ability when serially transplanted into immune-compromised mice and by their capacity to fully recapitulate the original heterogeneity of cell types observed in the primary lesions they are derived from. CSCs were first identified in haematopoietic malignancies and later in a broad spectrum of solid tumours including those of the breast, colon and brain. Notably, several CSC characteristics are relevant to metastasis, such as motility, invasiveness and, as mentioned above, resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Here, we have reviewed the current literature on the relation between CSCs and metastasis formation. Preliminary studies on cancer cell lines and patient-derived material suggest a rate-limiting role for stem-like cells in the processes of tumour cell dissemination and metastasis formation. However, additional studies are needed to deliver formal proof of their identity as the cell of origin of recurrences at distant organ sites. Nevertheless, several studies have already provided pre-clinical evidence of the efficacy of novel therapies directed against disseminated CSCs.

  5. Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Ayuko; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Shen, Tang-Long; Rodrigues, Goncalo; Hashimoto, Ayako; Tesic Mark, Milica; Molina, Henrik; Kohsaka, Shinji; Di Giannatale, Angela; Ceder, Sophia; Singh, Swarnima; Williams, Caitlin; Soplop, Nadine; Uryu, Kunihiro; Pharmer, Lindsay; King, Tari; Bojmar, Linda; Davies, Alexander E; Ararso, Yonathan; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Haiying; Hernandez, Jonathan; Weiss, Joshua M; Dumont-Cole, Vanessa D; Kramer, Kimberly; Wexler, Leonard H; Narendran, Aru; Schwartz, Gary K; Healey, John H; Sandstrom, Per; Labori, Knut Jørgen; Kure, Elin H; Grandgenett, Paul M; Hollingsworth, Michael A; de Sousa, Maria; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Jain, Maneesh; Mallya, Kavita; Batra, Surinder K; Jarnagin, William R; Brady, Mary S; Fodstad, Oystein; Muller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Minn, Andy J; Bissell, Mina J; Garcia, Benjamin A; Kang, Yibin; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K; Ghajar, Cyrus M; Matei, Irina; Peinado, Hector; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Lyden, David

    2015-11-19

    Ever since Stephen Paget's 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer's greatest mysteries. Here we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells. Exosome proteomics revealed distinct integrin expression patterns, in which the exosomal integrins α6β4 and α6β1 were associated with lung metastasis, while exosomal integrin αvβ5 was linked to liver metastasis. Targeting the integrins α6β4 and αvβ5 decreased exosome uptake, as well as lung and liver metastasis, respectively. We demonstrate that exosome integrin uptake by resident cells activates Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression. Finally, our clinical data indicate that exosomal integrins could be used to predict organ-specific metastasis.

  6. 1-3个肺癌脑转移灶患者放疗疗效及预后分析%Whole brain radiation with 3D-CRT/IMRT boost for patients with 1-3 brain metastases from lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月敏; 张玉海; 朱建华; 张娜; 曲怡梅; 武勇; 何宇锋; 夏火生; 韩守云

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨 1-3个肺癌脑转移灶患者行全脑放疗后病灶局部适形/调强放疗加量的疗效和耐受性.方法: 回顾性分析2008年1月至2010年3月对76例1-3个脑转移灶肺癌患者进行全脑放疗后病灶局部放疗加量的疗效和副反应.生存分析采用Kaplan-Meier法,多因素COX回归分析影响患者预后的因素,各亚组之间的差异比较采用Logrank检验.结果: 全组随访1.4-51个月,平均18.6个月,临床缓解率为73%,临床获益率92%.1年生存率34%,2年生存率20%.中位生存时间为9.6月,仅1个颅内转移灶的患者中位生存时间为11.4个月,2-3个转移灶的患者中位生存时间为7.8个月.无III-IV级血液学以外的副反应出现.结论: 适形/调强放疗技术肿瘤局部加量配合全脑放疗疗效确切,患者有很好的耐受性,可以延长患者寿命,提高生存质量.

  7. Cavitary pulmonar metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven cases of cavitary lung metastasis, four from head and neck neoplasma, two from uterine carcinoma and one from hepatoma are reported. The physiopathology and the most common sites of this kind of lesion are discussed. The rarity of the solitary excavated metastasis from hepatoma, not reported previously in the literature reviewed, is emphasized. (Author)

  8. Research-progression of Temozolomide in Brain Metastasis%替莫唑胺应用于脑转移瘤的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦燕(综述); 赵善琳(审校)

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases are most common intracranial malignant tumors in adults, with the progress of tumor treatment means, the better curative effect of malignant tumor and the longer survival time, the incidence of brain metastases increase. That will be serious impact on quality of life. Treatment of brain metastases is limited, radiation therapy is the traditional one. As a new generation of alkylating agent temozolomide, which show antitumor effects by through the blood-brain barrier, widely used in the treatment of glioma. In recent years attempts to using temozolomide therapy metastatic cancer also effective. This paper summarize using temozolomide in the treatment of brain metastases.%脑转移性肿瘤是成人最常见的颅内恶性肿瘤,治疗手段有限,传统的治疗方法主要以放射治疗为主。替莫唑胺是新一代的烷化剂,具有透过血脑屏障起到抗肿瘤的作用,在脑胶质瘤的治疗上应用广泛,疗效确切。近年来尝试在脑转移性肿瘤上使用替莫唑胺治疗亦得到肯定疗效,替莫唑胺与其他化疗药物或放疗联合可能有助于控制肿瘤,使患者得到生存获益。本文就国内外使用替莫唑胺治疗脑转移瘤的现状进展进行综述。

  9. Differentiation of local tumor recurrence from radiation-induced changes after stereotactic radiosurgery for treatment of brain metastasis: case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kickingereder, Philipp; Dorn, Franziska; Blau, Tobias; Schmidt, M.; Kocher, Martin; Galldiks, Norbert; Ruge, Maximilian I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Structural follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases frequently displays local changes in the area of applied irradiation, which are often difficult to interpret (e.g., local tumor recurrence, radiation-induced changes). The use of stereotactic biopsy for histological assessment of these changes has a high diagnostic accuracy and can be considered as method of choice. In order to solve this relevant clinical problem non-in...

  10. Effects of 1,3-diphenyl-1,3-propanedione on neurotransmitter contents of brain in mice administered with cocaine%1,3-二苯-1,3-丙二酮对可卡因致小鼠神经递质含量变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟; 王一超; 崔蓉; 刘晓晓; 张宝旭

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the possible reversal effects of 1 ,3-diphenyl-1 ,3-propanedione (DPPD)for cocaine-induced content changes of neurotransmitters of brain in mice.Methods:In this study,36 healthy ICR male mice were randomly divided into control group,cocaine group,three DPPD pretreatment groups (200,400,and 800 mg/kg)and DPPD alone group (800 mg/kg).The mice in control group were administered intragastrically with 1 % Tween 80 for 3 d,and the mice in cocaine group were administered intragastrically with 1 % Tween 80 for 2 d before cocaine was injected subcutaneously on the 3rd day.The mice in the three DPPD pretreatment groups were administered intragastrically (DPPD 200,400,and 800 mg/kg)for 3 d before cocaine was injected subcutaneously 30 min after the administration on the 3rd day.The mice in DPPD alone group were administered intragastrically with DPPD at dose of 800 mg/kg for 3 d.The mice were sacrificed 20 minutes after cocaine injection.The contents of dopamine (DA)and 5-hydroxytryptamin (5-HT)in the mice brain were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescence detector,the contents of glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)in the mice brain were determined by HPLC-ultraviolet detector,and the neurotransmitter levels were compared between the groups.Results:The results showed that as com-pared with the control group,DA and GABA contents in cocaine group increased significantly (P <0.01 and P <0.05),while Glu content decreased (P <0.05).As compared with cocaine group,the DA levels in the three DPPD pretreatment groups (200,400,and 800 mg/kg)all decreased significantly (P <0.01 ).In DPPD 200 mg/kg pre-administration group,GABA content decreased (P <0.05),and the contents of the four kinds of neurotransmitters had no statistical differences with those of the control group.Conclusion:DPPD may have potential reversal effects of the content changes of neurotransmitters in mice brain induced by cocaine at a lower dose

  11. The present situation and prospect of treatment of traditional Chinese and Western Medicine treatment of brain metastasis of lung cancer%肺癌脑转移的中西医治疗现状及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁婷; 耿平

    2014-01-01

    With the increased incidence of brain metastasis from lung cancer,the main ways of western medicine treatment are surgery,chemotherapy,radiotherapy.However,many patients when found have lost the chance of surgery.The effective rate of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is low,and the adverse reaction is large.The intervention of attenuated synergistic treatment of traditional Chinese medicine makes a more smooth and effective treatment of western medicine.So,combining traditional Chinese and western medicine treatment of cancer will be the future trend in medical development,and also a research hotspot.%随着肺癌脑转移发病率的升高,其西医治疗无外乎手术、化疗、放疗,但是许多患者发现时已经失去了手术的机会,且放疗、化疗有效率低,不良反应大,中医中药的增效减毒治疗的干预,使西医治疗更加顺利、有效。所以中西医结合治疗肿瘤将是今后医学发展的趋势,也是研究的热点。

  12. 1,3-Diphenylisobenzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristapher E. Fischer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, 1,3-diphenyl-2-benzofuran, C20H14O, exhibits a distinct alternation of short [mean 1.361 (3 Å] and long [mean 1.431 (3 Å] C—C bonds around the benzofuran ring system, indicating a predominantly polyene character. Over 60 Diels–Alder adducts of this commercially available furan have been structurally characterized, but this is the first report of the structure of the parent compound.

  13. Brain metastasis of ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma after a long-term disease free survival in an old adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cai-Xia; Wang, Hai; Li, Jie; Ma, Heng-Hui; Yu, Bo; Shi, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Shi, Qun-Li

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma composed of CD30-positive cells and now recognized as three different entities: primary cutaneous ALCL, primary systemic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive (ALK+) ALCL and primary ALK-negative (ALK-) ALCL. ALK+ ALCL is supposed to have a better prognosis than ALK- ALCL. It is rarely metastasized to other sites, especially to the central nervous system (CNS). Herein, we present a rare case of systemic ALK+ ALCL which metastasized to the brain after a long-term disease free survival in an adult. Neuroimaging revealed a well-enhanced mass in the left frontal lobe. And it was completely resected. The results of the pathological and immunohistochemical studies were consistent with the metastasized ALK+ ALCL. The clinical findings, pathologic characteristics and treatment are described. PMID:24696735

  14. Brain metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn-Hansen, Chris Aksel; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2001-01-01

    Brain metastases from colorectal cancer are rare. The prognosis for patients with even a single resectable brain metastasis is poor. A case of surgically treated cerebral metastasis from a rectal carcinoma is reported. The brain tumour was radically resected. However, cerebral, as well...... as extracerebral, disease recurred 12 months after diagnosis. Surgical removal of colorectal metastatic brain lesions in selected cases results in a longer survival time....

  15. Solitary brain metastasis of an occult and stable small-cell lung cancer in a schizophrenic patient: a 3-year control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesien-Lewandowicz, Emilia; Spych, Michal; Fijuth, Jacek; Kordek, Radzislaw

    2010-08-01

    Small-cell lung cancer is a highly aggressive carcinoma, with poorer prognosis in patients with brain metastases. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman diagnosed with a cerebellar tumour which, following surgery, was revealed to be a metastatic small-cell lung carcinoma. Subsequent CT and PET scanning showed a small, isolated 8 mm nodule in the upper lobe of the right lung. The patient was suffering from schizophrenia and has been treated with clozapine for 17 years. Because of the unusual presentation, there was no therapy given for the primary tumour at the time, and systemic therapy or surgery was discussed. However, 18 months later, the nodule was slightly larger (14 mm), and surgery was performed. On pathology examination, the tumour was presented as a typical small-cell carcinoma. Standard chest irradiation with systemic chemotherapy was given. At the time of writing, 39 months after diagnosis of metastatic small-cell carcinoma, the patient is disease free. However, this case is unusual in that a long-term observation of a small stable primary tumour in the lung took place without any therapy being given. This case strongly supports the thesis that small-cell lung cancer may comprise a heterogeneous group of tumours with different biological properties. The proapoptotic effect of clozapine may be also taken into account.

  16. Sudden hearing loss due to internal auditory canal metastasis of Her2-positive gastric cancer: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chang-Hee; Shin, Jung Eun; Roh, Hong Gee; LEE, JONG SIK; Yoon, So Young

    2014-01-01

    Internal auditory canal (IAC) metastasis due to leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) from gastric cancer (GC) has rarely been reported. Early manifestation of symptoms, such as hearing loss, vertigo and facial paralysis, in cases of IAC metastasis due to LMC may facilitate the early detection of brain metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report IAC metastasis due to LMC in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2)-positive GC. This study reports a c...

  17. Metastasis Is Cell Motility Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuyuki ITOH

    2009-01-01

    @@ Multidisciplinary approach (surgery, chemotherapy and radiation) for the primary site of cancer is now almost established, however, recurrence, inva-sion and metastasis are still life threatening, thus the effort of fighting against metastasis is critical and crucial.

  18. Soft tissue sarcoma with metastasis to the stomach: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lemuel; Leon; Dent; Cesar; Yamil; Cardona; Michael; Clause; Buchholz; Roosevelt; Peebles; Julie; Denise; Scott; Derrick; Jerome; Beech; Billy; Ray; Ballard

    2010-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are unusual malignancies comprising 1% of cancer diagnoses in the United States. Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma accounts for approximately 5% of sarcomas occurring in adults. The most common site of metastasis is the lung, with other sites being bone, the brain, and the liver. Metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract has rarely been documented. We present an unusual case of high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma with metastasis to the stomach, complicated by upper gastrointestinal bleedin...

  19. Astrocytes directly influence tumor cell invasion and metastasis in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    Full Text Available Brain metastasis is a defining component of tumor pathophysiology, and the underlying mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are not well understood. Current dogma is that tumor cells stimulate and activate astrocytes, and this mutual relationship is critical for tumor cell sustenance in the brain. Here, we provide evidence that primary rat neonatal and adult astrocytes secrete factors that proactively induced human lung and breast tumor cell invasion and metastasis capabilities. Among which, tumor invasion factors namely matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 were partly responsible for the astrocyte media-induced tumor cell invasion. Inhibiting MMPs reduced the ability of tumor cell to migrate and invade in vitro. Further, injection of astrocyte media-conditioned breast cancer cells in mice showed increased invasive activity to the brain and other distant sites. More importantly, blocking the preconditioned tumor cells with broad spectrum MMP inhibitor decreased the invasion and metastasis of the tumor cells, in particular to the brain in vivo. Collectively, our data implicate astrocyte-derived MMP-2 and MMP-9 as critical players that facilitate tumor cell migration and invasion leading to brain metastasis.

  20. Combined Therapy for Distant Metastasis of Sacral Chordoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkal, Birol; Yaldız, Can; Temiz, Peyker; Temiz, Cüneyt

    2015-01-01

    Chordomas are known as rare primary malign tumours that have formed from primitive notochord remains. Sacral chordomas grow slowly but locally and aggressively. Chordomas are locally invasive and have low tendency to metastasis and have a poor prognosis in long-term follow-up. Metastasis may be seen in a rate of 5–40% of the chordomas. Metastasis of chordomas is common in liver, lung, lymph nodes, peritoneum, and brain. The treatment approaches, including surgery, have been discussed in the literature before. Susceptibility to radiotherapy and chemotherapy is controversial in these tumours. The success of surgical treatment affects survival directly. In this report, we will report a sacral chordoma case in which an intraperitoneal distant metastasis occurred and discuss the surgical approach. PMID:25649759

  1. Combined Therapy for Distant Metastasis of Sacral Chordoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Özkal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chordomas are known as rare primary malign tumours that have formed from primitive notochord remains. Sacral chordomas grow slowly but locally and aggressively. Chordomas are locally invasive and have low tendency to metastasis and have a poor prognosis in long-term follow-up. Metastasis may be seen in a rate of 5–40% of the chordomas. Metastasis of chordomas is common in liver, lung, lymph nodes, peritoneum, and brain. The treatment approaches, including surgery, have been discussed in the literature before. Susceptibility to radiotherapy and chemotherapy is controversial in these tumours. The success of surgical treatment affects survival directly. In this report, we will report a sacral chordoma case in which an intraperitoneal distant metastasis occurred and discuss the surgical approach.

  2. Breast Metastasis from Esophagogastric Junction Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Jena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to breast from nonmammary malignancy is only about 1.3–2.7%. A few cases of squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus and adenocarcinoma of stomach metastasizing to breast have been reported, but this is probably the first report of breast metastasis from esophagogastric junction (EGJ cancer in the English literature. Herein we report a case of a 32-year-old patient diagnosed as adenocarcinoma of gastroesophageal junction, presenting with left breast metastasis two years after treatment. Given unusual site of metastasis in a follow-up case of EGJ cancer, not only it is challenging to differentiate it from primary carcinoma of breast but also it is important from treatment point of view. In our case, clinical data, radiology, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry (IHC led us to reach the diagnosis.

  3. Cathepsins mediate tumor metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong-Jun; Tan; Zheng-Ke; Peng; Jin-Ping; Lu; Fa-Qing; Tang

    2013-01-01

    Cathepsins are highly expressed in various human cancers, associated with tumor metastasis. It is superfamily, concluding A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, L, K, O, S, V, and W family members. As a group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases, each member has a different function, playing different roles in distinct tumorigenic processes such as proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and invasion. Cathepsins belong to a diverse number of enzyme subtypes, including cysteine proteases, serine proteases and aspartic proteases. The contribution of cathepsins to invasion in human cancers is well documented, although the precise mechanisms by which cathepsins exert their effects are still not clear. In the present review, the role of cathepsin family members in cancer is discussed.

  4. Cerebral metastasis from hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We first report a rare case of metastasis from gastric hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC) to cerebral parenchyma, in a 50-year-old Chinese patient. He complained of a one-month history of a paroxysm of headache in the left temple and pars parietalis accompanied with binocular caligation caligo, insensible feeling of limbs and transient anepia. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a spherical occupying lesion in the left posterior-temple lobe which was clinically diagnosed as a metastatic tumor. Three years ago, the patient accepted total gastrectomy as he was pathologically diagnosed at gastroscopy having an adenocarcinoma. Eight months after gastrectomy, the occupying lesion in liver was detected by ultrasound and CT, and he accepted transcatheter arterial embolization. Before operation of the brain metastasis, no obvious abnormality was found in liver by ultrasound. Histopathological characteristics of the brain tumor were identical to those of stomach tumor. The growth pattern of both tumors showed solid cell nests. The tumor cells were polygonal, and had abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and round nuclei with obvious nucleoli. Sinusoid-like blood spaces were located between nodular tumor cells. Immunohistochemistrystained tumor cells were positive for AFP and negative for Hep-Par-1. According to these histopathological findings, both tumors were diagnosed as HAC and metastatic HAC. The patient remained alive 16 mo after tumorectomy of the cerebral metastasis. The differential diagnosis of brain metastasis from metastatic tumors should use a panel of antibodies to avoid confusing with the brain metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This paper describes this rare case of metastasis from gastric hepatoid adenocarcinoma to cerebral parenchyma, and provides a review of the literature concerning its histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics.

  5. Adaptive hypofractionated gamma knife radiosurgery for a large brainstem metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Sinclair; Jiri Bartek; Heather Martin; Pierre Barsoum; Ernest Dodoo

    2016-01-01

    Background: To demonstrate how adaptive hypofractionated radiosurgery by gamma knife (GK) can be successfully utilized to treat a large brainstem metastasis - a novel approach to a challenging clinical situation. Case Description: A 42-year-old woman, diagnosed with metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer in July 2011, initially treated with chemotherapy and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, developed multiple brain metastases March 2013, with subsequent whole brain radiotherapy , after which a ma...

  6. Intracranial metastasis from carcinoma of the cervix: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastasis from cervical carcinoma is very rare and have poor prognosis. We report an interesting and rare case of cervical carcinoma who developed brain metastasis following total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoophorectomy and radiotherapy, within 6 months of primary diagnosis. Since patient prognosis is very poor, oncology physicians should anticipate the presence of this condition in order to give prompt and comprehensive treatment.

  7. Radiosurgery without whole brain radiotherapy in melanoma brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effectiveness of radiosurgery without whole brain radiotherapy in the palliative treatment of melanoma brain metastases, we retrospectively assessed the results in 35 patients: 4 with a solitary brain metastasis, 13 with a single brain metastasis and metastases elsewhere and 18 with multiple brain metastases. The local control rate was 98.2% (55/56 metastases) at 3 months. Median survival was 22 months in patients with a solitary brain metastasis, 7.5 months in patients with a single brain metastasis and metastases elsewhere, and 4 months in patients with multiple brain metastases. Complications were unusual and surgery was required in 2 of 35 patients. These results show for the first time that melanoma patients with a unique brain metastasis with or without metastases elsewhere clearly benefit from tumour control easily obtained by radiosurgery. Although the comparison of radiosurgery with surgery and/or whole brain radiotherapy cannot be adequately addressed, radiosurgery alone seems to provide similar results with lower morbidity and impact on quality of life. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Retinoblastoma presenting as metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of metastatic retinoblastoma on initial presentation. Design: Prospective study. Place and duration of study: Supra Regional Centre for Retinoblastoma, Department of Ophthalmology, Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar Pakistan from July 1, 1999 to January 31, 2003. Methods: Data was collected from 80 registered Retinoblastoma patients admitted and examined under anaesthesia for tumours assessment. Diagnosis was supported with the help of CT scan and confirmed by histopathology of the enucleated specimen for evidence of optic nerve invasion by the tumour. Results: Twenty (25%) patients were presenting as Metastasis on initial presentation. Mean age was 3.5 years, range was 7 months to 12 years. Out of these 20 patients with metastasis, 10 were male and 10 were female. Eighteen (90%) of them were from lower socio-economic group. Conclusion: Failure in early diagnosis of retinoblastoma, advance age and unilateral disease are associated with extraocular spread; this tragic scenario can be prevented best be early detection and prompt treatment plan implementation. (author)

  9. AMELANOTIC MELANOMA WITH ATYPICAL CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND MULTIPLE METASTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A 52 year old woman presented with a history of asymptomatic skin lesions over left leg for the past 4 months. On examination she had multiple skin coloured papules and plaques over left leg. Oedema was also seen over left leg. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry proved the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Radiological investigation showed metastasis to lung, liver and brain. The patient was asymptomatic at the time of admission but she developed rapid metastasis within a very short span of time. This case is reported for the rare atypical presentation of malignant melanoma.

  10. Clinical Observation and Basic Study of Erlotinib Combined Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Brain Metastasis%厄洛替尼联合放疗治疗肺癌脑转移的临床及基础研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清琴; 靳彩玲; 崔艳慧; 苗战会; 寇小格; 李小瑞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the efficacy of erlotinib combined with whole brain radiotherapy(WBRT) for non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) patients with brain metastasis and investigate gene mutations of EGFR and erlotinib efficacy. Methods Forty NSCLC patients with brain metastasis received conventional WBRT of 30 Gy concurrently with 150 mg oral doses of erlotinib once daily until disease progression. Gene sequencing was used to detect the EGFR of all patients, MRI was evaluated 3 months after radiation. Results In NSCLC patients with brain metastasis, the overall response rate and clinical benefit rate of erlotinib combined with WBRT were 90.0% and 100% respectively( complete response, CR in 4 patients, partial response, PR in 30 patients ,and stable disease SD in 6patients). Overall median survival was 10.2 months. Its efficacy in exon 19 and 21 of EGFR was 90.3%. Conclusion Erlotinib combined with radiotherapy was effective for Non-small cell lung cancer patients with multiple brain metastasis,especially patients with 19 and 21 of EGFR.%目的 观察厄洛替尼联合全脑放疗(WBRT)治疗非小细胞肺癌(non-small cell lung cancer,NSCLC)的有效性,并探讨其与表皮生长因子(epidermal growth factor receptor,EGFR)基因突变的关系.方法 40例均为不能接受化疗或化疗失败的NSCLC脑转移患者,接受全脑放疗(whole brain radi otherapy,WBRT)30 Gy/10 Fx,共2周,同时口服厄洛替尼150 mg,1次/d,直至疾病进展,所有患者均经基因测序法检查EGFR突变.放疗结束后3个月复查脑MRI,每3个月复查1次,进行临床疗效评价,直至疾病进展,并统计1年生存情况.结果 厄洛替尼联合WBRT对NSCLC脑转移的客观缓解率(完全缓解+部分缓解)为85.0%,临床症状缓解率100%,中位生存时间10.2月,EGFR突变的外显子19和2l突变的有效率为90.3%.结论 厄洛替尼联合WBRT对NSCLC脑转移EGFR突变的患者有较好的疗效,尤其是外显子19和2l突变的患者.生存期明显延

  11. Isolated omental metastasis of renal cell carcinoma after extraperitoneal open partial nephrectomy: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ömer; Mut, Tuna; Sağlıcan, Yeşim; Sag, Alan Alper; Falay, Okan; Selcukbiricik, Fatih; Tabak, Levent; Esen, Tarık

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metachronous metastatic spread of clinically localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) affects almost 1/3 of the patients. They occur most frequently in lung, liver, bone and brain. Isolated omental metastasis of RCC has not been reported so far. Case presentation A 62-year-old patient previously diagnosed and treated due to pulmonary sarcoidosis has developed an omental metastatic lesion 13 years after having undergone open extraperitoneal partial nephrectomy for T1 clear-cell RCC. Constitutional symptoms and imaging findings that were attributed to the presence of a sarcomatoid paraneoplastic syndrome triggered by the development this metastatic focus complicated the diagnostic work-up. Biopsy of the [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (+) lesions confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic RCC and the patient was managed by the resection of the omental mass via near-total omentectomy followed by targeted therapy with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Discussion Late recurrence of RCC has been reported to occur in 10–20% of the patients within 20 years. Therefore lifelong follow up of RCC has been advocated by some authors. Diffuse peritoneal metastases have been reported in certain RCC subtypes with adverse histopathological features. However, isolated omental metastasis without any sign of peritoneal involvement is an extremely rare condition. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of metachronously developed, isolated omental metastasis of an initially T1 clear-cell RCC. Constitutional symptoms, despite a long interval since nephrectomy, should raise the possibility of a paraneoplastic syndrome being associated with metastatic RCC. Morphological and molecular imaging studies together with histopathological documentation will be diagnostic. PMID:26874583

  12. CT与MRI图像融合对脑转移瘤三维适形放疗靶区的影响%The influence of target volume by CT/MRI image fusion on brain metastasis's three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈苏玮; 袁锋; 林志仁; 王伟锋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To improve the accuracy of delineating three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy target volume by comparing the difference between computed tomography(CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image fusion on brain metastasis area and CT's target area. Methods CT's images and MRI's images collected from 25 cases with brain metastasis in the same period were transmitted to image processing workstation and fused into CT/MRI images, and then 41 pairs of gross tumor volume (GTV) were delineated in CT and CT/MRI, and finally difference was compared between the two group. Results The value of GTVCT in 41 pairs from 25 cases was (31.75±9.93) cm3 and in GTVCT/MRI was (28.92±8.25) cm3. Among 41 control groups, the number of the accuracy of GTVCT lower than that of GTVCT/MRI was 18, GTCCT higher than that of GTVCT/MRI was 23. Conclusion The improving accuracy of brain metastasis's target volume sketched by CT/MRI image fusion is more suitable for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy.%目的 研究CT与MRI图像融合的脑转移瘤靶区与CT图像靶区的不同,提高三维适形放疗靶区勾画的准确性.方法 同期采集25例脑转移瘤患者的CT和MRI图像,传送至图像处理工作站融合成CT/MRI图像,分别在CT及CT/MRI融合图像勾画41组GTV,比较两种图像勾画的GTV的差别.结果 25例患者共41组靶区的GTVcr为(31.75±9.93)cm3,GTVCT/MRI为(28.92±8.25)cm3.41个对照组中,GTVCr <GTVCT/MRI为18个,GTVCT >GTVCT/MRI为23个.结论 采用CT/MRI融合后图像勾画的脑转移瘤靶区精确度提高,更适合于三维立体适形放疗.

  13. Gastric adenocarcinoma with prostatic metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshni, S; Anoop, Tm; Preethi, Tr; Shubanshu, G; Lijeesh, Al

    2014-06-01

    Metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma to the prostate gland is extremely rare. Herein, we report a case of gastric adenocarcinoma in a 56-year-old man with prostatic metastasis diagnosed through the analysis of biopsy specimens from representative lesions in the stomach and prostate gland. Immunohistochemistry of the prostatic tissue showed positive staining for cytokeratin 7 and negative staining for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), whereas the serum PSA level was normal, confirming the diagnosis of prostatic metastasis from carcinoma of the stomach. PMID:25061542

  14. Gastric Adenocarcinoma with Prostatic Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshni, S; Preethi, TR; Shubanshu, G; Lijeesh, AL

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma to the prostate gland is extremely rare. Herein, we report a case of gastric adenocarcinoma in a 56-year-old man with prostatic metastasis diagnosed through the analysis of biopsy specimens from representative lesions in the stomach and prostate gland. Immunohistochemistry of the prostatic tissue showed positive staining for cytokeratin 7 and negative staining for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), whereas the serum PSA level was normal, confirming the diagnosis of prostatic metastasis from carcinoma of the stomach. PMID:25061542

  15. Metastatic Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Haciyakupoglu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumor is secondary spread to the central nervous system of primer systemic cancers originating from tissues other than the central nervous system. In adults; there are metastases respectively from lungs, breasts, malign melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, colon and thyroid cancers. 30-60% of lung cancers metastasis to the brain. In children there are quite a few cerebral metastases. Most commonly leukemia, lymphoma, osteogenic sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and germ cell tumors metastasis to the brain. %50 of malign melanoma, lung, breast and colon cancers intend to make multipl metastases but renal cell cancers intend to make solitary metastasis.While lung cancers metastasis to brain in 6-9 months after the definitive diagnosis, renal cancers in 1 year, colon cancers in 2 years, breast cancers and malign melanoma in 3 years metastasis to brain. In 6% of cases there are cerebral metastasis while there isn’t a symptom of a primary tumor. For treatment corticosteroids, surgery, Radiotherapy(RT, Chemotherapy(CT and Stereotactic Radiosurgery(SRS can be implemented. Small cell lung cancers, lymphoma, germ cell tumors are sensitive to RT and CT. Non small cell lung cancers, renal, colon cancers and malign melanoma are radioresistant. The purposes in the surgery of the metastatic brain tumors are; total resection of tumors without neurologic deficits, decreasing the intracranial pressure and decreasing the dose of postoperative radiotherapy. Key Words: Metastatic brain tumors, Stereotactic radiosurgery, Malign melanoma, Lung cancers, Renal cell carcinoma, Radiotherapy, Chemotherapy [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 191-202

  16. Is Selenium a Potential Treatment for Cancer Metastasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chi Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient that functions as a redox gatekeeper through its incorporation into proteins to alleviate oxidative stress in cells. Although the epidemiological data are somewhat controversial, the results of many studies suggest that inorganic and organic forms of Se negatively affect cancer progression, and that several selenoproteins, such as GPXs, also play important roles in tumor development. Recently, a few scientists have examined the relationship between Se and metastasis, a late event in cancer progression, and have evaluated the potential of Se as an anti-angiogenesis or anti-metastasis agent. In this review, we present the current knowledge about Se compounds and selenoproteins, and their effects on the development of metastasis, with an emphasis on cell migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. In the cancers of breast, prostate, colorectal, fibrosarcoma, melanoma, liver, lung, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and brain glioma, there is either clinical evidence linking selenoproteins, such as thioredoxin reductase-1 to lymph node metastasis; in vitro studies indicating that Se compounds and selenoproteins inhibited cell motility, migration, and invasion, and reduced angiogenic factors in some of these cancer cells; or animal studies showing that Se supplementation resulted in reduced microvessel density and metastasis. Together, these data support the notion that Se may be an anti-metastastatic element in addition to being a cancer preventative agent.

  17. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma presenting as skull base metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Bo; LIU Dian-gang; L(U) Hai-li; ZHANG Qiu-hang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of well-differentiated thyroid cancer and is considered to be a relatively indolent tumor in which distant metastasis and death are rare.1 The metastasis of PTC is usually to regional lymph nodes, especially the cervical and mediastinal nodes. Metastases to the brain are rare, and constitute 0.1%-5.0% of distant metastases of papillary carcinoma.2 Skull metastasis is uncommon,and is found in 2.5%-5.8% of cases of thyroid cancer.3 Skull base metastasis of PTC is extremely rare, with only eight reported cases in the literature involving the clivus,cavernous sinus, sella turcica, and the petrous apex and ridge.4 A metastatic lesion can arise from histologically benign and silent thyroid neoplasms,5 and differential diagnosis between ectopic and metastatic thyroid cancer can be difficult,6 therefore, the management of thyroid cancer is controversial after removal of metastatic disease.Here we reported a case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) that was manifested as a solitary clivus metastasis and discussed the diagnostic and therapeutic management strategies. The 73-year-old patient presented with visual impairment in the right eye,and epistaxis. The patient subsequently underwent complete total thyroidectomy after a diagnosis of papillary microcarcinoma. This finding emphasizes that clinically significant metastases can arise from thyroid papillary microcarcinoma. Total thyroidectomy and careful review of the histology are necessary to prevent delay in proper diagnosis.

  18. Diagnostic examination performance by using microvascular leakage, cerebral blood volume, and blood flow derived from 3-T dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging in the differentiation of glioblastoma multiforme and brain metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Server, Andres; Nakstad, Per H. [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Orheim, Tone E.D. [Oslo University Hospital, Interventional Centre, Oslo (Norway); Graff, Bjoern A. [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Josefsen, Roger [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo (Norway); Kumar, Theresa [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Pathology, Oslo (Norway)

    2011-05-15

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has limited capacity to differentiate between glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and metastasis. The purposes of this study were: (1) to compare microvascular leakage (MVL), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and blood flow (CBF) in the distinction of metastasis from GBM using dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DSC-MRI), and (2) to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of perfusion and permeability MR imaging. A prospective study of 61 patients (40 GBMs and 21 metastases) was performed at 3 T using DSC-MRI. Normalized rCBV and rCBF from tumoral (rCBVt, rCBFt), peri-enhancing region (rCBVe, rCBFe), and by dividing the value in the tumor by the value in the peri-enhancing region (rCBVt/e, rCBFt/e), as well as MVL were calculated. Hemodynamic and histopathologic variables were analyzed statistically and Spearman/Pearson correlations. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed for each of the variables. The rCBVe, rCBFe, and MVL were significantly greater in GBMs compared with those of metastases. The optimal cutoff value for differentiating GBM from metastasis was 0.80 which implies a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 86%, and a negative predictive value of 97% for rCBVe ratio. We found a modest correlation between rCBVt and rCBFt ratios. MVL measurements in GBMs are significantly higher than those in metastases. Statistically, both rCBVe, rCBVt/e and rCBFe, rCBFt/e were useful in differentiating between GBMs and metastases, supporting the hypothesis that perfusion MR imaging can detect infiltration of tumor cells in the peri-enhancing region. (orig.)

  19. Simultaneous laparoscopic excision for rectal carcinoma and synchronous hepatic metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kai-yun; XIANG Guo-an; WANG Han-ning; XIAO Fang-lian

    2011-01-01

    Background Rectal carcinoma patients are often accompanied by hepatic metastasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of simultaneous laparoscopic excision for rectal carcinoma with synchronous hepatic metastasis.Methods A total of 41 patients with rectal carcinoma and synchronous hepatic metastasis detected by CT scan were included in this study. Among them, 23 patients underwent laparoscopic surgery and 18 patients underwent traditional open surgery to simultaneously remove the rectal tumor and hepatic metastasis lesions. All patients received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. All the patients were followed up from 36 to 72 months (mean 45.3 months).Results All the operations were performed successfully and no patient was turned to open surgery in laparoscopic group. The mean blood loss, the mean postoperative hospital stay, the mean blood transfusion and the mean intestinal functional recovery time showed a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 82.6%, 43.5% and 8.6% in the laparoscopic group, without significant difference compared with the open group (77.8%, 38.9% and 0) (P>0.05).Conclusions Simultaneous laparoscopic excision for rectal carcinoma and synchronous hepatic metastasis is safe and effective with similar survival achieved by the traditional open abdominal surgery.

  20. 人肺腺癌脑转移动物模型建立及显像的研究%An Experimental Study on the Chinese Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Clone CPA-Yang1-BR with Brain Metastasis Potency in Nude Mice and In Vivo Imaging Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷贝; 曹杰; 沈杰; 赵兰香; 梁胜; 孟庆刚; 谢文晖; 杨顺芳

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in men and wom-en. It is also the most common cause of brain metastases. A brain metastasis model is diffcult to be established because of the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the lack of optimal methods for detecting brain metastasis in nude mice. hTus, the establishment of a Chinese lung adenocarcinoma cell line and its animal model with brain metastasis potency and in vivo research is of great signiifcance. Methods CPA-Yang1 cells were obtained from a patient with human lung adeno-carcinoma by lentiviral vector-mediated transfection of green lfuorescence protein. Intracardiac inoculation of the cells was performed in nude mice, and brain metastatic lesions were detected using micro 18F FDG-PET/CT scanners, small animal in vivo imaging system for lfuorescence, radionuclide and X ray fused imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with sense body detection, and resection. hTe samples were divided into two parts for cell culture and histological diagnosis. hTe process was repeated in vivo and in vitro for four cycles to obtain a novel cell clone, CPA-Yang1-BR. Results A novel cell clone, CPA-Yang1-BR, was obtained with a brain metastatic rate of 50%. hTe use of MRI for the detection of brain metasta-ses has obvious advantages. Conclusion An experimental Chinese lung adenocarcinoma cell clone (CPA-Yang1-BR) and its animal model with brain metastasis potency in nude mice were established. MRI with sense body or micro MRI may be used as a sensitive, accurate, and noninvasive method to detect experimental brain metastases in intact live immunodeifcient mice. hTe results of this study may serve as a technical platform for brain metastases from lung adenocarcinoma.%背景与目的肺癌脑转移是临床常见的严重并发症,由于脑部结构和功能的特殊性、脑转移检测方法的局限性,预后很差。本研究旨在筛选人肺腺

  1. Endobronchial metastasis in breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Albertini, R E; Ekberg, N L

    1980-01-01

    Ten patients with endobronchial metastasis from primary breast cancer were found among 1200 fibreoptic bronchoscopies. Six of these patients had radiological signs suggesting bronchial obstruction. The diagnosis was verified in nine cases by means of bronchoscopic biopsy or cytology and in one by thoracotomy. Endobronchial metastasis should be considered when symptoms or chest films suggest endobronchial disease in a patient with a history of breast cancer.

  2. Cutaneous metastasis in anorectal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendra Varma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastasis in anorectal adenocarcinoma is a rare entity. Here, we report the case of a 40-year-old female who presented with yellowish-brown, irregular, solid, elevated rashes over the pubis with a recent history off palliative colostomy for anorectal adenocarcinoma. Clinically, we suspected metastasis that was proved on biopsy. We report this case due to the rare presenting site (i.e., perineum of a metastatic adenocarcinoma.

  3. Isolated Uterine Metastasis of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Arslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Most common metastasis sites of breast cancer are the lungs, bones, liver, and brain, whereas uterine involvement by metastatic breast disease is rare. Metastatic carcinoma of the uterus usually originates from other genital sites, most commonly being from the ovaries. Invasive lobular carcinoma spreads to gynecologic organs more frequently than invasive ductal carcinoma. Case Report. A 57-year-old postmenopausal woman was diagnosed with breast carcinoma 2 years ago and modified radical mastectomy was performed. Pathological examination of tumor revealed invasive ductal carcinoma, stage IIIc. She presented with abdominal pain and distension. Diagnostic workup and gynecologic examination revealed lesions that caused diffuse thickening of the uterus wall. Endometrial sampling was performed for confirmation of the diagnosis. She underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Breast carcinoma metastases in endometrium and myometrium were confirmed histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Conclusion. We herein report the first case of isolated uterine patient who had invasive ductal carcinoma of breast.

  4. Intracranial metastasis from primary transitional cell carcinoma of female urethra: case report & review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the female urethra is a rare urological malignancy, and intracranial metastasis of this cancer has not yet been reported in the literature. This review is intended to present a case of multiple intracranial metastasis in a female patient with a remote history of primary urethral TCC. A 49-year-old woman, presented with a prolapsed mass in urethral orifice that was diagnosed as primary urethral TCC with distant lung and multiple bone metastases. The patient subsequently underwent chemotherapy under various regimens. A year later, the patient developed headache and vomiting which as was found to be due to multiple intracranial metastasis. The patient underwent surgical resection of the largest lesion located on the cerebellum, and consecutively gamma knife radiosurgery was performed for other small-sized lesions. Pathological examination of the resected mass revealed a metastatic carcinoma from a known urethral TCC. Serial work-up of systemic metastasis revealed concomitant aggravation of lung, spleen, and liver metastasis. The patient died of lung complication 2 months after the diagnosis of brain metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cerebral metastasis from primary urethral TCC, with pathological confirmation. As shown in intracranial metastasis of other urinary tract carcinoma, this case occurred in the setting of uncontrolled systemic disease and led to dismal prognosis in spite of aggressive interventional modalities

  5. Intra-cranial metastasis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WONG Chun-sing; CHU Yiu-ching

    2011-01-01

    With the evolution of immunochemical staining techniques and better imaging modalities with better image resolution and whole body coverage,gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST),the most common mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract,is often encountered in clinical practice.Metastasis is common with malignant GIST and can be found in up to 50% of patients at presentation.Liver and peritoneum are the two most common sites of metastasis and accounted for 95% of cases.Lymphatics,bone and lung metastasis are rare.Malignant GIST with intracranial metastasis is even rarer,with only a few cases reported in the literature,and most of these had earlier metastasis elsewhere.Radiological features for GISTs are not specific but it does contribute to confirming early and accurate diagnosis of malignant GISTs by judging the tumor size,enhancement pattern and the invasion of adjacent structures.We report a case of a 26-year-old male with metastatic GIST to the liver and subsequently to the brain and skull vault.This is the first case reported in our locality and he is the youngest patient reported with this disease entity.The clinical progress,radiological features and the role of imaging will be discussed further in this paper.The radiological and clinical features of the primary tumor will specifically be addressed.The purpose of this paper is to enrich the current database of this rare disease entity and to alert both radiologists and clinicians about the imaging features of GIST with intracranial metastasis.

  6. An open cohort study of bone metastasis incidence following surgery in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimoto Masataka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To help design clinical trials of adjuvant bisphosphonate therapy for breast cancer, the temporal incidence of bone metastasis was investigated in a cohort of patients. We have tried to draw the criteria to use adjuvant bisphosphonate. Methods Consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing surgery between 1988 and 1998 (5459 patients were followed up regarding bone metastasis until December 2006. Patients' characteristics at the time of surgery were analyzed by Cox's method, with bone metastasis as events. Patient groups were assigned according to Cox's analysis, and were judged either to require the adjuvant bisphosphonate or not, using the tentative criteria: high risk (>3% person-year, medium risk (1-3%, and low risk ( Results Bone metastasis incidence was constant between 1.0 and 2.8% per person-year more than 10 years. Non-invasive cancer was associated with a very low incidence of bone metastasis (1/436. Multivariate Cox's analysis indicated important factors for bone metastasis were tumor grade (T, nodal grade (pN, and histology. Because T and pN were important factors for bone metastasis prediction, subgroups were made by pTNM stage. Patients at stages IIIA, IIIB and IV had an incidence of >3% per person-year, patients with stage I Conclusions Bone metastasis incidence remained constant for many years. Using pN, T, and histopathology, patients could be classified into high, medium, and low risk groups.

  7. 1,3-Butanediol Dibenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Hakamata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly and straightforward methods for creating biofuels are required to promote biofuel use. Therefore, we present here a convenient and environmentally friendly direct self-aldol reaction of acetaldehyde in 100 mM borate buffer (pH 10 affording the dimer of 3-hydroxybutanal with a good yield. The product can be easily converted into 1,3-butanediol and its benzoate; therefore, our results will have a positive impact in the field of biochemical production from ethanol.

  8. Paeoniflorin inhibits macrophage-mediated lung cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Chen, Gang-Ling; Li, Ya-Juan; Chen, Yang; Lin, Fang-Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Alternatively activated macrophages are more frequently involved in tumor growth, angiogenesis, and immunosuppression. A previous study showed that paeoniflorin, the major active constituent of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, can inhibit tumor growth and lung metastases of Lewis lung tumor-bearing mice. This study tried to investigate whether paeoniflorin inhibited lung cancer metastasis by inhibiting the alternative activation of macrophages (M2 macrophage). Using a viability assay, the cytotoxicity of paeoniflorin on Lewis lung cancer cells and peritoneal macrophages were investigated. In vitro scratch wound and in vivo lung metastasis experiments were used to test the ability to inhibit the migration of paeoniflorin and the function of M2 macrophages. Flow cytometry was performed to test the cell cycle of Lewis lung cancer cells, and to test the M2 macrophages in peritoneal macrophages and subcutaneous transplantable tumor. It was found that paeoniflorin showed no inhibitory effect on the growth of Lewis lung cancer cells and peritoneal macrophages of mouse in vitro. Paeoniflorin could attenuate the migration of LLC stimulated by alternatively activated macrophages (stimulated for 24 h and 48 h, paeoniflorin 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 μmol·L(-1), P lung cancer cells (paeoniflorin 100 μmol·L(-1), P lung metastasis of Lewis lung cancer cells xenograft and decrease the numbers of M2 macrophages in subcutaneous xenograft tumour in vivo (paeoniflorin 20, 40 mg·kg(-1), P lung metastasis of Lewis lung cancer cells xenograft partly through inhibiting the alternative activation of macrophages.

  9. Curative effect analysis of chemoradio and targetedtherapy for brain metastasis nonsmall-cell lung cancer: review of 91 cases%放化疗结合靶向治疗非小细胞肺癌脑转移91例疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓明佳; 冯志平; 沈丽达

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate treatment, recent curative effect and forward survival for brain metastasis nonsmall-cell lung cancer. Methods: The clinical data of 91 patients with brain metastasis nonsmall-cell lung cancer were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The recent effective rate was 55. 77% (29/52) in chemoradio-therapy group, 69. 23%(27/39) in chemoradio and targeted therapy group. The recent effective rate was not significantly higher in chemoradio and targetedtherapy group than chemoradio-therapy group (P=0. 191,>0. 05). 1 year survival rate was 5. 77% (3/52) , and midian survival time was 7. 9 months in chemoradio-therapy group. In chemoradio and targeted therapy group, 1 year survival rate was 12. 82% (5/39) , and midian survival time was 11. 8 months. 1 year survival time was significantly higher in chemoradio and targeted therapy group than chemoradio-therapy group (Pbrain metastasis nonsmall-cell lung cancer.%目的:探讨非小细胞肺癌脑转移患者的治疗方法、近期疗效及远期生存.方法:对91例非小细胞肺癌脑转移患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果:近期疗效显示:放化疗结合组有效率为55.77%(29/52).放化疗结合+靶向治疗组有效率为69.23% (27/39).放化疗结合+靶向治疗组的疗效较放化疗结合组高,但无显著性差异(P=0.191,>0.05).放化疗结合组1年生存率5.77%(3/52),中位生存期 7.9个月.放化疗结合+靶向治疗组1年生存率为12.82%(5/39),中位生存期11.8个月.放化疗结合+靶向治疗组1年生存率优于放化疗结合组(P=0.000,<0.01).全组91例均未出现不能耐受的治疗相关的不良反应.结论:放化疗结合+靶向治疗是治疗非小细胞肺癌脑转移的有效方法.

  10. Metastasis genetics, epigenetics, and the tumor microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    KISS1 is a member of a family of genes known as metastasis suppressors, defined by their ability to block metastasis without blocking primary tumor development and growth. KISS1 re-expression in multiple metastatic cell lines of diverse cellular origin suppresses metastasis; yet, still allows comple...

  11. Pulmonary Metastasis from Pseudomyxoma Peritonei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Kitai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP is a rare clinical condition, where copious mucinous ascites accumulate in the peritoneal cavity due to dissemination of mucin-producing tumor. Because of this disseminating, yet nonmetastasizing, behavior, PMP attracts much interest from surgical oncologists in that aggressive locoregional therapy can give the opportunity of long survival and even cure. Although extra-abdominal metastasis is exceptionally rare, the lung is the most likely site in such a case. In this paper, the clinical findings and treatment of eleven cases with pulmonary metastasis from PMP were reviewed, including ten cases in the literature and one case which we experienced. The clinical features of PMP cases with pulmonary metastasis were similar to cases without pulmonary metastasis. The histological type was low-grade mucinous neoplasm in most cases. Pulmonary lesions were resected in seven cases in which abdominal lesions were controlled by cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy or another therapeutic modality. Disease-free state was maintained in five cases at the end of the follow-up period. However, it should be noted that rapid progression after resection was seen in two cases, suggesting that biological features may have changed by surgical intervention.

  12. Penile metastasis from rectal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murhekar K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile metastases are infrequent and often originate from genitor-urinary organs including bladder and prostate. In the present communication, we report an unusual case of penile metastasis from rectal adenocarcinoma. Though uncommon, this presentation is not unknown. A review of literature of penile metastases in colorectal cancers is also summarized here.

  13. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  14. Hand1 overexpression inhibits medulloblastoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Guda, Maheedhara R; Martin, Sarah E; Antony, Reuben; Fernandez, Karen; Lin, Julian; Tsung, Andrew J; Velpula, Kiran K

    2016-08-19

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor. Current treatment includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, ongoing treatment in patients is further classified according to the presence or absence of metastasis. Since metastatic medulloblastoma are refractory to current treatments, there is need to identify novel biomarkers that could be used to reduce metastatic potential, and more importantly be targeted therapeutically. Previously, we showed that ionizing radiation-induced uPAR overexpression is associated with increased accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus. We further demonstrated that uPAR protein act as cytoplasmic sequestration factor for a novel basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Hand1. Among the histological subtypes classical and desmoplastic subtypes account for the majority while large cell/anaplastic variant is most commonly associated with metastatic disease. In this present study using immunohistochemical approach and patient data mining for the first time, we demonstrated that Hand1 expression is observed to be downregulated in all the subtypes of medulloblastoma. Previously we showed that Hand1 overexpression regulated medulloblastoma angiogenesis and here we investigated the role of Hand1 in the context of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Moreover, UW228 and D283 cells overexpressing Hand1 demonstrated decreased-expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, β-catenin and SOX2); metastatic marker (SMA); and increased expression of epithelial marker (E-cadherin). Strikingly, human pluripotent stem cell antibody array showed that Hand1 overexpression resulted in substantial decrease in pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct3/4, Otx2, Flk1) suggesting that Hand1 expression may be essential to attenuate the EMT and our findings underscore a novel role for Hand1 in medulloblastoma metastasis. PMID:27297109

  15. Pedunculated hepatocellular carcinoma and splenic metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-Lin Yan; Yao-Dong Wang; Zhi-De Lai; Yi-Feng Tian; Hong-Biao Chen; Fu-Nan Qiu; Song-Qiang Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Only a few cases of pedunculated hepatocellular carcinoma (P-HCC) have been reported in the literature. The common sites of extrahepatic metastases in patients with HCC are the lungs, regional lymph nodes,kidney, bone marrow and adrenals. Metastasis to spleen is mostly via hematogenous metastasis, direct metastasis to spleen was very rare. We report a case of P-HCC presenting as a left upper abdominal lesions which involved the spleen that was actually a P-HCC with splenic metastasis. This case is unique as P-HCC directly involved the spleen which is not via hematogenous metastasis.

  16. OVARIAN METASTASIS IN PATIENT WITH ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feng-zhi; CHEN Yi-nan; ZHANG Guo-nan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical pathological characteristics of ovarian metastasis of endometrial carcinoma and the factors affecting prognosis. Methods: Retrospective analysis was made to the clinical pathological outcome of endometrial carcinoma patients receiving surgical treatment in our hospital from January 1990 to December 2002. Results:Among the 191 cases of endometrial carcinoma patients, 17 cases (8.9%) had ovarian metastasis and young patients were more likely to have ovarian metastasis. The multiple factor analysis showed that the independent risk factors of ovarian metastasis in endometrial carcinoma included the depth of myometrial invasion, lymph node metastasis and pathological types. Conclusion: Ovarian metastasis in patients with endometrial carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis, the depth of myometrial invasion, lymph node metastasis and histologic types are independent risk factors affecting the prognosis. For young patients at early stage of the disease, it should be prudent as to whether to retain the ovary.

  17. Pericytes limit tumor cell metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xian, Xiaojie; Håkansson, Joakim; Ståhlberg, Anders;

    2006-01-01

    Previously we observed that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) deficiency in beta tumor cells facilitates metastasis into distant organs and local lymph nodes. Here, we show that NCAM-deficient beta cell tumors grew leaky blood vessels with perturbed pericyte-endothelial cell-cell interactions...... and deficient perivascular deposition of ECM components. Conversely, tumor cell expression of NCAM in a fibrosarcoma model (T241) improved pericyte recruitment and increased perivascular deposition of ECM molecules. Together, these findings suggest that NCAM may limit tumor cell metastasis by stabilizing...... the microvessel wall. To directly address whether pericyte dysfunction increases the metastatic potential of solid tumors, we studied beta cell tumorigenesis in primary pericyte-deficient Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice. This resulted in beta tumor cell metastases in distant organs and local lymph nodes, demonstrating a role...

  18. Vasculogenic mimicry and tumor metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxin; Qiao, Lili; Liang, Ning; Xie, Jian; Luo, Hui; Deng, Guodong; Zhang, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    Vasculogenic mimicry (VM), a microvascular channel made up of nonendothelial cells, has been accepted as a new model of neovascularization in aggressive tumors, owning to the specific capacity of malignant cells to form vessel-like networks which provide sufficient blood supply for tumor growth. Multiple molecular mechanisms, especially vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor A2 (EphA2), phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR1), and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1a, have been reported to participate in VM formation which is associated with tumor migration and invasion. In addition, hypoxia, cancer stem cells (CSCs) and epithelial-mesenehymal transition (EMT) are regarded as significant factors in VM formation and tumor metastasis. Due to the important effects of VM on tumor progression, a review was carried out in the present study, to synthetically analyze the relationship between VM and tumor metastasis. PMID:27569069

  19. Raman spectroscopy of bone metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Sottnik, Joseph; Morris, Michael; Keller, Evan

    2012-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy of bone has been used to characterize chemical changes occurring in diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteomyelitis. Metastasis of cancer into bone causes changes to bone quality that are similar to those observed in osteoporosis, such as decreased bone strength, but with an accelerated timeframe. In particular, osteolytic (bone degrading) lesions in bone metastasis have a marked effect on patient quality of life because of increased risk of fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. We use Raman spectroscopy to examine bone from two different mouse models of osteolytic bone metastasis. Raman spectroscopy measures physicochemical information which cannot be obtained through standard biochemical and histological measurements. This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Michigan University Committee on the Care and Use of Animals. Two mouse models of prostate cancer bone metastasis, RM1 (n=3) and PC3-luc (n=4) were examined. Tibiae were injected with RM1 or PC3-luc cancer cells, while the contralateral tibiae received a placebo injection for use as controls. After 2 weeks of incubation, the mice were sacrificed and the tibiae were examined by Raman microspectroscopy (λ=785 nm). Spectroscopic markers corresponding to mineral stoichiometry, bone mineralization, and mineral crystallinity were compared in spectra from the cancerous and control tibiae. X-ray imaging of the tibia confirmed extensive osteolysis in the RM1 mice, with tumor invasion into adjoining soft tissue and moderate osteolysis in the PC3-luc mice. Raman spectroscopic markers indicate that osteolytic lesions are less mineralized than normal bone tissue, with an altered mineral stoichiometry and crystallinity.

  20. Complications of vertebral metastasis surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal-Moussellard, H.; Broc, G.; Pointillart, V.; Siméon, F.; Vital, J. M.; Sénégas, J.

    1998-01-01

    The authors report their experience concerning complications of spinal metastasis surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of such complications and analyse the factors influencing their occurrence. The records of 145 patients treated between 1982 and 1991 for metastatic disease of the spine were retrospectively reviewed for intra- and postoperative complications. Other factors such as radiation therapy, emergent nature of surgery, and neurologic deficits were analysed f...

  1. A review of penile metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Mearini; Renato Colella; Alessandro Zucchi; Elisabetta Nunzi; Carlo Porrozzi; Massimo Porena

    2012-01-01

    Penile cancer as primary disease is relatively rare in developed countries. The penis is a rare site of metastases in spite of its rich vascularization. Approximately 500 cases have been reported in the literature; almost 70% of primary lesions are of pelvic origin (from genitourinary or recto-sigmoid primary tumors). We describe a case of penile metastasis from lung cancer. The rarity of the event prompted us to also explore related reviews and discuss the incidence, physiopathology, diagnos...

  2. Imaging of ocular melanoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanya, Rashmi; Selvarajan, Santosh Kumar; Cox, Mougnyan; Joshi, Ganesh; Deshmukh, Sandeep; Mitchell, Donald G; O'Kane, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Ocular melanoma is the most common adult primary intraocular tumour. Although detecting liver lesions. In particular, newer hepatobiliary contrast agents which offer an additional hepatobiliary phase of excretion help in the detection of even tiny liver metastases. Diffusion-weighted imaging is helpful when an i.v. contrast cannot be administered. Treated lesions are also better evaluated with MRI. CT is useful for evaluating lung nodules, large liver metastasis or in patients in whom MRI is medically contraindicated. The disadvantage lies in its inability to detect small liver metastasis and the radiation dose involved. The lesions treated with iodized oil as part of chemoembolization procedures can be followed on CT. Ultrasound can be used only for detecting hepatic metastases. However, it is heavily operator dependent, technically challenging and time consuming especially in patients who are large. Extrahepatic metastasis cannot be seen on ultrasound. Its utility is primarily for the biopsy of liver lesions. Positron emission tomography (PET)-CT can detect lung nodules and large liver lesions but is insensitive to small liver lesions. Moreover, the high radiation dose is a major disadvantage. PMID:27168029

  3. Simultaneous in-field boost for patients with 1 to 4 brain metastasis/es treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy: a prospective study on quality-of-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess treatment toxicity and patients' survival/quality of life (QoL) after volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with simultaneous in-field boost (SIB) for cancer patients with 1 - 4 brain metastases (BM) treated with or without surgery. Between March and December 2010, 29 BM patients (total volume BM, < 40 cm3) aged < 80 years, KPS ≥ 70, RPA < III were included in this prospective trial. Whole brain VMAT (30 Gy) and a SIB to the BM (40 Gy) was delivered in 10 fraction. Mean age was 62.1 ± 8.5 years. Fifteen (51.7%) underwent surgery. KPS and MMSE were prospectively assessed. A self-assessed questionnaire was used to assess the QoL (EORTC QLQ-C30 with -BN20 module). As of April 2011 and after a mean FU of 5.4 ± 2.8 months, 14 (48.3%) patients died. The 6-month overall survival was 55.1%. Alopecia was only observed in 9 (31%) patients. In 3-month survivors, KPS was significantly (p = 0.01) decreased. MMSE score remained however stable (p = 0.33). Overall, QoL did decrease after VMAT. The mean QLQ-C30 global health status (p = 0.72) and emotional functional (p = 0.91) scores were decreased (low QoL). Physical (p = 0.05) and role functioning score (p = 0.01) were significantly worse and rapidly decreased during treatment. The majority of BN20 domains and single items worsened 3 months after VMAT except headaches (p = 0.046) and bladder control (p = 0.26) which improved. The delivery of 40 Gy in 10 fractions to 1 - 4 BM using VMAT was achieved with no significant toxicity. QoL, performance status, but not MMSE, was however compromised 3 months after treatment in this selected cohort of BM patients

  4. 1,3,5-trinitroso- and 1,3,5-trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine-2H6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdeuteration of 1,3,5-trinitrosohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine was brought about by treatment with potassium alkoxide in CH3O2H(99.5%). The important high energy compound, 1,3,5-trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), was obtained in its perdeuterated modification (>99% 2H) by oxidation of the perdeuterated trinitrosamine with a mixture of nitric acid (100%) and hydrogen peroxide (30%). (author)

  5. A Bone Metastasis Nude Mouse Model Created by Ultrasound Guided Intracardiac Injection of Breast Cancer Cells: the Micro-CT, MRI and Bioluminescence Imaging Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Jin; Song, Eun Hye; Kim, Seol Hwa; Song, Ho Taek; Suh, Jin Suck [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sang Hyun [Korean Minjok Leadership Academy, Heongsung (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop a nude mouse model of bone metastasis by performing intracardiac injection of breast cancer cells under ultrasonography guidance and we wanted to evaluate the development and the distribution of metastasis in vivo using micro-CT, MRI and bioluminescence imaging. Animal experiments were performed in 6-week-old female nude mice. The animals underwent left ventricular injection of 2x105 MDA-MB-231Bo-Luc cells. After injection of the tumor cells, serial bioluminescence imaging was performed for 7 weeks. The findings of micro-CT, MRI and the histology were correlated with the 'hot' lesions seen on the bioluminescence imaging. Metastasis was found in 62.3% of the animals. Two weeks after intracardiac injection, metastasis to the brain, spine and femur was detected with bioluminescence imaging with an increasing intensity by week 7. Micro-CT scan confirmed multiple osteolytic lesions at the femur, spine and skull. MRI and the histology were able to show metastasis in the brain and extraskeletal metastasis around the femur. The intracardiac injection of cancer cells under ultrasonography guidance is a safe and highly reproducible method to produce bone metastasis in nude mice. This bone metastasis nude mouse model will be useful to study the mechanism of bone metastasis and to validate new therapeutics

  6. A Bone Metastasis Nude Mouse Model Created by Ultrasound Guided Intracardiac Injection of Breast Cancer Cells: the Micro-CT, MRI and Bioluminescence Imaging Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to develop a nude mouse model of bone metastasis by performing intracardiac injection of breast cancer cells under ultrasonography guidance and we wanted to evaluate the development and the distribution of metastasis in vivo using micro-CT, MRI and bioluminescence imaging. Animal experiments were performed in 6-week-old female nude mice. The animals underwent left ventricular injection of 2x105 MDA-MB-231Bo-Luc cells. After injection of the tumor cells, serial bioluminescence imaging was performed for 7 weeks. The findings of micro-CT, MRI and the histology were correlated with the 'hot' lesions seen on the bioluminescence imaging. Metastasis was found in 62.3% of the animals. Two weeks after intracardiac injection, metastasis to the brain, spine and femur was detected with bioluminescence imaging with an increasing intensity by week 7. Micro-CT scan confirmed multiple osteolytic lesions at the femur, spine and skull. MRI and the histology were able to show metastasis in the brain and extraskeletal metastasis around the femur. The intracardiac injection of cancer cells under ultrasonography guidance is a safe and highly reproducible method to produce bone metastasis in nude mice. This bone metastasis nude mouse model will be useful to study the mechanism of bone metastasis and to validate new therapeutics

  7. Brain metastases from gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: review of pertinent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piura, E; Piura, B

    2014-01-01

    Brain metastasis from gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is rare with about 222 cases documented in the literature and an incidence of about 11% in living GTN patients. Brain metastasis from GTN was part of a disseminated disease in 90% of patients, single metastases in the brain - 80% and located in the cerebrum - 90%. Brain metastasis was the only manifestation of metastatic GTN in 11.3% of patients, appeared synchronously with metastatic GTN in other sites of the body - 30.6% and was diagnosed from 0.3 to 60 months after diagnosis of metastatic GTN in other sites (most often in the lung) - 58.1%. Overall, 83.9% of patients with brain metastases from GTN had also lung metastases from GTN. Brain metastases from GTN showed a greater tendency to be hemorrhagic compared to brain metastases from other primaries. In patients with brain metastases from GTN, the best outcome was achieved with multimodal therapy including craniotomy, whole brain radiotherapy, and EP-EMA or EMA-CO chemotherapy. Nonetheless, brain metastasis from GTN is a grave disease with a median survival time from diagnosis of brain metastasis of about 12 months.

  8. Protocadherin-7 induces bone metastasis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •PCDH7 is overexpression in high bone metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. •PCDH7 is up-regulation in bone metastatic breast cancer tissues. •Suppression of PCDH7 inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. •PCDH7 induces breast cancer bone metastasis in vivo. -- Abstract: Breast cancer had a propensity to metastasize to bone, resulting in serious skeletal complications associated with poor outcome. Previous study showed that Protocadherin-7 (PCDH7) play an important role in brain metastatic breast cancer, however, the role of PCDH7 in bone metastatic breast cancer has never been explored. In the present study, we found that PCDH7 expression was up-regulation in bone metastatic breast cancer tissues by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry assays. Furthermore, suppression of PCDH7 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro by MTT, scratch, and transwell assays. Most importantly, overexpression of PCDH7 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, and formation of bone metastasis in vivo. These data provide an important insight into the role of PCDH7 in bone metastasis of breast cancer

  9. Protocadherin-7 induces bone metastasis of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ai-Min [Department of Orthopedics, The 5th Central Hospital of Tianjin, Tianjin (China); Tian, Ai-Xian [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Rui-Xue [Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnosis, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin (China); Ge, Jie [Department of Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Sun, Xuan [Department of Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Cao, Xu-Chen, E-mail: caoxuch@126.com [Department of Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China)

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •PCDH7 is overexpression in high bone metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. •PCDH7 is up-regulation in bone metastatic breast cancer tissues. •Suppression of PCDH7 inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. •PCDH7 induces breast cancer bone metastasis in vivo. -- Abstract: Breast cancer had a propensity to metastasize to bone, resulting in serious skeletal complications associated with poor outcome. Previous study showed that Protocadherin-7 (PCDH7) play an important role in brain metastatic breast cancer, however, the role of PCDH7 in bone metastatic breast cancer has never been explored. In the present study, we found that PCDH7 expression was up-regulation in bone metastatic breast cancer tissues by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry assays. Furthermore, suppression of PCDH7 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro by MTT, scratch, and transwell assays. Most importantly, overexpression of PCDH7 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, and formation of bone metastasis in vivo. These data provide an important insight into the role of PCDH7 in bone metastasis of breast cancer.

  10. [Jawbone metastasis masquerading as dental pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Y; Yarom, N

    2016-01-01

    Metastases to the oral cavity are rare. However, in 25% of cases, oral symptoms will be the first sign of metastatic disease. The incidence of jaws metastases is twice as high as the incidence of metastases to the soft tissues of the oral cavity. In some cases, jaws metastases can mimic dental or periodontal pain. We report a case of a 67 year old female who was referred to our clinic because of severe pain on her left posterior mandible which was not relieved by endodontic treatment of the first and second molar. She was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2005 and had been treated with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Seven years later, lung metastases were found and she was treated with chemotherapy. Later on, brain metastases developed which had been treated with radiotherapy. On presentation, she complained of pain on the posterior left mandible which was accompanied by a burning sensation of the lower left lip and chin. CT scan revealed a soft tissue mass perforating the lingual and buccal plates of the posterior left mandible, which was compatible with a diagnosis of metastasis. Radiotherapy rapidly relieved the pain. Unfortunately, the patient passed away one month later. Dentists should be able to recognize the signs and symptoms associated with metastases to the jaws and should include it in the differential diagnosis, especially in patients with oncologic background. PMID:27295929

  11. 5 CFR 1.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1.3 Section 1.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND DEFINITIONS (RULE I) § 1.3 Definitions. As used in the rules in this subchapter: (a) Competitive service shall have the...

  12. 50 CFR 1.3 - Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service. 1.3 Section 1.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.3 Service. Service means the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior....

  13. Prostate cancer and metastasis initiating stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kathleen Kelly; Juan Juan Yin

    2008-01-01

    Androgen refractory prostate cancer metastasis is a major clinical challenge.Mechanism-based approaches to treating prostate cancer metastasis require an understanding of the developmental origin of the metastasis-initiating cell.Properties of prostate cancer metastases such as plasticity with respect to differentiated phenotype and androgen independence are consistent with the transformation of a prostate epithelial progenitor or stem cell leading to metastasis.This review focuses upon current evidence and concepts addressing the identification and properties of normal prostate stem or progenitor cells and their transformed counterparts.

  14. CT diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the CT findings and diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis. Methods: The CT findings of 17 cases with surgical- pathologically proved peritoneal metastasis were analyzed retrospectively. Results The CT findings of peritoneal metastasis included: (1)ascites (12 cases ); (2)the aternation of parietal peritoneum including broad band thickening (7 cases), nodular sign (2 cases), and massive thickening (1 cases); (3) the involved omentum and mesenterium: 'smut' appearances (7 cases), nodular sign (2 cases), 'omental cake' (5 cases); (4) the invlovement of mesenteric vessels; (5) single-or multi-cystic lesions within peritoneum (1 case) . Conclusion: CT scan is the first choice for metastasis of peritoneum. (authors)

  15. Sigmoid adenocarcinoma with renal metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carini Dagnoni

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 75-year-old man submitted to a rectosigmoidectomy and partial cystectomy because of a sigmoid cancer and colovesical fistula. Seven months later and after four cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, a lesion was detected in the kidney. Histology revealed tubular adenocarcinoma, which meant sigmoid cancer metastasis. Kidney metastases are very rare in colorectal cancer (CRC, but may be generally associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Thus, patients with metastatic CRC and kidney tumors are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

  16. A review of penile metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Mearini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer as primary disease is relatively rare in developed countries. The penis is a rare site of metastases in spite of its rich vascularization. Approximately 500 cases have been reported in the literature; almost 70% of primary lesions are of pelvic origin (from genitourinary or recto-sigmoid primary tumors. We describe a case of penile metastasis from lung cancer. The rarity of the event prompted us to also explore related reviews and discuss the incidence, physiopathology, diagnosis and therapy of penile secondary cancer.

  17. Pancreatic Metastasis from Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreas is an unusual location for metastases from other primary cancers. Rarely, pancreatic metastases from kidney or colorectal cancers have been reported. However, a variety of other cancers may also spread to the pancreas. We report an exceptional case of pancreatic metastasis from prostate cancer. Differences in management between primary and secondary pancreatic tumors make recognition of metastases to the pancreas an objective of first importance. Knowledge of unusual locations for metastatic spread will reduce diagnostic delay and lead to a timely delivery of an appropriate treatment.

  18. Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of Brain Metastases from the Primary Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi LIU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer with brain metastasis was 23% to 65%, and is the most common type in brain metastasis tumors with the poor prognosis. At present, diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases from lung carcinoma and its molecular mechanism have become one hot spot of amount researches. Here, we made a systematic review of the progress of the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases from lung and its molecular mechanism.

  19. Breast metastasis from vaginal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Neeraja; Scharifker, Daniel; Varsegi, George; Almeida, Zoyla

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal cancer is a rare malignancy accounting for 1-2% of all pelvic neoplasms. Dissemination usually occurs through local invasion and rarely metastasises to distal locations. Metastasis of vaginal cancer to the breast is extremely infrequent and unique. A 66-year-old Asian woman presented with vaginal bleeding and was found to have a vaginal mass and a left breast mass. Pathological assessment of the biopsies revealed identical squamous cell characteristics of both masses. We describe a very rare and novel case of a distally located vaginal carcinoma with metastasis to the breast Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IV (FIGO IVB). Robot-assisted extrafascial total hysterectomy with local vaginal mass excision and partial mastectomy of the left breast were performed. After surgery, the patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy followed by breast and pelvic radiotherapy, with maintained complete remission after 3 years of follow-up. This combination of findings and treatment is very distinct with a unique and favourable response. PMID:27444140

  20. MicroRNA and Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L

    2016-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs are important regulatory molecules of cellular processes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that bind to complementary sequences in the 3' untranslated region of target mRNAs, leading to degradation of the target mRNAs and/or inhibition of their translation. Some miRNAs are essential for normal animal development; however, many other miRNAs are dispensable for development but play a critical role in pathological conditions, including tumorigenesis and metastasis. miRNA genes often reside at fragile chromosome sites and are deregulated in cancer. Some miRNAs function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, collectively termed "oncomirs." Specific metastasis-regulating miRNAs, collectively termed "metastamirs," govern molecular processes and pathways in malignant progression in either a tumor cell-autonomous or a cell-nonautonomous manner. Recently, exosome-transferred miRNAs have emerged as mediators of the tumor-stroma cross talk. In this chapter, we focus on the functions, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic potential of miRNAs, particularly oncomirs and metastamirs. PMID:27613133

  1. Gestational Choriocarcinoma Presenting with Lacrimal Gland Metastasis: A First Reported Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naushad A. B. Ahamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gestational choriocarcinoma (GC is a recognized clinicopathological subtype of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that usually metastasizes hematogenously to highly vascular organs like the lung, liver, and brain. However, orbital metastasis to the choroid and lacrimal gland is a rare occurrence. Case Presentation. A 21-year-old female presented with headache and left orbital swelling one year after resection of a complete hydatidiform mole followed by adjuvant methotrexate chemotherapy. A metastatic imaging screening revealed multiple metastases in the lungs, brain, and adrenal gland, in addition to the choroid and lacrimal gland. Based on her modified WHO risk factors scoring she was started on chemotherapy and whole brain radiotherapy, which resulted in a complete response. At two-year follow-up, serum b-HCG level was with normal limits; imaging surveillance was uneventful. Conclusion. We present the first case of lacrimal gland metastasis in a young girl from GC relapse.

  2. Cavitary pulmonar metastasis. Considerations about seven cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, E.; Matushita, J.P.K.; Azevedo, C.M. de (Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil))

    Seven cases of cavitary lung metastasis, four from head and neck neoplasma, two from uterine carcinoma and one from hepatoma are reported. The physiopathology and the most common sites of this kind of lesion are discussed. The rarity of the solitary excavated metastasis from hepatoma, not reported previously in the literature reviewed, is emphasized.

  3. Supratentorial metastasis of medulloblastoma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Handa, Amit; Jha, Deepak K; Choudhary, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Two adults, 31 and 20 years of age, developed supratentorial metastasis 3½ years and 11 months, respectively, after gross total removal of their posterior fossa medulloblastoma. The first case developed spinal metastasis as well. Both had undergone craniospinal irradiation. Case 1 underwent laminectomy and case 2 underwent craniotomy because their presenting symptoms required so. PMID:27366282

  4. Palmar cutaneous metastasis from carcinoma cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elamurugan T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the most common gynecological malignancy in developing countries. However, its cutaneous metastasis is a rare entity. The reported incidence of cutaneous metastasis ranges from 0.1 to 2%. Frequent sites of cutaneous metastasis in decreasing order are: abdominal wall, vulva and anterior chest wall. To the best of our knowledge, only three cases of cutaneous metastasis to the upper extremity have been reported in the world. We report a case of a 74-year-old postmenopausal lady diagnosed to have carcinoma cervix (stage IIIB who presented with cutaneous metastasis to palm and thigh, 10 months after radical radiotherapy. At presentation, the primary disease had resolved completely. She had a small nodular growth in the left palm and left thigh. Fine needle aspirate cytology and core needle biopsy from both the nodular lesions were positive for squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ji Yoon [Dept. of Pathology, National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis.

  6. Drug Development for Metastasis Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontebasso, Yari; Dubinett, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic disease is responsible for 90% of death from solid tumors. However, only a minority of metastasis-specific targets has been exploited therapeutically, and effective prevention and suppression of metastatic disease is still an elusive goal. In this review, we will first summarize the current state of knowledge about the molecular features of the disease, with particular focus on steps and targets potentially amenable to therapeutic intervention. We will then discuss the reasons underlying the paucity of metastatic drugs in the current oncological arsenal and potential ways to overcome this therapeutic gap. We reason that the discovery of novel promising targets, an increased understanding of the molecular features of the disease, the effect of disruptive technologies, and a shift in the current preclinical and clinical settings have the potential to create more successful drug development endeavors. PMID:27279241

  7. 17 CFR 1.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... at a later time in a physical marketing channel, and where they are economically appropriate to the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.3 Section 1.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER...

  8. Brain metastases of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Diane; Smith, Quentin R; Lockman, Paul R; Bronder, Julie; Gril, Brunilde; Chambers, Ann F; Weil, Robert J; Steeg, Patricia S

    Central nervous system or brain metastases traditionally occur in 10-16% of metastatic breast cancer patients and are associated with a dismal prognosis. The development of brain metastases has been associated with young age, and tumors that are estrogen receptor negative, Her-2+ or of the basal phenotype. Treatment typically includes whole brain irradiation, or either stereotactic radiosurgery or surgery with whole brain radiation, resulting in an approximately 20% one year survival. The blood-brain barrier is a formidable obstacle to the delivery of chemotherapeutics to the brain. Mouse experimental metastasis model systems have been developed for brain metastasis using selected sublines of human MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. Using micron sized iron particles and MRI imaging, the fate of MDA-MB-231BR cells has been mapped: Approximately 2% of injected cells form larger macroscopic metastases, while 5% of cells remain as dormant cells in the brain. New therapies with permeability for the blood-brain barrier are needed to counteract both types of tumor cells. PMID:17473372

  9. Lymph Node Metastasis of Gastric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akagi, Tomonori, E-mail: tomakagi@med.oita-u.ac.jp [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, 1-1 Idaigaoka, Hasama-machi, Oita 879-5593 (Japan); Shiraishi, Norio [Surgical division, Center for community medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka, Hasama-machi, Oita 879-5593 (Japan); Kitano, Seigo [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, 1-1 Idaigaoka, Hasama-machi, Oita 879-5593 (Japan)

    2011-04-26

    Despite a decrease in incidence in recent decades, gastric cancer is still one of the most common causes of cancer death worldwide [1]. In areas without screening for gastric cancer, it is diagnosed late and has a high frequency of nodal involvement [1]. Even in early gastric cancer (EGC), the incidence of lymph node (LN) metastasis exceeds 10%; it was reported to be 14.1% overall and was 4.8 to 23.6% depending on cancer depth [2]. It is important to evaluate LN status preoperatively for proper treatment strategy; however, sufficient results are not being obtained using various modalities. Surgery is the only effective intervention for cure or long-term survival. It is possible to cure local disease without distant metastasis by gastrectomy and LN dissection. However, there is no survival benefit from surgery for systemic disease with distant metastasis such as para-aortic lymph node metastasis [3]. Therefore, whether the disease is local or systemic is an important prognostic indicator for gastric cancer, and the debate continues over the importance of extended lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer. The concept of micro-metastasis has been described as a prognostic factor [4-9], and the biological mechanisms of LN metastasis are currently under study [10-12]. In this article, we review the status of LN metastasis including its molecular mechanisms and evaluate LN dissection for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  10. Nearly Complete Response of Brain Metastases from HER2 Overexpressing Breast Cancer with Lapatinib and Capecitabine after Whole Brain Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Oktay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trastuzumab treatment does not prevent intracranial seeding and is largely ineffective for established central nervous system metastasis in HER2 overexpressing breast cancer patients. Combination therapy of lapatinib and capecitabine may be an effective treatment option for brain metastasis of HER2-positive breast cancer. We report a patient with breast cancer overexpressing HER-2 where brain metastases were successfully treated with radiation and a combination of lapatinib and capecitabine.

  11. Imaging of bone metastasis: An update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerard; J; O’Sullivan; Fiona; L; Carty; Carmel; G; Cronin

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of skeletal metastasis is critical for accurate staging and optimal treatment. This paper briefly reviews our current understanding of the biological mechanisms through which tumours metastasise to bone and describes the available imaging methods to diagnose bone metastasis and monitor response to treatment. Among the various imaging modalities currently available for imaging skeletal metastasis, hybrid techniques whichfuse morphological and functional data are the most sensitive and specific, and positron emission tomography(PET)/computed tomography and PET/magnetic resonance imaging will almost certainly continue to evolve and become increasingly important in this regard.

  12. Screening candidate metastasis-associated genes in three-dimensional HCC spheroids with different metastasis potential

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Rongxin; Dong, Yinying; Xie, Xiaoying; Chen, Jie; Gao, Dongmei; Liu, Yinkun; Ren, Zhenggang; Cui, Jiefeng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Previously, we have established a tissue-like HCC spheroid which better mirrors the biological features of tumorigenesis and metastasis. This study was to find out metastasis-associated genes between two 3D HCC spheroids with different metastasis potential using comparative PCR arrays. Materials and Methods: Two HCC spheroids derived from high-metastatic MHCC97H cells and low-metastatic Hep3B cells were formed respectively in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor after 3D culture for 15 ...

  13. Isolated malignant melanoma metastasis to the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne K; Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul;

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field....

  14. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for solitary spine metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Sun Medical Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Mison [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi Jo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Eulji Universtiy School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A clear consensus has not been established regarding the best treatment for solitary bone metastasis. Here, we reviewed the medical records of patients with a controlled primary malignancy who had only solitary spine metastasis without metastasis to the extraspinal bone or viscera and underwent treatment between April 2007 and December 2012 with stereotactic body radiosurgery using CyberKnife, with a total dose of 24 Gy in three to four fractions. During that time, there were only four cases. This was effective in each case, and all the four patients had no local failure and remained alive at a median follow-up of 68 months (range, 64 to 80 months). Although our experience is limited, this study suggests that stereotactic body radiotherapy could be a feasible, safe, effective, and noninvasive alternative treatment for solitary spine metastasis in patients who are medically inoperable or unsuitable for surgery.

  15. Biology of cancer invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareel, M M; Crombez, R

    1992-01-01

    Current concepts of invasion eventually leading to metastasis are discussed and exemplified by cancers of the head and neck mucosa. Invasion occurs at a number of steps, each step making an ecosystem comprising not only the neoplastic cells but also their normal counterparts, a variety of host cells and the extracellular matrix. The ecosystem concept may explain aspects of metastasis such as site-dependence and organ-specificity of cancer metastasis as well as invasiveness of normal leucocytes. Genes implicated in invasion and metastasis are actively searched for. Recently, the epithelial cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin has been identified as an i- (invasion suppressor) gene product, i.e. a molecule the expression of which counterbalances i+ (invasion promotor) gene activity. Downregulation of E-cadherin in human head and neck cancers may account for their invasive and metastatic behaviour.

  16. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis: Genetic regulation of human breast carcinoma metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present is an overview of recent data that describes the genetic underpinnings of the suppression of cancer metastasis. Despite the explosion of new information about the genetics of cancer, only six human genes have thus far been shown to suppress metastasis functionally. Not all have been shown to be functional in breast carcinoma. Several additional genes inhibit various steps of the metastatic cascade, but do not necessarily block metastasis when tested using in vivo assays. The implications of this are discussed. Two recently discovered metastasis suppressor genes block proliferation of tumor cells at a secondary site, offering a new target for therapeutic intervention

  17. Primary brain tumours, meningiomas and brain metastases in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheecke, Magali; Halaska, Michael J; Lok, Christianne A;

    2014-01-01

    to obtain better insight into outcome and possibilities of treatment in pregnancy. METHODS: We collected all intracranial tumours (primary brain tumour, cerebral metastasis, or meningioma) diagnosed during pregnancy, registered prospectively and retrospectively by international collaboration since 1973......, respectively. Eight patients (30%) underwent brain surgery, seven patients (26%) had radiotherapy and in three patients (11%) chemotherapy was administered during gestation. Two patients died during pregnancy and four pregnancies were terminated. In 16 (59%) patients elective caesarean section was performed...... were reassuring. CONCLUSION: Adherence to standard protocol for the treatment of brain tumours during pregnancy appears to allow a term delivery and a higher probability of a vaginal delivery....

  18. Tracheal metastasis of small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    De, Sajal

    2009-01-01

    Endotracheal metastases of primary lung cancer are rare. Only one case of tracheal metastasis from small cell lung cancer has been reported in literature. Here, we report a rare case of a 45-year-old woman who was admitted for sudden-onset breathlessness with respiratory failure and required ventilatory support. Endotracheal growth was identified during bronchoscopy, and biopsy revealed endotracheal metastasis of small cell lung cancer.

  19. Breast carcinoma metastasis to the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Marie N.; Von Holstein, Sarah; Hansen, Alastair B.;

    2015-01-01

    tomography scans revealed irregular lacrimal gland tumours in the two patients. The two patients had history of breast cancer. The first breast cancer metastasis in the lacrimal gland demonstrated a cribriform growth pattern containing ductal elements. The epithelial tumour cells stained positive...... study aimed to describe two such cases and draw attention to breast carcinomas as a differential diagnosis and the most frequent cause of lacrimal gland metastasis....

  20. An isolated vaginal metastasis from rectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ai Sadatomo; Koji Koinuma; Hisanaga Horie; Lefor, Alan K.; Naohiro Sata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Isolated vaginal metastases from colorectal cancer are extremely rare. There are only a few reported cases in the English literature, and the characteristics of such cases of metastasis remain relatively unknown. Presentation of case: We present a case of isolated vaginal metastasis from rectal cancer in a 78-year-old female patient. The patient had no symptoms related to vaginal tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed thickening of the middle rectum and a vaginal tumo...

  1. Three-dimensional context regulation of metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erler, Janine Terra; Weaver, Valerie M

    2009-01-01

    stroma to promote transformation, tumor growth, motility and invasion, enhance cancer cell survival, enable metastatic dissemination, and facilitate the establishment of tumor cells at distant sites. Matrix degradation can additionally promote malignant progression and metastasis. Tumor hypoxia...... is functionally linked to altered stromal-epithelial interactions. Hypoxia additionally induces the expression of pro-migratory, survival and invasion genes, and up-regulates expression of ECM components and modifying enzymes, to enhance tumor progression and metastasis. Synergistic interactions between matrix...

  2. Molecular mechanisms of metastasis in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noel W.Clarke; Claire A.Hart; Mick D.Brown

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) preferentially metastasizes to the bone marrow stroma of the axial skeleton.This activity is the principal cause of PCa morbidity and mortality.The exact mechanism of PCa metastasis is currently unknown,although considerable progress has been made in determining the key players in this process.In this review,we present the current understanding of the molecular processes driving PCa metastasis to the bone.

  3. Roles of TGFβ in metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Padua; Joan Massagué

    2009-01-01

    The TGFβ signaling pathway is conserved from flies to humans and has been shown to regulate such diverse pro-cesses as cell proliferation,differentiation,motility,adhesion,organization,and programmed cell death.Both in vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that TGFβ can utilize these varied programs to promote cancer metastasis through its effects on the tumor microenvironment,enhanced invasive properties,and inhibifion of immune cell function.Recent clinical evidence demonstrating a link between TGFβ signaling and cancer progression is fostering interest in this signaling pathway as a therapeutic target.Anti-TGFβ therapies are currently being developed and tested in pre-clinical studies.However,targeting TGFβ carries a substantial risk as this pathway is implicated in multiple homeo-static processes and is also known to have tumor-suppressor functions.Additionally,clinical and experimental results show that TGFβ has diverse and often conflicting roles in tumor progression even within the same tumor types.The development of TGFβ inhibitors for clinical use will require a deeper understanding of TGFβ signaling,its conse- quences,and the contexts in which it acts.

  4. Synthesis of Some New Derivatives of 1,3-Dichloro-1,1,3,3-tetraphenyldisilazane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The reactive properties of 1,3-dichloro-1,1,3,3-tetraphenyldisilazane (DCTPS) with water, methanol, phenylamine and lithium salt of hexamethylcyclotrisilazane (D3NLi) were investigated, and four new derivatives were obtained.

  5. Influence of CT/MRI Fusion Image on Target Volume and 3-D Conformal Radiotherapy in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with Brain Metastasis%CT/MRI诊断影像融合对非小细胞肺癌脑转移瘤靶区及三维适形治疗影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金山; 魏永兵; 侯超; 李静; 朱瑞霞

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较CT图像和CT/MRI融合图像来源的肺癌脑转移肿瘤靶区,评价CT/MRI融合靶区容积应用于三维适形放射治疗时,对治疗剂量的影响。方法:将20例非小细胞肺癌脑转移患者的增强CT和MRI扫描的图像传送至图像处理工作站,在CT和CT/MRI融合图像上分别勾画GTV和周围重要的器官。每个病例分别在CT图像和CT/MRI融合图像都做1个三维适形放射治疗计划。肿瘤的处方剂量为60 Gy,比较2个治疗计划中肿瘤靶区的95%容积(D95)受照平均剂量、周围正常组织的5%容积(D5)受照平均剂量。结果:CT/MRI融合图像上的肿瘤靶区平均比CT上的肿瘤靶区大21.32%。用CT上勾画的靶区有一部分肿瘤处于低剂量区,CT/MRI融合图像上的靶区D95剂量分布较好,但在周围重要器官的剂量分布较高。结论:CT/MRI融合图像有助于靶区的确定,在三维适形放射治疗计划上的肿瘤靶区剂量分布足够,能提高靶区勾画的准确性,更利于精确放疗的实施。%Objective:To compare the CT images and CT/MRI images fusion sources of lung cancer with brain metastasis tumor target,and to evaluae the effects of dose for treatment on target volume CT/MRI fusion for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Method:The enhancement CT and MRI scan image of 20 patients with brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer was transfer to image processing workstation,GTV and surrounding vital organs on CT and CT/MRI images fusion was delineated respectively. A three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plan was done in CT images and CT/MRI fusion images of ach case. Tumor prescription dose was 60 Gy. Compared the average dose of the 95%volume(D95)tumor target,the average dose of the 5%of the normal tissue around of the two treatment plans. Result:The tumor targets of the CT/MRI images fusion was greater than those of the CT tumor targets on average 21.32%. A part of the tumor was

  6. Cutaneous metastasis as a first presentation for lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazan Abdeen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: According to the recent World Health Organization reports, lung cancer has become the most common type of malignancy and the leading cause of death from cancer. Lung cancer frequently metastasizes to hilar lymphnodes, brain, adrenal glands, bone, but rarely to skin. Case Report: We report a case of a 72-year-old male with a past medical history of pulmonary fibrosis and no prior history of smoking who presented to the emergency room for progressive dyspnea over three weeks. The patient reported having a rapidly growing scalp lesion as well. A computed tomography (CT scan of the chest showed diffuse fibrotic changes and multiple densities of different diameters; a CT guided biopsy of lung revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Excision of right scalp lesion was performed, and pathology revealed poorly differentiated malignant neoplasm favoring adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: We are presenting a rare case of lung adenocarcinoma presenting with skin metastasis, which was simultaneously diagnosed during the same hospitalization. Although cutaneous metastasis from the lung is rare, it must be ruled out in patients with suspicious skin lesions, smoking history, or lung cancer.

  7. Gastric Metastasis of Lung Cancer Mimicking an Adrenal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung I Hung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Metastatic spreads of lung cancer are often found in the adrenal glands, bone, liver, brain and kidneys; the gastrointestinal tract is less commonly involved. However, according to some reports in the literature, the incidence of gastrointestinal metastases, most of them asymptomatic, might be as frequent as 11% in autopsy studies of lung cancer, which suggests that this condition is not as rare as it was previously considered. We report a very rare case of small cell lung cancer with a solitary gastric metastasis mimicking an adrenal tumor which was belatedly diagnosed due to its unusual presentation and treated actively with surgery and chemotherapy, achieving a relatively favorable outcome.

  8. Mouse models of advanced spontaneous metastasis for experimental therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Giulio; Cruz-Munoz, William; Man, Shan; Xu, Ping; Kerbel, Robert S

    2011-02-01

    An enduring problem in cancer research is the failure to reproduce highly encouraging preclinical therapeutic findings using transplanted or spontaneous primary tumours in mice in clinical trials of patients with advanced metastatic disease. There are several reasons for this, including the failure to model established, visceral metastatic disease. We therefore developed various models of aggressive multi-organ spontaneous metastasis after surgical resection of orthotopically transplanted human tumour xenografts. In this Opinion article we provide a personal perspective summarizing the prospect of their increased clinical relevance. This includes the reduced efficacy of certain targeted anticancer drugs, the late emergence of spontaneous brain metastases and the clinical trial results evaluating a highly effective therapeutic strategy previously tested using such models.

  9. First description of cervical intradural thymoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Nicola; Mancarella, Cristina; Colistra, Davide; Landi, Alessandro; Dugoni, Demo Eugenio; Delfini, Roberto

    2015-11-16

    Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are rare epithelial tumors, which originate from the thymus gland. According to the World Health Organization there are "organotypic" (types A, AB, B1, B2, and B3) and "non-organotypic" (thymic carcinomas) thymomas. Type B3 thymomas are aggressive tumors, which can metastasize. Due to the rarity of these lesions, only 7 cases of extradural metastasis are described in the literature. We report the first and unique case of a man with cervical intradural B3 thymoma metastasis. A 46-year-old man underwent thymoma surgical removal. The year after the procedure he was treated for a parietal pleura metastasis. In 2006 he underwent cervical-dorsal extradural metastasis removal and C5-Th1 stabilization. Seven years after he came to our observation complaining left cervicobrachialgia and a reduction of strength of the left arm. He underwent a cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging, which showed a new lesion at the C5-C7 level. The patient underwent a surgery for the intradural B3 thymoma metastasis. Neurological symptoms improved although the removal was subtotal. He went through postoperative radiation therapy with further mass reduction. Spinal metastases are extremely rare. To date, only 7 cases of spinal extradural metastasis have been described in the literature. This is the first case of spinal intradural metastasis. Early individuation of these tumors and surgical treatment improve neurological outcome in patients with spinal cord compression. A multimodal treatment including neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery and postoperative radiation therapy seems to improve survival in patients with metastatic thymoma.

  10. Screening and Establishment of Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines 
with Organ-specific Metastasis Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua ZHOU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Cancer metastasis is not only the malignant marker and characteristics, but also the main cause of failure to cure and lose their life in the patients with lung cancer. Lung cancer metastasis has organ-specific characteristics. The most common sites of lung cancer metastasis are mediastinal lymph node, brain, bone, liver and adrenal gland. The aim of this study is to screen and establish lung cancer cell model with organ-specific metastasis potential with human high-metastatic large cell lung cancer cell line L9981 established by our laboratory previously, and to provide cell models for studying the mechanisms and signal regulation of organ-specific metastasis of lung cancer. Materials and methods The parent lung cancer cell line, L9981-Luc, was inoculated in the armpit of nude mice. The live animal imaging system, IVIS-200, was used to detect the lung cancer organ-specific metastasis every week. When the organ-specific metastasis were established, the nude mices bearing the lung cancer were sacrificed when they became moribund. Under sterile conditions, the organs (mediastinal lymph nodes, lung, spinal column and brain with lung cancer organ-specific metastasis were removed and the metastasized nodules were dissected free of connective tissue and blood clots, and rinsed twice with medium. The metastasized nodules were finely minced using sterile scalpel blades in medium, and the cells were seeded in tissue culture dishes. Then, the cells with organ-specific metastasis potential were reinoculated into the armpit of nude mice, respectively. This processes were repeated to establish the organ-specific metastatic sublines of L9981-Luc cell line more than 10 times. Finally, the organ-specific metastasis sublines of L9981-Luc were screened and established, which the four cell lines have the characteristics only metastasized to brian, lung, bone and mediastinal lymph node. Results A group of organ-specific metastasis cell

  11. Conformally reducible 1+3 spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Carot, Jaume; Tupper, Brian O J

    2013-01-01

    Spacetimes which are conformally related to reducible 1+3 spacetimes are considered. We classify these spacetimes according to the conformal algebra of the underlying reducible spacetime, giving in each case canonical expressions for the metric and conformal Killing vectors, and provide physically meaningful examples.

  12. Conformally reducible 1+3 spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carot, Jaume [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Keane, Aidan J [87 Carlton Place, Glasgow G5 9TD, Scotland (United Kingdom); Tupper, Brian O J [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3 (Canada)], E-mail: jcarot@uib.es, E-mail: aidan@countingthoughts.com, E-mail: bt32@rogers.com

    2008-03-07

    Spacetimes which are conformally related to reducible 1+3 spacetimes are considered. We classify these spacetimes according to the conformal algebra of the underlying reducible spacetime, giving in each case canonical expressions for the metric and conformal Killing vectors, and providing physically meaningful examples.

  13. Bis(1,3-dithiole) Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Engler, E. M.; Green, D. C.;

    1977-01-01

    There is described the preparation of bis-1,3-dithiole compounds (I) which are key synthetic precursors for the preparation of new polymeric metal bis(dithiolene) (i.e., II) and tetrathiafulvalene compounds (i.e., III): (Image Omitted)...

  14. The protein C pathway in cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, C Arnold; Arruda, Valder R

    2012-04-01

    Cancer is frequently associated with activation of blood coagulation, which in turn has been suggested to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Indeed, low molecular weight heparin treatment significantly prolongs the survival of a wide variety of patients with cancer. Based on this notion that anticoagulant treatment seems to benefit cancer patients, recent experiments aimed to elucidate the importance of the natural anticoagulant protein C pathways in cancer progression. Interestingly, these experiments showed that the repeated administration of exogenous activated protein C limits cancer cell extravasation in experimental animal models. In line, reducing endogenous activated protein C activity dramatically increased the number of experimental metastasis. These data thus strongly suggest that exogenous activated protein C administration may be a novel therapeutic avenue to limit cancer metastasis thereby prolonging overall survival of cancer patients. The current review provides an overview of recent data on the role of the protein C pathway in cancer metastasis. It discusses the potential of activated protein C as a novel target to reduce cancer progression, it points to several limitations of activated protein C administration in the setting of cancer cell metastasis and it suggest zymogen protein C as an attractive alternative. PMID:22682140

  15. Radiosurgery for brain metastases and cerebral edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Inbal; Har-Nof, Sagi; Cohen, Zvi R; Zibly, Zion; Nissim, Uzi; Spiegelmann, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess reduction in cerebral edema following linear accelerator radiosurgery (LINAC) as first line therapy for brain metastasis. We reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent LINAC radiosurgery for brain metastasis at our institution during 2010-2012, and who had not previously undergone either surgery or whole brain radiotherapy. Data were analyzed for 55 brain metastases from 46 patients (24 males), mean age 59.9 years. During the 2 months following LINAC radiosurgery, the mean steroid dose decreased from 4.8 to 2.6 mg/day, the mean metastasis volume decreased from 3.79±4.12 cc to 2.8±4.48 cc (p=0.001), and the mean edema volume decreased from 16.91±30.15 cc to 12.85±24.47 cc (p=0.23). The 17 patients with reductions of more than 50% in brain edema volume had single metastases. Edema volume in the nine patients with two brain metastases remained stable in five patients (volume change 10%, 2-14 cc). In a subanalysis of eight metastases with baseline edema volume greater than 40 cc, edema volume decreased from 77.27±37.21 cc to 24.84±35.6 cc (p=0.034). Reductions in brain edema were greater in metastases for which non-small-cell lung carcinoma and breast cancers were the primary diseases. Overall, symptoms improved in most patients. No patients who were without symptoms or who had no signs of increased intracranial pressure at baseline developed signs of intracranial pressure following LINAC radiosurgery. In this series, LINAC stereotactic radiosurgery for metastatic brain lesions resulted in early reduction in brain edema volume in single metastasis patients and those with large edema volumes, and reduced the need for steroids. PMID:25533053

  16. Plakoglobin: Role in Tumorigenesis and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zackie Aktary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plakoglobin (γ-catenin is a member of the Armadillo family of proteins and a homolog of β-catenin. As a component of both the adherens junctions and desmosomes, plakoglobin plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell-cell adhesion. Furthermore, similar to β-catenin, plakoglobin is capable of participating in cell signaling. However, unlike β-catenin that has well-documented oncogenic potential through its involvement in the Wnt signaling pathway, plakoglobin generally acts as a tumor/metastasis suppressor. The exact roles that plakoglobin plays during tumorigenesis and metastasis are not clear; however, recent evidence suggests that it may regulate gene expression, cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and migration. In this paper, we describe plakoglobin, its discovery and characterization, its role in regulating cell-cell adhesion, and its signaling capabilities in regulation of tumorigenesis and metastasis.

  17. Hematogenous Gastric Metastasis of Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasajima, Junpei; Okamoto, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Masato

    2016-01-01

    While the gastric involvement of pancreatic cancer is occasionally observed as the result of direct invasion, hematogenous gastric metastasis is rare. A 72-year-old Japanese male presented with general fatigue, pollakiuria, and thirst. Computed tomography revealed a 4.6-cm solid mass in the pancreatic tail and a 4.2-cm multilocular cystic mass in the pancreatic head with multiple liver and lymphatic metastasis. Notably, two solid masses were detected in the gastric wall of the upper body and the antrum; both were separated from the primary pancreatic cancer and seemed to be located in the submucosal layer. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a submucosal tumor with a normal mucosa in the posterior wall of the upper body of the stomach, suggesting the gastric hematogenous metastasis of pancreatic cancer. The suspected diagnosis was unresectable pancreatic cancer with multiple metastases that was concomitant with the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas.

  18. 2-Nitro-1,3-dinitrooxypropane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon A. Parrish

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C3H5N3O8, was synthesized by reacting 2-nitropropane-1,3-diol with acetyl nitrate. The molecule is bisected by a crystallograpic mirror plane. In the crystal, the molecules pack in a ribbon-like fashion along the c axis, with the central nitro groups pointing in the same direction. C—H...O contacts apparently provide some additional packing stabilization.

  19. 1-3 piezocomposite SmartPanels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Daniel; Gentilman, Richard L.; Pham-Nguyen, Hong; Serwatka, William J.; McGuire, Patrick T.; Near, Craig D.; Bowen, Leslie J.

    1997-05-01

    Piezocomposite SmartPanelsTM, consisting of 1-3 actuators and pressure sensors and net-shape-molded PZT accelerometers in a large area low profile panel, have been fabricated at Materials Systems Inc. and evaluated at the Naval Research Laboratory. Single layer and two-layer 100 X 100 mm SmartPanels have been tested for sensor sensitivities, actuator authority, surface displacement uniformity, and sensor-actuator coupling. Multilayer GRP circuits boards are used both as stiff faceplates and to provide electrical connections and ground planes. The SmartPanel technology has recently been scaled up to 250 X 250 mm devices. SmartPanels draw upon PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramic injection molding technology, which is used to produce cost-effective and robust 1-3 piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composite materials. The 1-3 materials are used extensively for SonoPanelTM transducers in a number of sensor and actuator applications. SonoPanels have been qualified for US Navy applications, based on successful completion of pressure and shock tests, and are currently being scaled up from 250 X 250 mm to 750 X 750 mm panels. Several applications for SmartPanels and SonoPanels are described, including conformable transducers, multielement arrays, pressure sensors, and velocity sensors.

  20. Hand metastasis from a sacral chordoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, M; Sugita, S; Soma, T; Sasaki, M; Yamashita, T

    2014-01-01

    Chordomas are rare, low grade, malignant tumours derived from the ectopic remnants of the notochord that line the axial skeleton. They are characterised by their slow growth, long disease course and propensity for local relapse. Furthermore, up to 40% of non-cranial chordomas metastasise. We describe the first reported case of a hand metastasis arising from a conventional sacral chordoma after carbon ion radiotherapy. The common occurrence of distant metastasis with chordomas makes it important to perform a systemic examination, in part because their resection might improve patient prognosis. PMID:25350167

  1. A link between inflammation and metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M. T.; Forst, B.; Cremers, N.;

    2015-01-01

    S100A4 is implicated in metastasis and chronic inflammation, but its function remains uncertain. Here we establish an S100A4-dependent link between inflammation and metastatic tumor progression. We found that the acute-phase response proteins serum amyloid A (SAA) 1 and SAA3 are transcriptional....... Furthermore, coordinate expression of S100A4 and SAA in tumor samples from colorectal carcinoma patients significantly correlated with reduced overall survival. These data show that SAA proteins are effectors for the metastasis-promoting functions of S100A4, and serve as a link between inflammation and tumor...

  2. Synthesis 1, 3-bis (4-bromophenyl-5-isopropyl-1, 3, 5-triazacyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. LEFRADA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of an isopropylamine and an 4-bromoaniline with formaline in basic solution to give 1, 3-bis (4-bromophenyl-5- (isopropyl- 1, 3, 5- triazicyaclohexane. Through the interaction of rapid Schiff base, Structures of this compound have been elucidated by spectroscopic methods; IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR. Their purities were confirmed by elemental analyses.

  3. Kristallstrukturen und spektroskopische Eigenschaften von 23-Phospha-1, 3-dionaten und 1, 3-Dionaten des Calciums - ein Vergleich am Beispiel der 1, 3-Diphenyl- und 1, 3-Di(tert-butyl)-Derivate = Crystal Structures and Spectroscopic Properties of 23-Phospha-1, 3-dionates and 1, 3-Dionates of Calcium - Comparative Studies on the 1, 3-Diphenyl and 1, 3-Di(tert-butyl) Derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Gerd; Niemeyer, Mark; Mundt, Otto; Schwarz, Wolfgang; Westerhausen, Matthias; Ossberger, Manfred W.; Mayer, Peter; Nöth, Heinrich; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Der Wasserstoff-Metall-Austausch zwischen Dibenzoylphosphan und Calciumcarbid in Tetrahydrofuran (THF) ergibt nach Zusatz des Liganden 1, 3, 5-Trimethyl-1, 3, 5-triazinan (TMTA) den als Kokristallisat mit Benzol isolierten zweikernigen Komplex Bis[(tmta-N, N, N)calcium-bis(dibenzoylphosphanid)] (1a)

  4. Breast Cancer Pathology, Receptor Status, and Patterns of Metastasis in a Rural Appalachian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Vona-Davis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer patients in rural Appalachia have a high prevalence of obesity and poverty, together with more triple-negative phenotypes. We reviewed clinical records for tumor receptor status and time to distant metastasis. Body mass index, tumor size, grade, nodal status, and receptor status were related to metastatic patterns. For 687 patients, 13.8% developed metastases to bone (n=42 or visceral sites (n=53. Metastases to viscera occurred within five years, a latent period which was shorter than that for bone (P=0.042. More women with visceral metastasis presented with grade 3 tumors compared with the bone and nonmetastatic groups (P=0.0002. There were 135/574 women (23.5% with triple-negative breast cancer, who presented with lymph node involvement and visceral metastases (68.2% versus 24.3%; P=0.033. Triple-negative tumors that metastasized to visceral sites were larger (P=0.007. Developing a visceral metastasis within 10 years was higher among women with triple-negative tumors. Across all breast cancer receptor subtypes, the probability of remaining distant metastasis-free was greater for brain and liver than for lung. The excess risk of metastatic spread to visceral organs in triple-negative breast cancers, even in the absence of positive nodes, was combined with the burden of larger and more advanced tumors.

  5. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  6. Popliteal lymph node metastasis of tibial osteoblastic osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalın Dirik

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Lymph node metastasis of osteosarcoma is a rare entity and metastatic patterns could not be clearly explained. On the other hand, the effects of lymph node metastasis on prognosis are also not clearly defined and further studies are needed.

  7. Revisiting the Seed-and-soil Theory of Cancer Metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaonan QIAN

    2009-01-01

    @@ In 1889, Paget proposed a "Seed-and-Soil" theory for cancer metastasis.According to this theory, cancer metastasis is not random, and one remote organ is more prone to be the seat of secondary tumor growth than another.

  8. Unusual presentation of oesophageal carcinoma with adrenal metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrenal gland is a common site of metastasis in many cancers but it is very rare in oesophageal carcinoma. We report one such case found to have adrenal metastasis on follow-up PET/computed tomography scan

  9. Cod glycopeptide with picomolar affinity to galectin-3 suppresses T-cell apoptosis and prostate cancer metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Guha, Prasun; Kaptan, Engin; Bandyopadhyaya, Gargi; Kaczanowska, Sabina; Davila, Eduardo; Thompson, Keyata; Martin, Stuart S.; Dhananjaya V Kalvakolanu; Vasta, Gerardo R; Ahmed, Hafiz

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis and immune suppression are critical issues in cancer therapy. Here, we show that a β-galactoside–binding lectin [galectin-3 (gal3)] that recognizes the Thomsen-Friedenreich disaccharide (TFD, Galβ1,3GalNAc) present on the surface of most cancer cells is involved in promoting angiogenesis, tumor-endothelial cell adhesion, and metastasis of prostate cancer cells, as well as evading immune surveillance through killing of activated T cells. To block gal3-mediated interactions, w...

  10. Peritoneal lavage cytology and carcinoembryonic antigen determination in predicting peritoneal metastasis and prognosis of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Kun Li; Miao Zheng; Chuan-Wen Miao; Jian-Hai Zhang; Guang-Han Ding; Wen-Shen Wu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of peritoneal lavage cytology (PLC) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) determination of peritoneal washes (pCEA) in predicting the peritoneal metastasis and prognosis after curative resection of gastric cancer.METHODS: PLC and radioimmunoassay of CEA were performed in peritoneal washes from 64 patients with gastric cancer and 8 patients with benign diseases.RESULTS: The positive rate of pCEA (40.6%) was significantly higher than that of PLC (23.4%) (P<0.05).The positive rates of PLC and pCEA correlated with the depth of tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). pCEA was found to have a higher sensitivity and a lower false-positive rate in predicting peritoneal metastasis after curative resection of gastric cancer as compared to PLC. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates of patients with positive cytologic findings or positive pCEA results were significantly lower than those of patients with negative cytologic findings or negative pCEA results (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that pCEA was an independent prognostic factor for the survival of patients with gastric cancer.CONCLUSION: Intraoperative pCEA is a more sensitive and reliable predictor of peritoneal metastasis as well as prognosis in patients with gastric cancer as compared to PLC method.

  11. Repeat stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of brain metastases from NSCLC: A case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Marvaso, Giulia; BARONE, AGNESE; VACCARO, CATERINA; Bruzzaniti, Vicente; GRESPI, SILVIA; SCOTTI, VALERIO; Bianco, Cataldo

    2013-01-01

    The aims of radiotherapeutic treatment of brain metastases include maintaining neurocognitive function and improvement of survival. Based on these premises, we present a case report in which the role of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was investigated in a patient with a recurrent brain metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer in the same area as previously treated with radiosurgery. A 40-year-old male caucasian patient was diagnosed with brain metastasis from non-small cell lung can...

  12. Metastasis and bone loss: Advancing treatment and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Robert E.; Lipton, Allan; Roodman, G. David; Guise, Theresa A.; Boyce, Brendon F.; Brufsky, Adam M.; Clézardin, Philippe; Peter I Croucher; Gralow, Julie R.; Hadji, Peyman; Holen, Ingunn; Mundy, Gregory R.; Smith, Matthew R.; Suva, Larry J.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor metastasis to the skeleton affects over 400,000 individuals in the United States annually, more than any other site of metastasis, including significant proportions of patients with breast, prostate, lung and other solid tumors. Research on the bone microenvironment and its role in metastasis suggests a complex role in tumor growth. Parallel preclinical and clinical investigations into the role of adjuvant bone-targeted agents in preventing metastasis and avoiding cancer therapy-induced...

  13. (2-Methoxy-1,3-phenylenediboronic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Serwatowski

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The molecular structure of the title compound, 2-CH3O—C6H3-1,3-[B(OH2]2 or C7H10B2O5, features two intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds of different strengths. One of the boronic acid groups is almost coplanar with the aromatic ring, whereas the second is significantly twisted. Molecules are linked by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating infinite chains cross-linked to form a two-dimensional sheet structure aligned parallel to the (01overline{1} plane.

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  17. Diagnosis of bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechsgaard, Thor; Lelkaitis, Giedrius; Jensen, Karl E;

    2015-01-01

    (MRI), but histology revealed a metastasis from thyroid carcinoma, although the patient had no previous history of thyroid malignancy and resection of the thyroid gland was without malignancy. Ultrasound-guided biopsy was possible due to cortical destruction and the multidisciplinary approach with re...

  18. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with bone marrow metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, H G; Jame, J M; Chang, A Y; Li, W Y; Law, C K; Chen, K Y; Lin, C Z

    1991-02-01

    Five of 23 patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were diagnosed to have bone marrow metastasis. They all had advanced local-regional disease, and were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive radiotherapy after the initial diagnosis. Bone marrow metastasis developed 4-24 months later. The clinical features were anemia (5 of 5), leukopenia (3 of 5), thrombocytopenia (4 of 5), sepsis (3 of 5), tenderness of the sternum (3 of 5), and fever (4 of 5). Patients frequently had elevation of serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALK-P), and IgG and IgA antibody titers to Epstein-Barr viral capsid antigen when bone marrow involvement was diagnosed. However, clinical manifestations and laboratory tests were not specific. It is important that three patients had normal bone scans. All five patients had a rapid downhill course; four patients died within 23 days, and the fifth 3 months after the diagnosis of bone marrow metastasis. We concluded that bone marrow was a common metastatic site in NPC patients. Bone marrow metastasis adversely affected patients' survival and required a high index of suspicion for diagnosis. We suggested that bone marrow biopsy should be considered as a routine staging procedure in NPC patients and indicated especially when patients presented with abnormal blood counts, sepsis, bone pain, or tenderness of the sternum. It may be positive in the face of a normal bone scan. PMID:1987743

  19. Powering Tumor Metastasis with Recycled Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Mien-Chie; Yang, Riyao; Sun, Yutong

    2016-09-12

    Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) recycling is of critical importance for RTK signaling and cancer, yet the process is poorly understood. In this issue, Ye et al. identify GOLM1 as a cargo adaptor that drives hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis by promoting EGFR recycling and provide insights into how this process is regulated. PMID:27622330

  20. A new protein Girdin in tumor metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; FU Li; GU Feng; MA Yong-jie

    2010-01-01

    @@ The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt serine/threonine kinase system regulates multiple cellular processes through the phosphorylation of a great number of downstream substrates and has been recognized as an important pathway for signal transduction, and in cancer invasion and metastasis.

  1. Leptomeningeal metastasis: a CT and MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oschmann, P. [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Giessen (Germany); Bauer, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Giessen (Germany); Kaps, M. [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Giessen (Germany); Trittmacher, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Giessen (Germany); Dorndorf, W. [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Giessen (Germany)

    1994-08-01

    We evaluated 35 patients with leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) that was proved by repeated positive cytology (33 patients) and/or autopsy (10 patients) with T1-weighted Gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced MRI and contrast-enhanced CT. The patients (20 women and 15 men) ranged in age from 5-77 years (mean 56 years). Tumour histology included 26 carcinomas, 1 sarcoma, 6 leucaemias, 1 medulloblastoma and 1 primary CNS lymphoma. Intracranial abnormalities were noted in 58% of cases by CT and 88% by MRI, and included hydrocephalus, meningeal or ependymal enhancement, subarachnoidal or intraparenchymal nodules. Leptomeningeal metastasis was detected by MRI in 13 of 17 examined patients, including the three cases with a positive CT. It was proved that MRI is equal or superior to CT in demonstrating meningeal or ependymal enhancement and quantifying enhanced subarachnoidal or parenchymal nodules. However, in the evaluation of leptomeningeal metastasis both modalities had a high incidence of false-negative studies, 89% (31 of 35) by CT and 24% (4 of 17) by MRI. In contrast, two patients with initially negative cytology had pathological MRI findings. Our data indicate that Gadolinium-enhanced MRI is the preferred imaging modality in leptomeningeal metastasis, and suggest that CT does not add significant additional information. However, LM is primarily a histological diagnosis by detecting tumour cells in the cerebrospinal fluid. (orig.)

  2. Inguinal lymph node metastasis of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloane McGraw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of adenocarcinoma of colon with unusual metastasis to inguinal lymph nodes. Our patient is a young male with bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy, bone pains, and jaundice who presented as carcinoma of unknown primary. He was diagnosed as widely metastatic adenocarcinoma of colon for which he received chemotherapy and has had a good response to the treatment.

  3. Cancer Stem Cells, Tumor Dormancy, And Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvi ePatel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cells can persist undetectably for an extended period of time in primary tumors and in disseminated cancer cells. Very little is known about why and how these tumors persist for extended periods of time and then evolve to malignancy. The discovery of cancer stem cells (CSCs in human tumors challenges our current understanding of tumor recurrence, drug resistance, and metastasis, and opens up new research directions on how cancer cells are capable of switching from dormancy to malignancy. Although overlapping molecules and pathways have been reported to regulate the stem-like phenotype of CSCs and metastasis, accumulated evidence has suggested additional clonal diversity within the stem-like cancer cell subpopulation. This review will describe the current hypothesis linking CSCs and metastasis and summarize mechanisms important for metastatic CSCs to re-initiate tumors in the secondary sites. A better understanding of CSCs’ contribution to clinical tumor dormancy and metastasis will provide new therapeutic revenues to eradicate metastatic tumors and significantly reduce the mortality of cancer patients.

  4. Severe Hyperkalemia and Bilateral Adrenal Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nagler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal metastases are a common finding in metastatic lung and breast cancer. Often there are no clinical symptoms suggesting them. In this paper, we present a case of a 66-year-old man with metastatic lung cancer suffering from severe hyperkaliemia due to hypoaldosteronism as a result of bilateral adrenal metastasis.

  5. An Integrative Platform for Three-dimensional Quantitative Analysis of Spatially Heterogeneous Metastasis Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldner, Ian H.; Yang, Lin; Cowdrick, Kyle R.; Wang, Qingfei; Alvarez Barrios, Wendy V.; Zellmer, Victoria R.; Zhang, Yizhe; Host, Misha; Liu, Fang; Chen, Danny Z.; Zhang, Siyuan

    2016-04-01

    Metastatic microenvironments are spatially and compositionally heterogeneous. This seemingly stochastic heterogeneity provides researchers great challenges in elucidating factors that determine metastatic outgrowth. Herein, we develop and implement an integrative platform that will enable researchers to obtain novel insights from intricate metastatic landscapes. Our two-segment platform begins with whole tissue clearing, staining, and imaging to globally delineate metastatic landscape heterogeneity with spatial and molecular resolution. The second segment of our platform applies our custom-developed SMART 3D (Spatial filtering-based background removal and Multi-chAnnel forest classifiers-based 3D ReconsTruction), a multi-faceted image analysis pipeline, permitting quantitative interrogation of functional implications of heterogeneous metastatic landscape constituents, from subcellular features to multicellular structures, within our large three-dimensional (3D) image datasets. Coupling whole tissue imaging of brain metastasis animal models with SMART 3D, we demonstrate the capability of our integrative pipeline to reveal and quantify volumetric and spatial aspects of brain metastasis landscapes, including diverse tumor morphology, heterogeneous proliferative indices, metastasis-associated astrogliosis, and vasculature spatial distribution. Collectively, our study demonstrates the utility of our novel integrative platform to reveal and quantify the global spatial and volumetric characteristics of the 3D metastatic landscape with unparalleled accuracy, opening new opportunities for unbiased investigation of novel biological phenomena in situ.

  6. Evaluating human cancer cell metastasis in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo metastasis assays have traditionally been performed in mice, but the process is inefficient and costly. However, since zebrafish do not develop an adaptive immune system until 14 days post-fertilization, human cancer cells can survive and metastasize when transplanted into zebrafish larvae. Despite isolated reports, there has been no systematic evaluation of the robustness of this system to date. Individual cell lines were stained with CM-Dil and injected into the perivitelline space of 2-day old zebrafish larvae. After 2-4 days fish were imaged using confocal microscopy and the number of metastatic cells was determined using Fiji software. To determine whether zebrafish can faithfully report metastatic potential in human cancer cells, we injected a series of cells with different metastatic potential into the perivitelline space of 2 day old embryos. Using cells from breast, prostate, colon and pancreas we demonstrated that the degree of cell metastasis in fish is proportional to their invasion potential in vitro. Highly metastatic cells such as MDA231, DU145, SW620 and ASPC-1 are seen in the vasculature and throughout the body of the fish after only 24–48 hours. Importantly, cells that are not invasive in vitro such as T47D, LNCaP and HT29 do not metastasize in fish. Inactivation of JAK1/2 in fibrosarcoma cells leads to loss of invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo, and in zebrafish these cells show limited spread throughout the zebrafish body compared with the highly metastatic parental cells. Further, knockdown of WASF3 in DU145 cells which leads to loss of invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo also results in suppression of metastasis in zebrafish. In a cancer progression model involving normal MCF10A breast epithelial cells, the degree of invasion/metastasis in vitro and in mice is mirrored in zebrafish. Using a modified version of Fiji software, it is possible to quantify individual metastatic cells in the transparent larvae to correlate with

  7. S100A4 in Cancer Metastasis: Wnt Signaling-Driven Interventions for Metastasis Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Mathias Dahlmann; Dennis Kobelt; Wolfgang Walther; Giridhar Mudduluru; Ulrike Stein

    2016-01-01

    The aberrant activity of Wnt signaling is an early step in the transformation of normal intestinal cells to malignant tissue, leading to more aggressive tumors, and eventually metastases. In colorectal cancer (CRC), metastasis accounts for about 90% of patient deaths, representing the most lethal event during the course of the disease and is directly linked to patient survival, critically limiting successful therapy. This review focuses on our studies of the metastasis-inducing gene S100A4, w...

  8. The benefit of whole brain reirradiation in patients with multiple brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the outcomes, symptom palliation and survival rates in patients who received repeat whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Twenty-eight patients who had progression of brain metastasis received a second course of WBRT. Univariate log-rank testing and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to determine the factors for death among several variables (cumulative BED [BEDcumulative], primary tumor site, Karnofsky performance scale [KPS], previous SRS, number of metastases and absence of extracranial metastases). Correlations between variables and treatment response were evaluated with the Chi-squared test. The median KPS was 60 (range 50 to 100) at the initiation of reirradiation. The median time interval between the two courses of WBRT was 9.5 months (range 3–27 months). The median doses of the first course and the second course of WBRT were 30 Gy (range 20 to 30 Gy) and 25 Gy (range 20 to 30 Gy), respectively. The mean BEDcumulative was 129.5 Gy (range 110 to 150 Gy). Severe or unexpected toxicity was not observed. Symptomatic response was detected in 39% of the patients. The median overall survival following reirradiation was 3 months (range 1 to 12 months, 95% CI 1.82-4.118). Survival was significantly better in responders (median 10 months, 95% CI 3.56-16.43) compared with non-responders (median 2 months, 95% CI 1.3-2.64) (p = 0.000). In multivariate analysis, patients that had lung cancer (p = 0.01), initial KPS ≥60 (p = 0.03) or longer intervals to reirradiation (p = 0.01) had significantly better survival rates. A careful second course of whole brain irradiation might provide a symptomatic and survival benefit in patients with good performance status and longer cranial progression-free intervals

  9. Interactions between MUC1 and p120 catenin regulate dynamic features of cell adhesion, motility and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Yi, Chunhui; Wen, Yunfei; Radhakrishnan, Prakash; Tremayne, Jarrod R.; Dao, Thongtan; Johnson, Keith R.; Hollingsworth, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms by which MUC1 and p120 catenin contribute to progression of cancers from early transformation to metastasis are poorly understood. Here we show that p120 catenin ARM domains 1, 3–5 and 8 mediate interactions between p120 catenin and MUC1, and that these interactions modulate dynamic properties of cell adhesion, motility and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells. We also show that different isoforms of p120 catenin when co-expressed with MUC1 create cells that exhibit distinct patterns of motility in culture (motility independent of cell adhesion, motility within a monolayer while exchanging contacts with other cells, and unified motility while maintaining static epithelial contacts) and patterns of metastasis. The results provide new insight into the dynamic interplay between cell adhesion and motility and the relationship of these to the metastatic process. PMID:24371222

  10. Distant skeletal muscle metastasis from intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma presenting as Budd-Chiari syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oh Sung Kwon; Young Sook Park; Jong Eun Joo; Dae Won Jun; Sang Heum Kim; Mee Yeon Chung; Nam In Kim; Moon Hee Song; Han Hyo Lee; Seung Hwan Kim; Yoon Ju Jo

    2007-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant neoplasm arising from the biliary epithelium, which frequently invades adjacent organs or metastasizes to other visceral organs such as the lungs, bones, adrenals, and brain. However, distant skeletal muscle metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma has never been described before to the best of our knowledge and, furthermore, Budd-Chiari syndrome secondary to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is also extremely rare. Here we present the first case overall of distant muscle metastasis from intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma presenting as Budd-Chiari syndrome. A 44-year-old man admitted to the hospital with complaints of abdominal distension, edema of both legs, back pain and anorexia of 30 o" duration. Computed tomography and ultrasonography-guided percutaneous muscle biopsy established intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with disseminated thrombosis from inferior vena cava to bilateral iliac and femoral veins, and multiple skeletal muscle metastases in bilateral buttock and erector spinal muscle.

  11. Progression of choroidal metastasis of ovarian serous cystoadenocarcinoma after intravitreal bevacizumab treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E. Reviglio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old woman presented to her ophthalmologist because of rapid deterioration in vision. Dilated funduscopic examination of the right eye showed an elevated, yellow-orange choroidal mass temporal to the fovea; a complete retinal detachment was present in the left eye. The patient was referred to an oncologist. Computerized tomography of the brain, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis were obtained. They revealed an 11-mm mass in the right parietal lobe, a 30-mm mass in the left temporal lobe, 23-mm mass in the right kidney, and multiple nodules in both lungs. Supported by published experience with intravitreal bevacizumab for choroidal metastasis, the patient was injected into the vitreous through the pars plana of the left eye. The tumor mass did not show signs of regression and the visual acuity was unchanged. The patient suffered from end-state complications tumor metastasis and expired one month after the invitreal injection.

  12. CT evaluation of choriocarcinoma with brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that the computed tomography(CT) is an essential part not only in screening primary brain tumors, but also in staging known malignancy. This paper reports various CT findings demonstrated in 12 cases of choriocarcinoma with brain metastasis. The CT findings such as the number, location and density of the metastatic lesions, the degree of brain edema, mass effect and effect of contrast enhancement are reviewed as well as the episode of stroke syndrome and survival duration after neurologic symptom attacks. The results were as follows: 1. The of these cases showed solitary metastatic lesion and remaining 2 cases were multiple lesions. 2. One was isodense density and the others were hemorrhagic increased density by CT. 3. All of these showed mass effect to the surrounding structures along with moderate to marked brain edema. 4. The position of the metastatic lesion were located at the supratentorially in all cases. Most of them were at the unilateral frontal or parietal area or both of them. One which noted multiple metastatic foci showed at the bilateral occipital regions. 5. Nine cases showed ring enhancement after contrast infusion. One which noted isodense density on the noninfusion scan showed also ring enhancement after contrast infusion. 6. Nine cases showed positive stroke syndrome. One of them was performed emergency craniotomy. The remaining 3 cases noted progressive neurologic symptoms. 7. Two cases were noted only brain metastasis but the others also had various degree of pulmonary metastasis and 2 of latter had hepatic metastasis, too. 8. Most of the cases were treated with CHAMOCA regimen, and one of them was taken whole brain irradiation (3000 rads/2 weeks). Another on case revealed marked regression of not only metastatic brain lesion but the pulmonary lesion after the 8th course of CHAMOCA regimen and still alive for over 460 days

  13. CT evaluation of choriocarcinoma with brain metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sei Chul; Kim, Choon Yul; Kwon, Hyung Chul; Bahk, Young Whee; Kim, Seung Jo [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    It is well established that the computed tomography(CT) is an essential part not only in screening primary brain tumors, but also in staging known malignancy. This paper reports various CT findings demonstrated in 12 cases of choriocarcinoma with brain metastasis. The CT findings such as the number, location and density of the metastatic lesions, the degree of brain edema, mass effect and effect of contrast enhancement are reviewed as well as the episode of stroke syndrome and survival duration after neurologic symptom attacks. The results were as follows: 1. The of these cases showed solitary metastatic lesion and remaining 2 cases were multiple lesions. 2. One was isodense density and the others were hemorrhagic increased density by CT. 3. All of these showed mass effect to the surrounding structures along with moderate to marked brain edema. 4. The position of the metastatic lesion were located at the supratentorially in all cases. Most of them were at the unilateral frontal or parietal area or both of them. One which noted multiple metastatic foci showed at the bilateral occipital regions. 5. Nine cases showed ring enhancement after contrast infusion. One which noted isodense density on the noninfusion scan showed also ring enhancement after contrast infusion. 6. Nine cases showed positive stroke syndrome. One of them was performed emergency craniotomy. The remaining 3 cases noted progressive neurologic symptoms. 7. Two cases were noted only brain metastasis but the others also had various degree of pulmonary metastasis and 2 of latter had hepatic metastasis, too. 8. Most of the cases were treated with CHAMOCA regimen, and one of them was taken whole brain irradiation (3000 rads/2 weeks). Another on case revealed marked regression of not only metastatic brain lesion but the pulmonary lesion after the 8th course of CHAMOCA regimen and still alive for over 460 days.

  14. Hysteretic behavior of proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Y Icimoto

    Full Text Available The proprotein convertases (PCs are calcium-dependent proteases responsible for processing precursor proteins into their active forms in eukariotes. The PC1/3 is a pivotal enzyme of this family that participates in the proteolytic maturation of prohormones and neuropeptides inside the regulated secretory pathway. In this paper we demonstrate that mouse proprotein convertase 1/3 (mPC1/3 has a lag phase of activation by substrates that can be interpreted as a hysteretic behavior of the enzyme for their hydrolysis. This is an unprecedented observation in peptidases, but is frequent in regulatory enzymes with physiological relevance. The lag phase of mPC1/3 is dependent on substrate, calcium concentration and pH. This hysteretic behavior may have implications in the physiological processes in which PC1/3 participates and could be considered an additional control step in the peptide hormone maturation processes as for instance in the transformation of proinsulin to insulin.

  15. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  16. Management of solitary and multiple brain metastases from breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addison Willett

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As local and systemic control of breast cancer improves, metastasis to the brain remains a common event requiring a specialized management approach. Women diagnosed with breast cancer who develop brain metastases have superior overall survival compared to patients with other forms of metastatic carcinoma. This article summarizes some of the unique aspects of care for patients with breast cancer metastases to the brain.

  17. Modeling tumor invasion and metastasis in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne O. Miles

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of major signaling pathways between humans and flies has made Drosophila a useful model organism for cancer research. Our understanding of the mechanisms regulating cell growth, differentiation and development has been considerably advanced by studies in Drosophila. Several recent high profile studies have examined the processes constraining the metastatic growth of tumor cells in fruit fly models. Cell invasion can be studied in the context of an in vivo setting in flies, enabling the genetic requirements of the microenvironment of tumor cells undergoing metastasis to be analyzed. This Perspective discusses the strengths and limitations of Drosophila models of cancer invasion and the unique tools that have enabled these studies. It also highlights several recent reports that together make a strong case for Drosophila as a system with the potential for both testing novel concepts in tumor progression and cell invasion, and for uncovering players in metastasis.

  18. Progression and metastasis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Helmut H

    2016-03-01

    Metastasis in lung cancer is a multifaceted process. In this review, we will dissect the process in several isolated steps such as angiogenesis, hypoxia, circulation, and establishment of a metastatic focus. In reality, several of these processes overlap and occur even simultaneously, but such a presentation would be unreadable. Metastasis requires cell migration toward higher oxygen tension, which is based on changing the structure of the cell (epithelial-mesenchymal transition), orientation within the stroma and stroma interaction, and communication with the immune system to avoid attack. Once in the blood stream, cells have to survive trapping by the coagulation system, to survive shear stress in small blood vessels, and to find the right location for extravasation. Once outside in the metastatic locus, tumor cells have to learn the communication with the "foreign" stroma cells to establish vascular supply and again express molecules, which induce immune tolerance.

  19. Nanoradiopharmaceuticals for Bone Cancer Metastasis Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Bianca Feliciano; de Souza Albernaz, Marta; Iscaife, Alexandre; Moreira Leite, Katia Ramos; de Souza Junqueira, Mara; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; da Silva, Emerson Oliveira; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Drug delivery systems are under intense investigation all around the world, especially in oncology research. Indeed, in some cases, like bone metastasis, nanodrugs may represent the last and best choice for both treatment and imaging of early cancer foci. Nuclear medicine has been using MDP labelled with 99mTc as radiopharmaceuticals for many years; however, their use as nanoradiopharmaceuticals is very innovative and creates a new way to establish radiopharmacy in this new scenario offered by nanotechnology. In this study we developed and tested nano-MDP-labelled with 99mTc in rats induced with bone cancer metastasis and the results showed that it may work in patients. However, some further experiments are required in order to initiate protocols in humans. PMID:25847010

  20. 5-Isopropylidene-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d][1,3]dithiole-2-thione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Yamashita

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H6S5, contains a 5-ylidene-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d][1,3]dithiole-2-thione framework, which is an important synthetic precursor of multi-dimensional organic superconductors and conductors. The molecular framework is planar with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.012 Å for the non-H atoms. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked by short intermolecular S...S interactions [3.501 (5 and 3.581 (4 Å], constructing a zigzag molecular tape network along the c axis.

  1. Isolated penile metastasis from bladder carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuren, O.A. [Department of Radiology and Imaging, Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Koriech, O. [Department of Oncology, Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1999-10-01

    Metastases of the penis are uncommon, with only approximately 300 cases reported since 1870. In up to 70 % of patients, the primary tumour is located in the urogenital tract. Furthermore, isolated metastases of the penis are exceptionally rare. We report a case of solitary squamous cell metastasis of the penis presenting with painful swelling initially thought to be inflammatory in origin. The CT and MR imaging findings are presented with a short review of the literature. (orig.) With 2 figs., 9 refs.

  2. Wnt and Wnt inhibitors in bone metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sottnik, Joseph L; Christopher L. Hall; Zhang, Jian; Evan T. Keller

    2012-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a clinically devastating development of progressive cancers including prostate carcinoma, breast carcinoma and multiple myeloma. Bone metastases are typically painful, lead to adverse skeletal-related events, such as fracture, and are highly resistant to therapy. A major contribution to the ability of cancers to successfully establish bone metastases is their ability to exploit mechanisms of normal bone remodeling. Wnts are a large family of morphogenic proteins that are cr...

  3. Stress Proteins and Pancreatic Cancer Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Cano, Carla E.; Iovanna, Juan L.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is challenged by its resistance to microenvironmental stress infringed during escape from the primary tumor and the colonization of a foreign secondary tissue. Because of its great metastatic potential and its strong resistance to anticancer drugs, pancreatic cancer is regarded as a paradigm of the adaptation of cancer cells to microenvironmental stress. Thus, to understand how pancreatic cancer cells adapt to the different endogenous and therapy-related stresses is crucial f...

  4. Mandibular metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Tae Min [Dept. of Advanced General Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee Dong; Jeong, Ho Gui; Park, Won Se [Advanced General Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Tumors metastasizing from distant regions to the oral and maxillofacial region are uncommon, comprising only 1%-2% of all malignancies. Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignancy that arises from cholangiocytes, which are epithelial cells that line the bile ducts. These cancers are difficult to diagnose and have a poor prognosis. In this paper, we report a rare case of mandibular metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma diagnosed at the primary site and discuss the radiographic findings observed in this case.

  5. Intracranial metastasis of spinal intramedullary anaplastic astrocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kataria, Rashim; Bhasme, Vishal; Chopra, Sanjeev; V D Sinha; Singhvi, Shashi

    2011-01-01

    Meningeal spread of spinal intramedullary astrocytoma into the cranium is rare. Only few case reports are available so far in the literature. We report a case of intramedullary high grade astrocytoma of the conus, developing intracranial metastasis after three months of partial excision of the spinal mass. The need for radical surgery, entire neuroaxis radiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy is suggested in the management of malignant spinal cord astrocytoma to prevent dissemination.

  6. Cancer stem cells, tumor dormancy, and metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    EmilyChen

    2012-01-01

    Tumor cells can persist undetectably for an extended period of time in primary tumors and in disseminated cancer cells. Very little is known about why and how these tumors persist for extended periods of time and then evolve to malignancy. The discovery of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in human tumors challenges our current understanding of tumor recurrence, drug resistance, and metastasis, and opens up new research directions on how cancer cells are capable of switching from dormancy to malignanc...

  7. Radionuclide therapy for thyroid cancer with nervous system metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is 85% of all thyroid cancer, and is known to have good prognosis with proper surgery and radioiodine therapy. But 4% of papillary carcinoma and 36% of follicular carcinoma present with distant metastasis. Even if the patient had distant metastasis, total thyroidectomy and radioiodine therapy show good response. Forty seven percent of bone metastases are found in the initial diagnosis, in which vertebral metastases is 29%, pelvic metastases 22%. The metastases to vertebrae often combine spinal cord compression, making it difficult to deliver enough radiation dose to the lesion with radioiodine or external beam irradiation. Brain metastases is found in less than 1% of thyroid cancer, and is also difficult to cure. In Korea Cancer Center Hospital, from 1997 to 2002, we analyzed 437 patients with thyroid cancer who were treated with radioiodine after total thyroidectomy. There were four patients with brain metastases, and 32 patients with vertebral metastases. In four patients with brain metastases, one patient, who also had bone metastases, received high dose radioiodine therapy after total thyroidectomy, and is alive for more than 15 months. Another patients received total thyroidectomy, radioiodine therapy and external irradiation therapy, and survived 22 months. Two patients refused further treatment and died in one month. I-131 uptake in the metastatic lesion in brain is reported to be 17%, and multimodality therapy with surgery, radioiodine therapy, external irradiation and chemotherapy may improve the prognosis. In 32 patients with vertebral metastases, 19 patients (59.4%) showed I-131 uptake after high dose radioiodine therapy, and 5 year survival rate was 65.8%. 13 patients without I-131 uptake after radioiodine therapy had 26.9% of 5 year survival rate. In 11 patients with spinal cord compression, 7 patients received high dose radioiodine therapy and external irradiation after total thyroidectomy and spinal surgery, and six

  8. Pathobiology of cancer metastasis: a short account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feller Liviu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer-initiating cells display aberrant functional and phenotypic characteristics of normal stem cells from which they evolved by accumulation of multiple cytogenetic and/or epigenetic alterations. Signal transduction pathways which are essential for normal stem cell function are abnormally expressed by cancer cells, with a cancer cell phenotype playing an essential role in cancerization and metastasis. Local tumour progression, metastasis and metastatic tumour growth are mediated by direct cell-to-cell and paracrine reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and various stromal cells including fibroblasts, macrophages, bone marrow derived stem cells and progenitor cells. These interactions mediate breakdown of basement membrane barriers and angiogenesis both locally at the invasive front of the primary tumour and at the distant metastatic site; attract primary tumour cells to the candidate metastatic site; and promote proliferation, survival and growth of primary tumour cells and of metastatic cells at their distant site. It is the purpose of this article to highlight the analogies between some of the genetic programs of normal stem cells, and of cancer cells participating in the process of metastasis.

  9. Therapy for bone metastasis from different cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Zhang; Peng Tan; Baoguo Mi; Chao Song; Yi Deng; Hanfeng Guan

    2016-01-01

    The bone is the most common target organ of cancer metastasis. Bone metastasis leads to considerable morbidity due to skeletal-related events (SREs). These include bone pain, hypercalcemia, pathologic frac-tures, and compression of the spinal cord. Cancers such as those of the lung, breast, prostate, and kidney are more likely to cause SREs than other cancer types. Additionaly, some blood cancers, including multiple myeloma and lymphoma, frequently cause SREs. In this article, we review the conventional therapies for metastatic bone disease, including drug therapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Among osteoclast-targeting agents, bisphosphonates and nuclear factor kappa-B ligand inhibitors are the most widely used agents to prevent cancer-related bone loss. Unsealed radioisotopes are also considered promising in cancer therapy. Currently, iodine-131, strontium-89, and radium-223 are available for the treatment of bone metastasis. However, the treatments for blood cancers with SREs are diferent from those of other cancers. In those cases, new classes of agents including proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, monoclonal anti-bodies, and histone deacetylase inhibitors have shown remarkable eficacy. We also discuss the potential development of new therapies for these diseases.

  10. Pathobiology of cancer metastasis: a short account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Liviu; Kramer, Beverley; Lemmer, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-initiating cells display aberrant functional and phenotypic characteristics of normal stem cells from which they evolved by accumulation of multiple cytogenetic and/or epigenetic alterations. Signal transduction pathways which are essential for normal stem cell function are abnormally expressed by cancer cells, with a cancer cell phenotype playing an essential role in cancerization and metastasis.Local tumour progression, metastasis and metastatic tumour growth are mediated by direct cell-to-cell and paracrine reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and various stromal cells including fibroblasts, macrophages, bone marrow derived stem cells and progenitor cells. These interactions mediate breakdown of basement membrane barriers and angiogenesis both locally at the invasive front of the primary tumour and at the distant metastatic site; attract primary tumour cells to the candidate metastatic site; and promote proliferation, survival and growth of primary tumour cells and of metastatic cells at their distant site.It is the purpose of this article to highlight the analogies between some of the genetic programs of normal stem cells, and of cancer cells participating in the process of metastasis. PMID:22676510

  11. Bone Metastasis from Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2016-01-01

    About one-third of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have bone metastasis that are often osteolytic and cause substantial morbidity, such as pain, pathologic fracture, spinal cord compression and hypercalcemia. The presence of bone metastasis in RCC is also associated with poor prognosis. Bone-targeted treatment using bisphosphonate and denosumab can reduce skeletal complications in RCC, but does not cure the disease or improve survival. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of tumor-induced changes in the bone microenvironment is needed to develop effective treatment. The “vicious cycle” hypothesis has been used to describe how tumor cells interact with the bone microenvironment to drive bone destruction and tumor growth. Tumor cells secrete factors like parathyroid hormone-related peptide, transforming growth factor-β and vascular endothelial growth factor, which stimulate osteoblasts and increase the production of the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). In turn, the overexpression of RANKL leads to increased osteoclast formation, activation and survival, thereby enhancing bone resorption. This review presents a general survey on bone metastasis in RCC by natural history, interaction among the immune system, bone and tumor, molecular mechanisms, bone turnover markers, therapies and healthcare burden. PMID:27338367

  12. Rational Operation for Primary Gastric Carcinoma with Liver Metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caigang Liu; Ping Lu; Jinsong Gu; Junqing Chen

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the prognosis of advanced gastric carcinoma patients with liver metastasis, and provide a foundation for rational operations.METHODS The operations and prognosis of 102 primary gastric carcinoma patients with liver metastasis were studied retrospectively. RESULTS In gastric carcinoma patients with H1 metastasis who under went a resection operation, the 6-month, 1- and 2-year post-operative survival rates were 61%, 42% and 7%. There was a statistically significant difference in survival between resected and non-resected patients (P=0.000) In gastric carcinoma cases with H2 metastasis, resection operations resulted in 54%,16% and 8% respective survival rates, with no significant difference compared to patients not receiving a resection (P=0.132). Gastric carcinoma patients with H3 metastasis who received a resection operation showed 25%, 13% and 0% respective survivals with no significantly better prognosis compared to the non-resected cases (P=0.135). There was no statistically significant difference in survival between the cases with or without peritoneal metastasis (P=0.152).CONCLUSION A resection operation provides a better prognosis for gastric carcinoma patients with H1 metastasis independent of peritoneal metastasis, but resection has no benefit for gastric carcinoma cases with H2 or H3 metastasis. Peritoneal metastases are not the significant influencing factor for the prognosis of gastric cancer with liver metastasis.

  13. Methods for promoting electrochemical properties of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO LiYing; CHE HuiQuan; HU DaoZhong; SU YueFeng; WANG Zhao; LI Ning; CHEN Shi

    2013-01-01

    One popular study of the recent research is to develop the cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.As a new cathode material for lithium-ion batteries,the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 has drawn widespread attention because of its high capacity,high cut-off voltage and high tap density.Its theoretical capacity is 277.8 mAh/g.The crystal structure of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is α-NaFeO2.The structural and morphological features of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are introduced in this paper.The emphasis is to present the methods for promoting electrochemical properties.The electrochemical properties and structure characteristics are discussed.And the prospect of layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is forecast in the end.

  14. A Review of the Clinical Outcomes for Patients Diagnosed with Brainstem Metastasis and Treated with Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Lamm, Andrew F.; Elaimy, Ameer L.; Lamoreaux, Wayne T.; Mackay, Alexander R.; Fairbanks, Robert K.; Demakas, John J.; Barton S. Cooke; Lee, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Only 3%–5% of all brain metastases are located in the brainstem. We present a comprehensive review of the clinical outcomes from modern studies that treated patients with brainstem metastasis using either a Gamma Knife or a linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery. The median survival time of patients was compared to better understand what clinical or treatment factors are predictive of improved survival. This information can then be utilized to optimize patient care. The data sugge...

  15. Renal cell carcinoma presenting as a solitary cutaneous facial metastasis: case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Neil A; Anderson, Helen L; Al-Dujaily, Saad

    2006-01-01

    Background Renal cell carcinoma is well known for its frequency to metastasise, particularly to lungs, liver, bones and brain. Metastasis to the skin is much less common. Presentation as a result of the skin lesion is even more unusual, with only 14 previously reported cases in the English literature. The majority of these cases have been reported in patients with recurrent disease or with other metastases. Case presentation We present only the second case of non-recurrent renal cell carcinom...

  16. Pancreatic solitary and synchronous metastasis from breast cancer: a case report and systematic review of controversies in diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Molino, Carlo; Mocerino, Carmela; Braucci, Antonio; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Trunfio, Martino; Carrillo, Giovanna; Vitale, Maria Giuseppa; Cartenì, Giacomo; De Sena, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Background Metastases from breast cancer cause the frequent involvement of lung, bone, liver, and brain, while the occurrence of metastases to the gastrointestinal tract is rare, and more frequently discovered after a primary diagnosis of breast cancer. Solitary pancreatic metastases from breast cancer, without widespread disease, are actually unusual, and only 19 cases have been previously described; truly exceptional is a solitary pancreatic metastasis becoming evident together with the pri...

  17. MicroRNA regulation network in colorectal cancer metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao-Jiao; Zhou; Shu; Zheng; Li-Feng; Sun; Lei; Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Metastasis is a major cause of colorectal cancer-related death. Mechanisms of metastasis remain largely obscure. MicroRNA is one of the most important epigenetic regulators by targeting mRNAs posttranscriptionally. Accumulated evidence has supported its significant role in the metastasis of colorectal cancer, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis. Dissecting microRNAome potentially identifies specific microRNAs as biomarkers of colorectal cancer metastasis. Better understanding of the complex network of microRNAs in colorectal cancer metastasis provide new insights in the biological process of metastasis and in the potential targets for colorectal cancer therapies and for diagnosis of recurrent and metastatic colorectal cancer.

  18. Molecular Mechanism Underlying Lymphatic Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the most challenging human malignancies, pancreatic cancer is characterized by its insidious symptoms, low rate of surgical resection, high risk of local invasion, metastasis and recurrence, and overall dismal prognosis. Lymphatic metastasis, above all, is recognized as an early adverse event in progression of pancreatic cancer and has been described to be an independent poor prognostic factor. It should be noted that the occurrence of lymphatic metastasis is not a casual or stochastic but an ineluctable and designed event. Increasing evidences suggest that metastasis-initiating cells (MICs and the microenvironments may act as a double-reed style in this crime. However, the exact mechanisms on how they function synergistically for this dismal clinical course remain largely elusive. Therefore, a better understanding of its molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in pancreatic lymphatic metastasis is urgently required. In this review, we will summarize the latest advances on lymphatic metastasis in pancreatic cancer.

  19. Cutaneous metastasis from squamous carcinoma of the base of tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashnin Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cutaneous metastasis from head and neck cancer is uncommon and it is seen from laryngeal cancer. Cutaneous metastasis from the base of tongue is relatively rare. Case Report: A 55-year-old male, who was a treated case of squamous carcinoma of the base of tongue presented with metastatic nodule on the skin of face and thigh. But, there was complete resolution of the tumor at the primary site. In the present case, clinically obvious cutaneous nodules with metastasis appeared soon after the completion of treatment with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. The metastasis to the skin of face clinically appeared like an inflammatory lesion. Fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed the diagnosis of metastasis to skin at both the sites. Conclusion: Our case has highlighted that there could be associated occult skin metastasis at the time of diagnosis in squamous carcinoma of the base of tongue.

  20. Cell proliferation index predicts relapse of brain metastases in non-irradiated patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peev, N A; Tonchev, A B; Penkowa, M;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain metastasis is a common complication and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human malignancies. We investigated whether the proliferating cell index of surgically treated single brain metastasis would predict the relapse at a location remote from the initial resection site...... subsequently by radiotherapy to the whole brain were stained by immunohistochemistry for the marker CDC47 and the proliferation index was calculated. The index was then analysed with respect to clinical parameters, including the incidence of brain relapse within 2 months of the first resection, the timing of...... the patients with lesions which had not relapsed or which had relapsed more than 2 months after first craniotomy (n = 12). The synchronous brain metastasis (that is, those occurring before or within 2 months of the primary cancer diagnosis) had a significantly higher proliferation index than the...

  1. trans-Bis(1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dionato(methanoloxidovanadium(IV methanol disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Pretorius

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [V(C15H11O22O(CH3OH]·2CH3OH, the VIV atom is coordinated by two 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dionate ligands and an oxide ligand in an axial position. The sixth position is occupied by the O atom of a methanol group bonded trans to the oxide atom. The octahedral geometry is significantly distorted, with the VIV atom lying 0.330 (3 Å above the equatorial plane formed by the O atoms of the two β-diketonate ligands. In the crystal, O—H...O hydrogen bonds between the coordinating methanol group in the complex and the two methanol solvent molecules lead to the formation of polymeric chains along the c-axis direction. Weak C—H...O contacts are also observed.

  2. Crystal structure of 2-(1,3-dioxoindan-2-ylisoquinoline-1,3,4-trione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Murad Ghalib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title isoquinoline-1,3,4-trione derivative, C18H9NO5, the five-membered ring of the indane fragment adopts an envelope conformation with the nitrogen-substituted C atom being the flap. The planes of the indane benzene ring and the isoquinoline-1,3,4-trione ring make a dihedral angle of 82.06 (6°. In the crystal, molecules are linked into chains extending along the bc plane via C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions, enclosing R22(8 and R22(10 loops. The chains are further connected by π–π stacking interations, with centroid-to-centroid distances of 3.9050 (7 Å, forming layers parallel to the b axis.

  3. Patrolling Monocytes Control Tumor Metastasis to the Lung

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Richard N.; Cekic, Caglar; Sag, Duygu; Tacke, Robert; Graham D. Thomas; Nowyhed, Heba; Herrley, Erica; Rasquinha, Nicole; McArdle, Sara; Wu, Runpei; Peluso, Esther; Metzger, Daniel; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Shaked, Iftach; Chodaczek, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    The immune system plays an important role in regulating tumor growth and metastasis. For example, classical monocytes promote tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis; however, how nonclassical “patrolling” monocytes interact with tumors is unknown. Here we show that patrolling monocytes are enriched in the microvasculature of the lung and reduce tumor metastasis to lung in multiple mouse metastatic tumor models. Nr4a1-deficient mice, which specifically lack patrolling monocytes, showed increased ...

  4. Steps in Prostate Cancer Progression that lead to Bone Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Jung-Kang; Dayyani, Farshid; Gallick, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a complex disease in which metastasis to the bone is the main cause of death. Initial stages of metastasis are generally similar to those for most solid tumors; however, the mechanisms that underlie the homing of prostate tumor cells to the bone remain incompletely understood. Prostate cancer bone metastasis is also a microenvironment-driven disease, involving bi-directional interactions between the tumor and the bone microenvironment. In this review, we discuss the current...

  5. Pituitary metastasis of lung neuroendocrine carcinoma: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Pedro Freire; Mathez, Andréia Latanza Gomes; Pedretti, Denize Borges; Abucham, Julio

    2015-12-01

    Metastasis to the pituitary gland is an unusual situation in clinical practice, but the frequency thereof is increasing due to the increased survival of cancer patients, and greater availability of imaging. In most cases, they are found between the sixth and seventh decades of life, as determined in image examination of patients with known malignant neoplasm, but, generally, asymptomatic with respect to pituitary involvement. The most common primary sites are breast in women and lung in men. We present the case of a 64-year-old patient with clinical visual changes, polyuria, polydipsia, and decreased level of consciousness whose tests showed pan-hypopituitarism, hypernatremia and low urine specific gravity, and extensive mass in sellar region. Diabetes insipidus was confirmed and treated, corticotrophic and thyroid deficits were corrected and then the patient underwent resection by transsphenoidal surgery. The histopathological and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed pituitary metastasis of lung neuroendocrine tumor. Subsequently, a chest CT scan showed pulmonary mass consistent with primary neoplasm. Despite the water and electrolyte correction and intravenous glucocorticoid replacement, the patient continued to show decreased level of consciousness due to compression of the brain stem by the pituitary mass, evolving to death. The purpose is to call attention to the differential diagnosis of invasive lesions of the sellar region, mainly in individuals over 50 years and/or when associated with diabetes insipidus, as it may be a case of metastasis, although there is no known primary neoplasm. PMID:26677090

  6. ARPP-19 promotes proliferation and metastasis of human glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Zhao, Bing; Li, Xiaocan; Wan, Jinghai

    2016-09-01

    Glioma is the most common and aggressive type of human primary brain tumor with a poor outcome. The molecular mechanisms underlying glioma development and progression are still poorly understood. Recent studies have reported a novel role of ARPP-19 in the regulation of cell mitosis and cancer progression. However, no study has been carried out to determine the role of ARPP-19 in human glioma cells and assess the expression and clinical significance of ARPP-19 in human glioma. In this study, we systematically examined the role of ARPP-19 in glioma A172 cells and examined the expression of ARPP-19 and CD147 in 81 cases of human glioma tissue specimens and correlated them to clinicopathological parameters and patient survival. We found that ARPP-19 promoted both proliferation and metastasis of human glioma cells and the expression of ARPP-19 and CD147 in high-grade glioma was significantly higher than that in the low-grade glioma. Patients whose tumors were positive for expression of ARPP-19 or CD147 showed lower relapse-free survival and overall survival than patients whose tumors were negative for ARPP-19 or CD147, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that there was a statistically significant correlation between ARPP-19 and CD147. Expressions of ARPP-19 and CD147 may serve as biomarkers for high-grade glioma and poor patient survival. PMID:27380244

  7. A rare case of primary vaginal carcinoma with systemic metastasis with uterovaginal prolapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree Chandana Damineni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary vaginal cancer in a prolapsed uterus is a very rare condition. Here we report a rare case of carcinoma of vagina with early systemic metastasis presenting in a middle aged women with uterovaginal prolapse. A 46 year old postmenopausal lady presented with complaints of mass per vagina with foul smelling discharge per vagina. On gynaecological examination, an irreducible uterovaginal prolapse and a 6 and times; 6 cm ulcer was present on upper 1/3 of lateral vaginal wall. Biopsy of the ulcer suggested squamous cell carcinoma of vagina. She was given palliative chemotherapy. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2851-2852

  8. Thermochemistry of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine and 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The enthalpy of formation of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate was determined by combustion calorimetry. • The cohesive energy of liquid 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate was evaluated. • The crystal structure of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. • ΔfHmo (l/g) of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (tmg) were obtained by solution and Calvet calorimetry. • ΔfHmo (g) calculated by the W1-F12 procedure was in excellent agreement with the corresponding experimental value. - Abstract: Considerable efforts have recently been made to investigate how the structure of protic ionic liquids determines some of their most important properties for technological applications (e.g. low vapour pressure, conductivity). In contrast, the assessment of cohesive energies (which are also linked to those properties) based on thermodynamic results is still practically unexplored. This problem is addressed here for 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate, [Htmg][NO3], through a combination of experimental and computational chemistry results at the reference temperature of 298.15 K. The standard molar enthalpies of formation, ΔfHmo([Htmg][NO3],cr)=-(311.8±2.3)kJ·mol-1, and fusion, ΔfusHmo([Htmg][NO3])=16.2±3.8kJ·mol-1, of solid 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate (form I polymorph) were obtained by combustion and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. From these results ΔfHmo([Htmg][NO3],l)=-(295.6±4.4)kJ·mol-1 could be derived. Also determined were the standard molar enthalpies of formation, ΔfHmo(tmg, l)=7.7±2.8kJ·mol-1, and vaporisation, ΔvapHmo(tmg,l)=50.0±1.2kJ·mol-1, of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine, by reaction solution and Calvet-drop microcalorimetry, respectively, leading to ΔfHmo(tmg,g)=57.7±3.0kJ·mol-1. This result is in excellent agreement with ΔfHmo(tmg,g)=58.4±4.0kJ·mol-1, obtained from the ab initio calculation of the standard molar

  9. Breast metastasis from lung cancer:a report of two cases and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Shu-Ling Wang; Hong-Hong Shen; Feng-Ting Niu; Yun Niu

    2014-01-01

    Breast metastasis from extra-mammary malignancy is rare. An incidence of 0.4% to 1.3% has been reported in literature. hTe primary malignancies that most commonly metastasize to the breast are leukemia, lymphoma, and malignant melanoma. In this report, two cases of pulmonary metastasis to the breast were presented. A 40-year-old female manifested a right breast mass of 2-month duration. Atfer physical examination was performed, a poorly deifned mass was noted in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast. Another 49-year-old female manifested right breast mass of 5-day duration. A poorly deifned mass was noted in the lower inner quadrant of the right breast. Mammography results also revealed breast cancer. hTe patients underwent local excision. Atfer histological and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted, a primary lung carcinoma that metastasized to the breast was diagnosed. An accurate differentiation of metastasis to the breast from primary breast cancer is very important because the treatment and prognosis of the two differ signiifcantly.

  10. The Impact of the Size of Nodal Metastases on Recurrence Risk in Breast Cancer Patients With 1-3 Positive Axillary Nodes After Mastectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Eleanor E.R., E-mail: Eleanor.harris@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Freilich, Jessica [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Lin, Hui-Yi [Biostatistics Core, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Chuong, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Acs, Geza [Department of Anatomic Pathology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Use of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in breast cancer patients with 1-3 positive nodes is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine whether the size of nodal metastases in this subset could predict who would benefit from PMRT. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 250 breast cancer patients with 1-3 positive nodes after mastectomy treated with contemporary surgery and systemic therapy at our institution. Of these patients, 204 did not receive PMRT and 46 did receive PMRT. Local and regional recurrence risks were stratified by the size of the largest nodal metastasis measured as less than or equal to 5 mm or greater than 5 mm. Results: The median follow-up was 65.6 months. In the whole group, regional recurrences occurred in 2% of patients in whom the largest nodal metastasis measured 5 mm or less vs 6% for those with metastases measuring greater than 5 mm. For non-irradiated patients only, regional recurrence rates were 2% and 9%, respectively. Those with a maximal nodal size greater than 5 mm had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of regional recurrence (P=.013). The 5-year cumulative incidence of a regional recurrence in the non-irradiated group was 2.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7%-7.2%) for maximal metastasis size of 5 mm or less, 6.9% (95% CI, 1.7%-17.3%) for metastasis size greater than 5 mm, and 16% (95% CI, 3.4%-36.8%) for metastasis size greater than 10 mm. The impact of the maximal nodal size on regional recurrences became insignificant in the multivariable model. Conclusions: In patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes undergoing mastectomy without radiation, nodal metastasis greater than 5 mm was associated with regional recurrence after mastectomy, but its effect was modified by other factors (such as tumor stage). The size of the largest nodal metastasis may be useful to identify high-risk patients who may benefit from radiation therapy after mastectomy.

  11. Preparation of layered oxide Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 via the sol-gel process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen; LIU Hanxing; HU Chen; ZHU Xianjun; LI Yanxi

    2008-01-01

    To obtain homogenous layered oxide Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 as a lithium insertion positive electrode material,the sol-gel process using citric acid as a chelating agent was applied.The material Li(Co1/3,Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 was synthesized at different calcination temperatures.XRD experiment indicated that the hyered Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2material could he synthesized at a lower temperature of 800℃,and the oxidation state of Co,Ni,and Mn in the cathode confirmed by XPS were +3,+2,and +4,respectively.SEM observations showed that the synthesized material could form homogenous particle morphology with the particle size of about 200nm In spite of different calcination temperatures,the charge-discharge curves of all the samples for the initial cycle were similar,and the cathode synthesized at 900℃ showed a small irreversible capacity loss of 11.24% and a high discharge capacity of 212.2 mAh.g-1 in the voltage range of 2.9-4.6 V.

  12. Synthesis of 14C-labeled hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-labeled hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (2, RDX) was prepared by nitrolysis of hexahydro-1,3,5-tripropionyl-1,3,5-triazine (1) for bioenvironmental studies. 1 was synthesized from paraformaldehyde and propionitrile by a modified method reported earlier. (Author)

  13. Contemporary approaches for imaging skeletal metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Ulmert; Lilja Solnes; Daniel LJ Thorek

    2015-01-01

    The skeleton is a common site of cancer metastasis. Notably high incidences of bone lesions are found for breast, prostate, and renal carcinoma. Malignant bone tumors result in significant patient morbidity. Identification of these lesions is a critical step to accurately stratify patients, guide treatment course, monitor disease progression, and evaluate response to therapy. Diagnosis of cancer in the skeleton typically relies on indirect bone-targeted radiotracer uptake at sites of active bone remodeling. In this manuscript, we discuss established and emerging tools and techniques for detection of bone lesions, quantification of skeletal tumor burden, and current clinical challenges.

  14. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalography (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain.

  15. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ravi kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalograph y (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain

  16. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  17. Synthesis and characterization of layered Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 cathode materials by spray-drying method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-min; HU Guo-rong; PENG Zhong-dong; DENG Xin-rong; LIU Ye-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Spherical Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 was prepared via the homogenous precursors produced by solution spray-drying method. The precursors were sintered at different temperatures between 600 and 1 000 ℃ for 10 h. The impacts of different sintering temperatures on the structure and electrochemical performances of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 were compared by means of X-ray diffractometry(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and charge/discharge test as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. The experimental results show that the spherical morphology of the spray-dried powers maintains during the subsequent heat treatment and the specific capacity increases with rising sintering temperature. When the sintering temperature rises up to 900 ℃, Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 attains a reversible capacity of 153 mA·h/g between 3.00 and 4.35 V at 0.2C rate with excellent cyclability.

  18. Oxidation reactions of 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dione

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Medha Rele; B S Patro; S Adhikari; G P Kalena; S Chattopadhyay; T Mukherjee

    2002-12-01

    The free radical scavenging properties and possible antioxidant activity of 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dione (1) are reported. Pulse radiolysis technique was employed to study the one-electron oxidation of 1 with various radicals viz. CCl3O$_{2}^{\\bullet}$, N$_{3}^{\\bullet}$ and ${}^{\\bullet}$OH in homogeneous aqueous solution. All these radicals reacted with 1 under ambient conditions at almost diffusion controlled rates producing transient species with an absorption maximum around 420 nm that decayed at first order rates. The transient absorption peak was shifted in the case of CCl3OO$^{\\bullet}$ radical reaction with 1 due to change in the polarity of the medium. Formation of a stable product with a broad absorption band starting from 400 nm and cut off at 230 nm was observed in the oxidation of 1 with ${}^{\\bullet}$OH and ${}^{\\bullet}$N3 radicals. In a biological system also, 1 showed significant inhibitory activity against Fe2+-mediated lipid peroxidation. Based on these observations, a suitable mechanism for the oxidation of 1 has been proposed.

  19. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etnier, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.54 references.

  20. Solitary Spinal Epidural Metastasis from Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisei Sako

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary epidural space metastasis of a malignant tumor is rare. We encountered a 79-year-old male patient with solitary metastatic epidural tumor who developed paraplegia and dysuria. The patient had undergone total gastrectomy for gastric cancer followed by chemotherapy 8 months priorly. The whole body was examined for suspected metastatic spinal tumor, but no metastases of the spine or important organs were observed, and a solitary mass was present in the thoracic spinal epidural space. The mass was excised for diagnosis and treatment and was histopathologically diagnosed as metastasis from gastric cancer. No solitary metastatic epidural tumor from gastric cancer has been reported in English. Among the Japanese, 3 cases have been reported, in which the outcome was poor in all cases and no definite diagnosis could be made before surgery in any case. Our patient developed concomitant pneumonia after surgery and died shortly after the surgery. When a patient has a past medical history of malignant tumor, the possibility of a solitary metastatic tumor in the epidural space should be considered.

  1. Diagnostic value of lymph node metastasis by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Qin He

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The ADC values in CC tissues with LN metastasis were significantly lower than those without LN metastasis, suggesting that DWI appears to improve diagnostic performance and can be a useful adjunct imaging for identifying LN metastasis in CC patients.

  2. Disseminated Skeletal Muscle and Cardiac Metastasis from Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung Detected with FDG and FLT PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Tarun Kumar; Rayamajhi, Sampanna Jung; Basher, Rajender Kumar; Gupta, Dheeraj; Maturu, Venkata Nagarjuna; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading cancers all over the world. Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18F fluorodeoxyglucose (18F FDG) is useful for staging of the disease and decide the appropriate management. 3'-deoxy-3'-18 F-fluorothymidine (18F FLT) is a tracer being extensively evaluated currently and is said to represent tumor proliferation. Common sites of metastases from lung cancer include adrenal glands, bone, and brain. Muscle metastasis and cardiac metastasis are uncommon findings. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung with metastases to multiple skeletal muscles and myocardium detected with both FDG and FLT PET/computed tomography (CT). PMID:27651747

  3. Cancer-associated fibroblasts promote hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis through chemokine-activated hedgehog and TGF-β pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiao; Chen, Sheng; Wang, Wei; Ning, Bei-Fang; Chen, Fei; Shen, Weifeng; Ding, Jin; Chen, Wansheng; Xie, Wei-Fen; Zhang, Xin

    2016-08-28

    Fibroblasts are rich in the surrounding microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) because most HCCs occur in fibrotic or cirrhotic livers. However, the role of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in HCC metastasis remains obscure. Here, we reported that CAFs promote the migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro and facilitate the HCC metastasis to the bone, brain and lung in NOD/SCID mice. The RayBio human chemokine antibody array revealed that CAFs secret higher levels of CCL2, CCL5, CCL7 and CXCL16 than peri-tumor fibroblasts. CCL2 and CCL5 increase the migration but not the invasion of HCC cells, while CCL7 and CXCL16 promote both migration and invasion of HCC cells. Moreover, CCL2 and CCL5 stimulate the activation of the hedgehog (Hh) pathway, while CCL7 and CXCL16 enhance the activity of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathway in HCC cells. The neutralizing antibodies of chemokines notably attenuate the effect of CAFs on HCC metastasis and compromised the activation of Hh and TGF-β pathways in HCC cells. In summary, CAF-secreted CCL2, CCL5, CCL7 and CXCL16 promote HCC metastasis through the coordinate activation of Hh and TGF-β pathways in HCC cells. PMID:27216982

  4. Bioinformatics analysis of metastasis-related proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Ming Song; Yang Zhang; Yu-Fei He; Hui-Min Bao; Jian-Hua Luo; Yin-Kun Liu; Peng-Yuan Yang; Xian Chen

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the metastasis-related proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and discover the biomark-er candidates for diagnosis and therapeutic intervention of HCC metastasis with bioinformatics tools.METHODS: Metastasis-related proteins were determined by stable isotope labeling and MS analysis and analyzed with bioinformatics resources, including Phobius, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG), online mendelian inheritance in man (OHIH) and human protein reference database (HPRD).RESULTS: All the metastasis-related proteins were linked to 83 pathways in KEGG, including MAPK and p53 signal pathways. Protein-protein interaction network showed that all the metastasis-related proteins were categorized into 19 function groups, including cell cycle, apoptosis and signal transcluction. OMIM analysis linked these proteins to 186 OMIM entries.CONCLUSION: Metastasis-related proteins provide HCC cells with biological advantages in cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis, and facilitate metastasis of HCC cells. The bird's eye view can reveal a global charac-teristic of metastasis-related proteins and many differen-tially expressed proteins can be identified as candidates for diagnosis and treatment of HCC.

  5. Global secretome analysis identifies novel mediators of bone metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario Andres Blanco; Gary LeRoy; Zia Khan; Ma(s)a Ale(c)kovi(c); Barry M Zee; Benjamin A Garcia; Yibin Kang

    2012-01-01

    Bone is the one of the most common sites of distant metastasis of solid tumors.Secreted proteins are known to influence pathological interactions between metastatic cancer cells and the bone stroma.To comprehensively profile secreted proteins associated with bone metastasis,we used quantitative and non-quantitative mass spectrometry to globally analyze the secretomes of nine cell lines of varying bone metastatic ability from multiple species and cancer types.By comparing the secretomes of parental cells and their bone metastatic derivatives,we identified the secreted proteins that were uniquely associated with bone metastasis in these cell lines.We then incorporated bioinformatic analyses of large clinical metastasis datasets to obtain a list of candidate novel bone metastasis proteins of several functional classes that were strongly associated with both clinical and experimental bone metastasis.Functional validation of selected proteins indicated that in vivo bone metastasis can be promoted by high expression of (1) the salivary cystatins CST1,CST2,and CST4; (2) the plasminogen activators PLAT and PLAU; or (3) the collagen functionality proteins PLOD2 and COL6A1.Overall,our study has uncovered several new secreted mediators of bone metastasis and therefore demonstrated that secretome analysis is a powerful method for identification of novel biomarkers and candidate therapeutic targets.

  6. AACR centennial series: the biology of cancer metastasis: historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmadge, James E; Fidler, Isaiah J

    2010-07-15

    Metastasis resistant to therapy is the major cause of death from cancer. Despite almost 200 years of study, the process of tumor metastasis remains controversial. Stephen Paget initially identified the role of host-tumor interactions on the basis of a review of autopsy records. His "seed and soil" hypothesis was substantiated a century later with experimental studies, and numerous reports have confirmed these seminal observations. An improved understanding of the metastatic process and the attributes of the cells selected by this process is critical for the treatment of patients with systemic disease. In many patients, metastasis has occurred by the time of diagnosis, so metastasis prevention may not be relevant. Treating systemic disease and identifying patients with early disease should be our goal. Revitalized research in the past three decades has focused on new discoveries in the biology of metastasis. Even though our understanding of molecular events that regulate metastasis has improved, the contributions and timing of molecular lesion(s) involved in metastasis pathogenesis remain unclear. Review of the history of pioneering observations and discussion of current controversies should increase understanding of the complex and multifactorial interactions between the host and selected tumor cells that contribute to fatal metastasis and should lead to the design of successful therapy.

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  8. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  9. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... others live with symptoms of mental illness every day. They can be moderate, or serious and cause ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the ... distant nerve cells (via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  14. Southwestern Washington 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Southwest Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  15. Seaside, Oregon 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Seaside Oregon Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  16. Hilo, Hawaii 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Hilo, Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  17. Nawiliwili, Hawaii 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Nawiliwili Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  18. Seward, Alaska 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Seward Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  19. Newport, Oregon 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Newport, Oregon Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  20. San Diego, California 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second San Diego, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid...

  1. Post site metastasis of breast cancer after video-assisted thoracic surgery for pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mee Hyun; Hwang, Ji Young; Hyun, Su Jeong; Lee, Yul; Woo, Ji Young; Yang, Ik; Hong, Hye Sook; Kim, Han Myun [Dept. of Radiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    We reported a case of port site metastasis in a 57-year-old patient who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) resection of pulmonary metastasis from breast cancer. Port site metastasis after VATS is very rare in patients with breast cancer. However, when suspicious lesions are detected near the port site in patients who have undergone VATS for pulmonary metastasis, port site metastasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  2. Angiosarcoma of the Thyroid and Regional Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfi Dogan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid angiosarcomas are typically infiltrative and large tumors with very similar clinical findings of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid. Early hematogenous metastasis is very frequent, but regional lymph node metastasis is quite rare. We present a case of angiosarcoma of the thyroid gland in a 68 years old man with regional lymph node metastasis. Total thyroidectomy with right modified radical neck dissection was applied. Four out of 19 lymph nodes dissected were seen to contain metastasis. Metastatic tumor was composed of sarcomatous areas containing large numbers of blood filled clefts. There after the surgery PET-CT was performed and multiple metastatic involvements were reported. Thyroid angiosarcomas are completely different tumors from angiomatoid anaplastic carcinomas. Longer survival with these tumors is only possible with agressive surgery and in case of regional LN metastasis, neck dissection should be done.

  3. Application of Proteomics in the Study of Tumor Metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Cai; Jen-Fu Chiu; Qing-Yu He

    2004-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is the dominant cause of death in cancer patients. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying tumor metastasis are still elusive.The identification of protein molecules with their expressions correlated to the metastatic process would help to understand the metastatic mechanisms and thus facilitate the development of strategies for the therapeutic interventions and clinical management of cancer. Proteomics is a systematic research approach aiming to provide the global characterization of protein expression and function under given conditions. Proteomic technology has been widely used in biomarker discovery and pathogenetic studies including tumor metastasis. This article provides a brief review of the application of proteomics in identifying molecular factors in tumor metastasis process. The combination of proteomics with other experimental approaches in biochemistry, cell biology, molecular genetics and chemistry, together with the development of new technologies and improvements in existing method ologies will continue to extend its application in studying cancer metastasis.

  4. Cod glycopeptide with picomolar affinity to galectin-3 suppresses T-cell apoptosis and prostate cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Prasun; Kaptan, Engin; Bandyopadhyaya, Gargi; Kaczanowska, Sabina; Davila, Eduardo; Thompson, Keyata; Martin, Stuart S; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya V; Vasta, Gerardo R; Ahmed, Hafiz

    2013-03-26

    Cancer metastasis and immune suppression are critical issues in cancer therapy. Here, we show that a β-galactoside-binding lectin [galectin-3 (gal3)] that recognizes the Thomsen-Friedenreich disaccharide (TFD, Galβ1,3GalNAc) present on the surface of most cancer cells is involved in promoting angiogenesis, tumor-endothelial cell adhesion, and metastasis of prostate cancer cells, as well as evading immune surveillance through killing of activated T cells. To block gal3-mediated interactions, we purified a glycopeptide from cod (designated TFD100) that binds gal3 with picomolar affinity. TFD100 blocks gal3-mediated angiogenesis, tumor-endothelial cell interactions, and metastasis of prostate cancer cells in mice at nanomolar levels. Moreover, apoptosis of activated T cells induced by either recombinant gal3 or prostate cancer patient serum-associated gal3 was inhibited at nanomolar concentration of TFD100. Because the gal3-TFD interaction is a key factor driving metastasis in most epithelial cancers, this high-affinity TFD100 should be a promising antimetastatic agent for the treatment of various cancers, including prostate adenocarcinoma. PMID:23479624

  5. Identification of a seasonal pattern to brain metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakellakis M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Minas Sakellakis,1 Angelos Koutras,1 Maria Pittaka,2 Dimitrios Kardamakis,2 Melpomeni Kalofonou,1 Haralabos P Kalofonos,1 Despina Spyropoulou2 1Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Patras Medical School, Rion, Patras, GreeceWe have previously tested our hypothesis that there is a seasonality in the incidence of carcinomatous meningitis.1 Although further validation is needed in a larger cohort, we found that leptomeningeal metastasis occurred more often during warm months of the year which, in the case of Greece, is the period generally marked with the larger daytime length.1 Carcinomatous meningitis is closely related to brain metastasis, and a logical question is whether warm season is marked by a greater propensity also for brain metastasis.2 

  6. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sources of additional information. 1.3 Section 1.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3...

  7. FEATURES OF BILATERAL BREAST CANCER NODAL METASTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on issues related to the identification and investigation of the lymph node metastases with bilateral breast cancer. The presence of metastases in the lymph nodes determines the stage of the disease, and introducing a form of tumor progression, characterizes the course and prognosis for the future in a specific patient. Thus, the identification of possible morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumor tissue and their comparison with the frequency and severity of regional lymph nodes would help to solve the problem of the identification of prognostic factors and markers associated with the risk of nodal metastasis in bilateral breast cancer. This work is relevant due to the fact that the literature on this issue to date are treated ambiguously, and answers to many questions, unfortunately, no.The authors performed a morphological study of the tumor tissue from 600 patients suffering from unilateral and bilateral breast cancer. To avoid false results were studied only cases corresponding to the histological type of invasive carcinoma of non-specific type. The study found that a greater number and a greater percentage of the affected lymph node metastases were observed in patients with bilaterally synchronous tumors. The patients of this group of metastatic lymph nodes was detected more frequently in the presence of infiltrative component of three or more types of structures with the presence of these discrete groups of tumor cells, and the observed maximum degree of inflammatory infiltration of the tumor stroma. In the group of patients with unilateral breast cancer nodal metastasis often detects when triple negative molecular genetic type of the lesion, with large amounts of tumor site, in the presence of infiltrative component of three or more types of structures with the obligatory presence of these microalveolar structures and discretely spaced groups of tumor cells and the highest severity of

  8. Intraoperative radiation therapy for advanced cervical metastasis: a single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krowiak Edward

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to review our experience with the use of IORT for patients with advanced cervical metastasis. Methods Between August 1982 and July 2007, 231 patients underwent neck dissections as part of initial therapy or as salvage treatment for advanced cervical node metastases resulting from head and neck malignancies. IORT was administered as a single fraction to a dose of 15 Gy or 20 Gy in most pts. The majority was treated with 5 MeV electrons (112 pts, 50.5%. Results 1, 3, and 5 years overall survival (OS after surgery + IORT was 58%, 34%, and 26%, respectively. Recurrence-free survival (RFS at 1, 3, and 5 years was 66%, 55%, and 49%, respectively. Disease recurrence was documented in 83 (42.8% pts. The majority of recurrences were regional (38 pts, as compared to local recurrence in 20 pts and distant failures in 25 pts. There were no perioperative fatalities. Conclusions IORT results in effective local disease control at acceptable levels of toxicity. Our results support the initiation of a phase III trial comparing outcomes for patients with cervical metastasis treated with or without IORT.

  9. Outcome of surgical resection for brain metastases and radical treatment of the primary tumor in Chinese non–small-cell lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Z

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zhenye Li,1,3,* Xiangheng Zhang,1,* Xiaobing Jiang,1 Chengcheng Guo,1 Ke Sai,1 Qunying Yang,1 Zhenqiang He,1 Yang Wang,1 Zhongping Chen,1 Wei Li,2 Yonggao Mou1 1Department of Neurosurgery, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors have contributed equally to this work Purpose: Brain metastasis is the most common complication of brain cancer; nevertheless, primary lung cancer accounts for approximately 20%–40% of brain metastases cases. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment for brain metastases. However, no studies have reported the outcome of surgical resection of brain metastases from non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC in the People’s Republic of China. Moreover, the optimal treatment for primary NSCLC in patients with synchronous brain metastases is hitherto controversial. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the cases of NSCLC patients with brain metastases who underwent neurosurgical resection at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, and assessed the efficacy of surgical resection and the necessity of aggressive treatment for primary NSCLC in synchronous brain metastases patients. Results: A total of 62 patients, including 47 men and 15 women, with brain metastases from NSCLC were enrolled in the study. The median age at the time of craniotomy was 54 years (range 29–76 years. At the final follow-up evaluation, 50 patients had died. The median OS time was 15.1 months, and the survival rates were 70% and 37% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. The median OS

  10. Ventricular metastasis resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Ian D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC complicates up to 7% of malignancies, the commonest solid organ association being adenocarcinoma. Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC has rarely been associated with DIC. Case presentation A 74-year-old woman with TCC bladder and DIC was found to have a cardiac lesion suspicious for metastatic disease. The DIC improved with infusion of plasma and administration of Vitamin K, however the cardiac lesion was deemed inoperable and chemotherapy inappropriate; given the patients functional status. We postulate that direct activation of the coagulation cascade by the intraventricular metastasis probably triggered the coagulopathy in this patient. Conclusion Cardiac metastases should be considered in cancer patients with otherwise unexplained DIC. This may influence treatment choices.

  11. Oncoprotein metastasis and its suppression revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulescu Razvan T

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The past two decades have witnessed an increasing appreciation of the role of the tumor microenvironment, of genetic and epigenetic alterations in normal cells adjacent to tumors and of the migration of normal cells with aberrant intrinsic properties in cancer pathophysiology. Aside from these insights, a novel concept termed "oncoprotein metastasis" (OPM has recently been advanced and proposed to reflect protein-based neoplastic phenomena that might occur even before any modifications relating to the morphology, location or (epigenetic outfit of cells during the malignant process. Here, evidence is presented that supports the OPM perception and thus should contribute not only to further rethink the definition of a normal cell, but also the treatment of cancer disease in the years to come.

  12. Comparison study of metastasis hepatic coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our contribution we are interested in tissue coagulation by Nd-YAG and Ar lasers in order to know which laser is necessary to use for the destruction of hepatic metastasis. For that we have developed a mathematical model, in which the liver tissue is considered homogeneous, and isotropic, the absorbed energies is optimized by the beam broadening model and the transfer of heat is modeled by the bioheat equation. The solution of this equation by the finite volumes method gives the space-time variation of the temperature, which makes it possible to determine the necrosis depth by using the Arrhenius integral. The results obtained show that the temperature of coagulation is reached for strong intensity in the case of the Nd-YAG laser compared with the Ar laser, and that the volume of the coagulated zone is considerable in the case of the Nd-YAG laser, from this fact it is selected in gastro-enterology. (author)

  13. Unexplained liver laceration after metastasis radiofrequency ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esther U(n)a; Javier Trueba; Jose Manuel Montes

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have established the role of radiofrequency (RF) ablation as a minimally invasive treatment for liver metastases. Although relatively safe, several complications have been reported with the increased use of RF ablation. We describe here a case of unexplained liver laceration after a RF procedure. A woman who presented a solitary metachronous liver metastasis underwent RF ablation treatment for this lesion. Six hours later the patient displayed fatigue and pallor.Emergency blood tests showed a haemoglobin level of < 7 g/dL and markedly elevated transaminase levels.A computed tomography examination revealed two areas of liver laceration with haematoma, one of them following the path of the needle and the other leading away from the first. Following a blood transfusion, the patient was haemodynamically stable and completely recovered 24 h later. The patient remained in bed for 1 wk. No surgical intervention was required, and she was discharged 1 wk later.

  14. Axillary node metastasis from primary ovarian carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti S Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasization and distinction from mammary carcinoma is of great clinical importance because of different treatment modalities. Here, we discuss a case of stage IIIC ovarian serous carcinoma, presenting with bilateral axillary nodes metastasis after 25 months interval of its initial presentation. Increased serum CA-125 level caused clinical suspicion. Computed tomography scan of abdomen and pelvis showed no residual disease or any abdominal lymphadenopathy. Mammography of both breast were normal. Bilateral axillary nodes were noted. Guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and biopsy of ovarian carcinoma to axillary node is a rare event. Its recogn done. Cytomorphology revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma, compatible to that of primary ovarian tumor. Thus, metastatic carcinoma to axillary node from ovary was confirmed. This case illustrates a rare metastatic presentation of ovarian carcinoma and unequivocal role of FNAC to provide rapid diagnosis and preferred to be first line diagnostic procedure.

  15. Exercise, natural immunity, and tumor metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman-Goetz, L

    1994-02-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce the growth of primary tumors and to enhance certain aspects of host natural immunity. The question of whether these are independent phenomena or are casually related has not been systematically evaluated. This paper presents information concerning the methodological difficulties in studying proposed relationships between exercise and cancer, focusing specifically on tumor metastasis, the process by which malignant cells disseminate to distant organs and establish new colonies. This paper also focuses on how natural immune processes and tumor cells exert bidirectional influences on each other. It is suggested that the direction of the impact of exercise on the control of metastatic spread of neoplastic cells will reflect, in part, the sensitivity of the specific tumor to cytolysis by natural immune mechanisms, the route of dissemination, the timing of exercise relative to tumor exposure, and whether exercise acts as a distress or eustress state.

  16. Orbital metastasis of endocervical stromal sarcoma: a rare tumor and an uncommon metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Metin Seker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Endocervical stromal sarcoma (ECSS is a very rare uterine sarcoma. The most common presentation is pelvic mass and vaginal bleeding. The mainstay of treatment is surgery. There is no consensus on the adjuvant treatment. Relapses are usually in the pelvic and abdominal regions. To a lesser extent, lung, liver and bone metastases may be seen. A 46-year-old woman had total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO performed due to endometrial polyp and leiomyoma. Six months after the TAH-BSO, she was admitted to the hospital with cough and hemoptysis. A thoracic mass was detected, and a biopsy was done. The diagnosis was low-grade ECSS metastasis. One week after thoracotomy, she was admitted to the hospital with loss of vision in the left eye. An orbital mass was detected with magnetic resonance imaging. Endometrial and cervical pathology preparations were reassessed and were compatible with ECSS. We performed mammography, thorax, and abdomen and cranial imaging to rule out other malignancies that may cause lung and orbital metastasis. Partial remission was achieved with systemic chemotherapy and orbital radiotherapy. Orbital metastasis may be seen in ECSS patients. Although we have less knowledge about the choice of chemotherapeutic agents, ifosfamide and doxorubicin are effective in treating ECSS.

  17. Quantitation of glial fibrillary acidic protein in human brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S; Bock, E; Warecka, K;

    1980-01-01

    The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA) content of 58 human brain tumours was determined by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis, using monospecific antibody against GFA. Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, spongioblastomas, ependymomas and medulloblastomas contained relatively high...... amounts of GFA, up to 85 times the concentration in parietal grey substance of normal human brain. GFA was not found in neurinomas, meningiomas, adenomas of the hypophysis, or in a single case of metastasis of adenocarcinoma. Non-glial tumours of craniopharyngioma and haemangioblastoma were infiltrated by...

  18. Treating cancer stem cells and cancer metastasis using glucose-coated gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu C

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chenxia Hu,1 Martin Niestroj,2,3 Daniel Yuan,4 Steven Chang,5 Jie Chen5,6 1Faculty of Chinese Pharmaceutical Science, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 3Physics Department, Bonn University, Bonn, Germany; 4Biomedical Engineering Department, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Faculty of Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 6Canadian National Research Council/National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Cancer ranks among the leading causes of human mortality. Cancer becomes intractable when it spreads from the primary tumor site to various organs (such as bone, lung, liver, and then brain. Unlike solid tumor cells, cancer stem cells and metastatic cancer cells grow in a non-attached (suspension form when moving from their source to other locations in the body. Due to the non-attached growth nature, metastasis is often first detected in the circulatory systems, for instance in a lymph node near the primary tumor. Cancer research over the past several decades has primarily focused on treating solid tumors, but targeted therapy to treat cancer stem cells and cancer metastasis has yet to be developed. Because cancers undergo faster metabolism and consume more glucose than normal cells, glucose was chosen in this study as a reagent to target cancer cells. In particular, by covalently binding gold nanoparticles (GNPs with thio-PEG (polyethylene glycol and thio-glucose, the resulting functionalized GNPs (Glu-GNPs were created for targeted treatment of cancer metastasis and cancer stem cells. Suspension cancer cell THP-1 (human monocytic cell line derived from acute monocytic leukemia patients was selected because it has properties similar to cancer stem cells and has been used as a metastatic cancer cell model for in vitro studies. To take advantage of cancer cells’ elevated glucose consumption

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists a more detailed understanding of the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies ...

  1. Hydrogenolysis of 2-tosyloxy-1,3-propanediol into 1,3-propanediol over Raney Ni catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi, Zheng; Jianli, Wang; Zhen, Lu; Min, Luo; Miao, Zhang; Lixin, Xu; Jianbing [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Biofuel, The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Chemistry-Synthesis Technology, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China)

    2013-03-15

    2-Tosyloxy-1,3-propanediol (TPD), a potential precursor for 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) production, is produced by the tosylation of glycerol with the help of protecting group techniques. In this work, the hydrogenolysis of TPD into 1,3-PD over Raney Ni catalyst is discussed at different reaction parameters to optimize the reaction conditions for selective formation of 1,3-PD. The mechanisms of the hydrogenolysis of TPD and the side reactions were also confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique (author)

  2. Potential applications of image-guided radiotherapy for brain metastases and glioblastoma to improve patient quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Phong Nguyen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM and brain metastasis remains a challenge because of the poor survival and the potential for brain damage following radiation. Despite concurrent chemotherapy and radiation dose escalation, local recurrence remains the predominant pattern of failure in GBM most likely secondary to repopulation of cancer stem cells. Even though radiotherapy is highly effective for local control of radio-resistant tumors such as melanoma and renal cell cancer, systemic disease progression is the cause of death in most patients with brain metastasis. Preservation of quality of life of cancer survivors is the main issue for patients with brain metastasis. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT by virtue of precise radiation dose delivery may reduce treatment time of patients with GBM without excessive toxicity and potentially improve neurocognitive function with preservation of local control in patients with brain metastasis. Future prospective trials for primary brain tumors or brain metastasis should include IGRT to assess its efficacy to improve patient quality of life.

  3. Evaluation of inoperable pancreatic carcinoma based on tumor metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Yasuhiko; Ueda, Michio; Kubota, Toru; Endo, Itaru; Sekido, Hitoshi; Togo, Shinji; Shimada, Hiroshi [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-05-01

    Many pancreatic cancers are detected only after they are far advanced, and thus show a poor prognosis. We evaluated the survival of patients with inoperable pancreatic carcinoma, and strategy treatment. Subjects were 72 persons with advanced inoperable pancreatic carcinoma selected from among 144 examined at our department from May 1992 to March 2001. Patient factors (age, gender, and nutrition), tumor factors (hepatic metastasis, peritoneal dissemination, and distant metastasis), and treatment (radiotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, and hepatic arterial infusion therapy (HAI)) were studied and survival evaluated statistically. Overall mean survival was 175 days and the 1-year survival ratio was 13.5%. With multivariate analysis, prognostic factors were hepatic metastasis and radiotherapy. We therefore re-evaluated 56 patients treated with radiotherapy. In the group with no hepatic metastasis whose mean survival was 247 days, the prognostic factor was systemic chemotherapy. In the group with hepatic metastasis, mean survival was 140 days and the prognostic factor was the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) on admission. HAI was also a significant factor, which prolonged survival time with univariate analysis. Radiotherapy will be conducted for all inoperable pancreatic carcinomas. For the group with no hepatic metastasis, systemic chemotherapy is effective and for the group with hepatic metastasis. HAI will be selected. (author)

  4. A proposed classification system for liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, N J; Bonnheim, D C; Herrera, L O; Mittelman, A

    1984-04-01

    A proposed classification system for liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma is presented. This proposed system utilizes the prognostic factors of the extent of hepatic involvement by metastasis at the time of laparotomy, performance status, preoperative serum alkaline phosphatase level, and the presence or absence of extrahepatic intraabdominal disease at the time of laparotomy. Because of the several different modes of treatment for liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma, it is necessary that a liver classification system be adopted so that different treatment groups will be comparable. The proposed system utilizes the extent of hepatic involvement by metastasis at laparotomy with a division into three subsets of patients described by a Roman numeral. Roman numeral I represents less than or equal to 25 per cent involvement of the liver by metastasis; Roman numeral II represents greater than 25 per cent but less than or equal to 50 per cent involvement by liver metastasis, and Roman numeral III represents greater than 50 per cent involvement by liver metastasis. An Arabic subscript number is used to describe the patients' performance status. Alkaline phosphatase levels are described by a subscript letter with a representing less than two times normal alkaline phosphatase, b representing greater than two times, but less than four times normal levels, and c representing greater than four times normal levels. At the time of laparotomy extrahepatic intra-abdominal disease is represented by the superscript letter E. PMID:6714032

  5. Processing of water-based LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 pastes for manufacturing lithium ion battery cathodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fatih A Çetinel; Werner Bauer

    2014-12-01

    In order to meet the demand for more ecological and economic fabrication of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries, water is considered as an alternative solvent for electrode paste preparation. In this study, we report on the feasibility of water-based processing of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2-based pastes for manufacturing cathode electrodes. The influence of the total solid content, the amount of conductive agent and binder materials on paste rheology and the final electrode properties was investigated. Suitable paste formulations which enable favourable paste flow behaviour, appropriate electrode properties and good electrochemical performance have been found. Results show that a substitution of the conventional organic solvent-based manufacturing route for LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes by water-based processing exhibits a promising way to realise Li-ion batteries with comparable electrochemical behaviour, while avoiding toxic processing aids and reducing overall manufacturing costs.

  6. Intramedullary metastasis in a case of vermian medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Pandey, Paritosh; Indira Devi, B; Santosh, Vani; Yasha, T C

    2012-04-01

    Medulloblastoma is one of the commonest primary CNS malignancies in children. Leptomeningeal dissemination and distant metastasis have been associated with medulloblastoma, but intramedullary metastases are very rare. CSF cytology and contrast-enhanced MRI are the main modalities used to diagnose leptomeningeal dissemination. However, intramedullary metastases are best picked up with contrast-enhanced axial sequences on MR imaging. In this report, a patient with medulloblastoma who developed intramedullary metastasis is described. The role of imaging and CSF cytology in diagnosing the spread along the CSF pathways is reviewed. Allusions are made to the possible mechanism of intramedullary metastasis in these tumors. PMID:21970778

  7. Penile metastasis as a first sign of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevket Ozkaya

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sevket Ozkaya1, Serhat Findik2, Atilla G Atici21Samsun Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Hospital, Samsun, Turkey; 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, Samsun, TurkeyAbstract: Lung cancer does not generally produce any symptoms at the early stages and it rapidly metastasizes. Although lung cancer has a potential of metastasis to all organs and tissues, metastasis to the penis from lung cancer is very rare. We present a case with a penile lesion as the first sign of lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, metastasis, penis

  8. Isolated renal metastasis from squamous cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Jun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer is rather uncommon. The mechanism underlying the occurrence of metastasis in this site is still not well understood. We report a case of a 53-year-old Chinese woman who had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. After a ten months post-surgery interval of disease free survival, computed tomography (CT scan found that left renal parenchymal was occupied by a mass, confirmed by kidney biopsy to be a metastasis from squamous cell lung carcinoma. Based on this case, we are warned to be cautious in diagnosis and treatment when renal lesion are detected.

  9. Hypoxia-induced metastasis model in embryonic zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouhi, Pegah; Jensen, Lasse D.; Cao, Ziquan;

    2010-01-01

    of the early events of tumor cell invasion and dissemination in living animals. We recently developed a zebrafish metastasis model to dissect the detailed events of hypoxia-induced tumor cell invasion and metastasis in association with angiogenesis at the single-cell level. In this model, fluorescent Di......I-labeled human or mouse tumor cells are implanted into the perivitelline cavity of 48-h-old zebrafish embryos, which are subsequently placed in hypoxic water for 3 d. Tumor cell invasion, metastasis and pathological angiogenesis are detected under fluorescent microscopy in the living fish. The average...

  10. Disruption of PC1/3 expression in mice causes dwarfism and multiple neuroendocrine peptide processing defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaorong; Zhou, An; Dey, Arunangsu;

    2002-01-01

    The subtilisin-like proprotein convertases PC1/3 (SPC3) and PC2 (SPC2) are believed to be the major endoproteolytic processing enzymes of the regulated secretory pathway. They are expressed together or separately in neuroendocrine cells throughout the brain and dispersed endocrine system in both ...

  11. Inter- and intra-tumor profiling of multi-regional colon cancer and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogita, Akihiro; Yoshioka, Yasumasa; Sakai, Kazuko; Togashi, Yosuke; Sogabe, Shunsuke; Nakai, Takuya; Okuno, Kiyotaka; Nishio, Kazuto

    2015-02-27

    Intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity may hinder personalized molecular-target treatment that depends on the somatic mutation profiles. We performed mutation profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumors of multi-regional colon cancer and characterized the consequences of intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity and metastasis using targeted re-sequencing. We performed targeted re-sequencing on multiple spatially separated samples obtained from multi-regional primary colon carcinoma and associated metastatic sites in two patients using next-generation sequencing. In Patient 1 with four primary tumors (P1-1, P1-2, P1-3, and P1-4) and one liver metastasis (H1), mutually exclusive pattern of mutations was observed in four primary tumors. Mutations in primary tumors were identified in three regions; KARS (G13D) and APC (R876*) in P1-2, TP53 (A161S) in P1-3, and KRAS (G12D), PIK3CA (Q546R), and ERBB4 (T272A) in P1-4. Similar combinatorial mutations were observed between P1-4 and H1. The ERBB4 (T272A) mutation observed in P1-4, however, disappeared in H1. In Patient 2 with two primary tumors (P2-1 and P2-2) and one liver metastasis (H2), mutually exclusive pattern of mutations were observed in two primary tumors. We identified mutations; KRAS (G12V), SMAD4 (N129K, R445*, and G508D), TP53 (R175H), and FGFR3 (R805W) in P2-1, and NRAS (Q61K) and FBXW7 (R425C) in P2-2. Similar combinatorial mutations were observed between P2-1 and H2. The SMAD4 (N129K and G508D) mutations observed in P2-1, however, were nor detected in H2. These results suggested that different clones existed in primary tumors and metastatic tumor in Patient 1 and 2 likely originated from P1-4 and P2-1, respectively. In conclusion, we detected the muti-clonalities between intra- and inter-tumors based on mutational profiling in multi-regional colon cancer using next-generation sequencing. Primary region from which metastasis originated could be speculated by mutation profile. Characterization of inter- and

  12. Effect of 32P-colloid interstitial irradiation on the treatment of occult lymphatic metastasis during lung cancer resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the effectiveness of interstitial irradiation by 32P-colloid on the occult metastasis during lung cancer resection. Methods: Seventy-three patients with lung cancer underwent resection of the tumor and interstitial administration of 32P-colloid. At the same period, 58 matched patients underwent surgical therapy only and served as the control group. After operation the dynamic distribution of body surface 32P-colloid activity, incidence of complications, rates of supra-clavicular lymph node (SCL) metastasis in different pathologic patterns, and survival rates at 1, 3, 5 years after treatment were studied. Results: No operative death occurred in these two groups. The incidences of lymph node metastasis and the incidences of major complications after operation were of no prominent differences between these two groups (χ2=0.012, 2.082, 0.003, P>0.05; χ2=0.021-0.144, P>0.05). The incidence of post-operative SCL metastasis in surgery plus 32P-colloid group was prominently lower than that in control group (χ2=4.507-5.348, P2=0.659, P>0.05), but the differences of the 3-, 5-year survial rates between the groups were prominent (χ2=4.207, 3.997, P32P-colloid during resection of lung cancer is a safe and effective procedure for controlling the occult lymphatic metastatic lesions and diminishing the focal relapse and distant metastasis, and it is bound to prolong the survival time of the patients. (authors)

  13. Cyperus Tubers Protect Meloidogyne incognita from 1,3-Dichloropropene

    OpenAIRE

    S.H. Thomas; J. Schroeder; Murray, L W

    2004-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita-infected and noninfected tubers of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) were treated with 56 L/ha 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in microplots and subsequently examined for tuber and nematode viability in the greenhouse using a chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) bioassay system. The study was conducted three times. Nutsedge tuber viability and M. incognita harbored in both yellow and purple nutsedge tubers were unaffected by 1,3-D treatmen...

  14. Ten-Year Survival of a Patient Treated with Stereotactic Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases from Colon Cancer with Ovarian and Lymph Node Metastases: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Morinaga, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Naritaka; Shitara, Yoshinori; Ishizaki, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Takatomo; Kouga, Hideaki; Wakabayashi, Kazuki; Fukuchi, Minoru; Tsunoda, Yoshiyuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastasis from colorectal cancer is infrequent and carries a poor prognosis. Herein, we present a patient alive 10 years after the identification of a first brain metastasis from sigmoid colon cancer. A 39-year-old woman underwent sigmoidectomy for sigmoid colon cancer during an emergency operation for pelvic peritonitis. The pathological finding was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Eleven months after the sigmoidectomy, a metastatic lesion was identified in the left ovary. De...

  15. 微波热解法制备的炭涂层对LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2性能的影响%Influence of carbon coating prepared by microwave pyrolysis on properties of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩亚梅; 张正富; 张利波; 彭金辉; 傅梦笔; C.SRINIVASAKANNAN; 杜江

    2013-01-01

    A novel synthesis method of carbon-coated LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathode material for lithium-ion battery was reported. The carbon coating was produced from a precursor, glucose, by microwave-pyrolysis method. The prepared powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and charge/discharge tests. XRD results indicate that the carbon coating does not change the phase structure of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 material. SEM results show that the surface of spherical carbon-coated material becomes rough. Electrochemical performance results show that the carbon coating can improve the cycling performance of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2. The specific discharge capacity retention of the carbon-coated LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 reached 85.0%−96.0%at the 50th cycle at 0.2C rate, and the specific discharge capacity retention is improved at a high rate.%报道了炭包覆锂离子电池正极材料 LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2的新工艺。炭涂层由前驱体葡萄糖通过微波热解而形成。采用X射线粉末衍射(XRD)、扫描电镜、X射线荧光测试和恒流充放电测试来表征所制备的材料。XRD结果表明,炭包覆没有改变LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2材料的相结构。SEM结果表明,炭包覆的LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2颗粒表面变得粗糙。充放电测试结果显示,炭包覆的 LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2的循环性能与未包覆的相比得到提高。炭包覆的LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2在0.2C倍率下循环50次的容量保持率由84.8%提升到95.5%,且高倍率下材料的容量保持率得到提高。

  16. Laparoscopic Management for Carcinoid Metastasis to the Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Balmforth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of a laparoscopic splenectomy performed for a carcinoid metastasis. The patient represented with pleuritic left-sided chest pain from pleural deposits 9 years following resection of a primary lung carcinoid tumour. They were found to have a 4.7 cm splenic lesion on CT with a probable left acetabular metastasis demonstrated on Gallium PET scan. The patient underwent laparoscopic splenectomy for debulking treatment of the splenic lesion that was confirmed to be a splenic metastasis of the resected carcinoid lung tumour. Following an uncomplicated recovery, the patient was discharged on the second postoperative day. On discharge, she received adjuvant therapy with Lutetium 177 DOTATATE. This is the first report of a carcinoid splenic metastasis successfully treated with laparoscopic splenectomy.

  17. Gastric Metastasis of Breast Cancer: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Fernandes, Gustavo; Batista Bugiato Faria, Luiza D.; de Assis Pereira, Isadora; Neves, Natália C. Moreira; Vieira, Yasmine Oliveira; Leal, Alessandro I. Cavalcanti

    2016-01-01

    Gastric metastasis is rare but it can be the initial symptom of cancer. The second leading cause of this type of metastasis is breast cancer. A lack of clinical signs and nonspecific side effects of the treatment of primary tumors can lead to the misdiagnosis of metastatic gastric cancer. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy and immunohistochemistry should be used for diagnosis. Treatment is palliative; it includes chemo, endocrine, and radiation therapies. Four patients with breast cancer and gastric metastasis were identified. All the patients tested positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, and received chemotherapy and hormone therapy. One patient underwent surgery and two received radiation therapy. Patients with breast cancer and gastrointestinal symptoms should be investigated for gastric metastasis, given its morbidity and negative impact on quality of life.

  18. Patrolling monocytes control tumor metastasis to the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Richard N; Cekic, Caglar; Sag, Duygu; Tacke, Robert; Thomas, Graham D; Nowyhed, Heba; Herrley, Erica; Rasquinha, Nicole; McArdle, Sara; Wu, Runpei; Peluso, Esther; Metzger, Daniel; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Shaked, Iftach; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Biswas, Subhra K; Hedrick, Catherine C

    2015-11-20

    The immune system plays an important role in regulating tumor growth and metastasis. Classical monocytes promote tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis, but how nonclassical "patrolling" monocytes (PMo) interact with tumors is unknown. Here we show that PMo are enriched in the microvasculature of the lung and reduce tumor metastasis to lung in multiple mouse metastatic tumor models. Nr4a1-deficient mice, which specifically lack PMo, showed increased lung metastasis in vivo. Transfer of Nr4a1-proficient PMo into Nr4a1-deficient mice prevented tumor invasion in the lung. PMo established early interactions with metastasizing tumor cells, scavenged tumor material from the lung vasculature, and promoted natural killer cell recruitment and activation. Thus, PMo contribute to cancer immunosurveillance and may be targets for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26494174

  19. Skeletal metastasis: treatments, mouse models,and the Wnt signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth C.Valkenburg; Matthew R.Steensma; Bart O.Williams; Zhendong Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal metastases result in significant morbidity and mortality.This is particularly true of cancers with a strong predilection for the bone,such as breast,prostate,and lung cancers.There is currently no reliable cure for skeletal metastasis,and palliative therapy options are limited.The Wnt signaling pathway has been found to play an integral role in the process of skeletal metastasis and may be an important clinical target.Several experimental models of skeletal metastasis have been used to find new biomarkers and test new treatments.In this review,we discuss pathologic process of bone metastasis,the roles of the Wnt signaling,and the available experimental models and treatments.

  20. Tumor microenvironment: The culprit for ovarian cancer metastasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongyue; Wang, Qiu; Lau, Wayne Bond; Lau, Bonnie; Xu, Lian; Zhao, Linjie; Yang, Huiliang; Feng, Min; Xuan, Yu; Yang, Yanfei; Lei, Lingzi; Wang, Chenlu; Yi, Tao; Zhao, Xia; Wei, Yuquan; Zhou, Shengtao

    2016-07-28

    Despite chemotherapy and surgical debulking options, ovarian cancer recurs and disseminates frequently, with poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ovarian cancer metastasis still remain unelucidated. The tumor microenvironment, consisting of stromal cells (including fibroblasts, macrophages, regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, endothelial cells, pericytes and platelets), the extracellular matrix component (EMC) (including inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases, integrins, and other secreted molecules) and exosomes (small extracellular vesicles loaded with molecules), establishes an autocrine-paracrine communication circuit that reinforces invasion and cancer cell metastasis via reciprocal signaling. Recent evidences have unraveled the significant contribution of tumor microenvironment to ovarian cancer metastasis. In this review, we provide a comprehensive landscape of the reciprocity between tumor stroma and ovarian cancer cells upon metastasis, aiming to offer novel clues on the development of novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer in future clinical practice. PMID:27131957

  1. Synthesis of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazine, 1,3,6-Thiadiazepane and Quinoxaline Derivatives from Symmetrical Dithiobiureas and Thioureidoethylthiourea Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abou-Zied

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of N,N`-disubstituted hydrazinecarbothioamides 8a-c and substituted thioureidoethylthioureas 9a-c with 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranil, 10a and 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone (bromanil, 10b to form N,N`-disubstituted [1,3,4]thiadiazole-2,5-diamines 11a-c, 6,7-dichloro-3-substituted amino-1H-benzo[1,3,4]- thiadiazine-5,8-diones 12a-c, 2,3,7,8-tetrahalothianthrene-1,4,6,9-tetraones 13a,b, 5,6,8- trihalo-7-oxo-3,7-dihydro-2H-quinoxaline-1-carbothioic acid substituted amides 14a-c, 15a-c and 7-substituted imino-[1,3,6]thiadiazepane-3-thiones 16a-c are reported. Rationales for the observed conversions are presented.

  2. Lung metastasis genes couple breast tumor size and metastatic spread

    OpenAIRE

    Minn, Andy J.; Gupta, Gaorav P.; Padua, David; Bos, Paula; Nguyen, Don X.; Nuyten, Dimitry; Kreike, Bas; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Yixin; Ishwaran, Hemant; Foekens, John A; van de Vijver, Marc; Massagué, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The association between large tumor size and metastatic risk in a majority of clinical cancers has led to questions as to whether these observations are causally related or whether one is simply a marker for the other. This is partly due to an uncertainty about how metastasis-promoting gene expression changes can arise in primary tumors. We investigated this question through the analysis of a previously defined “lung metastasis gene-expression signature” (LMS) that mediates experimental breas...

  3. Solitary Spinal Epidural Metastasis from Prostatic Small Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Young Hee

    2016-01-01

    Solitary, spinal epidural metastasis (SEM) that is not related to vertebral metastasis is very rare. And solitary SEM from prostatic cancer is rarely found in previously published reports. However, it is clinically significant due to the possibility of neurologic dysfunction, and it can be assessed by MRI. In this report, we show a case of solitary SEM arising from prostatic small cell carcinoma detected by MRI.

  4. Unusual presentation of a pancreatic cyst resulting from osteosarcoma metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Akpinar, Burcu; Obuch, Joshua; Fukami, Norio; Pokharel, Sajal S.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic metastases are uncommon. They have been reported in lung cancer, gastrointestinal malignancies, breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, lymphoma and sarcoma, and usually have solid morphology. Cystic metastasis to the pancreas is even more rare with few case reports in the literature. However, with the increasing use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as well as endoscopic ultrasound, more such lesions may be detected. Metastasis to the pancreas from osteo...

  5. Preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Reiki; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Ueno, Keiko; Murata, Yoko [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    From 1994 to 1995, to evaluate the utility of preoperative CT, EUS (endoscopic ultrasonography) and US in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer, 94 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy were studied clinicopathologically. The sensitivity of EUS diagnosis of upper mediastinal lymph node metastasis (85%), left-sided paragastrin lymph node metastasis (73-77%), and especially lower paraesophageal lymph node metastasis (100%) were good. But due to their low-grade specificity in EUS diagnosis, their overall accuracy was not very good. On the other hand, the overall accuracy of the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was fine. However, sensitivity, the most important clinical factor in the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was considerably inferior to EUS. The assessment of the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis around the tracheal bifurcation and the pulmonary hilum and the left para-cardial lesion by CT or EUS was poor. It was concluded that lymph node metastasis of these area must be the pitfall in preoperative diagnosis. The average diameter of the lymph nodes and the proportion of cancerous tissue in the lymph nodes diagnosed as metastatic lymph nodes by CT was larger than that of the false negative lymph nodes. However, the lymph nodes diagnosed as true positives by EUS showed no such tendency. This must be the reason the sensitivity of the EUS diagnosis and specificity of the CT diagnosis were favorable, but the specificity of the EUS diagnosis and especially the sensitivity of the CT diagnosis were not as good. (author)

  6. Primary melanoma tumor inhibits metastasis through alterations in systemic hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirstein, Jennifer M; Hague, M Nicole; McGowan, Patricia M; Tuck, Alan B; Chambers, Ann F

    2016-08-01

    Progression from a primary tumor to distant metastases requires extensive interactions between tumor cells and their microenvironment. The primary tumor is not only the source of metastatic cells but also can also modulate host responses to these cells, leading to an enhancement or inhibition of metastasis. Tumor-mediated stimulation of bone marrow can result in pre-metastatic niche formation and increased metastasis. However, a primary tumor can also inhibit metastasis through concomitant tumor resistance-inhibition of metastatic growth by existing tumor mass. Here, we report that the presence of a B16F10 primary tumor significantly restricted numbers and sizes of experimental lung metastases through reduction of circulating platelets and reduced formation of metastatic tumor cell-associated thrombi. Tumor-bearing mice displayed splenomegaly, correlated with primary tumor size and platelet count. Reduction in platelet numbers in tumor-bearing animals was responsible for metastatic inhibition, as restoration of platelet numbers using isolated platelets re-established both tumor cell-associated thrombus formation and experimental metastasis. Consumption of platelets due to a B16F10 primary tumor is a form of concomitant tumor resistance and demonstrates the systemic impact of a growing tumor. Understanding the interplay between primary tumors and metastases is essential, as clarification of concomitant tumor resistance mechanisms may allow inhibition of metastatic growth following tumor resection. Key messages Mice with a primary B16F10 tumor had reduced metastasis vs. mice without a primary tumor. Tumor-bearing mice had splenomegaly and fewer platelets and tumor-associated thrombi. Restoring platelets restored tumor-associated thrombi and increased metastasis. This work shows the impact that a primary tumor can have on systemic metastasis. Understanding these interactions may lead to improved ways to inhibit metastasis. PMID:27048169

  7. Penile metastasis as a first sign of lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Findik, Serhat; Özkaya, Şevket; Gatici,A

    2009-01-01

    Sevket Ozkaya1, Serhat Findik2, Atilla G Atici21Samsun Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Hospital, Samsun, Turkey; 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, Samsun, TurkeyAbstract: Lung cancer does not generally produce any symptoms at the early stages and it rapidly metastasizes. Although lung cancer has a potential of metastasis to all organs and tissues, metastasis to the penis from lung cancer is very rare. We present a case with a peni...

  8. Bone Targeted Therapies for Bone Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wajeeha Razaq

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis to the bone develops commonly in patients with various malignancies, and is a major cause of morbidity and diminished quality of life in many affected patients. Emerging treatments for metastatic bone disease have arisen from advances in our understanding of the unique cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the bone metastasis. The tendency of cancer cells to metastasize to bone is probably the end result of many factors including vascular pathways, the highly ...

  9. Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Stomach Resembling Early Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eo, Wan Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer metastases to the stomach are infrequent, with an estimated incidence rate of approximately 0.3%. Gastric metastases usually are derived from lobular rather than from ductal breast cancer. The most frequent type of a breast cancer metastasis as seen on endoscopy to the stomach is linitis plastica; features of a metastatic lesion that resemble early gastric cancer (EGC) are extremely rare. In this report, we present a case of a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from an infi...

  10. An Orthotopic Mouse Model of Spontaneous Breast Cancer Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Amy V; Liu, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the primary cause of mortality of breast cancer patients. The mechanism underlying cancer cell metastasis, including breast cancer metastasis, is largely unknown and is a focus in cancer research. Various breast cancer spontaneous metastasis mouse models have been established. Here, we report a simplified procedure to establish orthotopic transplanted breast cancer primary tumor and resultant spontaneous metastasis that mimic human breast cancer metastasis. Combined with the bioluminescence live tumor imaging, this mouse model allows tumor growth and progression kinetics to be monitored and quantified. In this model, a low dose (1 x 10(4) cells) of 4T1-Luc breast cancer cells was injected into BALB/c mouse mammary fat pad using a tuberculin syringe. Mice were injected with luciferin and imaged at various time points using a bioluminescent imaging system. When the primary tumors grew to the size limit as in the IACUC-approved protocol (approximately 30 days), mice were anesthetized under constant flow of 2% isoflurane and oxygen. The tumor area was sterilized with 70% ethanol. The mouse skin around the tumor was excised to expose the tumor which was removed with a pair of sterile scissors. Removal of the primary tumor extends the survival of the 4T-1 tumor-bearing mice for one month. The mice were then repeatedly imaged for metastatic tumor spreading to distant organs. Therapeutic agents can be administered to suppress tumor metastasis at this point. This model is simple and yet sensitive in quantifying breast cancer cell growth in the primary site and progression kinetics to distant organs, and thus is an excellent model for studying breast cancer growth and progression, and for testing anti-metastasis therapeutic and immunotherapeutic agents in vivo. PMID:27584043

  11. Reaktionen von Silylenen undDisilenen mit einigen 1,3-Dienen und 1,3-Diinen

    OpenAIRE

    Kirmaier, Lars Ludwig

    1998-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit befaßt sich mit Reaktionen von Di-tert-butyldisilen und Di-tert- butylsilylen, die durch Photolyse von Hexa-tert- butylcyclotrisilan (1) gebildet werden, mit einigen 1,3-Dienen und 1,3-Diinen. Mit den 1,3-Dienen 2,5-Dimethyltellurophen und N- Methylpyrrol wurden das 1,3-Ditelluradisiletan-Derivat (2) und das 1-Aza-2,5-disilacyclohexa-3,5-dien Ringsystem (3) als Endprodukte gewonnen. Cophotolyse von (1) mit Hexa-2,4-diin liefert die bicyclischen V...

  12. Evidence for the Presence of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) in Geranium Plant Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is an aliphatic amine with stimulant properties that are reportedly found naturally only in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants was first reported in a paper published in 1996, but some have questioned the identification of 1,3-DMAA in that study. Since then, a number of additional studies have been published, largely reporting the absence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants and commercial geranium oils. However, in two recent studies, 1,3-DMAA was detected in geranium plant tissues and a geranium oil sample using a simplified extraction approach on tissues and oil sourced from China. Whether or not 1,3-DMAA is found naturally in plants has significant implications as to how commercial products containing 1,3-DMAA are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, differences in source materials, extraction procedures, and analytical approaches are reviewed in an attempt to rationalize the apparently conflicting evidence for the presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plant materials. PMID:23843687

  13. Degradation of 1,3-dichloropropene by Pseudomonas cichorii 170

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelarends, G.J.; Wilkens, M.; Larkin, M.J.; Elsas, van J.D.; Janssen, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas cichorii 170, isolated from soil that was repeatedly treated with the nematocide 1,3-dichloropropene, could utilize low concentrations of 1,3-dichloropropene as a sole carbon and energy source. Strain 170 was also able to grow on 3-chloroallyl alcohol, 3- chlo

  14. Degradation of 1,3-dichloropropene by Pseudomonas cichorii 170

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelarends, Gerrit J.; Wilkens, Marga; Larkin, Michael J.; Elsas, Jan Dirk van; Janssen, Dick B.

    1998-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas cichorii 170, isolated from soil that was repeatedly treated with the nematocide 1,3-dichloropropene, could utilize low concentrations of 1,3-dichloropropene as a sole carbon and energy source, Strain 170 was also able to grow on 3-chloroallyl alcohol, 3-chlor

  15. 10 CFR 960.3-1-3 - Regionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regionality. 960.3-1-3 Section 960.3-1-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... consideration to the need for, and the advantages of, a regional distribution in the siting of...

  16. Skeletal metastasis: the effect on immature skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.A.; Ogden, D.A.

    1982-12-01

    The unique opportunity to study the entire appendicular skeleton of a child who died from metastatic angiosarcoma allowed detailed assessment of radiographically evident involvement. Virtually every portion of the appendicular skeleton had evidence of metastatic disease. However, the extent of involvement was extremely variable, especially when contralateral regions were assessed. The most likely region of metastasis, the metaphysis, is normally a fenestrated cortex of woven bone in the young child, rather than a well demarcated cortex formed by osteon (lamellar) bone, as it is in the adult. The pattern of destruction is such that less extensive areas may be involved before becoming radiographically evident, and trabecular bone involvement may be evident even without cortical damage. The metaphyseal metastatic spread supports the concept of arterial hematogeneous dissemination, comparable to osteomyelitis in the child. Pathologic metaphyseal fractures involved both proximal humeri; the fracture also extended along a portion of the methaphyseal-physeal interface in one humerus. In one distal femur the physis readily separated from the metaphysis; this was a nondisplaced type 1 growth mechanism injury.

  17. Effect of Chronic Psychological Stress on Liver Metastasis of Colon Cancer in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Zhao; Jianhua Xu; Fang Liang; Ao Li; Yong Zhang; Jue Sun

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis to the liver is a main factor in colorectal cancer mortality. Previous studies suggest that chronic psychological stress is important in cancer progression, but its effect on liver metastasis has not been investigated. To address this, we established a liver metastasis model in BALB/c nude mice to investigate the role of chronic stress in liver metastasis. Our data suggest that chronic stress elevates catecholamine levels and promotes liver metastasis. Chronic stress was also assoc...

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase 13-containing exosomes promote nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yiwen; Shan, Ying; Chen, Jing; Yue, Huijun; You, Bo; Shi, Si; Li, Xingyu; Cao, Xiaolei

    2015-12-01

    Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is an endemic type of head and neck cancer with a high rate of cervical lymph node metastasis. Metastasis is the major cause of death in NPC patients. Increasing evidence indicates that exosomes play a pivotal role in promoting cancer metastasis by enhancing angiogenesis and ECM degradation. Matrix metalloproteinase 13 is an important kind of matrix proteinase that is often overexpressed in various tumors and increases the risk of metastasis. However, little is known about the potential role of MMP13-containing exosomes in NPC. In this study, we found that MMP13 was overexpressed in NPC cells and exosomes purified from conditioned medium (CM) as well as NPC patients' plasma. Transwell analysis revealed that MMP13-containing exosomes facilitated the metastasis of NPC cells. Furthermore, siRNA inhibited the effect of MMP13-containing exosomes on tumor cells metastasis as well as angiogenesis. The current findings provided novel insight into the vital role of MMP13-containing exosomes in NPC progression which might offer unique insights for potential therapeutic strategies for NPC progressions.

  19. Remodeling of the methylation landscape in breast cancer metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha Reyngold

    Full Text Available The development of breast cancer metastasis is accompanied by dynamic transcriptome changes and dramatic alterations in nuclear and chromatin structure. The basis of these changes is incompletely understood. The DNA methylome of primary breast cancers contribute to transcriptomic heterogeneity and different metastatic behavior. Therefore we sought to characterize methylome remodeling during regional metastasis. We profiled the DNA methylome and transcriptome of 44 matched primary breast tumors and regional metastases. Striking subtype-specific patterns of metastasis-associated methylome remodeling were observed, which reflected the molecular heterogeneity of breast cancers. These divergent changes occurred primarily in CpG island (CGI-poor areas. Regions of methylome reorganization shared by the subtypes were also observed, and we were able to identify a metastasis-specific methylation signature that was present across the breast cancer subclasses. These alterations also occurred outside of CGIs and promoters, including sequences flanking CGIs and intergenic sequences. Integrated analysis of methylation and gene expression identified genes whose expression correlated with metastasis-specific methylation. Together, these findings significantly enhance our understanding of the epigenetic reorganization that occurs during regional breast cancer metastasis across the major breast cancer subtypes and reveal the nature of methylome remodeling during this process.

  20. Dequalinium blocks macrophage-induced metastasis following local radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timaner, Michael; Bril, Rotem; Kaidar-Person, Orit; Rachman-Tzemah, Chen; Alishekevitz, Dror; Kotsofruk, Ruslana; Miller, Valeria; Nevelsky, Alexander; Daniel, Shahar; Raviv, Ziv; Rotenberg, Susan A; Shaked, Yuval

    2015-09-29

    A major therapeutic obstacle in clinical oncology is intrinsic or acquired resistance to therapy, leading to subsequent relapse. We have previously shown that systemic administration of different cytotoxic drugs can induce a host response that contributes to tumor angiogenesis, regrowth and metastasis. Here we characterize the host response to a single dose of local radiation, and its contribution to tumor progression and metastasis. We show that plasma from locally irradiated mice increases the migratory and invasive properties of colon carcinoma cells. Furthermore, locally irradiated mice intravenously injected with CT26 colon carcinoma cells succumb to pulmonary metastasis earlier than their respective controls. Consequently, orthotopically implanted SW480 human colon carcinoma cells in mice that underwent radiation, exhibited increased metastasis to the lungs and liver compared to their control tumors. The irradiated tumors exhibited an increase in the colonization of macrophages compared to their respective controls; and macrophage depletion in irradiated tumor-bearing mice reduces the number of metastatic lesions. Finally, the anti-tumor agent, dequalinium-14, in addition to its anti-tumor effect, reduces macrophage motility, inhibits macrophage infiltration of irradiated tumors and reduces the extent of metastasis in locally irradiated mice. Overall, this study demonstrates the adverse effects of local radiation on the host that result in macrophage-induced metastasis. PMID:26348470

  1. Inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on ovarian cancer metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tian-min; CUI Man-hua; XIN Ying; GU Li-ping; JIANG Xin; SU Man-man; WANG Ding-ding; WANG Wen-jia

    2008-01-01

    Background Ginsenosides are main components extracted from ginseng, and ginsenoside Rg3 is one of the most important parts. Ginsenoside Rg3 has been found to inhibit several kinds of tumor growth and metastasis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on human ovarian cancer metastasis and the possible mechanism.Methods The experimental lung metastasis models of ovarian cancer SKOV-3 and the assay of tumor-induced angiogenesis were used to observe the inhibitory effects of Rg3 on tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. The effect of Rg3 on invasive ability of SKOV-3 cells in vitro was detected by Boyden chamber, and immunofluorescence staining was used to recognize the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in SKOV-3 cells.Results In the experimental lung metastasis models of ovarian cancer, the number of tumor colonies in the lung and vessels oriented toward the tumor mass in each ginsenoside Rg3 group, was lower than that of control group. The invasive ability and MMP-9 expression of SKOV-3 cells decreased significantly after treatment with ginsenoside Rg3.Conclusions Ginsenoside Rg3 can significantly inhibit the metastasis of ovarian cancer. The inhibitory effect is partially due to inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis and decrease of invasive ability and MMP-9 expression of SKOV-3 cells.

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many ... unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the ... mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How ... cell, and responds to signals from the environment; this all helps the cell maintain its balance with ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... inside contents of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain ... studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... may help improve treatments for anxiety disorders like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex ( ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... medications could reduce the amount of trial and error and frustration that many people with depression experience ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain ...

  15. Brain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ... depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies Advanced technologies are also making it faster, easier, and more ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the flow of information to the front of the brain, ... the neuron will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain cells required for normal function and ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental ... and are working to compare that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... neurons, the most highly specialized cells of all, conduct messages. Every cell in our bodies contains a ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... can be related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the ... healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  3. Matrix metalloproteinases in the brain and blood-brain barrier: Versatile breakers and makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, Ralf G; Hartz, Anika Ms; Bauer, Björn

    2016-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases are versatile endopeptidases with many different functions in the body in health and disease. In the brain, matrix metalloproteinases are critical for tissue formation, neuronal network remodeling, and blood-brain barrier integrity. Many reviews have been published on matrix metalloproteinases before, most of which focus on the two best studied matrix metalloproteinases, the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, and their role in one or two diseases. In this review, we provide a broad overview of the role various matrix metalloproteinases play in brain disorders. We summarize and review current knowledge and understanding of matrix metalloproteinases in the brain and at the blood-brain barrier in neuroinflammation, multiple sclerosis, cerebral aneurysms, stroke, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and brain cancer. We discuss the detrimental effects matrix metalloproteinases can have in these conditions, contributing to blood-brain barrier leakage, neuroinflammation, neurotoxicity, demyelination, tumor angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis. We also discuss the beneficial role matrix metalloproteinases can play in neuroprotection and anti-inflammation. Finally, we address matrix metalloproteinases as potential therapeutic targets. Together, in this comprehensive review, we summarize current understanding and knowledge of matrix metalloproteinases in the brain and at the blood-brain barrier in brain disorders.

  4. Developmental expression of proprotein convertase 1/3 in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Y C; Damholt, A B; Billestrup, N;

    1999-01-01

    We have isolated a clone that has 3' end sequence identity with prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) from a rat islet cDNA library. Northern blot analysis and immunocytochemical studies have confirmed its presence in the endocrine pancreas. Analysis of poly A mRNA from various adult tissues demonstr......We have isolated a clone that has 3' end sequence identity with prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) from a rat islet cDNA library. Northern blot analysis and immunocytochemical studies have confirmed its presence in the endocrine pancreas. Analysis of poly A mRNA from various adult tissues...... demonstrated that it was relatively abundant in whole brain, lung and spleen, but not detectable in kidney, testis and heart. Using probes consisting of either the coding region or the 3' end sequences, the mRNA transcripts identified were 5.0, 3.0 and 8.5 kb. The 8.5 kb transcript detected has not been...

  5. The influence of the pre-metastatic niche on breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursini-Siegel, Josie; Siegel, Peter M

    2016-09-28

    The emergence of metastatic disease constitutes a significant life-threatening development during cancer progression. To date, intensive efforts have been focused on understanding the intrinsic properties that confer malignant potential to cancer cells, as well as the role of the primary tumour microenvironment in promoting cancer metastasis. Beyond events occurring at the primary site, the metastatic cascade is composed of numerous barriers that must be overcome in order for disseminating cancer cells to form distal metastases. The most formidable of these is the ability of cancer cells to seed and grow in a completely foreign microenvironment. Interestingly, solid malignancies often display a particular tropism for specific tissue sites. For example, breast patients with metastatic disease will often develop bone, lung, liver or brain metastases. This mini-review will explore aspects of pre-existing and induced metastatic niches and focus on how the unique composition and function of diverse niche components, within common sites of breast cancer metastasis, enable the survival and growth of disseminated cancer cells. These common supportive functions of the niche are provided by a complex array of stromal components and molecular mechanisms that are, in part, reflective of the tissue in which the metastases arise. Finally, the metastatic niche is a dynamic structure that is continually altered and sculpted by the cancer cells during progression of the metastatic lesion. PMID:26577808

  6. Cell Adhesion and Its Endocytic Regulation in Cell Migration during Neural Development and Cancer Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kawauchi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell migration is a crucial event for tissue organization during development, and its dysregulation leads to several diseases, including cancer. Cells exhibit various types of migration, such as single mesenchymal or amoeboid migration, collective migration and scaffold cell-dependent migration. The migration properties are partly dictated by cell adhesion and its endocytic regulation. While an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT-mediated mesenchymal cell migration requires the endocytic recycling of integrin-mediated adhesions after the disruption of cell-cell adhesions, an amoeboid migration is not dependent on any adhesions to extracellular matrix (ECM or neighboring cells. In contrast, a collective migration is mediated by both cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesions, and a scaffold cell-dependent migration is regulated by the endocytosis and recycling of cell-cell adhesion molecules. Although some invasive carcinoma cells exhibit an EMT-mediated mesenchymal or amoeboid migration, other cancer cells are known to maintain cadherin-based cell-cell adhesions and epithelial morphology during metastasis. On the other hand, a scaffold cell-dependent migration is mainly utilized by migrating neurons in normal developing brains. This review will summarize the structures of cell adhesions, including adherens junctions and focal adhesions, and discuss the regulatory mechanisms for the dynamic behavior of cell adhesions by endocytic pathways in cell migration in physiological and pathological conditions, focusing particularly on neural development and cancer metastasis.

  7. miR-128 and its target genes in tumorigenesis and metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Molin, E-mail: molin_li@hotmail.com [Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Fu, Weiming [Center for Food Safety and Environmental Technology, Guangzhou Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 511458 (China); Wo, Lulu; Shu, Xiaohong [Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Liu, Fang [The second affiliated hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116023 (China); Li, Chuangang, E-mail: li_chuangang@sina.com [The second affiliated hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2013-12-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, non-coding, 18–24 nucleotide length single-strand RNAs that could modulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Previous studies have shown that miR-128 enriched in the brain plays an important role in the development of nervous system and the maintenance of normal physical functions. Aberrant expression of miR-128 has been detected in many types of human tumors and its validated target genes are involved in cancer-related biological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In this review, we will summarize the roles of miR-128 and its target genes in tumorigenesis and metastasis. - Highlights: • Aberrant expression of miR-128 can be observed in many kinds of malignant tumors. • The molecular mechanisms regulating miR-128 expression are elucidated. • Roles of miR-128 and its target genes in tumorigenesis and metastasis are summarized.

  8. Intracranial Metastasis in a Patient with Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Tawada

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old man was referred to our hospital with visual disturbance, weakness of the left upper and lower limbs, and gait disturbance. He had previously received transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC 3 and 10 years ago. When he had received radiofrequency ablation for HCC recurrence 2 years ago, total gastrectomy was also performed for his gastric cancer. Subsequently, sorafenib had been administrated for concomitant lung metastatic tumors. On admission, MRI revealed an intra-axial tumor with perifocal edema. The level of carcinoembryonic antigen, but not alpha-fetoprotein, markedly increased. The tumor was successfully removed by craniotomy and pathological examination revealed that it was composed of adenocarcinoma, which was consistent with the primary gastric cancer. After surgery, his neurological disturbances rapidly resolved. Additional gamma-knife treatment was also performed for another small brain metastasis detected after craniotomy. Subsequently, sorafenib administration was discontinued and S-1 was administered postoperatively. Successful treatment of intracranial metastasis of gastric cancer is important and meaningful, even in patients with multiple primary malignancies.

  9. Pituitary metastasis of pancreatic origin in a dog presenting with acute-onset blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo; Carrera, Inés; Dobromylskyj, Melanie; Patterson-Kane, Janet; Ortega, Maria; Wessmann, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary metastases have rarely been recorded in dogs, and to date, none of those reported have been of pancreatic origin. MRI findings are available for only one of those cases. Herein the authors present an 11 yr old English springer spaniel diagnosed with pituitary metastasis of pancreatic origin with a 24 hr history of blindness and only a single lesion on MRI. Neurologic and ophthalmologic examinations localized the lesion to the optic nerves, optic tracts, or optic chiasm. MRI showed a single lesion characterized by a well-circumscribed pituitary mass with extrasellar extension, causing compression of the optic chiasm. Signal intensity was unusual as enhancement could not be appreciated after contrast administration. The dog was euthanized without further diagnostic tests. Histopathologic examination revealed a poorly differentiated exocrine pancreatic carcinoma with widespread metastasis involving the pituitary gland. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first such case reported in a dog. Pituitary metastases should be included as a differential diagnosis for dogs presenting with acute-onset blindness and for single brain masses affecting the pituitary gland. PMID:24051261

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Public Comment Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  12. Patients with brain metastases from gastrointestinal tract cancer treated with whole brain radiation therapy:Prognostic factors and survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susanne Bartelt; Felix Momm; Christian Weissenberger; Johannes Lutterbach

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To identify the prognostic factors with regard to survival for patients with brain metastasis from primary tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.METHODS: Nine hundred and sixteen patients with brain metastases, treated with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) between January 1985 and December 2000 at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg, were analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients presented with a primary tumor of the gastrointestinal tract (esophagus: n = 0, stomach:n = 10, colorectal: n = 47). Twenty-six patients had a solitary brain metastasis, 31 patients presented with multiple brain metastases. Surgical resection was performed in 25 patients.WBRTwas applied with daily fractions of 2 Gray (Gy) or 3 Gy to a total dose of 50 Gy or 30 Gy, respectively. The interval between diagnoses of the primary tumors and brain metastases was 22.6 mo vs8.0 mo for patients with primary tumors of the colon/rectum vs other primary tumors,respectively (P<0.01, log-rank). Median overall survival for all patients with brain metastases (n = 916) was 3.4 mo and 3.2 mo for patients with gastrointestinal neoplasms.Patients with gastrointestinal primary tumors presented significantly more often with a solitary brain metastasis than patients with other primary tumors (P<0.05, log-rank). In patients with gastrointestinal neoplasms (n = 57), the median overall survival was 5.8 mo for patients with solitary brain metastasis vs 2.7 mo for patients with multiple brain metastases (P<0.01, log-rank). The median overall survival for patients with a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥70was 5.5 mo vs2.1 mo for patients with KPS <70 (P<0.01,log-rank). At multivariate analysis (Cox Model) the performance status and the number of brain metastases were identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival.CONCLUSION: Brain metastases occur late in the course of gastrointestinal tumors. Pretherapeutic variables like KPS and the

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman ... new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A brain-body ... stress. impulse —An electrical communication signal sent between neurons ...

  15. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  16. Cerebellar medulloblastoma presenting with skeletal metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Barai Sukanta; Bandopadhayaya G; Julka P; Dhanapathi H; Haloi A; Seith A

    2004-01-01

    Medulloblastomas are highly malignant brain tumours, but only rarely produce skeletal metastases. No case of medulloblastoma has been documented to have produced skeletal metastases prior to craniotomy or shunt surgery. A 21-year-old male presented with pain in the hip and lower back with difficulty in walking of 3 months′ duration. Signs of cerebellar dysfunction were present hence a diagnosis of cerebellar neoplasm or skeletal tuberculosis with cerebellar abscess formation was consid...

  17. Olanzapine and Betamethasone Are Effective for the Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting due to Metastatic Brain Tumors of Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suzuki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain lesions originating from metastasis of colorectal cancer represent 3-5% of all brain metastases and are relatively rare. Of all distant metastases of colorectal cancer, those to the liver are detected in 22-29% of cases, while those to the lungs are detected in 8-18% of cases. In contrast, brain metastasis is quite rare, with a reported incidence ranging from 0.4 to 1.8%. Treatments for metastatic brain tumors include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and supportive care with steroids, etc. Untreated patients exhibit a median survival of only approximately 1 month. The choice of treatment for brain metastasis depends on the number of lesions, the patient's general condition, nerve findings and presence of other metastatic lesions. We herein report the case of a 78-year-old male who presented with brain metastases originating from rectal carcinoma. He suffered from nausea, vomiting, anorexia and vertigo during body movement. He received antiemetics, glycerol and whole brain radiation therapy; however, these treatments proved ineffective. Olanzapine therapy was started at a dose of 1.25 mg every night. The persistent nausea disappeared the next day, and the frequency of vomiting subsequently decreased. The patient was able to consume solid food. Olanzapine is an antipsychotic that has recently been used as palliative therapy for refractory nausea and vomiting in patients receiving chemotherapy. We consider that olanzapine was helpful as a means of supportive care for the treatment of nausea and vomiting due to brain metastasis.

  18. Adrenal Metastasis from Uterine Papillary Serous Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Lubana, Sandeep; Singh, Navdeep; Tuli, Sandeep S; Seligman, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is a highly malignant form of endometrial cancer with a high propensity for metastases and recurrences even when there is minimal or no myometrial invasion. It usually metastasizes to the pelvis, retroperitoneal lymph nodes, upper abdomen, and peritoneum. However, adrenal metastases from UPSC is extremely rare. Here, we present a case of UPSC with adrenal metastasis that occurred 6 years after the initial diagnosis. CASE REPORT A 60-year-old woman previously diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma at an outside facility presented in September of 2006 with postmenopausal bleeding. She underwent comprehensive surgical staging with FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage 2. Post-operatively, the patient was treated with radiation and chemotherapy. The treatment was completed in April of 2007. The patient had no evidence of disease until July 2009 when she was found to have a mass highly suspicious for malignancy. Subsequently, she underwent right upper lobectomy. The morphology of the carcinoma was consistent with UPSC. She refused chemotherapy due to a previous history of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. The patient was followed up with regular computed tomography (CT) scans. In October 2012 a new right adrenal nodule was seen on CT, which showed intense metabolic uptake on positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy. Pathology of the surgical specimen was consistent with UPSC. CONCLUSIONS UPSC is an aggressive variant of endometrial cancer associated with high recurrence rate and poor prognoses. Long-term follow-up is needed because there is a possibility of late metastases, as in this case. PMID:27117594

  19. The fragile X protein binds mRNAs involved in cancer progression and modulates metastasis formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucá, Rossella; Averna, Michele; Zalfa, Francesca; Vecchi, Manuela; Bianchi, Fabrizio; La Fata, Giorgio; Del Nonno, Franca; Nardacci, Roberta; Bianchi, Marco; Nuciforo, Paolo; Munck, Sebastian; Parrella, Paola; Moura, Rute; Signori, Emanuela; Alston, Robert; Kuchnio, Anna; Farace, Maria Giulia; Fazio, Vito Michele; Piacentini, Mauro; De Strooper, Bart; Achsel, Tilmann; Neri, Giovanni; Neven, Patrick; Evans, D Gareth; Carmeliet, Peter; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Bagni, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The role of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is well established in brain, where its absence leads to the fragile X syndrome (FXS). FMRP is almost ubiquitously expressed, suggesting that, in addition to its effects in brain, it may have fundamental roles in other organs. There is evidence that FMRP expression can be linked to cancer. FMR1 mRNA, encoding FMRP, is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. A decreased risk of cancer has been reported in patients with FXS while a patient-case with FXS showed an unusual decrease of tumour brain invasiveness. However, a role for FMRP in regulating cancer biology, if any, remains unknown. We show here that FMRP and FMR1 mRNA levels correlate with prognostic indicators of aggressive breast cancer, lung metastases probability and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We establish that FMRP overexpression in murine breast primary tumours enhances lung metastasis while its reduction has the opposite effect regulating cell spreading and invasion. FMRP binds mRNAs involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion including E-cadherin and Vimentin mRNAs, hallmarks of EMT and cancer progression. PMID:24092663

  20. Targeting type Iγ phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase inhibits breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Wang, X; Xiong, X; Liu, Q; Huang, Y; Xu, Q; Hu, J; Ge, G; Ling, K

    2015-08-27

    Most deaths from breast cancer are caused by metastasis, a complex behavior of cancer cells involving migration, invasion, survival and microenvironment manipulation. Type Iγ phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIPKIγ) regulates focal adhesion assembly and its phosphorylation at Y639 is critical for cell migration induced by EGF. However, the role of this lipid kinase in tumor metastasis remains unclear. Here we report that PIPKIγ is vital for breast cancer metastasis. Y639 of PIPKIγ can be phosphorylated by stimulation of EGF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), two promoting factors for breast cancer progression. Histological analysis revealed elevated Y639 phosphorylation of PIPKIγ in invasive ductal carcinoma lesions and suggested a positive correlation with tumor grade. Orthotopically transplanted PIPKIγ-depleted breast cancer cells showed substantially reduced growth and metastasis, as well as suppressed expression of multiple genes related to cell migration and microenvironment manipulation. Re-expression of wild-type PIPKIγ in PIPKIγ-depleted cells restored tumor growth and metastasis, reinforcing the importance of PIPKIγ in breast cancer progression. Y639-to-F or a kinase-dead mutant of PIPKIγ could not recover the diminished metastasis in PIPKIγ-depleted cancer cells, suggesting that Y639 phosphorylation and lipid kinase activity are both required for development of metastasis. Further analysis with in vitro assays indicated that depleting PIPKIγ inhibited cell proliferation, MMP9 secretion and cell migration and invasion, lending molecular mechanisms for the eliminated cancer progression. These results suggest that PIPKIγ, downstream of EGF and/or HGF receptor, participates in breast cancer progression from multiple aspects and deserves further studies to explore its potential as a therapeutic target.

  1. B Lymphocytes Promote Lymphogenous Metastasis of Lymphoma and Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna Ruddell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of patients with many types of cancers correlates with the degree of metastasis to regional lymph nodes (LNs and vital organs. However, the mechanisms and route of cancer cell metastasis are still unclear. Previous studies determined that B-cell accumulation in tumor-draining LNs (TDLNs induces lymphatic sinus growth (lymphangiogenesis and increases lymph flow, which could actively promote tumor dissemination through the lymphatic system. Using young Eµ-c-Myc mice that feature LN B-cell expansion as hosts for tumor transplants, we show that subcutaneously implanted lymphomas or melanomas preferentially spread to TDLNs over non-TDLNs, thus demonstrating that these tumors initially metastasize through lymphatic rather than through hematogenous routes. In addition, the rate and amount of tumor dissemination is greater in Eµ-c-Myc mice versus wild-type hosts, which correlates with LN B-cell accumulation and lymphangiogenesis in Eµ-c-Myc hosts. The increased lymphatic dissemination in Eµ-c-Myc hosts is further associated with rapid hematogenous tumor spread of subcutaneously implanted lymphomas, suggesting that TDLN metastasis secondarily drives lymphoma spread to distant organs. In contrast, after intravenous tumor cell injection, spleen metastasis of lymphoma cells or lung metastasis of melanoma cells is similar in Eµ-c-Myc and wild-type hosts. These studies demonstrate that the effect of Eµ-c-Myc hosts to promote metastasis is limited to the lymphatic route of dissemination. TDLN B-cell accumulation, in association with lymphangiogenesis and increased lymph flow, thus significantly contributes to dissemination of lymphomas and solid tumors, providing new targets for therapeutic intervention to block metastasis.

  2. Waste form characteristics report, revision 1.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leider, H.R.; Stout, R.B.

    1998-07-01

    This Waste Form Characteristics Report (WFCR) update, Version 1.3, incorporates substantial additions and changes to following 10 sections of the WFCR: 2.1.3.1 Cladding Degradation; 2.1.3.2 UO2 Oxidation in Fuel; 2.1.3.5 Dissolution Release from UO{sub 2}; 2.2.1.5 Fracture /Fragmentation Studies of Glass; 2.2.2.2 Dissolution Radionuclide Release from Glass; 2.2.2.3 Soluble-Precipitated/Colloidal Species from Glass; 3.2.2 Spent-Fuel Oxidation Models; 3.4.2 Spent-Fuel Dissolution Models; 3.5.1 Glass Dissolution Experimental Parameters; and 3.5.2 Glass Dissolution Models.

  3. HANSF 1.3 user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PLYS, M.G.

    1999-05-21

    The HANSF analysis tool is an integrated model considering phenomena inside a multi-canister overpack (MCO) spent nuclear fuel container such as fuel oxidation, convective and radiative heat transfer, and the potential for fission product release. It may be used for all phases of spent fuel disposition including cold vacuum drying, transportation, and storage. This manual reflects HANSF version 1.3, a revised version of version 1.2a. HANSF 1.3 was written to add new models for axial nodalization, add new features for ease of usage, and correct errors. HANSF 1.3 is intended for use on personal computers such as IBM-compatible machines with Intel processors running under a DOS-type operating system. HANSF 1.3 is known to compile under Lahey TI and Digital Visual FORTRAN, Version 6.0, but this does not preclude operation in other environments.

  4. Eesti Post investeerib Kasahstani 1,3 miljonit / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Post investeerib tütarettevõtte Eesti Elektronpost vahendusel Kasahstani postiturule 1,3 miljonit krooni, et pakkuda koostöös sealse riikliku postifirmaga digitaalselt saadetud andmete printimise ning adressaatidele saatmise kompleksteenust

  5. 1.3 GHz superconducting RF cavity program at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsburg, C.M.; Arkan, T.; Barbanotti, S.; Carter, H.; Champion, M.; Cooley, L.; Cooper, C.; Foley, M.; Ge, M.; Grimm, C.; Harms, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    At Fermilab, 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are prepared, qualified, and assembled into cryomodules (CMs) for Project X, an International Linear Collider (ILC), or other future projects. The 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program includes targeted R&D on 1-cell 1.3 GHz cavities for cavity performance improvement. Production cavity qualification includes cavity inspection, surface processing, clean assembly, and one or more cryogenic low-power CW qualification tests which typically include performance diagnostics. Qualified cavities are welded into helium vessels and are cryogenically tested with pulsed high-power. Well performing cavities are assembled into cryomodules for pulsed high-power testing in a cryomodule test facility, and possible installation into a beamline. The overall goals of the 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program, supporting facilities, and accomplishments are described.

  6. Improved Z(1/3) Law of Nuclear Charge Radius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Yi-An; ZHANG Zhen-Hua; ZENG Jin-Yan

    2009-01-01

    An improved Z(1/3) law of nuclear charge radius is presented. The comparison between the calculated and experimental nuclear charge radii now available shows that this new formula is better than the other conventional formulae.

  7. Calix[4]arenes in the 1,3-alternate conformation

    OpenAIRE

    Dordea, Crenguta

    2006-01-01

    Calix[4]arenes fixed in the 1,3-alternate conformation offer an interesting platform for the attachment of further functionalities which has been less frequently used than the cone conformer. Several synthetic strategies were developed to attach four amino functions to the narrow rim, to the wide rim and to both rims of the calix[4]arene fixed in the 1,3-alternate conformation. Using different precursor groups (nitrile/phthalimide or nitro/phthalimide) which can be independently converted int...

  8. Classification of glioblastoma and metastasis for neuropathology intraoperative diagnosis: a multi-resolution textural approach to model the background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Fauzi, Mohammad Faizal; Gokozan, Hamza Numan; Elder, Brad; Puduvalli, Vinay K.; Otero, Jose J.; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2014-03-01

    Brain cancer surgery requires intraoperative consultation by neuropathology to guide surgical decisions regarding the extent to which the tumor undergoes gross total resection. In this context, the differential diagnosis between glioblastoma and metastatic cancer is challenging as the decision must be made during surgery in a short time-frame (typically 30 minutes). We propose a method to classify glioblastoma versus metastatic cancer based on extracting textural features from the non-nuclei region of cytologic preparations. For glioblastoma, these regions of interest are filled with glial processes between the nuclei, which appear as anisotropic thin linear structures. For metastasis, these regions correspond to a more homogeneous appearance, thus suitable texture features can be extracted from these regions to distinguish between the two tissue types. In our work, we use the Discrete Wavelet Frames to characterize the underlying texture due to its multi-resolution capability in modeling underlying texture. The textural characterization is carried out in primarily the non-nuclei regions after nuclei regions are segmented by adapting our visually meaningful decomposition segmentation algorithm to this problem. k-nearest neighbor method was then used to classify the features into glioblastoma or metastasis cancer class. Experiment on 53 images (29 glioblastomas and 24 metastases) resulted in average accuracy as high as 89.7% for glioblastoma, 87.5% for metastasis and 88.7% overall. Further studies are underway to incorporate nuclei region features into classification on an expanded dataset, as well as expanding the classification to more types of cancers.

  9. Key enzymes catalyzing glycerol to 1,3-propanediol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Shizhen; Wang, Yuanpeng; Fang, Baishan

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesel can replace petroleum diesel as it is produced from animal fats and vegetable oils, and it produces about 10 % (w/w) glycerol, which is a promising new industrial microbial carbon, as a major by-product. One of the most potential applications of glycerol is its biotransformation to high value chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD), dihydroxyacetone (DHA), succinic acid, etc., through microbial fermentation. Glycerol dehydratase, 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase (1,3-propanediol-oxydoreductase), and glycerol dehydrogenase, which were encoded, respectively, by dhaB, dhaT, and dhaD and with DHA kinase are encompassed by the dha regulon, are the three key enzymes in glycerol bioconversion into 1,3-PD and DHA, and these are discussed in this review article. The summary of the main research direction of these three key enzyme and methods of glycerol bioconversion into 1,3-PD and DHA indicates their potential application in future enzymatic research and industrial production, especially in biodiesel industry. PMID:26966462

  10. Synthesis of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazine, 1,3,6-Thiadiazepane and Quinoxaline Derivatives from Symmetrical Dithiobiureas and Thioureidoethylthiourea Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Abou-Zied, A.; K. El-Shaieb; A. Mourad; Hassan, A

    2005-01-01

    Reactions of N,N`-disubstituted hydrazinecarbothioamides 8a-c and substituted thioureidoethylthioureas 9a-c with 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranil, 10a) and 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone (bromanil, 10b) to form N,N`-disubstituted [1,3,4]thiadiazole-2,5-diamines 11a-c, 6,7-dichloro-3-substituted amino-1H-benzo[1,3,4]- thiadiazine-5,8-diones 12a-c, 2,3,7,8-tetrahalothianthrene-1,4,6,9-tetraones 13a,b, 5,6,8- trihalo-7-oxo-3,7-dihydro-2H-quinoxaline-1-carbothioic acid substit...

  11. 1,3-DIPOLAR CYCLOADDITIONS APPROACH TO BIOACTIVE SPIROHETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS 1,3-dipolare Cycloadditionen Ansatz zur BIOACTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam M. Hussein

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spiro compounds represent an important class of naturally occurring substances characterized by highly pronounced biological properties. The most developed avenue for the synthesis of these compounds depends on the cycloaddition to an exocyclic bond. 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions are considered to be one of the most useful processes for the construction of five membered heterocyclic ring systems in highly regio- and stereoselective manner. This review describes 1 general methods for generation and preparation of most important 1,3- dipoles such as nitrones, nitrile oxides and azomethine ylides; and 2 the most recent examples of synthetic applications of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions to bioactive spiroheterocyclic compounds.

  12. Epithelioid sarcoma with muscle metastasis detected by positron emission tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Masafumi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelioid sarcoma is an uncommon high-grade sarcoma, mostly involving the extremities. Case presentation A 33-year-old man was referred to our institute with a diagnosis of Volkmann's contracture with the symptom of flexion contracture of the fingers associated with swelling in his left forearm. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed abnormal signal intensity, comprising iso-signal intensity on T1- and high-signal intensity on T2-weighted images surrounding the flexor tendons in the forearm. Diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma was made by open biopsy, and amputation at the upper arm was then undertaken. [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET detected multiple lesions with an increased uptake in the right neck, the bilateral upper arms and the right thigh, as well as in the left axillary lymph nodes, with maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax ranging from 2.0 to 5.5 g/ml. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed that there was a lesion within the right thigh muscle which was suggestive of metastasis, even though the lesion was occult clinically. Conclusion Increased uptake on FDG-PET might be representative of epithelioid sarcoma, and for this reason FDG-PET may be useful for detecting metastasis. Muscle metastasis is not well documented in epithelioid sarcoma. Accordingly, the frequency of muscle metastasis, including occult metastasis, needs to be further analyzed.

  13. Gastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinomamimicking primary gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Ji Kim; Ji Hyung Hong; Eun Su Park; Jae Ho Byun

    2015-01-01

    Gastric metastases from lung adenocarcinoma arerare. Because gastric metastasis grossly resemblesadvanced gastric cancer, it is difficult to diagnose gastricmetastasis especially when the histology of the primarylung cancer is adenocarcinoma. We describe a case ofgastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinomamimicking Borrmann type Ⅳ primary gastric cancer.A 68-year-old man with known lung adenocarcinomawith multiple bone metastases had been experiencingprogressive epigastric pain and dyspepsia over one year.Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed linitis plasticalikelesions in the fundus of the stomach. Pathologicexamination revealed a moderately differentiatedadenocarcinoma with submucosal infiltration. Positiveimmunohistochemical staining for thyroid transcriptionfactor-1 (TTF-1) and napsin A (Nap-A) confirmed thatthe metastasis was pulmonary in origin. The patienthad been treated with palliative chemotherapy for thelung cancer and had lived for over fifteen months afterthe diagnosis of gastric metastasis. Clinicians should beaware of the possibility of gastric metastasis in patientswith primary lung adenocarcinoma, and additionalimmunohistochemical staining for Nap-A as well as TTF-1may help in differentiating its origin.

  14. MR distinction between multiple myeloma and metastasis involving the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To differentiate multiple myeloma from metastasis involving the spine at MR imaging. Twenty-five patients with multiple myeloma and 37 with vertebral metastasis were included in this study. MR images were retrospectively analyzed with regard to imfiltration and enhancement patterns, signa. intensity, the involvement of three consecutive vertebrae, the number of lesions within one vertebra, and paraspinal and epidural masses. Using a 1.5-T imager, we obtained sagittal and axial, unenhanced and enhanced T1-weighted images, and fast spin-echo images. For statistical analysis, Fisher's exact test was used. All cases of multiple myeloma and metastasis showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and there were no significant differences in signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and there were no significant differences in signal intensities or enhancement patterns.Infilration and enhancement patterns were classified as focal (52% in multiple myeloma vs 68% in metastasis, p>0.05), diffuse (32% vs 32%, p>0.05) or salt and pepper (16% vs 0%, p0.05), isointensity (36% vs 3%. p0.05). Paraspinal and epidural masses played little part. The salt and pepper infiltration pattern, the presence of more than five lesions within one vertebra, and the involvement of more than three consecutive vertebrae were useful MR findings for differentiation between multiple myeloma and metastasis involving the spine. In most cases, hjowever, it is difficult to distinguish between the two conditions

  15. Incidence of bone metastasis in carcinoma buccal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Bhandari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head and neck cancer is a leading health problem in India due to the habit of chewing tobacco and bad oral and dental hygiene. Carcinoma buccal mucosa is more common and is 2.5% of all malignancies at our center. Most of the patients present in stage III and IV and the survival in these cases is not very good. Bone metastasis in advanced cases of carcinoma buccal mucosa is rarely reported in the world literature. Materials and Methods: We present here cases developing bone metastasis in carcinoma buccal mucosa in last 5 years. These patients were young with loco-regionally advanced disease where bone metastasis developed within 1-year of definitive treatment. Results: The flat bones and vertebrae were mainly involved and the survival was also short after diagnosis of metastasis despite the treatment with local Radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Conclusion: The exact cause of metastasis cannot be proved, but the probability of subclinical seedling of malignant cells before the eradication of the primary tumor should be considered along with advanced local and nodal disease with high grade of tumor.

  16. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus caused by central nervous system metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Kong, Doo Sik; Seol, Ho Joon; Nam, Do-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Il

    2011-09-01

    The development of better diagnostic tools and therapeutic modalities has increased the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) metastasis in malignant tumor patients. Hydrocephalus can result from CNS metastasis and frustrate cancer treatment. The authors sought to investigate the outcomes and the roles of ventriculoperitoneal shunts (VPS) in patients with CNS metastasis. The medical records of 50 consecutive patients who underwent VPS for hydrocephalus related to CNS metastasis were analyzed retrospectively. Data included features of primary malignancies, CNS involvement, clinical course and surgical outcome. Median patient age was 55.0 years (range 25-77), and 30 female and 20 male patients were included in the study. At the time of VPS, 10 patients had parenchymal metastases only and 40 patients had leptomeningeal seeding (LMS). Symptom improvement was observed postoperatively in 40 patients (80%), mean Karnofsky performance status (KPS) scale change was from 37.8 to 46.0, and median survival from VPS was 3.0 months (2 days to 54 months). A ventricular opening pressure of >30 cmH(2)O (HR 6.44, 95% CI 1.26-32.9, P = 0.02) and further cancer treatment after VPS (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.42, P Hydrocephalus in CNS metastasis requiring VPS is commonly associated with LMS. VPS is an effective palliative measure and an adequate cancer treatment after VPS may provide the best means of improving survival.

  17. A Case of Conjunctival Melanoma Presenting with Breast Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Canhoroz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most breast masses arise from the breast. Metastasis to the breast is fairly uncommon, but can occur in breast skin and parenchyma. In particular, leukemia and lung cancers, and MM may metastasize to the breast. Breast metastasis might be the first symptom or may occur during the course of other malignancies. Our case presented with a fixed mass in the upper-medial quadrant of her left breast during regular follow-up visits. The mean time to breast metastasis in patients with MM is 62 months (13-178. In our case this time was 48 months. In a case series with 7 patients hematological malignancies (Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and leukemia were the leading cause of breast metastasis, whereas in only 1 case the cause was MM. In another case series of 15 MM patients with metastasis to the breast, the primary tumor was frequently localized to the upper extremities and trunk. In a report of 250 conjunctival MM cases the mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with tumors >4 mm in vertical thickness. In another 45-case MM series tumors with a diameter >10 mm were associated with higher mortality rates. In our case the thickness of the tumor was 5 mm. In conclusion, histopathological evaluation should be mandatory in patients with known primary malignancies in order to differentiate new primary tumors, metastases, and benign tumors.

  18. Contralateral axillary node metastasis from recurrence after conservative breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Satoko; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Junko; Koyama, Masamichi

    2014-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node detection (SLND) with radiocolloid has become widely used for evaluation of nodal metastasis in primary breast cancer. However, the procedure for recurrent breast cancer is not well established. Contralateral axillary node metastasis is uncommon. We report 2 cases of contralateral axillary node metastasis with recurrent breast cancer. In the first case, contralateral node metastasis was found by SLND. In the other case without SLND, contralateral node metastasis developed after resection of local recurrence. FDG-avid contralateral node was pathologically diagnosed as metastasis. The SLND might be useful in patients with local recurrence after conservative breast cancer surgery. PMID:24368539

  19. Symptomatic spinal cord metastasis from cerebral oligodendroglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elefante, A; Peca, C; Del Basso De Caro, M L; Russo, C; Formicola, F; Mariniello, G; Brunetti, A; Maiuri, F

    2012-06-01

    Spinal subarachnoid spread is not uncommon in brain oligodendrogliomas; on the other hand, symptomatic involvement of the spinal cord and cauda is very rare, with only 16 reported cases. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who underwent resection of a low-grade frontal oligodendroglioma 4 years previously. He was again observed because of bilateral sciatic pain followed by left leg paresis. A spine MRI showed an intramedullary T12-L1 tumor with root enhancement. At operation, an intramedullary anaplastic oligodendroglioma with left exophytic component was found and partially resected. Two weeks later, a large left frontoparietal anaplastic oligodendroglioma was diagnosed and completely resected. The patient was neurologically stable for 8 months and died 1 year after the spinal surgery because of diffuse brain and spinal leptomeningeal spread. The review of the reported cases shows that spinal symptomatic metastases can occur in both low-grade and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, even many years after surgery of the primary tumor; however, they exceptionally occur as first clinical manifestation or as anaplastic progression. The spinal seeding represents a negative event leading to a short survival.

  20. Expression, Purification and Bioactivity Research of Human Angiostatin Kringles 1-3%人血管抑素Kringles 1-3的表达纯化及生物学活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李壮林; 姚雪静; 原桂勇

    2011-01-01

    Human angiostatin is composed of 1-4 kringles of plasminogen, which can inhibit the angiogenesis of tumor, the tumor growth and metastasis through preventing tumor's blood and nutrition from supplying. The complete encoding cDNA of human angiostatin Kringles 1-3 was isolated from human embryo liver with PCR and inserted to pPIC9K vector. Then, K1-3 was expressed in secretory P. pastoris expression system by induction of methanol and the expression yield of K1-3 in 5 L fermenter was 41.2 mg/L. The supernatant of cultivation liquid was collected, then concentrated and dialyzed. Recombinant human K1-3 was purified by affinity chromatography with Lysine Sepharose 4B. As a result, HPLC showed purity of K1-3 was more than 98%and the recovery yield was more than 95%. Recombinant human K1-3 inhibited significantly the migration of human microvascular endothelial cells and half inhibitory concentration was 1. 86μg/ml. Research showed that K1-3 suppressed specifically the angiogenesis on the CAMs with 95% inhibition.%人血管抑素包含了4个环饼状结构域(Kringle),是一个有效的血管生成抑制因子.采用PCR方法从人胚肝cDNA文库中扩增了人血管抑素Kringles 1-3的基因,重组于pPIC9K载体中,获得重组载体pPIC9K-K1-3,然后转化毕赤酵母细胞GS115,获得重组菌株.K1-3蛋白在5 L发酵罐的表达量达41.2mg/L,发酵液上清经过浓缩、透析,然后用Lysine Sepharose 4B层析柱纯化,得到的K1-3蛋白纯度大于98%,纯化回收率达到95%以上.K1-3能明显抑制bFGF刺激的人微血管内皮细胞的迁移,达到抑制效果为50%时所需的蛋白浓度(IC50)为1.86μg/ml.K1-3也能抑制鸡胚绒毛尿囊膜血管的生长,抑制率达95%.为应用人血管抑素Kringles 1-3治疗肿瘤奠定了初步实验基础.

  1. Brain glycogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Linea Lykke Frimodt; Müller, Margit S; Walls, Anne B;

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g., liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia....... In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been an emerging understanding in brain energy metabolism: that glycogen is more than just a convenient way to store energy for use in emergencies-it is a highly dynamic molecule with versatile implications in brain function, i.e., synaptic...... activity and memory formation. In line with the great spatiotemporal complexity of the brain and thereof derived focus on the basis for ensuring the availability of the right amount of energy at the right time and place, we here encourage a closer look into the molecular and subcellular mechanisms...

  2. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer progression and metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yifan Wang; Binhua P. Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women,and approximately 90% of breast cancer deaths are caused by local invasion and distant metastasis of tumor cells.Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a vital process for large-scale cell movement during morphogenesis at the time of embryonic development.Tumor cells usurp this developmental program to execute the multi-step process of tumorigenesis and metastasis.Several transcription factors and signals are involved in these events.In this review,we summarize recent advances in breast cancer researches that have provided new insights in the molecular mechanisms underlying EMT regulation during breast cancer progression and metastasis.We especially focus on the molecular pathways that control EMT.

  3. Anal metastasis from recurrent breast lobular carcinoma: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Puglisi; Emanuela Varaldo; Michela Assalino; Gianluca Ansaldo; Giancarlo Torre; Giacomo Borgonovo

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of isolated gastrointestinal metastasis from breast lobular carcinoma, which mimicked primary anal cancer. In July 2000, an 88-year-old woman presented with infiltrating lobular cancer (pT1/G2/N2). The patient received postoperative radiotherapy and hormonal therapy. Four years later,she presented with an anal polypoid lesion. The mass was removed for biopsy. Immunohistochemical staining suggested a breast origin. Radiotherapy was chosen for this patient, which resulted in complete regression of the lesion. The patient died 3 years after the first manifestation of gastrointestinal metastasis.According to the current literature, we consider the immunohistochemistry features that are essential to support the suspicion of gastrointestinal breast metastasis, and since we consider the gastrointestinal involvement as a sign of systemic disease, the therapy should be less aggressive and systemic.

  4. Active Roles of Tumor Stroma in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa I. Khamis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is the major cause of death for breast cancer patients. Tumors are heterogenous cellular entities composed of cancer cells and cells of the microenvironment in which they reside. A reciprocal dynamic interaction occurs between the tumor cells and their surrounding stroma under physiological and pathological conditions. This tumor-host communication interface mediates the escape of tumor cells at the primary site, survival of circulating cancer cells in the vasculature, and growth of metastatic cancer at secondary site. Each step of the metastatic process is accompanied by recruitment of stromal cells from the microenvironment and production of unique array of growth factors and chemokines. Stromal microenvironment may play active roles in breast cancer metastasis. Elucidating the types of cells recruited and signal pathways involved in the crosstalk between tumor cells and stromal cells will help identify novel strategies for cotargeting cancer cells and tumor stromal cells to suppress metastasis and improve patient outcome.

  5. Role of STAT3 in Cancer Metastasis and Translational Advances

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    Mohammad Zahid Kamran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is a latent cytoplasmic transcription factor, originally discovered as a transducer of signal from cell surface receptors to the nucleus. It is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation at position 705 leading to its dimerization, nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and activation of gene transcription. Under normal physiological conditions, STAT3 activation is tightly regulated. However, compelling evidence suggests that STAT3 is constitutively activated in many cancers and plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and metastasis. It regulates cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis that are critical for cancer metastasis. In this paper, we first describe the mechanism of STAT3 regulation followed by how STAT3 is involved in cancer metastasis, then we summarize the various small molecule inhibitors that inhibit STAT3 signaling.

  6. Role of STAT3 in Cancer Metastasis and Translational Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prachi; Gude, Rajiv P.

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a latent cytoplasmic transcription factor, originally discovered as a transducer of signal from cell surface receptors to the nucleus. It is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation at position 705 leading to its dimerization, nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and activation of gene transcription. Under normal physiological conditions, STAT3 activation is tightly regulated. However, compelling evidence suggests that STAT3 is constitutively activated in many cancers and plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and metastasis. It regulates cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis that are critical for cancer metastasis. In this paper, we first describe the mechanism of STAT3 regulation followed by how STAT3 is involved in cancer metastasis, then we summarize the various small molecule inhibitors that inhibit STAT3 signaling. PMID:24199193

  7. Recruitment of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Into Prostate Tumors Promotes Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younghun; Kim, Jin Koo; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Wang, Jingcheng; Mishra, Anjali; Joseph, Jeena; Berry, Janice E.; McGee, Samantha; Lee, Eunsohl; Sun, Hongli; Wang, Jianhua; Jin, Taocong; Zhang, Honglai; Dai, Jinlu; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Keller, Evan T.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Taichman, Russell S.

    2013-01-01

    Tumors recruit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to facilitate healing, which induces their conversion into cancer-associated fibroblasts that facilitate metastasis. However, this process is poorly understood on the molecular level. Here we show that the CXCR6 ligand CXCL16 facilitates MSC or Very Small Embryonic-Like (VSEL) cells recruitment into prostate tumors. CXCR6 signaling stimulates the conversion of MSCs into cancer-associated fibroblasts, which secrete stromal-derived factor-1, also known as CXCL12. CXCL12 expressed by cancer-associated fibroblasts then binds to CXCR4 on tumor cells and induces an epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which ultimately promotes metastasis to secondary tumor sites. Our results provide the molecular basis for MSC recruitment into tumors and how this process leads to tumor metastasis. PMID:23653207

  8. Concomitant lung metastasis in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Yang; Jun-Hua Lu; Chuan Lin; Song Shi; Ting-Hao Chen; Rong-Hua Zhao; Yi Wang; Meng-Chao Wu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the clinical features and prognostic factors of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients presenting with lung metastasis at initial diagnosis.METHODS:Between 2001 and 2010,we recruited 76consecutive HCC patients initially presenting with lung metastasis,without co-existing metastasis from other sites.These patients were divided into three groups:untreated group (n =22),single treatment group (n =19),and combined treatment group (n =35).RESULTS:Metastasis of bilateral lung lobes was common and noted in 35 patients (46.1%),and most of patients (59/76,77.6%) presented with multiple lung metastatic nodules.Nineteen patients (25.0%)received single-method treatment,including hepatectomy in 4,transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in 6,radiotherapy in 5,and oral sorafenib in 4.Thirty-five patients (46.1%) received combined treatment modalities.The overall median survival of the all patients was 8.7 ± 0.6 mo; 4.1 ± 0.3,6.3 ± 2.5 and 18.6 ± 3.9 mo,respectively in the untreated group,single treatment group and combined treatment group,respectively,with a significant difference (log-rank test,P < 0.001).Multivariate analysis revealed that Child-Pugh score,the absence or presence of portal vein tumor thrombus,and treatment modality were three independent prognostic factors affecting survival of patients with advanced HCC and concomitant lung metastasis.CONCLUSION:Combined treatment modalities tend to result in a better survival as compared with the conservative treatment or single treatment modality for HCC patients initially presenting with lung metastasis.

  9. [Whole Brain Irradiation and Hypo-fractionation Radiotherapy for the Metastases in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xingting; Zhao, Yaqin; Xu, Feng

    2016-04-20

    Up to 40% non-small cell lung cancer patients developed brain metastasis during progression. Multiple brain metastases are common in non-small cell lung cancer. The prognosis of brain metastasis is poor with median survival of less than 1 year. Radio therapy for brain metastases has gradually developed from whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to various radiation strategies. WBRT, surgery+WBRT, stereotactic radiotherapy+WBRT or WBRT with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB), etc. have better overall survival than those untreated patients. The damage of the cognitive function from WBRT has been realized recently, however, options of radiation strategies for long expected survival patients remain controversial. This paper will discuss different WBRT strategies and treatment side effects of non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastases. PMID:27118651

  10. 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Based Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, researchers like medicinal chemists in the field of medicinal chemistry have widely utilized the 1,3,4-thiadiazole nucleus to investigate its biological and pharmacological effects. This heterocyclic structure has demonstrated various bioactivities such as antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, antileishmanial, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antiepileptic, and anticancer effects among others. Anticancer activity is one of its promising effect as five membered heterocyclic rings have widely been investigated by researchers in the recent years. Herein, we reviewed the chemical structures bearing 1,3,4-thiadiazole template exerting anticancer activity. PMID:27484056

  11. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE : A REVIEW

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    Bachwani Mukesh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole is a highly privileged structure the derivatives of which exhibit a wide range of biological activities including antibacterial, antitubercular, vasodialatory, antifungal, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, hypolipidemic, anticancer and ulcerogenic activities. Resistance to number of antimicrobial agents among a variety of clinically significant species of bacteria is becoming increasingly important global problem. The search for new antimicrobial agents will consequently always remain as an important and challenging task for medicinal chemists. This Review has basic information about 1,3,4-oxadiazole and its antimicrobial activity work for further development in this field.

  12. Rearrangement of dypnones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kai; Huai, Qi-Yong; Shen, Zhi-Lun; Li, Hui-Jing; Liu, Chen; Wu, Yan-Chao

    2015-03-20

    Rearrangement of dypnones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes is described. The reaction is proposed to involve an aldol-type self-condensation of dypnones, followed by an intramolecular [2 + 2] cycloaddition and a retro-[2 + 2] cycloaddition. The reaction goes smoothly under obviously milder conditions in comparison to the cyclotrimerization of acetophenones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes (10 mol % of TsOH, 80 °C versus 130-148 °C). This unexpected rearrangement would provide new possible considerations in dypnone-involved organic synthesis. PMID:25740008

  13. Cranium Metastasis: An Unusual Presentation of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

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    Ayşe Kubat Üzüm

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Distant metastasis may be the initial sign of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in rare cases. In this instance, the treatment approach is usually individualized. Unlike most other cancers, local treatment of the primary tumor (total thyroidectomy is preferred as ablative surgery; so that radioactive iodine therapy should be more effective. Repeated doses of I-131 and radiotherapy for metastatic lesions may be needed. We report a female who presented with bone metastasis with fatal progression. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 71-4

  14. CSR1 Suppresses Tumor Growth and Metastasis of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Guoying; Tseng, George C.; Yu, Yan Ping; Gavel, Tim; Nelson, Joel; Wells, Alan; Michalopoulos, George; Kokkinakis, Demetrius; Luo, Jian-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Prostate cancer is frequent among men over 45 years of age, but it generally only becomes lethal with metastasis. In this study, we identified a gene called cellular stress response 1 (CSR1) that was frequently down-regulated and methylated in prostate cancer samples. Survival analysis indicated that methylation of the CSR1 promoter, and to a lesser extent down-regulation of CSR1 protein expression, was associated with a high rate of prostate cancer metastasis. Forced expression of CSR1 in pr...

  15. Unravelling the complexity of metastasis - molecular understanding and targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Nilay; Kang, Yibin

    2011-10-01

    Despite recognizing the devastating consequences of metastasis, we are not yet able to effectively treat cancer that has spread to vital organs. The inherent complexity of genomic alterations in late-stage cancers, coupled with numerous heterotypic interactions that occur between tumour and stromal cells, represent fundamental challenges in our quest to understand and control metastatic disease. The incorporation of genomic and other systems level approaches, as well as technological breakthroughs in imaging and animal modelling, have galvanized the effort to overcome gaps in our understanding of metastasis. Future research carries with it the potential to translate the wealth of new knowledge and conceptual advances into effective targeted therapies. PMID:21941285

  16. Ureteral Metastasis Secondary to Prostate Cancer: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, I; Bassa, C; Pavlovic, A; Morales, C

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer is very frequent, but secondary ureteral metastasis are extremely rare. We present a 55 year old man with a 2 month history of right flank pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. Prostatic specific antigen of 11.3 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed right hydroureteronephrosis, a developing urinoma and right iliac adenopathies. He underwent right ureteronephrectomy, iliac lymphadenectomy and prostate biopsy. Pathology revealed prostatic carcinoma infiltrating the ureteral muscularis propria, without mucosal involvement. There are 46 reported cases of prostate cancer with ureteral metastases. Ureteral metastasis are a rare cause of renal colic and need of a high index of suspicion. PMID:26793587

  17. Mechanism of Warburg Effect and Its Effect on Tumor Metastasis

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    Huijun WEI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells exhibit altered glucose metabolism characterized by a preference for aerobic glycolysis even when the oxygen content is normal, a phenomenon termed “Warburg effect”. However the definite molecular mechanisms of Warburg effect remains unclear, recent works indicated that it might be related to the abnormal activity of the oncogene and tumor suppressor genes, also the change of tumor microenvironment, the abnormal expression of glucose metabolic enzyme and so on. Warburg effect has a relationship with tumor progression and provide suitable conditions for tumor metastasis. This review will summarizes the mechanism of Warburg effect and its effect on tumor metastasis.

  18. Ureteral Metastasis Secondary to Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, I.; Bassa, C.; Pavlovic, A.; Morales, C.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is very frequent, but secondary ureteral metastasis are extremely rare. We present a 55 year old man with a 2 month history of right flank pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. Prostatic specific antigen of 11.3 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed right hydroureteronephrosis, a developing urinoma and right iliac adenopathies. He underwent right ureteronephrectomy, iliac lymphadenectomy and prostate biopsy. Pathology revealed prostatic carcinoma infiltrating the ureteral muscularis propria, without mucosal involvement. There are 46 reported cases of prostate cancer with ureteral metastases. Ureteral metastasis are a rare cause of renal colic and need of a high index of suspicion. PMID:26793587

  19. Ureteral Metastasis Secondary to Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is very frequent, but secondary ureteral metastasis are extremely rare. We present a 55 year old man with a 2 month history of right flank pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. Prostatic specific antigen of 11.3 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed right hydroureteronephrosis, a developing urinoma and right iliac adenopathies. He underwent right ureteronephrectomy, iliac lymphadenectomy and prostate biopsy. Pathology revealed prostatic carcinoma infiltrating the ureteral muscularis propria, without mucosal involvement. There are 46 reported cases of prostate cancer with ureteral metastases. Ureteral metastasis are a rare cause of renal colic and need of a high index of suspicion.

  20. Intracortical bone metastasis mimicking intracortical osteoid osteoma: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yu Ri; Kim, Jee Young [St. Vincent' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    Cortical metastasis usually occurs in the diaphysis of the long bones with the appearance of a cookie-bite pattern; this is associated with cortical destruction extending into the soft tissue as well as into the medullary cavity, or there can be a periosteal reaction. We report here on a 66-year-old woman who was diagnosed with intracortical metastasis in the proximal metaphysis of the right femur as an initial metastatic focus from primary lung cancer. CT detected an intracortical osteolytic lesion without cortical destruction or thickening. The MR images showed extensive peritumoral edema in the surrounding soft tissue and adjacent bone marrow edema, and this all mimicked osteoid osteoma.