Sample records for 1,2-ethanediol

  1. The role of nonbonding interactions and the presence of fluoride on the conformational isomerism of 1,2-ethanediol (United States)

    Silva, Weslley G. D. P.; Silla, Josué M.; Cormanich, Rodrigo A.; Fernandes, Sergio A.; Freitas, Matheus P.


    This work reports the analysis of the effects ruling the conformational preference of 1,2-ethanediol (1,2-ED) using theoretical calculations, since there is no general consensus about the role of intramolecular hydrogen bond on the conformational isomerism of 1,2-ED. While the predominance of the gauche conformers along with the Osbnd Csbnd Csbnd O fragment relative to the trans ones was found to be mainly due to hyperconjugation, the orientation of the hydroxyl groups is better described by a balance between low steric hindrance and high stabilization from hyperconjugation than by intramolecular hydrogen bond. Nevertheless, the presence of a fluoride anion induces a conformational change in 1,2-ED that maximizes hydrogen bonds between the fluoride and the hydroxyl groups. This effect was observed experimentally by the shift of 1H(O) and 19F NMR signals upon complexation, then suggesting that compounds containing the 1,2-ED moiety can be possible anion transporters.

  2. Synthesis of 1-[6-Fluoro-(2S)-3H,4H-dihydro-2H-2-chromenyl]-(1R)-1,2- ethanediol and 1-[6-Fluoro-(2R)-3H,4H-dihydro-2H-2-chromenyl]- (1R)-1,2-ethanediol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU,An-Guang; WANG,Nai-Xing; ZHANG,Jun-Ping; YANG,Yun-Xu; WANG,Wu-Wei; SHENG,Rui-Long


    @@ Benzopyran compounds possess diverse pharmacological properties such as β-blockade, anticonvulsant and antimicrobial.[1,2] Our interest has been focused on the synthesis of 1-[6-Fluoro-2S]-3H,4H-dihydro-2H-2-chromenyl]-(1R)-1,2-ethanediol (6) and 1-[6-fluoro-(2R)-3H,4H-dihydro-2H-2-chromenyl]-(1R)-1,2-ethanediol (7) which are particularly convenient precursor to (S,R,R,R)-NE (8). 8 containing four asymmetrical carbon atoms was reported to be the most active isomer.[3] Chandrasekhar[4] has reported on the synthesis of 8. The key step to synthesize this compound is to obtain the chiral chromanone 6 and 7. 6 was accomplished in 8 steps by the Clasien rearrangement and a one-pot Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, but the compound 7 was accomplished in 10 steps. Johannes[5] used Zr-catalytic kinetic resolution of allylic ethers and Mo-catalyzed chromene formation to synthesize 8 in 14 steps. However both of the methods request many synthetic steps and expensive reagents.

  3. Self-assembled microstructures from 1,2-ethanediol suspensions of pure and binary mixtures of neutral and acidic biological galactosylceramides. (United States)

    Archibald, D D; Mann, S


    Optical and electron microscopy were employed to characterize microstructures formed by thermal mechanical treatment of glycol suspensions of various pure and binary mixtures of the brain-derived galactosphingolipids hydroxy fatty acid cerebroside (HFA-Cer), non-hydroxy fatty acid cerebroside (NFA-Cer) and sulfatide (S-Cer). Negative staining indicated some new features of the neutral cerebroside suspensions in glycol. HFA-Cer formed a small fraction of both unilamellar cylinders (ULCs) (lumina ca. 27 nm) and giant multilamellar cochleates in addition to the typical nonhelical multilamellar cylinders (MLCs) (lumina ca. 10-30 nm). NFA-Cer formed a gel composed of a significant fraction of very long ULCs (lumina ca. 17 nm) without helical substructure, in addition to multilamellar helical structures such as ribbons and cylinders (lumina ca. 70 nm). Anisotropic lamellar micelle-shards of NFA-Cer were also detected by negative staining. S-Cer formed short ULCs (lumina ca. 44 nm) with no obvious helical substructure. Complex mixture data are thought to result from thermodynamic and kinetic factors. HFA-Cer is highly insoluble and promotes a network of rigid intralamellar hydrogen bonding that tends to exclude other lipids. NFA-Cer stabilizes helical defects in the lamellae, and S-Cer enhances disorder or micellization. The processes of microstructure nucleation and lipid phase separation were affected by mixtures such that metastable microstructures were trapped or the length of lamellar cylinders was altered. PMID:8200057

  4. UNIQUAC interaction parameters for molecules with -OH groups on adjacent carbon atoms in aqueous solution determined by molecular mechanics - glycols, glycerol and glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Klein, R. A.


    UNIQUAC interaction parameters have been determined, using molecular mechanics calculations, for 1,2-ethanediol, 1,2-propanediol, glycerol and glucose with water in aqueous solution. Conformational space for individual pairs of molecules was explored using a stochastic method, the Boltzmann Jump...

  5. Polyesteramides based on PET and nylon 2,T Part 3. Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, K.; Wit, de G.; Lohmeijer, J.H.G.M.; Gaymans, R.J.


    The properties of polyesteramides based on PET and nylon 2,T (PETA) using DMT, the bis(esterdiamide) T2T-dimethyl (N,N′-bis(p-carbo-methoxybenzoyl)ethanediamine) and 1,2-ethanediol as starting materials has been studied. A PETA series with an increasing T2T content (0.1–30 mol%) has been synthesised

  6. Progress in the chemistry of chromium(V) doping agents used in polarized target materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpolc, M. (Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (USA)); Hill, D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Struhrmann, H.B. (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany, F.R.). Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor)


    We wish to report progress in two areas of the chromium (V)-based doping agents: Two commonly used chromium (V) complexes, I and II, have been synthesized in perdeuterated form (i.e., all hydrogens replaced by deuterium). They are sodium bis(2-ethyl-2-deuteroxy-butyrato)oxochromate(V)monodeuterate, IV, (acronym EDBA-Cr(V)), and sodium bis(2-deuteroxy-2-methylpropionato)oxochromate(V), III, (acronym DMPA-Cr(V)). A synthetic route leading to the preparation of stable, chromium(III)-free solutions of chromium(V) in diols (1,2-ethanediol/ethylene glycol/and 1,2-propanediol/propylene glycol/) has been outlined.

  7. Sol–gel derived Tb{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} garnets: Synthesis, phase purity, micro-structure and improved design of morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opuchovic, Olga, E-mail:; Beganskiene, Aldona; Kareiva, Aivaras


    Yttrium iron garnet (Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}; YIG) and terbium iron garnet (Tb{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}; TbIG) were prepared by an aqueous sol–gel method using two different complexing agents (1,2-ethanediol and glycerol). For the synthesis of Tb{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} two different molar ratios of complexing agent (1:1 and 3:1) to the total metal ions were used. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were performed to study the thermal behaviour of the prepared Y–Fe–O and Tb–Fe–O precursor gels. The effects of synthesis parameters on the garnet phase formation were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Interestingly, the XRD data indicated that single-phase Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} garnet can be prepared only with 1,2-ethanediol at lowest 1000 °C temperature. While Tb{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} garnet can be obtained at lower temperatures depending on the nature and amount of complexing agent. The SEM results showed that parameters of sol–gel processing influence the morphological features of garnets considerably. For comparison, the conventional solid-state reaction method at 1000 °C was also used for the fabrication of both Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Tb{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} garnets. - Highlights: • Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Tb{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} were prepared by aqueous sol–gel route. • Single-phase Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} can be prepared with 1,2-ethanediol at 1000 °C temperature. • Tb{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} can be obtained at lower temperatures depending on complexing agent.

  8. Parameter estimation for VLE calculation by global minimization: the genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Alvarez


    Full Text Available Vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations require global minimization of deviations in pressure and gas phase compositions. In this work, two versions of a stochastic global optimization technique, the genetic algorithm, the freeware MyGA program, and the modified mMyGA program, are evaluated and compared for vapor-liquid equilibrium problems. Reliable experimental data from the literature on vapor liquid equilibrium for water + formic acid, tert-butanol + 1-butanol and water + 1,2-ethanediol systems were correlated using the Wilson equation for activity coefficients, considering acid association in both liquid and vapor phases. The results show that the modified mMyGA is generally more accurate and reliable than the original MyGA. Next, the mMyGA program is applied to the CO2 + ethanol and CO2 + 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate systems, and the results show a good fit for the data.

  9. Naphthalene decomposition in a DC corona radical shower discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-jiang NI; Xu SHEN; Xiang GAO; Zu-liang WU; Hao LU; Zhong-shan LI; Zhong-yang LUO; Ke-fa CEN


    The naphthalene decomposition in a corona radical shower discharge (CRS) was investigated, with attention paid to the influences of voltage and initial naphthalene density. The OH emission spectra were investigated so as to know the naphthalene decomposing process. The by-products were analyzed and a decomposing theory in discharge was proposed. The results showed that higher voltage and relative humidity were effective on decomposition. The initial concentration affected the decomposing efficiency of naphthalene. When the mitial naphthalene density was 17 mg/m3, the decomposition rate was found to be 70% under 14 kV. The main by-products were carbon dioxide and water. However, a small amount of carbonic oxide, 1, 2-ethanediol and acetaldehyde were found due to the incomplete oxidization.

  10. Sol-Gel Synthesis and Characterization of Selected Transition Metal Nano-Ferrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelija GATELYTĖ


    Full Text Available In the present work, the sinterability and formation of nanosized yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12, yttrium perovskite ferrite (YFeO3, cobalt, nickel and zinc iron spinel (CoFe2O4, NiFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4, respectively powders by an aqueous sol-gel processes are investigated. The metal ions, generated by dissolving starting materials of transition metals in the diluted acetic acid were complexed by 1,2-ethanediol to obtain the precursors for the transition metal ferrite ceramics. The phase purity of synthesized nano-compounds was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR and powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD. The microstructural evolution and morphological features of obtained transition metal ferrites were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  11. Glycolysis of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) catalyzed by an enzyme system; Glicolise do poli(3-hidroxibutirato) por via enzimatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, T.F.; Mano, V., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais


    In this work we report the studies of PHB glycolysis catalyzed by lipase Amano PS (Pseudomonas cepacia) in the presence of 1,2-ethanediol (ethylene glycol). The reactions were performed in toluene:dichloroethane 3:1 (v/v) at 60 deg C, varying reaction time and concentration of ethylene glycol. PHB and the products of glycolysis (polyols) were characterized by FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR, and TG. The FTIR spectra of polyols showed no significant change compared to the spectrum of PHB. The {sup 1}H-NMR spectra of the products of glycolysis showed signs of interest between 3 and 4.7 ppm, related to the ethylene glycol protons inserted in the polymer chain. By analyzing the thermograms we observed that the polyols are more thermally stable than PHB. (author)

  12. Degradation of corn stalk by the composite microbial system of MC1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The composite microbial system of MC1 was used to degrade corn stalk in order to determine properties of the degraded products as well as bacterial composition of MC1. Results indicated that the pH of the fermentation broth was typical of lignocellulose degradatioin by MC1, decreasing in the early phase and increasing in later stages of the degradation. The microbial biomass peaked on the day 3 after degradation. The MC1 effeciently degraded the corn stalk by nearly 70% during which its cellulose content decreased by 71.2%, hemicellulose by 76.5% and lignin by 24.6%. The content of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in the fermentation broth increased progressively during the first three days, and decreased thereafter, suggesting an accumulation of WSC in the early phase of the degradation process. Total levels of various volatile products peaked in the third day after degradation , and 7 types of volatile products were detected in the fermentation broth. These were ethanol, acetic acid, 1,2-ethanediol, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, 3-methyl-butanoic acid and glycerine. Six major compounds were quantitatively analysed and the contents of each compound were ethanol (0.584 g/L), acetic acid (0.735 g/L), 1,2-ethanediol (0.772 g/L), propanoic acid (0.026 g/L), butanoic acid (0.018 g/L) and glycerine (4.203 g/L). Characterization of bacterial cells collected from the culture solution, based on 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE analysis of DNAs, showed that the composition of bacterial community in MC1 coincided basically with observations from previous studies. This indicated that the structure of MC1 is very stable during degradation of different lignocellulose materials.

  13. Purification and characterization of a novel carbonyl reductase with high stereo-selectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ming; XU Yan; MU Xiaoqing; XIAO Rong


    A novel NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase was separated from Candida parapsilosis CCTCC 203011.The enzyme gave a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE),which was purified through ammonium sulfate,Diethylamino Ethanol (DEAE) sepharose Fast flow (FF),phenyl-sepharose FF and blue sepharose FF chromatography from cell-free extract.The molecular mass of the enzyme was about 30 kDa.The optimum pH and temperature for reduction were 4.5℃ and 35℃,respectively.The Cu2+ had strong restrictive effect on enzyme activity.In addition,the carbonyl reductase was an enzyme with high substrate specificity and stereo-selectivity,and showed high asymmetric reduction activity towards α-hydroxyacetophenone and ethyl 4-chloro acetoacetate.For the asymmetric reduction of α-hydroxyacetophenone and ethyl 4-chloro acetoacetate,(S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol and (R)-ethyl 4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate were produced by the purified enzyme,with the 100% and 94.3% e.e.value,respectively.Therefore,the enzyme could be one of the effective biocatalysts for asymmetric synthesis of chiral alcohols.The amino acid sequences of one peptide from the purified enzyme were analyzed by LC-MASS-MASS,and the carbonyl reductase showed some identity to the hypothetical protein CaO 19.10414 reported.

  14. Use of hydrophilic ionic liquids in a two-phase system to improve Mung bean epoxide hydrolases-mediated asymmetric hydrolysis of styrene oxide. (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jing; Lou, Wen-Yong; Yu, Chun-Yang; Wu, Hong; Zong, Min-Hua; Smith, Thomas J


    A comparative study was made of Mung bean epoxide hydrolases-catalyzed asymmetric hydrolysis of styrene oxide to (R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol in an n-hexane/buffer biphasic system containing various hydrophilic ionic liquids (ILs). Compared to the n-hexane/buffer biphasic system alone, addition of a small amount of hydrophilic ILs reduced the amount of non-enzymatic hydrolysis, and improved the reaction rate by up to 22%. The ILs with cation containing an alkanol group, namely [C(2)OHMIM][BF(4)] and [C(2)OHMIM][TfO], and the choline amino acid ILs [Ch][Arg] and [Ch][Pro] were found to be the most suitable co-solvents for the reaction, owing to their good biocompatibility with the enzyme, which led to high initial rates (0.99-1.25 μmol/min) and high product e.e.s (95%). When substrate concentration was around 30 mM, where optimal performance was observed with the IL-containing systems, the product e.e. was improved from 90% without ILs to ≥95% in the presence of ILs.

  15. A comparative study of diastereomeric complexes formed by a prochiral substrate and three structurally analogous chiral molecules on Pt(111) (United States)

    Lemay, Jean-Christian; Dong, Yi; Groves, Michael N.; Demers-Carpentier, Vincent; Goubert, Guillaume; Lafleur-Lambert, Raphaël; Boukouvalas, John; Hammer, Bjørk; McBreen, Peter H.


    A comparative study of chemisorbed bimolecular diastereomeric complexes formed by three structurally analogous chiral modifiers and a prochiral substrate on Pt(111) was performed using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) methods. The experiments determine, subject to a number of assumptions, the abundant binding configurations and whether the complexed substrate is organized into pro-S or pro-R states. The overall prochiral ratio (pr) estimated in this manner may be compared in each case to literature values for the enantiomeric ratio (er) observed in catalysis experiments. The experiments were performed using ketopantolactone as the substrate and (R)-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine, (R)-N-Methyl-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine and (R)-1-naphthyl-1,2-ethanediol as the structurally analogous chiral modifiers. The STM measurements were performed at room temperature to better mimic conditions under which the catalytic studies reported in the literature were performed. The results are discussed in terms of the stereochemical effects of subtle modifications of the structure of the chiral modifier.

  16. Highly selective anti-Prelog synthesis of optically active aryl alcohols by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Li, Ming; Nie, Yao; Mu, Xiao Qing; Zhang, Rongzhen; Xu, Yan


    Biocatalytic asymmetric synthesis has been widely used for preparation of optically active chiral alcohols as the important intermediates and precursors of active pharmaceutical ingredients. However, the available whole-cell system involving anti-Prelog specific alcohol dehydrogenase is yet limited. A recombinant Escherichia coli system expressing anti-Prelog stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase from Candida parapsilosis was established as a whole-cell system for catalyzing asymmetric reduction of aryl ketones to anti-Prelog configured alcohols. Using 2-hydroxyacetophenone as the substrate, reaction factors including pH, cell status, and substrate concentration had obvious impacts on the outcome of whole-cell biocatalysis, and xylose was found to be an available auxiliary substrate for intracellular cofactor regeneration, by which (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol was achieved with an optical purity of 97%e.e. and yield of 89% under the substrate concentration of 5 g/L. Additionally, the feasibility of the recombinant cells toward different aryl ketones was investigated, and most of the corresponding chiral alcohol products were obtained with an optical purity over 95%e.e. Therefore, the whole-cell system involving recombinant stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase was constructed as an efficient biocatalyst for highly enantioselective anti-Prelog synthesis of optically active aryl alcohols and would be promising in the pharmaceutical industry.

  17. Computational and experimental studies of 2-[(E)-hydrazinylidenemethyl]-6-methoxy-4-[(E)-phenyldiazenyl]phenol and its tautomers (United States)

    Sayin, Koray; Kurtoglu, Nurcan; Kose, Muhammet; Karakas, Duran; Kurtoglu, Mukerrem


    A new azo-chromophore group containing a hydrazine-Schiff base compound, 2-[(E)-hydrazinylidenemethyl]-6-methoxy-4-[(E)-phenyldiazenyl]phenol, was synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction study. The compound was found to crystallise in orthorhombic crystal system with Pca2(1) space group. In the structure, the molecule exhibits a phenol-imine intramolecular hydrogen bond and the sbnd NH2 group also involves in intermolecular hydrogen bonding with one of the nitrogen atom of the azo group (-Ndbnd N-) forming a 1D zigzag chain. Computational studies were performed on the titled compound and its tautomers. As computationally, this compound and its tautomers were optimized by using M062X/6-311G(d,p) level. According to thermodynamic parameters, the most stable tautomer was found to be azo-enol form. This result was then taken into account and spectral studies, which are IR, UV-Vis and NMR spectra, of this compound were performed and examined in detail. All calculations were performed at gas phase (ε = 1.000), 2-propanol (ε = 19.264), 1,2-ethanediol (ε = 40.245), water (ε = 78.355), formamide (ε = 108.940) and N-methylformamide-mixture (ε = 181.560).

  18. Single-crystal to single-crystal structural transformation and photomagnetic properties of a porous iron(II) spin-crossover framework. (United States)

    Neville, Suzanne M; Halder, Gregory J; Chapman, Karena W; Duriska, Martin B; Southon, Peter D; Cashion, John D; Létard, Jean-François; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S; Kepert, Cameron J


    The porous coordination framework material, Fe(NCS)2(bped)2 x 3EtOH, SCOF-3(Et) (where bped is dl-1,2-bis(4'-pyridyl)-1,2-ethanediol), displays a spin-crossover (SCO) transition that has been stimulated both thermally and by light irradiation. The one-step thermal SCO (70-180 K) is sensitive to the presence of molecular guests, with a more gradual transition (70-225 K) apparent following the desorption of ethanol molecules that hydrogen bond to the spin centers. Additional intraframework hydrogen-bonding interactions stabilize the vacant one-dimensional pore structure of the apohost, SCOF-3, despite a dramatic single-crystal to single-crystal (SC-SC) structural change upon removal of the guests. Comprehensive structural analyses throughout this transformation, from primitive orthorhombic (Pccn) to body-centered tetragonal (I4/mcm), reveal a flexing of the framework and a dilation of the channels, with an accompanying subtle distortion of the iron(II) coordination geometry. Photomagnetic measurements of the light-induced excited spin state trapping (LIESST) effect have been used to assess the degree of cooperativity in this system. PMID:18254628

  19. Transferable force field for alcohols and polyalcohols. (United States)

    Ferrando, Nicolas; Lachet, Véronique; Teuler, Jean-Marie; Boutin, Anne


    A new force field has been developed for alcohol and polyalcohol molecules. Based on the anisotropic united-atom force field AUA4 developed for hydrocarbons, it only introduces one new anisotropic united atom corresponding to the hydroxyl group OH. In the case of polyalcohols and complex molecules, the calculation of the intramolecular electrostatic energy is revisited. These interactions are calculated between charges belonging to the different local dipoles of the molecule, one dipole being defined as a group of consecutive charges globally neutral. This new method allows avoiding the use of empirical scaling parameters commonly introduced to calculate 1-4 electrostatic interactions. The transferability of the proposed potential is demonstrated through the simulation of a wide variety of alcohol families: primary alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol), secondary alcohols (propan-2-ol), tertiary alcohols (2-methylpropan-2-ol), phenol, and diols (1,2-ethanediol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol). Monte Carlo simulations carried out in the Gibbs ensemble lead to a good agreement between calculated and experimental data for the thermodynamic properties along the liquid/vapor saturation curve, for the critical point coordinates and for the liquid structure at room temperature. Additional simulations were performed on the methanol + n-butane system showing the capability of the proposed potential to reproduce the azeotropic behavior of such mixtures with a good agreement. PMID:19344171

  20. Preferential solvation of ions in mixed solvents. 6: Univalent anions in aqueous organic solvents according to the inverse Kirkwood-Buff integral (IKBI) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inverse Kirkwood-Buff integral (IKBI) approach is applied to the preferential solvation of F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, and ClO4- in aqueous mixtures of the co-solvents (S) methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), t-butanol (t-BuOH), 1,2-ethanediol (EG), glycerol (Gly), acetone (Me2CO), acetonitrile (MeCN), formamide (FA), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexamethyl phosphoric triamide (HMPT), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), as far as the relevant data exist in the literature. Fluoride anions are selectively solvated by the water up to large mole fractions (xS ≥ 0.4) of S = EtOH, t-BuOH, Me2CO, MeCN, and DMF, and up to lower contents (xS ∼ 0.1) of MeOH, EG, FA, and DMSO. The other anions are preferentially solvated by water to diminishing extent as their sizes become larger, and the largest ones show some preference for S in water-rich mixtures of MeOH and FA, whereas in aqueous Gly even chloride is preferentially solvated by the Gly. The competition between the co-solvent and the anion for the hydrogen bonds that water molecules donate is the main cause for the observed preferential solvation behaviour

  1. Time-dependent radiolytic yields at room temperature and temperature-dependent absorption spectra of the solvated electrons in polyols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The molar extinction coefficients at the absorption maximum of the solvated electron spectrum have been evaluated to be 900, 970, and 1000 mol-1·m2 for 1,2-ethanediol (12ED), 1,2-propanediol (12PD), and 1,3-propanediol (13PD), respectively. These values are two-third or three-fourth of the value usually reported in the published report.Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies have aided in depicting the radiolytic yield of the solvated electron in these solvents as a function of time from picosecond to microsecond. The radiolytic yield in these viscous solvents is found to be strongly different from that of the water solution. The temperature dependent absorption spectra of the solvated electron in 12ED, 12PD, and 13PD have been also investigated. In all the three solvents, the optical spectra shift to the red with increasing temperature. While the shape of the spectra does not change in 13PD, a widening on the blue side of the absorption band is observed in 12ED and 12PD at elevated temperatures.

  2. [Degradation of cassava residue by the cellulose degradation composite microbial system MC1]. (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Wang, Xiao-Fen; Zhu, Wan-Bin; Cheng, Xu; Cui, Zong-Jun


    The lignocelluloses of cassava residue are good biomass resources. They are mainly used to produce feeds and alcohol. It is a promising approach to utilize them to produce methane. But it is difficult to use cassava residue for producing methane because of its dispersive solid matter and much water. A cellulose degradation composite microbial system MC1 was applied to degrade cassava residue discarded from cassava starch manufactory, and the composition of the lignocelluloses and the soluble ingredients of cassava residue were analyzed. After 18 days' cultivation, the total weight of the cassava residue was reduced by 47.3%, the cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin of the cassava residue were reduced by 22.7%, 90.4% and 11.3%, respectively, and 85% of the whole weight relief was made by MC1 within 6 days. The soluble ingredients of the cassava residue were increased from the incipient 18% to 33% in the third day which was the peak value in the process. The total amount of the volatile products, analyzed by GC-MS, came to a maximum in the sixth day. Twelve kinds of volatile products in the fermentation broth were determined, in which ethanol, acetic acid, 1, 2-ethanediol, butanoic acid and glycerine were the major compounds, and they can be utilized by methanogenic organism directly or be changed into compounds that can be utilized by methanogens organism directly. Accordingly, it is very hopeful to use MC1 to degrade cassava residue as a method of prefermentation in methane fermentation.

  3. The genome of Pelobacter carbinolicus reveals surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aklujkar, Muktak [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Haveman, Shelley [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; DiDonatoJr., Raymond [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Brown, Peter [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Lovley, Derek [University of Massachusetts, Amherst


    Background: The bacterium Pelobacter carbinolicus is able to grow by fermentation, syntrophic hydrogen/formate transfer, or electron transfer to sulfur from short-chain alcohols, hydrogen or formate; it does not oxidize acetate and is not known to ferment any sugars or grow autotrophically. The genome of P. carbinolicus was sequenced in order to understand its metabolic capabilities and physiological features in comparison with its relatives, acetate-oxidizing Geobacter species. Results: Pathways were predicted for catabolism of known substrates: 2,3-butanediol, acetoin, glycerol, 1,2-ethanediol, ethanolamine, choline and ethanol. Multiple isozymes of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, ATP synthase and [FeFe]-hydrogenase were differentiated and assigned roles according to their structural properties and genomic contexts. The absence of asparagine synthetase and the presence of a mutant tRNA for asparagine encoded among RNA-active enzymes suggest that P. carbinolicus may make asparaginyl-tRNA in a novel way. Catabolic glutamate dehydrogenases were discovered, implying that the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle can function catabolically. A phosphotransferase system for uptake of sugars was discovered, along with enzymes that function in 2,3-butanediol production. Pyruvate: ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductase was identified as a potential bottleneck in both the supply of oxaloacetate for oxidation of acetate by the TCA cycle and the connection of glycolysis to production of ethanol. The P. carbinolicus genome was found to encode autotransporters and various appendages, including three proteins with similarity to the geopilin of electroconductive nanowires. Conclusions: Several surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features were predicted from the genome of P. carbinolicus, suggesting that it is more versatile than anticipated.

  4. A free-standing condensation enzyme catalyzing ester bond formation in C-1027 biosynthesis. (United States)

    Lin, Shuangjun; Van Lanen, Steven G; Shen, Ben


    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) catalyze the biosynthesis of many biologically active peptides and typically are modular, with each extension module minimally consisting of a condensation, an adenylation, and a peptidyl carrier protein domain responsible for incorporation of an amino acid into the growing peptide chain. C-1027 is a chromoprotein antitumor antibiotic whose enediyne chromophore consists of an enediyne core, a deoxy aminosugar, a benzoxazolinate, and a beta-amino acid moiety. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the activation and incorporation of the beta-amino acid moiety into C-1027 follows an NRPS mechanism whereby biosynthetic intermediates are tethered to the peptidyl carrier protein SgcC2. Here, we report the biochemical characterization of SgcC5, an NRPS condensation enzyme that catalyzes ester bond formation between the SgcC2-tethered (S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-beta-tyrosine and (R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol, a mimic of the enediyne core. SgcC5 uses (S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-beta-tyrosyl-SgcC2 as the donor substrate and exhibits regiospecificity for the C-2 hydroxyl group of the enediyne core mimic as the acceptor substrate. Remarkably, SgcC5 is also capable of catalyzing amide bond formation, albeit with significantly reduced efficiency, between (S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-beta-tyrosyl-(S)-SgcC2 and (R)-2-amino-1-phenyl-1-ethanol, an alternative enediyne core mimic bearing an amine at its C-2 position. Thus, SgcC5 is capable of catalyzing both ester and amide bond formation, providing an evolutionary link between amide- and ester-forming condensation enzymes. PMID:19246381

  5. Substrate dependent reaction channels of the Wolff–Kishner reduction reaction: A theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Yamabe


    Full Text Available Wolff–Kishner reduction reactions were investigated by DFT calculations for the first time. B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p SCRF=(PCM, solvent = 1,2-ethanediol optimizations were carried out. To investigate the role of the base catalyst, the base-free reaction was examined by the use of acetone, hydrazine (H2N–NH2 and (H2O8. A ready reaction channel of acetone → acetone hydrazine (Me2C=N–NH2 was obtained. The channel involves two likely proton-transfer routes. However, it was found that the base-free reaction was unlikely at the N2 extrusion step from the isopropyl diimine intermediate (Me2C(H–N=N–H. Two base-catalyzed reactions were investigated by models of the ketone, H2N–NH2 and OH−(H2O7. Here, ketones are acetone and acetophenone. While routes of the ketone → hydrazone → diimine are similar, those from the diimines are different. From the isopropyl diimine, the N2 extrusion and the C–H bond formation takes place concomitantly. The concomitance leads to the propane product concertedly. From the (1-phenylethyl substituted diimine, a carbanion intermediate is formed. The para carbon of the phenyl ring of the anion is subject to the protonation, which leads to a 3-ethylidene-1,4-cyclohexadiene intermediate. Its [1,5]-hydrogen migration gives the ethylbenzene product. For both ketone substrates, the diimines undergoing E2 reactions were found to be key intermediates.

  6. Seven organic salts assembled from hydrogen-bonds of N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O, and C-H⋯O between acidic compounds and bis(benzimidazole) (United States)

    Jin, Shouwen; Liu, Hui; Gao, Xin Jun; Lin, Zhanghui; Chen, Guqing; Wang, Daqi


    Seven crystalline organic acid-base adducts derived from 1,4-bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)butane/1,2-bis(2-benzimidazolyl)-1,2-ethanediol and acidic components (picric acid, 2-hydroxy-5-(phenyldiazenyl)benzoic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid, oxalic acid, and 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) were prepared and characterized by the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. All of the seven compounds are organic salts involving proton transfer from the acidic components to the bis(benzimidazole). For the salt 3, although a competing carboxyl group is present, it has been observed that only the proton at the -SO3H group is deprotonized rather than the H at the COOH. While in the salt 7, both COOH and SO3H were ionized to exhibit a valence number of -2. For 4, the oxalic acid existed as unionized molecule, monoanion, and dianion simultaneously in one compound. All supramolecular architectures of the organic salts 1-7 involve extensive intermolecular N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O, and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. Since the potentially hydrogen bonding phenol group is present in the ortho position to the carboxyl group in 2, 3, and 7, it forms the more facile intramolecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These weak interactions combined, all the complexes displayed 3D framework structure.

  7. Thermodynamic study on some alkanediol solutions: Measurement and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi, Mehrdad; Motahari, Ahmad; Omrani, Abdollah, E-mail:; Rostami, Abbas Ali


    Highlights: • Measuring densities and viscosities for binary mixtures of some alkanediols. • Finding excess molar volume, partial molar volume and thermal expansion coefficient. • Fitting excess molar volume values with PFP and Redlich–Kister polynomial equations. • Deducing excess Gibbs free energy of activation and other thermodynamic parameters. • Predicting viscosity values with different single parameter semi empirical equations. - Abstract: The densities ρ and viscosities η of 1,2-ethanediol with 1,2-propanediol or 1,3-propanediol, and 1,2-propanediol with 1,3-propanediol binary liquid mixtures over the entire concentration range at temperatures (298.15 to 308.15) K with 5 K interval were measured. The experimental data were used to calculate the excess molar volume V{sub m}{sup E}, partial molar volume V{sup ¯}{sub m,i}, partial molar volume at infinite dilution V{sup ¯}{sub i}{sup ∞}, apparent molar volume V{sub φi}, coefficient of thermal expansion α{sub p}, excess coefficient of thermal expansion α{sub p}{sup E}, excess viscosity η{sup E}, excess Gibbs energy of activation ΔG{sup *E}, and other thermodynamic parameters. A Redlich–Kister equation and Prigogine–Flory–Patterson (PFP) model was applied to correlate the excess molar volume results. Moreover, the viscosity data were correlated with the Grunberg–Nissan, Tamura–Kurata, Hind–Ubbelohde and Katti–Chaudhary equations. Good agreement was found between experimental data and modeling results.

  8. Antioxidant properties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L.): role of colorless phytochemicals from the methanolic extract of ripe fruits. (United States)

    Piccolella, Simona; Fiorentino, Antonio; Pacifico, Severina; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Uzzo, Piera; Monaco, Pietro


    Many edible plant metabolites are known to be useful as cellular antioxidants. In the search for antioxidative chemicals from native fruits of the Campania region of Italy, Prunus cerasus L., an acidic cherry widely used for culinary purposes, has been studied. Fruit crude extracts (MeOH, EtOAc, and hexane) were submitted to an antioxidative screening using specific assay media characterized from the presence of highly reactive radical species (DPPH*, ABTS*+, O2*-, NO) or lipoperoxidation markers. The reducing power of the samples was also determined. It was observed that the most polar extracts in MeOH and EtOAc were able to exercise a massive and dose-increasing antioxidative capacity. The peculiar efficacy of the same extracts was revealed by investigating their protein and deoxyribose oxidation capacity. A preliminary analysis of total phenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents together with biological screening data put the basis on P. cerasus fruit phytochemical investigation of methanolic extract. Twenty secondary metabolites were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic (especially 1D and 2D NMR) and spectrometric techniques. 1-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-1,2-ethanediol-1,2-bis-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methanol-1-O-beta-D-gentiobioside (4), epicatechin-3-malate (14), and epicatechin-3-(1''-methyl)malate (15) were isolated for the first time. All of the compounds were evaluated for their radical scavenging activity on DPPH*, O2*-, and NO. Flavonoids and quinic acid derivatives were found to be the more antioxidative substances. PMID:18303821

  9. The genome of Pelobacter carbinolicus reveals surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aklujkar Muktak


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Pelobacter carbinolicus is able to grow by fermentation, syntrophic hydrogen/formate transfer, or electron transfer to sulfur from short-chain alcohols, hydrogen or formate; it does not oxidize acetate and is not known to ferment any sugars or grow autotrophically. The genome of P. carbinolicus was sequenced in order to understand its metabolic capabilities and physiological features in comparison with its relatives, acetate-oxidizing Geobacter species. Results Pathways were predicted for catabolism of known substrates: 2,3-butanediol, acetoin, glycerol, 1,2-ethanediol, ethanolamine, choline and ethanol. Multiple isozymes of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, ATP synthase and [FeFe]-hydrogenase were differentiated and assigned roles according to their structural properties and genomic contexts. The absence of asparagine synthetase and the presence of a mutant tRNA for asparagine encoded among RNA-active enzymes suggest that P. carbinolicus may make asparaginyl-tRNA in a novel way. Catabolic glutamate dehydrogenases were discovered, implying that the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle can function catabolically. A phosphotransferase system for uptake of sugars was discovered, along with enzymes that function in 2,3-butanediol production. Pyruvate:ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductase was identified as a potential bottleneck in both the supply of oxaloacetate for oxidation of acetate by the TCA cycle and the connection of glycolysis to production of ethanol. The P. carbinolicus genome was found to encode autotransporters and various appendages, including three proteins with similarity to the geopilin of electroconductive nanowires. Conclusions Several surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features were predicted from the genome of P. carbinolicus, suggesting that it is more versatile than anticipated.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of technetium(V) complexes with amine, alcoholate, and chloride ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two general routes for the preparation of technetium complexes with aromatic amine, chloride, and alkoxide ligands are presented. The reactions of the tetrachlorooxotechnetate(V) anion of (n-Bu4N)[TcOCl4] with pyridine in tetrahydrofuran/alcohol solvent or of the dioxotetrakis(pyridine)technetium(V) cation of [TcO2(py)4]Cl with LiCl in sulfuric acid/alcohol both yield a neutral alkoxydichlorooxobis(pyridine)technetium(V) complex. The same isomer appears to result from either route. The analogous thiazole derivatives may be prepared in a like manner. The complex chloro(1,2-ethanediolato)oxo(1,10-phenanthroline)technetium(V), TcOCl(C2H4O2)(C12H8N2), is prepared from (n-Bu4N)[TcOCl4] with 1,2-ethanediol and 1,10-phenanthroline in methanol. This complex was characterized by ir, uv/vis, and 1H and 99Tc NMR spectroscopies and by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Further insight into the bonding in this complex comes from the single-crystal x-ray structure determination. The space group is monoclinic, P21/c, with a = 7.440 (2) angstrom, b = 8.928 (3) angstrom, c = 21.355 (4) angstrom, β = 92.48 (2)degree, V = 1417.2 (7) angstrom 3, and Z = 4. The structure was solved by standard methods and refined to R = 0.051 and Rw = 0.036 based on 1859 reflections. The oxo and chloride ligands are mutually cis in the highly distorted octahedral coordination sphere. The unusually long Tc-Cl bond length (2.418 (2) angstrom) is attributed to a trans influence exerted by the coordinated diolate. This effect combined with short lengths for the C-C bond (1.491 (1) angstrom) and for the O-Tc-O linkage (1.924 (4), 1.902 (3) angstrom) suggests partial multiple bonding between the technetium and the diolate. 38 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  11. Highly Selective Oxidation of Styrene to Benzoic Acid with H2 O2 as an Oxidant%用H2O2氧化苯乙烯合成苯甲酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 魏俊发; 史真


    以30% H2O2做为氧化剂,钨酸钠与含O双齿有机配体(草酸)形成的络合物为催化剂,在无有机溶剂、无相转移剂的条件下,研究了苯乙烯氧化制苯甲酸的反应.研究结果表明,最佳反应条件为:苯乙烯100.0 mmol, n(钨酸钠) : n(草酸) : n(苯乙烯) : n(30% H2O2)=2.0 : 3.2 : 100.0 : 440.0,于92 ℃反应24 h,苯甲酸收率98.6%.用GC-MS跟踪了氧化过程中4种主要物质苯乙烯、1-苯基邻二醇、羟基苯乙酮及苯甲酸含量随反应时间的变化关系,提出了其主要氧化机理为苯乙烯经过环氧化反应、水解生成生成1-苯基邻二醇,1-苯基邻二醇再氧化为羟基苯乙酮、最后氧化为苯甲酸.%The oxidation of styrene to benzoic acid was described. 30% aqueous hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) was used as an oxidant and the reaction was catalyzed by coordination compound system which including the peroxotungstate formed in situ from sodium tungstate dihydrate and oxalic acid without halides and organic solvent. The influences of the reaction conditions including temperature, time, amounts of catalyst and ligand were studied. The results showed that when styrene was 100.0 mmol, the optimum molar ratio of sodium tungstate dihydrate, oxalic acid, styrene and 30% H2O2 was 2.0 ∶ 3.2 ∶ 100.0 ∶ 440.0. The reaction mixture was stirred at 92 ℃ for 24 h, giving benzoic acid in yield of 98.6%. At the same time the products of the oxidation of styrene were characterized by GC-MS(EI, CI source) and GC-IR.According to the analysis of the products, benzoic acid may form via phenol-1,2-ethanediol and α-hydroxyacetophenone intermediate.

  12. How polar are choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents? (United States)

    Pandey, Ashish; Rai, Rewa; Pal, Mahi; Pandey, Siddharth


    Developing and characterizing green solvents with low toxicity and cost is one of the most important issues in chemistry. Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs), in this regard, have shown tremendous promise. Compared to popular organic solvents, DESs possess negligible VOCs and are non-flammable. Compared to ionic liquids, which share many characteristics but are ionic compounds and not ionic mixtures, DESs are cheaper to make, much less toxic and mostly biodegradable. An estimate of the polarity associated with DESs is essential if they are to be used as green alternatives to common organic solvents in industries and academia. As no one physical parameter can satisfactorily represent solute-solvent interactions within a medium, polarity of DESs is assessed through solvatochromic optical spectroscopic responses of several UV-vis absorbance and molecular fluorescence probes. Information on the local microenvironment (i.e., the cybotactic region) that surrounds several solvatochromic probes [betaine dye, pyrene, pyrene-1-carboxaldehyde, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS), p-toluidinyl-6-naphthalene sulfonate (TNS), 6-propionyl-2-(dimethylaminonaphthalene) (PRODAN), coumarin-153, and Nile Red] for four common and popular DESs formed from choline chloride combined with 1,2-ethanediol, glycerol, urea, and malonic acid, respectively, in 1 : 2 molar ratios termed ethaline, glyceline, reline, and maline is obtained and used to assess the effective polarity afforded by each of these DESs. The four DESs as indicated by these probe responses are found to be fairly dipolar in nature. Absorbance probe betaine dye and fluorescence probes ANS, TNS, PRODAN, coumarin-153, and Nile Red, whose solvatochromic responses are based on photoinduced charge-transfer, imply ethaline and glyceline, DESs formed using alcohol-based H-bond donors, to be relatively more dipolar in nature as compared to reline and maline. The pyrene polarity scale, which is based on polarity-induced changes in

  13. Experiments and simulations of NOx formation in the combustion of hydroxylated fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Bohon, Myles


    This work investigates the influence of molecular structure in hydroxylated fuels (i.e. fuels with one or more hydroxyl groups), such as alcohols and polyols, on NOx formation. The fuels studied are three lower alcohols (methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol), two diols (1,2-ethanediol and 1,2-propanediol), and one triol (1,2,3-propanetriol); all of which are liquids at room temperature and span a wide range of thermophysical properties. Experimental stack emissions measurements of NO/NO2, CO, and CO2 and flame temperature profiles utilizing a rake of thermocouples were obtained in globally lean, swirling, liquid atomized spray flames inside a refractory-lined combustion chamber as a function of the atomizing air flow rate and swirl number. These experiments show significantly lower NOx formation with increasing fuel oxygen content despite similarities in the flame temperature profiles. By controlling the temperature profiles, the contribution to NOx formation through the thermal mechanism were matched, and variations in the contribution through non-thermal NOx formation pathways are observed. Simulations in a perfectly stirred reactor, at conditions representative of those measured within the combustion region, were conducted as a function of temperature and equivalence ratio. The simulations employed a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic model for NOx formation from hydroxylated fuels developed based on recent alcohol combustion models and extended to include polyol combustion chemistry. These simulations provide a qualitative comparison to the range of temperatures and equivalence ratios observed in complex swirling flows and provide insight into the influence of variations in the fuel decomposition pathways on NOx formation. It is observed that increasing the fuel bound oxygen concentration ultimately reduces the formation of NOx by increasing the proportion of fuel oxidized through formaldehyde, as opposed to acetylene or acetaldehyde

  14. Identification of Poly(Lactic Acid) Fiber and Polyester Fibers by Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry%裂解气相色谱-质谱联用法鉴别聚乳酸纤维和聚酯纤维

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施点望; 朱峰; 王彩云; 易姣; 吴晓苹


    采用热裂解气相色谱-质谱联用技术(Py/GC-MS)建立了聚乳酸(PLA)纤维和3种聚酯纤维(聚对苯:二甲酸乙二酯(PET)纤维、聚对苯:二甲酸丙:二酯(PTT)纤维、聚对苯二甲酸丁二酯(PBT)纤维)的鉴别方法。裂解温度为700℃时,可以最大限度同时显示聚乳酸纤维和聚酯纤维样品特征。PLA纤维、PET纤维、PTT纤维和PBT纤维分别鉴别出8种、14种、16种和13种主要裂解产物。PLA纤维的特征性裂解产物是:D,L-丙交酯、内消旋丙交酯;PET纤维的特征性裂解产物是:苯甲酸乙烯酯、苯二甲酸双乙烯酯、-苯甲酸-1,2-乙二醇酯、苯甲酸乙酯;PTT纤维的特征性裂解产物是:苯甲酸丙烯酯、间苯二甲酸二烯丙酯、1,4-苯二甲酸-三-2-丙烯基酯、二苯甲酸-1,3-丙二醇酯;PBT纤维的特征性裂解产物是:苯甲酸丁烯酯、1,4-苯=甲酸-双-3-1烯酯。%An identification method of poly(lactic acid) fiber and three polyester fibers was established by pyrolysis gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (Py/GC-MS). The polyester fibers includes polyethylene terephtalate (PET) fiber, polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) fiber and polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) fiber. As shown by the experimental results, it was better to choose 700 ℃as the pyrolytic temperature in the identification, as more significant characteristic informations were displayed simultaneously. PLA fiber, PET fiber, VFT fiber and PBT fiber were identified 8 species, 14 species, 16 species and 13 species of main pyrolysis products. PLA fiber's characteristic pyrolysis products were meso-laetide and D,L-lactide. PET fiber's characteristic pyrolysis products were vinyl benzoate, diethylene terephthalate, dibenzoate- 1,2 -ethanediol and ethyl benzoate. FIT fiber's characteristic pyrolysis products were propenyl benzoate, diallyl isophthalate, diallyl terephthalate and 1,3-propanediol

  15. Novel technologies to improve the performance of biomass pyrolsis systems (United States)

    Liaw, Shi-Shen

    by grouping them in five groups or families. The C1 family is formed by products of cellulose fragmentation reactions (glycoaldehyde, acetol, 1,2-ethanediol, monoacetate, butanedial). The products grouped in the C2 family (levoglucosan, levoglucosenone, 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-alpha-D-glucopyranose) are derived from cellulose depolymerization reactions. The molecules derived from hemicellulose (Acetic acid, furfural, 2-furanmethanol) were grouped in the H family. The products derived from lignin were grouped in two families L1 (derived from p-hydroxyl phenol (H) and guaiacyl (G) structures) and L2 (derived from syringyl (S) structures). The yield and properties of bio-oil obtained from an auger pyrolysis reactor is comparable with other existing fluidized bed reactors in the similar pyrolysis condition. The system proposed required much lower volumes of carrier gas and result in the production of a sand-free bio-char. It was also found that the reactions leadings to the formation of bio-char products and the yield of bio-oil are not affected if the pretreatment (torrefaction) temperature is maintained below 290 °C. Torrefaction at higher temperatures results in a dramatic reduction of the bio-oil yield and an increase in the bio-char yield. A condensation system coupled with the auger pyrolysis reactor was constructed and studied for the separation of crude bio-oil produced from Douglas Fir wood. As the first condenser temperature increases up to 80 °C, the content of light oxygenated organic compounds (chiefly the acetic acid and water) in the first condenser decreased significantly. For the first time, this dissertation reports the anaerobic digestion of the aqueous phase obtained in the thermal pretreatment (torrefaction) step and in the second condenser during biomass pyrolysis to produce bio-methane. Acid washing was studied to minimize the inhibitors (hydroxyacetaldehyde and monophenols) in aqueous phase for higher bio-methane production. The results of this