Buchanan, Evan G.; Dean, Jacob C.; Zwier, Timothy S.; Sibert, Edwin L.
The spectroscopy of two flexible hydrocarbons, 1,2-diphenylethane (DPE) and 2,2,2-paracyclophane (TCP) is presented, and a predictive theoretical model for describing the alkyl CH stretch region of these hydrocarbons is developed. Ultraviolet hole-burning spectroscopy identified two isomers of DPE and a single conformation of TCP present in the supersonic jet expansion. Through the analysis of the ground state low-frequency vibronic spectroscopy obtained by dispersed fluorescence, conformational assignments were made for both DPE and TCP. The two isomers of DPE were found to retain the low energy structures of butane, being present in both the gauche and anti structures. TCP forms a C2 symmetric structure, differing from the predicted lower energy C3 conformation by the symmetry of the ethano bridges (-CH2CH2-) linking the phenyl substituents. Resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy is used to record single-conformation IR spectra of the two conformers of DPE and the single conformer of TCP in the alkyl CH stretch region and in the mid-IR that covers the CH bend fundamentals. A local mode Hamiltonian that incorporates cubic stretch-bend coupling is developed. Its parameters are obtained from density functional theory methods. Full dimensional calculations are compared to those that use reduced dimensional Hamiltonians in which anharmonic CH stretches and scissor modes are Fermi coupled. Excellent agreement is found. Scale factors of select terms in the reduced dimensional Hamiltonian are determined by fitting the theoretical Hamiltonian to the anti-DPE spectrum. The scaled Hamiltonian is then used to predict successfully structures for the remaining lower symmetry experimentally determined spectra in the alkyl CH stretch region.
Sibert, Edwin L. Sibert, Iii; Buchanan, Evan G.; Zwier, Timothy S.
Theoretical IR spectra of 1,2-diphenoxyethane (C_6H_5-O-CH_2-CH_2-O-C_6H_5 DPOE) and 1,2-diphenylethane (C_6H_5-CH_2-CH_2-C_6H_5 DPE) are presented and compared to results of single-conformation spectroscopy of jet cooled molecules. The theoretical transition energies and intensites are obtained from a model based on a local mode Hamiltonian that includes all local cubic stretch-bend couplings that are then projected onto the normal modes. The model parameters are obtained from density functional theory methods. Full dimensional calculations are compared to those of reduced dimensions that include anharmonic CH streches Fermi coupled to scissor modes. Excellent agreement is found. Scale factors of select terms in the reduced dimensional Hamiltonian are determined by fitting the theoretical Hamiltonian to the anti DPE spectrum. Using the same scaling, Hamiltonians for other conformers of the above molecules are generated and used to predict structures by comparing to experimentally determined spectra in the alkyl CH stretch region. The level patterns in the resulting spectra are elucidated in terms of the model parameters. The model results are extended to interpret the spectra of more complicated macrocycles containing multiple -CH_2CH_2- ethano bridges such as the dibenzo-15-crown-5 ether and 2,2,2-paracyclophane.
Shimakoshi, Hisashi; Luo, Zhongli; Inaba, Takuya; Hisaeda, Yoshio
The electrolysis of benzotrichloride at -0.9 V vs. Ag/AgCl in the presence of the B12 model complex, heptamethyl cobyrinate perchlorate, in ethanol under aerobic conditions using an undivided cell equipped with a platinum mesh cathode and a zinc plate anode produced ethylbenzoate in 56% yield with 92% selectivity. The corresponding esters were obtained when the electrolysis was carried out in various alcohols such as methanol, n-propanol, and i-propanol. Benzoyl chloride was detected by GC-MS during the electrolysis as an intermediate for the ester formation. When the electrolysis was carried out under anaerobic conditions, partially dechlorinated products, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro-1,2-diphenylethane and 1,2-dichlorostilibenes (E and Z forms), were obtained instead of an ester. ESR spin-trapping experiments using 5,5,-dimethylpyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) revealed that the corresponding oxygen-centered radical and carbon-centered radical were steadily generated during the electrolyses under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Applications of the aerobic electrolysis to various organic halides, such as substituted benzotrichlorides, are described. Furthermore, the formation of amides with moderate yields by the aerobic electrolysis of benzotrichloride catalyzed by the B12 model complex in the presence of amines in acetonitrile is reported. PMID:27071703
Aqueous toluene solutions have been irradiated with Co γ-rays. In unbuffered solutions the various cresol isomers are formed in a total yield of 0.45, 0.87 and 0.94 molecules/100 eV absorbed energy in argon-, N2O- and air - saturated solutions, respectively. The yields are reduced in acid (pH 3) solutions (G 0.14, 0.14 and 0.52, respectively) but the reduction is compensated by the formation of 1,2-di-phenylethane in yields of 0.49 and 1.60 in argon- and N2O-saturated solutions, respectively. Benzyl radicals are formed through an acid catalysed water elimination reaction from the initially formed hydroxymethylcyclohexadienyl radical. Phenyltolylmethanes, dimethylbiphenyls and partly reduced dimers are also formed during the radiolysis. Hydrogen is formed in the same yield as the molecular yield, g(H2). Xylene isomers and benzene are formed in trace quantities. The most remarkable effects of the addition of Fe(III) ions to deaerated acid toluene solutions are the formation of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde and an increase in the yield of 1,2-diphenylethane
赵少静; 程发; 陈宇; 魏玉萍; 于占龙
A series of sulfonic-acid type Gemini surfactants were synthesized from 1, 2-diphenylethane and long-chain aliphatic acyl chloride. Products obtained were characterized by 'H NMR and FT-IR; surface tension curve and related parameters were acquired by surface tension measurements. Results showed that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) decreased with the increasing hydrophobic chain length. Compared with the corresponding linear sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) ,the C20 and CMC of Gemini surfactant G12-2-12 decreased by 94.4% and 91.3%,respectively. The area occupied by the surfactant molecule at the air/water interfaceC4min)of G12-2-12 was 27%, less than two times that of SDBS, which suggested that Gemini surfactants packed more closely.%以二苯乙烷和长碳链脂肪酰氯为原料合成出Gemini磺酸表面活性剂,通过核磁氢谱和红外光谱对化合物的结构进行表征,测定了其水溶液的表面张力,得出其表面张力曲线,进而算出其他相关参数3种Gemini表面活性剂的临界胶束浓度(CMC)值随烷基疏水碳链的增长而降低.与线性十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)相比,Gemini表面活性剂G12-2-12的C20值降低94.4％,CMC值降低91.3％.G12-2-12的饱和吸附面积(Amin)比对应单基表面活性剂的2倍降低27％,且Gemini表面活性剂在气液界面上排列更加紧密.