WorldWideScience

Sample records for 001-009 cuba 1980-1999

  1. Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Cuba's population characteristics, geography, history, government, political conditions, and foreign relations were briefly described. Cuba, the largest island in the East Indies, has a tropical climate and is made up of a large area of rolling plains and a smaller mountainous region. Cuba's current population of 9.946 million (1983) is 70% urban and 30% rural. The annual population growth rate is 1.1%. The literacy rate among those aged 10-49 years is 96%, and school is compulsory for 6 years. The infant mortality rate is 21/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 74.7 years. 47% of the work force is engaged in industry and commerce, 28% in services and government, and 25% in agriculture. Since the revolution, Cuba has had a centrally planned, nonmarket economy. Large state enterprises run all segments of the economy, and economic policy is formulated by a central planning board. Farmers are allowed to privately market some of their produce. The government provide a wide range of social services. Most of the services are free, but some entail a minimal fee. Cuba's economy is depressed and overly dependent on the production of sugar. Since the revolution, Cuba's sugar production has increased by only 1.1% annually. In addition to sugar production, the country is engaged in some food processing and other light forms of industry. Cuba has a large reserve of nickle. Cuba's economic indicators are calculated differently than those used in market countries and are not comparable to those used in market countries. In 1983, disposable national income was US$15.8 billion, and per capita income was US$2,590. Cuba's imports exceed her exports. In 1983 exports totalled US$6.5 billion and imports amounted to US$7.2 billion. Cuba's foreign debt is increasing annually, and Cuba is highly dependent on economic assistance from Russia. Between 1961-83, the USSR provided Cuba with US$30 billion in economic aid and US$10 billion in military aid. The country's serious economic

  2. CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. de la Fé

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Ferias Locales de Agrobiodiversidad en su sentido más amplio se inician en Cuba a finales de 1999, con la celebración de la Primera Feria de Maíz en áreas del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA enmarcada en el Pro- yecto Cubano de Fitomejoramiento Participativo (PCFP. Como respuesta a la importancia que el desarrollo de las Ferias de Agrobiodiversidad tienen en la diversificación de la base varietal sobre la que se sustenta la seguridad alimentaria y de mercado de los agricultores cubanos y sus perspectivas de generaliza- ción en diferentes cultivos y regiones del país es que se ha tenido a bien la elaboración de la presente guía metodológica, con el objetivo de compartir las experiencias adquiridas por un colectivo de investigadores del INCA, de manera que en algu- na medida pueda con ello contribuirse a la conservación y ampliación de la diversidad de los recursos fitogenéticos de los agricultores cubanos. El documento se halla subdividido en dos secciones principales. En la primera, “Generalidades sobre las ferias de agrobiodiversidad’’, se ofrece una informa- ción resumida sobre tópicos tales como: definición y tipos de ferias, experiencias en el desarrollo de ferias en otros países, las ferias de agrobiodiversidad en otros países, las ferias de agrobiodiversidad en Cuba y términos asociados a estas, mien- tras que en su segunda sección, se presenta lo más detallada- mente posible la guía para su organización y desarrollo en Cuba. A lo largo de la misma, el usuario puede hallar informa- ción precisa sobre los principales aspectos a tener en cuenta. En el orden de presentación de cada aspecto contemplado se ha tratado de mantener un orden lógico de organización de modo que facilite aún más el trabajo de los usuarios.

  3. Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Cuba is a country of 110,860 sq.km with 10.8 million inhabitants, of whom 99% are literate. Independence was gained on May 20, 1902. The terrain consists of flat or gently rolling plains, hills, and mountains up to 2000 meters in the Southeast, with a climate which is tropical, yet moderated by trade winds. Spanish is spoken by the Spanish-African mixed population. Life expectancy ranges over 74-77 years. Gross social product is $21 billion, declining at a rate of -20%. Per capita income is $1500. The country's natural resources include nickel, cobalt, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, and timber. Sugar, fruits, tobacco, coffee, rice, beans, meat, vegetables, food processing, oil refining, cement, electric power, light consumer, and industrial products are areas of economic production. Capital goods, industrial raw materials, food, petroleum, and consumer goods are imported, and sugar and its by-products, petroleum, nickel, seafood, citrus, tobacco products and rum are exported. Indepth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country. PMID:12178050

  4. Research Trends in Textiles and Clothing: An Analysis of Three Journals, 1980-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Sharron J.; Johnson, Kim K. P.; Park, Ji-Hye

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of textiles and clothing research in the Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, and Clothing and Textiles Research Journal 1980-1999 (n=586) found that survey and experimentation were used most often; data analysis is primarily quantitative, although qualitative is increasing; and in the…

  5. Farm Production Growth in the Upper and Middle Parts of the Yellow River Basin, China, During 1980-1999

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-lian; LUO Yu-zhou; GAO Qiong; DONG Suo-cheng; YANG Xiu-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The impact of inputs on farm production growth was evaluated by analyzing the economic data of the upper and middle parts of the Yellow River basin,China for the period of 1980-1999.Descriptive statistics were employed to characterize the temporal trends and spatial patterns in farm production and five pertinent inputs of cultivated cropland,irrigation ratio, agricultural labor,machinery power and chemical fertilizer.Stochastic frontier production function was applied to quantify the dependence of the farm production on these inputs.The growth of farm production was decomposed to reflect the contributions by input growths and change in total factor productivity,The change in total factor productivity was further decomposed into the changes in technology and in technical efficiency.The gross value of farm production in the region of study increased by 1.6 fold during 1980-1999.Among the five selected farm inputs,machinery power and chemical fertilizer increased by 1.8 and 2.8 fold,respectively.The increases in cultivated cropland,irrigated cropland,and agricultural labor were all less than 0.16 fold.The growth in the farm production was primarily contributed by the increase in the total factor productivity during 1980-1985,and by input growths after 1985.More than 80%of the contributions by input growths were attributed to the increased application of fertilizer and machinery.In the change of total factor productivity,the technology change dominated over the technical efficiency change in the study period except in the period of 1985-1990,implying that institution and investment played important roles in farm production growth.There was a decreasing trend in the technical efficiency in the region of study,indicating a potential to increase farm production by improving the technical efficiency in farm activities.Given the limited natural resources in the basin,the results of this study suggested that,for a sustainable growth of farm production in the area

  6. mexicana, 1980-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Rodríguez Ramos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se prueba la hipótesis de Barro mediante un modelo de vectores autorregresivos y multicointegración para la economía mexicana. La hipótesis de Barro se basa en los postulados de expectativas racionales, los cuales señalan que una expansión monetaria no tiene efectos reales a menos que sea sorpresa. Sin embargo, en función de los resultados, tanto la oferta de dinero anticipada como la no-anticipada tienen efectos reales en la economía mexicana. En este caso, el dinero es no-neutral. Las razones de esta no-neutralidad van desde las rigideces del sistema, las características particulares de la política monetaria, hasta la composición de la estructura de la economía mexicana.

  7. Concurrent Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, T.

    2016-10-01

    The parallel version of the multidimensional numerical integration package Cuba is presented and achievable speed-ups discussed. The parallelization is based on the fork/wait POSIX functions, needs no extra software installed, imposes almost no constraints on the integrand function, and works largely automatically.

  8. Tsunamis in Cuba?; Tsunamis en Cuba?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotilla Rodriguez, M. O.

    2011-07-01

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  9. Tsunamis in Cuba?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  10. CPAFFC Delegation in Cuba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Cuban Institute of Friendship with the Peoples and the Cuba-China Friendship Association,a CPAFFC delegation headed by Zhang Enxiang,vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the Jilin Provincial People’s Congress and honorary president of the Jilin Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries,paid a friendly visit to Cuba from May 29 to June 3,during which it participated in the celebrations of the 160th anniversary of the Chinese arrival in Cuba.

  11. How Cuba Fought Illiteracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    This article describes the successful effort to reduce illiteracy in Cuba by sending young student teachers into the rural areas to teach reading to workers in isolated spots throughout the country. (JD)

  12. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  13. Cuba confronts climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Gisela; Clark, Ismael

    2015-04-01

    Among environmental problems, climate change presents the greatest challenges to developing countries, especially island nations. Changes in climate and the resulting effects on human health call for examination of the interactions between environmental and social factors. Important in Cuba's case are soil conditions, food availability, disease burden, ecological changes, extreme weather events, water quality and rising sea levels, all in conjunction with a range of social, cultural, economic and demographic conditions.

  14. Cuba on our minds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Rutheiser

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Conversatons with Cuba. C. PETER RIPLEY. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1999. xxvi + 243 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 Real Life in Castro's Cuba. CATHERINE MOSES. Wilmington DE: Scholarly Resources, 2000. xi + 184 pp. (Paper US$ 18.95 The Cuban Way: Capitalism, Communism, and Confrontation. ANA JULIA JATAR-HAUSMANN. West Hartford CT: Kumarian Press, 1999. xvii + 161 pp. (Paper US$21.95 Castro and the Cuban Revolution. THOMAS M. LEONARD. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1999. xxv + 188 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Cuba has attracted a great deal of attention from both scholarly and popular authors since 1959. The literature that they have produced has generated much heat, but has shed a considerably smaller amount of light. Most accounts have been situated at the polar extremes of ideology, either condemning or celebrating the island's revolutionary experiment and its maximum leader (for the former is often virtually totally collapsed into the personage of Fidel Castro with the same degrees of vociferous, simplistic certitude. However, neither the fulminating diatribes of the anti-Castro Right nor the fulsome paeans of the Euro-American Left have done much justice to making sense of the complex, confounding, and contradictory realities of Cuban society before, during, and after the Revolution. Indeed, contemporary developments have only magnified the distortions rendered by the astigmatic lenses of cold war intellectualism.

  15. Cuba's kidney transplantation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mármol, Alexander; Pérez, Alexis; Pérez de Prado, Juan C; Fernández-Vega, Silvia; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Arce, Sergio

    2010-10-01

    The first kidney transplant in Cuba was performed on 24 February 1970, using a cadaveric donor. In 1979, living donor kidney transplantation began between first-degree relatives. A total of 2775 patients are enrolled in renal replacement therapy in 47 hospitals across the country, 1440 of whom are awaiting kidney transplantation. Organs for the kidney program are procured in 63 accredited hospitals equipped for multidisciplinary management of brain death. Accordingly, over 90% of transplanted kidneys are from cadaveric donors. Identification of potential recipients is carried out through a national, computerized program that affords all patients the same opportunity regardless of distance from a transplant center, and selection of the most suitable candidate is based primarily on HLA compatibility. KEYWORDS Chronic renal failure, kidney transplantation.

  16. Contratados peninsulares para Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias García, Fe

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Ante las presiones británicas, la metrópoli española y los ideólogos de los hacendados cubanos tuvieron que dar, desde la tercera década del siglo XIX, una respuesta a la previsible escasez de mano de obra esclava. El artículo estudia los sistemas de contrata implantados en la isla para abastecer de mano de obra blanca y barata a Cuba, deteniéndose particularmente la autora en el estudio de las condiciones de semiesclavitud que se escondían en las mencionadas contratas y en el perfil de los inmigrantes (profesiones, sexo, edad, procedencia....

  17. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  18. 48 Human Rights in and around Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article takes point of department in the current reform process in Cuba and its perspectives regarding human rights. To understand the background of the fundamental human rights' problems in Cuba, an analysis of the 'constituting dichotomy' is included and discussed in relation to its...... representation in the film, 'Strawberry and Chocolate'. The further perspectives for human rights in Cuba in relation to other Developments in Latin America constitutes the last part....

  19. Cuba: Multidimensional numerical integration library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The Cuba library offers four independent routines for multidimensional numerical integration: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. The four algorithms work by very different methods, and can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces. Their invocation is very similar, making it easy to cross-check by substituting one method by another. For further safeguarding, the output is supplemented by a chi-square probability which quantifies the reliability of the error estimate.

  20. Playing Business "Ball" with Cuba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Gong Liming

    2007-01-01

    @@ If you were lucky enough to have seen the World Volleyball Tournament,you must have seen the Cuban Women's volleyball team take on China in the championship game,a game of which Cuba has become the world champion for 10 times.The great determination and strong tenacity of these young Cuban girls' has been an encouragement to everyone that watches them play.

  1. Through the looking glass on Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] State Resistance to Globalisation in Cuba. Antonio Carmona Báez. Sterling VA: Pluto Press, 2004. vii + 264 pp. (Paper US$ 29.95 La Lucha for Cuba: Religion and Politics on the Streets of Miami. Miguel A. de la Torre. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. xi + 181 pp. (Paper US$ 21.95 By Heart/De Memoria: Cuban Women’s Journeys in and out of Exile. María de los Angeles Torres (ed.. Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press, 2003. vii + 192 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Looking at Cuba: Essays on Culture and Civil Society. Rafael Hernández. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003. vii + 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 In the politically charged world of scholarship on Cuba, it is salutary to comment in one review essay on four quite different volumes, each complementing the others. Three are single-authored, two on island Cuba (by Antonio Carmona Báez and Rafael Hernández and one on Miami (by Miguel A. de la Torre. All three draw on theory and concepts and are male-authored and place-centric (Cuba/Miami. The fourth (by María de los Angeles Torres is an edited collection of the personal testimonies of women seeking a place in between the hardened politics of Cuba and Miami.

  2. Sistema de salud de Cuba The health system of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Domínguez-Alonso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud de Cuba y el sistema cubano de salud, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, su gasto en salud, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, y las actividades de rectoría e investigación que desarrolla. También se discute la importancia de sus instituciones de investigación y se describe el papel de los usuarios de los servicios en la operación y evaluación del sistema, así como las actividades que en este sentido desarrollan la Federación de Mujeres Cubanas y los Comités de Defensa de la Revolución. La parte final de este trabajo se dedica a discutir las innovaciones más recientes dentro de las que destacan las redes de cardiología, la Misión Milagro y la Batalla de Ideas.This paper describes the health conditions in Cuba and the general characteristics of the Cuban health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and human resources, and its stewardship functions. It also discusses the increasing importance of its research institutions and the role played by its users in the operation and evaluation of the system. Salient among the social actors involved in the health sector are the Cuban Women Federation and the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution. The paper concludes with the discussion of the most recent innovations implemented in the Cuban health system, including the cardiology networks, the Miracle Mission (Misión Milagro and the Battle of Ideas (Batalla de Ideas.

  3. Cuba: A Short Critical Bibliographic Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basosi, Duccio

    An island with a population of approximately eleven million citizens, Cuba has been the topic of a huge amount of books and articles by scholars, politicians, artists, tourists and—why not?—foreign undercover agents. A random search in a well-known on-line bookshop gives some 118,000 results for the island's name. In brief, to present a selection of basic works on Cuba is a very harsh task that necessarily leads to difficult choices.

  4. The Beginning of Semiconductor Research in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltfort, Theodore

    I was invited to Cuba in 1962 to initiate some efforts in semiconductor development. I had been a physicist and senior research engineer with various electronic companies of the "Silicon Valley" of California, south of San Francisco. I had heard of the efforts made by the new revolutionary government of Cuba to advance the level of science and technology, and I was anxious to see what I could do to help.

  5. Book review: The economic war against Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Wingrove, Paul

    2013-01-01

    "The Economic War Against Cuba." Salim Lamrani. Monthly Review Press. April 2013. --- Salim Lamrani aims to explains some of the essential background to the U.S. economic sanctions against Cuba: their origins, their provisions, how they contravene international law, and how they affect the lives of Cubans. Although not detailed enough for an academic audience, this book does offer a short chronicle and discussion of some of the key events and consequences of more than fifty years of American ...

  6. Cuba y su Medio Ambiente Marino

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo C., E.; Contreras, J

    1998-01-01

    Cuba y su archipìélago de islas y atolones representan el complejo de islas más grande del Caribe (110,860 km2). Los recursos marinos, que incluyen las tortugas de ese medio, son una fuente importante de alimento y comercio de exportación para la población casi estable de Cuba de 10.96 millones de habitantes (0.21%, tasa anual de incremento en 1994).

  7. Becoming a Chemist in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Hessy L.

    2003-08-01

    Education in Cuba is a national priority. Overall, the population is skilled and motivated to use all available resources; furthermore teachers are dedicated and focused on their mission. This paper reports on information obtained as a result of visits to several secondary schools and three premier institutions of higher learning: the University of Havana, the Higher Polytechnic Institute "Jose Antonio Echevaria", and an Institute for Pedagogy. University tuition is free for all Cubans: students can not work for a salary during the typical five-year program of post-secondary study and instead serve as interns in government, industry, or schools. Experience working abroad is encouraged upon graduation. An overview of Cuban university admissions criteria, some specific programs of study, and placement of students in career jobs upon graduation is presented.

  8. National Program of Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It tries on the establishment of a Quality Assurance Nacional System, a Quality Assurance Committee implemented in Cuba, and a Quality Auditory National Program implemented in Cuba to control and assure radiotherapy quality

  9. HISTORICAL ECOTOXICOLOGICALASSESSMENT OF SAN JUAN ECOSYSTEM, SANTIAGO DE CUBA, CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argota, George

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the environmental decision-making related to watershed preservation is oriented under the precepts of an historical environmental assessment. The objective of this research was to conduct a historical ecotoxicological assessment of the San Juan de Santiago de Cuba ecosystem. This was considered a systematic environmental monitoring which ran from 2010 to 2013, made q?uarterly. Physicochemical parameters such as electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, total hardness, pH, total solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were determined. All parameters of environmental risk prediction were performed using the GECOTOX program. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd on three target organs (brain, gills and liver in the biomonitor adult Gambusia punctata (Poecilidae were analyzed. In this species, the effect of total protein and enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase as biomarkers were evaluated. In general, the parameters were outside the values set used by the Cuban quality standards. The GECOTOX program said that the waters of the San Juan ecosystem presented a high rate of risk. The highest concentrations of metals were determined in the gills, liver and brain, respectively. Biomarker values w? ere high, being higher for females. Finally, it was concluded that from one year to another all responses were ascending; thus, the San Juan ecosystem presented ecotoxicological effects in time.

  10. 31 CFR 515.563 - Journalistic activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Journalistic activities in Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.563 Journalistic activities in Cuba. (a) General license... directly incident to journalistic activities in Cuba by persons regularly employed as journalists by a...

  11. 31 CFR 515.566 - Religious activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Religious activities in Cuba. 515.566..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.566 Religious activities in Cuba. (a) Specific license... involving transactions (including travel-related transactions) in which Cuba or a Cuban national has...

  12. 31 CFR 515.570 - Remittances to Nationals of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remittances to Nationals of Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.570 Remittances to Nationals of Cuba. (a) Family... older are authorized to make remittances to nationals of Cuba who are close relatives, as defined...

  13. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an interest set forth in § 515.201(b)(1) includes a prohibition on the receipt of goods or services in...

  14. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  15. Waterfowl in Cuba: Current status and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Rodríquez, Pedro; Vilella, Francisco; Sánchez Oria, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    Cuba and its satellite islands represent the largest landmass in the Caribbean archipelago and a major repository of the region’s biodiversity. Approximately 13.4% of the Cuban territory is covered by wetlands, encompassing approximately 1.48 million ha which includes mangroves, flooded savannas, peatlands, freshwater swamp forests and various types of managed wetlands. Here, we synthesise information on the distribution and abundance of waterfowl on the main island of Cuba, excluding the numerous surrounding cays and the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth), and report on band recoveries from wintering waterfowl harvested in Cuba by species and location. Twenty-nine species of waterfowl occur in Cuba, 24 of which are North American migrants. Of the five resident Anatid species, three are of conservation concern: the West Indian Whistling-duck Dendrocygna arborea (globally vulnerable), White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis (regional concern) and Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus(regional concern). The most abundant species of waterfowl wintering in Cuba include Blue-winged Teal A. discors, Northern Pintail A. acuta, and Northern Shoveler A. clypeata. Waterfowl banded in Canada and the United States and recovered in Cuba included predominantly Blue-winged Teal, American Wigeon and Northern Pintail. Banding sites of recovered birds suggest that most of the waterfowl moving through and wintering in Cuba are from the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways. Threats to wetlands and waterfowl in Cuba include: 1) egg poaching of resident species, 2) illegal hunting of migratory and protected resident species, 3) mangrove deforestation, 4) reservoirs for irrigation, 5) periods of pronounced droughts, and 6) hurricanes. Wetland and waterfowl conservation efforts continue across Cuba’s extensive system of protected areas. Expanding collaborations with international conservation organisations, researchers and governments in North America will enhance protection

  16. Science and Technology Diplomacy with Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Frances

    President Obama's announcement of U. S. policy change toward Cuba and increased freedom of interaction with the Cuban people opens unprecedented and long-awaited opportunities for the scientific and engineering communities in the U. S. and in Cuba to establish and expand collaborative efforts that will greatly advance U.S. and Cuba science and technology agendas. New rules for export of donated-only items for scientific use will bring researchers closer to the level of their professional peers around the world. Increasing Cubans' access to information will result in greater interactions between scientific communities and enable the sharing of ideas and discoveries that can fuel entrepreneurship on the island. The scientific community has expressed an extraordinary level of interest in the wide range of scientific opportunities that the new policy presents, in collaborating with their Cuban counterparts, and in supporting the development of scientific capacity in Cuba. In response to numerous expressions of interest and inquiries from the scientific community, the Office of the Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State (STAS) has engaged in public outreach to inform the U.S. science and technology community of the implications of the new policy for collaborative research, emerging scientific opportunities, and the standing limitations for engagement with the people of Cuba.

  17. HBV genotypic variability in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carmen L; Aguilar, Julio C; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions.

  18. Soil and Terrain Database for Cuba, primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Cuba primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba), was compiled of enhanced soil informtion within the framework of the FAO's program Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). Primary soil and terrain data for Cuba were obtained from the SOTER

  19. A Perspective on Physics in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Carlos R.

    The author is Cuban by birth: the son of an Afro-Cuban mother and an Afro-American father. He spent the first 8 years of his life attending schools in Havana and New York City. He left Cuba in 1958 so as to gain a more uninterrupted educational experience. This led to his PhD in theoretical physics from Columbia University in 1978, followed by a post-doctoral appointment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. He returned to Cuba in 1980 as a member of an academic tour organized by the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. This provided an introduction to various government-run scientific facilities in Havana and the easternmost city of "Santiago de Cuba" in the province of Oriente.

  20. Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Reed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El Comité Editorial de MediSur agradece a Gail Reed, editora de Medicc Review la autorización expresa, para reproducir el artículo titulado “Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza”. Este trabajo resume el esfuerzo realizado por todos los organismos en Cuba y en especial el Ministerio de Salud Pública en la lucha para disminuir los efectos de la influenza H1N1 en la población. El artículo original se puede encontrar en: Reed G. Faceoff: Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza. MEDICC Review. 2010; 12(1:6-12. Disponible en: http://www.medicc.org/mediccreview/index.php?issue=11

  1. Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Reed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El Comité Editorial de MediSur agradece a Gail Reed, editora de Medicc Review la autorización expresa, para reproducir el artículo titulado “Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza”. Este trabajo resume el esfuerzo realizado por todos los organismos en Cuba y en especial el Ministerio de Salud Pública en la lucha para disminuir los efectos de la influenza H1N1 en la población. El artículo original se puede encontrar en: Reed G. Faceoff: Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza. MEDICC Review. 2010; 12(1:6-12. Disponible en: http://www.medicc.org/mediccreview/index.php?issue=11

  2. International petroleum agreements : Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreign investment in the oil and gas sector has had a profound impact on the development of crude oil production in Cuba. In 1982, in order to encourage economic development, the Cuban government adopted a form of Production Sharing Contract (PSC) for international petroleum agreements. In 1990, the first PSC was negotiated with a consortium of European companies. This was followed in 1992 through 1994 with companies from Canada, Europe and Latin America. Then in 1995, a more comprehensive foreign investment law was enacted to further encourage foreign investment in Cuba. Onshore and shallow water regions of Cuba were divided into 45 blocks, 19 of which were under licence in 2001. In addition, in 1999 the government of Cuba offered 53 blocks in the deep water zones of the Cuban sector of the Gulf of Mexico to foreign investment, of which 6 are already under licence. Most exploration for oil and gas since 1991 has been carried out by foreign companies. Crude oil production in 1991 totalled 11,000 bopd of heavy oil production from the north coast of Cuba. By 2001, domestic crude oil production increased to more than 50,000 bopd, mostly due to foreign investment in exploration and development. This paper described the model form for Cuban Production Sharing Contracts with reference to parties, rights granted, terms, relinquishments, minimum exploration commitments, discovery of hydrocarbons and recovery of petroleum operation expenses. The paper also discussed gross production, cost recovery for contractors, and sharing of profits with contractors and the state oil company, CubaPetroleo. 1 fig

  3. El movimiento del Software Libre en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Rodríguez Figueredo; Alain Guerrero Enamorado; Allan Pierra Fuentes; Sergio E. Tamayo Bermúdez

    2011-01-01

    Se describe el movimiento de Software Libre y estándares abiertos de software en Cuba, su surgimiento y evolución hasta la fecha. Se analiza además la necesidad de incorporarlo en el proceso de informatización de la sociedad cubana y lo que ha venido haciéndose en ese sentido.

  4. El movimiento del Software Libre en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rodríguez Figueredo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el movimiento de Software Libre y estándares abiertos de software en Cuba, su surgimiento y evolución hasta la fecha. Se analiza además la necesidad de incorporarlo en el proceso de informatización de la sociedad cubana y lo que ha venido haciéndose en ese sentido.

  5. Reflections on Educational Reform in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ronald A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Cuban educational reforms, highlighting 1959, 1976, and 1980s initiatives. Compares Cuba's progress with John Kotter's eight-step process based on establishing a sense of urgency, creating a guiding coalition, developing and communicating the change vision, empowering broad-based action, generating short-term wins, consolidating gains, and…

  6. The history of physics in Cuba

    CERN Document Server

    Renn, Jürgen; Wendt, Helge

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together a broad spectrum of authors, both from inside and from outside Cuba, who describe the development of Cuba's scientific system from the colonial period to the present. It is a unique documentation of the self-organizing power of a local scientific community engaged in scientific research on an international level. The first part includes several contributions that reconstruct the different stages of the history of physics in Cuba, from its beginnings in the late colonial era to the present. The second part comprises testimonies of Cuban physicists, who offer lively insights from the perspective of the actors themselves. The third part presents a series of testimonies by foreign physicists, some of whom were directly involved in developing Cuban physics, in particular in the development of teaching and research activities in the early years of the Escuela de Física. The fourth part of the volume deals with some of the issues surrounding the publishing of scientific research in Cuba. C...

  7. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  8. Cuba's National eHealth Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ariel; Gorry, Conner

    2008-01-01

    Cuba has been building a national strategy using information and communication technologies (ICTs) for health since the establishment of the National Medical Sciences Information Center (CNICM) in 1965. Back then, vital statistics and health data - considered a cornerstone of the country's new universal health system - were transmitted by hand or over the phone. As technology grew more sophisticated over the next 30 years, microprocessors and computers were integrated into the process. In 1992, reeling from economic crisis, Cuba founded the national health telematics network known as INFOMED (www.sld.cu), betting on the strategy that ICTs could be used to improve population health at low cost. From these initial efforts until today, the country has followed a policy to build and strengthen a virtual health information infrastructure.[1].

  9. Four decades of kidney transplantation in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Jorge P

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the background, beginnings, development, evolution and outcomes of kidney transplantation in Cuba. Nephrology as a medical specialty in Cuba began in 1962 and was formalized in 1966. Conditions were created to implement renal replacement therapy (including transplants), bring nephrology care to the entire country and train human resources who would assume this responsibility, making Cuba one of the first countries with a comprehensive program for renal patient care. After three unsuccessful cadaveric-donor kidney transplantations in 1968-69, the ensuing history of kidney transplantation can be summarized in the following three stages. 1970-1975: In January 1970, cadaveric-donor kidney transplantation began at the Nephrology Institute. That year, 17 kidney transplantations were performed; four of these patients lived with functional kidneys for 15-25 years; 10-year graft survival was 23.5% (Kaplan-Meier survival curve); HLA typing began in 1974. By December 1975, 170 grafts had been done in three hospitals. 1976-1985: Seven transplantation centers performed 893 grafts during this period. HLA-DR typing was introduced in 1976 and the National Histocompatibility Laboratory Network was founded in 1978. The first related living-donor kidney transplantation was done in 1979. 1986-2011: The National Kidney Transplantation Coordinating Center and the National Kidney Transplantation Program were created in 1986; the first combined kidney-pancreas transplantation was performed the same year. In 1990, cyclosporine and the Cuban monoclonal antibody IOR-T3 were introduced for immunosuppression to prevent rejection, as were other Cuban products (hepatitis B vaccine and recombinant human erythropoietin) for transplant patients. By December 2011, the cumulative number of transplants was 4636 (384 from related living donors). With over 40 years of experience, kidney transplantation is now well established in Cuba; it is free and universally accessible, on the

  10. Cuba - a library for multidimensional numerical integration

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, T

    2004-01-01

    The Cuba library provides new implementations of four general-purpose multidimensional integration algorithms: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. Suave is a new algorithm, Divonne is a known algorithm to which important details have been added, and Vegas and Cuhre are new implementations of existing algorithms with only few improvements over the original versions. All four algorithms can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces.

  11. Florida, Bahamas, Cuba and Gulf Stream, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This unique photo offers a view of the Florida peninsula, western Bahamas, north central Cuba and the deep blue waters of the Gulf Stream, that hugs the east coast of Florida (27.0N, 82.0W). In addition to being an excellent photograph for showing the geographical relationships between the variety of landforms in this scene, the typical effect of the land-sea breeze is very much in evidence as few clouds over water, cumulus build up over landmass.

  12. Cuba y la OEA: cambio y continuidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo LÓPEZ LEVY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La Carta de la OEA proclamó la norma de gobernabilidad democrática que validó la importancia de la democracia representativa como central a la paz y estabilidad del hemisferio occidental. Aunque ese compromiso normativo tuvo sentido en la era de la política del buen vecino, el multilateralismo y la no intervención, el abandono por Estados Unidos de esos principios desde la administración Eisenhower debilitó la norma y creó una crisis de legitimidad en la OEA a raíz de los casos de Guatemala en 1954 y Cuba en 1962. La aprobación de la Resolución VI en la reunión de cancilleres de 1962, excluyendo a Cuba de la OEA debido a la ideología marxista de su gobierno fue un caso de institucionalización contraproducente de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática. Este artículo explora el ciclo de retroceso y renovación de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática a través del examen del tratamiento de Cuba en la OEA desde 1962 hasta la Asamblea General n.° 39 de la OEA en San Pedro Sula en junio de 2009.

  13. CUBA Y LA OEA: CAMBIO Y CONTINUIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo LÓPEZ LEVY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La Carta de la OEA proclamó la norma de gobernabilidad democrática que validó la importancia de la democracia representativa como central a la paz y estabilidad del hemisferiooccidental. Aunque ese compromiso normativo tuvo sentido en la era de la política del buen vecino, el multilateralismo y la no intervención, el abandono por Estados Unidos de esos principios desde la administración Eisenhower debilitó la norma y creó una crisis de legitimidad en la OEA a raíz de los casos de Guatemala en 1954 y Cuba en 1962. La aprobación de la Resolución VI en la reunión de cancilleres de 1962, excluyendo a Cuba de la OEA debido a la ideología marxista de su gobierno fue un caso de institucionalización contraproducente de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática. Este artículo explora el ciclo de retroceso y renovación de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática a través del examen del tratamiento de Cuba en la OEA desde 1962 hasta la Asamblea General n.° 39 de la OEA en San Pedro Sula en junio de 2009.

  14. Toxocariasis in Cuba: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies.

  15. USA300 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopman Joost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an increasing problem in the Caribbean. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of MRSA isolates on Cuba. Findings The predominant clone was of the spa type t149, followed by community-associated MRSA USA300. Conclusions We report the first molecular typing results of MRSA isolates from Cuba.

  16. 14 CFR 91.709 - Operations to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Air Commerce Regulations of the Bureau of Customs (19 CFR 6.13); and (b) In the case of departure... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations to Cuba. 91.709 Section 91.709... Board Such Aircraft § 91.709 Operations to Cuba. No person may operate a civil aircraft from the...

  17. Development of a system for landslide risk assessment for Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.; Westen, C.J. van

    2005-01-01

    In many developing countries, such as Cuba, landslide-affected areas are not systematically mapped in a national inventory and no “regional to local” approach for landslide hazard and risk assessment has been carried out so far. Most of the conventional landslide studies in Cuba are qualitative in n

  18. Perspectivas para la lexicografía especializada en Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    1995-01-01

    En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika......En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika...

  19. Physics in Cuba from the Perspective of Bibliometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Werner; Cardona, Manuel

    We present a bibliometric analysis of the development of the physical sciences in Cuba since the revolution of 1959. We analyze, using available databases (Web of Science, Essential Science Indicators, INSPEC), the development of the output (number of publications of authors based in Cuba) and of their impact (number of citations) from 1959 until now. We discuss the productivity of Cuba in comparison to the Latin American sister republics and the collaborative efforts between Cuba and highly developed countries. The most important areas of scientific activity within the field of physics, the preferred journals and the leading affiliations are identified. The most frequently cited Cuban physics publications are given. Finally, the overall scientific ranking of Cuba among the world nations is investigated.

  20. Theological Higher Education in Cuba. Part 4: The Historical Roots and Milestones of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary. The seminary was founded in the city of Santiago de Cuba, on October 10, 1949, by the Eastern Baptist Convention. The seminary exists to provide training for pastors in the Eastern Baptist Convention. The school offers a four-year program leading to a bachelor in…

  1. Nanotechnologies in Cuba: Popularization and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Castellanos, Carlos

    In Cuba, as in other countries, activities in the field of nanotechnology emerged from the converging development of research in materials physics and chemistry, microelectronics, supramolecular physics, microbiology and molecular biology. During the 1990s, theoretical and experimental work on semiconductor nanostructures gained in importance. Cuban physicists organized the Red CYTED (Network CYTED) to "study fabrication and characterization of semiconductor nanostructures for micro and optoelectronics" which functioned between 1998 and 2003 with the participation of eight Spanish-American countries. The network organized various courses and scientific meetings, edited a book and supported the scientific collaboration among the participant institutions.

  2. The Physics of Complex Systems in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    In relating the circumstances that led to the birth and development of the physics of complex systems in Cuba, it is difficult to avoid being anecdotal—particularly because of the difficult times during which this research started. Cuban eclecticism, whose spectrum extends from religious syncretism to world-class medicine, seems quite coherent with the field of complex systems, characterized by the synergy of diverse fields. Such a combination, however, in the beginning seemed to be quite removed from the physicists' standard research dogmas.

  3. Nuevos registros de clorofitas marinas para Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    A. Moreira; Fujii, M.T.; Suárez, A. M.; Wynne, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    A partir de muestras colectadas en la bahía de Cienfuegos y de Santa Lucía (Pinar del Río), se identificaron dos nuevos registros de macroalgas marinas (clorofitas) para Cuba: Cladophora blomquistii C. Hoek y Udotea fibrosa D. S. Littler & M. M. Littler. C. blomquistii se registra por primera vez para la región del Caribe ya que se había consignado solo para lagunas costeras de la Florida, y la parte noreste del golfo de México. Se ofrecen además comentarios sobre la taxonomía, ...

  4. An overview of genetic counseling in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Araceli Lantigua

    2013-12-01

    This brief report provides an overview of the history and current status of genetic services in Cuba. In 1971, the University of Medical Sciences of Havana began to train doctors in medical genetics according to the medicine development plan in Cuba. With the aim of introducing genetic services to the population, two main issues were identified: the impact of neural tube defects as a cause of infantile mortality, and a founder effect resulting in a high frequency of sickle cell anemia, which increased the mortality rate and impacted the quality of peoples' lives. The impact of consanguinity is variable; it depends on the isolation of the population, with rates of 1 to 11% in different regions for first and second cousin marriages. From 1981, the services of medical genetics began to expand to the entire country, according to a government directive, and the need to design a program for the specialty became evident. From 1995 to 2000, two Masters-level programs were designed by professors of the Department of Medical Genetics, University of Medical Sciences of Havana, and authorized by the Ministry of Higher Education. One program in medical genetics was designed for physicians with other specialties, and the second program was designed to train professionals to become genetic counselors. The majority of graduates from the latter program are working at the primary level of healthcare.

  5. Oil and gas exploration in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevarria-Rodriguez, G.; Hernandez-Perez, G.; Lopez-Quintero, J.O.; Lopez-Rivera, J.G.; Rodriguez-Hernandez, R.; Sanchez-Arango, J.R.; Socorro-Trujillo, R.; Tenreyro-Perez, R.; Yparraguirre-Pena, J.L. (Union Del Petroleo, Havana (Cuba))

    1991-07-01

    Oil and gas exploration in Cuba began with the discovery of the Motembo oilfield in 1881, and some 25 oilfields have subsequently been discovered, the largest of which are Boca de Jaruco and Varadero. Two oil-bearing provinces are known: the Northern Cuban Province, which includes the overthrust belt; and the Southern Cuban Province, to the south of the overthrust belt, which includes a number of Cretaceous-Tertiary basins. Rocks in the overthrust belt are intensely faulted and folded, with folds trending NE in western Cuba and NW elsewhere on the island. The Northern Cuban Province is about 1,000-kms long and 80- to 100-kms wide; sediments here are generally 10- to 12-kms thick. Seven overthrust surfaces have been identified by drilling, and correspond to different oil zones; thus, oilfields are characteristically located within different tectonic-stratigraphic units. The Southern Cuban Province covers an area of about 60,000 sq. kms, and is composed of several basins, whose development was different from those to the north. Oil has been located in the Central Basin, where oilfields are present in positive structures, but not so far in any other basins here, although surface and subsurface oil steeps are common in this area. (author)

  6. Biothechnology conferences held in Cuba. Cuba no biotechnology gakkai ni sankashite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, M. (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo, (Japan))

    1990-04-25

    Three biotechnology conferences including Cuba International Interferon Conference were held at Havana in April 1989, and the author participated in them. The number of participants was about 3,000. Most of them were from the Middle and the Central America, but there were also those from Europe, the USSR and the USA. The three conferences were composed of 16 symposiums and they covered a wide range of field such as medical science, agriculture and industry. High leveled reports were read in the conferences: on the application of interferons to medical treatments, curing effects of infections caused by herpes virus and B type hepatitis virus, anti-tumor effects, and anti-virus effects against AIDS virus; on the production of protein and vaccini by gene engineering, large quantity production of interleukin and epithelium cell multiplication genes. Especially impressing were the efforts the whole nation of Cuba makes to promote biotechnology and its modern facilities. 3 figs.

  7. Physics and Women: A Challenge Being Successfully Met in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias de Fuentes, Olimpia

    The history of physics in Cuba, like all the country's educational and scientific development, cannot be understood without taking into account its close relationship with the social changes that took place in Cuba during the five decades elapsed since 1959. This should include due consideration to the role played by women in this process, all the more since the link between science and gender is now generally regarded as a subject of growing special interest

  8. Disaster management and multihazard risk assessment in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The success, statistically proved, of the civil defense system in Cuba have been justified differently worldwide. While some experts relate this fact to the social welfare others debate about the forced evacuation. Beside, the long term development of disaster reduction in the country is commonly forgotten by many disaster experts. This paper presents a pragmatic analysis of the evolution of the civil defense system in Cuba and the key factors for their success. The analysis of the system sta...

  9. Santiago de Cuba : la modernización postergada

    OpenAIRE

    Fleitas Monnar, María Teresa

    1995-01-01

    La autora expone las limitaciones que ocasiona la guerra de independencia de 1868-1878 en el progreso cubano de la ciudad de Santiago de Cuba. El paso creciente de mediados del siglo XIX hacia la modernización fue paralizado y, por el contrario, Santiago de Cuba mostraría una imagen decadente. La voluntad civilizadora quedó latiente, pero sería postergada a décadas interbélicas.

  10. Climate vulnerability in Cuba. The role of social networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sygna, L.

    2005-10-01

    The case of Cuba offers a unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of climate vulnerability. This paper takes a closer look at recent economic and social developments in Cuba, and how these affect patterns of vulnerability. Faced with the ongoing processes of climate change and economic globalization, Cuban households are carefully trying to sustain livelihood. Findings suggest that social networks are important as means of accessing coping strategies. Their access is on the other hand not equally distributed.

  11. Climate vulnerability in Cuba. The role of social networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of Cuba offers a unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of climate vulnerability. This paper takes a closer look at recent economic and social developments in Cuba, and how these affect patterns of vulnerability. Faced with the ongoing processes of climate change and economic globalization, Cuban households are carefully trying to sustain livelihood. Findings suggest that social networks are important as means of accessing coping strategies. Their access is on the other hand not equally distributed

  12. Radiological monitoring of food in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appearing of the problem for protecting the environment from radioactive contamination is not an accidental matter. The introduction into the earth crust of radioactive material coming from nuclear weapons, accidents, wastes, etc, has caused, as a consequence, the contamination of the biosphere. The extensive trade of food in our country has made necessary the establishment of radiological monitoring in food, which was organized by the Department of Public Health. The structure, functions, characteristics and aspects related to radiological monitoring of food in Cuba are shown in the present paper. The organization and resources for performing the monitoring program, both for normal conditions and for nuclear and/or radiological emergency cases, are detailed. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs

  13. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Castelló González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate.

  14. Cuba: Internet, acceso y sociedad del conocimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Sian, Michel D.

    2012-01-01

    Cuba muestra uno de los peores datos de América Latina en cuanto a la utilización de internet. La isla se conectó a la red en 1996, a través de un enlace satelital, y en 2011 puso en funcionamiento un cable submarino de fibra óptica. Esta última iniciativa, en colaboración con Venezuela, no ha supuesto una mejoría en el acceso ciudadano, ni en la democratización informativa del país. El Gobierno cubano persiste en el analfabetismo tecnológico del pequeño sector privado e intensifica el hos...

  15. Cuba, desarrollo, dependencia y heterogeneidad estructural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel J. Fresneda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reexamina la estrategia de desarrollo prevaleciente en Cuba, observando las variables de dependencia y heterogeneidad estructural. Busca distinguir cómo, a pesar de haber existido una desconexión política en la isla, su estrategia de desarrollo socialista enfrenta retos significativos que están determinados por el grado de heterogeneidad de su economía y por la profundidad de su dependencia al sistema de intercambio mundial. Como desafíos más importantes para la estrategia de desarrollo prevaleciente, se denotan: a evaluar los efectos de la incorporación de actores supranacionales en los marcos de una heterogeneidad estructural, por la insuficiencia de financiamientos y capital; y b proponer un desarrollo endógeno a partir de la incorporación del capital humano logrado en la isla.

  16. Cuba [Energy indicators for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ISED framework methodology is an appropriate tool for analysing different energy policies, with respect to their social, economic, environmental and institutional dimensions. The lack of certain data prevented a complete analysis of all the implemented energy policies in Cuba at the necessary level of detail. Nevertheless, with collected data, analyses were performed with acceptable results. The use of the ISED framework methodology contributed significantly to enhancing Cuba's statistical capabilities. It was possible to introduce appropriate changes into the national statistical system within a short period of time. Three new surveys were introduced into the system, and capabilities were enhanced to make the national statistics system compatible with international standards for the first time. Fuel import dependence decreased by rising domestic crude oil and associated gas production, but this dependence could be further lowered if the sugarcane sector recovered from its depressing trend. Nevertheless, the use of associated gas for electricity generation eliminated contamination by sulphur emissions in a major tourism area, and contributed to the enhanced efficiency of electricity generation with the introduction of new technology (i.e., combined cycle units). Increased domestic crude oil and associated gas production provided fuel for the generation of 93% of the electricity produced in the country in 2003. The potential for renewable energy has not been fully realized, since the principal sources from which it is obtained (i.e., biomass, and especially sugarcane biomass) faced considerable constraints - low prices in the international market, lack of funds and fertilizers required for better performance in production, etc. Nevertheless, electrification with PV systems, hydro and wind power have had an important social impact for major social entities (e.g., schools, hospital, etc.). A new programme for the exploitation of reservoirs and 'run of river

  17. La guerra de 1895 en Cuba y sus consecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarragó, Rafael E.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available On 24 February 1895 most people in Cuba did not want a war of independence, because reforms for the island had been approved by the Madrid parliament. The reaction to the insurrection begun in Cuba on that date by the Spanish government of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo was to treat all Cubans as rebels. In 1896 Cánovas sent general Weyler to Cuba, and by the end of 1897 he had stopped the advances of the insurrectionists, but the forced removal of the rural population into urban settlements that he decreed in order to prevent their assistance to the insurgents, led to thousands of deaths by hunger and disease, and in the United States public opinion began to clamor for intervention in Cuba to expel Spain, and this was advised by people like the Consul General in Havana, Fitzhugh Lee. The war begun in 1895 for the independence of Cuba had as consecuences the war of the United States with Spain in 1898 and its transformation into a world power with the colonies that it took from Spain in Asia and America.El 24 de febrero de 1895 la mayor parte de los habitantes de Cuba no deseaba una guerra de independencia, porque se acababa de votar en el parlamento de Madrid por reformas liberalizantes para la isla. La reacción del gobierno de Antonio Cánovas del Castillo a la insurrección iniciada en Cuba en esa fecha fue no implementar las reformas y tratar a todos los cubanos como insurrectos. En 1896 Cánovas envió al general Weyler a Cuba, quien logró frenar el avance de los insurrectos, pero la reconcentración de los campesinos en centros urbanos que este decretó para privar de su apoyo a los insurrectos causó miles de muertes por hambre y enfermedad y en los Estados Unidos la opinión pública comenzó a favorecer la intervención en Cuba, acción aconsejada por expansionistas como el Cónsul General de los Estados Unidos en La Habana, Fitzhugh Lee. La guerra comenzada en 1895 para la independencia de Cuba tuvo como consecuencias la guerra de

  18. Reemergence of dengue in Cuba: a 1997 epidemic in Santiago de Cuba.

    OpenAIRE

    Kourí, G; Guzmán, M. G.; Valdés, L.; Carbonel, I.; del Rosario, D.; Vazquez, S; Laferté, J.; Delgado, J.; Cabrera, M. V.

    1998-01-01

    After 15 years of absence, dengue reemerged in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba because of increasing migration to the area by people from disease-endemic regions, a high level of vector infestation, and the breakdown of eradication measures. The 1997 epidemic was detected early through an active surveillance system. Of 2,946 laboratory-confirmed cases, 205 were dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 12 were fatal. No deaths were reported in persons under 16 years of age. Now the epidemic is fully...

  19. Nuclear safety. Concerns about the nuclear power reactors in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1976, the Soviet Union and Cuba concluded an agreement to construct two 440-megawatt nuclear power reactors near Cienfuegos on the south central coast of Cuba, about 180 miles south of Key West, Florida. The construction of these reactors, which began around 1983, was a high priority for Cuba because of its heavy dependence on imported oil. Cuba is estimated to need an electrical generation capacity of 3,000 megawatts by the end of the decade. When completed, the first reactor unit would provide a significant percentage (estimated at over 15 percent) of Cuba's need for electricity. It is uncertain when Cuba's nuclear power reactors will become operational. On September 5, 1992, Fidel Castro announced the suspension of construction at both of Cuba's reactors because Cuba could not meet the financial terms set by the Russian government to complete the reactors. Cuban officials had initially planned to start up the first of the two nuclear reactors by the end of 1993. However, before the September 5 announcement, it was estimated that this reactor would not be operational until late 1995 or early 1996. The civil construction (such as floors and walls) of the first reactor is currently estimated to be about 90 percent to 97 percent complete, but only about 37 percent of the reactor equipment (such as pipes, pumps, and motors) has been installed. The civil construction of the second reactor is about 20 percent to 30 percent complete. No information was available about the status of equipment for the second reactor. According to former Cuban nuclear power and electrical engineers and a technician, all of whom worked at the reactor site and have recently emigrated from Cuba, Cuba's nuclear power program suffers from poor construction practices and inadequate training for future reactor operators. One former official has alleged, for example, that the first reactor containment structure, which is designed to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material into

  20. Macurije (Pinar del Río, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. González Izquierdo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluación de las clases de calidad de sitio de Pinus caribaea var. caribaea en la Empresa Forestal Integral Macurije (Pinar del Río, Cuba. La inves-tigación se realizó en rodales de Pinus caribaea var. caribaea de plantaciones de la Empresa Forestal Integral (EFI Macurije (22º 06´ y 22º 42´ de latitud Norte y los 83º 48´ y 84º 23´ de longitud oeste perteneciente a la provincia de Pinar del Río (Cuba occidental. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar las clases de calidad de sitio de Pinus caribaea var. caribaea en la empresa para correlacionarlas con las propiedades de los suelos que así las definen. Para ello, se tomó una muestra de 50 rodales al azar de los 677 rodales existentes en esta empresa, teniendo como variable de interés la calidad de sitio y como variables predictoras: tipo de suelo, textura, saturación, humificación, profundidad del suelo, profundidad pedológica y pendiente topográfica. Estas variables se escogieron por su fuerte influencia sobre la calidad de sitio. Se establecieron como restricciones para la selección que hubiese 10 rodales por cada calidad de sitio y que estuviesen en las clases de edades superiores a 10 años. Se obtuvo un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple paso a paso, el cual explicó la relación existente entre las variables edáficas y la pendiente topográfica con la calidad de sitio. El modelo explicó el 30 % de la variación de la calidad de sitio. El subtipo de suelo y la pendiente topográfica fueron las variables más explicativas de la calidad de sitio y por lo tanto deben tomarse como referentes a la hora de planificar la gestión forestal de las plantaciones de Pinus caribaea var. caribaea.

  1. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless...

  2. 77 FR 55183 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... Cuba. BIS will include a description of these comments in its biennial report to the Congress, as... 772 of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures...

  3. 31 CFR 515.561 - Persons visiting close relatives in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.561 Section 515.561 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Cuba. (a) General license. (1) Persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and persons... close relative, as defined in § 515.339 of this part, who is a national of Cuba, as defined in §...

  4. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of Vessels... Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and... north of Cuba. In July 1996 and on subsequent occasions, the Cuban government stated its intent...

  5. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for...

  6. 31 CFR 515.207 - Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with Cuba. 515.207 Section 515.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 515.207 Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba. Except as specifically... place in Cuba to engage in the trade of goods or the purchase or provision of services, may enter a...

  7. 75 FR 54594 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... Cuba. BIS will include a description of these comments in its biennial report to the Congress, as... of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated...

  8. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for...

  9. Cholera with severe renal failure in an Italian tourist returning from Cuba, July 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarello, M; Deiana, M L; Maurel, C; Lucarelli, C; Luzzi, I; Luzzati, R

    2013-08-29

    In July 2013, an Italian tourist returning from Cuba was hospitalised in Trieste, Italy, for cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa with severe renal failure. An outbreak of cholera was reported in Cuba in January 2013. Physicians should consider the diagnosis of cholera in travellers returning from Cuba presenting with acute watery diarrhoea.

  10. 76 FR 5058 - Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, DHS. ACTION... United States and Cuba must arrive at or depart from one of three named U.S. airports: John F. Kennedy... the United States and Cuba. These amendments are in accordance with the President's recent...

  11. 31 CFR 515.337 - Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Cuba. 515.337 Section 515.337 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.337 Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba. For purposes of this part, the term prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba means Ministers and...

  12. Orienete Province, eastern end of Cuba as seen from Gemini 7 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Oriente Province, eastern end of Cuba is photographed by Astronaut Frank Borman and James A. Lovell during the 14th revolution of the Gemini 7 mission. Guantanamo Bay is in the center of picture on southern coast of Cuba. Santiago de Cuba is located about one inch from the bottom edge of the picture, or about three inches westward down the coast from Guantanamo.

  13. 31 CFR 515.564 - Professional research and professional meetings in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., academic nature; (ii) The research comprises a full work schedule in Cuba; (iii) The research has a... tourism in Cuba or other commercial activities involving Cuba that are inconsistent with this part; and... exportation”) and items not eligible for Department of Commerce GFT or BAG License Exceptions, 15 CFR...

  14. Revolution on the mind: Cuba, between fact and fable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] To make a world safe for revolution: Cuba's foreign policy. JORGE I. DOMÏNGUEZ. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1989. viii + 365 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00 U.S. - Cuba relations in the 1990s. JORGE I. DoMfNGUEZ & RAFAEL HERNANDEZ (eds.. Boulder CO: Westview, 1989. ix + 324 pp. (Cloth US$ 42.00, Paper US$ 15.95 Transformation and struggle: Cuba faces the 1990s. SANDOR HALEBSKY & JOHN M. KIRK (eds.. with the assistance of Rafael Hernéndez. New York: Praeger, 1990. xxvi + 291 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00, Paper US$ 17.95 "A masterpiece of political intrigue" was one description of Jorge Dominguez' earlier book, Cuba: order and revolution; and it is a fitting comment for its sequel foreign policy volume. Dominguez himself opens with: "This is not a book of fiction, yet much of the story seems a fantasy." The story is how, from 1959 to 1988, Cuban leaders sought "to make a world safe for revolution" and, in the process, that small country Cuba came to have "the foreign policy of a big power." In his thorough, methodical fashion, Dominguez marshalls a wealth of documentary evidence from varied and conflicting sources, backed with extensive interview material, to paint a "behind the scènes" story of policymakers and their policy.

  15. Ethnicity, education, and blood pressure in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordunez, Pedro; Munoz, Jose Luis Bernal; Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo; Silva, Luis Carlos; Cooper, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    The causes of variation in hypertension risk by ethnicity and educational level are not well understood. To gain further insight into this issue in a nonindustrialized country, a population-based sample of 1,667 persons aged 15-74 years was recruited in Cienfuegos, Cuba. In this 2001-2002 study, interviewers classified 29% of participants as Black or mulatto and 71% as White. Educational attainment was stratified at the median number of school years. Compared with White women, non-White women had higher blood pressures (3.0/1.7, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure) and a higher prevalence of hypertension (24%, 95% confidence interval: 20, 28 vs. 15%, 95% confidence interval: 12, 18). Among men, no differences in blood pressure were observed by ethnicity. Men with a lower level of education had a 14% lower risk of hypertension compared with men above the median. However, women with a lower level of education had a 24% increase in risk. The effect of education was equally strong among Whites alone and when occupation was used for stratification. No variation was observed for body mass index or self-reported health behaviors by ethnicity or education. The narrower ethnic gradient in hypertension prevalence than seen in North America and the gender-specific social status effect, in the context of relatively equal living conditions, suggest that the influence of psychosocial stressors may be specific to cultural contexts.

  16. The Debate in Cuba's Scientific Community on Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilches, Ernesto; Ochoa, Luis A; Ramos, Lianne

    2015-10-01

    Sudden cardiac death poses a challenge to modern medicine because of its high incidence, the unexpected and dramatic nature of the event, and years of potential life lost. What's more, despite modest decreases in global mortality attributed to cardiovascular diseases, incidence of sudden cardiac death has not declined. Cuba, like most of the Americas, suffers from knowledge gaps that hamper adequate strategies to address sudden cardiac death as a population health problem. We suggest that a generally accepted operational definition of sudden cardiac death be agreed upon, and a national registry developed that recognizes this cause of death on death certificates. These two actions will enable Cuba's public health authorities to assess the extent of the problem and to design intervention strategies for the population with intermediate and lower cardiovascular risk, the group in which most cases occur. KEYWORDS Sudden cardiac death, cardiovascular disease, sudden death, sudden cardiac arrest, risk reduction, prevention and control, Cuba.

  17. La batalla contra el racismo en la Cuba de hoy

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Robaina, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    En el artículo se reflexiona en torno a la problemática del racismo en Cuba en las últimas décadas y se presenta cuestiones capitales en el debate sobre la integración de las identidades raciales en Cuba. Desde un punto de vista antropológico, Fernández Robaina repasa las cuestiones sociales que ejemplifican la compleja integración racial en la historia de la Isla para relacionarla con las actuaciones políticas que se llevan a término en los últimos años, no solo en Cuba, sino también en otro...

  18. Intelectualidad criolla y nación en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel GARCÍA MORA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se analizan las interacciones entre las posiciones intelectuales de los autonomistas cubanos y su idea de la nacionalidad, y la utilización que de la "raza" hicieron los científicos criollos. En una primera parte, se estudian los debates en torno a los pobladores "ideales" con los que constituir una nación moderna y "civilizada", que alejara de Cuba el fantasma de la "africanización". La segunda parte del trabajo se centra en el análisis de la publicación cultural más importante del momento, como fue la Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. Una publicación al servicio de una ciencia criolla, en la que se expuso el concepto de nacionalidad y el proyecto político de los autonomistas, compartido por la mayoría de los científicos cubanos. Palabras Clave: Cuba, ciencia criolla, autonomismo, intelectuales, nacionalidad. ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the interactions between the Cuban Autonomists, their intellectual positions and their ideas about "nationality", and the use of the concept of "race" made by the Criollo scientists. The first part studies debates on the "ideal" settlers for the forming of a modern and "civilized" nation, which would remove the spectre of "Africanization" from Cuba. The second part of this work is focused on the analysis of the most important cultural review of the time, the Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. It was in this publi- cation —which acted as the voice of Criollo science— that the concept of nationality and the political project of the Autonomists, which was shared by most of the Cuban scientists, was expressed. Key words: Cuba, Criollo Science, Autonomism, Intellectuals, Nationality.

  19. A New Approach to Health Services and Pharmacy in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Alina M

    2015-12-01

    In December 17, 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama surprised the world by announcing his intention to enter into negotiations aimed at reestablishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Since then, expectations and interest regarding the health system of that country have increased. This report focuses on the Cuban health and pharmacy systems from a practical and educational standpoint. Pharmaceutical services, strengths, opportunities, and challenges are described. Cuba's new trends toward patient-centered care are analyzed to provide insights for developing pharmaceutical care practice and implementing policies suitable for practice in all health care settings.

  20. Recent trends in Cuba's mining and petroleum industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacaster, Susan; Baker, Michael S.; Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Textoris, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    In response to recent diplomatic developments between Cuba and the United States, the National Minerals Information Center compiled available information on the mineral industries of Cuba. This fact sheet highlights a new map and table that identify mines, mineral processing facilities, and petroleum facilities as well as information on location, operational status, and ownership. It also addresses the current status of known mineral industry projects, historical developments, and trends of the Cuban economy with an emphasis on mineral industries, and the supply and demand for Cuba’s mineral resources.

  1. Nueva especie de Loxostethus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Diaperini) para Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Orlando H.; Gutierrez, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    El género Loxostethus fue descrito por Triplehorn (1962), describiendo las especies fasciatus y opacifrons para Cuba, jamaicensis para Jamaica, y unicolor para Puerto Rico. Todas fueron halladas en hongos, y si bien no han sido reportadas de la Isla de Santo Domingo no es de extrañar que eventualmente aparezcan. Zayas (1989) describió L. quadrimaculata para Trinidad, Cuba-sin embargo, esta última especie cae dentro de la variación individual de L. fasciatus de acuerdo a la descripción de Trip...

  2. The Cuba-Florida plant-pest pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Penca, Cory; Adams, Damian C.; Huler, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Recent shifts in US policies towards Cuba suggest a relaxation or lifting of the embargo may occur in the near future. With the prospects of open travel and trade with Cuba come concerns over the introduction of agricultural pests. In an effort to assess these concerns the distribution-based introduction risk of pests listed in the 2015 Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey’s (CAPS) list of priority pests of economic and environmental importance is reviewed. Of the 59 pests on the CAPS priorit...

  3. A New Approach to Health Services and Pharmacy in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Alina M

    2015-12-01

    In December 17, 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama surprised the world by announcing his intention to enter into negotiations aimed at reestablishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Since then, expectations and interest regarding the health system of that country have increased. This report focuses on the Cuban health and pharmacy systems from a practical and educational standpoint. Pharmaceutical services, strengths, opportunities, and challenges are described. Cuba's new trends toward patient-centered care are analyzed to provide insights for developing pharmaceutical care practice and implementing policies suitable for practice in all health care settings. PMID:26684551

  4. Smoking prevalence in Cienfuegos City, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Mikhail; Espinosa, Alfredo; Morejón, Alain; Diez, Emiliano; Landrove, Orlando; Ordúñez, Pedro O

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Over the last 40 years, high smoking prevalence has been reported throughout Cuba, including in Cienfuegos city in the central part of the island. OBJECTIVES Determine smoking prevalence and potential associated risk factors in Cienfuegos city for 2010-2011. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Cienfuegos city in the context of CARMEN (Collaborative Action for Risk Factor Prevention & Effective Management of Non-communicable Diseases), a PAHO multi-country initiative for a multidimensional approach to chronic non-communicable diseases. Participants totaled 2193 (aged 15-74 years), randomly selected through complex probabilistic three-stage sampling. Variables examined in relation to smoking included age, sex, skin color, civil status and educational level. RESULTS Approximately 25% of those surveyed were smokers (30.3% of men and 21.0% of women). For men, prevalence was highest in the groups aged 25-34 and 55-64 years; for women, in the group aged 45-54 years. Concerning skin color, smoking rates were higher among black and mestizo persons (29.5%); and concerning civil status, higher among those who were separated, widowed or divorced (30.0%). Smoking prevalence fell with higher educational level; in keeping with that trend, the university-educated group had the lowest prevalence (16.2%). CONCLUSIONS Although one in four Cienfuegos residents aged ≥15 years smoked in 2010-2011, prevalence there is lower than in previous surveys. Knowledge of differences observed in age, sex, skin color, civil status and educational level can be useful for planning future smoking prevention and control actions.

  5. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  6. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  7. Courting the future: cancer and genetics in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Describing this double issue of MEDICC Review could be an exercise for a first-year philosophy course in logic. It's not about "cancer and genetics" in Cuba. It's about cancer in Cuba and about genetics in Cuba, not about exploring relationships between them. Nevertheless, while the marriage of the two themes was fortuitous, in that the two had long been scheduled for the journal in 2014, there is a certain felicity to their sharing an issue. To date, the outstanding accomplishments of genetics have been most helpful for conditions occurring at the beginning of life and cancer is largely (though not exclusively) a disease related to aging. But the two are intrinsically connected: Although only a few of the more than 100 different diseases grouped under the term cancer are known to be hereditary, every cancer begins with a mutation in one or more genes, whether the mutation is inherited, due to an exposure, or is simply a random error in the millions of cell divisions that are part and parcel of cellular reproduction. Our cover image, a stained-glass window by Cuban artist Rosa María de la Terga at Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center, illustrates the elegance of the DNA molecule, the intricate key to life.

  8. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years. PMID:21506308

  9. Disaster management and multihazard risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The success, statistically proved, of the civil defense system in Cuba have been justified differently worldwide. While some experts relate this fact to the social welfare others debate about the forced evacuation. Beside, the long term development of disaster reduction in the country is commonly fo

  10. From the Outreach Front! IAC Conference in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Zafra M.

    2003-04-01

    This articles summarizes the 17th Conference of Chemistry, held in Santiago de Cuba, December 4-6, 2002, which was attended by a group of 13 chemical educators. The trip was organized by the International Activities Committee of the Division of Chemical Education.

  11. Some Interesting Data About Women Physicists in Cuba (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fuentes, Olimpia Arias

    2009-04-01

    Although the number of women physicists in Cuba, as in the entire world, is less than men physicists, their presence in the academic leadership is strong, unlike the limited women's role in many other countries. Some interesting numeral data are presented to demonstrate this affirmation. This fact emphasizes the advantages reached by women and the increasing prestige obtained by women physicists in our country.

  12. Economic evaluation of seawater desalination in Cuba using DEEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: DEEP is a Desalination Economic Evaluation Programme developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The version 3 of DEEP (DEEP-3.0) was acquired and implemented in the country as a result of the cooperation between the IAEA and Cuba. The above-mentioned programme has been used in the national project 'Feasibility of seawater desalination in Cuba', which will be implemented in the 2005 - 2007 triennium. This project is aimed at analyzing different technologies of seawater desalination so as to determine the most feasible technology for Cuba from the technical and economic viewpoints. DEEP was used in the economic evaluation of different desalination plants with reverse osmosis (RO) technology. Real data obtained from the RO plant performance such as required capacity, modular unit size, seawater pump efficiency, feed salinity, and design flux as well as data of the RO plant costs was used. The selected energy source was grid electricity (stand-alone RO). The results obtained from the modeling of the desalination plant located at the Cayo Largo Island (at the Southern portion of Cuba) are shown. The RO plant, which uses Italian technology, has a capacity of 1000 m3/day. The paper presents the results of the sensitivity analyses by changing the interest rate, total capacity of the desalination plant, feed salinity, feed temperature and purchased electricity cost. (author)

  13. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal indication

  14. A New Look at the Literacy Campaign in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    1978-01-01

    Based on interviews in Cuba and publications generally unavailable in the U.S., author examines history and success of Cuban literacy campaign. Outlines logistical/pedagogical challenges; describes recruitment and training of volunteer teachers and development of instructional methods. Concludes with case studies illustrating application of Paulo…

  15. Erosion of the beach of Historic Varadero, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaput, N.; Koenis, M.P.T.; Nooij, R.; Sikkema, T.; Van der Waardt, T.P.

    2007-01-01

    Master project report. This report handles the erosion problems on the main tourist resort of Cuba, Varadero, situated on the Peninsula de Hicacos. With a length of 22 km, a maximum width of 500 m, The Peninsula de Hicacos constitutes a natural barrier separating the shallow waters of Cardenas Bay f

  16. Antenatal cytogenetic testing in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rosado, Luis A; Quiñones, Olga; Molina, Odalys; González, Nereida; del Sol, Marylin; Maceiras, Luanda; Bravo, Yomisleidy

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antenatal cytogenetic testing was started in Havana in 1984, as a diagnostic option for fetal chromosome complement. The techniques applied are amniocyte culture, chorionic villus sampling, cordocentesis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells. OBJECTIVE Describe the results of antenatal cytogenetic testing in the cytogenetic laboratory of the Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center in Havana, from 1984 through 2012. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was carried out of the 22,928 pregnant women who had antenatal testing with conclusive results during the period 1984-2012. Information was obtained from laboratory databases for four antenatal diagnostic techniques. Variables studied were: antenatal diagnostic method, indications for genetic testing, type of chromosomal abnormality detected and couple's decision concerning pregnancy continuation if hereditary disease was diagnosed. Results were reported in absolute numbers and percentages. RESULTS Overall positivity was 2.8% (641 cases). Of the total, 20,565 samples were from amniocyte culture (558 positive cases, 2.7%); 1785 chorionic villus sampling (38 positive, 2.1%); 407 cord blood culture (28 positive, 6.9%); and 171 fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells (17 positive, 9.9%). Advanced maternal age was the predominant indication for amniocyte culture and chorionic villus sampling. Positivity was higher for the two less frequently used methods, cordocentesis (6.9% positivity) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (9.9%). The predominant chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome, with 45.4% of cases detected (291/641; 279 pure lines and 12 mosaic trisomies), followed by Edward syndrome with 12% (77/641, 71 pure lines and 6 mosaics) and Patau syndrome 4.7% (30/641, 27 pure lines and 3 mosaics). Sexual aneuploidy with pure lines affected 6.9% of cases (44/641) and with mosaicism 4.7% (30/641). Structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 22.5% of cases

  17. [Some general considerations concerning Cuba's population policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana Martinez, L

    1978-01-01

    The policies developed in Cuba after the revolution that influenced population were primarily intended to alter basic structures hindering social and economic development rather than to affect population growth. Fertility has declined rapidly from 35.1/1000 in 1963 to a preliminary figure of 19.8/1000 in 1977, and interprovincial differences have significantly lessened. Factors influencing the decline include the increased participation of women in economic activities, improved access to contraception, the higher cultural level of couples and especially women made possible through adult education, and increased urbanization following the agrarian reform. Infant mortality declined from about 80/1000 live births in the late 1950s to 24.6/1000 live births in 1977, while mortality for 1-4 year olds is now 1.1/1000. Maternal mortality declined from 10.7/10,000 live births in 1965 to 4.6 in 1976. Expectation of life at birth was 70 years for both sexes in 1976. The most significant factors in the mortality decline appear to have been general improvements in material standards and the disappearance of nutritional deficiencies in children and mothers, creation of the National Health System which offers free health care nationwide, and improved educational levels. By the beginning of the century 40% of the urban population resided in places with over 2000 inhabitants. In 1953 the proportion was 51.4% and Havana contained 23% of the national population. The policy of the Revolution has been to exploit the natural resources of the entire country and to reform agriculture and livestock raising. The growth rate of the urban population between 1953 and 1970 of 3.1% was only slightly higher than the growth rate of 2.19% of the entire country. Havana grew by only 2.2% during the same time, and by only 1.3% between 1971-74. Intermediate cities increased their share of the total population from 10.6% in 1958 to 17.3% in 1970. Government programs to orient migration toward

  18. Pesticide use, alternatives and workers' health in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R; Anderson, P K

    1984-01-01

    Cuba provides a unique example of a country that is actively implementing a program to reduce its dependence on pesticides. This paper addresses Cuba's current efforts to develop and implement alternatives to pesticides and legislation to limit exposure and protect workers in the interim. In 1980 Cuba embarked on a national program to utilize alternatives to chemical pest control. This three-part program includes expansion of knowledge of Cuban agro-ecology in order to implement cultural control practices; research and implementation on biological control of pests; and research on plant resistance and development of resistant crop varieties. To date, the program has enabled Cuba to reduce pesticide usage in sugar cane, citrus, tobacco, corn, and vegetable crops, among others. While alternatives to chemical pest control are being developed, the Cubans are paying special attention to regulating pesticide use and the safety of workers and members of the public exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition to the Resolution on Health and Safety (1967) and the Safety and Health Law (1978) which cover all workers, including Cuba's 250,000 agricultural workers, the Ministry of Public Health promulgated Resolution 335 in 1967. This resolution addresses requirements and administration of structural pest control, production, importation, transport and storage of pesticides, as well as requirements for worker contact with pesticides, pesticides for domestic use, aerial application of pesticides, and violations of the regulations. The paper concludes with a description of how the system works on the provincial level, as exemplified by Villa Clara, and the steps that have been taken to eliminate worker exposure to pesticides, to utilize pesticides which pose less of a hazard to workers, and to assure early detection of ill effects.

  19. La tuberculosis pulmonar, enfermedad reemergente en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita González Tapia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sr. Editor: La tuberculosis es una de las enfermedades remergentes en Cuba; por ello en todas las provincias cubanas se trabaja con mucha fuerza, dedicación y profesionalidad con respecto a esta problemática. En este contexto, resulta muy acertada la publicación del artículo “Algunas variables clínico-epidemiológicas de la tuberculosis pulmonar. Puerto Padre, 2008-2012”, que salió en el Vol.38 No.6.01 del mes de junio de 2013 de la Revista Electrónica Dr. Zoilo E. Marinello Vidaurreta; tanto por el significado social que reviste la divulgación de este tema, como por el propio resultado de la investigación realizada. La historia de la tuberculosis es un tema apasionante. En pocas enfermedades es posible documentar su estrecha relación con la historia de la propia humanidad como en la que nos ocupa. Existen evidencias paleológicas de tuberculosis vertebral en momias egipcias que datan aproximadamente del año 2400 a.C. La tuberculosis se ha conocido a través de la historia, con los nombres de: tisis, consunción, escrófula, mal de Pott, plaga blanca y mal del rey.1 En el artículo se plantea como conclusión que la tendencia de la tuberculosis en el quinquenio de estudio es estacionaria, pero en los últimos cuatro años tiende al ascenso. En los casos diagnosticados de tuberculosis en este quinquenio más de dos tercios correspondieron al sexo masculino y mayores de 45 años, las ocupaciones que más prevalecieron fueron recluso, desocupado, ama de casa y jubilado. Los factores de riesgo que más se relacionaron fueron el albergamiento prolongado en instituciones cerradas, el alcoholismo, y la edad mayor de 65 años; la forma clínica de mayor incidencia en casi la totalidad de los pacientes fue la pulmonar y, dentro de ella, los casos con baciloscopia positiva. Hubo fallas en el diagnóstico, ya que alrededor de la mitad de los casos se diagnosticaron en la atención secundaria y con un tiempo de demora de más de dos meses de

  20. La Educacion de los Jesuitas en Cuba durante el Siglo XVI (1566-1574) (Jesuit Education in Cuba during the 16th Century (1566-1574).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes

    2000-01-01

    Explains the relationship between Spanish colonialism in Cuba, evangelization of the Indians, and the origins of Cuban culture, as well as the role the Jesuits played in this process of transculturation. Analyzes the first phase in the history of the educational work of the Jesuits in Cuba (1566-1574). (BT)

  1. Radium-226 on drinking water of Camaguey, Cuba; Radio-226 en agua potable de Camaguey, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Barrera Caballero, Aldo [Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear, Camaguey (Cuba)]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Escalante, Alexander [Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiologia, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water of Camaguey city, Cuba, was measured using the emanometric method. The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water ranged from 15 {+-} 5 mBq.l{sup -1} to 39 {+-}12 mBq.l{sup -1}. The mean specific activity of Ra-226 was found to be 27 {+-} 8 mBq.l{sup -1}. No seasonal variation was found. Water samples were collected from the two main sources of drinking water: private wells and governmental water supply system, being the mean specific activities of Ra-226: 25 {+-} 7 mBq.l{sup -1} and 31 {+-} 9 mBq.l{sup -1} , respectively. Based upon measured concentrations the age-dependent associated effective doses due to the ingestion of Ra-226, as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water, have been calculated. For the age interval 1 year to 5 years, the average effective dose was 6,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, and for adults the average effective dose was 5,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  2. Two decades of re-aligning mundane entrepreneurship in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Scarpaci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo examina cómo los pequeños empresarios en Cuba perciben sus entornos internos y externos en un país que regula fuertemente la emergencia de una clase empresarial. Partimos del concepto de intercambios cotidianos o emprendimiento mundano que fue desarrollado originalmente en la ex Unión Soviética, como un lente para comprender el comportamiento de los actores no estatales tanto en Cuba como en la ex Unión Soviética. Nuestro estudio de caso se enmarca en un contexto social e identifica cómo los empresarios cubanos se sostienen fuera del mercado. El resultado es un reajuste en el cual el emprendimiento cubano muestra varias características similares al sistema soviético llamado blat; al mismo tiempo que revela atributos que le son únicos.

  3. La postemancipación y trabajo en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zeuske

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los procesos de transculturación y fecundación mutua entre los espacios de trabajo en la postemancipación. El caso de Cuba es complejo, pues se dio en una época de desestructuración progresiva de la esclavitud, jalonada por guerras anticoloniales y una modernización tecnológica ininterrumpida. Se argumenta que aunque las condiciones de trabajo no mejoraron en lo sustancial, sí lo hizo la división sexual del trabajo, los patrones de movilidad, y el acceso a la propiedad informal de la tierra. La modernización de Cuba como productor azucarero introdujo fuerzas de inmenso calado en las luchas sociales del período.

  4. Cuba's transition to market-based energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1960 the Soviet Union has been, for all practical purposes, Cuba's exclusive supplier of energy products. For certain time periods, Soviet sales of oil and oil products to Cuba were made at concessional prices; prior to 1991, they were priced using transferable rubles and were essentially bartered for Cuban goods, especially sugar. Effective January 1, 1991, the Soviet Union shifted to world market prices and convertible currency payments for all traded commodities, including energy products. The shift to market prices and convertible currencies in Cuban-Soviet energy trade has already brought - or is likely to bring - a number of adjustments in four areas: (1) the trade balance; (2) the ability to reexport oil and oil products; (3) energy consumption patterns; (4) and the structure of energy supplies. 33 refs., 8 tabs

  5. Europa y Estados Unidos ante los Derechos Humanos en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Gratius

    2008-01-01

    de la UE no han sido estrategias eficaces para promover los derechos humanos en la isla. Al ser diferentes, las políticas de la UE y EEUU incluso han contribuido a mantener el régimen castrista en el poder: la UE por su reconocimiento diplomático y la cooperación económica; EEUU, al proporcionar una imagen de enemigo externo. Por ello, y ante el nuevo panorama que ofrece el cambio de gobierno en Cuba, la próxima revisión de la Posición Común de la UE y las elecciones presidenciales en EEUU, es necesario replantearse los objetivos y estrategias políticas para incentivar los derechos humanos en Cuba.

  6. Modelling the uv/x-ray cosmic background with CUBA

    CERN Document Server

    Haardt, F; Haardt, Francesco; Madau, Piero

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, I will describe the features of the numerical code CUBA, aimed at the solution of the radiative transfer equation in a cosmological context. CUBA will be soon available for public use at the URL http://pitto.mib.infn.it/~haardt/, allowing for several user-supplied input parameters, such as favourite cosmology, luminosity functions, Type II object evolution, stellar spectra, and many others. I will also present some new results of the UV/X-ray cosmic background as produced by the observed populations of QSOs and star forming galaxies, updating and extending our previous works. The background evolution is complemented with a number of derived quantities such as the ionization and thermal state of the IGM, the HeII opacity, the HI and HeII ionization rates, and the HI, HeII and Compton heating rates.

  7. China, Global Governance and the Future of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian H. Hearn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s deepening engagement with Latin America has been accompanied by concerns about the Chinese government’s regard for international conventions of economic governance. Critics claim that across Latin America and the Caribbean, Chinese aid and trade are characterised by excessive state intervention. This article argues that, for two reasons, the rationale for these misgivings is dissipating. First, since the onset of the global financial crisis, China has gained influence in multilateral institutions, prompting them toward greater acceptance of public spending in developing countries. Second, recent developments in Cuba show that China is actively encouraging the Western hemisphere’s only communist country to liberalise its economy. China sits at the crossroads of these local and global developments, prompting Cuba toward rapprochement with international norms even as it works to reform them.

  8. The Current State of Physics in Cuba: A Personal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Marcelo

    After 40 years of absence I returned twice to Cuba, in January and December of 2000, to participate as a guest lecturer in two international scientific meetings. The first dealt with physics education, and the second with current issues related to quantum mechanics. In addition to a few participants from Europe, the US and Latin America, the two meetings were well attended by Cuban physicists.

  9. CuBA - a CUDA implementation of BAMPS

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Nuno; Eilhauer, Ulrike; Bouras, Ioanni

    2012-01-01

    Using CUDA as programming language, we create a code named CuBA which is based on the CPU code "Boltzmann Approach for Many Parton Scattering (BAMPS)" developed in Frankfurt in order to study a system of many colliding particles resulting from heavy ion collisions. Furthermore, we benchmark our code with the Riemann Problem and compare the results with BAMPS. They demonstrate an improvement of the computational runtime, by one order of magitude.

  10. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Edson; Bello, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF); but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG) isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66), subtype C (n≥10), subtype G (n≥8) and CRF18_cpx (n≥2) viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I) and B(CU-II)), east Africa (clade C(CU-I)) and central Africa (clades G(CU), CRF18(CU) and CRF19(CU)), or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG). Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  11. Modelling urban bus transport emissions in Santiago de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, James; Avila, Jordi Mirabent

    2010-01-01

    This study described and focuses on the public transport bus system in Santiago de Cuba. Specifically we explore the fuel consumption of the various diesel buses over a three year period from 2007 to 2009 and with a forecast for the forthcoming years. The study considers the potential for fuel savings through a variety of methods which are each described and then modelled. Pollution is also calculated for a variety of scenarios and some suggestions are made in order to lower the overall...

  12. Hotel management in Cuba and the transfer of best practices

    OpenAIRE

    Cerviño, Julio; Bonache, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the management challenges faced by international hotel operators when applying universally accepted management principles to the Cuban hospitality market. The authors use both secondary and primary research sources based on fieldwork carried out in Cuba during the first semester of 2003 and a later visit during the months of December 2003 and January 2004. Eight in depth interviews were conducted with senior executives of Cuban, Span...

  13. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Delatorre

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF; but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66, subtype C (n≥10, subtype G (n≥8 and CRF18_cpx (n≥2 viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I and B(CU-II, east Africa (clade C(CU-I and central Africa (clades G(CU, CRF18(CU and CRF19(CU, or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG. Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  14. EL LARGO COMPROMISO DE CANADÁ CON CUBA: PARADOJAS Y POSIBILIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas LEGLER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros actores es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales.

  15. Holocene Caribbean climate variability reconstructed from speleothems from western Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Fensterer, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Proxy records o ffer a high potential tool to investigate past climate variability. Stalagmites as a natural archive have the advantage that they are absolutely datable and past changes in precipitation or temperature can be highly resolved by the use of stable isotopes such as d18O and d13C. This study uses three stalagmites from north-western Cuba to investigate past precipitation variability in the Northern Caribbean. The records cover the whole Holocene and reveal variability on several t...

  16. Mathematics and Physics in Cuba Before 1959: A Personal Recollection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, José

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the formal inauguration of the Republic of Cuba (May 20, 1902), the then Historian of the City of Havana, Emilio Roig de Leuchsenring, decided to publish a memorial volume which would include various special studies on the progress made in the country during the preceding half century with regard to specific aspects of national collective life. The volume, entitled Facetas de la vida de Cuba republicana, 1902-1952 (Facets of Life in Republican Cuba, 1902-1952) appeared in print in 1954. Its publication was delayed—as Roig explained in his prologue, somewhat cryptically—"due to causes beyond our control or of that of the Cuban writers to whom we entrusted the preparation of the said studies." Needless to say, the causes referred to were none other than those derived from the atmosphere of political unrest in the country after the military coup staged in March 1952 by former strongman, General Batista.

  17. Tricontinental Routes of Solidarity: Stokely Carmichael in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Seidman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stokely Carmichael’s visit to Cuba for three weeks in the summer of 1967 illustrates a convergence in the transnational routes of the African American freedom struggle and the Cuban Revolution. African American activists saw Cuba as a model for resisting US power, eradicating racism, and enacting societal change, while the Cuban government considered African Americans allies against US imperialism and advocates of Cuba’s antiracist stance. Amidst racial violence in the United States and Cuba’s efforts to inspire revolution, Carmichael’s presence at the Organization of Latin American Solidarity conference in Havana—and in particular his interactions with Fidel Castro—caused ripples worldwide. A shared “tricontinental” vision that promoted unity in the Global South against imperialism, capitalism, and racism facilitated Carmichael’s solidarity with Castro. Yet divergent views on the role of race in fighting oppression limited their solidarity. Carmichael and Castro’s spectacular alliance demonstrated their personal affinity and ideological commonalities but did not result in an institutional alliance between the black liberation movement and the Cuban state. Instead Carmichael’s connection with the Cuban Revolution left an underexplored legacy. Examining Carmichael’s visit to Cuba illustrates the possibilities and pitfalls of transnational solidarity and furthers our understanding of postwar struggles for change.

  18. CUBA: TRANSICIÓN, SUCESIÓN, ESTABILIDAD, SEGURIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ROY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto durante el último periodo de la administración de George W. Bush como con Barack Obama ya asentado en la Casa Blanca. Sin embargo, las delicadas circunstancias de Cuba (precariedad económica, desastres naturales, dependencia alimentaria y energética, etc. señalan que la prioridad de los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos se centran primero en la estabilidad del escenario. Incluso al precio del retraso de la evolución del régimen, un cierto grado de seguridad es necesario para enfrentarse a los riesgos de una emigración incontrolada y las hipotéticas tensiones internas que provoquen confrontaciones.

  19. Fire protection system at the Juragua nuclear power plant, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the general fire protection system at the Juragua nuclear power plant in Cuba. The factors which led to the construction of the first nuclear power plant in Cuba and the planning of others in the near future are outlined. Reference is made to existing Cuban legislation on fire protection, particularly with regard to the protection of facilities which constitute a radiation hazard. Attention is drawn to the fact that, although Cuba does not have much experience in this area, considerable work has been done in a brief span of time on legislation, standardization and monitoring in nuclear facilities in order to guarantee safe operating conditions. The potential risk of fires at the Juragua plant under normal and accident conditions is analysed, and the technical and organizational measures required to minimize existing risks are discussed in the light of this analysis. The basis for determining the manpower and equipment needed by the plant's fire protection service is also defined. Finally, certain criteria concerning the special psychological and technical qualities required of personnel, as well as the necessary qualifications and training, are presented. The point is made that very little has been published at the international level on this subject and that it is a research area which deserves more attention. The serious, responsible attitude adopted in designing the plant's fire protection system, with a view to achieving optimum safety conditions during operation, is also highlighted. (author)

  20. Radioactive waste management national policy and strategy in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the use of sources of ionizing radiation, radioactive wastes are generated which require an adequate management in conditions of radiological safety and protection during all phases; from their generation to their final disposal, for protecting human health and the environment, both currently and in the future, without imposing undue burden upon the next generations. Therefore there was a need for the establishment of a National Policy and Strategy with regard to the management of the radioactive wastes generated, in a way such that allows long term considerations in conception and vision, having as a reference; the legal framework in force in Cuba, the IAEA's recommendations, as well as the diagnosis and assessment of the current and future situation in Cuba. This work deals with key issues for the safe management of the radioactive wastes such as; objectives and goals, responsibilities and role of the organizations involved in the management, possible management options for each type of radioactive waste generated in the country, manpower and funding for an adequate management, control over the generation of the radioactive wastes, and the need for availability of a facility for their final disposal, among other issues. The Policy and Strategy for the management of radioactive wastes will serve as a basis for the users/facilities, that generate and manage radioactive wastes, to draft their own strategies, and for the achievement of a harmonized level of radioactive wastes in the country. Furthermore, they would contribute to enhance the National Environmental Strategy implemented in Cuba. (author)

  1. Zero in on postpartum hemorrhage to reduce Cuba's maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Águila, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the most frequent cause of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and the first direct cause of maternal death in most countries. In Africa and Asia, it accounts for about one third of all maternal deaths. Put more graphically: worldwide, one woman dies every minute from PPH. Defined as blood loss of ≥500 mL after vaginal birth or ≥1000 mL after cesarean delivery, PPH can be fatal in just two hours. In Cuba, between 2000 and 2012, maternal deaths directly related to obstetric causes totaled 410, 24.1% of which occurred postpartum, with PPH the leading cause.[1] While Cuba is among the Latin American countries with lowest maternal mortality, the decline has been slow over the last 20 years: in 1998, direct maternal mortality was 26.5 per 100,000 live births and in 2012, the rate was 21.5. This is troubling and deserves careful study, especially given that Cuba has a single, unified health system supported by significant political will-determining factors in important advances made in maternal-child health on par with wealthier countries.

  2. Towards active community participation in dengue vector control: results from action research in Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, M E; Vanlerberghe, V.; Baly, A.; Ceballos, E.; Valdes, L.; Searret, M.; Boelaert, M; Van der Stuyft, P.

    2007-01-01

    Community participation is advocated as essential for attaining effective dengue prevention, but knowledge of how to foster this is limited. In Santiago de Cuba, multiple small task forces were created at the neighbourhood level that included all stakeholders in the control of Aedes aegypti. The task forces assessed the perceived needs and elaborated action plans to promote specific behavioural change and to reduce environmental risks through social communication strategies and intersectoral ...

  3. MÚSICA CAMPESINA Y CULTURA POPULAR EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radisbel Galán Rizo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La música campesina en Cuba constituye la base fundamental para el estudio de la cultura del país. En ella confluye junto a escasos elementos de la población aborigen las culturas de diferentes etnias que conformaron el amplio mosaico cultural de la Isla siendo la música campesina síntesis inequívoca de este proceso. A través de un análisis crítico, se tomaron en consideración ideas planteadas por varios autores, lo que permite enriquecer los términos y la comprensión del tema. El estudio de la realidad posibilitó analizar la presencia de la música campesina en el contexto nacional a través de sus componentes étnicos, motivaciones, características, rasgos originales, evolución histórica y social como parte indisoluble en la conformación de la nación y su salvaguarda como reafirmación de identidad. De esta forma, el presente texto responde a la insuficiencia de información acerca de los esfuerzos para la salvaguarda y rescate de la tradición musical campesina en Cuba. PALABRAS CLAVE: Música campesina; cultura popular; identidad. THE CONTRY MUSIC AND POPULAR CULTURE IN CUBA ABSTRACT The country music in Cuba is the fundamental for the study of the country's culture base. It converges with few elements of Aboriginal people from different ethnic cultures that shaped the broad cultural mosaic of the island country music being unequivocal synthesis of this process. Through critical analysis, were taken into consideration ideas raised by several authors, allowing enrich the terms and understanding of the subject. The study of reality allowed analyze the presence of country music in the national context through its ethnic components, motivations, characteristics, original features, historical and social evolution as an indissoluble part in shaping the nation and its protection as a reaffirmation of identity. Thus, this text responds to insufficient information on efforts to safeguard and rescue of peasant musical

  4. Higher Education in Cuba in the 2000s: Past and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, Elvira Martin

    This paper reviews the development of higher education in Cuba and its current status. Current educational development in Cuba is the result of more than four decades of sustained social and political endeavor. Three main features of this development have been identified. The first is the absolute commitment of the state to the educational…

  5. 77 FR 23598 - Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List: Addition of Recently Approved Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... FR 5058) that amended the CBP regulations to establish such procedures and airport eligibility... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection 19 CFR Part 122 Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List... from Cuba. DATES: Effective: April 20, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Arthur A.E. Pitts, Sr.,...

  6. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 2--Origins and Ministry of Protestant Seminaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the main Protestant theological seminaries in Cuba: Western Cuba Baptist Seminary, Cedars of Lebanon Seminary, The New Pines Evangelical Seminary, Evangelical Theological Seminary, Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Center, Nazarene Theological Seminary and International School of Theology. The history and…

  7. Estudo temporal das doenças associadas à AIDS no Brasil, 1980-1999 Temporal trends in AIDS-associated opportunistic infections in Brazil, 1980-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estimadas as incidências de condições associadas (CA à AIDS/100 casos de AIDS em adultos (> 12 anos, a nível nacional, de 1980 a maio de 1999. A análise incluiu qui-quadrado e regressão linear simples. As CA analisadas foram candidíase (CD, tuberculose (TB, pneumonia por Pneumocystis carinii (PCP, neurotoxoplasmose(NT, Herpes, Sarcoma de Kaposi (SK, meningite criptocócica (MC e infecções por protozoários (IP. As incidências acumuladas/100 casos de AIDS foram: CD = 59, TB = 26, PCP = 23, NT = 15, Herpes = 12, SK = 5, MC = 4 e IP = 4. A tendência anual indicou queda estatisticamente significativa em todas as CA. Entretando, houve aumento na incidência de TB (b = 0,39 e NT (b = 0,20, para as regiões Nordeste e Centro-Oeste, respectivamente. TB apresentou maior incidência entre aqueles com baixa escolaridade (Trends in annual incidence of reported AIDS-associated opportunistic infections (OI/100 adults > 12 years old among AIDS cases were estimated at the national level in Brazil from 1980 through May 1999. The analysis included chi-square and linear regression modeling. The opportunistic infections included: candidiasis (CD, tuberculosis (TB, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP, neurotoxoplasmosis (NT, Kaposi sarcoma (KS, cryptococcal meningitis (CM, and protozoa infections (PI. The overall cumulative incidence rates/100 reported AIDS cases were: CD = 59, TB = 26, PCP = 23, NT = 15, KS = 5, CM = 4, and PI = 4. Annual trends indicated a statistically significant decline in all OIs. However, in the Northeast and Central-West regions there were increases in TB (b = 0.39 and NT (b = 0.20, respectively. TB showed a higher incidence among individuals with less schooling (< 8 years, while PCP and KS had higher incidence rates among those with 8 or more years of schooling, despite similar downward trends. Access to antiretroviral therapy and OI prophylaxis may partially explain these results. However, data reliability, delay in reporting, OI incidence after AIDS, and reporting and diagnostic criteria are factors that also need to be carefully assessed.

  8. Cuatro aspectos del sector construcción, en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas, Julián

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Under the common title of «Four Aspects of the Construction Sector in Cuba», we gather some other works, to a certain extent different in theme and focus, but which globally may help to outline both the present level of the technical development of the construction sector and its potential installed. There is described in the «Technical Center of Construction and Materials», which is a basic institution and one which promotes the technological development of the sector. In another work are reviewed the construction systems employed in Cuba, both autochthonous and foreign, as these systems are the basis and support of Cuban construction. In the third place there is reproduced a punctual aspect of the research work being carried out in ICIDCA (Research Center of the élite of Cuba; it deals with the employment of megasse in the production of agglomerates for use in construction. The panorama finalizes with a brief, schematical resume of the construction of industrial buildings of one storey, by means of prefabricated elements or of industrial origin, which respond to some strict conditions and which are carried out following rigorous rules of the project. We understand that the ensemble of these four facets constitutes a significant sample of that plural prism and ensemble which Is the construction sector of any country.Bajo el título común de «Cuatro Aspectos del Sector Construcción, en Cuba», recogemos otros tantos trabajos, en cierto modo dispares de temática y enfoque, pero que globalmente pueden ayudar a perfilar tanto el nivel actual del desarrollo técnico del sector construcción, como su potencial instalado. Se describe el «Centro Técnico de la Construcción y los Materiales» a modo de institución básica e impulsora del desarrollo tecnológico sectorial. Se pasa revista, en otro trabajo, a los sistemas constructivos empleados en Cuba, tanto autóctonos como foráneos, por ser estos sistemas la base y soporte real del

  9. Alternative interpretation for the active zones of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Mario Octavio Cotilla

    2014-11-01

    An alternative explanation to the seismoactivity of Cuban faults is presented. The model is a consequence of the interaction between Caribbean and North American plates. It is made with 12 geodynamic cells form by a set of 13 active faults and their 14 areas of intersection. These cells are recognized morpho-structural blocks. The area between Eastern Matanzas and Western Cauto-Nipe is excluded because of the low level of seismic information. Cuba has two types of seismogenetic structures: faults and intersection of faults.

  10. First molecular evidence of Coxiella burnetii infecting ticks in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Angel A; Rodríguez, Islay; Miranda, Jorge; Contreras, Verónica; Mattar, Salim

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. In order to explore the occurrence of C. burnetii in ticks, samples were collected from horses, dogs and humans living in a Cuban occidental community. The species most commonly recovered were Amblyomma mixtum (67%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (27%) and Dermacentor nitens (6%). Specific IS1111 PCR and amplicon sequencing allowed the identification of C. burnetii DNA in A. mixtum collected from a domestic horse. These findings, for first time in Cuba, indicate the need for an in-depth assessment of the C. burnetii occurrence in hosts and humans at risk of infection.

  11. Medical genetics in Cuba and its social impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith María Beltrán Molina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genetics it is the science that studies the genes of the individuals, their operation, their transmission, their alterations, their relationships with other genes and their interaction with the environment. The present article approaches aspects of great interest corresponding to this science, in the same one he/she appears reflected a summary of examples that you/they evidence the advances of the medical genetics in Cuba as well as achievements in favor of the health and the well-being of the children and the Cuban family in general that they register among the noblest ideals and it reflects the humanist and solidary character of the Cuban Revolution.

  12. Ciência em Cuba: uma aposta pela soberania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orfilio Peláez Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available No dia 15 de janeiro de 1960, o então primeiro-ministro do Governo Revolucionário, Fidel Castro Ruz, disse que o futuro de Cuba teria que ser necessariamente um futuro de homens de ciência, um futuro de homens de pensamento. Meio século depois de pronunciada tão profética frase, a ilha caribenha é um país de pesquisadores, especialistas e operários altamente qualificados, que dispõe de uma das indústrias biotecnológicas mais importantes do mundo, com resultados comparáveis aos atingidos pelas nações líderes nessa área do conhecimento, e na qual a atividade científica está a caminho de se converter numa potente força produtiva, geradora de significativo ingresso de divisas e de um bem-estar maior para a sociedade.El 15 de enero de 1960 el entonces primer ministro del Gobierno Revolucionario, Fidel Castro Ruz, dijo que el futuro de Cuba tendría que ser necesariamente un futuro de hombres de ciencia, un futuro de hombres de pensamiento. Medio siglo después de pronunciada tan profética frase, la Isla caribeña es un país de investigadores, especialistas y obreros altamente calificados, que dispone de una de las industrias biotecnológicas más pujantes del mundo, con resultados comparables a los alcanzados por las naciones líderes en esta esfera del conocimiento, y donde la actividad científica va en camino de convertirse en una potente fuerza productiva, generadora de significativos ingresos en divisas y de un mayor bienestar para la sociedad.On January 15, 1960, Fidel Castro Ruz, then prime minister of the Revolutionary Government, said that Cuba's future would necessarily have to be a future of men of science, a future of men of thought. Half a century after this prophetic announcement, the Caribbean island is a country of researchers, specialists and highly skilled workers, boasting one of the world's most important biotechnological industries, with achievements comparable to those of leading nations in this field of

  13. El edificio Bacardí en Santiago de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Lanuza Jarquín, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Encontrar los criterios que delinearon el proceso de diseño para el proyecto de oficinas de Bacardí y Compañía en Santiago de Cuba de Mies van der Rohe, poniéndolo en relación con trabajos anteriores y estableciendo criterios que se reconocen como propios de su arquitectura, y como las condicionantes que presenta esta ubicación hacen replantear a Mies otras maneras de establecer re-laciones formales, espaciales y estructurales.

  14. Turismo y cambio social en Santiago de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Iwaki, Idris M.; Beaton, Hector O.; López, Ernesto A.; Ferrer, Javier M.

    1996-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una aproximación a la influencia del turismo internacional en los cambios en la sociedad cubana. Se centra en el análisis de un espacio público representativo de la ciudad de Santiago de Cuba, el Parque Céspedes, en el que se profundiza sobre la aparición de un nuevo grupo social, «los jineteros», y su influencia sobre el resto de los grupos sociales que conviven en el parque. Por último, se plantean unos interrogantes para la reflexión sobre el fen...

  15. Isotopic hydrodynamic of the aquifer systems Jaruco and Aguacate, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isotopic dispersive model is applied to the Jaruco and Aguacate karstic groundwater basins of Western Cuba. The best fit of the model was validated with stable (18O and 2H) and radioactive (3H) isotopes. Modeling showed an aquifer stratification in two basic levels with turnover times of three month to upper level and close to 100 years to the lower level. The last one mainly supplies the base flow of the Ojo de agua and Bello springs and therefore, controls the dry season exploitation yields of the aqueducts of El Gato and Bello. Model results introduces an important constraint in the exploitation of groundwater resource of both aquifer systems

  16. Epidemiology of Suicide in Cuba, 1987-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Miranda, Beatriz; Hernández-Sánchez, Mariela; Lomba-Acevedo, Paula

    2016-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Suicide is a health problem influenced by biological, genetic, psychological, social and economic factors. It is responsible for 50% of violent deaths in the male population, worldwide, and 71% in the female. In the Americas, 65,000 deaths by suicide occur every year. It is the ninth most frequent cause of death in Cuba, and third among people aged 10-19. OBJECTIVE Characterize the epidemiology of suicide in Cuba from 1987 to 2014. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. The information comprised all records of death by suicide from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2014, in the Cuban Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database. The variables were sex, age, skin color, employment status/occupation, marital status, and method of suicide. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates and age-sex specific mortality rates were calculated, all per 100,000 population, as well as the sex ratio. Relative change over the series was calculated as a percentage. Distribution of suicides by variable was calculated and proportions expressed as percentages. RESULTS A total of 51,113 deaths by suicide were reported (annual average 1825), of which 34,671 (67.8%) were among men. The sex ratio was 2.1:1 for the entire study period, and 3.9:1 for 2011-2014. Over the course of the period studied, age-standardized suicide rates decreased from 23.9 to 10.8 per 100,000 population (54.8% reduction). The group aged ≥60 years had the highest average age-standardized rate, 44.6 per 100,000 population. The highest suicide burden by age was in the group aged 20-59 years (60.5%). By skin color, the highest burden was in those recorded as white, 68.9%. By marital status, the highest burden was in persons with a stable partner (46.7%), and by employment status/occupation, in retired (25.9%). The most commonly used method was hanging (59.4%). CONCLUSIONS Over the course of about three decades, suicide mortality rates have declined by almost half and

  17. The Spanish Language textbook in Chile and Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcelo Ayzum Echeverría

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a description and analysis of the content of textbook of Language and Communication (Spanish in Cuba considering the indispensable tasks for fostering a developmental learning. A comparative analysis of fourth year Cuban and Chilean textbook contents was carried following certain criteria that normally promote good learning practices. Once the textbooks were compared, the findings suggest that school textbooks should be selected on the basis of the criteria taken as reference, in the meantime, such criteria may lead teacher to design complementary tasks.

  18. MÚSICA CAMPESINA Y CULTURA POPULAR EN CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Radisbel Galán Rizo

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La música campesina en Cuba constituye la base fundamental para el estudio de la cultura del país. En ella confluye junto a escasos elementos de la población aborigen las culturas de diferentes etnias que conformaron el amplio mosaico cultural de la Isla siendo la música campesina síntesis inequívoca de este proceso. A través de un análisis crítico, se tomaron en consideración ideas planteadas por varios autores, lo que permite enriquecer los términos y la comprensión del tema. El...

  19. L’insegnamento della lingua e letteratura italiane a Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerìn Bello Valdés

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Nel suo articolo l’autrice ricostruisce la storia dell’insegnamento delle lingua e della letteratura italiane a Cuba dal Novecento ai giorni nostri, e fornisce una ricca documentazione sui corsi di italiano, sugli studi e  sulle opere più importanti pubblicate a Cuba sulla nostra letteratura e sulle manifestazioni realizzate per la diffusione della cultura italiana nel paese. In particolare riferisce dell’importante ruolo svolto dalla rivista “Cuadernos de italianística cubana” – e dalle istituzioni accademiche e culturali che ad essa fanno riferimento – nel campo della ricerca linguistica, della glottodidattica, dello studio della cultura italiana nelle sue diverse manifestazioni, tra cui la musica e l’opera lirica, e nella diffusione dell’italiano attraverso specifici programmi televisivi.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} In her article the author reconstructs the history of Italian language and literature teaching in Cuba from the Nineteen Hundreds up to the present and provides a wealth of documentation on the Italian courses, studies and the most important works published in Cuba on our literature, as well as on events organized to spread Italian culture throughout the country.  In particular

  20. Cuba's oil crisis spells trouble for Castro; Opportunity for foreign petroleum investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports on Cuba's oil crisis which presents long term woes for the government of Fidel Castro but new opportunities for foreign petroleum investment. That's the main thesis of a study by East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu. Since the cutoff of subsidized oil supplies from the former Soviet Union at the first of the year, Cuba has endured a crippling loss of export revenues and draconian energy rationing measures at home. The Soviets had reduced oil supplies to Cuba since 1989 after decades of providing the Castro government with subsidized oil supplies. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exempted Cuba from paying market prices for Soviet oil in 1991 while requiring that of Soviet trading partners in eastern Europe. With the collapse of Communism in the former U.S.S.R., however, oil supplies from that region are available to Cuba only at market prices and for hard currency. That has triggered a crisis in the Western Hemisphere's sole Communist regime as Cuba's gross special product - equivalent to GNP - fell by 5% in 1990 and a further 20% in 1991. The foreign exchange loss of $1.6 billion stemming from the loss of Soviet subsidized oil supplies exceeds that of total foreign exchange earnings from all other sources. If Cuba imports oil in 1989 volumes at current prices, its oil import tab alone will be $1.3 billion, EWC projects.

  1. La United Fruit Company en Cuba: Organización del trabajo y resistencia obrera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Zanetti Lecuona Lecuona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba la United Fruit actuó como una empresa azucarera, situación hasta cierto punto excepcional dentro de la especialización bananera que trazó el perfil de esa empresa a escala continental. El estudio que aquí se propone sobre las prácticas de la Compañía en Cuba, en particular respecto a su manejo de la fuerza de trabajo y las relaciones laborales, contribuye a esclarecer algunas constantes de la conducta empresarial de la United en sus diferentes ámbitos de operación.Palabras Clave: Cuba; United Fruit Company; trabajadores; condiciones de trabajo; relaciones laborales. The United Fruit Company in Cuba: Work organization and labor resistanceAbstractIn Cuba, the United Fruit Company was a sugar company, a situation to some extent exceptional in the banana profile of this company. The analysis of the practices of the United Fruit in Cuba, in particular with regard to its handling of the labor force and of labor relations, will contribute to a better knowledge of the entrepreneurial behavior of this company in its different areas of operations.Keywords: Cuba; United Fruit Company; workers; labor conditions; labor relations.

  2. Las finanzas de Cuba en el ocaso colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias García, Fe

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the repercussions of the War of Independence on the Cuban economy as a Whole. The data provided include costs per sector, their effects on exports, customs figures and collection of taxes. In addition, the author's analysis on property imposts provides the reader with information on Cuba´s financial situation and that of the landowners at the time when the reconstruction of the country began.

    En este artículo se estudian las repercusiones provocadas por la Guerra de Independencia en el conjunto de la economía cubana, así mismo se aporta información del costo por sectores, su repercusión sobre las exportaciones, los ingresos aduaneros y el cobro de impuestos, y se traza en líneas generales la situación financiera de Cuba y de los propietarios al momento de iniciarse la reconstrucción del país, a partir del estudio de los gravámenes que afectaban la propiedad.

  3. Implementation of tissue microarrays technique for cancer research in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Lahera-Sánchez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The tissue microarray (TMA technique is based on making cylindrical cores from paraffin donor blocks and transfer to a single recipient block. The TMA has revolutionized the field of pathology for the possibility to evaluate multiple samples in one slide. There is no precedent of this subject in Cuba, so the objective of this research was to implement the TMA technique. The concordance of the results obtained by complete section and the TMA were evaluated for this purpose, in the evaluation of the estrogen receptors (ER, progesterone (PR and epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER2 in samples of breast cancer. Forty-five paraffin-embedded samples from women diagnosed with breast cancer at the Institute of Oncology in 2012 were studied. Two TMA blocks were constructed, and subsequently the expression of markers ER, PR and HER2 was determined by immunohistochemistry, in the complete section of tissue and in the TMA. Kappa index was used for concordance analysis. A good concordance was obtained for all three markers (ER k=0.8272; PR k=0.793 and HER2 k=0.716. This study constitutes the first report on the TMA technique in Cuba and shows that it is a valuable tool, suggesting its potential use in translational research and clinical trials on vaccines.

  4. Cuba, Canarias y la prensa, en el contexto del 98

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Ileana Medina Hernández

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available 1898 es para España el año del Desastre, con mayúscula; 1898 es para Cuba el año de la independencia, quizá con minúscula. Canarias es la puerta de salida de Europa; Cuba es puerta la entrada de América. La migración canario - cubana ha sido un factor histórico decisivo en la formación de ambas nacionalidades. La prensa de masas naciente a fines del siglo XIX jugó un papel determinante en la guerra hispano-norteamericana y su desenlace. Conjugando esas cuatro sentencias aplastantes y archiconocidas, la investigación del reflejo del proceso independentista cubano en la prensa de canaria aporta sustanciosos elementos al conocimiento del papel de los procesos de comunicación en la historia y en la cultura de ambos archipiélagos, en el importante contexto del fin de siglo XIX.

  5. Biological indicators in Cuba. Current trends and forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction and development of biological indicators of radiation damage began in Cuba in 1986 with the creation of the department of Radiobiology at the Centre for Hygiene and Radiation Protection. The first experiences however began in Cuba in the sixties. The initial task of the work started in the 80 was to introduce the cytogenetic dosimetry. This task finalised with the consolidation of a regular cytogenetic service, currently analyses the cases of presumed overexposures in the country. Additionally a group of research projects are carried out using cytogenetic indicators among them a project with children from territories affected by the Chernobyl accident. The biochemical indicators of radiation damage were developed in a parallel way, at the moment a group of them are available.The nucleic acid concentration and oxidative stress indicators in patients selected for bone marrow transplants are in use in research projects. In the near future a comet assay and the p53 expression will be include in the list of laboratory indicators. In the paper are presented the main results obtained until the moment in the regular services, in the ongoing projects and the works planing for the future. (author)

  6. Impact of the 1970 Reforms to Cuba's National Tuberculosis Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín, Enrique

    2015-07-01

    INTRODUCTION To reach the goal of eliminating tuberculosis as a public health problem in Cuba, the epidemiological evolution of the disease and of strategies designed to prevent and manage it to date must be well understood. In this context, in 1970, changes were introduced in Cuba's National Tuberculosis Control Program. OBJECTIVE Review background and evolution of Cuba's strategy for tuberculosis control, the changes implemented in the 1970 revision of the Program, and their impact on the subsequent evolution of the disease in Cuba. METHODS Published articles on the history of tuberculosis control in Cuba were reviewed, along with archival documents and medical records. Documents concerning the situation of pulmonary tuberculosis in Cuba, including measures adopted to address the disease and its extent, were selected for study, with an emphasis on the period of the Program. Interviews with key informants were conducted. RESULTS Cuba's fight against tuberculosis began in Santiago de Cuba, with the creation of a local Anti-Tuberculosis League in 1890. Strategic changes introduced by Cuba's public health sector, stressing health promotion and disease prevention, led to the 1959 creation of the Tuberculosis Department, which implemented Cuba's first National Tuberculosis Control Program in 1963. This Program was completely reorganized in 1970. The National Tuberculosis Control Program (1963) covered a network of 27 tuberculosis dispensaries, 8 sanatoriums and 24 bacteriology laboratories. Diagnosis was based on radiographic imaging criteria. Incidence was 52.6/100,000 in 1964 and reached 31.2 in 1970. The Program was updated in 1970 to include two major changes: the requirement for bacteriological confirmation of diagnosis and directly-observed outpatient treatment fully integrated into health services. By 1971, incidence was down to 17.8/100,000, and further reduced to 11.6 in 1979. The decrease is interpreted as the result of the greater specificity of

  7. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba; Control radiologico de las exportaciones de chatarra en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez L, O.; Capote F, E.; Carrazana G, J.A.; Zerquera, J.T.; Ramos V, O.; Alonso A, D.; Fernandez, I.M.; Caveda R, C.A.; Madrazo M, S.; Barroso P, I. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600 La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: orlando@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  8. Cuba: los entornos cambiantes de la partcipación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo DILLA ALFONSO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La participación popular ha sido una permanente invocación del discurso político revolucionario cubano, particularmente en las instancias comunitarias. Este ensayo trata de analizar la evolución de los diseños, instituciones y realidades participativas a partir de su relación con las situaciones políticas y los modelos de reproducción económicos. Por su relevancia, se presta especial atención al sistema municipal cubano. Este fue creado en 1976 y ha experimentado diversas modificaciones, las más importantes de las cuales tuvieron lugar en 1992. Los cambios económicos y sociales que han tenido lugar en Cuba en los últimos diez años imponen a la participación nuevos retos, entre ellos la necesidad de una concepción más autónoma y pluralista del accionar popular en la esfera pública, lo que de alguna manera ya se expresa en algunos esfuerzos oficiales por adecuar los patrones de participación existentes (esencialmente una participación paternalista-clientelista y en la emergencia de movimientos comunitarios que intentan controlar y transformar las vidas cotidianas en los vecindarios.ABSTRACT: Popular participation has been a permanent slogan in the political discourse of revolutionary Cuba, particularly at the community level. This article deals with the design and evolution of institutions and participatory realities starting with its relation with the political situation and economic models of reproduction. Special attention is given to the municipal system created in 1976 and modified severa! times from which the most important modification was the one in 1992. The social and economic changes of Cuba during the last ten years have posed new challenges to participation such as the need for a more autonomous and pluralistic conception of "popular praxis" in the public sphere. This is present in the official efforts to adequate existing participatory norms (particularly the paternalistic-clientelistic participation and

  9. El turismo como estrategia de desarrollo en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Risco Yera, Yoel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has become an economic activity which is becoming more and more important, socially, economically and environmentally. This fact is especially relevant in the case of Cuba. The tourist activity is seen as a form of stabilising the balance of payments, a source of income and employment. However, in this times of economic and political uncertainty, the dangers of substituting the basic commodity of sugar for something else (tourism is very big and it may be necessary to revise the use of tourism as a way of future development.

    [es] El turismo se ha convertido en una actividad económica que, cada vez tiene mayor importancia en el desarrollo económico, social y medio ambiental. Este hecho adquiere una especial relevancia en el caso de Cuba. La actividad turística es vista como una forma de equilibrar la balanza de pagos, una fuente de divisas y de empleo. Sin embargo, en momentos de incertidumbre económica y política como son los actuales, los peligros de sustituir un monocultivo (del azúcar por otro (el turismo son muy grandes y se hace necesario revisar su utilización como vía para el desarrollo. [fr] Le tourisme est devenu une activité économique de plus en plus importante du point de vue économique, social et environnemental. Il s'agit là d'un fait tout particulièrement essentiel dans le cas de Cuba. L'activité touristique est abordée comme un moyen permettant d'équilibrer la balance des paiements, ainsi qu'une source de devises et d'emploi. Cependant, considérant la conjoncture actuelle d'incertitude économique et politique qui accroît les risques de remplacer une monoculture (celle du sucre par une autre (le tourisme, il est donc nécessaire de réétudier l'utilisation du tourisme en tant que voie de développement.

  10. Baseline research for action: adolescent alcohol consumption in Los Palacios Municipality, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Yolanda; Espinosa, Yairelis

    2013-04-01

    In Cuba, alcohol is an important contributor to morbidity, mortality and social problems. The foundation of Cuba's universal primary health care coverage, family doctor-and-nurse offices play a critical role in prevention, early detection and treatment of alcohol abuse. Los Palacios Municipality of the westernmost province of Pinar del Río, Cuba, is a socially complex, periurban area where alcohol abuse and alcoholism have been identified as important health problems. Adolescents constitute a population at high risk for alcohol abuse because of their receptivity to social influences, but the precise extent of the problem is unknown. This paper reports baseline findings from a survey and direct observation of alcohol consumption in the catchment area of a primary care center, conducted to inform planning for an educational intervention. KEYWORDS Alcohol, alcoholism, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, adolescence, primary health care, Cuba.

  11. First report of a Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida utilize intake and effluent canals of power plants as resting and thermoregulatory habitat. We report the use of a power plant canal in Cuba by a known Florida manatee, the first documented case of movement by a manatee between Florida and Cuba. In January, February, and April 2007, two manatees (mother and calf) were reported entering a power plant canal in north Havana, Cuba. The larger manatee had several distinctive scars which were photographed. Digital images were matched to a previously known Florida manatee (CR131) with a sighting history dating from December 1979 to July 2006. Exchanges of individuals between Florida and Cuba may have important genetic implications, particularly since there appears to be little genetic exchange between the Florida manatee subspecies with populations of the Antillean manatee subspecies (T. m. manatus) in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

  12. Farming like we're here to stay : the mixed farming alternative for Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funes Monzote, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Crop-livestock, agro-diversity, mixed farming, dairy production, agro-ecological indicators, sustainability, energy efficiency, local development, Cuba Specialization, as opposed to diversification, and export orientation have been historically the basis for patterns of dependence on ext

  13. Heritage Modern: Cityscape of the Late Socialist Political Economy in Trinidad, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Maki

    2011-01-01

    The overall theme of this dissertation is to understand, through the heritage cityscape of Trinidad, aspects of the processes of the reconfiguration of political economy in today's Cuba. In late socialist Cuba, tourism is a key sector sustaining the revolution, and heritage cityscape constitutes one of the main tourist attractions. In this regard, the city of Trinidad provides a vantage point to analyze heritage practices and the tourism economy. I argue that the heritage cityscape of Trinida...

  14. Vodú Chic: Haitian Religion and the Folkloric Imaginary in Socialist Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Grete Viddal

    2012-01-01

    During the first three decades of the twentieth century, hundreds of thousands of Haitian agricultural laborers arrived in Cuba seeking employment in the expanding sugar industry. Historically, Haitian cane cutters were marginal and occupied the lowest socio-economic status in Cuban society. Until relatively recently, the maintenance of Haitian spiritual beliefs, music, dance, and language in Cuba were associated with rural isolation and poverty. Today however, the continuation of Haitian cus...

  15. Assessment of Human Health Vulnerability to Climate Variability and Change in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Bultó, Paulo Lázaro Ortíz; Rodríguez, Antonio Pérez; Valencia, Alina Rivero; Vega, Nicolás León; Gonzalez, Manuel Díaz; Carrera, Alina Pérez

    2006-01-01

    In this study we assessed the potential effects of climate variability and change on population health in Cuba. We describe the climate of Cuba as well as the patterns of climate-sensitive diseases of primary concern, particularly dengue fever. Analyses of the associations between climatic anomalies and disease patterns highlight current vulnerability to climate variability. We describe current adaptations, including the application of climate predictions to prevent disease outbreaks. Finally...

  16. A review of the genus Berosus Leach of Cuba (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Deler-Hernandez; Martin Fikácek; Franklyn Cala-Riquelme

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Cuban fauna of the genus Berosus Leach, 1817 is reviewed based on newly collected material as well as historical and type specimens. Nine species are recognized, including three recorded from Cuba for the first time: Berosus infuscatus LeConte, 1855, Berosus interstitialis Knisch, 1924 (= Berosus stribalus Orchymont, 1946 syn. n.) and Berosus metalliceps Sharp, 1882. Only one of the nine Cuban species, Berosus chevrolati , remains endemic to Cuba, as two other species previously ...

  17. Cuba y la cuestión racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velia Cecilia Bobes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes race relations in Cuba within the context of her different historical conjunctures, and aims to demonstrate the existence of a racial cleavage in the present, within the dominant idea of the Nation as a supraracial and homogenous body. The paper demonstrates that the question of race has been present in all political movements in Cuba’s history, since it has always permeated the way in which Cubans perceive both themselves and others. Finally, the problem is analyzed within the framework of the revolutionary transformations from 1959 on, with special attention to the tensions implicit in the disjunction of equality before de low vs. the survival of racial prejudice.

  18. The Training of Physics Teachers in Cuba: A Historical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesús Alamino Ortega, Diego

    The regular, systematic training of physics teachers in Cuba is quite recent when compared to the long history of physics itself. However, its development may serve to illustrate some interesting solutions to a long-standing question: How should a physics teacher be trained in agreement with a certain society at a given moment? In the Cuban context the answer to this question involves quite an original sequence of continuities and breaks, following perhaps the thoughts of Bolívar's teacher, Simón Rodríguez, who wrote in the nineteenth century: "Beware! The mania of slavishly imitating the enlightened nations may well make America in its infancy play the role of an old lady."

  19. The regulatory framework for similar biotherapeutic products in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechavarría Núñez, Yanet; Pérez Massipe, Rodrigo Omar; Orta Hernández, Santa Deybis; Muñoz, Lázara Martínez; Jacobo Casanueva, Olga Lidia; Pérez Rodríguez, Violeta; Domínguez Morales, Rolando Bárbaro; Pérez Cristiá, Rafael B

    2011-09-01

    Biopharmaceuticals make up a significant proportion of medicinal products used for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, arthritis, cardiac dysfunctions and AIDS. Access to therapies based on the use of these products has been limited as a result of the high marketing costs. Cuba has a biopharmaceutical industry with great potential for innovation, capable of developing new products and to produce others, like the biosimilars destined to fulfill the needs of its National Health System. The Center for State Control on the Quality of Drugs (CECMED) the Cuban NRA, is facing the challenge of regulating the approval of biosimilar products manufactured locally. Consequently, CECMED has issued a position paper establishing the basic principles for regulation of these products and a specific guideline on this was elaborated. PMID:21930393

  20. Inventory of land snails from Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Jonathan Pereira-Miller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A census of mollusks in Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba was carried out. Biodiversity index were studied by vegetal formation, which are: Evergreen Forest, Semideciduous Forest and Mogote Vegetation Complex. The families best represented were Helicinidae, Annularidae, Urocoptidae and Subulinidae, taking the 97.6% of the species some degree of national endemism and being the 45.24% of these local endemic. The most widely distributed species was Farcimen camaguayanum Torre & Bartsch 1941 and the rarest was Euclastaria euclasta Shuttleworth 1852. The highest biodiversity values were observed in the Mogote Vegetation Complex being of 2,856 according to Shannon-Wiener (H´ index. So far species extinction events are not seen but not discarded for the future due to a decline in local rainfall during the last 15 years as well as human activities such as agriculture and local tourism.

  1. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)

    2006-01-15

    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  2. Avocado breeding in Cuba. State of the art biotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic diversity studies of avocado germplasm: Genetic diversity among avocado varieties cultivated in Cuba was undertaken considering 22 agronomic and morphological traits, 12 AFLP and 16 SSR primer combinations. Using agromorphological traits, cultivars clustered within racial groups confirming the ecological classification and a catalogue was prepared. AFLP and SSR markers were useful for providing a more accurate estimate of genetic distances between the cultivars. Identification and characterization of soil-borne isolates: A collection of Phytopohthora spp. and Phytium spp. strains isolated from commercial avocado orchards was constructed. Identification and characterization of these isolates was done based on morphological, physiological and molecular markers (ITS and Lpv 3 primers pairs) differentiating both genus and confirming the usefulness of using a combined approach for an accurate identification. A first description about P. palmivora affecting avocado trees in Cuba was reported based on morphological traits, maximum temperature of growing, amplification pattern using ITS primer combinations and sequencing information of the amplified product obtained with Lpv 3 primer pairs. Radiosensitivity curves useful for breeding purposes: Radiosensitivity curves to Gamma rays were determined in 'Duke-7' and 'Hass' cultivars commonly used as rootstocks. LD50 values were calculated to be 28 and 27 Gy for each cultivar, respectively. Selection for salinity conditions using zygotic embryos: Survival curves (LD50) were calculated for 'Duke-7' (56 mM of NaCl), 'Jose Antonio' (66 mM) and 'Catalina' (148 mM). LD20 and LD10 values, useful for breeding purposes, were also determined. Breeding avocado rootstocks using biotechnologies: An in vitro propagation method for avocado breeding purposes was optimized using zygotic embryos, combined with the LD50 values for Gamma rays and LD50 values for NaCl to obtain mutant lines from rootstock 'Duke-7' with improved salt

  3. Isolation and identification of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus from sugarcane varieties in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Rojas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is one of the most important commercial crops in Cuba and other countries in the world. The worldwide occurrence of G. diazotrophicus in sugarcane and other plants suggest a beneficial association between this species and grass species. The potentialities of endophytes in the agricultural biotechnology are very high, that is why the detec-tion of this bacterium inside of sugarcane is so important. The aim of this work was to detect the occurrence of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in 18 varieties of sugarcane growing in Cuba. This species was isolated in 13 varieties on the basis of micromorphological and colonies characteristics. For the first time it was isolated G. diazotrophi-cusfrom varieties Cuba 1616-75, Cuba 751-75, Campos Brasil 44-52 and SP701143 cultivated in Cuba. The 46 isolates from the varieties Jaronú 60-5, Cuba 323-68 and Media Luna 318 were identified as G. diazotrophicusby morphological and biochemical test.

  4. Aspecto de interés sobre la ciguatera en Cuba (Aspects of interest on the ciguatera in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arencibia Carballo, Gustavo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLos pescadores caribeños alardean de poder descubrir cuando un pez esciguato (contaminado con las toxinas del ciguatera usando métodospropios, como llevar a cabo bioensayos como dar un pedazo del pez a ungato, verificando si las escamas se le caen a un peces recién capturado o sisus ojos son voluminosos o con poco brillo y que los pescadores creenvehementemente son pruebas apropiadas. Los archivos epidemiológicosen la muestra de Cuba recogen dos brotes de ciguatera por consumo depeces en la misma región del país asociada con la ingestión de este especie de pez, entonces mal identificado de Caranx fallax. Hay una necesidad urgente de identificar técnicas económicas para detectar diferentes complejos de toxinas del Ciguatera incluida palytoxinas y toxinas de diarreicas en el pez contaminado.SummaryCaribbean fishermen boast of being able to detect when a fish is “ciguato” (contaminated with ciguatera toxins by using folk methods, such as carrying out their own “bioassay” by feeding a piece of the fish to a cat,checking if the scales fall off a freshly caught fish, or if its eyes are bulky, that they vehemently claim to be appropriate tests. Epidemiological records in Cuba show there were in the past two Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP outbreaks in the same region of the country associated with the ingestion of the same kind of fish, then misidentified as Caranx fallax.There is an urgent need for economic techniques to detect different toxins of the CFP complex (which includes palytoxins and DSP toxins in the sameblack box in contaminated fish.

  5. Tendances contemporaines en critique de science-fiction, 1980-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Hollinger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Le panorama de la critique récente sur la science-fiction doit affronter une explosion du nombre de travaux ainsi qu’une grande diversité d’orientations théoriques et thématiques. Le choix qui a été fait ici privilégie les travaux de recherche de tendance théorique. La matière a été répartie selon 3 axes : une cartographie du domaine, qui conseille quelques histoires, études du genre, études des médias de la science-fiction, et guides de référence ; un choix de travaux critiques et essais d’auteurs de science-fiction, ainsi que quelques entretiens ; un recensement des travaux les plus récents, qui présente des études féministes et postmodernistes de la science-fiction.

  6. Estudo temporal das doenças associadas à AIDS no Brasil, 1980-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Mark Drew Crosland

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estimadas as incidências de condições associadas (CA à AIDS/100 casos de AIDS em adultos (> 12 anos, a nível nacional, de 1980 a maio de 1999. A análise incluiu qui-quadrado e regressão linear simples. As CA analisadas foram candidíase (CD, tuberculose (TB, pneumonia por Pneumocystis carinii (PCP, neurotoxoplasmose(NT, Herpes, Sarcoma de Kaposi (SK, meningite criptocócica (MC e infecções por protozoários (IP. As incidências acumuladas/100 casos de AIDS foram: CD = 59, TB = 26, PCP = 23, NT = 15, Herpes = 12, SK = 5, MC = 4 e IP = 4. A tendência anual indicou queda estatisticamente significativa em todas as CA. Entretando, houve aumento na incidência de TB (b = 0,39 e NT (b = 0,20, para as regiões Nordeste e Centro-Oeste, respectivamente. TB apresentou maior incidência entre aqueles com baixa escolaridade (< 8 anos, enquanto que PCP e SK tiveram maiores incidências entre aqueles com melhor escolaridade (8+ anos, apesar de declínios semelhantes. Acesso à terapia anti-retroviral e profilaxias para as CA explicam parcialmente estes resultados. Entretanto, a confiabilidade dos dados, o atraso na notificação, a incidência de CA pós-AIDS, bem como os critérios de notificação e diagnóstico, são fatores que devem ser avaliados.

  7. The Reorganization of Basic Science Departments in U.S. Medical Schools, 1980-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, William T.; Biebuyck, Julien F.; Jones, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed a longitudinal database to examine how basic science departments have been reorganized at U.S. medical schools. Found that there were fewer basic science departments in the traditional disciplines of anatomy, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, and physiology in 1999 than in 1980. But as biomedical science has developed in an…

  8. Corrupción, burocracia colonial y veteranos separatistas en Cuba, 1868-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroz, Alfonso W.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Administrative corruption in Cuba during the nineteenth century was a serious problem addressed both by Spanish authorities and the critics of the colonial system in Cuba. In the long run the fiscal, financial, institutional, and ideological costs of corruption undermined Spanish colonial control in Cuba. While the state and Cuban taxpayers had to pay for the increased costs of corruption, corrupt public officials and private contractors and financiers benefited. This study uses both archival manuscript administrative sources and published sources to assess the impact of corruption and its institutional bases during the final phase of Spanish colonialism in Cuba and the early period of post-colonial transition.

    La corrupción administrativa en Cuba durante el siglo XIX constituyó un problema reconocido como muy grave tanto por las autoridades españolas como por los críticos del sistema colonial cubano. Los costos fiscales, institucionales, e ideológicos de la corrupción contribuían a la erosión del dominio español en Cuba. A causa de la corrupción el Estado percibía menos ingresos y los contribuyentes cubanos se veían forzados a llevar a cuestas una creciente deuda pública. Los funcionarios corruptos y los contratistas y financistas privilegiados por el rígido sistema colonial, por el contrario, percibían los beneficios informales a que se creían acreedores por defender el dominio territorial español en Cuba. Utilizando fuentes administrativas manuscritas de archivos cubanos y españoles, así como fuentes públicas impresas, este trabajo evalúa el impacto de la corrupción y sus particulares bases institucionales en la fase final del colonialismo español en la isla y la transición post-colonial temprana.

  9. Intimate Encounters: Affective Economies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia L. Cabezas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on research in Cuba and the Dominican Republic this paper explores the uses of intimacy in both the corporate sector and in romantic relationships. I use research with hotel workers and with people involved in sexual-affective exchanges connected to tourism to link intimacy to the political economic structures of transnational tourism. These are new spaces of analysis that present practices of transnational corporategenerated intimacy that combine love – or the exploitation of worker’s emotions − and labour. The central aim is to intertwine the intimate with the global, from the formal customer service policies of transnational hotels with the informal, on-the-ground, intimate encounters between tourists and hospitality workers. The commercialization of intimacy, including sexual-affective relations in the delivery of hospitality services, is linked to political and economic processes that are part of transnational tourism practices. This paper challenges the notion that sex tourism and sex work are individualistic practices that exist outside of the spaces of corporate global profit. It further posits that relationships where money is exchanged are not necessarily devoid of care and intimacy.Resumen: Encuentros íntimos: economías afectivas en Cuba y República Dominicana A partir de investigaciones en Cuba y la República Dominicana, este trabajo explora los usos de la intimidad, tanto en el sector empresarial como en las relaciones románticas. Se hicieron investigaciones entre trabajadores de hostelería y personas involucradas en el intercambio afectivosexual relacionado con el turismo con el fin de vincular la intimidad de las estructuras políticoeconómicas del turismo transnacional. Estos son nuevos espacios de análisis que las prácticas de las empresas transnacionales generan por el uso de la intimidad que combinan el amor – o la explotación de las emociones del trabajador – y la mano de obra. El objetivo central

  10. Evangelizacion Indigena en Cuba (1512-1550): Estrategia y Razones de su Fracaso (Evangelization of Indigenous People in Cuba (1512-1550): Strategies and Reasons for its Failure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes; Reyes, Francisco Barroso

    2000-01-01

    Presents the different moments and contents of the strategies of the evangelization process practiced by the Spanish during the conquest and colonization of Cuba, as well as possible reasons for its failure. States that the Indians were enslaved and directed through evangelism toward acculturation. (BT)

  11. Antenatal testing for cystic fibrosis in Cuba, 1988-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, Teresa; López, Ixchel; Clark, Yulia; Piloto, Yaixa; González, Laura; Gómez, Manuel; García, Marileivis; Reyes, Lidice; Rodríguez, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem autosomal recessive disease with wide variability in clinical severity. It is incurable and characterized by elevated and premature mortality, as well as poor quality of life. Its frequency, lethality and devastating impact on both the physical and psychological wellbeing of patients and their families, make it a serious health problem. Its frequency in Cuba is 1 in 9862 live births, where marked molecular heterogeneity of the CFTR gene makes molecular diagnosis difficult. Six mutations have been identified that together enable molecular characterization of only 55.5% of cystic fibrosis chromosomes. This paper presents national results of antenatal diagnostic testing, using direct and indirect methods, for detection of cystic fibrosis. OBJECTIVE Characterize the Cuban public health system's experience with antenatal molecular testing for cystic fibrosis from 1988 through 2011. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted with results of antenatal diagnostic testing of amniotic fluid, performed nationwide from 1988 through 2011, for 108 fetuses of couples with some risk of having children affected by cystic fibrosis, who requested testing. Polymerase chain reaction detected mutations p.F508del, p.G542X, p.R1162X, p.R334W, p.R553X and c.3120+1G>A, and markers XV2C and KM19. Data were analyzed using absolute frequencies and percentages, and presented in tables. RESULTS For 93 cases (86.1%), testing for cystic fibrosis was done using direct analysis of mutations p.F508del, p.G542X, p.R1162X, p.R334W, p.R553X and c.3120+1G>A; five cases (4.6%) were tested indirectly using markers XV2C/Taq I and KM19/Pst I; and 10 (9.3%) were tested using a combination of the two methods. A total of 72 diagnoses (66.7% of studies done) were concluded, of which there were 20 healthy fetuses, 16 affected, 27 carrier, and 9 who were either healthy or carriers of an unknown mutation. CONCLUSIONS Direct or indirect molecular study was

  12. Microorganismos indicadores de la calidad del agua potable en cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Robert Pullés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los agentes patógenos transmitidos por el agua constituyen un problema mundial que demanda un urgente control. Las bacterias, virus y parásitos causan enfermedades que varían en severidad. La determinación de microorganismos en el agua de consumo y su concentración proporcionan herramientas de control, indispensables para la toma de decisiones. Los controles rutinarios de todos los microorganismos, potencialmente riesgosos para la salud, resultan difíciles de llevar a cabo, debido a que ello representa, varios días de análisis y costos elevados. Para hacer una evaluación sencilla, económica y fiable de la presencia de patógenos, la vigilancia de la calidad del agua se efectúa mediante indicadores de contaminación, aplicando diferentes enfoques técnicos, cada uno con sus cualidades, defectos y limitaciones. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar el enfoque actual existente a nivel nacional e internacional, en relación con los indicadores microbiológicos empleados para la evaluación del agua potable, como elementos clave, y a partir de estos, proponer un esquema de monitoreo en Cuba. Los resultados reflejaron, la alternativa de considerar, la aplicación de un esquema para monitoreo complementario en Cuba, que incluya como indicadores de contaminación del agua potable además de las bacterias, algunos agentes biológicos no considerados en la norma, como los virus y los parásitos. Asimismo indicaron la necesidad de establecer un valor de referencia y definir los microorganismos a emplear en los monitoreos de validación, operativo o verificación. Esta propuesta aportaría importante información para la actualización de la norma cubana sobre la base del conocimiento de los estándares internacionales más reconocidos.

  13. 31 CFR 515.560 - Travel-related transactions to, from, and within Cuba by persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and within Cuba by persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction. 515.560 Section 515.560 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 515.560 Travel-related transactions to, from, and within Cuba by persons subject to U.S... guidelines with respect to Cuba or engaged in by U.S.-owned or -controlled foreign firms (general...

  14. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit...

  15. Diversidad haplotípica en el manatí Trichechus manatus en Cuba: resultados preliminares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Martinez, Damir; Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Garcia-Machado, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to obtain information regarding the mtDNA haplotype composition of the manatee (T. manatus) occupying the Cuban archipelago. A fragment of 410 bp of the non-coding region was analyzed for 12 individual manatees from Cuba and one from Florida, USA. Only two haplotypes were identified. Haplotype A1, found exclusively in Florida (including in the sample analyzed here) but also found in Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, was the most frequent haplotype (11 of the 12 samples from Cuba) and widely distributed. The second haplotype A3, previously referred to as endemic from Belize, was identified from an individual stranded in Isabela de Sagua, north of Cuba. These preliminary results provide information about three major aspects of manatee biology: (1) the mtDNA genetic diversity of T. manatus in Cuba seems low as compared to other regions of the Caribbean; (2) the Cuban population likely belongs to the group comprising Florida and the portions of the Greater Antilles; and (3) the territories of Belize and Cuba have exchanged individuals at present or in a relatively recent past.

  16. Studies in neotropical paleobotany. XIV. A palynoflora from the middle Eocene Saramaguacan formation of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A.; Cozadd, D.; Areces-Mallea, A.; Frederiksen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    An assemblage of 46 fossil pollen and spore types is described from a core drilled through the middle Eocene Saramaguacan Formation, Camaguey Province, eastern Cuba. Many of the specimens represent unidentified or extinct taxa but several can be identified to family (Palmae, Bombacaceae, Gramineae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae) and some to genus (Pteris, Crudia, Lymingtonia?). The paleo-climate was warm-temperate to subtropical which is consistent with other floras in the region of comparable age and with the global paleotemperature curve. Older plate tectonic models show a variety of locations for proto-Cuba during Late Cretaceous and later times, including along the norther coast of South America. More recent models depict western and central Cuba as two separate parts until the Eocene, and eastern Cuba (joined to northern Hispaniola) docking to central Cuba also in the Eocene. All fragments are part of the North American Plate and none were directly connected with northern South America in late Mesozoic or Cenozoic time. The Saramaguacan flora supports this model because the assemblage is distinctly North American in affinities, with only one type (Retimonocolpites type 1) found elsewhere only in South America.

  17. 31 CFR 515.559 - Certain transactions by U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firms with Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the U.S. Department of Commerce (15 CFR part 399) and identified by the code letter “A” following the... controlled foreign firms with Cuba. 515.559 Section 515.559 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... transactions by U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firms with Cuba. (a) Effective October 23, 1992, no...

  18. 78 FR 13207 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, February 22, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-04641 Filed 2-25-13; 11:15 am] Billing code... Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage... ] Notice of February 22, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of...

  19. 75 FR 8791 - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, February 23, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-4107 Filed... Notice of February 23, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency... Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage...

  20. 76 FR 11071 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, February 24, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-4596 Filed 2-25-11; 11:15 am] Billing code... Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage... ] Notice of February 24, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of...

  1. 77 FR 11377 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, February 23, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-4614 Filed 2-23-12; 11:15 am] Billing code... With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and..., 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency...

  2. Thirty-four identifiable airborne fungal spores in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer, Michel; Aira, María-Jesús; Rodríguez-Rajo, F Javier; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Maria; Rojas-Flores, Teresa I

    2015-01-01

    The airborne fungal spore content in Havana, Cuba, collected by means a non-viable volumetric methodology, was studied from November 2010 - October 2011. The study, from a qualitative point of view, allowed the characterization of 29 genera and 5 fungal types, described following the Saccardo´s morphotypes, as well as their morphobiometrical characteristics. In the amerospores morphotype, the conidia of 7 genera (with ascospores, basidiospores and uredospores) and 5 fungal types were included. Among phragmospores morphotype, the ascospores and conidia of 12 different genera were identified. The dictyospores morphotype only included conidial forms from 6 genera. Finally, the less frequent morphotypes were staurospores, didymospores and distosepted spores. In general, the main worldwide spread mitosporic fungi also predominated in the Havana atmosphere, accompanied by some ascospores and basidiospores. Cladosporium cladosporioides type was the most abundant with a total of 148,717 spores, followed by Leptosphaeria, Coprinus and the Aspergillus-Penicillium type spores, all of them with total values ranging from 20,591 - 16,392 spores. The higher monthly concentrations were registered in January (31,663 spores) and the lowest in December (7,314 spores). Generally, the average quantity of spores recorded during the months of the dry season (20,599 spores) was higher compared with that observed during the rainy season (17,460 spores).

  3. Cuba. La fecundidad, el PIB y el salario medio real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Albizu-Campos Espiñeira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La reducción de la fecundidad en Cuba, de naturaleza secular y acelerada, y la consecuente contracción de la capacidad multiplicativa de la población, se han convertido hoy en un objeto de atención de los diferentes actores sociales y de política, incluyendo sin duda a los propios demógrafos cubanos, que habían estado advirtiendo sobre ello desde hace ya más de tres décadas. Lo que más resalta del proceso de transición de la fecundidad en el país es, sin duda, lo abrupto de su inicio, la velocidad con que transcurrió, así como la ausencia de desarrollo económico que la acompañó. De ahí que el debate hoy se centre en la instrumentalidad de los diferentes determinantes que condujeron esa transición, y sobre todo, en el papel que jugaron los factores económicos en las diversas etapas, sobre todo en aquellas coyunturas en las que la población debió realizar las actividades de su vida en condiciones de acentuada vulnerabilidad debido a las crisis. Así, de lo que se trata es de aportar elementos que contribuyan a completar el conocimiento sobre el estado de la relación fecundidad-desarrollo en el contexto actual.

  4. Dangerous wastes management in Cuba. Current situation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appropriate handling of the dangerous waste has become a topic of high priority for all the countries and especially for those developing one that in general, they lack solid technical infrastructure, suitable technologies and human resources properly qualified to carry out this work without causing negative impacts on the environment. For these countries, this matter represents a true challenge, requiring you to have financial resources to create capacities and to acquire technologies, that which reality should be made with the support of the developed countries, but that up to now it doesn't stop to be a commitments without in the practice it is materialized in an effective way. The collaboration and the cooperation among the countries in development are also an useful road that should be increased. This work seeks to expose as Cuba it has faced this challenge, presenting the carried out actions, the confronted difficulties and the future actions that will be attacked so that the handling of dangerous waste doesn't constitute an environmental problem to solve

  5. Seven years of individual monitoring service in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) has been carrying out from 1987 the individual monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to the ionizing radiations in the Republic of Cuba, excepting those that employ X-rays in diagnostic radiology. In this paper the results of the individual monitoring services during the period 1987-1993 are discussed. For all occupational practices the current system of dose limitation established in the country with 50 mSv as limit of annual dose is satisfied. The distribution in all occupational practices other than nuclear medicine and gamma-therapy is characterized by having more than 95% of the controlled personnel with an effective dose lower than 5 mSv. In the case of nuclear medicine and gamma-therapy more than 80% of the workers were below that dose value. For the practices evaluated in this paper the possibility of assuming the system of dose limitation recommended by ICRP is evident. The evaluations carried out for the introduction of operational quantities Hp(0.07) and Hp(10) in dose assessment procedure are presented. The expressions obtained during the characterization of the film badge dosemeter, in terms of operational quantities guarantees a deviation of response of the dosemeter with depending upon energies, lower than 20 %. (author)

  6. Population effective collective dose from nuclear medicine examination in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to estimate the effective collective dose imparted to the population of Camagueey-Ciego de Avila territory (Cuba)), we have made use of the statistics from nuclear medicine examinations given to a population of 1.1 million inhabitants for the years 1995-1999. The average annual frequency of examinations was estimated to be 3.82 per 1000 population. The results show that nuclear medicine techniques of thyroid imaging with 43.73% and thyroid uptake with 43.36% are the main techniques implicated in the relative contribution to the total annual effective collective dose, which averaged 54.43 man Sv for the studied period. Radiation risks for the Camagueey-Ciego de Avila population caused by nuclear medicine examinations in the period studied were calculated: the total number of fatal and non-fatal cancers was 16.33 and the number of serious hereditary disturbance was 3.54 as a result of 21,073 nuclear medicine procedures, corresponding to a total detriment of one case per thousand examinations. (authors)

  7. EL NÍQUEL EN SUELOS Y PLANTAS DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegario Muñiz Ugarte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El contenido de Níquel (Ni en el suelo es muydependiente del material parental que le dio origen. Por otraparte, el Ni existente en su superficie, puede ser tambiénun reflejo de su contaminación. La literatura internacionalseñala valores de Ni total en los suelos del mundo entre0,2 y 450 mg kg-1. Se conoce en la actualidad, que aunqueel Ni es esencial para las plantas superiores, su exceso enforma disponible puede ser tóxico, por lo que se consideraun Metal Pesado. En Cuba las encuestas realizadas reflejanun contenido medio de 122,3 mg kg-1de Ni total, muysuperior al señalado por la literatura internacional y valoresextremos de hasta 2850,0 mg kg-1en suelos desarrolladossobre rocas ultrabásicas (serpentinita. Sin embargo, noexisten reportes de valores elevados (tóxicos del elementoen los cultivos. En el trabajo se discute el origen y formasen que se encuentra el Ni en los suelos cubanos; así comosu posible efecto tóxico para las plantas y animales que sealimentan de ellas. Finalmente, se concluyó planteando lanecesidad de establecer Límites Permisibles de Ni en elsuelo, diferenciados de acuerdo al tipo de suelo y su uso.

  8. Quality control to the service of diagnostic radiology in policlinics and hospitals of Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents the results obtained in the Quality Control in diagnostic X-ray equipment accomplished in 33 clinics of Santiago de Cuba city. The performed test were, to the X-ray generator, X-ray tube, devices collimation and alignment, as well as to the light boxes, dark rooms, and radiographic screen-film combinations. Moreover the work presents the results of the Entrance Doses for a reference patient in radiographic projections of frequent use in clinics of Santiago de Cuba city (chest, lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis). For the evaluation of the verified technical parameters were used the tolerance criterions recommended by the Technical Guide elaborated by the State Control Centre of Medical of Cuba. In the case of the Entrance Dose were used the dose levels that recommended by the International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for safety of radiation sources

  9. Cuba’s Academic Advantage: Why Student’s in Cuba Do Better in School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O’Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba’s Academic Advantage, Martin Carnoy analyses the success of the Cuban school system as measured by the results achieved by Cuban students in international math, science, and language tests. The study includes data from Chile and Brazil whose students consistently test less well than Cuban students on these same tests despite the fact that these two countries enjoy better socio-economic indicators than does Cuba and educational reform efforts have been undertaken by their respective governments. He references studies, the results of which are well known by researchers, which demonstrate that academic success among socially disadvantaged students is far less likely than for students from better-off families (p. 45. Why does this co-relation not hold true for Cuba? Carnoy argues that an important component of student success in Cuba, including students from lower socio-economic circumstances, is the result of what he terms state-generated social capital.

  10. Cuba: the strategic choice of advanced scientific development, 1959-2014

    CERN Document Server

    Baracca, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Cuba is continuing attracting the attention of the international scientific community for some important and unexpected achievements in applied science such as health biotechnology. They represent outcomes of the 1959 decision of Cuba to develop an advanced scientific system in order to address the most urgent problems for the development of the country and to overcome the condition of subalternity. This ambitious objective was tackled in a very original way, making a broad and wide-ranging recourse to every effective support and collaboration, with Soviet but also Western scientists and institutions, in addition to a peculiar Cuban inventiveness. Indeed, immediately after the revolution, Cuba developed an advanced and articulated scientific system, and achieved a level of excellence in leading scientific fields, like biotechnology, quite independently from the Soviet Union, which was behind in this field. Even the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, that could have put the achievements of the Re...

  11. [Distribution and abundance of the ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata (Ascidiacea: Perophoridae) in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zanuy, Aida; Carballo, José Luis; García-Cagide, Alida; Naranjo, Santiago; Esquivel, Macario

    2007-03-01

    Permanently submerged mangrove roots (Rhizophora mangle) are the main habitat of the ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata in Cuba. It was occasionally found on black coral (Antiphates caribeana) between 22 and 38 meters deep. This species exhibits a wide distribution in all the mangrove keys surrounding the Island of Cuba but does not occur in riparian or fringing mangroves. Populations of this species are abundant in Cuba: in 75% of the 58 localities sampled the species was present and in 57% more than 50% of the roots held at least one colony. The highest colony densities were found in the northern coast of Pinar del Rio province with values near one colony per lineal meter of mangrove root. We found the highest density (1.46 col/m) and greatest biomass at Jutías Key, with values between 25 and 660 g/m. The average of wet biomass in the studied mangroves was 73.63 g/m. PMID:18457133

  12. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species

  13. Drilling horizontal wells from the coast to reach offshore heavy oil pool, Puerto Escondido field, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puentes, G.E.; Alvarez, R.R. [Cubapetroleo, Havana, (Cuba); Marrero, F.M. [Ministry of Basic Industry, Havana, (Cuba)

    1999-11-01

    A series of vertical oil wells were drilled in the Puerto Escondido field in Cuba as part of an oil exploration program in the 1970s. The drilling of well PE-3 in 1992 revealed that the field contained one of the most significant oil finds in the western region of Cuba. Due to the fractured nature of the reservoir, it was determined that future wells should be drilled using horizontal drilling technology to increase hydrocarbon recoveries, and to maintain high production rates. The first horizontal well was successfully drilled in April, 1997. Four other wells were drilled by September 1998. This paper briefly described the drilling techniques used.

  14. The new 2nd-generation laser station at Santiago de Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masevich, A. G.; Chepurnov, B. D.; Fundora, M.; del Pino, J.; Kautzleben, H.

    The new laser-radar station at Santiago de Cuba was equipped in cooperation between the Academies of Sciences of the USSR, Cuba and the G.D.R. The system is based on a modified satellite-tracking camera (SBG). Its basic concept and the technical performance are similar to the laser-radar station of the Central Institute for Physics of the Earth, Potsdam. During a first 6-weeks-observation campaign (Dec. 1985 - Jan. 1986), 70 satellite passes (including 40 passes of the geodynamical satellite LAGEOS) were obtained.

  15. Control Programs of tuberculosis from 1963 to 1970 in Cuba. Historic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Ramón Beldarraín Chaple

    2015-01-01

    The fight against tuberculosis began in Cuba at the end of the XIX century, in Santiago de Cuba. At the beginning of the XX century the League Against Tuberculosis was created with a limited action for the lack of funds and an adequated strategy. In 1936 The National Board of tuberculosis was created, that accomplished few activities and they did not cause impact neither in morbidity nor in mortality produced by the disease in the population. In 1959, with the change of strategy introduced by...

  16. Reading the Revolution: Where Has the Literature Taken Us in Understanding Cuba?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Kapcia

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available – Cuba. A New History, by Richard Gott. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2004. – The Cuban Revolution. Past, Present and Future Perspectives, by Geraldine  Lievesley. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. – People’s Power. Cuba’s Experience with Representative Government, by Peter  Roman. (Updated edition Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford:  Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.  – Cuba. A Revolution in Motion, by Isaac Saney. Black Point, Nova Scotia: Fernwood Books; London: Zed Books, 2003.

  17. Validation and use of an ELISA kit for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babesia bovis, the most important etiological agent causing bovine babesiosis, is widely distributed in Cuba and affects mainly adult cattle. A survey of the prevalence of the disease in cattle using an ELISA kit (FAO/IAEA) revealed that 34.2% of the animals between 6 and 18 months of age were positive to Babesia bovis, whereas 69.9% on the cattle older than 18 months were positive. Antibodies to Babesia bovis were detected in 96.9% of calves vaccinated with an attenuated Babesia bovis vaccine. A good correlation was found between the results of ELISA kit with those from indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests developed in Cuba. (author)

  18. Cuba: transición, sucesión, estabilidad, seguridad

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín ROY

    2010-01-01

    Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto ...

  19. Cuba and origins of the US sugar quota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dye, Alan D.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In the history of Cuban sugar industry, the most significant institutional factor after 1930 was the export quota gained in the 1934 United States market, which has been regarded in a positive perspective. This is here re-examined in the light of later events which prove that the quota system was detrimental to the island economy, particularly in the fifties. The analysis is based on the examination of sugar companies’ stock prices which are a useful indicator of investment expectations. Finally, it is concluded that the 1934 North American quota system issued from the conviction that the tariff system applied until then was not enough to protect the domestic sugar beet production.

    El factor institucional más importante en la historia de la industria del azúcar en Cuba después de 1930 fue la cuota de exportación que obtuvo en el mercado de los Estados Unidos en 1934. Este artículo revisa las tesis que consideran ese hecho como relativamente positivo y lo hace a la luz de los acontecimientos posteriores, que muestran que dicho sistema de cuotas perjudicó a la economía insular, sobre todo en la década de 1950, y examinando los stock prices de las empresas del sector, un buen indicador de las expectativas de retorno de las inversiones. Como conclusión afirma que el reparto del consumo azucarero norteamericano entre diferentes abastecedores fue fruto de la convicción de que el instrumento arancelario usado hasta entonces para proteger a la producción remolachera interna ya no era eficaz.

  20. Graham Greene and Cuba: Our man in Havana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hulme

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Graham Greene’s novel Our Man in Havana was published on October 6, 1958. Seven days later Greene arrived in Havana with Carol Reed to arrange for the filming of the script of the novel, on which they had both been working. Meanwhile, after his defeat of the summer offensive mounted by the Cuban dictator, Fulgencio Batista, in the mountains of eastern Cuba, just south of Bayamo, Fidel Castro had recently taken the military initiative: the day after Greene and Reed’s arrival on the island, Che Guevara reached Las Villas, moving westwards towards Havana. Six weeks later, on January 1, 1959, after Batista had fled the island, Castro and his Cuban Revolution took power. In April 1959 Greene and Reed were back in Havana with a film crew to film Our Man in Havana. The film was released in January 1960. A note at the beginning of the film says that it is “set before the recent revolution.” In terms of timing, Our Man in Havana could therefore hardly be more closely associated with the triumph of the Cuban Revolution. But is that association merely accidental, or does it involve any deeper implications? On the fiftieth anniversary of novel, film, and Revolution, that seems a question worth investigating, not with a view to turning Our Man in Havana into a serious political novel, but rather to exploring the complexities of the genre of comedy thriller and to bringing back into view some of the local contexts which might be less visible now than they were when the novel was published and the film released.

  1. Biogas potential in the meat installation of Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Meat Processing Center of Santiago is located 13 kilometers from the city of the same name in the National Freeway. There, 61 heads of bovine livestock are sacrificed daily approximately around 325 Kg. of weight average and 197 pigs of 80 kg. of weight average, which has a demurrage average between 2 and 3 days in the corrals of the Meat Processing Center which generates a significant amount of excretes, rumen (food not digested by the bowels), bleed fluff, slops, meat residuals and fatty, as well as tripes, all that which constitutes a waste of a discharge at the present time loads pollutant that besides not taking advantage, for the maintenance of some appropriate norms of hygiene, the Meat Processing Center of meat by products is under the obligation of using big quantities of water, which constitutes an important factor of the elaboration cost. After that, the treatment in the plant and its final discharge in acceptable drains increase the general expenses. The big slaughterhouses can produce waste waters with a biochemical demand of oxygen of five days of 1300 ppm. The treatment of the waste and elimination of the waste waters coming from slaughterhouses and meat processing plants are an economic necessity and of public health. The main objectives of this work were: 1) To calculate the energy potentialities of the residuals of the productions pig, bovine and other residuals to transform them into energy and their effluents like organic fertilizer cleans of pathogen elements, by means of the process of anaerobic fermentation. 2) To Transform the Biomass into energy given by the different economic activities of the entity, taking advantage of the same one in the process. To achieve these results we have used the literature in this respect and the experience that exists in the province of Santiago from Cuba in this direction, as for the use of the residuals for the biogas production and to dedicate it to the cooking of food and the production of electric

  2. ¿Dominio público en Cuba?.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerbys Hernández Dorta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available La construcción doctrinal del Dominio Público como categoría jurídica nació con la finalidad de articular un sistema de protección de las necesidades colectivas que satisfacían determinados bienes. Esta función de protección se le atribuyó al Estado, su titular. La titularidad de éste sobre los bienes de Dominio Público no podía ir acompañada de las facultades de disposición propias del derecho de propiedad. Sin embargo, la existencia dentro del Dominio Público de bienes creados por el hombre y bienes provenientes de la naturaleza dio lugar a la distinción entre el “Dominio público natural”, integrado por los recursos naturales destinados al uso común de todos, y el “Dominio público artificial”, formado por bienes de uso público construidos para dar respuesta a las necesidades del hombre. Por ello se cuestiona si constituye el Dominio Público un mecanismo de gestión ambiental en Cuba. Pudiendo determinarse que no existe una nominación de dominio público en el país y por consiguiente no se utiliza esta institución como mecanismo de protección ambiental, recomendando prestar una especial atención a este novedoso mecanismo de protección con la finalidad de su aplicación en el territorio nacional.

  3. Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the world. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the North Cuba Basin. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of the total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including petroleum source rocks (source-rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and petroleum traps (Trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Total Petroleum System in the North Cuba Basin Province. Within this TPS, three assessment units were defined and assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  4. El Sistema de Control Interno para el Perfeccionamiento de la Gestión Empresarial en Cuba (Internal Control System for the Improvement of Corporate Governance in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinaidys Gómez-Selemeneva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio sobre los antecedentes del control interno empresarial, caracterizando el mismo en Cuba y exponiendo los principales postulados para la gestión del cambio empresarial y su aplicación. Así mismo se describe el proceso de cambio para la implementación del control interno en una organización. Abstract In this study we examine the history of corporate internal control in order to characterize it in Cuba and to expose the main tenets for business change management and implementation. It also describes the process of change for the implementation of internal control in an organization.

  5. Biología reproductiva de Polioptila lembeyei (Aves: Polioptilidae) en la Reserva Ecológica Siboney-Juticí, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Losada, Margarita; Reyes Vázquez, Ángel Eduardo; Rodríguez Santana, Freddy; Viña Dávila, Nicasio; López Iborra, Germán Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Se estudió la biología reproductiva de Polioptila lembeyei en la Reserva Ecológica Siboney-Juticí, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba durante los años 2006 y 2007 en seis formaciones vegetales. Se describieron aspectos de su reproducción en términos de cronología reproductiva, tamaño de puesta, duración del período de incubación, permanencia de los polluelos en el nido, morfometría de nidos y huevos, y caracterización del sitio de nidificación en cuanto a la altura de los nidos y especie y altura de las ...

  6. Clave de identificación para larvas del orden Ephemeroptera presentes en Cuba Key for the identification of larvae of Ephemeroptera from Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany D. González-Lazo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Por primera vez se ofrece una clave para la identificación taxonómica de las especies de Ephemeroptera registradas en Cuba. La clave permite la identificación de las 6 familias, los 12 géneros y 32 de las 34 especies que habitan en la Isla. La presente clave constituirá una herramienta sistemática para los estudios de biodiversidad de las efímeras en el archipiélago cubano.A dichotomous key is given for the first time for the taxonomical identification of the species of Ephemeroptera recorded from Cuba. The key allows the identification of the 6 families, 12 genera and 32 of the 34 species that inhabit this country. The present key will constitute an important systematic tool for the study of biodiversity of mayflies in the Cuban archipelago.

  7. High proportion of mannosidosis and fucosidosis among lysosomal storage diseases in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Sainz, C; González-Quevedo, A; González-García, S; Peña-Sánchez, M; Giugliani, R

    2012-08-13

    Although lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are considered individually rare, as a group they present a non-negligible frequency. Few studies have been made of populational occurrence of LSDs; they have been conducted predominantly on Caucasian populations. We studied the occurrence of LSDs in Cuba. Data from individuals who had been referred to the Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery in Havana from hospitals all over the country between January 1990 and December 2005 were analyzed. This institute was the only laboratory to provide enzyme-based diagnostic testing for 19 LSDs in Cuba during this period. Occurrence rates were calculated by dividing the number of postnatal diagnoses by the number of births during the study period. The combined occurrence of LSDs in Cuba was 5.6 per 100,000, lower than that reported in other studies conducted on Caucasian populations. The most frequent individual LSDs were: mucopolysaccharidosis type I (1.01 per 100,000) and, surprisingly, alpha-mannosidosis (0.72 per 100,000) and fucosidosis (0.62 per 100,000). These findings may be related to specific genetic characteristics and admixture of the Cuban population. This is the first comprehensive study of the occurrence of LSDs in Cuba. We conclude that the epidemiology of these diseases can vary regionally, and we stress the need for similar surveys in other Latin American countries.

  8. Developing Strategies for Waste Reduction by Means of Tailored Interventions in Santiago De Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert; Brugger, Adrian; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to tailoring behavior-change campaigns to target populations using the example of solid waste reduction in Santiago de Cuba. Tailoring is performed in the following steps: (1) Psychological constructs are selected to detect problems in performing the target behavior, and data are gathered on these constructs.…

  9. Education in Cuba--An Alternative Educational Discourse: Lessons to Be Learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidlid, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the Cuban education system, which is well known for its focus on inclusion and equality of opportunity, but also for its focus on political and ideological conformity. The economic crisis in Cuba has led to an educational crisis as well, both in terms of teacher shortages and a decrease in quality and in…

  10. The Flowering of Identity: Tracing the History of Cuba through the Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Noel

    2007-01-01

    Teaching history through the visual arts is one way of bringing the past into the present. In Cuba, the visual arts and architecture have reflected the country's "flowering of identity" through time, as a multi-ethnic population has grown to recognize its own distinct history, values and attributes, and Cuban artists have portrayed the island's…

  11. Lessons from Cuba: Using Sense of Place as a Tool to Connect Internationally and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, Samantha; Sayle, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2010, 16 Recreation and Leisure Studies students from Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario, travelled to Cuba to complete a fourth-year field class titled International Field Experiences in Recreation and Leisure. After a week spent in Havana, Brock University students engaged in a unique outdoor education experience. With…

  12. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Republic of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Alejandro E.

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that 3.2% of Cuba's population of 11.4 million persons has a severe disability of some kind. Recent economic difficulties have, it may be assumed, had a negative impact on health service provision--which is free to all--and thus, on population health outcomes and nutritional levels. There is a traditional culture of family care for…

  13. Emerging Interaction of Political Processes: The Effect on a Study Abroad Program in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    The emerging interaction of political processes sets the stage for the level of macro uncertainty and specific risk events that may occur in an international relationship. Strongly defined social control in Cuba, formal and informal, dominates the dynamics of the relationship, while simultaneously government, formal, action in the U.S. dominates…

  14. Cognitive Functioning and the Probability of Falls among Seniors in Havana, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Antonio J.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Steinhardt, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the connection between cognitive functioning and falls among seniors (greater than or equal to 60 years of age) in Havana, Cuba, after controlling for observable characteristics. Using the SABE (Salud, Bienestar, and Envejecimiento) cross-sectional database, we used an econometric strategy that takes advantage of available…

  15. Slavery and Cinema in Cuba: The Case of Gutierrez Alea's The Last Supper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    "The Last Supper" deals with slavery and social stratification in late eighteenth century Cuba. In this article, the film is described in artistic and historical terms, and is discussed in relation to the larger body of theory on Latin American slavery. (EB)

  16. A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulot, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

  17. ¿Qué estamos haciendo en Cuba en evaluación educativa?

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo explica las acciones que hemos venido realizando en Cuba en materia de Evaluación Educativa. Primeramente, describimos los resultados de los Operativos Nacionales para la evaluación del rendimiento de los estudiantes. Posteriormente, revelamos los pasos que hemos venido dando para la implementación de un Sistema Evaluativo Nacional.

  18. Turning Javanese: The Domination of Cuba's Sugar Industry by Java Cane Varieties (1880-1950)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, U.; Curry Machado, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    By the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth, two islands had come to dominate global cane-sugar production. For most of the sixty-year period between 1870 and 1930, around half of the world's internationally traded crop came from Cuba and Java. The two islands had many topogr

  19. Contribution to the study of the genus Helicopsyche (Trichoptera) from Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botosaneanu, L.; Flint, O.S.

    1991-01-01

    Seven new species and one new subspecies of Helicopsyche von Sieboid are described from Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico based on adults; additionally four species and one subspecies belonging to the fauna of these islands are redescribed. Both sexes are described when correct association of female

  20. ER-E3 regulation. Minimal instrumentation that must operate nuclear medicine in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this regulation is to define the instrumentation that must exist in any institution conducting the practice of nuclear medicine in Cuba. This regulation emphasizes two aspects: The minimum equipment necessary to operate a nuclear medicine laboratory for use 'in vitro' and the minimum equipment required to operate a Nuclear Medicine use 'in vivo'

  1. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates producing KPC-2 carbapenemase in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Quinones

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing carbapenemase (KPC has now become a global concern. As a part of a nationwide multicentre surveillance study in Cuba, three K. pneumoniae clinical isolates resistant to carbapenems were detected for a 1-month period (September to October 2011. PCR and sequence analysis revealed that the three strains harboured blaKPC-2. They showed resistance or intermediate susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, other ß-lactams, a ß-lactam/ß-lactamase inhibitor combination, and gentamicin. Two strains were susceptible only to colistin, whereas the other strain showing colistin resistance was susceptible to fluoroquinolones. These blaKPC-2-positive K. pneumoniae strains were classified into ST1271 (CC29, a novel clone harbouring blaKPC-2, and were revealed to be genetically identical by PCR-based DNA fingerprinting. The three patients infected with the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae had common risk factors, and had no overseas travel experience outside Cuba, suggesting local acquisition of the resistant pathogen. This is the first report of a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in Cuba. Although detection of KPC in Enterobacteriaceae is still rare in Cuba, our finding indicated that KPC-producing bacteria are a global concern and highlighted the need to identify these microorganisms in clinical laboratories.

  2. Extreme non-regular sea level variations in Cuba under the influence of intense tropical cyclones.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández González, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aimed at analyzing non-regular sea level variations of meteorological origin under the influence of six major tropical cyclones that affected Cuba, from sea level hourly height series in twelve coastal localities. As a result, it was obtained a characterization of the magnitude and timing of extreme sea level variations under the influence of intense tropical cyclones.

  3. Political Essay on the Island of Cuba: A Critical Edition - by Von Humboldt, Alexander [Ressenya

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Cobos, Amparo

    2013-01-01

    Review of the book: Political Essay on the Island of Cuba: A Critical Edition / Alexander von Humboldt; edited by Vera M. Kutzinski and Ottmar Ette.- Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011. xxvi+519 p. - ISBN 9780226465678. - (Alexander von Humboldt in English)

  4. Militares españoles transmigrantes de Cuba a México, 1898-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera B., Maria de Socorro

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the emigration of Spanish military men from Cuba to Mexico at the end of the Cuban wars for independence. After 1898, these military preferred to emigrate to Mexico rather than remaining in Cuba or returning to Spain. In Mexico they tried to solve problems of money and other legal affairs related to the Ministry of War and Navy in Spain. This migration is characterized as a transmigratory movement.

    El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la emigración de Cuba a México de algunos militares españoles al término de las guerras de independencia de esta Isla, en el ámbito de los movimientos de transmigración. Este trabajo muestra cómo después de 1898, dichos militares prefirieron emigrar a México en lugar de permanecer en Cuba o de volver a España. Desde México, algunos de ellos tramitaban asuntos pendientes con el Ministerio de Guerra y Marina español.

  5. Cuban Sugar Industry: Transnational Networks and Engineering Migrants in Mid-Nineteenth Century Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curry Machado, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Technological innovation was central to nineteenth-century Cuba’s lead in world sugar manufacture. Along with steam-powered machinery came migrant engineers, indispensable aliens who were well rewarded for their efforts. These migrant engineers remained perennial outsiders, symbolic of Cuba's growin

  6. de producción popular de arroz en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Orlando Arrastia Acosta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las prácticas de poscosecha influyen directamente sobre la calidad del arroz molinado, tanto en términos de composición como de apariencia. Dentro de estas se destacan las operaciones de secado y molinado. En Cuba las tecnologías empleadas, actualmente, por el sector de producción popular de arroz en estas etapas del proceso productivo no siempre son las más adecuadas. Generalmente se utiliza el secado solar y el molinado en molinos del tipo Engleberg (o criollos construidos de forma artesanal y con medios propios. A través de este trabajo se evalúa la influencia del equipamiento de molinado sobre la calidad del arroz producido por productores del sector popular de arroz. Para ello se utilizó arroz con cáscara (variedad IACuba-31 producido en el municipio Yaguajay, Sancti Spíritus. El mismo fue sometido a métodos de secado empleados por estos productores y posteriormente se realizó el proceso de molinado por medio de dos tecnologías: a en un molino criollo y b en una descascaradora de rodillos de goma acoplada a un molino criollo. Como resultado de la comparación del producto final obtenido en estas tecnologías de molinado se pudo determinar que no existen diferencias significativas en cuanto a los porcentajes de granos enteros y partidos obtenidos con respecto a las diferentes formas de secado empleadas. La introducción de la descascaradora de rodillos de goma acoplada al molino criollo mejoró la calidad del arroz molinado, dando lugar a un incremento del porcentaje de granos enteros del 7 %. Además, garantiza la producción de arroz molinado con porcentajes de granos partidos inferiores al 25 %, lo que hace al arroz producido por este sector más competitivo y mejora sus posibilidades de comercialización. El uso de este sistema de molinado también mejora los ingresos de los productores y contribuye al establecimiento de precios de acuerdo con la calidad del producto en los mercados agropecuarios.

  7. Lo público y lo privado en los escritos de Alexander Von Humboldt sobre Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebok, Sandra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to collect the comments and judgements that Humboldt makes about Cuba and evaluate their character. The resulting analysis and interpretation will be undertaken on two different levels: One refers to the information that can be found in his unofficial works, which means the letters Humboldt sent during or shortly after of his visits to Cuba, as well as the diaries he used during his expedition. The other is based on the official works, which include his travel description, his famous Essay on Cuba and his autobiographical text written in 1804. Constrasting these descriptions, we will compare the evaluations of this Prussian traveller elaborated in the moment he visited the island, with the works he wrote 22 years after his return to Europe.

    Este trabajo tiene el objeto de recopilar los comentarios y juicios que hace Humboldt sobre Cuba y valorar su carácter. El análisis e interpretación que resultará de ello se realiza en dos niveles distintos: uno se refiere a las informaciones que se encuentran en escritos no oficiales, es decir, en las cartas que Humboldt envió durante o poco tiempo después de sus visitas a Cuba, y en los diarios que utilizó a lo largo de su expedición. El otro se fundamenta en los escritos oficiales, que comprenden su narración del viaje, el famoso Ensayo sobre Cuba y la memoria autobiográfica escrita en 1804. Mediante el contraste de estas descripciones se pretende comparar las apreciaciones de este viajero prusiano elaboradas en el preciso momento que visita la isla, cotejándolas con las obras que redactó 22 años después de su vuelta a Europa. Este trabajo tiene el objeto de recopilar los comentarios y juicios que hace Humboldt sobre Cuba y valorar su carácter. El análisis e interpretación que resultará de ello se realiza en dos niveles distintos: uno se refiere a las informaciones que se encuentran en escritos no oficiales, es decir, en las cartas que Humboldt envi

  8. What is the role of the pharmacist?: physicians' and nurses' perspectives in community and hospital settings of Santiago de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Niurka María Dupotey Varela; Djenane Ramalho de Oliveira; Caridad Sedeño Argilagos; Kisvel Oliveros Castro; Elisveidis Mosqueda Pérez; Yelina Hidalgo Clavel; Nelly Sánchez Bisset

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to understand the perceptions and expectations of the other health care professionals about pharmacists' role in primary health care centers and hospitals in Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted, applying a self-administered questionnaire to health care professionals. The sample included 763 professionals (40.9% physicians and 59.1 % nurses) from hospitals and primary health care clinics, chosen by random stratified sampling,. T...

  9. The Roles of Women, Children and Men in Household Food Planning, Purchasing, Preparation and Consumption in Santiago, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Garth, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    This work explores the roles of Women, Children and Men in Household food planning, purchasing, preparation and consumption in Santiago de Cuba. The data for this investigation were collected over a 10-week period during the Summer of 2008. This work focuses on Cuba’s second largest city, Santiago, located in the southeastern part of the island, Santiago provides an urban setting through which to view urban food cultivation and food symbolism in Cuba. Little scholarly work has been published ...

  10. Cuba: A country profile on sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the product of an international project led by the IAEA to develop and test a suitable approach for the comprehensive assessment of national energy systems within a sustainable development context. This country profile on Cuba is the result of an intensive effort conducted by Cuban experts, primarily from the Centro de Gestion de la Informacion y Desarrollo de la Energia (CUBAENERGIA) with the collaboration of experts from energy related institutions in the country, jointly with the IAEA and the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA). The framework, approach and guidelines set forth in this study comprise one set of effective mechanisms for incorporating the concepts of sustainable development into practical implementation strategies. The assessment is specifically directed at one of the most important sectors affecting economic and social development - energy. It is part of an initiative, officially registered as a Partnership with the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, that contributes to Agenda 21, the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation and the goals and objectives of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. The study is, to a certain extent, a continuation and implementation at the national level of two worldwide studies exploring the ties between energy and sustainable development: the World Energy Assessment undertaken by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), UNDESA and the World Energy Council; and the Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development undertaken by the IAEA, the International Energy Agency, UNDESA, Eurostat and the European Environment Agency. No study of a national energy system within the context of sustainable development can be final and definitive. To be useful, the assessment process must be adaptable over time to fit ever-changing conditions, priorities and national sustainable energy development criteria. This publication proposes one such approach for

  11. CUBA竞争平衡研究%The Resarch of Competitive Balance in CUBA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢科

    2015-01-01

    运用测度联赛竞争性平衡的基尼指数(GINI )、胜率标准差(SDWP )、赫芬达尔指数(HHI )等方法对CUBA竞争性平衡进行统计分析,结果表明:(1)CUBA 男子与女子联赛都存在不同程度的竞争不平衡.随着联赛的发展,男女联赛之间的竞争性平衡差距反而越大,呈现轻度负相关(-0.135);(2)高校高水平运动员的招生、学业管理、经费投入是影响CUBA 竞争平衡的主要因素.根据研究结果与分析,提出以下建议:确保高校构建高水平篮球队的经费;注重运动员训练和学业两方面的表现,借鉴NCAA 关于运动员学业的管理制度(Academic Progress Rate )等.%By testing the methods of measuring competitive balance of league matches, such as the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, Gini Coefficient, the Standard Deviation of Winning Percentages, the article analyzes the competitive balance of CUBA statistically. The result shows that:(1) it exists a competitive unbalance problem in men′s and women′s CUBA to some extent. With the development of the league matches, more gaps is growing between men′s and women′s CUBA, and they show a negative correlation(-0.135).(2) High level student sports athlete′s admission, academic management and financial outlay devotion are the key factors of high standard sport teams′ construction which affects the competitive balance of CUBA. According to the research findings, there are several suggestions as follows:(1) Ensure enough budget of establishing high standard basketball team among high schools. (2) Pay attention to athlete′s performance of discipline and study, referring to Academic Progress Rate of NCAA.

  12. The Chemical Diversity of Lantana camara: Analyses of Essential Oil Samples from Cuba, Nepal, and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Crouch, Rebecca A; Monzote, Lianet; Cos, Paul; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Alhaj, Mehdi A; Setzer, William N

    2016-03-01

    The aerial parts of Lantana camara L. were collected from three different geographical locations: Artemisa (Cuba), Biratnagar (Nepal), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 39 L. camara essential oil compositions revealed eight major chemotypes: β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, ar-curcumene/zingiberene, γ-curcumen-15-al/epi-β-bisabolol, (E)-nerolidol, davanone, eugenol/alloaromadendrene, and carvone. The sample from Cuba falls into the group dominated by (E)-nerolidol, the sample from Nepal is a davanone chemotype, and the sample from Yemen belongs to the β-caryophyllene chemotype. The chemical composition of L. camara oil plays a role in the biological activity; the β-caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol chemotypes showed antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. PMID:26917060

  13. The discipline of ergonomics in Cuba within the occupational health framework: background and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Yaniel; Rodríguez, Yordán; Viña, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    The concept of ergonomics was introduced in Cuba at the beginning of the 1970s. More than 40 years later, the prevailing approach to workers' health is still generally reactive rather than proactive, despite the commitment of the government to the subject. A factor influencing this issue is, generally, lack of recognition of the benefits of establishing ergonomic principles within most occupational activities. Recent progress to move occupational health practice toward a more preventive approach has been conducted, frequently with international support. The introduction of a set of Cuban standards proposing the necessity of ergonomic evaluations is an example of this progress. The main challenge for Cuban ergonomists is to transfer knowledge to occupational health practitioners in order to be in concordance with basic standards and regulations regarding ergonomics. The article offers a short description of the history of ergonomics and an overview of ergonomics practice in Cuba.

  14. Una llamada de “urgencia” para tutela cautelar en la justicia administrativa en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El régimen jurídico de la tutela cautelar que rige hoy por hoy para la justicia administrativa en Cuba, se basa en el principio de ejecutabilidad de los actos administrativos, y por tanto, en la regla de la no suspensión de las decisiones de la administración pública. El modelo construido tomó como referencia el sistema de justicia cautelar administrativa del derecho franco-español de finales del siglo xix. En el siguiente trabajo se parte del presupuesto de la necesidad de un cambio de paradigma en torno a la ordenación jurídica de la tutela cautelar administrativa en Cuba; para la cual se aportan argumentos teóricos que justifican una modificación en pos de ampliar y reforzar el rol de la tutela cautelar en la jurisdicción contencioso-administrativa.

  15. GEOLOGY OF THE FLORENCIA GOLD – TELLURIDE DEPOSIT (CAMAGÜEY, CUBA AND SOME METALLURGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López K Jesús M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results from a study of the Florencia gold-telluride deposit in Central Cuba, including mineralogical, petrographical, microprobe and chemical analysis. Valuable information is provided for the exploration, mining and processing of gold ores from other nearby deposits with similar characteristics. Results highlight changes in the mineralogical composition of the ores between the north and south sectors of the deposit, as reflected in metallurgical concentrates after beneficiation and flotation of samples from these sectors.
    It is shown that gold deposits of the Cretaceous Volcanic Arc of Cuba largely consist of native gold, telluride and pyrite, where arsenopyrite is almost absent. Traces of lead, zinc and cadmium are present in the periphery of the main ore zones.

  16. Vodú Chic: Haitian Religion and the Folkloric Imaginary in Socialist Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grete Viddal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the first three decades of the twentieth century, hundreds of thousands of Haitian agricultural laborers arrived in Cuba seeking employment in the expanding sugar industry. Historically, Haitian cane cutters were marginal and occupied the lowest socio-economic status in Cuban society. Until relatively recently, the maintenance of Haitian spiritual beliefs, music, dance, and language in Cuba were associated with rural isolation and poverty. Today however, the continuation of Haitian customs is no longer linked with isolation, but exactly the opposite: performance troupes, heritage festivals, art exhibitions, the circulation of religious specialists, collaborations with research centers and academia, endorsement by music promoters, and the tourism industry. Cubans of Haitian heritage have found innovative ways to transform the abject into the exotic, and are currently gaining a public voice in cultural production, particularly through folkloric performance.

  17. Racial Geographies, Imperial Transitions: Property Ownership and Race Relations in Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1894–1899

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Lucero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores race relations in the provincial city of Cienfuegos, Cuba, during a time of immense political change from 1894 to 1899. In those five years, Cuba was transformed from a Spanish colony struggling for independence to an occupied territory of the United States. This political transformation brought into direct confrontation two models of race relations: one Spanish, characterized by racial integration, and the other American, renowned for Jim Crow segregation. This essay examines the lived significance of this political transformation through interracial property transactions recorded in the notarial protocols of Cienfuegos. The findings suggest that the final war of independence provided opportunities for Afro-descendants to purchase prime properties within the official city bounds. Yet, with US intervention in 1898, a subtle but increasing marginalization of men and women of color from the market in urban property is evident. Lucero contends that this marginalization reflects a shift in race relations due to the American imperial presence.

  18. TEJEDORAS DE SONIDOS DE LA REGIÓN CENTRAL DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda Hernández Ramírez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on the role of women in the geo-cultural region of Villa Clara, Cuba, in the development of music in the above area, it emphasizes the different roles of a group of women who served or do today as a musician, composers and pedagogues. It uses a metaphor that moves through time stamp of women in the music of Villa Clara

  19. Comparing environmental issues in Cuba before and after the Special Period: balancing sustainable development and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maal-Bared, Rasha

    2006-04-01

    Following the Earth Summit in 1992, Cuba designed and implemented a variety of programs, administrative structures, and public awareness activities to promote sound environmental management and sustainable development. This came shortly after the fall of the Soviet Union and the strengthening of the US blockade in 1990, which resulted in a 35% drop in Cuban GDP. This period, referred to as the Special Period, witnessed a decrease in many environmentally damaging activities both by choice and by necessity, but also resulted in many decisions to resuscitate the Cuban economy. The purpose of this work was to compare and rank the environmental risks Cuba faced before and during the Special Period (1990-2000) using two Comparative environmental risk assessments (CERAs). To do so, an ecosystem integrity risk assessment matrix was constructed with 42 risk end points. The matrix assessed the risk posed by 17 problem areas including air pollution, water contamination, solid waste sites, pesticides and ecosystem degradation. The risks were calculated using five criteria: area affected, vulnerability of affected population, severity of impact, irreversibility of effect and uncertainty. To construct this matrix, both literature reviews and expert interviews in Cuba were conducted in 2000. The results showed a general decrease in risk scores during the Special Period. Before the Special Period, high risks were posed by: terrestrial degradation and industrial wastewater and sludge, followed by freshwater degradation, surface water stressors, and pesticides. After the Special Period, industrial wastewater and sludge and pesticides were no longer high-risk areas, but municipal wastewater and marine coastal degradation ranked higher than previously. Also, the risk endpoints most stressed after 1990 were affected by activities controlled by the government, such as mining and tourism, and lack of infrastructure. Therefore, the claims that public environmental education is the main

  20. Estudio bibliométrico de la Revista Centro Agrícola, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Enrique, Luis Ernesto; Peralta González, María Josefa; Hernández Alfonso, Eduardo Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of references of serials publications are appropriate tools for making decisions to improve the quality of the journals. This article raises as objectives to examine the references of the articles published by the Centro Agrícola Journal of the Universidad Central ''Marta Abreu'' de Las Villas, Cuba. This article characterizes the publication and the references employed by the journal. Five unidimensionals indicators are applied: most referenced year, most referenced document typ...

  1. Farming like we're here to stay : the mixed farming alternative for Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Funes Monzote, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Crop-livestock, agro-diversity, mixed farming, dairy production, agro-ecological indicators, sustainability, energy efficiency, local development, Cuba Specialization, as opposed to diversification, and export orientation have been historically the basis for patterns of dependence on external inputs and centralized decision-making in the Cuban agricultural model. Low autonomy in farmers’ decision-making (centrally-planned collective farms), scarcity of production inputs and extensiv...

  2. Public health services, an essential determinant of health during crisis. Lessons from Cuba, 1989-2000

    OpenAIRE

    de Vos, P.; García-Fariñas, A.; Alvarez-Pérez, A.; Rodríguez-Salvá, A.; Bonet-Gorbea, M.; Van der Stuyft, P.

    2012-01-01

    During the 1990s, Cuba was able to overcome a severe crisis, almost without negative health impacts. This national retrospective study covering the years 1989-2000 analyses the country's strategy through essential social, demographic, health process and health outcome indicators. Gross domestic product (GDP) diminished by 34.76% between 1989 and 1993. In 1994 slow recuperation started. During the crisis, public health expenses increased. The number of family doctors rose from 9.22 to 27.03 pe...

  3. Relationship between geographic distribution and morphological patterns in genus Cerion (Mollusca: Cerionidae) in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Rodríguez-Ochoa

    2014-01-01

    The genus Cerion, with 90 species described for Cuba, is highly polytypical and it had been litle studied. The idea of the absence of and spatiall arrage-ment of morphotypes had been mantained even knowing that in other distri-bution areas several patterns had arise. The goal of this paper was to charac-terize morphological variation on the Cuban species of Cerion and to assess relationship between geographic distances between populations and shell shape differences. Geometric morphome...

  4. Multielemental analysis by neutron activation of sediments in the Ana Maria Gulf, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper general samples of marine sediments taken from six control stations of the Ana Maria Gulf (Cuba) were analyzed. For this purpose the thermal neutron activation analysis method was used. 18 elements were determinated. They are: Al, Ce, Co, Cs, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Mo, Mn, Rb, Sc, Ta, Th, Yb and Zn. The accuracy varied between 5 and 30% for all elements. 10 refs

  5. "Toward Being a Complete Woman": Reflections on Mothering in Santiago de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Garth, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief look at how state policy and programming may have achieved the intended consequence of getting more women into the workforce in Santiago de Cuba. It also shows that by accomplishing this, household work was shifted onto grandmothers leaving a generation of women with the notion that womanhood is conflated with motherhood but without the space and skills for their own mothering.

  6. Floraciones algales nocivas en la bahía de Santiago de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, L.; Díaz, U.; Fernández, A.; Licea, Y.; Álvarez, I.

    2006-01-01

    Santiago de Cuba bay is an ecosystem eutrophic and vulnerable to FANs events. This work preset the results of monitoring during three year in eight stations located in the less polluted area of the bay, leading to the determination of the possible seasonal distribution and FANs frequency. 117 Phytoplankton species were identifying, which belong to 5 divisions; 28% of these species are reported as potentially toxic and/ or noxious. This zone of the bay classifies as politrophic,...

  7. Construyendo identidades desde la excepcionalidad: mujer, divorciada y maestra en Santiago de Cuba, siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Provencio Garrigós, Lucía

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with a complex matter: the construction of female gender identity, and it does so though the figure of a paradigmatic woman: Baldomera Fuentes Segura (Santiago de Cuba 1807-1876), a cultivated, learned schoolteacher, married and divorced. She knew how to make her way in life, both personally and intellectually, from the exceptionality marked by the gender discourse, except for when she used her wit and intelligence both orally and in writing, to defend her autonomy as well as ...

  8. An eighteenth-century community in exile : the 'floridanos' in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Landers

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available History of the evacuation of 1763, when Floridians had to move away after the English seized the colony from Spain. Most of the migrants settled in Cuba. Several hundred families of Spanish descent and their slaves made new lives in Havana. Author focuses on the Florida Africans and Indians and the history of a new multi-ethnic settlement named San Agustín de la Nueve Florida.

  9. A History of the Ballet Nacional de Cuba: gendered labor and its representations

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Andrew Michael

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the ways that the Ballet Nacional de Cuba (BNC) was enfranchised into the 1959 Cuban Revolution. By foregrounding the national projects of the Revolution and examining representations of the homosexual Cuban male experience, I explore how the internationally distinct Cuban ballet technique emerged in dialogue and in response to the new man (el hombre nuevo) and the new nation that was being forged. Part I explores the Cuban ballet technique as a repository of the socio-po...

  10. Is the 'New Man' dead? Tourism, self-perception and relative deprivation in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Halsør, Marte

    2012-01-01

    This study is about the relationship between the growth of tourism in Cuba and the sense of relative deprivation experienced by many Cubans, and about the results of this relationship in the society at large. I argue that by comparing themselves to their compatriots who have better access to CUC (Cuban convertible peso, one of the two official currencies in use in the country), and who thus enjoy a higher standard of living, many Cubans perceive themselves as relatively deprived. This thesis ...

  11. Perspectivas de la Infotecnología para la Editorial Universitaria (Cuba)

    OpenAIRE

    Torricella Morales, Raul G.; Hernández Monzón, Aldo; Huerta Espinosa, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    The word "Infotecnología" defines the key discipline for reaching the training and the development of the technical-social relationships and the communications infrastructure of the Cuban Higher Education. The use of Information Technology for producing and publishing the graduation theses is highly important for the best use of TICs in Higher Education in Cuba, so, since the 2008-2009 course the decision was make that all the Cuban students should produce their graduation theses in digital f...

  12. Perspectivas de la Infotecnología para la Editorial Universitaria en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Torricella Morales, Raul G.; Hernández Monzón, Aldo; Huerta Espinosa, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    The word "Infotecnología" defines the key discipline for reaching the training and the development of the technical-social relationships and the communications infrastructure of the Cuban Higher Education. The use of Information Technology for producing and publishing the graduation theses is highly important for the best use of TICs in Higher Education in Cuba, so, since the 2008-2009 course the decision was make that all the Cuban students should produce their graduation theses in digital f...

  13. El largo compromiso de Canadá con Cuba: paradojas y posibilidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas LEGLER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros «actores» es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales

  14. Agriculture in the City: A Key to Sustainability in Havana, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Caridad Cruz, M.; Sánchez Medina, R.

    2003-01-01

    This book presents the results of a 3-year research project on the history and state of urban agriculture in Havana, Cuba. A multidisciplinary team of 15 professionals, coordinated by the authors, assess the long-term potential for including urban agriculture in the social economies of two areas of Havana, as well as in city-wide environmental management programs. The results will be of particular interest to municipal, local, and community authorities considering how to convert emergency foo...

  15. CardioVilla 2011: congratulations to the health of cardiovascular medicine in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Dueñas Fernández; Alberto Morales Salinas; Rubén Tomás Moro Rodríguez; Jesús A. Satorre Ygualada

    2011-01-01

    In this editorial, some of the most relevant issues dealt with in CardioVilla IV Cardiac Congress 2011 are presented. This congress was held in Santa Clara, Cuba, from October 13th to 15th, 2011. It was sponsored by several scientific societies, including the American Society of Cardiology. A video conference was organized with the representatives of this society. At the conference, the 25th anniversaries of Cardiology Centers Saturmino Lora, William Soler and Ernesto Che Guevara were...

  16. Corrosion of steel reinforced concrete in the tropical coastal atmosphere of Havana City, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Castañeda; Juan José Howland; Francisco Corvo; Tezozomoc Pérez

    2013-01-01

    The influence of chloride deposition rate on concrete using an atmospheric corrosion approach is rarely studied in the literature. Seven exposure sites were selected in Havana City, Cuba, for exposure of reinforced concrete samples. Two significantly different atmospheric corrosivity levels with respect to corrosion of steel reinforced concrete were observed after two years of exposure depending on atmospheric chloride deposition and w/c ratio of the concrete. Changes in corrosion current are...

  17. España y Cuba. Cien años de relaciones financieras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés ROLDÁN DE MONTAUD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Desde la pérdida del imperio continental americano, Cuba se convierte en el territorio colonial de mayor importancia para la metrópoli. Mercado preferencial para la producción española y fuente de capitales que ayudó a paliar el déficit del Tesoro peninsular, las páginas siguientes se dedican a estudiar las diferentes etapas por las que atravesaron las relaciones financieras entre metrópoli y colonia a lo largo del siglo XIX. Estudio centrado en el aspecto institucional, es decir, en las relaciones entre los Tesoros y por tanto en la especial configuración de la Hacienda colonial y la concepción y estructura del sistema presupuestario. Palabras Clave: España, Cuba, Siglo XIX, Relaciones financieras, Hacienda colonial, Presupuestos. ABSTRACT: After metropolis lost its empire on the American continent, Cuba became its most important colonial territory and a preferential market for Spanish production as well as a source of capital which helped to mitigate the deficit in the Spanish Treasury. The pages that follow study the different stages through which the financial relations between the metropolis and the colony passed during the 19th century. This study focuses on the institutional aspect, i.e., on the relations between the treasuries and therefore on the special configuration of the colonial Treasuty and the conception and structure of the budgetary system. Key words: Spain, Cuba 19th Century, Financial Relation, Colonial Treasury, Budgets.

  18. IAEA Director General welcomes Cuba's intention to join the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed Cuba's announcement to accede to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and to ratify the Treaty of Tlatelolco establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Latin America and the Caribbean. He expressed the hope that Cuba will conclude soon a comprehensive safeguards agreement with the Agency, as required under Article III of the NPT. 'With Cuba's intention to become party to the NPT, we have come a step closer to a universal nuclear non-proliferation regime,' Mr. ElBaradei said. Only three countries worldwide with significant nuclear activities now remain outside the NPT. With 188 countries party to the Treaty, the NPT is the most adhered to international agreement after the United Nations Charter and the most widely adhered to multilateral arms control treaty. The NPT makes it mandatory that all non-nuclear-weapon States conclude comprehensive safeguards agreements with the IAEA, and thus put all of their nuclear material under IAEA safeguards. The Director General also welcomed Cuba's ratification of the Tlatelolco Treaty, which completes the process of having all countries in the region of Latin America and the Caribbean as members of the nuclear-weapon-free zone in that region. Mr. ElBaradei said that, 'the Tlatelolco Treaty provides a good model for other regional nuclear-weapon-free zones to follow'. He added that 'universal adherence of all countries in regions having nuclear-weapon-free zone arrangements is important to further strengthen the non-proliferation regime'. (IAEA)

  19. Environmental isolation and characterisation of Cryptococcus species from living trees in Havana city, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illnait-Zaragozí, M T; Martínez-Machín, G F; Fernández-Andreu, C M; Perurena-Lancha, M R; Theelen, B; Boekhout, T; Meis, J F; Klaassen, C H

    2012-05-01

    Cryptococcus isolates from Cuban patients were identified as C. neoformans var. grubii. Although this species has since long been associated with bird droppings, a recent genotyping study provided strong evidence for additional origins of exposure. We sampled different species of trees in Havana, Cuba to identify other potential sources of exposure to this fungus. A total of 662 samples were collected from 331 trees and cacti from Havana, Cuba. Initial selection of the isolates was carried out by conventional techniques. Isolates were further characterised using a combination of AFLP analysis and DNA sequence analysis. Identification by conventional methods yielded 121 C. neoformans and 61 C. gattii isolates. Molecular analyses showed that none of these isolates was C. gattii and only one isolate proved to be C. neoformans var. grubii. A total of 27 different other species were identified. The most prevalent species was C. heveanensis (33%). Sixty-five unidentifiable isolates segregated into ten potentially novel species. Conventional cultivation methods have a low specificity for C. neoformans complex and molecular analyses need to be applied to confirm identification of isolates from environmental sources. Environmental niches responsible for most of human cryptococcal infections in Cuba remain to be identified.

  20. Cuba: transición, sucesión, estabilidad, seguridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ROY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto durante el último periodo de la administración de George W. Bush como con Barack Obama ya asentado en la Casa Blanca. Sin embargo, las delicadas circunstancias de Cuba (precariedad económica, desastres naturales, dependencia alimentaria y energética, etc. señalan que la prioridad de los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos se centran primero en la estabilidad del escenario. Incluso al precio del retraso de la evolución del régimen, un cierto grado de seguridad es necesario para enfrentarse a los riesgos de una emigración incontrolada y las hipotéticas tensiones internas que provoquen confrontaciones

  1. Height, Zinc and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren: A Study in Cuba and Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brechje de Gier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia or hair (Cuba. We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001, while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029, but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051. Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF GAMBUSIA PUNCTATA (POECILIDAE FOR ITS SELECTION AS BIOMONITOR IN AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY IN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argota, George

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural organisms in their capacity as biomonitors allows the evaluation of the environmental conditions of aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of Gambusia punctata Poey, 1854 (Poeciliidae for selection as a biomonitor in aquatic ecotoxicology. The species was selected to be representative and monitored from 2004 to 2012 on a quarterly basis, with two of them corresponding to periods of rain and little rain outside the Almendares -Vento Basin in San Juan Havana and Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, respectively. The description of the characteristics of the referred species considered whether they met seven criteria for biomonitoring: 1 cosmopolitan distribution, 2 easy taxonomic identification, 3 appropriate size, 4 limited mobility and relatively long life cycle, 5 tolerant to contamination, 6 easy handling in laboratory studies, and 7 correlation between the contaminant of interest and other environmental matrices. The characteristics were met for each of the seven criteria, and thus have conditional use as biomonitors in ecotoxicology studies and for the ecosystem at San Juan Almendares, Cuba.

  3. La imagen del turismo cultural en Cuba percibida por el mercado español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamilé Pérez Guilarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El turismo cultural, percibido no solo como las visitas a sitios y monumentos históricos, sino ampliado al conocimiento de la forma de vida y tradiciones de las poblaciones locales, podría constituir una importante alternativa para Cuba. La presente investigación tiene como objetivos determinar si Cuba es apreciada como un destino cultural desde la perspectiva del mercado español e identificar cuáles son sus elementos distintivos. Por medio de un cuestionario realizado a 400 españoles, se evalúan los dos componentes de la imagen de un destino: el cognitivo y el afectivo. El estudio revela una preferencia por el turismo cultural y señala a la gente, la música, al Centro Histórico de La Habana y el estilo de vida como los elementos distintivos de Cuba. Estos resultados contribuyen a un diseño más efectivo de la promoción turística en el mercado español, aunque se recomienda ampliar el estudio a otros mercados potenciales.

  4. Adolescent fertility in Cuba: some reflections on its behavior by provinces and areas of residence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daylin Rodríguez Javiqué

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the adolescent fertility in Cuba during the period 2010-2014 and analyze its proximate determinants both nationally and by territory. Based on the data published in Demographic Yearbook, Studies and Data of the Population and birth databases of the National Bureau of Statistics and Information (ONEI, adolescent fertility rates in Cuba are calculated according to the groups 10-14 and 15-19, by province and area of residence. In addition, data on family formation, contraception and abortion of Cuban adolescents are shown. These elements could allow hypothesizing about the behavior of adolescent fertility in Cuba. The first important result is that fertility among 15-19 years group had a slight decrease in the period; however, the 10-14 years group has increased its level. On the other hand, the analysis by area of residence shows that urban fertility has gained prominence in the Cuban provinces, with an increase between 2010 and 2012 in more than half of them. Similarly, about a third of the provinces analyzed show higher levels of adolescent fertility in urban areas than in rural areas. High rates of abortion in adolescence, which exceeds fertility rates in ten provinces of the country; early onset of sexual intercourse and first marriage, and improper use of contraceptive methods, are elements worth looking into in order to find explanations to the reproductive behavior of Cuban adolescents.

  5. «Mayo Teatral 2008»: o teatro contemporâneo em Havana – Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Alexandre

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo traz para discussão o panorama artístico cubano a partir da análise crítica de alguns textos espetaculares que foram apresentados no evento 8ª Temporada de Teatro Latinoamericano y Caribeño Mayo Teatral 2008. Para esta reflexão, são utilizadas as contribuições da semiótica teatral e são discutidas temáticas relacionadas, entre outras questões, à memória, à cultura cubana e afrocubana e às identidades.  Palavras-chave: Teatro; semiótica teatral; Cuba; memória; cultura; identidade.Resumen: Este artículo se propone a discutir el panorama artístico cubano a través del análisis de algunos textos espectaculares que fueron presentados en el evento 8ª Temporada de Teatro Latinoamericano y Caribeño – Mayo Teatral 2008. Para esta reflexión son utilizados los aportes de la semiótica teatral y son discutidas temáticas relacionadas, entre otras cuestiones, a la memoria, a la cultura cubana y afro-cubana y a las identidades.Palabras-clave: Teatro; semiótica teatral; Cuba; memoria; cultura; identidad.Keywords: Theater; theater semiotics; Cuba; memory; culture; identity.

  6. Strengthening the Radiation Protection System in Cuba (SRPS - Cuba). A co-operation project between Cuban and Swedish institutions, February 2001 - June 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Prendes, Miguel; Zerquera, Juan Tomas

    2004-02-01

    This project results from the co-operation between a number of Cuban and Swedish institutions. It started in February 2001 and ended in June 2003 and was made possible thanks to the contributions of the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (SIDA), the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Cuba (CPHR), and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The overall objective was to strengthen the radiation protection system in Cuba, and in this way contribute with the control and reduction of risks to man and the environment from exposures to ionizing radiation. The project focused on four priority areas: 1) Protection of workers and patients exposed to radiation in radiation practices; 2) Preparedness for response to an emergency situation; 3) Environmental radiological protection; and, 4) Exposure to radiation in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. The present report summarizes the findings of the whole project period, providing an overview of the overall achievements, as well as listing its deliverables. The results of an evaluation of the project, conducted during the final workshop, are also included. The report ends with a list of generic and specific conclusions and recommendations for implementation of the project's achievements and for further development of co-operation.

  7. Strengthening the Radiation Protection System in Cuba (SRPS - Cuba). A co-operation project between Cuban and Swedish institutions, February 2001 - June 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project results from the co-operation between a number of Cuban and Swedish institutions. It started in February 2001 and ended in June 2003 and was made possible thanks to the contributions of the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (SIDA), the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Cuba (CPHR), and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The overall objective was to strengthen the radiation protection system in Cuba, and in this way contribute with the control and reduction of risks to man and the environment from exposures to ionizing radiation. The project focused on four priority areas: 1) Protection of workers and patients exposed to radiation in radiation practices; 2) Preparedness for response to an emergency situation; 3) Environmental radiological protection; and, 4) Exposure to radiation in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. The present report summarizes the findings of the whole project period, providing an overview of the overall achievements, as well as listing its deliverables. The results of an evaluation of the project, conducted during the final workshop, are also included. The report ends with a list of generic and specific conclusions and recommendations for implementation of the project's achievements and for further development of co-operation

  8. Acting of the radiological surveillance of food in Cuba before anomalous situations; Actuacion de la vigilancia radiologica de alimentos en Cuba ante situaciones anomalas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez G, I.M.; Rodriguez C, G.; Carrazana G, J.; Capote F, E. [CPHR, Calle 20, No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, La Habana, 11300 (Cuba)]. e-mail: isis@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    Keeping in mind the real possibility of that would be imported to Cuba polluted foods with radionuclides, product of a nuclear or radiological accident happens one contamination of foods inside the national territory, it was designed and was into effect in January, 2000, a Program of Radiological Surveillance of Foods and Water, in the marks of the National Program of Surveillance of Pollutants in Foods and Water. This surveillance is executed in group among the National Unit of Health Environmental of the Ministry of Health and the Center of Protection and Hygiene of those Radiations of the Ministry of Sciences, Technology and Environment. In this work the design in the way of acting of the Radiological Surveillance of Foods and Water in Cuba, in the event of detection of anomalous situations is presented. The same one includes, the establishment of investigation levels for radionuclides in foods, the ways of performance of the System, of to be overcome or to be equaled the performance levels or established investigation, the flow of the information, as well as the work routine to continue by the essay laboratories, in the event of an anomalous situation. (Author)

  9. Actitudes lingüísticas en Cuba. Cambios positivos hacia la variante nacional de lengua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Sobrino Triana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de La Habana, frente al español de Cuba y hacia el español de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando a una muestra de 400 informantes, estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. El análisis está centrado en las denominaciones dadas a la lengua española, las percepciones cognitivo-lingüísticas y las actitudes, tanto positivas como negativas, que manifiestan los informantes hacia su variedad nacional y el resto de los países hispanohablantes, así como las opiniones sobre corrección y unidad lingüísticas. Entre los resultados obtenidos destaca la valoración positiva hacia la variante cubana, en relación con investigaciones anteriores. El estudio contribuye a actualizar el panorama sobre actitudes en Cuba y se suma a la serie de trabajos, que con una metodología común, se han realizado en el mundo hispánico dentro del proyecto LIAS. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of native Spanish speakers from Havana, towards Spanish spoken in Cuba and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital of the country, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 respondents based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. The analysis addresses several issues, such as the various names given to the Spanish language in Cuba, the cognitive linguistic perceptions and the positive and negative attitudes of Cuban speakers towards Spanish, as well as their opinions

  10. 8 CFR 245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Immigration Court in accordance with 8 CFR 240.11(f). If a request for a fee waiver is denied, the applicaion... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 245.13 Section 245.13 Aliens and Nationality... PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 245.13 Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under...

  11. El lugar de la inteligencia empresarial en el entorno conceptual de la gestión del conocimiento. Evolución en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco-Silva, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between business intelligence and knowledge management is analyzed, as well as their links to information management. Also explored are their relationships with technology foresighting, together with the compared characteristics of both business intelligence and knowledge management. Included in the article is a brief report on business intelligence activities in Cuba Keywords: Business intelligence, Knowledge management,Information management, Technology foresight, Cuba

  12. Las antinomias de la nación Cubana: la agenda de Cuba en la perspectiva de Iberoamerica y frente a los EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael HERNÁNDEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo, el autor analiza las relaciones entre EEUU. y Cuba en la actualidad y sus perspectivas. Para ésto, pasa revista a algunas de las facturas que son presentadas para explicar la política de bloqueo de EEUU. a Cuba, concretamente la alianza de Cuba con la Unión Soviética y la ayuda de aquélla a regímenes antiamericanos. El autor sostiene que esas facturas no son las causas principales de la política americana ya que ésta tiene una lógica propia en función de controlar una Cuba que, desde siempre, ha sido un objetivo geopolítico de EE.UU. Por último, el autor analiza las perpectivas de transformaciones internas del régimen cubano como respuesta a la crisis actual.ABSTRACT: The current relations between United States and Cuba are analyzed in this work. It shows some factors that explain the USA blockade to Cuba; specifically the Soviet Union - Cuba alliance and the help of the Soviets to the anti- American political regimes. The author believes that such factors are not the main causes of the American foreing policy because this policy has its own logic: to control Cuba which has always been a USA geopolitics objective. Finally, he analizes the perspectives of the international transformations of Cuban political system. as response to the present crisis.

  13. Communication of 27 March 1995 received from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Cuba to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received a letter of 27 March 1995 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Cuba informing the Agency that the Government of the Republic of Cuba signed the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco Treaty) on 25 March 1995

  14. Política, ethos social e identidad en la cuba contemporánea Politics, social ethos and identity in contemporary Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis RONIGER

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La persistencia del modelo político cubano es paradójica al analizarla sobre e! transfondo de extrema penuria económica, pérdida de apoyo internacional y presiones en aumento de parte de los Estados Unidos y la oposición anticastrista fuera de Cuba. No obstante las circunstancias internacionales adversas que debió enfrentar Cuba tras la caída de la Unión Soviética -su principal fuente de apoyo económico- el gobierno revolucionario logró mantenerse en e! poder. Los autores analizan las condiciones que posibilitaron la proyección del compromiso revolucionario, las medidas económicas y los mecanismos políticos adoptados en la última década a fin de adaptarse a la cambiante situación global al tiempo que mantuvieron la estabilidad interna, pese a los serios desafíos internacionales y las presiones internas. Se sugiere que un factor clave en la persistencia del modelo deriva de su conexión con las identidades colectivas y el ethos social de la nación cubana en el período postrevolucionario. Este factor instrumental en asegurar la continuidad de! modelo cubano, ha limitado empero su proyección actual en las otras naciones latinoamericanas, a pesar de los alcances destacados en ámbitos de desarrollo humano, como son la salud y la educación.The resilience of the Cuban political model appears paradoxical against the backdrop of extreme economic hardship, loss o foreign support and increasing pressure by the United States and the anti-Castro opposition. Notwithstanding adverse global circumstances following the demise of the Soviet Union -its main source of economic support- the Cuban revolutionary government has managed to hold onto power. In this paper the authors analyze the conditions under which Cuba has remained committee to its revolutionary path and the economic measures and political mechanisms it has adopted to maintain internal stability, despite serious international challenges and internal pressures. They suggest that

  15. Situación de la gestión de inventarios en Cuba/Situation of Stock Management in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lopes-Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar la situación de la gestión de inventarios en Cuba, a partir de las experiencias obtenidas durante más de 10 años en entidades de los sectores de servicios, comerciales y producción. En nuestro país existen problemas como: la falta de disponibilidad, la inestabilidad de suministros, la baja rotación de inventarios, los deficientes estudios realizados sobre demanda y productos obsoletos; todos los cuales están relacionados directamente con los inventarios. Es por ello que se propone analizar estos problemas desde la perspectiva de la empresa y tratarlos a nivel de cadena de suministro, integración débilmente estructurada en nuestras entidades. Se realiza un análisis de la relación entre la legislación vigente en Cuba y la gestión del inventario, por lo que se recomienda la utilización, en próximos estudios, de un modelo de referencia para evaluar la situación de la gestión de los inventarios en las empresas y cadenas de forma más integral./The main objective of this article is to analyze the stock management situation in Cuba, taking into account the experiences obtained for more than 10 years in several enterprises which develop their activities in connection with the service, commercial and production fields. Cuban companies are facing problems such as: lack of availability, supply instability, low rotation of the stock, poor studies of demand, and obsolete productions; which have in common their relation with the stock management. That is why this research proposes to make an assessment of these problems from the point of view of the enterprise in connection with their supply chains. Such a comprehensive analysis is poorly developed in Cuban enterprises so far. It is also proposed an analysis of the laws and their connection with stock management. Finally, it is suggested the introduction of a reference model in order to assess, with more integrality, the status of the stock

  16. A new species of Desmopachria Babington (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) from Cuba with a prediction of its geographic distribution and notes on other Cuban species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megna, Yoandri S; Sánchez-Fernández, David

    2014-01-10

    A new species, Desmopachria andreae sp. n. is described from Cuba. Diagnostic characters including illustrations of male genitalia are provided and illustrated for the five species of the genus occurring on the island. For these five species both a simple key to adults and maps of their known distribution in Cuba are also provided. Using a Maximun Entropy method (MaxEnt), a distribution model was developed for D. andreae sp.n. Based on the model's predictions, this species has a higher probability of occurring in high altitude forests (above 1000 m a.s.l.), characterised by relatively low temperatures especially during the hottest and wettest seasons, specifically, the mountainous areas of the Macizo de Guamuhaya (Central Cuba), Sierra Maestra (S Cuba) and Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa (NE Cuba). In some of these areas the species has not yet been recorded, and should be searched for in future field surveys.

  17. The Media’s Construction of Cuba. An Analysis of the Journalistic Discourse of The Washington Post

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mg. Miguel Ernesto Gómez Masjuán

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the main findings of a qualitative piece of research based on a unique, inclusive, descriptive case aimed at critically analysing the journalistic discourse of American newspaper The Washington Post about Cuba in two significant moments of the island´s recent history: Fidel Castro´s Proclamation in July 31, 2006, and Raúl Castro’s Presidential election in February, 2008. The main topics, discursive strategies and linguistic resources prioritised by the newspaper to portray Cuba during that period are examined and several converging points between the newspaper´s discourse and Bush Administration´s political discourse about Cuba are revealed.

  18. Epidemic neuropathy in Cuba: a plea to end the United States economic embargo on a humanitarian basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, G C

    1994-10-01

    During 1992-1993, an epidemic of neurologic disease in Cuba affected 50,862 patients with optic neuropathy, sensorineural deafness, predominantly sensory peripheral neuropathy, and dorsolateral myelopathy. The clinical syndromes were identical to those of prisoners of war subjected to nutritional restriction in tropical prison camps during World War II (Strachan's disease). A dietary deficiency of group B vitamins and sulfur-containing amino acids appears to have been the primary cause of the epidemic. This was a consequence of economic and political events in Cuba linked to the collapse of the Soviet Union and socialist countries. The recently toughened 30-year-old US economic embargo on Cuba contributed to these problems and hampered the investigation, treatment, and prevention of the epidemic. A plea is made to the neurologic community to request the lifting of the trade blockade on a humanitarian basis. PMID:7936221

  19. Fasciola hepatica in Cuba: compatibility of different isolates with two intermediate snail hosts, Galba cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, A A; Sánchez, J; Pointier, J-P; Théron, A; Hurtrez-Boussès, S

    2014-12-01

    In Cuba, only two lymnaeid snails, Galba cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella, with different ecology and distribution patterns, are intermediate hosts for Fasciola hepatica. The compatibility of these two species as hosts was analysed through their rates of infection, the production of rediae and survivorship when exposed to F. hepatica miracidia. Ten populations of G. cubensis, eight of P. columella collected from various habitats and six isolates of F. hepatica sampled in slaughterhouses from different localities were tested. Our results clearly demonstrate that G. cubensis is a more compatible host for F. hepatica in Cuba when compared with P. columella. However, the role that P. columella may have in fascioliasis transmission under certain conditions should not be disregarded. Variation in infectivity among isolates of F. hepatica were also observed and may explain why some regions in Cuba are more commonly subjected to fascioliasis outbreaks.

  20. Los caminos hacia una Sociología en Cuba: avatares históricos, teóricos y profesionales The pathways towards a Sociology in Cuba: historical, theoretical and professional changes

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Muñoz Gutiérrez

    2005-01-01

    La ponencia realiza un panorama de la Historia de la Sociología en Cuba, a partir de la combinación de los enfoques de la Historia de las Ideas y de la Historia de la Ciencia. Brinda una caracterización de las etapas fundamentales por las que ha atravesado la ciencia sociológica en el país, combinando una mirada de lo universal, lo regional y lo nacional, destacando las especificidades de los procesos en Cuba, así como sus correlatos en Europa y en América Latina. Se atiende a los procesos de...

  1. Los contactos lingüísticos y el español no estándar de Santiago de Cuba (Linguistic contacts and non standard Spanish from Santiago, Cuba)

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Jesús Figueroa Arencibia

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo entrega los resultados obtenidos en un trabajo de camporealizado en Santiago de Cuba y se propone mostrar el papel desempeñado principalmente por las lenguas bantúes y el criollo haitiano en la aceleración de determinadas tendencias lingüísticas provenientes del mediodía peninsular en el español no estándar santiaguero. (This article shows the results obtained in a field study carried out in Santiago, Cuba. Its objective is to show the role represented by Bantu languages and Hai...

  2. Desequilibrios metabólicos con especial referencia a las carenciales de minerales asociadas a problemas reproductivos en vacas lecheras de Cuba (Metabolic imbalances and minerals deficiencies associated with reproductive disorders in dairy cattle in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Díaz, Juan R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo de este estudio fue diagnosticar los principales desequilibrios metabólicos con especial referencia a las carenciales de minerales asociadas a los problemas reproductivos en vacas lecheras mestizas Holstein x Cebú en un sistema de producción con amamantamiento restringido en la región central de Cuba.SummaryThe objective of this study was to diagnose the principal metabolic imbalances and deficiencies associated with reproductive disorders especially due to mineral deficiency in crossbreed (Holstein × Cebu dairy cows under restrained system of production in the central region of Cuba.

  3. Fuentes de infeccion de histoplasmosis en la Isla de la Juventud, Cuba Sources of infection of histoplasmosis in the Island of Youth, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel Fernandez Andreu

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente trabajo es reportar el aislamiento de Histoplasma capsulation, agente etiológico de la histoplasmosis, a partir del suelo de lugares habitados por murciélagos y gallinas en la Isla de la Juventud, Cuba. El hongo fue cultivado también a partir de los órganos de cuatro especies de murciélagos capturados en cuevas. La identificación de H. capsulatum se realizó mediante la conversión de la fase miceliana a levadura y por el test de exoantígenos. Se señala el valor epidemiológico de estos hallazgos en cuevas de gran importancia arqueológica, espeleológica y turística, así como el riesgo potencial que representan para la salud humana. Los autores concluyen con recomendaciones para evitar la infección por H. capsulatum en aquellas personas que por determinadas razones tengan que estar en contacto con estos ambientes contaminados.The purpose of this work is to report the isolation of Histoplasma capsulatum, etiologic agent of histoplasmosis, from soil in sites inhabited by bats and chicken in the Island of Youth, Cuba. The fungus was cultured from four species of cavedwelling bats too. The identification of H. capsulatum was done by mycelial to yeast conversion and exoantigen test. It is pointed out the epidemiological value of some of these isolations in caves of great importance from the archeologic, speleologic or touristic point of view; and the potential risk that they represent to human health. The authors conclude with some recommendation to prevent the infection with H. capsultatum in people who have to keep in contact with those environments.

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ESTHETIC SENSIBILITY THROUGH THE SUBJECT HISTORY OF CUBA / EL DESARROLLO DE LA SENSIBILIDAD ESTÉTICA DESDE LA ASIGNATURA HISTORIA DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha María Casas Rodríguez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The work presented herein is a synthesis of an important pedagogical investigation for the aesthetic education of the art student in the elementary level. It was developed and validated in practice at Luis Casas Romero primary school. The objective is to reveal the relationship between the historical contents and aesthetics through a pedagogical model for the development of the aesthetic expression in the learning of Cuban History. It offers a pedagogical alternative for the aesthetic development in the teaching learning process of Cuban History. A relationship between intituitive and rational learning associated with affective and volitive processes, for the development of aesthetic expression is established.ResumenEl presente trabajo es la síntesis de una investigación pedagógica, de actualidad e importancia, para la educación estética del estudiante de arte en el Nivel Elemental de la Enseñanza Artística, que se desarrolló y validó en la práctica educativa de la Enseñanza Primaria de la Escuela Vocacional de Arte “Luis Casas Romero”. Tiene como objetivo develar las relaciones entre los contenidos históricos y la estética, a través de un modelo pedagógico para el desarrollo de la expresión estética del aprendizaje de la Historia de Cuba. Su importancia radica en que ofrece una alternativa pedagógica para el desarrollo estético a partir del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la Historia de Cuba, que establece la relación del aprendizaje intuitivo y el racional, en relación con los procesos afectivos y volitivos, para el desarrollo de la expresión estética.

  5. Building Partnerships for Sustainable Land Management and Food Security in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Soil erosion and the associated land degradation have long been recognized as major environmental concerns and a constraint to food security and sustainable development. The United Nations has highlighted soil degradation as one of the most significant challenges for sustainable food production in the 21st century (World Summit on Sustainable Development, 2002 Johannesburg, South Africa). The ARCAL (Regional Cooperative Agreement for the Advancement of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean) Regional Strategy Profile identified the inefficient use of soil resources and the resulting permanent loss of productive agricultural land as major limitations to achieving food security in the Latin American and Caribbean region. Currently, about 300 million hectares of land have been affected by degradation. Indicators of the present soil conservation status and probable environmental consequences are essential for an assessment of national economic potential and evaluation of political and social consequences. Large-scale soil erosion assessments, for example in a watershed, cannot be based on direct conventional measurements because of methodological restrictions and excessively high temporal and spatial variability. This can be addressed through the use of fallout radionuclides (caesium-137, lead-210 and beryllium-7), which are widely distributed in the environment, adsorbed by soil particles and hence transported in the landscape in a similar way to soil particles. Therefore the monitoring of their redistribution provides an excellent fingerprint for soil redistribution by erosion or sedimentation. These radionuclide techniques also offer an advantage over the conventional methods, by being much less laborious and pinpointing the sources of soil loss. In 2009, a regional technical cooperation project (RLA/5/051 - ARCAL) was initiated for Latin America, with 15 countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Haiti

  6. Development of an active risk-based surveillance strategy for avian influenza in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, E; Alfonso, P; Ippoliti, C; Abeledo, M; Calistri, P; Blanco, P; Conte, A; Sánchez, B; Fonseca, O; Percedo, M; Pérez, A; Fernández, O; Giovannini, A

    2014-09-01

    The authors designed a risk-based approach to the selection of poultry flocks to be sampled in order to further improve the sensitivity of avian influenza (AI) active surveillance programme in Cuba. The study focused on the western region of Cuba, which harbours nearly 70% of national poultry holdings and comprise several wetlands where migratory waterfowl settle (migratory waterfowl settlements - MWS). The model took into account the potential risk of commercial poultry farms in western Cuba contracting from migratory waterfowl of the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes through dispersion for pasturing of migratory birds around the MWS. We computed spatial risk index by geographical analysis with Python scripts in ESRI(®) ArcGIS 10 on data projected in the reference system NAD 1927-UTM17. Farms located closer to MWS had the highest values for the risk indicator pj and in total 31 farms were chosen for targeted surveillance during the risk period. The authors proposed to start active surveillance in the study area 3 weeks after the onset of Anseriformes migration, with additional sampling repeated twice in the same selected poultry farms at 15 days interval (Comin et al., 2012; EFSA, 2008) to cover the whole migration season. In this way, the antibody detectability would be favoured in case of either a posterior AI introduction or enhancement of a previous seroprevalence under the sensitivity level. The model identified the areas with higher risk for AIV introduction from MW, aiming at selecting poultry premises for the application of risk-based surveillance. Given the infrequency of HPAI introduction into domestic poultry populations and the relative paucity of occurrences of LPAI epidemics, the evaluation of the effectiveness of this approach would require its application for several migration seasons to allow the collection of sufficient reliable data.

  7. Background concentrations and reference values for heavy metals in soils of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Mirelys Rodríguez; Montero, Alfredo; Ugarte, Olegario Muñiz; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; de Aguiar Accioly, Adriana Maria; Biondi, Caroline Miranda; da Silva, Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    The potential threat of heavy metals to human health has led to many studies on permissible levels of these elements in soils. The objective of this study was to establish quality reference values (QRVs) for Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, As, Hg, V, Ba, Sb, Ag, Co, and Mo in soils of Cuba. Geochemical associations between trace elements and Fe were also studied, aiming to provide an index for establishing background concentrations of metals in soils. Surface samples of 33 soil profiles from areas of native forest or minimal anthropic influence were collected. Samples were digested (USEPA method 3051A), and the metals were determined by ICP-OES. The natural concentrations of metals in soils of Cuba followed the order Fe > Mn > Ni > Cr > Ba > V > Zn > Cu > Pb > Co > As > Sb > Ag > Cd > Mo > Hg. The QRVs found for Cuban soils were as follows (mg kg(-1)): Ag (1), Ba (111), Cd (0.6), Co (25), Cr (153), Cu (83), Fe (54,055), Mn (1947), Ni (170), Pb (50), Sb (6), V (137), Zn (86), Mo (0.1), As (19), and Hg (0.1). The average natural levels of heavy metals are above the global average, especially for Ni and Cr. The chemical fractionation of soil samples presenting anomalous concentrations of metals showed that Cu, Ni, Cr, Sb, and As have low bioavailability. This suggests that the risk of contamination of agricultural products via plant uptake is low. However, the final decision on the establishment of soil QRVs in Cuba depends on political, economic, and social issues and in-depth risk analyses considering all routes of exposure to these elements.

  8. Cuba y el despertar de los nacionalismos en la España peninsular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric UCELAY DA CAL

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente artículo analiza el papel nuclear que el nacionalismo cubano tuvo en la aparición y crecimiento de los nacionalismos contemporáneos en España. Tanto el nacionalismo español como los nacionalismos periféricos, especialmente el catalán y el vasco, estuvieron determinados por el modelo y las formas nacionalistas que surgieron de manera pionera en la Gran Antilla. Por otro lado, el enfrentamiento entre nacionalismo cubano y respuesta españolista establecería las pautas ideológicas de radicalización que posteriormente serían repetidas en contextos metropolitanos. Desentrañar esas determinaciones y esas pautas en el marco de la dimensión cubana de la política española es, pues, el tema central de este trabajo. Palabras Clave: Cuba, España, Imperio, Nacionalismo cubano, Nacionalismos peninsulares. ABSTRACT: The article analyzed the central role that Cuban nationalism played in the appearance and growth of contemporary nationalism in Spain. Both Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalism, especially in Catalonia and the Basque Country, were determined by the nationalist model and forms that were pioneered in Cuba. Moreover, the confrontation between Cuban nationalism and the Spanish response was to establish the ideological lines of radicalization that would subsequently be repeated in metropolitan contexts. The deciphering of these determinations and these lines in the framework of the Cuban dimension of Spanish politics is thus the central theme of this study. Key words: Cuba, Spain, Empire, Cuban Nationalism, Peninsular Nationalism.

  9. Genetic origin, admixture, and asymmetry in maternal and paternal human lineages in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Fuentes Antonio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before the arrival of Europeans to Cuba, the island was inhabited by two Native American groups, the Tainos and the Ciboneys. Most of the present archaeological, linguistic and ancient DNA evidence indicates a South American origin for these populations. In colonial times, Cuban Native American people were replaced by European settlers and slaves from Africa. It is still unknown however, to what extent their genetic pool intermingled with and was 'diluted' by the arrival of newcomers. In order to investigate the demographic processes that gave rise to the current Cuban population, we analyzed the hypervariable region I (HVS-I and five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA coding region in 245 individuals, and 40 Y-chromosome SNPs in 132 male individuals. Results The Native American contribution to present-day Cubans accounted for 33% of the maternal lineages, whereas Africa and Eurasia contributed 45% and 22% of the lineages, respectively. This Native American substrate in Cuba cannot be traced back to a single origin within the American continent, as previously suggested by ancient DNA analyses. Strikingly, no Native American lineages were found for the Y-chromosome, for which the Eurasian and African contributions were around 80% and 20%, respectively. Conclusion While the ancestral Native American substrate is still appreciable in the maternal lineages, the extensive process of population admixture in Cuba has left no trace of the paternal Native American lineages, mirroring the strong sexual bias in the admixture processes taking place during colonial times.

  10. Meseta de Boniato y Graben de Santiago de Cuba: un enfoque geomorfológico de su desarrollo morfoestructural

    OpenAIRE

    José Juan Zamorano Orozco; Mario Arturo Ortiz Pérez; Maria Teresa Ramírez Herrera; José Ramón Hernández Santana

    2000-01-01

    La aplicación de os métodos de análisis morfoestructura a territorio de la meseta de Bon aro-graoen oe Santiago de Cuba permitió revelar la influencia teutónica del mecanismo de transformación izqueroa imperante oesae e O goceno-M oceno a lo largo de de Carioe septentriona. Las manifestaciones transcurrentes determinaron la formación de la cuenca de tracción de la bahía de Santiago de Cuba y sus componentes de desplazamiento vertical, una marcada diferenciación en bloques de la escama ...

  11. Madruga, en Cuba, festeja a la virgen en primera peregrinación en 52 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Palacios Barra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Miles de fieles recibieron el domingo 4 de septiembre pasado, en las calles del pueblo de Madruga, a 65 km al este de La Habana y tierra natal del poeta cubano Porfirio Robau (1914-1993, la imagen de la Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre, Patrona de Cuba, en su primera peregrinación por la isla en 52 años de gobierno comunista. La Virgen, Patrona de Cuba desde 1916 por decreto del Papa Benedicto XV, fue coronada y consagrada el año 1998 por Juan Pablo II durante su visita a la isla.

  12. 浅谈CUBA与校园文化%CUBA and Culture on Campus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵铮; 于可红

    2005-01-01

    以中国大学生篮球联赛(CUBA)为例,从校园文化的界定出发,通过对校园文化内涵的深入分析,结合CUBA发展过程中所展现的校园文化特色,指出CUBA是校园文化的重要组成部分,它的存在,对促进校园文化具有重要的意义.

  13. Norway and Cuba Continue Collaborating to Build Capacity to Improve Weather Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antuña, Juan Carlos; Kalnay, Eugenia; Mesquita, Michel D. S.

    2014-06-01

    The Future of Climate Extremes in the Caribbean Extreme Cuban Climate (XCUBE) project, which is funded by the Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection as part of an assignment for the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs to support scientific cooperation between Norway and Cuba, carried out a training workshop on seasonal forecasting, reanalysis data, and weather research and forecasting (WRF). The workshop was a follow-up to the XCUBE workshop conducted in Havana in 2013 and provided Cuban scientists with access to expertise on seasonal forecasting, the WRF model developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the community, data assimilation, and reanalysis.

  14. Grasshoppers, Crickets and Katydids (Insecta: Orthoptera) of Cuba: an annotated checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Sheyla; Perez-Gelabert, Daniel E

    2014-07-07

    An annotated list of the Cuban fauna of Orthoptera is presented. For each species we include details of valid names, synonyms, type specimens (type category, sex, locality and depository), geographic distribution and bibliographic references. Clarifying notes are added, as well as comments on the species considered doubtful. A total of 140 species included in 62 genera, 31 subfamilies and 12 families make up the known Cuban fauna of Orthoptera. The family Episactidae, the acridid subfamily Ommatolampidinae with 3 unknown genera, 3 unknown genera of Tettigoniidae (Conocephalinae) and 1 undescribed new genus of Tetrigidae (Cladonotinae) are here recorded for the first time from Cuba. Syntypes are designated for Hygronemobius histrionicus Zayas.

  15. New species and records of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbała, Wojciech; Ermilov, Sergey G

    2015-12-01

    An annotated checklist of identified oribatid mites from Cuba, including 16 species, 9 genera and 4 families, is provided. Three new species, Prototritia triangularibus Niedbała sp. nov. (Protoplophoridae), Hoplophthiracarus vinalesensis Niedbała sp. nov. and Protophthiracarus paratripartitus Niedbała sp. nov. (both Steganacaridae), are described from leaf litter. Three species of the subgenus Atropacarus (Hoplophorella)-A. (H.) andrei (Balogh, 1958), A. (H.) brachys Niedbała, 2004 and A. (H.) stilifer (Hammer, 1961)-are recorded in the Cuban mite fauna for the first time.

  16. EL CULTIVO DEL MAÍZ, SU ORIGEN Y CLASIFICACIÓN. EL MAIZ EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Acosta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conocer acerca del origen y la clasificación del maíz, así como las teorías que amparan los procesos evolutivos del cultivo, son temas que revierten especial interés en la actualidad. Esta reseña ofrece una visión de las teorías más discutidas al respecto y un debate sobre la clasificación racial existente en Cuba, así como el rol de los maíces criollos en la conservación y generación de diversidad in situ.

  17. El paleomargen pasivo mesozoico de la América del Norte en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Cobiella-Reguera

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuatro dominios paleogeográficos y paleotectónicos se distinguen en los cortes mesozoicos cubansos. De norte a sur, ellos son: 1. Secuencias de un paleomargen pasivo septentrional (PPS; 2. El cinturón ofiolítico septentrional (COS; 3. El terreno de arcos volcánicos cretácicos (TAVK, y 4. Secuencias metamorfizadas de un paleomargen pasivo meridional (PPM. Tres tipos de cortes de secuencias de margen pasivo, geográficamente bien diferenciados, afloran en el norte de Cuba: A-Cortes de Guaniguanico, divisibles a su vez en tres subtipos: Sierra del Rosario, Sierra de los Órganos y Cinturón Cangre; B-Cortes del norte de Cuba Central, caracterizados por una manifiesta zonalidad estratigráfica y estructural, y C-Cortes de Maisí, caracterizados poe el metamorfismo de bajo grado de sus rocas. En estas tres regiones los cortes más jóvenes, comenzando en el Jurásico Superior, son casi exclusivamente carbonatados, mientras que su parte inferior (Oxfordiano y más antiguo es terrígena, exceptuando los más septentrionales, en Cuba central, donde están presentes evaporitas. Los cortes A y B presentan una discordancia qie se correlaciona estrechamente con el Mid-Cretaceous Sequence Boundary, detectado en el sur del golfo de México y el estrecho de La Florida. Las similitudes, en particular entre las regiones A y B, indican una misma identidad geológica. Su posición actual, yuxtapuestos a las plataformas de Bahamas y Yucatán de la placa norteamericana, y su bien confirmado tránsito a los cortes de Bahamas en el norte de Cuba central, indican que los cortes del PPS deben formar parte del margen pasivo mesozoico de la América del Norte. La continuación al este de los cortes de Guaniguanico es visible en varios afloramientos y registrada por numerosos pozos de prospección desde el oeste de La Habana hasta Matanzas. Por tanto, no hay razón para considerar los cortes de Guaniguanico como parte de los "terrenos sudoccidentales". Siguiendo esta

  18. Vila de Cuba. Evolução urbana e estudo de um ensanche

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Raquel Pires Vitória Moedas

    2012-01-01

    Em pleno coração da planície do Baixo Alentejo, encontra-se a vila da Cuba, como é reconhecida pela população, de carácter concentrado e fechada sobre si mesma, contrastando com os vastos campos agrícolas, salpicados por montes e herdades ao seu redor. A um núcleo urbano consolidado, integra-se um plano de expansão de matriz ortogonal e racionalidade geométrica, denunciando um crescimento urbano acentuado, que se verifica sobretudo a partir de inícios de oitocentos, morfologicamente semelhant...

  19. Genetic polymorphisms and racial groups in the population of Pinar del Rio province (Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Narváez, Víctor P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el polimorfismo genético de 13 marcadores genéticos en tres grupos raciales (blancos, mulatos y negros en la provincia de Pinar del Río (Cuba. Se encontraron diferencias fenotípicas en 8 de los 13 marcadores estudiados. Las diferencias de las frecuencias alélicas encontradas en los marcadores fueron altamente significativas entre los grupos raciales examinados. Los loci estudiados permitieron mostrar claras diferencias de un grupo racial respecto de los otros. Los hallazgos obtenidos permiten confirmar la hipótesis de que la población estudiada no es homogénea.

  20. MICROSATELLITE CHARACTERIZATION OF GUAVA (Psidium guajava L.) GERMPLASM COLLECTION IN CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Juliette Valdés-Infante; N. N. Rodríguez; Becker, D.; Bárbara Velázquez; D. Sourd; Georgina Espinosa; Rohde, W

    2007-01-01

    El guayabo (Psidium guajava L.) es uno de los frutales más importantes económicamente dentro de Myrtaceae. El programa de mejoramiento en Cuba ha estado limitado a la selección e introducción de genotipos con características promisorias, desde el punto de vista agronómico, pero no se han realizado trabajos encaminados a conocer cómo está organizada la diversidad genética existente, lo cual es de gran importancia para la identificación de progenitores con potencial para ser utilizados en el pr...

  1. NUEVOS PRECEPTOS PARA REGULACIONES URBANAS DEL REPARTO VISTA ALEGRE EN SANTIAGO DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    María Teresa Muñoz Castillo; Luis Enrique Bello Caballero

    2012-01-01

    El reparto Vista Alegre constituye un sitio de significativos valores patrimoniales de Santiago de Cuba. Desde su génesis, en 1907, desarrolló particularidades urbano-arquitectónicas que revelaron su trascendencia como un proyecto vanguardista para su tiempo y lugar cuya praxis lo convirtió en la experiencia urbanística más importante del siglo XX en la ciudad. Sin embargo, en las últimas décadas se ha observado un creciente deterioro de la imagen urbana en Vista Alegre que ha puesto en pelig...

  2. Santiago de Cuba y su Jurisdicción : 1770-1790

    OpenAIRE

    Portuondo Zúñiga, Olga

    1995-01-01

    La autora caracteriza la sociedad de la jurisdicción de Santiago de Cuba, en el extremo oriental de la Gran Antilla, entre 1770-1790. En aquellos veinte años se conserva el régimen de haciendas ganaderas pero en vías de resquebrajarse, y en potencial disposición el patriciado criollo de asumir nuevas vertientes de desarrollo. Tras la aparente inmovilidad hay indicios de evolución paulatina, tema inexplorado en la historiografía cubana.

  3. El Colegio Seminario San Basilio Magno y los primeros estudios de derecho civil en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Quintana, Lester

    2013-01-01

    El artículo muestra el contexto histórico en que se produjeron los estudios de derecho civil (romano) en el Seminario San Basilio Magno de Santiago de Cuba, uno de los dos Seminarios eclesiásticos cubanos de la época, (siglo XVIII y XIX) textos, autores, y características de su enseñanza, como parte del proceso de difusión del Derecho de Roma en la Isla bajo el dominio político español.

  4. Peligrosidad sísmica de la región de Santiago de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás J. Chuy-Rodríguez; Griselda Despaigne-Longchamp; Laudiber González-Simón

    2001-01-01

    Se caracteriza la peligrosidad sísmica de la provincia y ciudad de Santiago de Cuba, en términos de intensidad, aceleración, velocidad y desplazamiento. Los parámetros de peligrosidad sísmica se presentan en forma de mapas independientes utilizando períodos de recurrencia para cada valor de los parámetros de la amenaza; a tiempo que, de forma probabilística para diferentes tiempos de vida útil y probabilidad de ocurrencia para una red de cuadrículas de 1 km2 en toda la cuenca de Santiago de C...

  5. Música popular y nacionalismo en los campamentos insurgentes. Cuba (1895-1898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaddiel Díaz Frene

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reconstructs the social uses of the décimas (ten-line stanzas sung in the insurgent camps during the war for independence that began in Cuba in 1895. Through a review of personal diaries, newspapers, and photos of the conflict, the article attempts to answer various questions: What emotions did this poetic musical genre produce in the everyday life of the combatants? How did the war affect such cultural practices? Is it possible to find black and mulatto decimistas among the Cuban troops? What role did officers play in these everyday forms of expression about the political life of the country?

  6. President Obama should pursue measures aimed at ending the Cuba embargo

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    President Obama’s handshake with Cuban President Raúl Castro at Nelson Mandela’s funeral last December prompted speculation that after more than 50 years of its embargo against the country, the U.S. may be becoming open to a more normal relationship. Natalie Allen takes a close look at the history and effects of the U.S. embargo against Cuba, and argues that it has largely failed as a policy. She writes that while there is currently little likelihood of Congress overturning the embargo in the...

  7. Psychological studies of children affected by the Chernobyl accident made during their stay in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the psychological, medical and social effects of the Chernobyl accident on children who live in the Chernobyl area. 404 children were studied in the age group of 11 to 17 years who spent the holidays in Cuba. The special objective of the study was to estimate in the light of the accident their personal characteristics, their mental health and their psychosocial adaptation. Different psychological tests were performed and the data were evaluated and compared with similar research carried out by other research groups. 12 refs

  8. El comercio de esclavos a Cuba (1790-1840: una proporción femenina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIZ JODA ESTEVE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Desde una perspectiva comparativa y de género, se realiza un análisis de la trata de esclavos africanos dirigida a Cuba entre 1790 y 1840. Por un lado, se aborda la controversia de las fuentes para investigar y cuantificar las mujeres esclavas llevadas a la isla y, por otro, la evolución de la proporción de mujeres que hicieron parte de la trata de esclavos. Las causas e hipótesis que pueden explicar los porcentajes hallados nos plantean la dicotomía entre producción y reproducción femenina.

  9. The Microtron MT-25 facility in Cuba. A contribution to the regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main difficulties to develop nuclear application research is the lack of nuclear facilities. Different approaches and initiatives have been raised looking for more comprehensive exchanges. However, it is still necessary to strengthen regional cooperation in nuclear applications, in particular in the common use of accelerators and other nuclear facilities, based on a cooperative scheme in which each country contributes with its own facilities. The Microtron MT-25 Project in Cuba is proposed to deal with this kind of scheme. The construction of an electron accelerator up to 25 MeV, called Microtron MT-25, was finished in 1990 for Cuba, as a result of the collaboration of Cuban and Russian physicists in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. The Microtron MT-25 is an electron cycle-accelerator which allows electrons, gamma rays and neutrons to be obtained. The principal characteristics of the accelerator and radiation are described in the paper. The Microtron-Havana facility is conceived for fundamental and applied research. The fundamental research topics of interest are photonuclear reaction studies, Nuclear Astrophysics reactions and photofission reactions. The applied research program involved in the Microtron Project consists of Gamma and Neutron Activation Analysis applied in Environment, Agriculture, Geology, Minerals, as well as materials science. Production of radioactive sources and radioisotopes. Medical and biological applications.To develop the research program, interested institutions need to form a User's Club. It will be formed, among others, by Brazil (Institute of Physics, Univ. Sao Paulo, Linear Accelerator Lab.), Argentina (Tandem Accelerator, called Tandar), Mexico (Institute of Physic, UNAM, Experimental Physics Department), Cuba (ISCTN, CEADEN, Isotopes Center, and IMRE from Havana University.) The participation of the members in the program exploitation will be based on projects in which the financial matters and

  10. A HOUSE FOR THE REVOLUTION: A PROJECT OF CULTURAL LEGITIMATION IN CUBA (1959-1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREYSER COTO SARDINA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the revolutionary triumph I Cuba, a deep transformation of all the socio-economic, political and cultural structures is started. As part of this dynamics a process of institutionalization which finds in the scope of culture one of its higher referents in the creation of Casa de las Americas in July 1959 starts. The needs of legitimation of the new system found in the institution a mechanism to encourage and stimulate the revolutionary ideas and its projections towards Latin-America. In the period from 1959 to 1965, through its main actions, understood as its magazine and contest, the intellectual compromise as principal foundation of its discourse was authenticated.

  11. Prediction of electric energy consumption in Cuba for the period 2000-2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consists on a prediction of the growth in electric energy consumption in Cuba, for the period 2000-2015 and with respect to 1990, it also considers the specific features of the National Electroenergetic System. Validated Guidelines in accordance with the Delphi method, which incorporates the basis characteristics considered by international programs for these predictions, were used for this purpose. From the analysis of the behaviour in power consumption of the different consumers and of the expected changes in them according to the expected scenarios, a prediction on the growth in the demand of electric energy is made

  12. Dengue y dengue hemorrágico, Cuba 1981-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán Tirado, Maria Guadalupe

    2008-01-01

    En Cuba existen reportes de varias epidemias tipo dengue en el siglo XIX (81-83). En 1945, se notificó un brote en la Habana no reportándose de nuevo la enfermedad clínica hasta el año 1977 cuando se produce una epidemia de FD causada por el virus Den 1 durante la cual se documentó casi medio millón de enfermos de todo el país. Estudios seroepidemiológicos realizados con anterioridad (1975) y posterioridad (1978) a esta epidemia, mostraron que de una cifra de 2.6% personas inmunes a dengue e...

  13. Las epidemias y su enfrentamiento en Cuba l860-1865

    OpenAIRE

    Beldarrain Chaple, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    La investigación se inicia con la exposición de algunos antecedentes históricos de las principales epidemias ocurridas en el mundo y de las que azotaron particularmente a la isla de Cuba durante el período de estudio. Se analiza la situación higiénica de la colonia y se hace referencia a las primeras instituciones que trabajaron en el terreno de la atención a la salud de la población. Se distinguen la viruela, la fiebre amarilla y el paludismo como las enfermedades epidémicas más importantes ...

  14. Experience in Cuba in the licensing during import, commissioning and operation of an Irradiator LLCo ISOGAMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presented the experiences during the process of licensing an irradiator ISOGAMMA LLCo model according to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy (IAEA). Aspects of the safety assessment are detailed, as well as control and verification requirements for radiation safety and security at different stages of the process (import, transportation, installation irradiator loading 60Co sources, commissioning and operation) of irradiator recently installed in Cuba. The results of the evaluation carried a source of reference and consultation necessary for the work of the regulator to consider for similar processes that lie ahead in other facilities irradiation

  15. Relaciones en disputa: nación, género, raza y turismo en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Alcázar Campos

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza la manera en que la introducción del turismo de masas en Cuba, en los años noventa, produce una serie de contradicciones en la ideología nacional cubana, la cual parte del mito fundacional latinoamericano del mestizaje y se refuerza, a partir del triunfo revolucionario de 1959, con la defensa de una supuesta lógica igualitaria. En un contexto caracterizado como aislado —algo vigorizado por el bloqueo estadounidense y las restricciones migratorias cubanas—, las “zon...

  16. transferencia de tecnología: análisis en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Morán Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el análisis de la gestión de la propiedad industrial en el marco de la transferencia de tecnología en Cuba. Se exponen los diferentes supuestos que pueden concurrir en el caso de las empresas mixtas sobre la materia de propiedad industrial. Los diferentes escenarios abordados se valoran desde las perspectivas doctrinales, legislativas y enriquecidas con los criterios valorativos de la autora a partir de su experiencia práctica.

  17. La palabra es de ustedes, me callo por pudor: Antiintelectualismo y emergencia del testimonio en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El artículo señala y analiza la presencia del testimonio como función no conceptualizada en los debates sobre el papel del intelectual revolucionario en la Cuba de los años sesenta. Algunas canciones de la Nueva Trova Cubana aludían explícitamente a la enunciación testimonial como una forma de superar el descrédito que la voz intelectual había sufrido en esos debates, ligando la emergencia del testimonio al auge del antiintelectualismo. Esa relación se hallaba ya presente, como demuestra el a...

  18. Methodology for the application of the probabilistic safety analysis to the cobalto therapy units in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently work the main elements are discussed kept in mind for the use of the Analyses Probabilistas of Security in the evaluation of the security of the units of cobalto therapy of Cuba and it is presented, like part of the results of the first stage of the Study, the Methodological Guide that is being used in a Contract of Investigation of the OIEA that at the moment carries out the community of authors of the CNSN, of group with other specialists of the Ministry of Public Health (MINSAP)

  19. Soporte alimentario, nutrimental y metabólico de los fenilcetonúricos en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Plasencia, Ligia María

    2011-01-01

    La Fenilcetonuria es un error congénito del metabolismo del aminoácido esencial fenilalanina, de herencia autosómica recesiva. En Cuba existe un programa para su pesquisaje y seguimiento desde 1986. En este trabajo se integran resultados de investigaciones realizadas por la autora desde el año 2000, relacionados con esta temática, los cuales aportan aspectos metodológicos-teóricos-prácticos sustentados científicamente y relacionados con el tratamiento alimentario-nutrimental y metabólico de l...

  20. Preliminary comparative estimate of the environmental externalities of the electrical generation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of the externalises associated with the electrical generation and fundamentally its atmospherically environmental impact, win greater importance nowadays, with the objective that to medium term these could be incorporated into the economy of electricity production as the surest way to reduce this impact. In the work is accomplished a comparative preliminary estimate of the externalises of the electrical generation in Cuba based in the results obtained in the External Project (Externalises of Energy) and the emissions of the domestic Power Plant. Different processes to reduce these emissions are proposed. The economic feasibility of installing Abatement Emissions Technologies based on the calculated externalises is analyzed

  1. CardioVilla 2011: congratulations to the health of cardiovascular medicine in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Dueñas Fernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this editorial, some of the most relevant issues dealt with in CardioVilla IV Cardiac Congress 2011 are presented. This congress was held in Santa Clara, Cuba, from October 13th to 15th, 2011. It was sponsored by several scientific societies, including the American Society of Cardiology. A video conference was organized with the representatives of this society. At the conference, the 25th anniversaries of Cardiology Centers Saturmino Lora, William Soler and Ernesto Che Guevara were commemorated. In addition, the new Board of Directors of the Cuban Society of Cardiology was elected.  

  2. Il quarto governo Fanfani e la crisi di Cuba del 1962

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Il presente saggio è incentrato sull’analisi del ruolo giocato dall’Italia durante uno dei momenti di maggiore attrito della guerra fredda: la crisi dei missili di Cuba. La scelta di questo tema deriva dalla volontà di esaminare un frangente della storia contemporanea particolarmente battuto, quale la tensione dell’ottobre 1962, alla luce dell’azione italiana nella crisi, quest’ultimo aspetto, invece, relativamente poco studiato. Obiettivo del lavoro è dimostrare da un lato l’impegno profuso ...

  3. Solution in Cuba to ensuring the radiological protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the middle of the 80's in Cuba takes place a widespread use of nuclear techniques in the national economy, particularly in nuclear medicine practice. In order to harmonize the constructive projects of the nuclear medical facilities, the National Regulatory Authority for Radiation Protection assessed the requirements to be adopted for the purpose of ensuring the optimum fulfillment of the radiation protection regulations in force in the country. As a result of this work a functional solution was developed for the distribution of the sites for the storage, dosage and handling of radioactive substances and the temporary deposit of the radioactive wastes produced. (authors). 4 refs., 1 tab

  4. Corrosion of steel reinforced concrete in the tropical coastal atmosphere of Havana City, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Castañeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of chloride deposition rate on concrete using an atmospheric corrosion approach is rarely studied in the literature. Seven exposure sites were selected in Havana City, Cuba, for exposure of reinforced concrete samples. Two significantly different atmospheric corrosivity levels with respect to corrosion of steel reinforced concrete were observed after two years of exposure depending on atmospheric chloride deposition and w/c ratio of the concrete. Changes in corrosion current are related to changes in chloride penetration and chloride atmospheric deposition. The influence of sulphur compound deposition could also be a parameter to consider in atmospheric corrosion of steel reinforced concrete.

  5. 对CUBA产业化的SWOT分析%SWOT Analysis on the Industrialization of the CUBA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王牡娣

    2011-01-01

    By using the method of SWOT analysis, this paper makes tactical analysis on feasibility and existing problems of CUBA industrialization, and presents the corresponding strategic choice. Based on it, the specific de- velopment strategy of the industrializa%运用SWOT分析方法对CUBA产业化的可行性和面临的问题进行了战略分析,并基于此分析提出了相应的战略选择;最后依据以上的分析提出了CUBA产业化的具体发展战略。

  6. Atmospheric deposition of {sup 137}Cs between 1994 and 2002 at Cienfuegos, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Hernandez, C.M. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba)]. E-mail: carlos@ceac.perla.inf.cu; Cartas-Aguila, H. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Diaz-Asencio, M. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Munoz-Caravaca, A. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Martin-Perez, J. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Sibello-Hernandez, R. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba)

    2006-07-01

    Levels of {sup 137}Cs in total atmospheric deposition have been measured in the Cienfuegos region (Cuba) between 1994 and 2002. Samples were collected every three months, evaporated to dryness to obtain residual samples, and measured by gamma spectrometry. The {sup 137}Cs mean concentration in total deposition was 0.24 Bq m{sup -2} and data ranged between <0.05 and 0.62 Bq m{sup -2}. Precipitation rates and raintime have proved to be the most important factors controlling the concentration and depositional flux of {sup 137}Cs in the atmosphere over Cienfuegos, showing a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.93)

  7. Procedure for the record, calculation and analysis of costs at the Post Company of Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Lara Zayas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban Company is immersed in important changes, which lead to a new economic model that requires to increase the productivity of work and to enlarge the economic efficiency by means of rational use of material resources, financial and humans. In the present work it is proposed a procedure based on the application of cost techniques, for the record, calculation and costs analysis of activities in the Post Company of Cuba in Sancti Spiritus with the objective to obtain a major efficiency from the rational use of resources.

  8. Llamadas del repertorio vocal de Eleutherodactylus eileenae (Anura: Leptodactylidae) del occidente de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Bosch, Roberto; Rodríguez Gómez, Ariel

    2001-01-01

    Se analizan tres tipos de llamadas del repertorio vocal de machos activos de Eleulherodaclylus eileenae de una población del occidente de Cuba. La llamada de anuncio típica (llamada tipo I), consiste de dos notas bien diferenciadas en cuanto a duración y frecuencia dominante, siendo la primera nota (Ca), más corta y de menor frecuencia que la segunda (Lin). Durante las interacciones vocales propias del combate, los machos producen dos tipos de llamadas agresivas, cuya función parece estar rel...

  9. Evidencias de infección por Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez González, Islay

    2012-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados de un conjunto de investigaciones realizadas con el propósito de aportar evidencias científicas sobre la presencia de la infección por Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato en Cuba, que incluyó la evaluación de métodos microbiológicos para la detección de esta espiroqueta, la confirmación de la infección en muestras clínicas de pacientes con sospechas clínico-epidemiológicas de enfermedad de Lyme, la estimación de la seroprevalencia de anticuerpos contra este agent...

  10. Two Islands, One Commodity: Cuba, Java, and the Global Sugar Trade (1790-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Curry-Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar had become, by the eighteenth century, a global commodity. Originating in East Asia, plantations in the Americas fed the growing taste for its use in Europe, with its consumption increasingly popularised. The 1791 Revolution in Saint Domingue (Haiti and the 1807 British abolition of the slave trade prompted shifts in the epicentres of sugar, the most important of these being arguably to Cuba and Java. These two fertile islands saw the burgeoning development of sugar-plantation systems with major inputs of foreign capital and forced labour. In the process the two islands each, respectively, became central to the very much truncated Spanish and Dutch colonial empires left after the Napoleonic wars and the Latin American wars of liberation; and by the mid-nineteenth century in the case of Cuba, and by the late nineteenth century in the case of Java, they had been catapulted to global sugar pre-eminence. There has been an abundance of study on the two islands each in their own right, but none systematically examines their parallel trajectories. Yet the question arises as to how sugar came to dominate the agriculture, industry and trade of these two islands; and how these two islands in particular, in two different colonial systems and parts of the world, should rise to sugar pre-eminence in the way they did and when they did. Are there connections and similarities between the two that help explain this phenomenon? This article analyses the conditions that led Java and Cuba to become the prime cane-sugar exporters of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Initiative for this came from the linkages between their dominant elites and the transnational, transimperial networks of trade and capital. This furthered the stimulation of technological and scientific innovation in both, enabled not only through the introduction of the latest advances in machinery and method, but also the immigration of technical skilled workers from Europe and North

  11. Ictiofauna del archipiélago Jardines de la Reina, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Pina-Amargós, F.; Salvat Torres, H.; López-Fernández, N.

    2012-01-01

    En el período comprendido entre 2009 y 2012 se realizaron inventarios de la ictiofauna en el archipiélago Jardines de la Reina, en la región suroriental de Cuba. Este trabajo presenta el segundo inventario de la ictiofauna en este grupo insular. La identificación de los peces se realizó principalmente in situ, mediante buceo libre, al azar. La ictiofauna está compuesta por 283 especies. Se adicionan 37 especies a la lista de peces de Jardines de la Reina. Las familias más diversa...

  12. An option for the disposal system of low and intermediate radioactive waste in Cuba; Una opcion para el sistema de evacuacion de desechos radiactivos de baja y media actividad en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chales S, G.; Peralta V, J.L.; Franklin S, R.; Gil C, R.; Rodrigues R, A. [Ministerio de Ciencia Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, La Habana (Cuba). Agencia Nuclear

    1995-12-31

    The search and selection of an area for the disposal of low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Cuba is presented. The preliminary evaluation shows that there are favourable technical conditions for the safe disposal of this type of wastes. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Los caminos hacia una Sociología en Cuba: avatares históricos, teóricos y profesionales The pathways towards a Sociology in Cuba: historical, theoretical and professional changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Muñoz Gutiérrez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La ponencia realiza un panorama de la Historia de la Sociología en Cuba, a partir de la combinación de los enfoques de la Historia de las Ideas y de la Historia de la Ciencia. Brinda una caracterización de las etapas fundamentales por las que ha atravesado la ciencia sociológica en el país, combinando una mirada de lo universal, lo regional y lo nacional, destacando las especificidades de los procesos en Cuba, así como sus correlatos en Europa y en América Latina. Se atiende a los procesos de construcción de un pensamiento, de su institucionalización y de la formación de una comunidad científica.This article presents an overview of the History of Sociology in Cuba, combining approaches from History of Ideas and History of Science. It offers a characterization of the fundamental stages sociological science has undergone in Cuba, combining a look at the universal, the regional, and the local, underlining specificities of Cuban processes as well as their correlates in Europe and Latin America. It attends to the processes of construction of a type of thinking, its institutionalization, and the formation of a scientific community.

  14. The History of Cuba Lesson an effective way for the professional guidance to pedagogical careers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isdarey Hernández González

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An interesting vision about the process of vocational professional pedagogical guidance is exposed in the present article, the article is written to the teachers of junior high schools. The proposal of the author is based on the conception of the development of the guidance of the pedagogical profession through teaching tasks which lead to the search and finding of an adequate place for the pedagogical profession in the system of professions. Its main contribution is centred in the creation of a pedagogical environment in History of Cuba lessons which lead to the conscious selection and self-determination of a pedagogical career in correspondence to the social needs. It is shown how the History of Cuba, as a subject has the potentialities to guide the students, in a professional way to pedagogical careers, because it shows to the students the manner for understanding the importance, the social significance and the necessity of teachers in society, through life numerous patriots acted as teachers and they contributed to form generations of revolutionary people in the purest patriotic traditions, through their legacy and outstanding acting.

  15. Airborne microorganisms cultivable on naturally ventilated document repositories of the National Archive of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Sofía; Perdomo, Ivette

    2016-02-01

    The quality of the indoor air can provide very useful information for the artwork conservation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial concentration inside six document repositories of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba in two months of 1 year. The repositories are large, high, and have a natural cross-ventilation system. The microbial sampling was done in July 2010 (summer or rainy month) and February 2011 (winter or dry month) using the SAS Super 100 biocollector at 100 L/min. An appropriate selective culture media were used to isolate fungi and bacteria. A high total microbial concentration on the north side of the building in two studied months was observed. The fungal concentrations were significantly higher in July 2010 in all repositories, while the bacterial concentrations were significantly higher mostly in February 2011 only in repositories located on the first and second floor of the building. Eight fungal genera in the indoor air of all environments were isolated. Regardless of the side of the analyzed building, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium were the predominant genera. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were the species isolated in almost all of the analyzed repositories in the studied months. Gram-positive bacteria prevailed among bacterial groups isolated from indoor air repositories, and some percentages corresponded to the genera Bacillus and Streptomyces. In Cuba, the temperature and relative humidity are high during the whole year but the natural ventilation plays an important role in retarding microbial growth on materials.

  16. Serotypes and antimicrobial resistance of meningeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumonia. Cuba, 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Toraño-Peraza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An observational study was conducted to know the serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae responsible for meningitis in Cuba, where there is no vaccine yet to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease. The study included the total number of isolates submitted to the "Pedro Kourí" Institute between 2007 and 2012 (N=237. Serotypes identification was performed using capsular swelling test and antimicrobial susceptibility was studied by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration using the broth microdilution method. Predominant serotypes were 6A, 6B, 14, 19F and 23F and other non-vaccinal 18 serogroups/serotypes were identified in 29.1% of the isolates. A tendency to an increased resistance to penicillin (44.3 % was observed; the most common resistance patterns were: penicillin-trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and penicillin-erythromycin (21.1% and 10.5%, respectively. The largest number of isolates resistant to penicillin was in serotypes 6B, 14, 19F and 23F and the possibility of resistant non-vaccine serotypes emergence should be considered. The results show that 70.4 % of the isolates studied corresponds to the serotypes included in 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine, but with 10-valent it would achieve a lower vaccination potential coverage (56.1%. This information must be considered when evaluating the decision to use in Cuba any commercially available vaccine or the proposal of another strategy of vaccination from autochthonous vaccine candidates.

  17. MEMÓRIAS PÓSTUMAS DE BRÁS CUBAS: TRILHAS DE LEITURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbena Maria Rocha Cordeiro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a recepção de Memórias póstumas de Brás Cubas, de Machado de Assis, perfazendo os vários significados históricos e estéticos que as muitas gerações de leitores lhe atribuem. Como orientação para essa travessia, recorremos à Estética da Recepção, de Jauss e Iser, destacando o lugar do leitor histórico e os efeitos estéticos de uma obra literária sobre o leitor real. Embora a fortuna crítica de Memórias póstumas de Brás Cubas aponte leitores circunscritos em horizontes de expectativas diferentes, o diálogo que se estabeleceu entre vozes tão variantes reafirma o quanto o lugar e o tempo de cada leitura movem os múltiplos sentidos que essa obra suscita. Nossa intenção foi compreender que a vinculação de uma obra literária à moldura histórica de sua produção e recepção explicita o que esse romance, a partir de seu sentido original, pôde significar através dos tempos ou o que significa hoje para nós, leitores do século XXI.

  18. Una revisión de los estudios sismotectónicos en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotilla Rodríguez, M. O.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Seismotectonic investigations in Cuba using Russian and German methodologies are analysed until 1994. The result of the second methodology showed to be efficient enough to diagnose the earthquakes' occurrence in Cabo Cruz (26.08.1990 Ms = 5,9 and 25.05.1992 Ms =6,9 and in San José de las Lajas (09.03.1995 Ms =2,5 and permitted to propose a nodal seismoactive mechanism. Nevertheless, there are not an unique seismotectonic scheme or map.Se analizan críticamente las investigaciones sismotectónicas realizadas con metodologías rusa y alemana para Cuba hasta 1994. La aplicación de la segunda metodología ha demostrado ser eficiente en al menos el diagnóstico de dos sismos en Cabo Cruz (26.08.1990 Ms = 5,9 y 25.05.1992 Ms = 6,9 Y otro en San José de las Lajas (09.03.1995 Ms =2,5 y permite sustentar un mecanismo de nudos sismoactivos. Dada la insuficiente información de base no existe un único esquema o mapa de zonas sigmogeneradoras.

  19. Empowered objects, powerless subjects: citizenship, religion, and political representation in twentieth-century Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Maria Gomes da Cunha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Measures of Equality: Social Science, Citizenship, and Race in Cuba, 1902-1940. Alejandra Marina Bronfman. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xi + 234 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Afro-Cuban Religiosity, Revolution, and National Identity. Christine Ayorinde. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. ix + 283 pp. (Cloth US$ 59.95 In the last ten years, research topics such as race and nation have been privileged areas for the historical and anthropological understanding of Caribbean and Latin American societies. Regarding Cuba in particular, social scientists have dedicated important scholarship to these issues by mapping conceptions of citizenship and political representation, while situating them within a broader debate on the making of the new postcolonial and republican society at the beginning of the twentieth century. By pursuing different aims and following distinct approaches, Alejandra Bronfman and Christine Ayorinde have made contributions to this academic literature. Through divergent theoretical and methodological perspectives, both of their books explore alternative ways of interpreting the making of the nation founded upon a multiple and fluid rhetoric of race.

  20. Relationship between geographic distribution and morphological patterns in genus Cerion (Mollusca: Cerionidae in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rodríguez-Ochoa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Cerion, with 90 species described for Cuba, is highly polytypical and it had been litle studied. The idea of the absence of and spatiall arrage-ment of morphotypes had been mantained even knowing that in other distri-bution areas several patterns had arise. The goal of this paper was to charac-terize morphological variation on the Cuban species of Cerion and to assess relationship between geographic distances between populations and shell shape differences. Geometric morphometry was used in 812 individuals from 45 species to describe shell shapes, using procrustes dis-tances, centroide size and principal warps, keeping shell lenght as size measure. Morphological distances and size differences was correlated to geographic dis-tances using Mantel tests. Size show a weak correla-tion (-0.12 but morphological and geographic distanc-es was correlated (0.401. A morphological variation pattern was detected in the second principal warp, ordering geographic groups in a way consistent to clinal variation of shell shapes described to Cerion in the eastern region of Caribbean. All results reinforce the need of a taxonomic review of the genus in Cuba.

  1. The geodynamic polygon of Santiago de cuba: A scientific and socio-economic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqués, M. E.; Hernández, J. R.; Chuy, T.; Venereo, A.

    1983-09-01

    Since 1971 the Cuban Institute of Geodesy and Cartography and the Institutes of Geography corresponding to the Academy of Sciences from Cuba and the U.S.S.R. have been investigating recent geodynamic processes in Cuban territory, applying geodesy, geologic and geomorphologic methods. In the eastern region the correlation of morpho-structural characteristics with the velocities of recent vertical crustal movements, the results of seismologic observations and the socio-economic importance of the region Santiago de Cuba, led to the necessity for the establishment of a geodynamic polygon, for the study in complex and integral form of the relation between recent vertical movements and seismicity, to assist in the prediction of earthquakes. This paper shows the results in the preliminary profiles corresponding to relative velocities of vertical crustal movements for the most important first and second order nivelation routed in the studied area, the territorial distribution of the seismological events in the southeastern region, as well as judgments in the density of epicentral distribution; it explains the proposed altimetric observation net for a geodynamic polygon and the complex system of geoscientific investigations which must be carried out.

  2. LINKING THE COMMUNITY IN THE MIGRATORY RAPTOR BIRDS COUNTS (BIRDS: FALCONIFORM IN EASTERN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naylien Barreda-Leyva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Through interviews, workshops, conferences and sociocultural meeting, is carried out the linking of three communities from the high area of Gran Piedra to the studies and counts of migratory raptors birds developed in the east of Cuba. These small communities are near to one of the two points of count of migratory raptors of the region. During the interviews we could verify that some residents possessed basic knowledge on the raptors birds, but didn't know about the migration of these birds. 100 % of the interviewees coincided in that the main local problematic is the loss of birds of pen due to the attack of raptors, specifically the endemic Cuban threatened Accipitter gundlachi. The workshops were able to create spaces of exchange and reflection about the importance of the raptor’s conservation in the region. This linkage of cooperation and increasing awareness, allow an approaching between the communitarians and the researchers and volunteers that work in the counts of raptor birds in Cuba and the feedback of the scientific knowledge with the popular knowledge.

  3. Differential Vulnerability to Hurricanes in Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic: The Contribution of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelheid Pichler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The possible impacts of the level of formal education on different aspects of disaster management, prevention, alarm, emergency, or postdisaster activities, were studied in a comparative perspective for three countries with a comparable exposure to hurricane hazards but different capacities for preventing harm. The study focused on the role of formal education in reducing vulnerability operating through a long-term learning process and put particular emphasis on the education of women. The comparative statistical analysis of the three countries was complemented through qualitative studies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic collected in 2010-2011. We also analyzed to what degree targeted efforts to reduce vulnerability were interconnected with other policy domains, including education and science, health, national defense, regional development, and cultural factors. We found that better education in the population had clear short-term effects on reducing vulnerability through awareness about crucial information, faster and more efficient responses to alerts, and better postdisaster recuperation. However, there were also important longer term effects of educational efforts to reduce social vulnerability through the empowerment of women, its effect on the quality of institutions and social networks for mutual assistance creating a general culture of safety and preparedness. Not surprisingly, on all three accounts Cuba clearly did the best; whereas Haiti was worst, and the Dominican Republic took an intermediate position.

  4. Determination of the optimum composition of adobe brick for a school in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroza, B.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes a study conducted to determinethe ideal composition of both traditional and stabilizedadobe as a construction material. The clay soil of avillage in Villa Clara, Cuba, was characterized for its suitabilityto build several adobe structures for a facility forpre-schoolers.Consolidation, simple compressive strength and capillaryabsorption tests were run on both traditional adobe andmaterial stabilized with different doses of hydrated lime,molasses and asphalt.The results, compared hereunder, led to the conclusionthat the highest strength and moisture resistance isachieved by stabilizing traditional adobe with 2% asphalt.El objetivo del presente articulo es estudiar la composicionque debe tener el adobe, tanto simple como estabilizado,como material de construccion. Con este proposito,se caracteriza el suelo arcilloso de un pueblo de VillaClara, Cuba, donde se preve la construccion de variascasas de adobe, asi como de una escuela infantil.Se realiza un estudio de compactacion, resistencia acompresion simple y de absorcion capilar, tanto al adobesimple como al adobe estabilizado con cal, miel yasfalto, segun diferentes dosificaciones.En este articulo, se presentan los resultados obtenidos,comparandolos entre si, y llegando a la conclusion deque la estabilizacion del adobe simple con un 2% delasfalto utilizado confiere al adobe las mejores propiedadestanto resistentes como frente a la humedad.

  5. Acting of the radiological surveillance of food in Cuba before anomalous situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeping in mind the real possibility of that would be imported to Cuba polluted foods with radionuclides, product of a nuclear or radiological accident happens one contamination of foods inside the national territory, it was designed and was into effect in January, 2000, a Program of Radiological Surveillance of Foods and Water, in the marks of the National Program of Surveillance of Pollutants in Foods and Water. This surveillance is executed in group among the National Unit of Health Environmental of the Ministry of Health and the Center of Protection and Hygiene of those Radiations of the Ministry of Sciences, Technology and Environment. In this work the design in the way of acting of the Radiological Surveillance of Foods and Water in Cuba, in the event of detection of anomalous situations is presented. The same one includes, the establishment of investigation levels for radionuclides in foods, the ways of performance of the System, of to be overcome or to be equaled the performance levels or established investigation, the flow of the information, as well as the work routine to continue by the essay laboratories, in the event of an anomalous situation. (Author)

  6. Alcohol Control in Cuba: Preventing Countervailing Cultural and Mass Media Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Menéndez, Ricardo Á

    2016-07-01

    Harmful use of alcohol-the prime gateway drug to other addictions-is also a problem in Cuba, even though the National Program for Prevention of Harmful Use of Alcohol includes the most effective measures used in analogous programs around the world. As a participant in the program's committee and empirical observer of its accomplishments and unaccomplished goals, I draw attention to the community's attitude of tolerance toward intoxication manifested by the lack of proportional consequences, and I insist on the need to broaden the community's understanding of the risks of non-social drinking, which in Latin America is practically limited to alcoholism and its complications. This undervalues the damage wreaked by unpredictable and dangerous behavior under the influence, as well as the suffering of codependents and other "passive drinkers," and the adverse effects of even social drinking. KEYWORDS Alcohol abuse/prevention and control, alcohol consumption, alcohol drinking/culture, alcoholism, drinking behavior, behavior and behavior mechanisms, social determinants of health, social reinforcement, mass media, communication, Cuba. PMID:27510935

  7. Dinámica de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba 1846-1931 (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes Gárciga Gárciga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo da continuidad a “Dinámica de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba 1846-1931 (II” y analiza los datos registrados en los censos oficiales levantados entre 1846 y 1931, en relación con la fuerza de trabajo calificada: profesionales y técnicos. Se demuestra así su poco peso dentro de la estructura ocupacional, como reflejo del bajo desarrollo socioeconómico del país. Palabras clave: fuerza de trabajo calificada, profesionales, técnicos, esfera productiva, esfera no productiva, sectores. Abstract The present article gives continuity to "Dynamics of the work force in Cuba 1846-1931 (II" and it analyzes the data registered in the official censuses lifted between 1846 and 1931, in connection with the qualified work force: professionals and technicians. It is demonstrated this way their little weight inside the occupational structure, as reflect of the low socioeconomic development of the country.

  8. Valoraciones sobre la gestión del sistema de seguridad vial en Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Ivón Sosa Ibarra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo valorar con enfoque crítico el cumplimiento de la agenda del Observatorio Iberoamericano para la Seguridad Vial (OISEVI que evidencie los aciertos y desaciertos en esta actividad, se analiza en la literatura los enfoques de los autores Tony Bliss y Jeanne Breen que enfatizan en la concepción de sistema no solo a la seguridad vial sino también a la gestión de esta como sistema y se realiza una aplicación de los aspectos de la encuesta del OISEVI a la gestión de la seguridad vial en Cuba por el grupo de asesores de la Comisión Nacional de seguridad vial, pertenecientes a la Universidad de Sancti Spíritus, que durante los últimos años estudian esta problemática, detallando los argumentos que conciben para otorgar los valores en las respuestas al cuestionario. Con esta encuesta se obtiene una primera aproximación del estado de la gestión de la seguridad vial en el país, y se arriban a valoraciones acerca de cómo se encuentra Cuba respecto a los lineamientos básicos y generales que hacen exitosa a la gestión en seguridad vial, basada en los cinco pilares del Plan Mundial para el Decenio de Acción para la Seguridad Vial 2011-2020.

  9. Los primeros tiempos de Cuba en la ruta antillana del café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Álvarez, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The author analizes the historical process of Cuban coffee along two and a half centuries (until the end of Spanish colonial era, its transformation in a international commoditie from the end of XVIIIth century (after Saint Domingue revolution, its phases, the coffee cultivated land dismiss for sugar production and coffee popular difussion in Cuban cities and villages.En el presente artículo se da a conocer el proceso cafetalero en Cuba durante siglo y medio de actividad (desde su introducción al fin del dominio español sobre la isla, su transformación en objeto de comercio internacional desde finales del siglo XVIII tras la destrucción de Saint Domingue, sus etapas de auge y decadencia en la isla, el abandono de sus tierras de cultivo en favor del azúcar y la rápida difusión de su ingesta por la población de ciudades y pueblos de Cuba.

  10. EL CULTIVO DEL TRIGO. ALGUNOS RESULTADOS DE SU PRODUCCIÓN EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Moreno

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de dar a conocer la historia del trigo en Cuba así como sus carac- terísticas; también se presentan los resultados del comporta- miento de las principales variedades que han sido estudiadas en las condiciones agroclimáticas del país. Resulta de interés dar a conocer la agronomía del cultivo, los factores que influ- yen en su rendimiento, la fertilización química y la biofertilización aplicada a las condiciones de Cuba. Se hace referencia a las principales fechas de siembra y su período óptimo, atendiendo al factor clima, además de la eficiencia del agua; por último, se presenta una amplia bibliografía que ayuda a una mejor comprensión de lo expuesto por los autores.

  11. Begomoviruses infecting weeds in Cuba: increased host range and a novel virus infecting Sida rhombifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique; Martínez-Zubiaur, Yamila

    2012-01-01

    As a result of surveys conducted during the last few years to search for wild reservoirs of begomoviruses in Cuba, we detected a novel bipartite begomovirus, sida yellow mottle virus (SiYMoV), infecting Sida rhombifolia plants. The complete genome sequence was obtained, showing that DNA-A was 2622 nucleotides (nt) in length and that it was most closely related (87.6% nucleotide identity) to DNA-A of an isolate of sida golden mosaic virus (SiGMV) that infects snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Florida. The DNA-B sequence was 2600 nt in length and shared the highest nucleotide identity (75.1%) with corchorus yellow spot virus (CoYSV). Phylogenetic relationship analysis showed that both DNA components of SiYMoV were grouped in the Abutilon clade, along with begomoviruses from Florida and the Caribbean islands. We also present here the complete nucleotide sequence of a novel strain of sida yellow vein virus found infecting Malvastrum coromandelianum and an isolate of euphorbia mosaic virus that was found for the first time infecting Euphorbia heterophylla in Cuba.

  12. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouri Vivian

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence rates and serovar distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infections in Cuban women, two different groups were selected. Group I consisted of 60 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 seropositive women from different regions of Cuba and group II of 60 randomly selected women HIV seronegative and apparently healthy. C. trachomatis was detected in cervical scrapes by mean of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR specific for major out membrane protein. The overall prevalence rate of C. trachomatis in cervical scrapes determined by nested PCR was 10% in group I and the estimated prevalence was 6.6% for group II; 83.3% of HIV seropositive women with C. trachomatis infection reported history of pelvic inflammatory disease followed by cervicitis (50%. The control group C. trachomatis-infected women referred a history of cervicitis in 75% of cases. Other reports in the latter group included infertility and pelvic inflamatory disease in 50%. The present study is the first report of C. trachomatis prevalence in Cuba. It showed that there was not significantly difference in the prevalence rate of C. trachomatis between both groups.

  13. National subprogram 'Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental y de los Alimentos en la Republica de Cuba'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to inform and raise awareness about the Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental y de los Alimentos in the Republica de Cuba. The radiological environmental monitoring is defined as the assessment of current or potential exposure of the population to radiation and radioactive materials released into the environment. It determines when is required the radiological environmental monitoring, what is a radiological environmental monitoring program, which are the points to consider during the design of this kind of program and what are their objectives. In addition, the program on the Republica de Cuba is focused, referring to the components of a radiological environmental monitoring program; equipment for the detection of radiations; the procedures for collecting environmental samples and laboratory analysis capabilities. It also noted the techniques of radiological environmental monitoring and is described extensively the Red Nacional de Vigilancia Ambiental of the Republica de Cuba. Likewise, it is included the table on radiological monitoring of food and water. Other radiological monitoring programs in Cuba are commented as the radiological control of industrial scrap

  14. Sentido e impacto de la participación negra en la guerra de la independencia de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helg, Aline

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Blacks joined en masse the struggle for Cuba's independence from its beginning. In the process, many increased their expectations regarding their position in an igualitarian future. This article explores some dimensions of Afro-Cubans' war experiences and discusses the concerns their massive participation raised among certain white separatist leaders who did not hesitate to jeopardize Cuba Libre's most decisive victory against Spain and to lobby for U.S. intervention in order to limit the revolutionary potential of the war.

    Desde sus comienzos, los negros se unieron en masa a la lucha por la independencia de Cuba. En el proceso, muchos forjaron grandes expectativas en cuanto a su posición en un futuro igualitario. Este ensayo investiga algunos de los aspectos de la experiencia de los cubanos de color en la guerra y examina las preocupaciones que su participación masiva provocó entre algunos líderes separatistas blancos quienes no vacilaron en frustrar la victoria más decisiva de Cuba Libre contra España, ni en cabildear a favor de la intervención de EEUU con el propósito de limitar el potencial revolucionario de la guerra.

  15. Sea Surface Temperature Records Using Sr/Ca Ratios in a Siderastrea siderea Coral from SE Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargher, H. A.; Hughen, K. A.; Ossolinski, J. E.; Bretos, F.; Siciliano, D.; Gonzalez, P.

    2015-12-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) variability from Cuba remains relatively unknown compared to the rest of the Caribbean. Cuba sits near an inflection point in the spatial pattern of SST from the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and long SST records from the region could reveal changes in the influence of this climate system through time. A Siderastrea siderea coral from the Jardínes de la Reina in southern Cuba was drilled to obtain a 220 year long archive of environmental change. The genus Siderastrea has not been extensively studied as an SST archive, yet Sr/Ca ratios in the Cuban core show a clear seasonal signal and strong correlation to instrumental SST data (r2 = 0.86 and 0.36 for monthly and interannual (winter season) timescales, respectively). Annual growth rates (linear extension) of the coral are observed to have a minor influence on Sr/Ca variability, but do not show a direct correlation to SST on timescales from annual to multidecadal. Sr/Ca measurements from the Cuban coral are used to reconstruct monthly and seasonal (winter, summer) SST extending back more than two centuries. Wintertime SST in southern Cuba is compared to other coral Sr/Ca records of winter-season SST from locations sensitive to the NAO in order to investigate the stationarity of the NAO SST 'fingerprint' through time.

  16. Falta Petroleo! Perspectives on the emergence of a more ecological farming and food system in post-crisis Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, J.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: ecological / organic / agriculture / transition / farming systems / co-operatives / Cuba / food security / food system / institutional learning / crisis / rural livelihoods / coping strategies / localisation

    This research takes as its

  17. Comparación de la corrosividad atmosférica del acero al carbono en Colombia y Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado Lastra, Juan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of structural carbon steel were exposed to the atmosphere in a number of sites in Colombia and Cuba for periods of 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Corrosion rate was determined by mass loss measurements, and cause-effect relationship to exposure time and pollutants (deposited chloride and sulfur oxides were calculated. Analysis let to adjust models by the multiple regression method. Also, comparison of atmospheric corrosion rates between Colombia and Cuba were done using covariance analysis.

    Se expusieron a la atmósfera probetas de aceros estructurales de bajo contenido de carbono, en varios sitios de Colombia y Cuba, que se retiraron a intervalos de 2, 3, 6, 12, 18 y 24 meses. Se determinó la corrosión por pérdida de masa y se buscaron relaciones de causalidad con el tiempo de exposición y las cantidades de cloruro y óxidos de azufre depositados. El análisis permitió ajustar modelos de regresión múltiple y también, a través de variables dicótomas, realizar la comparación de la corrosión atmosférica entre Colombia y Cuba, mediante análisis de covarianza.

  18. The Power of Being There: Study Abroad in Cuba and the Promotion of a "Culture of Peace"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Lynne; Koont, Sinan; Stephenson, Skye

    2005-01-01

    If one of the main purposes of study abroad is to promote a greater understanding between members of the host and home nation via face-to-face relations and in-country living experiences, there is no place in the world where United States students studying abroad takes on more significance than it does in Cuba. Given a situation in which home and…

  19. LAS ESTRATEGIAS DE ENSEÑANZA Y APRENDIZAJE EN LA HISTORIA DE CUBA EN LA ESCUELA PRIMARIA MULTIGRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Iris Nápoles Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo contiene ideas que reflexionan sobre la necesidad de desarrollar en las escuelas primarias multigrados estrategias didácticas para el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje de la Historia de Cuba en este contexto educativo, que potencie las relaciones entre los componentes de dicho proceso y promueva las estrategias, tanto para el maestro como para los escolares primarios, que favorezcan la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de la Historia de Cuba con el objetivo de materializar las aspiraciones de esta asignatura en el contexto del Modelo de la Educación Primaria. El tema es novedoso y actual, son pocas las investigaciones realizadas sobre el multigrado en Cuba y de manera particular sobre la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de la Historia de Cuba en este tipo de escuela. Responde a la necesidad que tiene la Educación Primaria de ofertar una preparación de calidad a los escolares, independientemente del lugar en que estudien, con lo que se fomenta la igualdad y equidad social.

  20. El derecho a la información en Cuba: consideraciones éticas y jurídicas en un entorno cambiante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra.C. Nuria Esther Pérez Matos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reflects on the right to information as a universal right and the right to liberty, emphasizing their representation in major international standards that recognize this right within the universe of human rights in the Americas. Comments on Freedom of Expression in a representation of constitutions of Latin America and Cuba, making a comparative study of Latin American and Cuban treatment constitutional context. Illustrate the definitions of right of information and access to information, concluding, from an ethical reflection of the new environment under the technological paradigm, with a review of the regulations in Cuba on access to the Internet and its influence on the right to information in Cuba.

  1. Immunoscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy in Cuba: experiences with labeled monoclonal antibodies for cancer diagnosis and treatment (1993-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Yamilé; Perera, Alejandro; Batista, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The availability of monoclonal antibodies in Cuba has facilitated development and application of innovative techniques (immunoscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy) for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Objective Review immunoscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy techniques and analyze their use in Cuba, based on the published literature. In this context, we describe the experience of Havana's Clinical Research Center with labeled monoclonal antibodies for cancer diagnosis and treatment during the period 1993-2013. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION Basic concepts concerning cancer and monoclonal antibodies were reviewed, as well as relevant international and Cuban data. Forty-nine documents were reviewed, among them 2 textbooks, 34 articles by Cuban authors and 13 by international authors. All works published by the Clinical Research Center from 1993 through 2013 were included. Bibliography was obtained from the library of the Clinical Research Center and Infomed, Cuba's national health telematics network, using the following keywords: monoclonal antibodies, immunoscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy. RESULTS Labeling the antibodies (ior t3, ior t1, ior cea 1, ior egf/r3, ior c5, h-R3, 14F7 and rituximab) with radioactive isotopes was a basic line of research in Cuba and has fostered their use as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The studies conducted demonstrated the good sensitivity and diagnostic precision of immunoscintigraphy for detecting various types of tumors (head and neck, ovarian, colon, breast, lymphoma, brain). Obtaining different radioimmune conjugates with radioactive isotopes such as 99mTc and 188Re made it possible to administer radioimmunotherapy to patients with several types of cancer (brain, lymphoma, breast). The objective of 60% of the clinical trials was to determine pharmacokinetics, internal dosimetry and adverse effects of monoclonal antibodies, as well as tumor response; there were few adverse effects, no damage to vital organs, and a positive

  2. Neogene-Quaternary tectonics along the North Caribbean transform fault, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Neubauer, F.; Handler, R.; Garcia-Delgado, D. E.; Friedl, G.; Delgado-Damas, R.

    2003-04-01

    The Neogene to Recent North Caribbean (Oriente) Transform Fault (OTF) off the coast of southern Cuba is part of the northern Caribbean transform fault system. It has affected the southern Sierra Maestra mountain range, SE Cuba, and portrays the dynamics and tectonic evolution of the southern Cuban coast in the boundary zone between the Caribbean and North American plates. The region has been affected by historical earthquakes and shows many structures due to brittle deformation in Neogene to Pleistocene shallow-water limestones. Present-day structures vary along strike of the OTF, with dominant transpression in the east and transtension in the west. The focal mechanisms of historical earthquakes are in agreement with dominant ENE-WSW compression found onland. Neogene-Pleistocene limestones are deformed, faulted, fractured, and contains calcite- and karst-filled extension gashes. Type and orientation of the principal normal paleostresses vary along strike in accordance with observations of large-scale submarine structures at the southern Cuban continental margin. Deformation phase D1 comprises N-S extension, exemplified mainly by karst-filled extensional veins and normal faults. We correlate this deformation with the regional kinematics in the Caribbean realm, imposed by the opening of the Cayman trough and the disruption between Cuba and Hispaniola. D2 and D3 comprise NE-SW to nearly N-S and subsequent NW-SE-directed compression and generated conjugate Mohr shears that correlate with strike-slip movement along the main fault to the south. These phases are also associated with a transpressional tectonic regime in the submarine Santiago Deformed Belt and with deformation processes along the Oriente Deep, both located off the southern Cuban coast. D4 reflects ENE-WSW to E-W-directed compression and corresponds to reactivation of sinistral strike-slip faults and formation of Riedel shears, consistent with stress orientations deduced from earthquake focal mechanisms

  3. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba: description and tentative explanation of its low HIV prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémençon Stéphan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cuban HIV/AIDS epidemic has the lowest prevalence rate of the Caribbean region. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba and to explore the reasons for this low prevalence. Methods Data were obtained from the Cuban HIV/AIDS programme established in 1983. This programme has an extensive adult HIV testing policy, including testing of all pregnant women. HIV and AIDS cases have been recorded since 1986. Persons found to be HIV-positive are interviewed on their sexual behaviour and partners. Tracing and voluntary testing of these partners are organised. Epidemiological description of this epidemic was obtained from analysis of this data set. Using elementary mathematical analyses, we estimated the coverage of the detection system (percentage of HIV-positive adults detected and the average period between HIV infection and detection. Estimated HIV prevalence rates were corrected to account for the coverage. Results HIV prevalence has increased since 1996. In 2005, the prevalence among pregnant women was 1.2 per 10,000 (16/137000. Estimated HIV prevalence among 15- to 49-year-olds was 8.1 per 10,000 (4913/6065000; 95%CI: 7.9 per 10,000 – 8.3 per 10,000. Most (77% of the HIV-positive adults were men, most (85.1% of the detected HIV-positive men were reported as having sex with men (MSM, and most of the HIV-positive women reported having had sex with MSM. The average period between HIV infection and detection was estimated to be 2.1 years (IQR = 1.7 – 2.2 years. We estimated that, for the year 2005, 79.6% (IQR: 77.3 – 81.4% of the HIV-positive persons were detected. Conclusion MSM drive the HIV epidemic in Cuba. The extensive HIV testing policy may be an important factor in explaining the low HIV prevalence. To reduce the HIV epidemic in Cuba, the epidemic among MSM should be addressed. To understand this epidemic further, data on sexual behaviour should be collected. Now that

  4. Diversidad de especies vegetales en fincas de la agricultura suburbana en Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyani Vargas Batis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La investigación tuvo lugar con el objetivo evaluar el comportamiento de la diversidad de especies arvenses y arbóreas y arbustivas en cuatro fincas de la agricultura suburbana de Santiago de Cuba. Se delimitaron parcelas de 100 m2 para el conteo de las especies presentes en el área. Identificadas las especies se elaboró un listado florístico y se calcularon los indicadores de diversidad Alfa Riqueza de especies (S, Dominancia (Simpson D y Diversidad general (Shannon H´. En el caso de la diversidad Beta se tuvieron en cuenta los índices de Jaccard (Ij, Morisita-Horn (IM-H y Subordinación Ecológica (SE. Se registraron62 509 individuos pertenecientes a 65 familias, 154 géneros y 183 especies. Para ambos grupos de especies los indicadores de diversidad Alfa mostraron una tendencia al aumento de un período al otro con valores dentro del rango establecido para cada indicador, excepto para la finca La Caballería donde el índice de Shannon H´ no estuvo dentro del establecido para una correcta diversidad y abundancia en la época poco lluviosa. Los indicadores de la diversidad Beta arrojaron disimilitud entre las muestras que se comparan lo que evidencia la presencia de especies específicas adaptadas a las condiciones ambientales del lugar. Plant diversity on farm of sub urban agriculture in Santiago de Cuba. ABSTRACT The research was carried out to evaluate the performance of the diversity of weeds and tree and shrub species in four farms of suburban agriculture Santiago de Cuba. Plots of 100 m2 were sampled for counting the species. Identified plant species list was developed and diversity indicators were calculated alfa (α species richness (S, Dominance (Simpson D and General Diversity (Shannon H'. In the case of the beta (β diversity indices Jaccard (Ij, Morisita-Horn (IM-H and Subordination Environment (SE were taken into account. 62 509 individuals belonging to 65 families, 154 genera and 183 species were recorded. For

  5. Caballos de tracción de la ciudad de Santa Clara, Cuba. III Glicemia y electrolitros (Traction horses of Santa Clara city, Cuba. III Glycaemia electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Castillo Cuenca

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de bioquímica sanguínea glicemia y electrolitos (Na, K, Ca, Mg en 100 caballos machos castrados seleccionados al azar utilizados en el transporte local de pasajeros en la ciudad de Santa Clara, Cuba. La sangre se extrajo directamente de la yugular determinándose la glicemia mediante la técnica de la glucosa oxidasa y los electrolitos por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. El análisis estadístico reveló diferencias altamente significativas al comparar los valores medios obtenidos de la glucosa y los electrolitos con los correspondientes a la media referencial para la especie. Exceptuando el potasio, en el resto de los parámetros la media real fue inferior a la referencial, aunque en todos los casos, estos valores se encuentran dentro del rango planteado. Los equinos están sometidos a un trabajo exhaustivo y prolongado, que afecta el correcto funcionamiento de su organismo y el incremento de la concentración de iones potasio en el plasma es un buen indicador del esfuerzo físico a que son sometidos los animales.

  6. Evaluation of radiation packages type A from the center of isotopes in Cuba; Evaluacion radiologica de los bultos tipo A del centro de isotopos de Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbona, Zayda Amador; Pijuan, Saul Perez, E-mail: zabalbona@centis.edu.cu [Centro de Isotopos (CENTIS), Mayabeque (Cuba); Gual, Maritza Rodriguez, E-mail: mrgual@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), la Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The Isotope Center (CENTIS) of the Republic of Cuba makes the transportation of its products mainly in packaged type A. To undertake the design of packages, packaging components from 6 producing firms (including those found Amersham, CISBIO and IZOTOP) are studied. From the applicable regulations, security features and requirements are established as well as the technical characteristics of the packaging components. This study evaluated according each radioisotope, product and specific activity, high activity that can be included in a Type A package with the limitation that the dose rate on their surfaces is less than or equal to 2 mSv/h. In addition, each package is characterized taking into account the value of the maximum dose rate at maximum contact and the transport index for the day of transport. For this, the Microshield code using version 5.0.3. The dose rate in contact with the package of {sup 90}Y is calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX version 2.6.0. The maximum possible activity values are obtained for each shielding transport radionuclides CENTIS produced, namely {sup 131}I, {sup 125}I, {sup 32}P, {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 188}Re and {sup 90}Y and 69 radioactive packages type A are evaluated.

  7. Analysis of the radioactivity in the 'Elguea' spa, Villa Clara, Cuba; Analisis de la radiactividad en el balneario 'Elguea' , Villa Clara, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez G, I.M.; Zerquera, J.T.; Carrazana G, J.; Capote F, E.; Rodriguez C, G. [CPHR, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: isis@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The 'Elguea' spa, located in the north coast of the county of Villa Clara, Cuba, is considered one of those more important spas of Latin America. The waters of this spa are rich in salts of chlorine, sodium, bromine, sulfides and its contain radon. As a result of measurements of environmental gamma dose rates carried out in the area of the spa, its were considered levels of dose between 0.13 and 2.3 mSv. The obtained results motivated that it was carried out a characterization, from the radiological point of view, of the spa. This characterization is of supreme importance to be able to evaluate the impact that it has and the discharges of its waters on the environment, as well as, those dose that the population potentially affected can receive by these discharges. With this end its were carried out quantitative determinations of those existent natural more significant radionuclides in different environmental objects coming from the area of the spa and its surroundings, as well as one characterization gamma 'in situ' of the same one. The obtained results are present in this work. (Author)

  8. Work- influence of the renewable energy sources in the environment, their use in Cuba; Trabajo- Influencia de las fuentes energeticas renovables en el medio ambiente, su aplicacion en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Gonzalez, Mercedes; Sarmiento Sera, Antonio [Instituto Superior Politecnico Jose A. Echeverria (ISPJAE), Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba)

    2000-07-01

    Among the different renewable energy technologies, wind provides better possibilities in regions in which this resource is available. The advantages of wind, as well as solar energy technologies are less or none fuel costs and less environmental impacts. According to the current available technology development, the use of hybrid systems of photovoltaic and wind energy presents large opportunities to cover the energy needs of isolated areas, specially in facilities that don't have connection to the national transmission grid. This study presents the different environmental impacts that hybrid systems have (incorporing the landscape impacts as well as socioeconomical impacts) for the electricity generation in Cuba. We conclude that these systems allow an important power generation in Cuba, and that they have neglected impacts to the environment. The use hybrid systems in Cuba are particularly important in ecotourism facilities and other small industries. [Spanish] Dentro de las posibilidades energeticas y medioambientales de los distintos tipos de energias renovables; la eolica por su caracter limpio e inagotable, permite un gran desarrollo en aquellas areas que cuentan con el potencial necesario para su aplicacion. De forma similar la energia solar presenta ventajas importantes, ambos son recursos gratuitos, no contaminantes y disponibles en muchas localidades. Segun las tecnologias actualmente disponibles, la utilizacion de sistemas hibridos de energia solar fotovoltaica y eolica presenta mayor interes hoy en dia para cubrir consumos aislados, en instalaciones alejadas de la red nacional de electrificacion. Este trabajo plantea un estudio, de la afectacion que sobre el medio ambiente, tanto en el aspecto visual como socioeconomico, tienen las fuentes energeticas renovables, y especificamente los sistemas hibridos eolico- fotovoltaicos para la generacion de electricidad en Cuba, a partir de conocer los recursos eolico y solar disponible en el lugar del

  9. Construcción de la agenda mediática en Santiago de Cuba. Propuesta de modelo sobre el funcionamiento de la agenda política

    OpenAIRE

    Viviana Muñiz Zúñiga; Rafael Fonseca Valido; Ruslán Guerra Marzo

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación propone un modelo que permita medir la agenda política en Santiago de Cuba, en relación con la agenda mediática; un camino inexplorado en el país. Así mismo, se determinan los procesos de construcción de la agenda en los medios de prensa provinciales de Santiago de Cuba, y los factores tanto internos como externos que inciden en el proceso.

  10. Colaboración y performance científico en el dominio científico de Cuba en Scopus, 2003-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Arencibia-Jorge, Ricardo; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; de Moya-Anegón, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Arencibia-Jorge, Ricardo; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; Moya-Anegón, Félix (2014). Colaboración y performance científico en el dominio científico de Cuba en Scopus, 2003-2011. XIII Congreso Internacional de Información INFO’2014. La Habana, Cuba, 14 al 18 de abril del 2014

  11. Seismic microzoning of Santiago de Cuba An approach by SH waves modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, L; Femandez, B; García, J; González, B; Panza, G F; Pico, R; Reyes, C; Vaccari, F; Zapata, R J A

    2002-01-01

    The expected ground motion in Santiago de Cuba basin from earthquakes which occurred in the Oriente fault zone is studied. Synthetic SH-waves seismograms have been calculated along four profiles in the basin by the hybrid approach (modal summation for the path source-profile and finite differences for the profile) for a maximum frequency of 1 Hz. The response spectra ratio (RSR) has been determined in 49 sites, distributed along all considered profiles with a spacing of 900 m. The corresponding RSR versus frequency curves have been classified using a logical-combinatorial algorithm. The results of the classification, in combination with the uppermost geological setting (geotechnical information and geological geometry of the subsoil) are used for the seismic microzoning of the city. Three different main zones are identified, and a small sector characterised by big resonance effects, due to the particular structural conditions. Each zone is characterized in terms of its expected ground motion parameters for th...

  12. Public perception of the activities of the Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technologies Agency of Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Marta; Arencibia, Alois; Alvarado, Jorge; Garcia, Dulce; Rodriguez, Ingrids; Hernandez, Noslen [Centro de Gestion de la Informacion y Desarrollo de la Energia (CUBAENERGIA), La Habana (Cuba); Aguilar, Aurora; Perera, Maricela [Centro de Investigaciones Psicologicas y Sociologicas (CIPS), La Habana, (Cuba); Rodriguez, Ramon [Agencia de Energia Nuclear y Tecnologias de Avanzada (AENTA), La Habana, (Cuba); Alonso, Ivonne [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana, (Cuba); Quintana, Natacha [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), La Habana, (Cuba); Cardenas, Juan; Ramos, Odalys [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana, (Cuba); Elias, Lidia Lauren [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana, (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The work presents the results of a study of perception of the nuclear activities of the Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technologies Agency of Cuba, carried out by means of a study of image. The public object was a wide group of clients, providers, journalists and experts of the governing and regulatory organs which constitute its external public. For the investigation a methodology was prepared with a questionnaire and a semi structured interview, which allowed to obtain complementary information of qualitative character. In general, the perception of the Agency turned out to be positive and the human resources were the best evaluated aspect. Nevertheless, the visibility of the Agency in the public day pupils is considered to be insufficient. The study provided the necessary information so as to design the strategy of communication of the Agency. (author)

  13. The Teaching of Physics in Cuba from Colonial Times to 1959

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, José; Baracca, Angelo

    The present paper will concentrate on the study of the first one and a half centuries of the teaching of physics in Cuba, starting from the early interest or activities in this. To provide the appropriate context, we will begin by going back in time to the early local signs of a modern scientific sensitivity, scornful of scholastic teaching and fond of experimental approaches, under the belated but stimulating influence of the European Enlightenment. We will go over individual cases during the initial phase of the country's academic physics in some detail, firstly during the initial period of colonial rule, and then from the beginning of the twentieth century to the triumph of the 1959 Revolution earlier that year. We thus hope to make the fundamental aspects of our subject reasonably consistent and abiding, even though further historical research may eventually throw new light on relevant details, personalities and events.

  14. A Comprehensive Study of the Development of Physics in Cuba from 1959

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracca, Angelo; Fajer Avila, Víctor Luis; Rodríguez Castellanos, Carlos

    The present paper aims to reconstruct the main stages of the above-mentioned process from the Cuban Revolution (1959) to the present time. A general premise is necessary on the documentary sources used and the method adopted in this research. The written documents available on the development of physics in Cuba related to the early two decades are quite scarce, so that the reconstruction presented here is based mainly on oral history research. Most of the information presented in this study is sourced from interviews with Cuban colleagues who played leading roles in the events described here. This approach obviously implies drawbacks since the information obtained relies on the personal memories and views of the interviewees, and in some cases uncertain or controversial aspects arise. Despite this drawback, every effort has been made to verify the information.

  15. SPATHOGLOTTIS ´SABRINA & ABEL´, HÍBRIDO DE ORQUÍDEA TERRESTRE OBTENIDO EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Suárez Guerra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spathoglottis es un género terrestre naturalizado en Cuba, originaria del sureste de Asia y es considerada como una planta de fácil cultivo. En este trabajo se presentan las principales características de un nuevo cultivar de Spathoglottis. ́Sabrina & Abel ́ es el resultado de la polinización manual cruzada realizada en octubre del 2009 entre Spathoglottis unguiculata var. Grapefruit y Spathoglottis kimballiana var Angustifolia.Este híbridoposee un alto potencial ornamental. Se encuentra registrado y publicado en la base de datos de la Sociedad Hortícola Real de Inglaterraen Orchids Review Supplement 121 (1303, Septiembre 2013

  16. LOS SISTEMAS OPERATIVOS EN LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA INFORMÁTICA EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Francisco Valenzuela Pérez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza un análisis de la inclusión, estudio, características e influencia de los sistemas operativos en la informática educativa en Cuba, mediante la comparación entre sus dos etapas importantes dentro del sistema de educación cubano, basado en indicadores como: tipo de interfaz de usuario y características, la metodología empleada para su estudio y ejercitación, la producción de software, y la motivación de estudiantes y profesores hacia el uso de esta tecnología, entre otras.

  17. Mortality due to malignancies in Santiago de Cuba province during 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study on mortality due to cancer in Santiago de Cuba province during 2010 was carried out, taking into account 1 819 deceased at a rate of 173,9 every 100 000 inhabitants. This rate increased compared to the previous year with a male mortality predominance of elderly aged 75 and over, as well as mortality in Mella and II Frente municipalities. Most common malignancies in women were detected in lungs, breast, and colon; while in men, they were preponderantly diagnosed in prostate, lungs, and colon. For this reason, it is recommendable addressing and planning health actions according to the stratified mortality risk in each municipality of this province. (author)

  18. Identificación de aspectos ambientales en la comunidad Loma de Cruz, Santiago de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Ángel Paneque Pérez; Liliana Kindelán Castellanos; Pablo Marrero Labrador

    2013-01-01

    El trabajo se desarrolló en la comunidad Loma de la Cruz, ubicada en la vertiente sur del poblado del Cobre, a 14 kilómetros de la ciudad de Santiago de Cuba. Se inició el estudio en la vegetación y la fauna en las áreas seleccionadas, utilizando para los muestreos los métodos de transección y se analizaron los parámetros físico- químicos del agua utilizada como fuente de energía en el proceso de generación de electricidad en la minihidroeléctrica, de acuerdo a las instrucciones para el monit...

  19. LOS SISTEMAS OPERATIVOS EN LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA INFORMÁTICA EN CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Francisco Valenzuela Pérez

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo se realiza un análisis de la inclusión, estudio, características e influencia de los sistemas operativos en la informática educativa en Cuba, mediante la comparación entre sus dos etapas importantes dentro del sistema de educación cubano, basado en indicadores como: tipo de interfaz de usuario y características, la metodología empleada para su estudio y ejercitación, la producción de software, y la motivación de estudiantes y profesores hacia el uso de esta tecnología, entre ...

  20. Science, sentiment, and the state: community genetics and pursuit of public health in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Sahra Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Contributing to an emerging field of social science literature by examining the translation of genomic medicine across global and transnational fields of research and medicine, this article examines how genetics is allied to public health in Cuba. It examines the sociopolitical and cultural discourses and practices that constitute community genetics or challenge or impede the translation and expansion of genomics as public health. Focusing on the experience of health practitioners, the article explores how their work is circumscribed by cultural values and social ideologies that collectively reveal an unexpected heterogeneity in how genetics is being constituted and reproduced. Although the Western quest for genomics as "personal medicine" is revealed here as both ideologically and practically problematic, such challenges paradoxically work to reinforce a commitment to maintaining the distinctive field of Cuban community genetics in its orientation to collective public health.

  1. Copper, zinc and lead bioaccumulation in marine snail, Strombus gigas, from Guacanayabo Gulf, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rizo, O; Olivares Reumont, S; Viguri Fuente, J; Díaz Arado, O; López Pino, N; D'Alessandro Rodríguez, K; Arado López, J O; Gelen Rudnikas, A; Arencibia Carballo, G

    2010-09-01

    Levels of copper, zinc and lead were determined in sediments and edible muscle of marine snail Strombus gigas collected from Guacanayabo Gulf, Cuba. The concentration range of each metal in marine snail muscle on mg kg(-1) wet weight varied as follows: Cu = 6.4-32.6, Zn = 20.4-31.1 and Pb = 0.2-2.3; and in corresponding sediments (on mg kg(-1) dry weight) as: Cu = 157-186, Zn = 56-94 and Pb = 20-37. The average biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) obtained for studied metals are less than unity in all cases, indicating that only a little fraction of metal content in the sediments is bioavailable, independently of their possible enrichments in the sediments. The concentrations of copper and lead in some of the marine snails are above typical public health recommended limits. PMID:20676604

  2. The systematic position of Cubanthus and other shrubby endemic species of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmann, Víctor W.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cubanthus (Euphorbiaceae has traditionally been recognized as a small genus of three similar species restricted to Cuba and Hispaniola. In this study we used DNA sequence data from the nuclear ITS and chloroplast ndhF gene regions to investigate its systematic position and the position of four other shrubby Euphorbia species endemic to Cuba: E. cubensis, E. helenae, E. munizii, and E. podocarpifolia. The results demonstrate that all of these taxa belong to a well-supported Antillean clade nested within Euphorbia that also includes E. punicea and E. gymnonota. For that reason, we treat Cubanthus as a section of Euphorbia instead of a separate genus. Euphorbia sect. Adenorima is relegated to a synonym of sect. Cubanthus. New names are proposed for Cubanthus brittonii and Cubanthus linearifolius (Euphorbia millspaughii and E. scutiformis, respectively, and a new combination is made for Cubanthus umbelliformis (Euphorbia umbelliformis. Section Cubanthus belongs to clade C of Euphorbia and is part of a New World assemblage that includes members of sections Euphorbiastrum, Pteroneurae, Portulacastrum, Stachydium, and the former genus Pedilanthus. Based on both the molecular results and morphological differences, two subsections are proposed: subsect. Cubanthus and subsect. Moa. The molecular phylogeny supports the hypothesis that section Cubanthus radiated entirely within the Antilles and the nearby Bahamian archipelago.Cubanthus (Euphorbiaceae ha sido tradicionalmente reconocido como un género de tres especies muy similares entre sí y endémicas de las islas de Cuba y La Española. En este estudio se emplearon datos de secuencias de ADN tanto nuclear (ITS como del cloroplasto (ndhF para investigar la posición sistemática de Cubanthus y de cuatro especies arbustivas de Euphorbia endémicas de Cuba: E. cubensis, E. helenae, E. munizii, y E. podocarpifolia. Los resultados muestran que todas las especies analizadas pertenecen a un clado Antillano

  3. [Considerations concerning the theory of the demographic revolution. Its development in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Castellon, R

    1983-01-01

    A review of the world's literature on the demographic transition is presented. The author, in his analysis of the non-Marxist literature, suggests that considerable efforts have been made to update demographic transition theory in order to take into account recent demographic trends in developing countries. On the other hand, the Marxist literature is divided into studies in which attempts are made to develop general demographic theories and those in which the value of such theories is questioned. The paper concludes with a description of the demographic transition process as it has been experienced in Cuba, and it is noted that a major feature of this process has been a general trend toward a reduction in demographic differentials. PMID:12279811

  4. Edition and visual culture: Brás Cubas and its multiple incarnations

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    Raquel Castedo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article has as an exemplary object the book of Machado de AssisMemórias Póstumas de Brás Cubas, published in different editions, to problematize the relations between texts and the materiality of the media that they are published. Evaluates the role of design as a praxis of editorial mediation, having in sight the scope of visual studies and reading practices. It is a theorical reflexion that has a foundation on bibliographical research and that appropriates reproductions of pages from different editions as visual arguments articulated with the debated topics. Also presents data about the ways of reading/access to the text obtained as a mean of questionary and interviews.

  5. Screening for prostate cancer in 8 health areas from Santiago de Cuba province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in 28 917 men over 50 years of age, belonging to 8 health areas of Santiago de Cuba, from November 2007 to July 2010, to determine the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and thus detect prostate cancer hidden morbidity. The test was performed in 18 007 screened individuals, of whom 1 745 had pathological findings, and of them 1 630 were evaluated at the urology department of the selected polyclinic according to the established flow chart. Finally, 125 males were diagnosed with the disease, so that it was confirmed the importance of having a greater dissemination of PSA test, benefits of which allow the family physician to know the health of their patients, and the risk population obtain such assistance annually through the doctor's offices

  6. Coynema gen. n., a new genus of nematode (Thelastomatoidea, Hystrignathidae parasites of Passalidae (Coleoptera from Cuba

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    Jans Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The new genus Coynema gen. n. is described as parasite of the two passalid beetles from Cuba: Passalus interstitialis Escholtz, 1829 (type host and P. pertyi Kaup, 1869. Females are characterized by the shape of their cephalic end, cervical cuticle unarmed, a sub-cylindrical procorpus with its base abruptly dilated, fore region of intestine dilated as a sac-like structure, genital system didelphic-amphidelphic and eggs markedly ovoid and smooth-shelled. Males have a digestive system similar to females, tail sharply pointed, bearing a Y-like thickening of the dorsal cuticle. They also present a big, median, mammiform pre-cloacal papillae and a pair of small, sub-dorsal pre-cloacal papillae anterior to the cuticular thickening of the tail.

  7. CONTRA LA IGNORANCIA: ESTUDIO DE CASOS SOBRE DIFERENTES FORMAS DE “SER HOMBRE” EN CUBA

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    Soura S. Formental Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra los resultados de un estudio exploratorio realizado en un centro de salud mental de La Habana, Cuba, con 125 varones. Esta investigación descriptiva y transversal presenta una perspectiva metodológica cualitativa a través del método de investigación-acción participativa. Se exponen las diferentes técnicas de indagación aplicadas para explorar la carga que la cultura patriarcal sigue aplicando en las mentalidades de muchos varones cubanos, a la vez que se muestra el nacimiento de una nueva generación masculina que comparte la iniciativa y que manifiesta un desprendimiento liberador y positivo de la masculinidad hegemónica y de las cargas que esta con - lleva. Los resultados se comparan con otros hallazgos, en especial de Latinoamérica.

  8. National strategy on education and training in radiation protection in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the nuclear applications in Cuba has been accompanied by a strong infrastructure of radiological protection, which includes the regulatory system and diverse scientific techniques services needed by the program. It is recognized the fact, that the preparation of the human resources has played an important role in safety levels reached in the practices accomplished. Presently, the processes of selection, training and authorization of the personnel working with ionizing radiations have been regulated. This paper aims at the development of a strategy to create a national system of sustainable education and training in the field of the radiological protection able to accomplish the demands of the regulatory organizations. Present necessities and the perspective of training were analyzed; in addition involved academic and non-academic institutions were identified. The design of the realistic-based national training program is described as well as the responsibility of each of the involved institutions. (author)

  9. Cuerpos en venta: pinguerismo y masculinidad negociada en la Cuba contemporánea

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    Abel Sierra Madero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo da cuenta de la investigación sobre sujetos masculinos insertados dentro de la economía informal de placeres ligada al turismo en Cuba (pingueros. Se analizan los modos en que los pingueros negocian la masculinidad y la identidad en sus interacciones con los extranjeros, mediante el estudio de su desempeño en las redes homoeróticas en La Habana, así como los conceptos de género y sexualidad, por un lado, y de nación y sobrevivencia, por otro, que allí construyen. Se finaliza con la relación entre turismo sexual y las contradicciones del modelo revolucionario.

  10. Los derivados de la caña de azúcar en Cuba

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    Marianela Cordovés-Herrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La agroindustria azucarera cubana ha estado experimentando diferentes transformacio- nes en los últimos años que comenzaron con su redimensionamiento en el año 2002. El crecimiento de la producción de derivados de la caña de azúcar, con énfasis en las pro- ducciones de alimento animal y de alcoholes de diferentes denominaciones, se incluye dentro de las proyecciones de desarrollo del sector, como parte de las soluciones estra- tégicas y altamente valoradas para las esferas de la energía, los alimentos y los biopro- ductos. En el presente trabajo se presenta la actualización de las fábricas de derivados quie existen en Cuba, su localización y capacidades productivas. Se exponen, asimismo, los antecedentes de estas producciones, su actual situación, problemática e influencia en la rentabilidad azucarera.

  11. A educação em Cuba entre 1959 e 2010

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    Justo Alberto Chávez Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe uma análise do desenvolvimento histórico da educação em Cuba desde 1959, ano do triunfo da Revolução, até nossos dias (2010. Para isso, o texto se divide em períodos que refletem as problemáticas pelas que atravessou a educação em cada etapa. Repassando todos os níveis de ensino (básico, médio e superior, com ênfase nos processos de criação de novas instituições e a formação de profissionais na área pedagógica para cobrir os déficits existentes antes da Revolução, o artigo mostra a evolução do sistema educativo da Ilha. Desde a erradicação do analfabetismo, já na década de 1960, até os planos para uma educação de cultura geral integral, mostrando, também, o papel dos educadores cubanos fora da Ilha.El artículo propone un análisis del desarrollo histórico de la Educación en Cuba desde 1959, año del triunfo de la Revolución, hasta nuestro días (2010. Para ello, dividimos el texto en períodos que reflejan las problemáticas por las que atravesó cada etapa. Repasando todos los niveles de educación (básico, medio y superior, con énfasis en los procesos de creación de nuevas instituciones y la formación de profesionales para cubrir los déficits existentes antes de la Revolución, el artículo demuestra la evolución del sistema educativo en la Isla. Desde la erradicación del analfabetismo, ya en la década de 1960, hasta los planes para una educación de cultura general integral, repasando, también, el papel de los educadores cubanos fuera de la Isla.This article analyzes the historical development of education in Cuba from 1959, the year of the triumph of the Revolution, to the present (2010. The text is divided into periods that reflect the problems facing education at each stage. By reviewing all levels of education (primary, secondary and higher and emphasizing the processes that led to the creation of new institutions and the training of teaching professionals to cover the

  12. Revisión bibliográfica. LA EXPERIMENTACIÓN CAMPESINA EN CUBA

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    Manuel Ponce Brito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se recogen los principales resultadosy consideraciones actuales de diversos autores a través de laexperimentación campesina, como una alternativa a los procesosclásicos de investigación y transferencia de tecnologías querealizan los programas nacionales desde los centros experi-mentales y, en muchos casos, de las investigaciones en fincasde los productores. En Cuba, mediante la Asociación Nacionalde Agricultores Pequeños (ANAP y los centros de investigación,se ha creado un movimiento que está tomando fuerza entre los pequeños productores, para ampliar el campo de opciones a ladiversificación de sus sistemas de producción y mejorar sucompetitividad en los mercados. Esta ha sido una respuesta ala poca disponibilidad de tecnologías para los sistemas deproducción campesina que son muy diversos.

  13. State of arbitrary complexity and Model Driven Architecture in the software development in Cuba

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    Nemury Silega

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Informatic systems play an important role in the society because are used in the majority of fields. The community of software researchers and developers devotes substantial efforts to determine how software systems can increasingly improve the environment in which they are deployed, for example, in medicine, business management, education, among other domains. But paradoxically these efforts do not correspond to those devoted to improving the environment of software development itself. There are insufficient proposals to streamline the software development process. The authors conducted an analysis of several proposals to improve the software development process in Cuba, propose how to address the problem based on the paradigm of Model Driven Architecture and make an assessment of the impact this may have on Cuban software industry.

  14. Scenarios Susceptible to Induced Liquefaction Caused by High Magnitude Earthquakes in Santiago de Cuba

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    Liuska Fernández-Diéguez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to define the zoning of soil liquefaction potential for the Guillermón Moncada Popular Council in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba. The engineering and geological conditions and seismic peculiarities favoring a seism to take place were assessed. The safety factor was re-calculated after determining possible maximum intensity values based on seismic magnitudes that can trigger the soil of the investigated area to liquefy. A scheme of the area´s soil susceptibility to liquefaction was obtained. Based on this result, it was concluded that the sectors that are most likely to experience soil liquefaction if an earthquake of magnitudes ranging between 7,75 and 8 occurs are located towards the center-east of the Popular Council with sandy-clayey soils being predominant. This information is very useful for the location and planning of engineering construction works in the area.

  15. Use of anaerobic plug flow biodigesters in Cuba's Guaniguanico Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, R.; Chao, R.; Perez, A.; Cairo, G.; Garcia, A.; Macias, M. [Swine Research Inst., Habana (Cuba). Dept. of Environmental Protection

    2004-07-01

    This study presented a solution to an environmental pollution problem facing pig farms in Cuba. A new variant of anaerobic plug flow biodigester for producing methane from organic waste was described. The stable biodigester has a width/length relationship of 1:8.8 and is suitable for all animal wastes, including pig manure. Chemical analysis were performed in the digester effluents. Wastewaters from the biodigester were analyzed for total solids, total volatile solids, ashes, total nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. Reduction in organic matter in terms of total solids and total volatile solids was 65 per cent and 68 per cent respectively. The waste material was rendered useful as an organic fertilizer due to its high content of ash, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. The quality of the biogas was acceptable with no stench. The methane proportion was higher than 50 per cent. The amount of biogas produced was sufficient for cooking purposes. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  16. Captura de tiburones en la región noroccidental de Cuba

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    Consuelo Aguilar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Los tiburones han sido una importante fuente de alimento e ingresos en Cuba. A pesar de esto, es muy escasa la información sobre este grupo y, en las últimas décadas, no han sido objeto de una investigación organizada. De octubre 2009 a junio 2011 se recolectaron datos biológicos (229 tiburones examinados y pesqueros en cuatro sitios de desembarque de la región noroccidental de Cuba. En esta región, los tiburones son capturados en pesquerías comerciales multiespecíficas en la plataforma insular y de manera incidental en pesquerías deportivas de corto radio de acción durante la captura de grandes especies pelágicas de mar abierto. Se registró un total de 17 especies; seis en pesca comercial, dominada por Carcharhinus perezii, Sphyrna mokarran y Carcharhinus leucas, y 14 en pesca deportiva (artesanal de pequeña escala, no propiamente recreacional, dominada por Isurus oxyrinchus, Isurus paucus, Carcharhinus longimanus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Galeocerdo cuvier y Prionace glauca. La CPUE mensual en las pesquerías deportivas, varió de 0,43 a 4,44 tiburones capturados por diez viajes de pesca. La mayoría de los tiburones oceánicos capturados en las pesquerías deportivas son especies altamente migratorias y sus poblaciones muestran gran conectividad ecológica en el Golfo de México y aguas adyacentes. Este hecho y la presencia de una gran proporción de individuos de C. longimanus y C. falciformis por debajo de la longitud de madurez, son resultados que deben ser considerados en los planes regionales de conservación y uso racional de los tiburones.

  17. La trayectoria del aborto seguro en Cuba: evitar mejor que abortar

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    María Elena Benítez Pérez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El aborto provocado o inducido es una práctica que se ha observado en todos los países. A su alrededor la neutralidad parece no existir al estar permeado por posturas que terminan polarizando todo debate. En Cuba ha sido un método extensamente usado por las mujeres para regular su procreación y este será el problema de investigación del presente trabajo. Su desarrollo parte de la hipótesis general de que aún bajo condiciones seguras, el aborto reduce; pero no elimina, riesgos y secuelas para la salud femenina. El objetivo está dirigido a fundamentar por qué evitar siempre es mejor que abortar. Su base teórica es el método de los determinantes próximos enunciado por Davis y Blake. Abstract The abortion -also known as inducted- is a practice that it has been observed worldwide. Neutrality seems not to exist around this practice, but quite a number of postures that at the end polarize the debate. This method has been used widely by women in Cuba, in order to control their procreation. This will be the research problem of the present work. Its development is based on the general hypothesis of that still under save conditions; the abortion reduces, but doesn't eliminate, risks and sequels for the feminine health. The objective is aimed to explain why avoiding always is better that aborting. Its theoretical support is the method of the next determinants, enunciated by Davis and Blake.

  18. Atmospheric deposition patterns of 210Pb and 7Be in Cienfuegos, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiometric composition of bulk deposition samples, collected monthly for one year, February 2010 until January 2011, at a site located in Cienfuegos (22° 03′ N, 80° 29′ W) (Cuba), are analysed in this paper. Measurement of 7Be and 210Pb activity concentrations were carried out in 12 bulk deposition samples. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of 7Be and 210Pb are in the range of 13.2–132 and 1.24–8.29 Bq m−2, and their mean values are: 56.6 and 3.97 Bq m−2, respectively. The time variations of the different radionuclide have been discussed in relation with meteorological factors and the mean values have been compared to those published in recent literature from other sites located at different latitudes. The annual average flux of 210Pb and 7Be were 47 and 700 Bq m−2 y−1, respectively. Observed seasonal variations of deposition data are explained in terms of different environmental features. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of 7Be and 210Pb were moderately well correlated with precipitation and well correlated with one another. The 210Pb/7Be ratios in the monthly depositions samples varied in the range of 0.05–0.10 and showed a strong correlation with the number of rainy days. - Highlights: • We evaluated for first time in Cuba the atmospheric deposition fluxes of 7Be and 210Pb. • The annual average flux of 210Pb and 7Be were 47 and 700 Bq m−2 y−1, respectively. • The atmospheric deposition fluxes of 7Be and 210Pb are correlated with precipitation. • 7Be and 210Pb present similar removal behaviour from the atmosphere

  19. Consideraciones sobre el servicio de asesoramiento al regante para las condiciones de Cuba

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    Enrique Cisneros Zayas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los Servicios de Asesoramiento al Regante (SAR son sin duda una de las herramientas más interesantes para hacer del regadío una actividad sostenible, al tener como finalidad principal la mejora en la eficiencia en el uso y la gestión integral del agua de riego. En Cuba, el riego y el drenaje son imprescindibles para tener producciones de calidad, es por ello que no podemos renunciar a su ejecución. Por otra parte la mecanización masiva del riego, mediante la extensión de las máquinas de pivote central y otras, aunque logran elevadas productividades de áreas regadas por hombre, muestran signos de poca efectividad agrícola y baja eficiencia en el uso del agua, que están relacionada generalmente a su empleo incorrecto y al desconocimiento del modo de operar estas tecnologías, una de las vías para mejorar esta situación es a través de los SAR. En nuestro país se pretende poner en funcionamiento este servicio y ya se cuenta con algunas experiencias, las que están propiciando un flujo de información y conocimientos. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo dar a conocer las experiencias adquiridas en Cuba durante su creación, se completa la información con los resultados obtenidos y se dan algunas consideraciones a tener en cuenta para su futura puesta en marcha.

  20. Seismic microzoning from synthetic ground motion parameters: Case study, Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic seismograms (P - SV and SH waves) have been calculated along 6 profiles in Santiago de Cuba basin, with a cutoff frequency of 5 Hz, by using the hybrid approach (modal summation for a regional (ID) structure plus finite differences for a local (2D) structure embedded in the first). They correspond to a scenario earthquake of MS = 7 that may occur in Oriente fault zone, directly south of the city. As initial data for a seismic microzoning, the characterisation of earthquake effects has been made considering several relative (2D/1D) quantities (PGDR, PGVR, PGAR, DGAR, IAR etc.) and functions representative of the ground motion behaviour in soil (2D) with respect to bedrock (ID). The functions are the response spectra ratio RSR(f), already routinely used in this kind of work, and the elastic energy input ratio EIR(f), defined, for the first time, in this paper. These data, sampled at 105 sites within all the profiles have been classified in two steps, using logical combinatory algorithms: connected sets and compact sets. In the first step, from the original ground motion parameters or functions extracted from the synthetic seismograms, 9 sets have been classified and the partial results show the spatial distribution of the soil behaviour as function of the component of motion. In the second step, the results of the classification of the 9 sets have been used as input for a further classification that shows a spatial distribution of sites with a quasi-homogeneous integral ground motion behaviour. By adding the available geological surface data, a microzoning scheme of Santiago de Cuba basin has been obtained. (author)

  1. Cúpula metálica geodésica en Mariel, Cuba

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    Sáinz Román, Jesús

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the 'Sercometal 1979' awards to outstanding metal constructions was accorded to the geodesic dome serving as the roof for the pre-homogenization yard of a cement plant built in Mariel, Cuba. This article Is a detailed description of the structure and of the factor leading to the selection of this solution, as well as of the various stages of the project: design, fabrication, supervision and assembly. Tests were made at actual scale on the nodes, key elements of the structure. The project was developed by Centunión-Española de Coordinación Técnica y Financiera, S.A. and Argynsa-Estructuras Metálicas of Madrid (Spain for Desarrollo Industrial of Havana.

    La cúpula metálica geodésica, que sirve de cubierta al parque de prehomogeneización de una fábrica de cemento realizada en Mariel (Cuba, ha recibido uno de los premios «Sercometal 1979» destinado a las mejores construcciones metálicas. En este artículo se hace una descripción detallada de la estructura y de los factores que han contribuido a elegir esta solución, así como de las distintas fases de la obra: diseño, fabricación, control y montaje. Los ensayos se han verificado, a escala real, sobre los nudos que son los elementos clave de la estructura. Ha sido proyectada por Centunlón-Española de Coordinación Técnica y Financiera, S. A. y por Argynsa-Estructuras Metálicas, de Madrid (España, para Desarrollo Industrial de la Habana.

  2. Meio século de artes plásticas em Cuba

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    Adelaida de Juan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante as recentes décadas, as artes plásticas em Cuba desenvolveram diversas tendências como a abstração, o fotorrealismo, o neoexpressionismo, o conceitualismo etc., enquanto algumas temáticas e alguns caracteres cuja base remete às culturas afro-cubanas são mantidos. Às manifestações com antecedentes nacionais se agregará, como manifestação orgânica, o design gráfico, que vem se constituindo numa escola de particularidades próprias. Na atualidade proliferam as instalações e as performances, muitas vezes com caráter interdisciplinar, como no caso da video art.Durante las recientes décadas, las artes plásticas en Cuba han desarrollado diversas tendencias como la abstracción, el fotorrealismo, el neoexpresionismo, el conceptualismo, etc., mientras mantienen algunas temáticas y caracteres cuya base se remite a las culturas afrocubanas. A las manifestaciones con antecedentes nacionales se añadirá, como manifestación orgánica, el diseño gráfico que se ha constituido en una escuela de caracteres propios. En la actualidad proliferan las instalaciones y los performances, a menudo con carácter interdisciplinario, así como el video art.During recent decades, several trends have emerged in the Cuban visual arts, e.g., abstraction, photorealism, neoexpressionism and conceptualism, among others, without losing sight of certain themes and characters based on Afro-Cuban cultures. To the manifestations of a national heritage should be added, as an organic expression, graphic design, which is becoming a school with unique features. Today, we have a proliferation of performances and installations, often of interdisciplinary nature, as is the case of video art.

  3. Peligrosidad sísmica de la región de Santiago de Cuba

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    Tomás J. Chuy-Rodríguez

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Se caracteriza la peligrosidad sísmica de la provincia y ciudad de Santiago de Cuba, en términos de intensidad, aceleración, velocidad y desplazamiento. Los parámetros de peligrosidad sísmica se presentan en forma de mapas independientes utilizando períodos de recurrencia para cada valor de los parámetros de la amenaza; a tiempo que, de forma probabilística para diferentes tiempos de vida útil y probabilidad de ocurrencia para una red de cuadrículas de 1 km2 en toda la cuenca de Santiago de Cuba, se definen para cada una de ellas, las correspondientes curvas de nivel de amenaza. Los parámetros de peligrosidad sísmica están preparados como Bases de Datos Digitales, para su implementación en Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG con fines de prevención y manejo de desastres sismológicos, por ser imprescindibles para la planificación, proyección y diseño del desarrollo socioeconómico de estos territorios, ya que permiten la valoración del nivel de riesgo que se quiera asumir en áreas de interés. En la actualidad son la base de referencia y consulta para el establecimiento de definiciones de planeamiento urbano y de uso de suelos, así como para proyectos ubicados en estos territorios. Constituyen, igualmente, un elemento de consulta por la Defensa Civil en los planes de medidas para caso de terremotos

  4. Emergency response to radiological occurrences in the centre of isotopes in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is internationally recognized that establishment and implementation emergency provisions are key issues for an effective response. This paper aims to summarize the experiences in responding to radiological events in the Centre of Isotopes (CENTIS), the biggest radioactive facility in Cuba. Specific potential accident scenarios are assessed by identifying maximum radioactive inventories, operational procedures, room dimensions and ventilation system parameters. Additionally, transport accidents are analyzed since CENTIS is also the main carrier of radioactive materials in Cuba. A range of events is considered from highly improbable events of larger consequence to more frequent events of small radiological impact. The maximum radionuclide release events are identified. A review of the radiological occurrences from 1997 to 2007 is conducted, using the Cuban's regulatory classification system. The details of these occurrences have been entered into the Radiological Event Database (RED). Spills of 131I in controlled zone are mainly registered. It has been not reported any incident in about two thousand road shipments carried out. Results show a good agreement between hypothesized occurrences and those registered. There were obtained the maximum values of exposures for workers and first responders as follows: 2.23mSv (effective dose (E)), 0.7mSv (committed effective dose) and 50.49mSv (equivalent dose to hands). The biggest contribution to E took place during opening a radioactive package with 14.8GBq of 90Sr in controlled zone. Suitable sets of individual protective means and monitoring equipment have been guaranteed. The programmes of training and full-scale exercises are fulfilled. Finally, it is concluded that findings from operational experience and preparedness infrastructure have contributed to CENTIS' emergency response capabilities. (author)

  5. Geological interpretation of Eastern Cuba Laterites from an airborne magnetic and radioactive isotope survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, J.A; Blanco, J [Departamento de Geologia, Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa, (Cuba); Perez-Flores, M.A [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    In eastern Cuba area several geophysical techniques have been applied to distinguish the main geological characteristics of the laterites which are of economical importance for the extraction of iron, nickel and chrome. The geophysical measurements include an aeromagnetic survey and thorium (eTh), potassium (K) and uranium (eU) isotope measurements. The results of gamma spectrometer measurements make a distinction between laterite reservoirs. The application of the magnetic and isotope methods allowed the determination of the distribution and development of the laterite crust, as well as the determination of hydrothermal alterations affecting the laterites, which is very useful for mining exploration and exploitation. Such alterations indicate the presence of silicates, which have negative effects on the metallurgic process. It is known that laterite crust has a high content of eU and eTh. [Spanish] Se han utilizado varias tecnicas geofisicas en la region oriental de Cuba para distinguir las principales caracteristicas geologicas de las lateritas, que poseen importancia economica para la extraccion de hierro, niquel y cobalto. Las mediciones geofisicas incluyen un estudio aeromagnetico y mediciones de isotopos de torio (eTh), potasio (K) y uranio (eU). Los resultados de las mediciones espectrometricas establecen diferencias entre los yacimientos de lateritas. De la aplicacion del metodo magnetico e isotopico se determino la distribucion y desarrollo de las cortezas lateriticas, asi como la ubicacion de alteraciones hidrotermales que afectan a las lateritas, lo cual es muy util durante la exploracion y explotacion minera. Esas alteraciones indican la presencia de silicatos, que tienen un efecto negativo en el proceso metalurgico. Se conoce que las cortezas lateriticas tienen altos contenidos de eU y eTh. De los contenidos de eU y eTh se infiere que las lateritas de la region de Moa se formaron antes que las de Mayari. De estas mediciones fue posible inferir el

  6. «Brazos para el azúcar», esclavos para vender. Estrategias de comercialización en la trata negrera en Santiago de Cuba, 1789-1794

    OpenAIRE

    Belmonte Postigo, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    The current article analyzes the commercial strategies of the slave trade in Santiago de Cuba during the early years of liberalization. After the port of Santiago de Cuba was successfully refitted for handling the marketing of slaves in 1789, the number of slaves introduced into the capital of western Cuba increased substantially. Nevertheless, the entry of these slaves did not necessarily mean that they were to stay put in the town or its surroundings, because reselling served as a means of ...

  7. Primer reporte de monogeneos del género Enterogyrus Paperna, 1963 (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae en tilapias de cultivo en Cuba - First report of monogeneans of the genus Enterogyrus Paperna, 1963 (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae in cultivated tilapias of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lucas Prats León

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl examen parasitológico del tracto digestivo de Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner, 1864; Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 e híbridos rojos de tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852 x Oreochromis spp. decultivos intensivos en jaulas, provenientes de diferentes embalses dulceacuícolas, reveló la presencia por primera vez para Cuba de dos representantes del género Enterogyrus Paperna, 1963 (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae en estómago.AbstractThe parasitologic exam of Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner, 1864; Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 and hybrid red of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852 x Oreochromis spp. stomach from intensive cage culture, coming from different freshwater reservoirs of Cuba, revealed the presence for the first time of two representatives belonging Enterogyrus Paperna, 1963 (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae.

  8. Distribución de los cangrejos porcelánidos (Decapoda: Anomura) en la costa de Santiago de Cuba, con la adición de especies para Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Diez García, Y. L.; Jover Capote, A.

    2013-01-01

    Se presenta la lista de los cangrejos porcelánidos de la costa de Santiago de Cuba, la clave taxonómica para su identificació y los apuntes sobre su distribución batimétrica. Se adicionan cuatro especies a la lista de porcelánidos de las costas cubana (Neopisosoma angustifrons, Petrolisthes marginatus, P. politus, y P. quadratus).

  9. Primer reporte de monogeneos del género Enterogyrus Paperna, 1963 (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) en tilapias de cultivo en Cuba - First report of monogeneans of the genus Enterogyrus Paperna, 1963 (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) in cultivated tilapias of Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Lucas Prats León; Mercedes Martínez Pérez; Raquel Silveira

    2012-01-01

    ResumenEl examen parasitológico del tracto digestivo de Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner, 1864); Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) e híbridos rojos de tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852) x Oreochromis spp.) decultivos intensivos en jaulas, provenientes de diferentes embalses dulceacuícolas, reveló la presencia por primera vez para Cuba de dos representantes del género Enterogyrus Paperna, 1963 (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) en estómago.AbstractThe parasitologic exam of Oreochr...

  10. Desequilibrios metabólicos con especial referencia a las carenciales de minerales asociadas a problemas reproductivos en vacas lecheras de Cuba (Metabolic imbalances and minerals deficiencies associated with reproductive disorders in dairy cattle in Cuba)

    OpenAIRE

    García Díaz, Juan R; Silveira Prado, Enrique A; Cuesta Mazorra, Mario; Quiñones Ramos, Reinaldo; Hernández Barreto, Miguel A.; Mollineda Trujillo, Ángel

    2011-01-01

    ResumenEl objetivo de este estudio fue diagnosticar los principales desequilibrios metabólicos con especial referencia a las carenciales de minerales asociadas a los problemas reproductivos en vacas lecheras mestizas Holstein x Cebú en un sistema de producción con amamantamiento restringido en la región central de Cuba.SummaryThe objective of this study was to diagnose the principal metabolic imbalances and deficiencies associated with reproductive disorders especially due to mineral deficien...

  11. Brief history of distance education in Cuba and the world Reseña histórica de la educación a distancia en Cuba y el mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Cándido Hernández Petitón

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Distance education has recently become a very useful educational practice due to the dynamics of today's world, the advances in the Information and Communication Technologies, as well as the need to achieve quality education overcoming distances and promoting personal growth and intellectual maturity of a growing number of people of all genres and latitudes. This paper aims to conduct a historical review of this type of education in Cuba and the world, from its origins to present times, for which a literature review was conducted covering different countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, America and Cuba, so that it can help all those who study this subject.La educación a distancia se ha convertido en los últimos tiempos en una práctica educativa de gran utilidad, debido a la dinámica del mundo actual, al desarrollo alcanzado por las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones, así como a la necesidad de alcanzar la calidad en la educación, salvando distancias y favoreciendo el crecimiento y madurez personal e intelectual de un número cada vez mayor de personas de todos los géneros y latitudes. El presente trabajo tiene como propósito realizar una reseña histórica de esta modalidad educativa en Cuba y el mundo, desde sus orígenes hasta la actualidad, para lo cual se efectuó una revisión bibliográfica que abarcó diferentes países de Europa, Asia, África, América y Cuba, de manera que sirva de ayuda a todos los estudiosos del tema.

  12. LA DEFORESTACIÓN DEL BOSQUE SIEMPRE VERDE EN SOROA CANDELARIA, ARTEMISA, CUBA THE DEFORESTATION OF THE EVERGREEN FOREST IN SOROA CANDELARIA, ARTEMISA, CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidel González Díaz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La acción depredadora del hombre ha incidido en la desaparición de especies que identifican al bosque siempre verde. Este artículo demuestra el efecto de la deforestación del bosque en la comunidad de Soroa del municipio Candelaria, Artemisa, Cuba así como las potencialidades existentes en el área para revertir la actual situación, desde una perspectiva económica, social y ambiental. El objetivo es evaluar la incidencia de la proximidad a la comunidad sobre la afectación de las especies del bosque siempre verde en Soroa. Se seleccionaron al azar 20 parcelas en las cuales se contabilizó la abundancia de especies forestales, midiéndose también la distancia hasta la comunidad y el diámetro de árboles y arbustos. Se aplicó la regresión logística binaria para estimar la probabilidad de encontrar una proporción superior al 25% de las especies características de la zona, se calcularon los índices de diversidad y equidad, en los estratos arbóreos y arbustivos que fueron comparados con la aplicación de la prueba de rangos con signos de Wilcoxon. Se formaron así dos grupos, uno en que la distancia desde la comunidad es inferior a 2,5 km y el otro para una distancia mayor o igual a 2,5 km. Se realizó la prueba U de Mann Whitney para comparar los diámetros en los dos grupos, demostrándose con ello que la actividad antrópica es una de las causas que incide en la deforestación del bosque siempre verde del macizo montañoso en Candelaria.The negative man’s action on the forest has impacted in the disappearance of many species that belong to the evergreen forest. The present investigation demonstrate the grade of interference on the forest in the community of Soroa, Candelaria, Artemisa, Cuba and the existent potentialities in the area to revert this situation, from an economic, social and environmental perspective. The objective is to evaluate the influence of the proximity to community in the affectation of species to the

  13. Potential impact of macroclimatic variability on the epidemiology of giardiasis in three provinces of Cuba, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Angel A; Almirall, Pedro; Rumbaut, Raisa; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and variability are common phenomena affecting various infectious diseases. Many studies have been performed on vector-borne diseases; however, few studies have addressed such influences on intestinal parasitic diseases (e.g., giardiasis). In this study, using nonlinear Poisson regression models, we assessed the potential associations between macroclimatic variation and giardiasis cases in children and school workers from three provinces of Cuba in the context of large sampling and parasitological assessment. Between 2010 and 2012, 293,019 subjects were assessed, resulting in 6357 positive for Giardia (216.95 cases/10,000 pop.; 95%CI 211.7-222.2). The variation in time for those giardiasis rates ranged from 35.8 to 525.8 cases/10,000 pop. Nonlinear Poisson regression models between the ONI index and the giardiasis incidence indicated a significant association (pCuba but also in other countries of the Caribbean and Latin American region.

  14. New Calisto species from Cuba, with insights on the relationships of Cuban and Bahamian taxa (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núnez Aguila, Rayner; Matos-Maraví, Pável F; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Three new species and a new subspecies of Calisto Hübner are described from Cuba, Calisto torrei sp. n. Núñez, Calisto dissimulatum sp. n. Núñez, Calisto aquilum sp. n. Núñez, and Calisto aquilum occidentalis ssp. n. Núñez. The immature stages of C. torrei and C. dissimulatum are also described. Notes on the distribution and biology of the species are given. All Cuban and Bahamian taxa form a monophyletic group which seems to have originated in northeastern Cuba spreading later to the west. DNA sequence data also allowed to recognize both Bahamian taxa, Calisto sibylla and Calisto apollinis stat. n., as distinct species, and to synonymize Calisto herophile parsonsi syn. n. under Calisto herophile.

  15. Scientific Cooperation Between the German Academy of Sciences in Berlin (DAW) and Cuba in the 1960s and 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Helge

    After the ratification of its constitution in 1959, the young Cuban Republic sought new cooperation partners in a number of different fields. One of these fields was scientific cooperation. It seems the Cubans quickly found partners in the academies of science of the USSR, Czechoslovakia and China, whereas the German Academy of Sciences in Berlin (DAW) was reluctant to engage in long-term cooperative projects. In the early 1960s, the universities of East Germany (GDR) began to send docents and scientists to Cuba where they participated in the summer schools, taught for one semester or more in one of the universities and undertook research that would be useful for their home institutions. However, the DAW carefully observed the reestablishment of Cuba's own academy of science before becoming involved in common projects with Cuban partners.

  16. Los inmigrantes en Cuba, de región a nación (1880-1902)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Martínez, Jon Ander

    2010-01-01

    Cuba será, junto a Argentina y Uruguay, uno de los destinos elegidos por los emigrantes españoles a lo largo del siglo XIX. En teoría seguía siendo una provincia más, aunque en la práctica distaba mucho de serlo. Esta particularidad hizo que los inmigrantes se asociaran principalmente en base a su procedencia, dando lugar a multitud de asociaciones jurídicamente de carácter regional e incluso local. El año 1898 marcara el fin del sueño: Cuba dejara de ser territorio colonial de España y tras ...

  17. Cuba: exploring the history of admixture and the genetic basis of pigmentation using autosomal and uniparental markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz; Parra, Esteban J; Fuentes-Smith, Evelyn; Salas, Antonio; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Demontis, Ditte; Torres-Español, María; Marín-Padrón, Lilia C; Gómez-Cabezas, Enrique J; Alvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio; Carracedo, Angel; Børglum, Anders D; Mors, Ole

    2014-07-01

    We carried out an admixture analysis of a sample comprising 1,019 individuals from all the provinces of Cuba. We used a panel of 128 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) to estimate the admixture proportions. We also characterized a number of haplogroup diagnostic markers in the mtDNA and Y-chromosome in order to evaluate admixture using uniparental markers. Finally, we analyzed the association of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with quantitative estimates of skin pigmentation. In the total sample, the average European, African and Native American contributions as estimated from autosomal AIMs were 72%, 20% and 8%, respectively. The Eastern provinces of Cuba showed relatively higher African and Native American contributions than the Western provinces. In particular, the highest proportion of African ancestry was observed in the provinces of Guantánamo (40%) and Santiago de Cuba (39%), and the highest proportion of Native American ancestry in Granma (15%), Holguín (12%) and Las Tunas (12%). We found evidence of substantial population stratification in the current Cuban population, emphasizing the need to control for the effects of population stratification in association studies including individuals from Cuba. The results of the analyses of uniparental markers were concordant with those observed in the autosomes. These geographic patterns in admixture proportions are fully consistent with historical and archaeological information. Additionally, we identified a sex-biased pattern in the process of gene flow, with a substantially higher European contribution from the paternal side, and higher Native American and African contributions from the maternal side. This sex-biased contribution was particularly evident for Native American ancestry. Finally, we observed that SNPs located in the genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 are strongly associated with melanin levels in the sample.

  18. Cuba: exploring the history of admixture and the genetic basis of pigmentation using autosomal and uniparental markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz; Parra, Esteban J; Fuentes-Smith, Evelyn; Salas, Antonio; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Demontis, Ditte; Torres-Español, María; Marín-Padrón, Lilia C; Gómez-Cabezas, Enrique J; Alvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio; Carracedo, Angel; Børglum, Anders D; Mors, Ole

    2014-07-01

    We carried out an admixture analysis of a sample comprising 1,019 individuals from all the provinces of Cuba. We used a panel of 128 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) to estimate the admixture proportions. We also characterized a number of haplogroup diagnostic markers in the mtDNA and Y-chromosome in order to evaluate admixture using uniparental markers. Finally, we analyzed the association of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with quantitative estimates of skin pigmentation. In the total sample, the average European, African and Native American contributions as estimated from autosomal AIMs were 72%, 20% and 8%, respectively. The Eastern provinces of Cuba showed relatively higher African and Native American contributions than the Western provinces. In particular, the highest proportion of African ancestry was observed in the provinces of Guantánamo (40%) and Santiago de Cuba (39%), and the highest proportion of Native American ancestry in Granma (15%), Holguín (12%) and Las Tunas (12%). We found evidence of substantial population stratification in the current Cuban population, emphasizing the need to control for the effects of population stratification in association studies including individuals from Cuba. The results of the analyses of uniparental markers were concordant with those observed in the autosomes. These geographic patterns in admixture proportions are fully consistent with historical and archaeological information. Additionally, we identified a sex-biased pattern in the process of gene flow, with a substantially higher European contribution from the paternal side, and higher Native American and African contributions from the maternal side. This sex-biased contribution was particularly evident for Native American ancestry. Finally, we observed that SNPs located in the genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 are strongly associated with melanin levels in the sample. PMID:25058410

  19. Falta Petroleo! Perspectives on the emergence of a more ecological farming and food system in post-crisis Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, J.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: ecological / organic / agriculture / transition / farming systems / co-operatives / Cuba / food security / food system / institutional learning / crisis / rural livelihoods / coping strategies / localisationThis research takes as its case for analysis the nationwide change to a more self-reliant agricultural production and food sector inCubaat the end of the 1990s, almost a decade after the collapse of the Soviet Bloc of theUSSRandEastern Europe. Understanding the Cuban experience i...

  20. Los Despaigne en Saint-Domingue y Cuba: narrativa microhistórica de una experiencia atlántica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias Utset, Marial

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A family of French planters in Jérémie, in southern Saint-Domingue, whose world falls apart due to the revolution in Haiti, recreates the economy (material and moral of the coffee plantation in the El Cobre Mountains, in Santiago de Cuba. Half a century later, the breakout of the Cuban wars of independence from Spain emancipated the numerous slaves from the plantation. Their citizen status, in the Cuban Republic of the 20th century, was put to the test as the 1912 uprising of the Independent Party of Color traumatically brought back the memory of Haiti to Cuba.

    Una familia de plantadores franceses en Jérémie, en el sur de Saint-Domingue, cuyo mundo colapsa a consecuencia de la revolución de Haití, reproduce nuevamente en las serranías de El Cobre, en Santiago de Cuba, la economía (material y moral de la plantación cafetalera. Medio siglo más tarde, la irrupción de las guerras de independencia de España emancipa a los numerosos esclavos de la plantación, cuya inclusión ciudadana, ya en la república cubana en el siglo XX, se pone a prueba en 1912, cuando el alzamiento de los miembros del Partido de los Independientes de Color reactualiza traumáticamente la memoria de la revolución de Haití en Cuba.

  1. Geology of the florencia gold – telluride deposit (camagüey, cuba) and some metallurgical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    López K Jesús M.; Moreira Jesús; Gandarillas José

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the results from a study of the Florencia gold-telluride deposit in Central Cuba, including mineralogical, petrographical, microprobe and chemical analysis. Valuable information is provided for the exploration, mining and processing of gold ores from other nearby deposits with similar characteristics. Results highlight changes in the mineralogical composition of the ores between the north and south sectors of the deposit, as reflected in metallurgical concentrates after b...

  2. Cuba: exploring the history of admixture and the genetic basis of pigmentation using autosomal and uniparental markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Marcheco-Teruel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We carried out an admixture analysis of a sample comprising 1,019 individuals from all the provinces of Cuba. We used a panel of 128 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs to estimate the admixture proportions. We also characterized a number of haplogroup diagnostic markers in the mtDNA and Y-chromosome in order to evaluate admixture using uniparental markers. Finally, we analyzed the association of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with quantitative estimates of skin pigmentation. In the total sample, the average European, African and Native American contributions as estimated from autosomal AIMs were 72%, 20% and 8%, respectively. The Eastern provinces of Cuba showed relatively higher African and Native American contributions than the Western provinces. In particular, the highest proportion of African ancestry was observed in the provinces of Guantánamo (40% and Santiago de Cuba (39%, and the highest proportion of Native American ancestry in Granma (15%, Holguín (12% and Las Tunas (12%. We found evidence of substantial population stratification in the current Cuban population, emphasizing the need to control for the effects of population stratification in association studies including individuals from Cuba. The results of the analyses of uniparental markers were concordant with those observed in the autosomes. These geographic patterns in admixture proportions are fully consistent with historical and archaeological information. Additionally, we identified a sex-biased pattern in the process of gene flow, with a substantially higher European contribution from the paternal side, and higher Native American and African contributions from the maternal side. This sex-biased contribution was particularly evident for Native American ancestry. Finally, we observed that SNPs located in the genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 are strongly associated with melanin levels in the sample.

  3. Situación actual de los recursos pesqueros del Archipiélago Sabana-Camagüey, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Claro, R.; García Arteaga, J.P.; Gobert, B.; Cantelar Ramos, K.; Valle Gómez, S.V.; Pina Amargos, F.

    2004-01-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to describe the historical development of finfish fisheries in the Archipelago Sabana-Camagüey and adjacent northeast region (Cuba), and to assess the current status of fisheries resources. Species and size composition of trawl, trap, and gillnet catches were surveyed, fisheries statistics from fishing enterprises of the area were analysed, and experienced fishermen were interviewed. The historical evolution of catches and changes in fishing effo...

  4. Womens' opinions on antenatal care in developing countries: results of a study in Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Farnot Ubaldo; Carroli Guillermo; Ba'aqeel Hassan; Al-Mazrou Yagob; Garcia Jo; Villar José; Al-Osimy Muneera; Rojas Georgina; Romero Mariana; Kuchaisit Chusri; Langer Ana; Nigenda Gustavo; Lumbiganon Pisake; Belizán José; Bergsjo Per

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background The results of a qualitative study carried out in four developing countries (Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina) are presented. The study was conducted in the context of a randomised controlled trial to test the benefits of a new antenatal care protocol that reduced the number of visits to the doctor, rationalised the application of technology, and improved the provision of information to women in relation to the traditional protocol applied in each country. Method...

  5. The use of ISSR markers for species determination and a genetic study of the invasive lionfish in Guanahacabibes, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Labastida; Dorka Cobián; Yann Hénaut; María del Carmen García-Rivas; Pedro P Chevalier; Salima Machkour-M’Rabet

    2015-01-01

    The red lionfish (Pterois volitans) and devil fire-fish (Pterois miles) are invasive species that pose a threat to the biodiversity and stability of coral reefs in the Western Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Species identification of lionfish is uncertain in some parts of Cuba, and research has mainly been focused on their biology and ecology. The principal aim of this study was to determine highly polymorphic markers (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat, ISSR) that could be used in rese...

  6. Public hospital management in times of crisis: lessons learned from Cienfuegos, Cuba (1996-2008) (Reprinted from Health Policy, 2010)

    OpenAIRE

    De Vos, Pol; Ordúñez-García, Pedro; Santos-Peña, Moisés; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Cuba's public health system is well known for its integrated first line services based on family medicine. Less publicized is the country's experience in public hospital management. After a harsh economic crisis in the first half of the 1990s had brought the Cienfuegos hospital near to collapse, from 1996 onwards the hospital management team took advantage of the incipient economic recovery to launch an ambitious recovery process. This article reconstructs this endeavor, based on annual hospi...

  7. Temephos resistance and esterase activity in the mosquito Aedes aegypti in Havana, Cuba increased dramatically between 2006 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, J A; Rodríguez, M M; Ricardo, Y; Ranson, H; Pérez, O; Moya, M; Vázquez, A

    2011-09-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) control programmes in Cuba rely on the application of the organophosphate temephos for larval control. Hence, the monitoring of resistance to this insecticide is an essential component of such programmes. Here, 15 field populations from different municipalities of Havana City were assayed for resistance to temephos. High levels of resistance were detected in all strains and resistance ratios were highly correlated with esterase activity (P = 0.00001). Populations from three municipalities were tested in both 2006 and 2008; resistance and esterase activities both significantly increased during this 2-year period. Synergist studies demonstrated that neither glutathione transferases nor monooxygenases were associated with the increase in resistance to temephos in this period. The duration of the efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations in Havana City was reduced by the high level of temephos resistance observed; hence these data are of clear operational significance for the dengue control programme in Cuba. New integrated strategies to avoid further increases in temephos resistance in Cuba are necessary.

  8. Life after oil: Cuba's fossil fuel shortage had inspired innovations that combine sustainable agriculture and renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zytaruk, M.

    2003-09-30

    Innovations in agricultural practices, an aggressive program of power generation from renewable resources, mainly from photovoltaics, wind power, biogas from hog manure and waste products from sugar production, are discussed as Cuba's response to the loss of much of the country's imported oil, which occurred in the aftermath of the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989. As a measure of the program's success, it is reported that in 2001 Cuba abandoned plans to complete its mostly finished nuclear power plant in favour of improving its energy production from bagasse (the waste product from sugar cane production), motivated by the persuasive evidence that bagasse could provide electricity more economically than nuclear fission, and without the risk associated with nuclear energy. More by way of good news for Cuba, it is estimated by European experts that the country could provide nearly all its energy needs if all its sugar refineries were retrofitted with more efficient cogeneration equipment. To supplement this valuable renewable energy source, efforts in diversifying the range of products from the sugar cane crop and diversification of agriculture as a whole are also discussed as illustrations of how Cubans are responding to political changes in the world by learning to utilize indigenous sources of energy, thereby reducing their dependence on foreign oil. 11 refs., 2 photos.

  9. The use of ISSR markers for species determination and a genetic study of the invasive lionfish in Guanahacabibes, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Labastida

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The red lionfish (Pterois volitans and devil fire-fish (Pterois miles are invasive species that pose a threat to the biodiversity and stability of coral reefs in the Western Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Species identification of lionfish is uncertain in some parts of Cuba, and research has mainly been focused on their biology and ecology. The principal aim of this study was to determine highly polymorphic markers (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat, ISSR that could be used in research on lionfish population genetics in addition to confirming the presence of Pterois species in the Guanahacabibes National Park. The genetic profile or "fingerprint" of individuals collected in Mexico, formally identified as P. volitans, was compared with the genetic profile of specimens from Cuba. There were very few "diagnostic bands" and a high number of "common bands", demonstrating that the same species exists in both countries. Furthermore, Nei's genetic distance and the unrooted tree do not show significant differences between both localities. In light of these results, we can confirm the presence of P. volitans in the Guanahacabibes National Park, Cuba. This study demonstrates the functionality of ISSR as a molecular tool for species identification and their application for genetic population studies of this invasive fish species.

  10. Nutritional and food protection against epidemic emerging neuropathy. Epidemiological findings in the unique disease-free urban area of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnouin, J; Verdura Barrios, T; Chassagne, M; Pérez Cristiá, R; Arnaud, J; Fleites Mestre, P; Montoya, M E; Favier, A

    2001-09-01

    A survey was conducted through the SECUBA (SEguridad alimentaria en CUba y Buena Alimentación) research program in Cuban healthy smokers living in Guantánamo and in Havana. The aim of the survey was to investigate biological and nutritional factors connected with the occurrence of zero epidemic neuropathy (EN) observed in Guantánamo urban area since the disease emerged in Cuba. Blood riboflavin status and carotenoid and selenium concentrations were higher in Guantánamo than in Havana smokers. Food dietary quantities of plantain banana, pepper (Capsicum spp.), bovine meat and milk products were higher in Guantánamo. Inversely, foods rich in cholesterol, especially eggs, were more consumed in Havana. Through riboflavin, carotenoid and selenium contents and specific antioxidants substances (indoleamines, capsaicin), the foods more consumed in Guantánamo could be considered as EN protective factors. Disease protective effects could be exerted via enhancement of defence mechanisms against free radical damage and related mechanisms focused on redox recycling of glutathione and local protection from carotenoids. Finally, the results of the present study should help Cuba, through a better EN control, to improve long-term food safety and define healthier dietary habits.

  11. Antiretroviral drug resistance in HIV-1 therapy-naive patients in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lissette; Kourí, Vivian; Alemán, Yoan; Abrahantes, Yeisel; Correa, Consuelo; Aragonés, Carlos; Martínez, Orlando; Pérez, Jorge; Fonseca, Carlos; Campos, Jorge; Álvarez, Delmis; Schrooten, Yoeri; Dekeersmaeker, Nathalie; Imbrechts, Stijn; Beheydt, Gertjan; Vinken, Lore; Soto, Yudira; Álvarez, Alina; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Van Laethem, Kristel

    2013-06-01

    In Cuba, antiretroviral therapy rollout started in 2001 and antiretroviral therapy coverage has reached almost 40% since then. The objectives of this study were therefore to analyze subtype distribution, and level and patterns of drug resistance in therapy-naive HIV-1 patients. Four hundred and one plasma samples were collected from HIV-1 therapy-naive patients in 2003 and in 2007-2011. HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping was performed in the pol gene and drug resistance was interpreted according to the WHO surveillance drug-resistance mutations list, version 2009. Potential impact on first-line therapy response was estimated using genotypic drug resistance interpretation systems HIVdb version 6.2.0 and Rega version 8.0.2. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Neighbor-Joining. The majority of patients were male (84.5%), men who have sex with men (78.1%) and from Havana City (73.6%). Subtype B was the most prevalent subtype (39.3%), followed by CRF20-23-24_BG (19.5%), CRF19_cpx (18.0%) and CRF18_cpx (10.3%). Overall, 29 patients (7.2%) had evidence of drug resistance, with 4.0% (CI 1.6%-4.8%) in 2003 versus 12.5% (CI 7.2%-14.5%) in 2007-2011. A significant increase in drug resistance was observed in recently HIV-1 diagnosed patients, i.e. 14.8% (CI 8.0%-17.0%) in 2007-2011 versus 3.8% (CI 0.9%-4.7%) in 2003 (OR 3.9, CI 1.5-17.0, p=0.02). The majority of drug resistance was restricted to a single drug class (75.8%), with 55.2% patients displaying nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), 10.3% non-NRTI (NNRTI) and 10.3% protease inhibitor (PI) resistance mutations. Respectively, 20.7% and 3.4% patients carried viruses containing drug resistance mutations against NRTI+NNRTI and NRTI+NNRTI+PI. The first cases of resistance towards other drug classes than NRTI were only detected from 2008 onwards. The most frequent resistance mutations were T215Y/rev (44.8%), M41L (31.0%), M184V (17.2%) and K103N (13.8%). The median genotypic susceptibility score for the

  12. La Transición hacia el Trabajo Libre en Cuba, 1870 - 1886

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    Camillia Cowling

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of women of colour in Cuba's transition to free labour (1870 - 1886. It was found that a significant majority of petitions for freedom or for amelioration of the conditions of slavery was made by women. Women had a major, and specific, role to play in resisting slavery. This is attributed to various factors Women's responsibility for their own families meant that they had a vested interest in manipulating the legal system in order to free their children or relatives, or ameliorate their conditions. Many female slaves were also involved, due to their role as domestics, in the white family and household. Women of color thus had a role in the crossing of boundaries. This sometimes extended to sexual relations with white men and to their part in transmitting Afro-Cuban culture. The language lased in appeals shows not only that, women had a different material position within the slave system, but that their discursive positioning was different also. The system spoke primarily to the subjugation of black males by whites, leaving women in an ambiguous position which sometimes worked to their advantage.The fact that women of colour have largely been omitted from the writing of Cuban history means that these kinds of issues have not been examined in the Cuban context. An approach which includes both race and gender perspectives may lead us substantially to rethink Cuban history in this period.//Este artículo examina el rol de las mujeres de color en la transición de Cuba al trabajo libre (1870-1886. Se encontró que una cantidad significativa de las peticiones de libertad y de mejoramiento de las condiciones de esclavitud fueron hechas por mujeres. Las mujeres tenían un papel específico que jugar dentro de la resistencia a la esclavitud. Esto se atribuye a varis factores; la responsabilidad de las mujeres en sus respectivas familias significa que tenían un interés particular en librar a sus hijos y parientes de la

  13. Primer reporte de empleo de marcadores AFLP en Asteraceae en Cuba

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    Grecia Montalvo Fernández

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: First report of the employment of AFLP markers in Asteraceae in Cuba. Resumen: Rhodogeron coronopifolius Griseb., es una especie vegetal de la familia Asteraceae, que se encuentra en peligro crítico de extinción. Es endémico de la provincia Villa Clara en la región central de Cuba. Habita en el matorral xeromorfo sub espinoso sobre serpentina. Existen solo cinco poblaciones naturales dentro de un área protegida, la principal causa de amenaza es la fragmentación de su hábitat por acciones antrópicas. Debido a su situación de conservación, se hace necesario realizar estudios de la diversidad genética de las poblaciones naturales para así generar información básica y diseñar una estrategia de conservación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar de manera preliminar la diversidad genética de cuatro poblaciones de esta especie utilizando marcadores AFLP (Polimorfismo de Longitud de Fragmentos Amplificados. Se emplearon dos combinaciones de iniciadores y se evaluó el porcentaje de polimorfismo así como la similitud entre los individuos.  Se obtuvieron 165 loci de los cuales el 78,7 % fueron polimórficos. La población de mayor polimorfismo fue Corojito con 85,2%, de manera general el polimorfismo fue alto con valores entre 75 y  87%. La similitud entre los individuos también fue alta con un promedio de 0,74. El agrupamiento genético fue independiente a la población de procedencia, lo que sugiere que existe intercambio genético entre las poblaciones y que estas comparten más del 80 % de los alelos que fueron analizados. Los resultados obtenidos son importantes para el mantenimiento in situ de la especie y para tomar decisiones en aras de su conservación. Palabras clave: Rhodogeron coronopifolius, peligro de extinción, polimorfismo, conservación. Abstract: Rhodogeron coronopifolius Griseb., is a specie of Asteraceae family, in critical danger of extinction. It is an endemic of Villa Clara city in the

  14. HIV‑2 antibody detection after indeterminate or negative HIV‑1 Western blot in Cuba, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Dervel F; Ortiz, Eva; Martín, Dayamí; Nibot, Carmen; Rizo, Adis; Silva, Eladio

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection is the first step to understanding HIV transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis in geographical areas where both viruses circulate. In Cuba, positive results in mixed HIV-1/2 screening assays are confirmed by HIV-1 Western blot. Indeterminate results constitute the main limitation of this test and HIV-2 infection is among their possible causes; hence the importance of second-stage screening and confirmatory tests for HIV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE Investigate the contribution of HIV-2 antibodies to negative or indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot results in serum samples from 2005 through 2008 in Cuba. METHODS HIV-2 reactivity was studied using the ELISA DAVIH-VIH-2 diagnostic kit (Cuba) in 1723 serum samples with negative or indeterminate results for HIV-1 Western blot from January 2005 through December 2008. Duplicate sera reactive by ELISA were confirmed by HIV-2 Western blot, results interpreted according to WHO criteria. The epidemiological interview established by Cuba's National Program for Prevention and Control Sexually-Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS was applied to HIV-2 Western blot-positive patients. RESULTS Among all sera studied, HIV-2 ELISA identified 12 reactive serum samples (0.70%) and 1711 non-reactive (99.30%). Western blot analysis of the 12 ELISA-reactive samples confirmed two positive samples (16.67%), 4 negative (33.33%) and 6 indeterminate (50%). Positive samples reacted against the p16, p26, gp36, p53, p56, p68 and gp105 proteins. All 12 ELISA-reactive samples belonged to the HIV-1 Western blot indeterminate group. The two HIV-2-positive samples showed well defined reactivity to gp160, p53, p55 and p34 of HIV-1. HIV-1 seroconversion was observed in all 10 remaining samples during serological followup. CONCLUSIONS Two new HIV-2 seropositive cases were diagnosed using DAVIH-VIH-2 and HIV-2 Western blot in indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot samples. Results support the recommendation

  15. [Population dynamic of Donax denticulatus (Bivalvia: Donacidae) at Carenero Beach, Southeastern Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Frank A; Apín, Yanet C; Cala, Yuself R

    2013-12-01

    Bivalve molluscs of Donax genus are a very important component of macro-invertebrate assemblages of sandy beaches, and some species are of commercial value in different countries. Although in Cuba Donax denticulatus is not a currently exploited species, the information concerning a stock assessment is a basic step for future use of this resource. With the aim to generate new data on this species structure, growth and secondary production, monthly samples of D. denticulatus were taken from a beach of the Southeastern coast of Cuba, from February to December 2008. Samples were taken from four stations located along the beach; three strata were marked (P1, P2 and P3) per station across the intertidal zone. Three replicated samples of sediments were taken from each stratum with a 0.025 m2 PVC core and were posteriorly sieved with a 1 mm mesh. Histograms of shell length were constructed based on 1 mm intervals and growth parameters were estimated using ELEFAN I routine of FISAT. Mean density ranged from 146.67-855.55 ind./m2 and no differences were found among months (ANOVA, p > 0.05) but among strata (Scheffé, p < 0.05). An association of recruits, young and adults abundances with the strata (chi2, p < 0.01) was found. Most of the recruits were found in the upper strata while young and adult individuals were abundant in the mid-lower strata. Size frequency histograms of this population showed recruitment between March-June. Growth parameters estimated by Von Bertalanffy were Linfinity = 27.5 mm and K = 1.5/year; and the life spam was estimated in 1.5 years. Using the length-converted catch curve, the mortality rate (Z) was estimated in 4.97/year. Based in terms of Ash free dry mass (AFDM), mean biomass was estimated in 0.47 g/m2.year and the somatic production in 12.4 g/m2.year. The renewal rate (P/B) estimated for this population was 26.38, the highest among other Donax populations. High densities, fast growth and high somatic production indicate that this population

  16. Design of the network for the radiological control in the recycling of metal scrap in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: During the last six years, the Centre of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR) has given answer to the problem about the presence of radioactive materials in the scrap which is exported in Cuba. The service of radioactivity measurement in scraps has reduced the risks of the occurrence of this type of events in the main import and export enterprises in Cuba. This has been carried out using few resources, a properly qualified staff and a laboratory credited by the norm ISO 17025:00. There is not the same control in the enterprises that manipulate and process metallic scrap inside the country. With the objective of extending the radiological control of the metallic scrap to the whole country, a monitoring network was designed. The design was based on the experience accumulated during the years of service to the import and export enterprises. First, It was defined the most vulnerable points in the whole recycle chain for each province, prioritizing the scrap melting plants and the longest scrap yards. All possible scenarios were identified, a quality system was also designed and implemented and a course of Radiological Protection oriented to the metallurgist technicians who are linked with the performance of this practice was elaborated. The monitoring has two phases. First, the measurements are carried out in the measurement points in each province and the transmissions of the data related to the monitored scrap loads are sent to the CPHR. The second phase is the confection of the Declaration of Conformity at the CPHR. This declaration certifies that this scrap may be processed. For the operation of this network, two software were developed and are currently used. One of them allows the control of the information in monitoring point and sends the necessary data to CPHR for the confection of the Declaration of Conformity. The other controls all the information received from the monitoring points and generates the Declaration of Conformity

  17. Estilos del arte rupestre en Cuba. Una nueva interpretación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Izquierdo Díaz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A partir del hallazgo de una cueva con pictografías en Isla de Pinos, en 1922, fecha anterior al descubrimiento de la caverna con dibujos rupestres de Lascoux, en Francia, se desató una fiebre por el estudio de esas célebres pinturas parietales entre arqueólogos y estudiosos de la historia y la cultura cubanas. Un alto nivel abstraccional de los pictogramas de la cueva no 1 de Punta del Este en Isla de Pinos, aparentemente no coincidente con la cultura a que aparecen asociados los dibujos, planteó un enigma acerca del Arte rupestre de los aborígenes del País que ha llegado indemne prácticamente hasta el presente. Estudios precedentes de destacadas personalidades de la ciencia han permitido, gracias a su sistematicidad, una base de datos que es utilizada por los autores del presente trabajo para una contrastación de las tendencias de desarrollo del arte rupestre en Cuba mediante métodos computarizados.Los conceptos propios de la pintura y el arte plástico en general, en el estudio de estas manifestaciones en el País, son reenfocados con criterios homogéneos y el rigor científico necesario. Igualmente las referencias al nivel de desarrollo sociocultural de las comunidades aborígenes que se han supuesto sus autores, requirieron de un tratamiento especial de acuerdo con los conocimientos más actualizados sobre la arqueología en el momento de la realización del estudio; todo ello con el fin de deslindar objetivamente los endebles nexos entre autor y obra propios del arte rupestre. Los análisis desarrollados posibilitaron comprobar que los conceptos de figuración y abstracción en las comunidades aborígenes de Cuba concuerdan con las distintas fases de los procesos de “neolitización” en que aquellas se encontraban; y Punta del Este en Isla de Pinos es un caso particular que, no obstante, se enmarca coherentemente en un proceso de esta naturaleza. Pudo constatarse, asimismo, que la relación de las cuevas con su entorno influy

  18. Applicability assessment of concrete with recycled coarse aggregates in Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavón, E.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent viability studies carried out in Havana, Cuba, according to natural or recycled aggregates, exhibited high volume production of construction and demolition waste (CDW. The last well-known data of concrete waste generation reached to 1800 m3/month. This situation, together with the depletion of the quarry aggregates closed to the capital, requires the use of such debris as aggregate for concrete production. In this work, four origin recycled concrete aggregates (RCA were produced and characterized. Recycled aggregate concrete with 25%, 50% and 100% of RCA and 0.45, 0.50 and 0.55 of water-cement ratio were produced. Physical, mechanical and durabilidty properties of thoses concretes were determined and evaluated, and their applicability as structural material in different aggressive environments according to Cuban normative was defined.Los estudios de viabilidad realizados recientemente en La Habana, Cuba muestran elevadas cifras de producción de residuos de construcción y demolición (RCD. Los últimos datos conocidos de generación de escombros de hormigón alcanzan valores cercanos a los 1800m3/mensual. Esta situación unida al agotamiento de los áridos en las zonas cercanas a la capital hace necesaria la utilización de estos escombros como áridos en la fabricación de hormigones. En el trabajo realizado se trituraron escombros de hormigón de cuatro orígenes diferentes, después de su caracterización se fabricaron hormigones con 25%, 50% y 100% de árido reciclado y con relaciones agua-cemento de 0.45, 0.50 y 0.55. A partir de la evaluación de las propiedades físico-mecánicas y de durabilidad obtenidas por los hormigones reciclados, se define la aplicabilidad de los mismos como hormigón estructural para ser utilizados en los diferentes tipos de ambientes de agresividad que tiene definido la normativa cubana.

  19. COMPORTAMIENTO DE LAS REACCIONES ADVERSAS A MEDICAMENTOS EN CUBA. AÑO 2007

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    Ashley Chao Cardeso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La farmacovigilancia es una actividad de salud pública destinada a la identificación, evaluación y prevención de los riesgos asociados a los medicamentos una vez comercializados. En Cuba existe un sistema de Farmacovigilancia con una tasa elevada de reporte de efectos adversos por medicamentos (7000 a 10 000 casos anuales. Desarrollo. Se realizó un estudio farmacovigilancia, descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo, que utilizo la Metodología y Procedimientos de Trabajo de la Unidad Coordinadora Nacional de Farmacovigilancia, donde se analizaron todos los reportes de RAM llegados a la unidad durante el 2007 procedentes de todo el país. Resultados: Se analizaron 6928 notificaciones de reacciones adversas medicamentosas (RAM, notificándose 12963 RAM a razón de 1.9 RAM por notificación, de ellas 4251 fueron reacciones importantes (61.3% según criterios establecidos por la unidad coordinadora nacional de farmacovigilancia de Cuba. Los sistemas de órganos más afectados durante el año fueron piel y anejos (1774, 25.6% seguido del tracto gastrointestinal (1438, 20.7%. Entre los fármacos con mayor numero de reportes se encontró captopril (418/6.03%, el ibuprofeno 289 / 4.2% y ciprofloxacina 259/3.7%. Predominaron las RAM probables (68.7% y moderadas 47.1% y las más frecuentes fueron erupción cutánea, vómitos y fiebre. Entre las asociaciones fármaco - RAM muy importantes y con baja frecuencia de aparición se reportaron en total unas 2953 (35.9% en el año, de ellas el 9.1% fueron reacciones no descritas en la literatura revisada. Conclusiones: se detectaron entre una o dos reacciones adversas a medicamentos por cada notificación realizada. Dejando claro la importancia en la selección de los medicamentos y su uso racional. Los fármacos más asociados a las reacciones adversas notificadas fueron captopril, ciprofloxacina e ibuprofeno, la piel y el sistema digestivo fueron los sistemas más afectados y las reacciones

  20. Evidence on impact of community-based environmental management on dengue transmission in Santiago de Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Maria E; Rodriguez, Adriana; Valdés, Luis; Carrión, Rigoberto; Cabrera, Georgina; Banderas, Digna; Ceballos, Enrique; Domeqc, Mireya; Peña, Carilda; Baly, Alberto; Vanlerberghe, Veerle; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    During the dengue outbreak that struck Santiago de Cuba in 2006-2007, we conducted an observational study in the Mariana Grajales district, the former setting of a community trial for Aedes aegypti control. In the trial, community working groups (CWG) had been created in 29 randomly selected intervention house blocks, and routine vector control activities alone were conducted in the remaining 30 control blocks. The CWG elaborated and implemented with the population plans and activities to reduce Aedes infestation. They were still functional in 2006 and continued organizing community-based environmental management activities. The attack rate of dengue fever during the outbreak was 8.5 per 1000 inhabitants in the former intervention blocks and 38.1 per 1000 inhabitants in the control blocks, which corresponds to a relative risk of 4.5 (95% CI 3.1-6.5). There was a significantly higher proportion of unaffected intervention blocks, and affected blocks had on average substantially less cases than affected control blocks. This study indicates that community-based environmental management inserted in the routine A. aegypti control programme can not only sustainably curb vector infestation but also have an impact on dengue transmission.

  1. Seismic microzoning from synthetic ground motion parameters Case study, Santiago de Cuba

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, L; Pico, R; Vaccari, F

    2003-01-01

    Synthetic seismograms (P - SV and SH waves) have been calculated along 6 profiles in Santiago de Cuba basin, with a cutoff frequency of 5 Hz, by using the hybrid approach (modal summation for a regional (ID) structure plus finite differences for a local (2D) structure embedded in the first). They correspond to a scenario earthquake of M sub S = 7 that may occur in Oriente fault zone, directly south of the city. As initial data for a seismic microzoning, the characterisation of earthquake effects has been made considering several relative (2D/1D) quantities (PGDR, PGVR, PGAR, DGAR, I sub A R etc.) and functions representative of the ground motion behaviour in soil (2D) with respect to bedrock (ID). The functions are the response spectra ratio RSR(f), already routinely used in this kind of work, and the elastic energy input ratio E sub I R(f), defined, for the first time, in this paper. These data, sampled at 105 sites within all the profiles have been classified in two steps, using logical combinatory algorith...

  2. Ascensão e queda do pacto populista em Cuba, 1934-1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian McGillivray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O regime que pôs fim aos "100 dias de reforma" em Cuba é rotulado com frequência como "contrarrevolução" quando, na verdade, a expressão mais apropriada seria a de "populismo autoritário". O novo regime não reverteu a Revolução de 1933; muito pelo contrário, suas lideranças valeram-se da violência combinada com reformas revolucionárias como forma de incorporar, de maneira compulsória, um número cada vez maior de pessoas em um novo e ampliado sistema estatal de liderança. Fulgencio Batista recebeu o apoio de parte da classe trabalhadora ao longo do período democrático que vigorou durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, mas o anticomunismo da Guerra Fria desestabilizou seu regime, esvaziando o populismo cubano de grande parte da sua substância.

  3. Atmospheric deposition patterns of (210)Pb and (7)Be in Cienfuegos, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M; Morera-Gómez, Yasser; Cartas-Águila, Héctor; Guillén-Arruebarrena, Aniel

    2014-12-01

    The radiometric composition of bulk deposition samples, collected monthly for one year, February 2010 until January 2011, at a site located in Cienfuegos (22° 03' N, 80° 29' W) (Cuba), are analysed in this paper. Measurement of (7)Be and (210)Pb activity concentrations were carried out in 12 bulk deposition samples. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of (7)Be and (210)Pb are in the range of 13.2-132 and 1.24-8.29 Bq m(-2), and their mean values are: 56.6 and 3.97 Bq m(-2), respectively. The time variations of the different radionuclide have been discussed in relation with meteorological factors and the mean values have been compared to those published in recent literature from other sites located at different latitudes. The annual average flux of (210)Pb and (7)Be were 47 and 700 Bq m(-2) y(-1), respectively. Observed seasonal variations of deposition data are explained in terms of different environmental features. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of (7)Be and (210)Pb were moderately well correlated with precipitation and well correlated with one another. The (210)Pb/(7)Be ratios in the monthly depositions samples varied in the range of 0.05-0.10 and showed a strong correlation with the number of rainy days.

  4. Genesis of folia in a non-thermal epigenic cave (Matanzas, Cuba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia Maria; De Waele, Jo; Melendres, Osmany Ceballo; Tisato, Nicola; Sauro, Francesco; Gonzales, Esteban Ruben Grau; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Torriani, Stefano; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Folia are an unusual speleothem type resembling inverted cups or bracket fungi. The mechanism of folia formation is not fully understood and is the subject of an ongoing debate. This study focuses on an occurrence of folia present in Santa Catalina Cave, a non-thermal epigenic cave located close to Matanzas (Cuba). The sedimentology, morphology, petrology, permeability and geochemistry of these folia have been studied to gain new insight on the processes leading to their development. It is concluded that folia in Santa Catalina Cave formed at the top of a fluctuating water body, through CO2-degassing or evaporation, which may have been enhanced by the proximity to cave entrances. Two observations strongly support our conclusions. (1) When compared to other subaqueous speleothems (e.g. cave clouds) present in the same rooms, folia occur exclusively within a limited vertical interval that likely represents an ancient water level. Folia occur together with calcite rafts and tower cones that developed, respectively, on top of and below the water level. This suggests that a fluctuating interface is required for folia formation. (2) The measured permeability of the folia is too high to trap gas bubbles. Thus, in contrast to what has been proposed in other studies, trapped bubbles of CO2 cannot be invoked as the key factor determining the genesis and morphology of folia in this subaqueous environment.

  5. Experiences in the transport of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds in the last decade in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center of Isotopes (CENTIS) it is the main transport entity of radioactive materials of the Republic of Cuba in whose activity almost accumulates a decade. Its are executed the design, the production, the maintenance and/or repair of the packings, as well as the preparation, remission, charges, transporting (including the in traffic storage), it discharges and reception in the final destination, of the remittances. Presently work the results of the implementation of the radiological safety and quality assurance programs developed for the safe transport of radioactive bulks and the experiences in the design and essay of bulks type A are shown. The postulated radiological events are evaluated. Three courses of 10 school hours each one, they are imparted, with theoretical and practical exams. The maximum, minimum and average values of the annual effective doses of the workers and the collective doses per year are reported, for the period 1996-2005. It is guaranteed the administrative control and the traceability of the bundles. (Author)

  6. Cuba's Salgen: a provincial informatics network for genetic services to pregnant women and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Miguel; Pérez, Rubén; Valero, Damicel; Santiago, Darío G

    2014-01-01

    The Sancti Spíritus Provincial Medical Genetics Network has been using the Salgen IT platform since 2009 for health care, administrative and research activities concerning pregnant mothers and newborns. The network uses the national Infomed backbone to provide real-time connection between community-based polyclinics in primary health care and the Provincial Medical Genetics Reference Center. The platform has records for 23,025 pregnant women and sequential clinical data on genetic risk assessment in early pregnancy, first trimester ultrasound, sickle cell anemia screening, alpha-fetoprotein levels, cytogenetic antenatal diagnosis, second trimester ultrasound, delivery and newborn characteristics, neonatal metabolic screening, and infant clinical assessment. The system makes health care results immediately available and provides health alerts to enable timely preventive care for pregnant women. It also provides guidelines for processes and practices, and streamlines administrative and monitoring activities through statistical reports. The database generates indicators for assessing fetal growth and applies international standards for antenatal ultrasound quality control. Salgen provides a new source of information for medical research and knowledge management, and its use in this case fulfills Cuba's criteria for an integrated health services network. PMID:25208122

  7. Interrelation between results of individual dosimetric control and regulatory control in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of various applications of ionizing radiation in Cuba made it necessary to create a harmonic system of facilities that guarantees the radiological safety of radiation workers, the public and the environment. Therefore, in 1985 a Centre of Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) was created. Thereafter, in 1991, the regulatory function and the inspection of radiological and nuclear safety was assigned to the National Centre of Nuclear Safety. The introduction of this service has provided the regulatory body with a tool to control the existing situation with respect to registration and licensing. The results of the service in the period 1994-1996 and a comparison with previous years are given. The results obtained reflect that the system of supervision in general has guaranteed keeping levels of doses low. The dose values registered demonstrate the possibility to establish in the country as a does limit an annual average dose limit of 20 mSv which might rise to but shall on no account exceed 50 mSv per year without the need for costly investment and based on organizational measures

  8. Revolutionizing gender: Mariela Castro MS, director, National Sex Education Center, Cuba. Interview by Gail Reed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mariela

    2012-04-01

    Medicine, social conditions, culture and politics are inextricably bound as determinants of health and wellbeing. In Cuba, perhaps this is nowhere more evident than in the arduous struggle to consider non-discriminatory analysis of gender-sensitive components as fundamental to population health, medical practice and research; national policy; and above all, public consciousness. Among the standard-bearers of this cause is Mariela Castro, psychologist and educator with a master's degree in sexuality, who directs the National Sex Education Center (CENESEX), its journal Sexologia y Sociedad, and the National Commission for Comprehensive Attention to Transsexual People. The Center's work is at the vortex of national polemics on sexuality, approaches to sex education and health, and respect for the human rights of people of differing sexual orientations and gender identities. The daughter of President Raúl Castro and the late Vilma Espín--who, as founder and leader of the Federation of Cuban Women, pioneered the defense of both women and homosexuals--Mariela Castro nevertheless speaks with her own voice in national as well as international debates. MEDICC Review talked with her about the range of issues that link gender to WHO's broad definition of health as the highest level of physical and mental wellbeing. PMID:22580546

  9. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Previous studies done in Havana showed values of physical activity level (PAL) which are lower than the reported for elderly subjects. Elderly people living in rural areas use to have physical activity levels which differ from the observed in urban areas. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 40 apparently healthy people older than 60 years of age living in a rural mountain community will be submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary, anthropometric and insulin resistance study. Physical activity will be determined by questionnaire and by the calculation of the PAL from the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) measured with the doubly-labelled water method (DLW). Associations with the prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity will be assessed. (author)

  10. Mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en Bayamo, Cuba 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlines Piña-Tornés

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de describir la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en Bayamo, Cuba, en el año 2011 se realizó una revisión de los pacientes lesionados y fallecidos a causa de accidentes de tránsito, registrados en Hospital Carlos M. de Céspedes. Se atendieron en emergencias 1365 lesionados, predominando el grupo etario de 25 a 44 años con 372 pacientes (27,3%, y el sexo masculino con 1071 (78,5%. Fallecieron 46 personas, en su mayoría del mismo grupo de edad y de sexo masculino. Los traumatismos múltiples (52,6% y cráneofaciales (34,2% fueron las localizaciones predominantes. Se destacaron los atropellos por vehículo de motor con mortalidad del 26,3%. En conclusión, la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito predomina en adultos jóvenes masculinos; cuyas consecuencias fatales son debido a traumatismos múltiples por atropellos.

  11. Mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en Bayamo, Cuba 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlines Piña-Tornés

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de describir la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en Bayamo, Cuba, en el año 2011 se realizó una revisión de los pacientes lesionados y fallecidos a causa de accidentes de tránsito, registrados en Hospital Carlos M. de Céspedes. Se atendieron en emergencias 1365 lesionados, predominando el grupo etario de 25 a 44 años con 372 pacientes (27,3%, y el sexo masculino con 1071 (78,5%. Fallecieron 46 personas, en su mayoría del mismo grupo de edad y de sexo masculino. Los traumatismos múltiples (52,6% y cráneofaciales (34,2% fueron las localizaciones predominantes. Se destacaron los atropellos por vehículo de motor con mortalidad del 26,3%. En conclusión, la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito predomina en adultos jóvenes masculinos; cuyas consecuencias fatales son debido a traumatismos múltiples por atropellos.

  12. Back to the Future?: Timor-Leste, Cuba and the return of the mass literacy campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Boughton

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In December 2005, eleven Cuban educational advisers arrived in Timor-Leste to begin work on a national literacy campaign. Adapting the program known in Latin America as Yo, Sí Puedo (Yes I Can, the Cubans trained over 400 local tutors to run classes in every part of the country, using a method they call ‘alphanumeric’, delivered via audiovisual technology. The campaign was launched in March 2007, and the first classes began in June of that year. By September 2010, three years later, over 70,000 adults, over one fifth of the total illiterate population, had successfully completed a thirteen week basic literacy course. Drawing on original research undertaken in Timor-Leste between 2004 and 2009, followed by further investigations in May 2010 in Havana, Cuba, this paper describes the Timor-Leste campaign, locating it within the historical commitment of the country’s independence movement to adult literacy, and the broader context of Cuba’s international literacy work.

  13. POLÍTICAS DE SALUD EN CUBA Y SU IMPACTO EN LA SALUD DE LOS TRABAJADORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Marsán Castellanos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de este trabajo es poner de manifiesto la relación entre el desarrollo científico, la política social y la política de salud, en Cuba; así como su impacto en la salud de los trabajadores. La Revolución cubana ha podido llevar a cabo una política de salud y de seguridad social encaminadas al incremento de la salud de toda la población y en particular de la población trabajadora cubana a través de leyes, normas y normativas, con el fin de garantizar puestos de trabajo saludables considerando como objeto de estudio al hombre sano, integrado, motivado, satisfecho, involucrado con su trabajo. Debido al vínculo del Ministerio de Salud Pública con los restantes organismos del país se ha podido alcanzar el nivel de salud y la elevación del nivel de vida actuales.

  14. Development of drought tolerant tomato varieties through induced mutation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having in mind the need to have tomato varieties growing under low water input conditions a tomato breeding program using nuclear techniques was started with the purpose of obtaining adequate yielding-potential cultivars under drought conditions. Seeds from INCA 9-1 variety were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays irradiated using of 300 Gy and 500 Gy. Starting from M2 generation, selection of high yield potential genotypes under low water supply conditions was made during 4 generations. Individual selection was done, taking into account the following criteria: healthy plants, determinate growth habit, yield per plant, fruit number per plant, average fruit weight, equatorial and polar fruit diameters were recorded in individually selected plants. The total soluble solids (Brix), acidity, dry matter and water content were evaluated in fruit of M5 generation. Different isoenzymatic systems, the protein concentration as well as the Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA (RAPD) were used in order to evaluate the genetic variability between the selected mutants and the donor variety. The most frequent variations observed in each generation were: plant cycle, fruit size, number, shape, colour and yield. It was possible to release two varieties of high yielding under low water input conditions. The tomato mutants Maybel and Mali are being used in tomato production for industrial purposes. These varieties are the firsts tomato varieties obtain from mutation induction in Cuba. (author)

  15. Hidden markers, open secrets: on naming, race-marking, and race-making in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zeuske

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Focuses on how in Cuba race-marking was interrelated with surname-giving, also after the abolition of slavery. Through researching life histories on the local level in the Cienfuegos region, the author examines names of former slaves, finding that these were after abolition in notarial records often marked with the adjectives s.o.a., or "sin otro apellido" (without other surname, taking into account the Iberian double surname tradition. This, according to him, points to a stigmatization of these black citizens and related to their former status as possession, and is thus a racial marker, only more hidden than the open racial assignations during slavery. He relates these postemancipation surnames of former slaves to the dotation of surnames during slavery, whereby most surnames of slaves were those of the last owner of the slaves. He also discusses differences in name-giving between the notarial records and everyday life. He further indicates that a new racism developed in the Cuban society of the late 19th c. and early 20th c., which was voiced more openly in the realm of culture, and regarding events as incarceration and death, and more hidden within the civil and judicial spheres, where the fiction of a race-blind republic was maintained.

  16. Longitudinal assessment of nutritional status in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A; Cortina, L; González, P; González, C; García, T; de Svarch, E G

    2004-05-01

    Malnutrition has a deleterious effect on the results of therapy for malignant diseases in childhood. The impact of radiotherapy on growth is well known but the impact of cytotoxic drugs on nutritional status is more controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional status of a cohort of children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in Cuba. The study involved 49 children admitted to a single center and treated with a Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster-based protocol. Nutritional assessment included measurements of height, weight, body mass index and skin-fold thickness, made at diagnosis, after the intensive phase of treatment and at the end of therapy. Z-scores were used for height and comparison of percentiles for the rest of the variables. All the patients were above the third percentile in all the measurements. There were no statistically significant differences between the results at diagnosis, after intensive therapy and at the end of treatment. Although the sample was small, there was no demonstrable effect of chemotherapy on nutritional status in this Cuban paediatric population, in contrast to that reported in children with ALL in other developing countries.

  17. Seasonal variations in antibiotic resistance gene transport in the Almendares River, Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W Knapp

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have quantified antibiotic resistance genes (ARG in rivers and streams around the world, and significant relationships have been shown that relate different pollutant outputs and increased local ARG levels. However, most studies have not considered ambient flow conditions, which can vary dramatically especially in tropical countries. Here, ARG were quantified in water-column and sediment samples during the dry-and wet-seasons to assess how seasonal and other factors influence ARG transport down the Almendares River (Havana, Cuba. Eight locations were sampled and stream flow estimated during both seasons; qPCR was used to quantify four tetracycline, two erythromycin, and three beta-lactam resistance genes. ARG concentrations were higher in wet-season versus dry-season samples, which combined with higher flows, indicated greater ARG transport downstream during the wet season. Water-column ARG levels were more spatially variable in the dry-season than the wet-season, with the proximity of waste outfalls strongly influencing local ARG levels. Results confirm that dry-season sampling provides a useful picture of the impact of individual waste inputs on local stream ARG levels, whereas, the majority of ARGs in this tropical river were transported downstream during the wet season, possibly due to re-entrainment of ARG from sediments.

  18. MANAGEMENT OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIVE ACTIVITY STUDENT OF ECONOMICS POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTES OF CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Sánchez Arencibia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With this article, the authors reveal the results of an investigation that sought to address the shortcomings in the performance of students in polytechnics Economics Holguin, Cuba, in scientific-research activity, limiting compliance demands made by society to the Technical and Vocational Education. To do this, a pedagogical model that considers the link between the orientations contextualized scientific-research activity, contextualized systematization of scientific-research activity and its contextual effect transformer whose contextual interaction emerges address provided scientific activity-research, research training to ensure students and improve their performance, in line with social demands. It also provided a methodology that allowed the application, in practice, the pedagogical model, which is published from the joint between stages, phases and actions that correspond to functional logic. These contributions were assessed through criteria expert method and by the partial implementation in the town of Holguin, which made it possible to test the relevance of the model and methodology, as well as the feasibility of the methodology, supported by the favorable consensus of teachers and tutors with regard to their coherence and viability.

  19. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates from Cuba, with insecticidal activity against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Aileen; Díaz, Raúl; Díaz, Manuel; Borrero, Yainais; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Carreras, Bertha; Gato, René

    2011-09-01

    Chemical insecticides may be toxic and cause environmental degradation. Consequently, biological control for insects represents an alternative with low ecological impact. In this work, three soil isolates (A21, A51 and C17) from different regions of the Cuban archipelago were identified, characterized and evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The new isolates were compared with reference IPS82 strain and two strains isolated from biolarvicides Bactivec and Bactoculicida, respectively. The differentiation was done by morphological, biochemical, bioassays activity and molecular methods (SDS-PAGE, plasmid profile and random amplified polymorphic analysis). All isolates were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. The A21, A51 and C17 isolates showed higher larvicide activity than Bactivec's isolated reference strain, against both A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. A21 isolate had a protein profile similar to IPS82 and Bactivec strain. A51 and C17 isolates produced a characteristic proteins pattern. A21 and A51 isolates had plasmid patterns similar to IPS82 standard strain, while C17 isolate had different both plasmid profile and protein bands. All the studied isolates showed a diverse RAPD patterns and were different from the strains previously used in biological control in Cuba.

  20. NUEVOS PRECEPTOS PARA REGULACIONES URBANAS DEL REPARTO VISTA ALEGRE EN SANTIAGO DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Muñoz Castillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El reparto Vista Alegre constituye un sitio de significativos valores patrimoniales de Santiago de Cuba. Desde su génesis, en 1907, desarrolló particularidades urbano-arquitectónicas que revelaron su trascendencia como un proyecto vanguardista para su tiempo y lugar cuya praxis lo convirtió en la experiencia urbanística más importante del siglo XX en la ciudad. Sin embargo, en las últimas décadas se ha observado un creciente deterioro de la imagen urbana en Vista Alegre que ha puesto en peligro su integridad como conjunto residencial de altos valores ambientales. El presente artículo ofrece una mirada diferente a esta problemática, a partir de la formulación de nuevas regulaciones urbanas para el reparto Vista Alegre, enfocado hacia la protección de su patrimonio construido. La actualización y reformulación de las mismas constituyó el principal aporte de esta investigación urbana.

  1. Seismic microzoning of Santiago de Cuba: An approach by SH waves modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expected ground motion in Santiago de Cuba basin from earthquakes which occurred in the Oriente fault zone is studied. Synthetic SH-waves seismograms have been calculated along four profiles in the basin by the hybrid approach (modal summation for the path source-profile and finite differences for the profile) for a maximum frequency of 1 Hz. The response spectra ratio (RSR) has been determined in 49 sites, distributed along all considered profiles with a spacing of 900 m. The corresponding RSR versus frequency curves have been classified using a logical-combinatorial algorithm. The results of the classification, in combination with the uppermost geological setting (geotechnical information and geological geometry of the subsoil) are used for the seismic microzoning of the city. Three different main zones are identified, and a small sector characterised by big resonance effects, due to the particular structural conditions. Each zone is characterized in terms of its expected ground motion parameters for the most probable strong earthquake (MS=7), and for the maximum possible (MS=8). (author)

  2. Ground Motion Zoning of Santiago de Cuba: An Approach by SH Waves Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Leonardo; García, Julio; Vaccari, Franco; Panza, Giuliano F.; González, Bertha; Reyes, Carmen; Fernández, Bárbara; Pico, Ramón; Zapata, José A.; Arango, Enrique

    The expected ground motion in Santiago de Cuba basin from earthquakes which occurred in the Oriente fault zone is studied. Synthetic SH-waves seismograms have been calculated along four profiles in the basin by the hybrid approach (modal summation for the path source-profile and finite differences for the profile) for a maximum frequency of 1 Hz. The response spectra ratio (RSR) has been determined in 49 sites, distributed along all considered profiles with a spacing of 900 m. The corresponding RSR versus frequency curves have been classified using a logical-combinatorial algorithm. The results of the classification, in combination with the uppermost geological setting (geotechnical information and geological geometry of the subsoil) are used for the seismic zoning of the city. Three different main zones are identified, and a small sector characterized by major resonance effects, due to the particular structural conditions. Each zone is characterized in terms of its expected ground motion parameters for the most probable strong earthquake (MS=7), and for the maximum possible (MS=8).

  3. LA GOBERNABILIDAD SOCIALISTA DE LOS ESPACIOS LITORALES: EL CASO DE CIUDAD DE LA HABANA, CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Mateo Rodriguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La irrupción, a partir de comienzos de la década de los años 1960 de un proyecto socialista en Cuba, constituyó un cambio radical en la forma de gobernar las sociedades en el hemisferio occidental. Por primera vez en América Latina, un país se proponía cambiar de manera estructural los fundamentos de organización de la sociedad capitalista, y construir un proyecto de sociedad basada en el socialismo. El presente artículo, pretende exponer como se han llevado a cabo los cambios en la organización de los espacios litorales de Ciudad de La Habana, en la construcción del estilo socialista de desarrollo. Pretende en particular reflexionar sobre los desafíos, que en los inicios del siglo XXI enfrenta la sociedad cubana, para pasar a la conquista de la sostenibilidad, como fundamento para hacer más eficiente y duradera la gobernabilidad. Al final se ha realizado una síntesis de los problemas ambientales y las posibles soluciones, vinculada a un abordaje integrado con la dinámica litoral y las distintas formas de utilización. Las sugerencias acciones a medio y largo plazo, incluso con ejemplos de acciones ya desarrolladas en otros tramos del litoral cubano.

  4. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Cuba, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With almost $8.2 million of Agency support received, Cuba ranks 19th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991, whereby it ranked as high as 3rd in 1982 and 4th in 1984. Over three quarters of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (81%), followed by expert services (10%) and training (9%). Seventy-one per cent of the resources were made available through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 28% of the resources were provided by UNDP. The remaining 1% was made available through extrabudgetary and in-kind contributions. With regard to project disbursements by sector, the largest areas have been general atomic energy development (36%), agriculture (20%), nuclear physics and chemistry (10%) and nuclear safety (10%). Industry and hydrology, nuclear engineering and technology, and nuclear medicine have each received less than ten per cent of the assistance provided

  5. Public health services, an essential determinant of health during crisis. Lessons from Cuba, 1989-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Pol; García-Fariñas, Anaí; Álvarez-Pérez, Adolfo; Rodríguez-Salvá, Armando; Bonet-Gorbea, Mariano; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    During the 1990s, Cuba was able to overcome a severe crisis, almost without negative health impacts. This national retrospective study covering the years 1989-2000 analyses the country's strategy through essential social, demographic, health process and health outcome indicators. Gross domestic product (GDP) diminished by 34.76% between 1989 and 1993. In 1994 slow recuperation started. During the crisis, public health expenses increased. The number of family doctors rose from 9.22 to 27.03 per 104 inhabitants between 1989 and 2000. Infant mortality rate and life expectancy exemplify a series of health indicators that continued to improve during the crisis years, whereas low birth weight and tuberculosis incidence are among the few indicators that suffered deterioration. GDP is inversely related to tuberculosis incidence, whereas the average salary is inversely related to low birth weight. Infant mortality rate has a strong negative correlation with the health expenses per inhabitant, the number of maternal homes, the number of family doctors and the proportion of pregnant women receiving care in maternal homes. Life expectancy has a strong positive correlation with health expenses, the number of nursing personnel and the number of medical contacts per inhabitant. The Cuban strategy effectively resolved health risks during the crisis. In times of serious socio-economic constraints, a well conceptualized public health policy can play an important role in maintaining the overall well-being of a population.

  6. Atmospheric deposition patterns of (210)Pb and (7)Be in Cienfuegos, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M; Morera-Gómez, Yasser; Cartas-Águila, Héctor; Guillén-Arruebarrena, Aniel

    2014-12-01

    The radiometric composition of bulk deposition samples, collected monthly for one year, February 2010 until January 2011, at a site located in Cienfuegos (22° 03' N, 80° 29' W) (Cuba), are analysed in this paper. Measurement of (7)Be and (210)Pb activity concentrations were carried out in 12 bulk deposition samples. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of (7)Be and (210)Pb are in the range of 13.2-132 and 1.24-8.29 Bq m(-2), and their mean values are: 56.6 and 3.97 Bq m(-2), respectively. The time variations of the different radionuclide have been discussed in relation with meteorological factors and the mean values have been compared to those published in recent literature from other sites located at different latitudes. The annual average flux of (210)Pb and (7)Be were 47 and 700 Bq m(-2) y(-1), respectively. Observed seasonal variations of deposition data are explained in terms of different environmental features. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of (7)Be and (210)Pb were moderately well correlated with precipitation and well correlated with one another. The (210)Pb/(7)Be ratios in the monthly depositions samples varied in the range of 0.05-0.10 and showed a strong correlation with the number of rainy days. PMID:25233214

  7. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates from Cuba, with insecticidal activity against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Aileen; Díaz, Raúl; Díaz, Manuel; Borrero, Yainais; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Carreras, Bertha; Gato, René

    2011-09-01

    Chemical insecticides may be toxic and cause environmental degradation. Consequently, biological control for insects represents an alternative with low ecological impact. In this work, three soil isolates (A21, A51 and C17) from different regions of the Cuban archipelago were identified, characterized and evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The new isolates were compared with reference IPS82 strain and two strains isolated from biolarvicides Bactivec and Bactoculicida, respectively. The differentiation was done by morphological, biochemical, bioassays activity and molecular methods (SDS-PAGE, plasmid profile and random amplified polymorphic analysis). All isolates were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. The A21, A51 and C17 isolates showed higher larvicide activity than Bactivec's isolated reference strain, against both A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. A21 isolate had a protein profile similar to IPS82 and Bactivec strain. A51 and C17 isolates produced a characteristic proteins pattern. A21 and A51 isolates had plasmid patterns similar to IPS82 standard strain, while C17 isolate had different both plasmid profile and protein bands. All the studied isolates showed a diverse RAPD patterns and were different from the strains previously used in biological control in Cuba. PMID:22017108

  8. Isolation and characterization of entomopathogenic bacteria from soil samples from the western region of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Aileen; Rodríguez, Graciela; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Díaz, Manuel; Companionis, Ariamys; Menéndez, Zulema; Gato, René

    2013-06-01

    The use of insect pathogens is a viable alternative for insect control because of their relative specificity and lower environmental impact. The search for wild strains against dipterans could have an impact on mosquito control programs. We have made an extensive screening of soil in western Cuba to find bacteria with larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. A total of 150 soil samples were collected and isolates were identifying using the API 50 CHB gallery. Phenotypic characteristics were analyzed by hierarchical ascending classification. Quantitative bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions following the World Health Organization protocol in order to ascertain the toxicity and efficacy of isolates. The protein profiles of the crystal components were determined by SDS-PAGE. Eight hundred and eighty-one bacterial isolates were obtained, and 13 isolates with entomopathogenic activity were isolated from nine samples. Nine isolates displayed higher entomopathogenic activity against both Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti compared with the reference strain 266/2. All toxic isolates showed higher biological potency than the 266/2 strain. These isolates with high entomopathogenic activity displayed a protein pattern similar to the B. thuringiensis var. israelensis IPS-82 and 266/2 strains. These results are a valuable tool for the control of Diptera of medical importance. PMID:23701606

  9. Analysis of the availability of biomass in Cuba with energy ends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quick decrease of the fossil fuels has taken to the search of renewable sources of energy. Cuba has in the biomasses one of the biggest potentialities of sources renewable of energy, but even with a small exploitation. The purpose of increasing the employment of the sources renewable of energy, in particular the biomasses one requires evaluation of the capacities with which it counts our country. Presently work the results of an are presented The study carried out directed to the evaluation of these sources focused basically to the possibility of their employment in processes thermochemical. The evaluation of the is attacked availability of these energy resources, their main ones characteristic, the potentialities are also determined of use of the selected biomasses. Equally you it makes an estimate of the availability of the biomasses chosen in dependence of the behavior of its consumption, for finally to carry out an appreciation of the one potential of energy obtaining starting from her and its technician-economic feasibility. (author)

  10. Basis for the photoidentification of zebras (Equus burchellii in the National Zoological Garden of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Testé Lozano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Variability in facial strip patterns in zebras aloud its individualization. This is the basis for photo identification techniques that substitute traditional marking methods that can be expensive and traumatic. Current paper present an identification key of Equus burchelli captive in the National Zoological Garden of Cuba using left side pictures of their faces. Region of interest was limited by axes traced from posterior mouth edge, the eye and the lower base of neck. Strips crossing each ax were counted building a numerical code for each individual. The 68 % of captive zebras (54 individuals were photo identified. A group of 12 individuals had a code completely different from others, identifying each one. Remaining individuals could be grouped by similar codes, resulting in 11 pairs, and four groups of three, four, five and six individuals each. Every individual was characterized by the occurrence of spots, truncated strips, bridges between vertical stripes, periorbital bands, and bifurcated stripes. With all this characters a visual identification key was developed.

  11. Experiences in the promotion of the safety culture in radiological activities in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade, the need to promote and achieve high safety culture levels has been one of the priorities in the nuclear sector around the world, although it has been focused basically on nuclear power. Nevertheless, it is an important and current topic for any risk related activity, since it results in a greater involvement and commitment of managers and personnel to safety, thereby reducing the so called 'organizational failures', one of the most frequent contributors to several of the major industrial disasters in the recent years. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has also pointed that out and in some of its recent publications and meetings has recognized the need for extending this concept to the area of radioactive source. In Cuba, the Regulatory Body has been working in this direction during several years, promoting national research and studies in this field, issuing documents and organizing events and other activities. With this it is expected to introduce new work methods and practices to be applied by management and personnel involved in the use of radioactive sources, reflecting a higher safety culture level. This paper summarizes the experience of Cuban Regulatory Body in this field. (author)

  12. Medicinal plant reported with adverse reactions in Cuba: potential interactions with conventional drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Martínez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Herbal drugs are a mixture of active compounds and the chemical complexity of each formulation increase with the possibility of interactions between them and conventional drugs. Many mechanisms are implicated in the interactions; scientific community has dedicated the attentions to enzymes as P-gp and CYP450. Aims: To investigate in the literature the principal plants with suspicions of adverse reactions in Cuba and their potential interactions with conventional drugs. Methods: PubMed was the database used as source of information until February 2014. Key words: Herb-Drug, Drug-Plant, Herbal–Drug, Interactions with scientific names of plants was used. Information was structured and analysed with EndNote X4. Analysis and integration of the information: Allium sativum L. (garlic was the plant with the high number of studies related with CYP450 and P-gp. Plants with great demand as Morinda citrifolia L. (noni, Psidium guajava L. (guayaba, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger and Eucalyptus spp. (eucalyptus have a very small number of studies. The professionals of the health should keep in mind the possibility of interactions between herbal products and conventional drugs to increase the effectiveness of phytotherapy. Conclusions: It is necessary enhance reports and investigations and to put to disposition of the system of health information on the interactions of plants and to stimulate the investigation that offers information for the rational use of our medicinal plants.

  13. First study of airborne particulate pollution using PIXE analysis in Habana city, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work reports the results of a first study of elemental composition in airborne particulate matter (fine and coarse) collected at the Municipality of Centro Habana, Havana City, Cuba, using the PIXE technique. At present, there is not any information available about element contents in airborne particulate from this region. A five months sampling campaign was carried out, collecting the samples under an air flux of 20 l/min with a Gent SFU Sampler equipped with a system which allows the aerosol collection in both size fractions simultaneously. A total of 144 aerosol samples were collected. For the PIXE analysis, the samples were irradiated by 2.0 MeV energy protons from a 2 MV Tandetron Accelerator. A total of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were consistently detected with minimum detection limits from 1 ng/m3 to 10 ng/m3 for most of the elements. Enrichment factors were also calculated for both fractions in order to identify the natural and anthropogenic group of elements. The quantitative results obtained have revealed important information that has been used in a first attempt to understand and to characterize the atmospheric pollution of this area. (author)

  14. Seasonal trends of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide over North Santa Clara, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Daniellys; Morales, Mayra C; de la Torre, Jorge B; Grau, Ricardo; Bencs, László; Van Grieken, René; Van Espen, Piet; Sosa, Dismey; Nuñez, Vladimir

    2013-07-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels were monitored simultaneously by means of Radiello passive samplers at six sites of Santa Clara city, Cuba, in the cold and the warm seasons in 2010. The dissolved ionic forms of NO2 and SO2 as nitrate and sulfite plus sulfate, respectively, were determined by means of ion chromatography. Analysis of NO2 as nitrite was also performed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. For NO2, significant t tests show good agreement between the results of IC and UV-Vis methods. The NO2 and SO2 concentrations peaked in the cold season, while their minimum levels were experienced in the warm season. The pollutant levels do not exceed the maximum allowable limit of the Cuban Standard 39:1999, i.e., 40 μg/m(3) and 50 μg/m(3) for NO2 and SO2, respectively. The lowest pollutant concentrations obtained in the warm season can be attributed to an increase in their removal via precipitation (scavenging) while to the decreased traffic density and industrial emission during the summer holidays (e.g., July and August).

  15. Alternativa para el turismo de naturaleza. Caso de estudio. Soroa. Pinar del Río. Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Ceballos, Gliceria

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the result of the summary, analysis and evaluation of theoretical and methodological aspects related with the nature tourism, the particularities of their expression in Cuba, especially in Pinar del Rio, to approach more deeply “Soroa” as a case of study. It is exposed the result of a study carried out by the authors, which has to do with the area that embraces the natural environ-ment of Soroa, where exist diversity of natural and cultural resources that can be constituted in attrac-tiveness for spiritual enjoyment of certain market segments and they are not exploited at the moment as tourist product. If the current tendencies from the tourism at international level are kept in mind, this fact causes they don't take advantage the opportunities that offers the environment, that can be contribute at tourism develemoment in the area. Several instruments were applied to know main motivations from the visitors to the place, as well as the main facts were studied to use them as a base to characterize the market and existing potentialities from natural, historical and cultural point of view.

  16. Establishment of the Auditing National Service of quality to the instrumentation of Nuclear medicine in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Next to the vertiginous development of the technology in the Nuclear Medicine field, the possibility of early diagnosis of pathological processes without anatomical alterations, as well as its application with therapeutic purposes in the cancer treatment has grown. To assure a diagnosis and adapted therapy, it is vital to establish quality guarantee programs to the instrumentation. The State Medical Equipment Control Center (CCEEM), as regulator organ attributed to the Public Health Ministry of Cuba, it has licensed the Service of Quality Audits to the Nuclear medicine services, fulfilling all the technical and legal requirements to such effect. As base of these, the National Protocol for the Quality Control of the Instrumentation in Nuclear Medicine has been implemented, put out in vigour 2 national regulations, and an inter-institutional and multidisciplinary auditor equipment has been licensed. The different followed steps, as well as the realization of the first quality audits, its show not only a better execution of the tests and bigger professionalism of the involved specialists, but an increment in the taking of conscience to apply adequately the quality concepts for achieving a better service to the patient. On the other hand, the necessity of incorporating the clinical aspects to the audits, fomenting an integral harmonized advance of the quality guarantee programs is evidenced. (Author)

  17. Colombia and Cuba, contrasting models in Latin America's health sector reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Pol; De Ceukelaire, Wim; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    Latin American national health systems were drastically overhauled by the health sector reforms the 1990s. Governments were urged by donors and by the international financial institutions to make major institutional changes, including the separation of purchaser and provider functions and privatization. This article first analyses a striking paradox of the far-reaching reform measures: contrary to what is imposed on public health services, after privatization purchaser and provider functions are reunited. Then we compare two contrasting examples: Colombia, which is internationally promoted as a successful--and radical--example of 'market-oriented' health care reform, and Cuba, which followed a highly 'conservative' path to adapt its public system to the new conditions since the 1990s, going against the model of the international institutions. The Colombian reform has not been able to materialize its promises of universality, improved equity, efficiency and better quality, while Cuban health care remains free, accessible for everybody and of good quality. Finally, we argue that the basic premises of the ongoing health sector reforms in Latin America are not based on the people's needs, but are strongly influenced by the needs of foreign--especially North American--corporations. However, an alternative model of health sector reform, such as the Cuban one, can probably not be pursued without fundamental changes in the economic and political foundations of Latin American societies. PMID:17002735

  18. Peinillas and Popular Participation: Machete fighting in Haiti, Cuba and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Desch-Obi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explora la historia de esgrima con machetes entre los afro-descendientes en Haití, Cuba y Colombia. El machete, como un ícono sagrado de éxito individual y de guerra en África, se convierte para los esclavizados Africanos en una herramienta usada en la explotación de su trabajo. Ellos retuvieron la maestría en esta arma a través de la extensión del arte de pelea con palos. Esta maestría en las armas blancas ayudó a transformar el machete en un importante instrumento en las batallas nacionales de esas tres naciones. Aún en el comienzo del siglo veinte, el arte de esgrima con machetes fue una práctica social muy expandida entre los Afro-Caucanos, que les permitía demostrar su honor individual, como también hacer importantes contribuciones a las batallas nacionales, como la Colombo-Peruana. Aunque la historia publicada de las batallas nacionales realza la importancia de los líderes políticos y militares, los practicantes de estas formas de esgrima perpetuaron importantes contra- memorias que enfatizan el papel de soldados Afros quienes con su maestría con el machete pavimentaron el camino para la victoria nacional.

  19. Geophysical Evidence about of Continental Margin Central in the Basin of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Caridad Rifá Hernández

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Central basin of Cuba, bounded by the Zaza Tuinicú and La Trocha faults, is the site of threesmall oil fields and many showings, both at the surface and in wells. The petroleum is found mainlyin volcano-sedimentary rocks and sediments laid down during the Cuban progeny. With contrastswith petroleum on the north coast of the country in the intensely folded sediments of the continentalmargin in the Provinces of Havana, Mayabeque and Matanzas. The presence of these sedimentsbeneath the Cretaceous volcanic arc has been proposed based on geological evidence. Nevertheless,these sediments have yet to be encountered in the numerous drill holes present in the area. Thisstudy offers geophysical evidence pointing to the presence of the Placetas and Camajuaní tectonicstratigraphicunits at no great depths. The present analysis given here takes into account a geologicalinterpretation as well as both regional and local gravitational, magnetic and seismic studies; well datais also included as an integral part of the study. Finally, after presenting evidence based on seismicexploration and taking into account the limitations of this method applied to the Cuban fold belt, wepropose the use of more modern techniques to locate raised portions of the Placetas and Camajuanítectono-stratigraphic units.

  20. Leptospirosis en niños de la Provincia de Ciego de Ávila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez Hernández Miguel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la morbilidad por leptospirosis humana en niños de la Provincia de Ciego de Ávila, Cuba en el período de 1982 a 1995 donde se diagnosticaron 253 casos. Los casos aislados predominaron sobre los presentados en brotes. Con respecto a los grupos de edades predominó el de 10 a 14 años seguido del grupo de 5 a 9 años. Fue más frecuente el sexo masculino que el femenino, en esta etapa se presentó un fallecido. En la presentación de casos por meses se reporta un incremento de enfermos a partir del mes de julio, siendo agosto, octubre y noviembre los meses de mayor incidencia; los síntomas y signos de mayor frecuencia fueron fiebre, cefalea y mialgia; el 92% de los casos eran anictéricos. Los diagnósticos presuntivos más planteados fueron síndrome febril agudo, leptospirosis y meningoencefalitis viral. En las posibles fuentes de infección el contacto con terrenos bajos y el baño en fuentes de agua dulce, presentaron el mayor número de casos. En lo referente al diagnóstico 162 se diagnosticaron por microaglutinación y 91 por prueba hemolítica. En la primera los serogrupos Canícola Australis y Pomona tuvieron el mayor reporte.