... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...
... of the FFDCA. IX. Other Considerations A. Endocrine Disruptors EPA is required under the Federal Food... that is similar to an effect produced by a naturally occurring estrogen, or other such endocrine effects as the Administrator may designate.'' Following recommendations of its Endocrine Disruptor...
.... Commonly consumed food commodities means foods that are commonly consumed for their nutrient properties... Glycerol (glycerin) (1,2,3-propanetriol) 56-81-5 Guar gum 9000-30-0 Humic acid 1413-93-6 Humic...
Jiménez, J J; Bernal, J L; Aumente, S; Toribio, L; Bernal, J
Gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection was used to find the fraction of alcohols and acids present in pure beeswax from Apis mellifera. Some new compounds not described till now were found, such as a family of unsaturated linear fatty acids, several hydroxyacids and 1,2,3-propanetriol monoesters. The chromatographic profiles obtained from pure beeswax and bee-rejected foundation beeswax can be used to discriminate them; they mainly differ in the amount of some acids and alcohols.
Jiménez, J J; Bernal, J L; del Nozal, M A J; Martín, M A T; Bernal, J
New and simpler methods of sample preparation to determine several families of compounds in beeswax by conventional and high temperature gas chromatography are proposed. To analyze hydrocarbons and palmitates, a dilution of sample is enough whereas for the total acid content, a hydrolysis and simultaneous methylation with BF3-methanol results more effective than the usual methods; for the total content of alcohols, a further acetylation with acetic anhydride is necessary. Free alcohols are directly acetylated in a sample dissolution but for free acids and monoesterified 1,2,3-propanetriols analysis, a previous extraction with acetonitrile is required. The concentrations of all the compounds studied are expressed in weight percentage referred only to one standard: octadecyl octadecanoate. The precision of the analytical methods has been evaluated showing its importance in the analysis of beeswaxes used in apiculture.
Kasperkowiak, M; Kołodziejek, J; Strzemiecka, B; Voelkel, A
Sorbents that potentially can be used for separation of the products of biotechnological conversion of glycerol were examined. Properties of Zeolite 5A, resins: Amberlite, Diaion and their samples impregnated with an aqueous solutions of 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, acetic acid, succinic acid and model fermentation broth were investigated. Because surface properties will probably depend on the ambient humidity the IGC experiments were carried out under different conditions of relative humidity RH=0, 40 and 80%. Activity of the sorbents surface was expressed by the value of the dispersive component of the free surface energy. Inverse gas chromatography was also used to express acid-base properties of materials described by KA and KD parameters. The changes in the activity of investigated sorbents significantly varied depending on the type of impregnating agent. Moreover, the obtained results demonstrate that humidity can strongly influence, in some cases, the dispersive component of the free surface energy and the ability to specific interactions (KA and KD).
Robson Fleming Ribeiro
Full Text Available A low cost and environmental friendly extrusion process of the Polyacrylonitrile (PAN polymer was viabilized by using the 1,2,3-propanetriol (glycerol as a plasticizer. The characterization of the fibers obtained by this process was the object of study in the present work. The PAN fibers were heat treated in the range of 200 °C to 300 °C, which is the temperature range related to the stabilization/oxidation step. This is a limiting phase during the carbon fiber processing. The characterization of the fibers was made using infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and microscopy. TGA revealed that the degradation of the extruded PAN co-VA fibers between 250 °C and 350 °C, corresponded to a 9% weight loss to samples analyzed under oxidizing atmosphere and 18% when the samples were analyzed under inert atmosphere. DSC showed that the exothermic reactions on the extruded PAN co-VA fibers under oxidizing synthetic air was broader and the cyclization started at a lower temperature compared under inert atmosphere. Furthermore, FT-IR analysis correlated with thermal anlysis showed that the stabilization/oxidation process of the extruded PAN fiber were coherent with other works that used PAN fibers obtained by other spinning processes.
Liu, Xiaorong; Song, Ruyuan; Zhang, Wei; Qi, Chusheng; Zhang, Shifeng; Li, Jianzhang
This study was to develop novel soy protein isolate-based films for packaging using halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA), and 1,2,3-propanetriol-diglycidyl-ether (PTGE). The structural, crystallinity, opacity, micromorphology, and thermal stability of the resultant SPI/HNTs/PVA/PTGE film were analyzed by the Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The SPI/HNTs/PVA/PTGE film illustrated that HNTs were uniformly dispersed in the SPI matrix and the thermal stability of the film was enhanced. Furthermore, the tensile strength (TS) of the SPI/HNTs/PVA/PTGE film was increased by 329.3% and the elongation at the break (EB) remained unchanged. The water absorption (WA) and the moisture content (MC) were decreased by 5.1% and 10.4%, respectively, compared to the unmodified film. The results highlighted the synergistic effects of SPI, HNTs, PVA, and PTGE on the mechanical properties, water resistance, and thermal stability of SPI films, which showed excellent strength and flexibility. In short, SPI films prepared from HNTs, PVA, and PTGE showed considerable potential as packaging materials. PMID:28281634
Liu, Xiaorong; Song, Ruyuan; Zhang, Wei; Qi, Chusheng; Zhang, Shifeng; Li, Jianzhang
This study was to develop novel soy protein isolate-based films for packaging using halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA), and 1,2,3-propanetriol-diglycidyl-ether (PTGE). The structural, crystallinity, opacity, micromorphology, and thermal stability of the resultant SPI/HNTs/PVA/PTGE film were analyzed by the Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The SPI/HNTs/PVA/PTGE film illustrated that HNTs were uniformly dispersed in the SPI matrix and the thermal stability of the film was enhanced. Furthermore, the tensile strength (TS) of the SPI/HNTs/PVA/PTGE film was increased by 329.3% and the elongation at the break (EB) remained unchanged. The water absorption (WA) and the moisture content (MC) were decreased by 5.1% and 10.4%, respectively, compared to the unmodified film. The results highlighted the synergistic effects of SPI, HNTs, PVA, and PTGE on the mechanical properties, water resistance, and thermal stability of SPI films, which showed excellent strength and flexibility. In short, SPI films prepared from HNTs, PVA, and PTGE showed considerable potential as packaging materials.
Correa, Ricardo; Coronado, Lorena M; Garrido, Anette C; Durant-Archibold, Armando A; Spadafora, Carmenza
In order to identify new ways to prevent transmission of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, efforts have been made to understand how insects are attracted to humans. Vector-host interaction studies have shown that several volatile compounds play an important role in attracting mosquitoes to human targets. A headspace solid-phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSPME GC-MS) analysis of the volatile organic composition of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and supernatants of ultracentrifugation (SNUs) was carried out in Plasmodium falciparum-infected cultures with high and low parasitemias. A list of 18 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was obtained from the EVs of both infected and uninfected RBCs with 1,2,3-Propanetriol, diacetate (diacetin) increased in the infected EVs, regardless of the parasitemia of the culture. The supernatant analysis, however, gave off 56 VOCs, with pentane 2,2,4-trimethyl being present in all the SNUs of uninfected erythrocytes but absent from the parasite-infected ones. Standing out in this study was hexanal, a reported insect attractant, which was the only VOC present in all samples from SNUs from infected erythrocytes and absent from uninfected ones, suggesting that it originates during parasite infection. The hexanal compound, reportedly a low-level component found in healthy human samples such as breath and plasma, had not been found in previous analyses of P. falciparum-infected patients or cultures. This compound has been reported as an Anopheles gambiae attractant in plants. While the compound could be produced during infection by the malaria parasite in human erythrocytes, the A. gambiae attraction could be used by the parasite as a strategy for transmission.
This work investigates the influence of molecular structure in hydroxylated fuels (i.e. fuels with one or more hydroxyl groups), such as alcohols and polyols, on NOx formation. The fuels studied are three lower alcohols (methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol), two diols (1,2-ethanediol and 1,2-propanediol), and one triol (1,2,3-propanetriol); all of which are liquids at room temperature and span a wide range of thermophysical properties. Experimental stack emissions measurements of NO/NO
Hoffmann, D.; Herrmann, H.
Alcohols such as ethylene glycol, propylene glycol and glycerol are widely used compounds in numerous applications. The oxidation of these compounds can influence the tropospheric oxidation budget as well as contribute significantly to the formation of low volatile organic particle constituents, such as mono- and dicarboxylic acids. Model simulations applying the multiphase chemistry mechanism CAPRAM 3.0i (Chemical Aqueous Phase Radical Mechanism) show that the aqueous phase oxidation of ethylene glycol contribute significantly to the formation of the known particle constituent oxalic acid under remote (up to 1.7%) and urban (up to 9.5%) conditions. Due to their high solubility oxidation processes of polyalcohols will take place mainly in the aqueous solution. Oxidation reactions of alcohols are triggered by reactions with atmospheric radicals such as OH, NO3 and SO4-. However, for the detailed implementation of the tropospheric degradation of alcohols in atmospheric chemistry mechanisms many kinetic data, in particular as a function of the temperature, are still needed. Therefore, the reactivity of 1,2-ethanediol (ethylene glycol), 1,2-propanediol (propylene glycol), 1,3-propanediol, 1,2,3-propanetriol (glycerol), 1,2-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol and 1,5-pentanediol was systematically investigated towards OH, NO3 and SO4- radicals in the aqueous solution. All kinetic measurements were done as a function of the temperature. During these experiments the temperature of the measurement solution was varied between 278 ≤ T [K] ≤ 318. Experiments were carried out using laser flash photolysis technique at a wavelength of 248 nm. Rate constants were measured directly or using competition kinetics in case of OH. The kinetic data and activation parameters obtained will be summarized and discussed with available literature data. Furthermore, the data obtained will be discussed in terms of reactivity correlations and atmospheric relevance. A more detailed implementation of