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Sample records for zooplankton vertical migration

  1. Twilight vertical migrations of zooplankton in a Chilean fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Castro, Leonardo; Cáceres, Mario; Pizarro, Oscar

    2014-12-01

    Time series of acoustic backscatter and vertical velocity profiles were obtained at three sites along a Chilean fjord with the purpose of determining dominant structures of vertical migrations of the sound scattering layer. Ancillary data obtained with stratified net samples indicated that the sound scattering layer may have been dominated by euphausiids and decapods. Therefore, distributions of acoustic backscatter anomalies and vertical velocities were attributed to vertical migrations of predominantly these organisms. Migration patterns were dominated by twilight excursions in which organisms swam toward the water surface at sunset, spent 100 m). This migration strategy can also be termed 'semidiel migration' as two double excursions were linked to light levels. The reasons for this twilight migration remain uncertain. But it is possible that the up and down motion around sunset was related to predation avoidance, hunger-satiation state, ontogeny, seaward transport evasion, or reaction to the environmental shock from the pycnocline, or a combination of all or some of them. In contrast, the sunrise double excursion was probably linked to feeding requirements by organisms that need to spend the day at great depth with no food available. This study demonstrated the existence of semidiel patterns throughout the fjord and through prolonged periods. In addition, identification of this pattern by acoustic backscatter was complemented by direct vertical velocity measurements. It is proposed that twilight vertical migration is a common strategy in Chilean fjords.

  2. Diel vertical migration and distribution of zooplankton in a tropical Brazilian reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. A. da Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Diel vertical migration of zooplankton is a strategy usually employed to reduce the risk of predation, and it can also be associated with the environmental day/night shifts, particularly of light and temperature. The aim of this study was to identify the diel patterns of zooplankton vertical migration and their relationship to the environmental variables in a shallow reservoir in northeastern Brazil. Water samples were taken at a single five-meter depth sampling station (Subsurface, 50% Io, 1% Io and Bottom at four-hour intervals over a period of 24 hours. Two Cladocera species (Moina minuta and Diaphanosoma spinulosum and one Copepoda species (Notodiaptomus cearensis showed similar patterns of nocturnal migration, staying at the bottom during the day and rising toward the surface in the afternoon and during the night. Brachionus falcatus and Hexarthra mira (Rotifera showed no patterns of vertical migration and their vertical distributions were relatively homogenous. Environmental variables were poorly correlated to the species distribution, suggesting that other mechanisms may be responsible of inducing vertical migration.

  3. Tidal Influence on the Diel Vertical Migration Pattern of Zooplankton in a Tropical Monsoonal Estuary

    KAUST Repository

    Vineetha, G.

    2015-04-03

    Monsoonal estuaries, located along the coastline of the Indian subcontinent, differ from other estuaries by their time dependence on the salinity characteristics. Effective sustenance and retention of the mesozooplankton community in the estuarine habitats is often determined by their dominant behavioral patterns: diel vertical migration (DVM) and tidal vertical migration (TVM). The modes of these endogenous rhythms often vary among estuaries based on the river runoff and tidal characteristics. The present study is a pioneering attempt to depict the vertical migration pattern of zooplankton along a diel and tidal scale in a tropical, microtidal, monsoonal estuary. We observed that in spite of the prominent asymmetry in the magnitude of the river runoff between the seasons, most of the zooplankton groups exhibited strong DVM, with a clear increase in biomass and abundance in surface waters during night. The peak increase in biomass and abundance at night always synchronized with the slack periods in the tidal cycles, which differed from the general concepts of downward migration during ebb tide and upward migration during flood tide in estuarine systems. The weak currents during the slack period might have favored the effective vertical migration of the mesozooplankton community in this monsoonal estuarine system. © 2015 Society of Wetland Scientists

  4. Zooplankton grazing in a eutrophic lake: implications of diel vertical migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During summer and fall, depth profiles of zooplankton community grazing were determined in situ during day and night in the Schoehsee, a small eutrophic lake. Labeled algae of two different sizes were mixed with the natural suspension of phytoplankton in a grazing chamber. A small blue-green alga (Synechococcus, 1 ?m) was labeled with 32P; a larger green alga (Scenedesmus, 4-15 ?m) was labeled with 14C. During summer, grazing in the upper 5 m was negligible during day but strong at night. Hence, algae grow relatively unimpeded by grazing during daytime but are harvested at night. Vertical and diel differences in grazing rates disappeared when the vertical migration ceased in fall. Selectivity of grazing was controlled by the zooplankton species composition. Eudiaptomus showed a strong preference for Scenedesmus. Daphnia showed a slight preference for Scenedesmus, but Ceriodaphnia preferred Synechococcus. Cyclopoid copepodites did not ingest the small blue-green. Because Daphnia and Eudiaptomus were dominant, grazing rates on larger cells were usually higher than grazing rates on the small cells. Negative electivity indices for scenedesmus occurred only when the biomass of large crustaceans was extremely low (near the surface, during day). Zooplankton biomass was the main factor controlling both vertical and seasonal variations in grazing. Highest grazing rates (65%/d) were measured during fall when zooplankton abundance was high. Because differential losses can produce substantial errors in the results, it was necessary to process the samples on the boat immediately after collection, without preservation

  5. Biomixing due to diel vertical migrations of zooplankton: Comparison of computational fluid dynamics model with observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Cayla; Soloviev, Alexander; Hirons, Amy; Frank, Tamara; Wood, Jon

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies (Dewar et al., 2006; Wilhelmus and Dabiri, 2014) suggest that diel vertical migrations (DVM) of zooplankton (or other migrating organisms) may have an impact on ocean mixing, though details are not completely clear. Zooplankton that undergo DVM can have an impact on oil transport through the water column, and oil and dispersants can have a negative or even lethal effect on the organisms. Kunze et al. (2006) reported an increase of dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, ε, by four to five orders of magnitude during DVM of zooplankton over background turbulence in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, Canada. However, the effect was not observed in the same area by Rousseau et al. (2010) and was later reassessed by Kunze (2011). In our work, an 11-month data set obtained in the Straits of Florida with a bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler revealed strong sound scattering layers undergoing DVM. We used a 3-D non-hydrostatic computational fluid dynamics model with Lagrangian particle injections (a proxy for migrating organisms) via a discrete phase model to simulate the effect of turbulence generation by DVM. We tested a range of organism concentrations from 1000 to 10,000 organisms/m3 based on measurements by Greenlaw (1979) and Mackie and Mills (1983) in Saanich Inlet. At a concentration close to the upper limit, the simulation showed an increase in ε by two to three orders of magnitude during DVM over background turbulence, 10-9 W kg-1. At a concentration of 1000 organisms/m3, almost no turbulence above the background level was produced in the model. These results suggest that the Kunze et al. (2006) observations could have been performed at a larger concentration of migrating zooplankton than those reported by Rousseau et al. (2010). No exact zooplankton concentrations data were provided in either work. The difference between observations and the model can, in part, be explained by the fact that Kunze et al. (2006) measured instantaneous profiles of ε, while the model results on ε were averaged horizontally over the 50 m by 50 m domain. In the Straits of Florida, we observed a small decrease in northward current velocity profiles during migration times after averaging over 11 months of observations. The computational fluid dynamics model reproduced this decrease of current velocity due to turbulence generated by DVM in the Straits of Florida model case. The deviations in the velocity profiles can be explained by the increase in turbulent mixing during vertical migration periods. Comparison of observational data to the model results was complicated by physical factors such as tides, Florida Current meandering, etc., which may have a stronger effect on current velocity profiles than DVM.

  6. Diel vertical migration of predators (planktivorous fish larvae and prey (zooplankton in a tropical lagoon

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    Marcos Marques Mendonça

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Based on the hypothesis that diel vertical migration (DVM is a mechanism of predator avoidance, the objective of the present study was to test for the occurrence of DVM in planktivorous fish larvae of Hypophthalmus edentatus (Spix, 1829 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae and Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Perciformes, Sciaenidae, and zooplankton (rotifers, cladocerans and copepods in an isolated tropical lagoon in the floodplain of the Upper Paraná River, Brazil (region of Parque Nacional de Ilha Grande. We investigated spatial overlap between predators (planktivorous fish larvae and prey (zooplankton, and tested which physical and chemical variables of the water are related to the DVM of the studied communities. We performed nocturnal (8:00 pm and 4:00 am and diurnal sampling (8:00 am and 4:00 pm in the limnetic region of the lagoon for six consecutive months, from October 2010 to March 2011, which comprises the reproductive period of the fish species analyzed. During the day the larvae tried to remain aggregated in the bottom of the lagoon, whereas at night they tried to disperse in the water column. Especially for cladocerans, the diel vertical migration is an important behavior to avoid predation larvae of H. edentatus and P. squamosissimus once decreased spatial overlap between secured and its potential predators, which corroborates the hypothesis that DVM is a mechanism of predator avoidance. Although significant correlations were observed between the abiotic factors and WMD of microcrustaceans at certain times of day, the effect of predation of fish larvae on zooplankton showed more important in this environment, because the small depth and isolation not allow great variation of abiotic factors seasonally and between strata the lagoon.

  7. Tidal influence on the diel vertical migration pattern of zooplankton in a tropical monsoonal Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vineetha, G.; Jyothibabu, R.; Madhu, N.V.; Kusum, K.K.; Sooria, P.M.; Shivaprasad, A.; Reny, P.D.; Deepak, M.P.

    habitats is often determined by their dominant behavioral patterns: diel vertical migration (DVM) and tidal vertical migration (TVM). The modes of these endogenous rhythms often vary among estuaries based on the river runoff and tidal characteristics...

  8. Diel vertical migration patterns of three zooplankton populations in a Chilean lake Patrones de migración vertical de tres poblaciones de zooplancton en un lago chileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO RAMOS-JILIBERTO

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed the depth-distribution, at noon and midnight, of three zooplankton populations which are common inhabitants of lakes from central Chile and coexist in lake El Plateado. The species were Tumeodiaptomus diabolicus, Diaphanosoma chilense and Bosmina longirostris. Also, we analyzed the association between the depth-specific abundances of the groups and the depth-specific temperature and oxygen values during the sampling period. Our results show that: (1 the three population exhibited diel vertical migration during part of the year; (2 T. diabolicus and D. chilense exhibited the normal pattern of vertical migration, and B. longirostris presented both the normal and the reverse pattern; (3 for all species and most dates, zooplankters experience significant decreases in oxygen exposure as a consequence of downward migration. Temperature costs are less important but present in T. diabolicus and D. chilense during part of the yearEn este trabajo analizamos la distribución en profundidad, a mediodía y medianoche, de tres poblaciones de zooplancton que son habitantes comunes de los lagos de Chile central, y que coexisten en el lago El Plateado. Las especies fueron Tumeodiaptomus diabolicus, Diaphanosoma chilense y Bosmina longirostris. También analizamos la asociación entre las abundancias profundidad-específicas de los grupos y los valores profundidad-específicos de temperatura y oxígeno durante el periodo de muestreo. Nuestros resultados muestran que: (1 las tres poblaciones exhibieron migración vertical durante una parte del año; (2 T. diabolicus y D. chilense exhibieron el patrón normal de migración, y B. longirostris presentó tanto el patrón normal como el inverso; (3 para todas las especies y en la mayoría de las fechas, el zooplancton presentó reducciones significativas en su exposición al oxígeno como consecuencia de la migración descendente. Los costos térmicos son menos importantes pero existentes en T. diabolicus y D. chilense durante parte del año

  9. Diel vertical migration patterns of three zooplankton populations in a Chilean lake / Patrones de migración vertical de tres poblaciones de zooplancton en un lago chileno

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RODRIGO, RAMOS-JILIBERTO; JOSÉ L., CARVAJAL; MAURICIO, CARTER; LUIS R., ZÚÑIGA.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo analizamos la distribución en profundidad, a mediodía y medianoche, de tres poblaciones de zooplancton que son habitantes comunes de los lagos de Chile central, y que coexisten en el lago El Plateado. Las especies fueron Tumeodiaptomus diabolicus, Diaphanosoma chilense y Bosmina long [...] irostris. También analizamos la asociación entre las abundancias profundidad-específicas de los grupos y los valores profundidad-específicos de temperatura y oxígeno durante el periodo de muestreo. Nuestros resultados muestran que: (1) las tres poblaciones exhibieron migración vertical durante una parte del año; (2) T. diabolicus y D. chilense exhibieron el patrón normal de migración, y B. longirostris presentó tanto el patrón normal como el inverso; (3) para todas las especies y en la mayoría de las fechas, el zooplancton presentó reducciones significativas en su exposición al oxígeno como consecuencia de la migración descendente. Los costos térmicos son menos importantes pero existentes en T. diabolicus y D. chilense durante parte del año Abstract in english In this work we analyzed the depth-distribution, at noon and midnight, of three zooplankton populations which are common inhabitants of lakes from central Chile and coexist in lake El Plateado. The species were Tumeodiaptomus diabolicus, Diaphanosoma chilense and Bosmina longirostris. Also, we analy [...] zed the association between the depth-specific abundances of the groups and the depth-specific temperature and oxygen values during the sampling period. Our results show that: (1) the three population exhibited diel vertical migration during part of the year; (2) T. diabolicus and D. chilense exhibited the normal pattern of vertical migration, and B. longirostris presented both the normal and the reverse pattern; (3) for all species and most dates, zooplankters experience significant decreases in oxygen exposure as a consequence of downward migration. Temperature costs are less important but present in T. diabolicus and D. chilense during part of the year

  10. Diel vertical migration and spatial overlap between fish larvae and zooplankton in two tropical lakes, Brazil / Migração vertical diária e sobreposição espacial entre larvas de peixes e zooplâncton em dois lagos tropicais, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PHS., Picapedra; FA., Lansac-Tôha; A., Bialetzki.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de larvas de peixes sobre a distribuição vertical dia-noite da comunidade zooplanctônica foi investigada em duas lagoas tropicais, lagoa Finado Raimundo e Pintado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Foram realizadas amostragens noturnas e diurnas na região limnética de cada lagoa durante um períod [...] o de 10 meses consecutivos, entre abril de 2008 a janeiro de 2009. A comunidade zooplanctônica apresentou uma variada gama de respostas à pressão de predação exercida pelas larvas de peixes nos dois ambientes, enquanto que as larvas de peixes exibiram um padrão típico de migração vertical diária normal. Os resultados mostraram ainda, que a migração vertical diária é um comportamento importante para evitar a predação, uma vez que diminuiu a sobreposição espacial entre presa e seu predador em potencial, dando suporte a hipótese de que a migração vertical é um mecanismo de defesa contra a predação. Abstract in english The effect of fish larvae on the diel vertical migration of the zooplankton community was investigated in two tropical lakes, Finado Raimundo and Pintado lakes, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Nocturnal and diurnal samplings were conducted in the limnetic region of each lake for 10 consecutive mon [...] ths from April 2008 to January 2009. The zooplankton community presented a wide range of responses to the predation pressure exerted by fish larvae in both environments, while fish larvae showed a typical pattern of normal diel vertical migration. Our results also demonstrated that the diel vertical migration is an important behaviour to avoid predation, since it reduces the spatial overlap between prey and potential predator, thus supporting the hypothesis that vertical migration is a defence mechanism against predation.

  11. Efecto de la zona de mínimo oxígeno sobre la migración vertical de zooplancton gelatinoso en la bahía de Mejillones The effect of the oxygen minimum zone on vertical migration of gelatinous zooplankton in Mejillones Bay

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    Pedro Apablaza

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la distribución estacional y migración vertical de zooplancton gelatinoso colectado en la bahía de Mejillones. Se identificaron 39 especies distribuidas en 14 de hidromedusas, 20 de sifonóforos y 5 de quetognatos. Las especies dominantes fueron Obelia spp., Liriope tetraphylla, Solmundella bitentaculata, Rophalonema velatum, Muggiaea atlantica, Sphaeronectes gracilis, Sagitta enfiata y S. bierii, las que presentaron un estrecho rango de distribución vertical y migración nictimeral, debido a la infiuencia de la Zona de Mínimo Oxígeno (ZMO (The seasonal distribution and vertical migration of gelatinous zooplankton collected in Mejillones Bay was analyzed. The 39 species identified included 14 hydromedusae, 20 siphonophores, and 5 chaetognates. The dominant species were Obelia spp., Liriope tetraphylla, Solmundella bitentaculata, Rophalonema velatum, Muggiaea atlantica, Sphaeronectes gracilis, Sagitta enfiata, and S. bierii. Their vertical distribution and nictimeral migration ranges were narrow due to the infiuence of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ (< 1 mL·L-1, whose upper limit was quite shallow (25-50 m. In spring, the majority of the dominant species presented nictimeral movements due to the greater oxygenation of the water column. On the other hand, in summer, when the thermocline was more intense, and in winter, when the OMZ neared the surface, the majority of the dominant species showed no changes in their vertical distribution throughout the daily cycle. Obelia spp. had a shallow distribution, related principally to the presence of the thermocline. R. velatum, however, was well adapted to the scant dissolved oxygen in the OMZ

  12. Trophic ecology and vertical patterns of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in zooplankton from oxygen minimum zone regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca L.; Wakeham, Stuart; McKinney, Rick; Wishner, Karen F.

    2014-08-01

    The unique physical and biogeochemical characteristics of oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) influence plankton ecology, including zooplankton trophic webs. Using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes, this study examined zooplankton trophic webs in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) OMZ. ?13C values were used to indicate zooplankton food sources, and ?15N values were used to indicate zooplankton trophic position and nitrogen cycle pathways. Vertically stratified MOCNESS net tows collected zooplankton from 0 to 1000 m at two stations along a north-south transect in the ETNP during 2007 and 2008, the Tehuantepec Bowl and the Costa Rica Dome. Zooplankton samples were separated into four size fractions for stable isotope analyses. Particulate organic matter (POM), assumed to represent a primary food source for zooplankton, was collected with McLane large volume in situ pumps. The isotopic composition and trophic ecology of the ETNP zooplankton community had distinct spatial and vertical patterns influenced by OMZ structure. The most pronounced vertical isotope gradients occurred near the upper and lower OMZ oxyclines. Material with lower ?13C values was apparently produced in the upper oxycline, possibly by chemoautotrophic microbes, and was subsequently consumed by zooplankton. Between-station differences in ?15N values suggested that different nitrogen cycle processes were dominant at the two locations, which influenced the isotopic characteristics of the zooplankton community. A strong depth gradient in zooplankton ?15N values in the lower oxycline suggested an increase in trophic cycling just below the core of the OMZ. Shallow POM (0-110 m) was likely the most important food source for mixed layer, upper oxycline, and OMZ core zooplankton, while deep POM was an important food source for most lower oxycline zooplankton (except for samples dominated by the seasonally migrating copepod Eucalanus inermis). There was no consistent isotopic progression among the four zooplankton size classes for these bulk mixed assemblage samples, implying overlapping trophic webs within the total size range considered.

  13. Plankton vertical migrations - Implications for the pelagic ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Haupt, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Habitat selection is an important behavior of many organisms. The direction and strength of this behavior is often characterized as a result of a trade off between predator avoidance and obtaining resources. A characteristic example of this trade off may be seen in organisms in the pelagic ecosystem in the form of vertical migrations. Diel vertical migration (DVM) is a predator avoidance behavior of many zooplankton species, which is marked by a significant shift in the vertical distribution ...

  14. Vertical distribution of zooplankton in the epipelagic zone off Sharm El-Sheikh, Red Sea, Egypt

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    Mahnoud Hassan Hanafi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to track the seasonal vertical distribution of zooplankton abundance in the epipelagic zone off Sharm El-Sheikh, Red Sea. Zooplankton samples were collected seasonally within the depth ranges of 0-25, 25-50, 50-75, 75-100 m at a single station off Sharm El-Sheikh City. The present study is a trial to expand knowledge about the structure as well as the vertical distribution of the epipelagic zooplankton community in the Gulf of Aqaba in general and in its southern part in particular. The results indicate the occurrence of 52 copepod species and several species of other planktonic groups in the study area; the zooplankton standing crop fluctuated between 1124 and 4952 organisms m-3. Copepods appeared to be the predominant component, forming an average of 86.5% of the total zooplankton count, and with other groups demonstrated a markedly different seasonal vertical distribution. Twelve bathypelagic copepod species were reported during the present study, and five species were new to the area, having migrated northwards from the main basin of the Red Sea.

  15. Vertical distribution of zooplankton: density dependence and evidence for an ideal free distribution with costs

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    Lampert Winfried

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In lakes with a deep-water algal maximum, herbivorous zooplankton are faced with a trade-off between high temperature but low food availability in the surface layers and low temperature but sufficient food in deep layers. It has been suggested that zooplankton (Daphnia faced with this trade-off distribute vertically according to an "Ideal Free Distribution (IFD with Costs". An experiment has been designed to test the density (competition dependence of the vertical distribution as this is a basic assumption of IFD theory. Results Experiments were performed in large, indoor mesocosms (Plankton Towers with a temperature gradient of 10°C and a deep-water algal maximum established below the thermocline. As expected, Daphnia aggregated at the interface between the two different habitats when their density was low. The distribution spread asymmetrically towards the algal maximum when the density increased until 80 % of the population dwelled in the cool, food-rich layers at high densities. Small individuals stayed higher in the water column than large ones, which conformed with the model for unequal competitors. Conclusion The Daphnia distribution mimics the predictions of an IFD with costs model. This concept is useful for the analysis of zooplankton distributions under a large suite of environmental conditions shaping habitat suitability. Fish predation causing diel vertical migrations can be incorporated as additional costs. This is important as the vertical location of grazing zooplankton in a lake affects phytoplankton production and species composition, i.e. ecosystem function.

  16. Spectral sensitivity of vertically migrating marine copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan H; Forward, Richard B

    2002-12-01

    Light is a critical factor in the proximate basis of diel vertical migration (DVM) in zooplankton. A photobehavioral approach was used to examine the spectral sensitivity of four coastal species of calanoid copepod, representing a diversity of DVM patterns, to test whether species that migrate (nocturnal or reverse DVM) have response spectra that differ from non-migratory surface dwellers. The following species were given light stimuli at wavelengths from 350 to 740 nm, and their photoresponses were measured: Centropages typicus (nocturnal migrator), Calanopia americana (nocturnal migrator), Anomalocera ornata (reverse migrator), and Labidocera aestiva (non-migrator). Centropages typicus and A. ornata had peak responses at 500 and 520 nm, respectively, while Calanopia americana had maximum responses at 480 and 520 nm. Thus, the species that undergo DVM have peak photobehavioral responses at wavelengths corresponding to those available during twilight in coastal water, although the range of wavelengths to which they respond is variable. Non-migratory surface-dwelling L. aestiva had numerous response peaks over a broad spectral range, which may serve to maximize photon capture for vision in their broad-spectrum shallow-water habitat. PMID:12480721

  17. How internal waves influence the vertical distribution of zooplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Rinke, Karsten; Hübner, Ina; Petzoldt, Thomas; Rolinski, Susanne; König-Rinke, Marie; Post, Johannes; Lorke, Andreas; Benndorf, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    1. We present data with a high spatio-temporal resolution from a 72-h field survey in Bautzen Reservoir (Saxony, Germany). The aims of this survey were to observe hydrophysical processes during a period of unstable stratification in spring and investigate the effect of wind-induced internal waves on the vertical distribution of zooplankton.2. Wind velocities up to 10 m s)1 caused a strong downwelling event of warm water at the sampling site and led to the generation of internal waves with an ...

  18. Feeding and distribution of zooplankton in the desalinated ``lens'' in the Kara Sea: Impact of the vertical salinity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, A. F.; Drits, A. V.; Abyzova, G. A.; Semenova, T. N.; Sergeeva, V. M.; Flint, M. V.

    2015-11-01

    The feeding rates and distribution of dominant zooplankton in the area of the Kara Sea "lens" (upper desalinated layer) were studied in August 2014. Zooplankton abundance was low along the transect across the center of the lens but noticeably increased at the margin of the lens. Calanus glacialis, C. finmarchicus, Oithona similis, and Pseudocalanus spp. dominated among zooplankton, constituting 60-80% of the total biomass. Within the lens area, chlorophyll peaked at a depth of about 10 m, whereas zooplankton was distributed deeper than 30 m, and no diel vertical migrations were recorded. Outside the lens, zooplankton was distributed in the upper mixed layer. Specific daily rations on phytoplankton within the lens area were considerably higher than outside (5-50 and 0.2-6%, respectively). We hypothesized that accumulation of the suspended matter over a sharp density (salinity) gradient contributes to an increase in daily rations. A significant positive correlation between the values of daily ration and salinity gradients was obtained. The grazing impact of zooplankton on the primary production and the phytoplankton biomass was maximum (94 and 8%) at the lens margin, which was due to the combination of high values of zooplankton abundance and daily rations.

  19. Concentrations of 137Cs and trace elements in zooplankton, and their vertical distributions off Rokkasho, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zooplankton samples were collected at about 50 m depth with a large ring net (160-cm mouth diameter, 0.5-mm mesh) in May, June, October 2005 and June 2006 off Rokkasho, Japan where a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant will be in full-scale operation in the near future. Plankters in each sample were separated based on their species. Eight samples were used for the determination of 137Cs concentration and the other 21 samples were used for the determination of its stable isotope, Cs along with some other trace elements. All the samples were characterized by five dominant species, i.e. euphausiids, chaetognaths, copepods; Neocalanus spp., amphipods; Themisto spp. and Cyphocaris sp. Plankton samples were also taken at three to five discrete depths between the surface and ? 1,000 m in depth during daytime and nighttime for analysis of vertical distribution patterns of biomass, and for assessment of daily vertical migration activity. Integrated net zooplankton biomass at nighttime ranged from 0.85 to 8.74 g-DW m-2 in the 0-150 m layer without any appreciable day-night differences in the vertical distribution; below the layer, it decreased significantly. Only in spring, appreciable day-night differences in the vertical distribution were observed at the shallowest station. Concentrations of Cs and Co did not show significant difference among the five species. However, higher concentrations of Sr were observed in two amphipods. It is likely that amphipods had a different biological process in Sr metabolism from others. The concentration of 137Cs in zooplankton was usually very low and sometimes under the detection limit. In the present study, the highest concentration of 137Cs in zooplankton was 24 mBq kg-WW-1, corresponding to the concentration factor (CF) of 14, if the value of 1.7 mBq L-1 was given to the 137Cs concentration in seawater. The water-column inventory of 137Cs in a zooplankton community is calculated to be 0.29 to 1.95 mBq m-2, based on the data on biomass and concentration of 137Cs. The fraction of the water-column inventory of 137Cs in zooplankton to the total 137Cs was 0.5 - 1.3x10-6. (author)

  20. Trade-offs in the vertical distribution of zooplankton: ideal free distribution with costs?

    OpenAIRE

    Lampert, Winfried; McCauley, Edward; Manly, Bryan F J

    2003-01-01

    Zooplankton vertical migratory patterns are a classic example of optimal habitat choice. We hypothesize that zooplankton distribute themselves vertically in the water column according to an ideal free distribution (IFD) with costs such as to optimize their fitness. In lakes with a deep-water chlorophyll maximum, zooplankton are faced with a trade-off, either experiencing high food (high reproductive potential) but low temperature (slow development) in the hypolimnion or high temperature and l...

  1. Optimal foraging and diel vertical migration in a life history model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainmont, Julie; Andersen, Ken Haste; Visser, Andre

    Zooplankton such as copepods are known to perform diel vertical migration, avoiding the food rich surface during bright hours to avoid visual predator when they are most dangerous, and returning to the surface to feed at night. The resolution of this foraging behaviour requires fine time scale in...

  2. Vertical distribution of zooplankton in the water column of Lago Amapá, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Erlei Cassiano Keppeler; Elsa Rodrigues Hardy

    2004-01-01

    The aim of investigation was to study the model of vertical distribution in Lago Amapá, taking into consideration the seasonality of its zooplanktonic composition. Lago Amapá (10º2'36"S and 67º50'24"W) is located in the floodplain of the Rio Acre. Samplings were conducted at three different depths of the water column, to study the vertical distribution of zooplankton populations and determine some physico-chemical and biological parameters of Lago Amapá. Weekly samples were taken with a Van D...

  3. Zooplankton data: Vertical distributions of zooplankton in the Norweigian and Greenland Seas during summer, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, P.V.Z.; Smith, S.L.; Schwarting, E.M.

    1993-08-01

    Recent studies of zooplankton populations in the Greenland Sea have focused on processes at the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) and the areas immediately adjacent to it under the ice and in open water. These studies have shown a relatively short period of intense secondary productivity which is closely linked temporally and spatially to phytoplankton blooms occurring near the ice edge in spring and early summer. During the summer of 1989 we participated in a project focusing on benthic and water column processes in the basins of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas. This study allowed us to compare biological processes at the MIZ with those occurring in the open waters of the Greenland Sea, and to compare processes at both of these locations with those in the Norwegian Sea. The data presented in this report are the results of zooplankton net tows covering the upper 1000 meters of the water column over the Norwegian Sea basin and the Greenland Sea basin, and the upper 500 meters of open water adjacent to the MIZ in the Greenland Sea. Sampling was conducted between 12 and 29 July 1989.

  4. Vertical oceanic transport of alpha-radioactive nuclides by zooplankton fecal pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives the results of research to explain the role played by marine plankton metabolism in the vertical oceanic transport of the alpha-emitting nuclides. The common Mediterranean euphausiid, Meganyctiphanes norvegica, was selected as the typical zooplanktonic species that is the focus of this work. Measurements of 239240Pu, 238U, 232Th, and 210Po are reported in whole euphausiids and in euphausiid fecal pellets and molts. The resulting data are inserted into a simple model that describes the flux of an element through a zooplanktonic animal. Concentrations of the nuclides concerned are high in fecal pellets, at levels which are typical of geological rather than biological material. It is suggested that zooplanktonic fecal pellets play a significant role in the vertical oceanic transport of plutonium, thorium, and polonium

  5. Diel Vertical Dynamics of Gelatinous Zooplankton (Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Thaliacea) in a Subtropical Stratified Ecosystem (South Brazilian Bight)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Júnior, Miodeli; Brandini, Frederico Pereira; Codina, Juan Carlos Ugaz

    2015-01-01

    The diel vertical dynamics of gelatinous zooplankton in physically stratified conditions over the 100-m isobath (~110 km offshore) in the South Brazilian Bight (26°45’S; 47°33’W) and the relationship to hydrography and food availability were analyzed by sampling every six hours over two consecutive days. Zooplankton samples were taken in three depth strata, following the vertical structure of the water column, with cold waters between 17 and 13.1°C, influenced by the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) in the lower layer (>70 m); warm (>20°C) Tropical Water in the upper 40 m; and an intermediate thermocline with a deep chlorophyll-a maximum layer (0.3–0.6 mg m-3). Two distinct general patterns were observed, emphasizing the role of (i) physical and (ii) biological processes: (i) a strong influence of the vertical stratification, with most zooplankton absent or little abundant in the lower layer. The influence of the cold SACW on the bottom layer apparently restricted the vertical occupation of most species, which typically inhabit epipelagic warm waters. Even among migratory species, only a few (Aglaura hemistoma, Abylopsis tetragona eudoxids, Beroe sp., Thalia democratica, Salpa fusiformis) crossed the thermocline and reached the bottom layer. (ii) A general tendency of partial migrations, with variable intensity depending on the different species and developmental stages; populations tended to be more widely distributed through the water column during daylight, and to become more aggregated in the upper layer during the night, which can be explained based on the idea of the “hunger-satiation hypothesis”, maximizing feeding and minimizing the chances of being predated. PMID:26637179

  6. Turbulence and zooplankton production: insights from PROVESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Stips, A.

    2002-01-01

    Zooplankton are directly influenced by turbulence in both a passive and an active manner. Passively, zooplankton are at the mercy of turbulence in how it affects their vertical mixing, encounter rate, detection abilities and feeding current efficiency. Many zooplankton species, however, are actively able to mitigate the effects of turbulence by modifying their behaviour, e.g. vertical migration, prey switching and habituation to hydromechanical stimuli. Both theoretical treatments of these proce...

  7. Seasonal variations in vertical migration of glacier lanternfish, Benthosema glaciale

    KAUST Repository

    Dypvik, Eivind

    2012-06-05

    The seasonal variations in glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale) vertical distribution and diel vertical migration (DVM) were studied by use of a bottom-mounted upward-facing 38 kHz echo sounder deployed at 392 m depth and cabled to shore in Masfjorden (~6052?N, ~524?E), Norway. Acoustic data from July 2007-October 2008 were analyzed, and scattering layers below ~220 m during daytime were attributed to glacier lanternfish based on net sampling in this, and previous studies, as well as from analysis of the acoustic data. At these depths, three different diel behavioral strategies were apparent: normal diel vertical migration (NDVM), inverse DVM (IDVM), and no DVM (NoDVM). NoDVM was present all year, while IDVM was present in autumn and winter, and NDVM was present during spring and summer. The seasonal differences in DVM behavior seem to correlate with previously established seasonal distribution of prey. We hypothesize that in regions with seasonally migrating zooplankton, such as where calanoid copepods overwinter at depth, similar plasticity in DVM behavior might occur in other populations of lanternfishes. 2012 The Author(s).

  8. Dissipation Rate of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in Diel Vertical Migrations: Comparison of ANSYS Fluent Model to Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Cayla; Soloviev, Alexander; Hirons, Amy; Frank, Tamara; Wood, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that diel vertical migrations of zooplankton may have an impact on ocean mixing, though details are not completely clear. A strong sound scattering layer of zooplankton undergoing diel vertical migrations was observed in Saanich Inlet, British Colombia, Canada by Kunze et al. (2006). In this study, a shipboard 200-kHz echosounder was used to track vertical motion of the sound scattering layer, and microstructure profiles were collected to observe turbulence. An increase of dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy by four to five orders of magnitude was measured during diel vertical migrations of zooplankton in one case (but not observed during other cases). A strong sound scattering layer undergoing diel vertical migration was also observed in the Straits of Florida via a bottom mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler at 244 m isobath. A 3-D non-hydrostatic computational fluid dynamics model with Lagrangian particle injections (a proxy for migrating zooplankton) via a discrete phase model was used to simulate the effect of diel vertical migrations on the turbulence for both Saanich Inlet and the Straits of Florida. The model was initialized with idealized (but based on observation) density and velocity profiles. Particles, with buoyancy adjusted to serve as a proxy for vertically swimming zooplankton, were injected to simulate diel vertical migration cycles. Results of models run with extreme concentrations of particles showed an increase in dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy of approximately five orders of magnitude over background turbulence during migration of particles in both Saanich Inlet and the Straits of Florida cases (though direct relation of the turbulence produced by buoyant particles and swimming organisms isn't straightforward). This increase was quantitatively consistent, with turbulence measurements by Kunze et al. (2006). When 10 times fewer particles were injected into the model, the effect on dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy was an order of magnitude smaller than that from the extreme concentration. At a concentration of particles 100 times smaller than the extreme concentration, there was no longer an observable effect. In the Straits of Florida, direct turbulence measurements were not available to make a quantitative comparison. However, a small, but statistically significant decrease in northward current velocity profiles during migration times were observed after averaging these profiles over 11 months. A small decrease of current velocity connected to the vertical migrations of particles was reproduced in the Straits of Florida model case. The deviations in the velocity profiles can be explained by the increase in turbulent mixing during vertical migration periods.

  9. Elastic kirchhoff migration for vertical seismic profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elastic Kirchhoff migration is implemented for the VSP recording geometry. The resulting migration formula requires measurement of the stress as well as the displacement. Since stress is not measured in a VSP, and in many cases the horizontal component of displacement is not measured, approximate migration formulas are given for these cases. The elastic migration formula for the case where only the vertical components are available, is the same as the acoustic migration formula, where the pressure data are replaced by the magnitudes of the elastic data as reconstructed from the vertical components, and the acoustic Green's functions are replaced with either the P or S wave elastic Green's functions. Two expressions for migration of two component displacement data are presented. In the first, the terms involving traction data are simply ignored. In the second, an improved backpropagation operator for the displacement field is obtained by replacing the traction data in the Kirchhoff integral by displacement data using Hooke's law. The migration expressions for the cases where two component data are available produce images which are less contaminated by artifacts than the migration images of one component data

  10. Diel vertical migration in marine dinoflagellates

    OpenAIRE

    Jephson, Therese

    2012-01-01

    Increasing precipitation and surface water temperature due to global change may strengthen stratification in coastal regions, which could influence the behavior of dinoflagellate diel vertical migration (DVM). DVM is a behavioral mechanism by which dinoflagellates can access photosynthetically active radiation near the surface, and nutrients at depth. During this process, cells may need to cross both salinity and temperature gradients (haloclines and thermoclines, respectively). My results sh...

  11. Vertical migration and diel feeding periodicity of the skinnycheek lanternfish (Benthosema pterotum) in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Dypvik, Eivind

    2012-11-13

    The vertical migration and diel feeding periodicity of the skinnycheek lanternfish (Benthosema pterotum) were studied by use of a hull-mounted 38 kHz echo sounder, ROV-deployments and net-sampling at two locations (∼24°48′N, ∼36°15′E and ∼21°27′N, ∼38°5′E) in the central Red Sea. The mesopelagic zone of the Red Sea represents an unusual environment with very high temperatures (∼22 °C) and low zooplankton concentrations (<10 individuals m−3 below 600 m). The skinnycheek lanternfish performed normal diel vertical migration from ∼500 to 750 m during daytime to the epipelagic zone (upper ∼200 m) at night. A strict feeding periodicity occurred; with the skinnycheek lanternfish foraging on zooplankton throughout the night, while rapidly digesting the preceding nocturnal meal in the warm mesopelagic region. We hypothesize that the constrained epipelagic distribution of zooplankton and the unusual warm waters of the Red Sea force the whole population to ascend and feed in epipelagic waters every night, as the prey-ration eaten each night is fully digested at mesopelagic depths during daytime.

  12. Differences in vertical and horizontal distribution of fish larvae and zooplankton, related to hydrography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höffle, Hannes; Nash, Richard D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Planktonic fish larvae have little influence on their horizontal distribution, while they are able to control their vertical position in the water column. While prey and light are among the factors with an apparent influence on the vertical distribution, the effects of other factors are less clear. Notably, distributional differences between larvae of different fish species are poorly understood. Information on the horizontal distribution of larvae of 27 species and the vertical distribution of seven species of Gadidae, two Pleuronectidae and one Scophthalmidae, was compiled from one survey in the northern North Sea. Horizontally, fish larvae aggregated near frontal structures, correlating with high densities of zooplankton. Increasing length and decreasing numbers indicated an origin in the western North Sea, followed by an eastward drift. Vertically, the different species exhibited similarities but also notable differences in their vertical distribution. Most gadoid species aggregated in the upper (B40 m)or middle water column (40 m) during the day with an increase in abundance at shallower depths during the night, while all flatfish were distributed at greater depths under all light conditions. Hence, larvae differed in their distributional patterns, but the relative depth distributions among the species in the larval community generally remained constant

  13. Vertical distribution of zooplankton in the water column of Lago Amapá, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Cassiano Keppeler

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of investigation was to study the model of vertical distribution in Lago Amapá, taking into consideration the seasonality of its zooplanktonic composition. Lago Amapá (10º2'36"S and 67º50'24"W is located in the floodplain of the Rio Acre. Samplings were conducted at three different depths of the water column, to study the vertical distribution of zooplankton populations and determine some physico-chemical and biological parameters of Lago Amapá. Weekly samples were taken with a Van Dorn sampler. The species showed greater concentrations at the by means of water column. Thirty-eight zooplankton species were found in the samples represented by Rotifera (30, Cladocera (5 and Cyclopoida (3. The temperature of the water column showed a tendency toward relatively high values (about 30ºC with little variation, consequently resulting in low viscosity. Based of Jaccard's index, it was seen that during the low-water phase, S1 and S3 of the three sampling stations studied, had greater similarity (Cj = 0.7058 in the middle of the water column. Lago Amapá showed characteristics in line with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis model, favoring colonization by opportunistic species such as rotifers.O objetivo desta investigação foi observar a distribuição vertical da comunidade do zooplâncton no Lago Amapá (10º2'36"S e 67º50'24"W, localizado na planície de inundação do Rio Acre. Amostragens foram conduzidas em três diferentes profundidades da coluna da água, considerando aspectos sazonais do zooplâncton, parâmetros físicos, químicos e biológicos. Coletas foram realizadas semanalmente com Garrafa de Van Dorn. As espécies apresentaram maiores concentrações no meio da coluna da água. Foram encontradas 38 espécies, assim distribuídas: Rotifera (30, Cladocera (5 e Cyclopoida (3. A temperatura da coluna da água em geral apresentou-se alta, em torno de 30ºC, com pequena variação, resultando em baixa viscosidade. O índice de Jaccard, comparando-se as três estações de coletas, demonstrou que durante a fase de águas baixas, as estações 1 e 3 foram as mais similares (Cj = 0.7058, especialmente no meio da coluna da água. Lago Amapá apresentou características em conformidade com o Modelo do Distúrbio Intermediário, favorecendo a colonização de grupos oportunistas, tais como rotíferos.

  14. Vertical distribution of zooplankton in the water column of Lago Amapá, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erlei Cassiano, Keppeler; Elsa Rodrigues, Hardy.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta investigação foi observar a distribuição vertical da comunidade do zooplâncton no Lago Amapá (10º2'36"S e 67º50'24"W), localizado na planície de inundação do Rio Acre. Amostragens foram conduzidas em três diferentes profundidades da coluna da água, considerando aspectos sazonais do [...] zooplâncton, parâmetros físicos, químicos e biológicos. Coletas foram realizadas semanalmente com Garrafa de Van Dorn. As espécies apresentaram maiores concentrações no meio da coluna da água. Foram encontradas 38 espécies, assim distribuídas: Rotifera (30), Cladocera (5) e Cyclopoida (3). A temperatura da coluna da água em geral apresentou-se alta, em torno de 30ºC, com pequena variação, resultando em baixa viscosidade. O índice de Jaccard, comparando-se as três estações de coletas, demonstrou que durante a fase de águas baixas, as estações 1 e 3 foram as mais similares (Cj = 0.7058), especialmente no meio da coluna da água. Lago Amapá apresentou características em conformidade com o Modelo do Distúrbio Intermediário, favorecendo a colonização de grupos oportunistas, tais como rotíferos. Abstract in english The aim of investigation was to study the model of vertical distribution in Lago Amapá, taking into consideration the seasonality of its zooplanktonic composition. Lago Amapá (10º2'36"S and 67º50'24"W) is located in the floodplain of the Rio Acre. Samplings were conducted at three different depths o [...] f the water column, to study the vertical distribution of zooplankton populations and determine some physico-chemical and biological parameters of Lago Amapá. Weekly samples were taken with a Van Dorn sampler. The species showed greater concentrations at the by means of water column. Thirty-eight zooplankton species were found in the samples represented by Rotifera (30), Cladocera (5) and Cyclopoida (3). The temperature of the water column showed a tendency toward relatively high values (about 30ºC) with little variation, consequently resulting in low viscosity. Based of Jaccard's index, it was seen that during the low-water phase, S1 and S3 of the three sampling stations studied, had greater similarity (Cj = 0.7058) in the middle of the water column. Lago Amapá showed characteristics in line with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis model, favoring colonization by opportunistic species such as rotifers.

  15. Internal wave-mediated shading causes frequent vertical migrations in fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2012-04-25

    We provide evidence that internal waves cause frequent vertical migrations (FVM) in fishes. Acoustic data from the Benguela Current revealed that pelagic scattering layers of fish below ~140 m moved in opposite phases to internal waves, ascending ~20 m towards the wave trough and descending from the wave crest. At the trough, the downward displacement of upper waters and the upward migration of fish created an overlapping zone. Near-bottom fish correspondingly left the benthic boundary zone at the wave trough, ascending into an acoustic scattering layer likely consisting of zooplankton and then descending to the benthic boundary zone at the wave crest. We suggest that this vertical fish migration is a response to fluctuations in light intensity of 3 to 4 orders of magnitude caused by shading from a turbid surface layer that had chlorophyll a values of 3 to 4 mg m−3 and varied in thickness from ~15 to 50 m at a temporal scale corresponding to the internal wave period (30 min). This migration frequency thus is much higher than that of the common and widespread light-associated diel vertical migration. Vertical movements affect prey encounters, growth, and survival. We hypothesize that FVM increase the likelihood of prey encounters and the time for safe visual foraging among planktivorous fish, thereby contributing to efficient trophic transfer in major upwelling areas.

  16. Bacteria dispersal by hitchhiking on zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Dziallas, Claudia; Leunert, Franziska; Tang, Kam W

    2010-01-01

    nonpathogenic bacteria has shown that direct association with zooplankton has significant influences on the bacteria's physiology and ecology. We used stratified migration columns to study vertical dispersal of hitchhiking bacteria through migrating zooplankton across a density gradient that was otherwise...... impenetrable for bacteria in both upward and downward directions (conveyor-belt hypothesis). The strength of our experiments is to permit quantitative estimation of transport and release of associated bacteria: vertical migration of Daphnia magna yielded an average dispersal rate of 1.3 x 10(5) x cells x...

  17. Do Daphnia use metalimnetic organic matter in a north temperate lake? An analysis of vertical migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Chase Julian; Cline, Timothy J.; Cole, Jonathan J.; Hodgson, James R.; Pace, Michael L.; Weidel, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    Diel vertical migration of zooplankton is influenced by a variety of factors including predation, food, and temperature. Research has recently shifted from a focus on factors influencing migration to how migration affects nutrient cycling and habitat coupling. Here we evaluate the potential for Daphnia migrations to incorporate metalimnetic productivity in a well-studied northern Wisconsin lake. We use prior studies conducted between 1985 and 1990 and current diel migration data (2008) to compare day and night Daphnia vertical distributions with the depth of the metalimnion (between the thermocline and 1% light depth). Daphnia migrate from a daytime mean residence depth of between about 1.7 and 2.5 m to a nighttime mean residence depth of between 0 and 2.0 m. These migrations are consistent between the prior period and current measurements. Daytime residence depths of Daphnia are rarely deep enough to reach the metalimnion; hence, metalimnetic primary production is unlikely to be an important resource for Daphnia in this system.

  18. Bacteria dispersal by hitchhiking on zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Dziallas, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Microorganisms and zooplankton are both important components of aquatic food webs. Although both inhabit the same environment, they are often regarded as separate functional units that are indirectly connected through nutrient cycling and trophic cascade. However, research on pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria has shown that direct association with zooplankton has significant influences on the bacteria's physiology and ecology. We used stratified migration columns to study vertical dispersal of hitchhiking bacteria through migrating zooplankton across a density gradient that was otherwise impenetrable for bacteria in both upward and downward directions (conveyor-belt hypothesis). The strength of our experiments is to permit quantitative estimation of transport and release of associated bacteria: vertical migration of Daphnia magna yielded an average dispersal rate of 1.3 x 10(5) x cells x Daphnia(-1) x migration cycle(-1) for the lake bacterium Brevundimonas sp. Bidirectional vertical dispersal by migrating D. magna was also shown for two other bacterial species, albeit at lower rates. The prediction that diurnally migrating zooplankton acquire different attached bacterial communities from hypolimnion and epilimnion between day and night was subsequently confirmed in our field study. In mesotrophic Lake Nehmitz, D. hyalina showed pronounced diel vertical migration along with significant diurnal changes in attached bacterial community composition. These results confirm that hitchhiking on migrating animals can be an important mechanism for rapidly relocating microorganisms, including pathogens, allowing them to access otherwise inaccessible resources.

  19. Vertical and horizontal distribution of zooplankton and polar cod in southern Baffin Bay (66-71°N) in September 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Sanne; Dünweber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Zooplankton are the link connecting primary producers to higher trophic levels, and knowing their distribution and community is important for predicting the distribution of predator species, like fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. However, data from open Arctic oceans are still scarce. In autumn, tens of millions of the planktivorous little auks (Alle alle) (about 75 % of the world’s population) and millions of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) pass through the Baffin Bay. To investigate their potential food sources, we investigated the spatial and vertical distribution of zooplankton and small fishes in the upper 500 m of southern Baffin Bay in September 2009. The zooplankton community was dominated by copepods (55 % of abundance in the upper 500 m), primarily of the genus Calanus. Other important zooplankton taxa included Limacina helicina, Chaetognatha, and Cirripedia nauplii. On the Greenland Shelf, most Calanus were late copepodite stages and most were found at the depths of >200 m, suggesting they werein diapause. On the Canadian Shelf, there were relatively more Calanus in the near-surface layers, which were probably still actively feeding and which were available to visual predators such as seabirds and fish. The acoustic survey showed the highest density of polar cod Boreogadus saida in the upper 50 m on the western part of the Greenland Shelf. A particularly high biomass of both zooplankton and polar cod was found in the central part of the basin in association with a local relatively shallow area

  20. Diel Vertical Migration Thresholds of Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light and nutrient availability change throughout dinoflagellate diel vertical migration (DVM) and/or with subpopulation location in the water column along the west Florida shelf. Typically, the vertical depth of the shelf is greater than the distance a subpopulation can vertical...

  1. Vertical distribution, composition, and abundance of crustacean zooplankton in the offshore waters of Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1975, zooplankton samples were collected on eight cruises (April to November) in the southern basin of Lake Michigan. Four stations in the northern basin were also sampled in January during a cruise aboard the USCGC Westwind. One of the goals of this study was to quantitatively estimate the standing crop of herbivorous crustacean zooplankton in units that would represent their functional roles as consumers of phytoplankton

  2. Vertical variability of trophic positions of zooplankton in the deep ocean.

    OpenAIRE

    Bode, A.; Mompeán-de-la-Rosa, M.C. (María del Carmen); Álvarez-Ossorio-Costa, M.T. (María Teresa); Fernández de Puelles, M.L.; Echevarría, F.; González-Gordillo, J.I.; Hernández-León, S.; Irigoien, X. (Xabier); Acuña, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Zooplankton plays a key role in oceanic ecosystems. However, the trophic ecology of organisms in deep layers of the ocean is poorly known. In this study we analyze the variability of trophic positions of zooplankton collected across three ocean basins in the epi-, meso and bathypelagic domains. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were used as indicators of the sources of nutrients and positions within the food web. The enrichment in heavy nitrogen isotopes with depth and the correlation betwe...

  3. Diel vertical migration in deep sea plankton is finely tuned to latitudinal and seasonal day length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haren, Hans; Compton, Tanya J

    2013-01-01

    Diel vertical migration (DVM) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in marine and freshwater plankton communities. Most commonly, plankton migrate to surface waters at dusk and return to deeper waters at dawn. Up until recently, it was thought that DVM was triggered by a relative change in visible light intensity. However, evidence has shown that DVM also occurs in the deep sea where no direct and background sunlight penetrates. To identify whether such DVM is associated with latitudinal and seasonal day light variation, one and a half years of recorded acoustic data, a measure of zooplankton abundance and movement, were examined. Acoustic Doppler current profilers, moored at eight different sub-tropical latitudes in the North-Atlantic Ocean, measured in the vertical range of 500-1600 m. DVM was observed to follow day length variation with a change in season and latitude at all depths. DVM followed the rhythm of local sunrise and sunset precisely between 500 and 650 m. It continued below 650 m, where the deepest penetrable irradiance level are solar diurnal and seasonal rhythms in deep sea plankton motions. In accordance with this hypothesis, the deepest plankton were consistently the first to migrate upwards. PMID:23717613

  4. Dead zone or oasis in the open ocean? Zooplankton distribution and migration in low-oxygen modewater eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauss, H.; Christiansen, S.; Schütte, F.; Kiko, R.; Edvam Lima, M.; Rodrigues, E.; Karstensen, J.; Löscher, C. R.; Körtzinger, A.; Fiedler, B.

    2015-11-01

    The eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) features a mesopelagic oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) at approximately 300-600 m depth. Here, oxygen concentrations rarely fall below 40 ?mol O2 kg-1, but are thought to decline in the course of climate change. The recent discovery of mesoscale eddies that harbour a shallow suboxic (copepods, euphausiids), (ii) migration to the shallow OMZ core during daytime, but paying O2 debt at the surface at nighttime (e.g. siphonophores, Oncaea spp., eucalanoid copepods), (iii) residing in the shallow OMZ day and night (e.g. ostracods, polychaetes), and iv) DVM through the shallow OMZ from deeper oxygenated depths to the surface and back. For strategy (i), (ii) and (iv), compression of the habitable volume in the surface may increase prey-predator encounter rates, rendering zooplankton more vulnerable to predation and potentially making the eddy surface a foraging hotspot for higher trophic levels. With respect to long-term effects of ocean deoxygenation, we expect zooplankton avoidance of the mesopelagic OMZ to set in if oxygen levels decline below approximately 20 ?mol O2 kg-1. This may result in a positive feedback on the OMZ oxygen consumption rates, since zooplankton respiration within the OMZ as well as active flux of dissolved and particulate organic matter into the OMZ will decline.

  5. Effects of net cages on the vertical distribution of zooplankton in a semi-arid reservoir, northeastern Brazil Interferência de tanques-rede na distribuição vertical do zooplâncton num açude do semi-árido, nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glécia Trinta de Paula Freitas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Carneiro reservoir is an aquatic environment used for net cage aquaculture activities, located in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. Vertical distribution was evaluated in order to determine the effects of organic enrichment induced by aquaculture on zooplankton movements. METHODS: three replicate samples were collected during midday and midnight at each of three depths along the water column (i.e. surface: 0 m; middle: 2 m and bottom: 4 m at two sites (near and far from the net cages. Samples were collected using a 3 L volume capacity Van Dorn bottle. The collected individuals were preserved in a 4% formaldehyde solution saturated with sugar and, later, identified and counted on a Sedgwick-Rafter chamber under a microscope, considering a minimum of 100 individuals per subsample. RESULTS: higher species richness and density were observed at the N station (nearby the net cages compared to the F station (distant from the net cages. With few exceptions, Rotifer species did not exhibit typical vertical migration patterns, concentrating at bottom depths during daytime and at intermediate depths during nighttime. Brachionus dolabratus and Hexarthra mira were the only species to show reverse vertical migration at the N station, in opposition to patterns of the cyclopoid copepod Termocyclops crassus. Furthermore, vertical migration patterns were not clear for Cladocera and Copepoda species nearby the net cages, but were rather clear at the F station. CONCLUSIONS: the presence of fish net cages increased zooplankton species richness (mostly rotifers and density. Vertical movements were more pronounced at sites distant from net cages, suggesting that the increased food availability reduced the need for the typical vertical movements during daytime at sites nearby the net cages.OBJETIVO: O açude do Carneiro é um ambiente aquático utilizado para atividades de aquicultura em tanques-rede, localizado na região semi-árida do nordeste do Brasil. A distribuição vertical foi avaliada com a finalidade de determinar os efeitos do enriquecimento orgânico induzido pela aquicultura nos movimentos do zooplâncton. MÉTODOS: três réplicas amostrais foram coletadas à meia noite (0:00 horas e ao meio dia (12:00 horas em cada uma de três profundidades da coluna d'água (i.e. superfície: 0 m; meio: 2 m e fundo: 4 m em duas áreas (próximo e distante dos tanques-rede. As amostras foram coletadas utilizando uma garrafa de Van Dorn com 3 L de capacidade volumétrica. Os indivíduos coletados foram preservados em uma solução de formol a 4% saturada com açúcar e, posteriormente, identificados e quantificados com uma câmara de contagem Sedgwick-Rafter sob microscópio, considerando um mínimo de 100 indivíduos por subamostra. RESULTADOS: a riqueza de espécies e a densidade foram maiores na estação N (próxima aos tanques-rede quando comparadas com a estação F (distante dos tanques-rede. Com poucas exceções, espécies de Rotifera não exibiram padrões típicos de migração vertical, concentrando-se nas camadas mais profundas durante o dia e nas camadas intermediárias durante a noite. Brachionus dolabratus e Hexarthra mira foram as únicas espécies que mostraram padrões de migração vertical inversos na estação N, em oposição aos padrões do copépodo ciclopóide Termocyclops crassus. Além disso, padrões de migração vertical não foram claros para as espécies de Cladocera e Copepoda próximos aos tanques-rede, mas foram evidentes na estação F. CONCLUSÕES: a presença de tanques-rede para peixes aumentou a riqueza de espécies (a maioria rotíferos e a densidade de zooplâncton. Movimentos verticais foram mais pronunciados nos locais distantes dos tanques-rede, sugerindo que o aumento da disponibilidade de alimento reduziu a necessidade dos movimentos verticais típicos durante o dia, nos locais próximos aos tanques-rede.

  6. Effects of net cages on the vertical distribution of zooplankton in a semi-arid reservoir, northeastern Brazil / Interferência de tanques-rede na distribuição vertical do zooplâncton num açude do semi-árido, nordeste do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Glécia Trinta de Paula, Freitas; Maria Cristina, Crispim; Hênio do Nascimento de, Melo Júnior.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O açude do Carneiro é um ambiente aquático utilizado para atividades de aquicultura em tanques-rede, localizado na região semi-árida do nordeste do Brasil. A distribuição vertical foi avaliada com a finalidade de determinar os efeitos do enriquecimento orgânico induzido pela aquicultura no [...] s movimentos do zooplâncton. MÉTODOS: três réplicas amostrais foram coletadas à meia noite (0:00 horas) e ao meio dia (12:00 horas ) em cada uma de três profundidades da coluna d'água (i.e. superfície: 0 m; meio: 2 m e fundo: 4 m) em duas áreas (próximo e distante dos tanques-rede). As amostras foram coletadas utilizando uma garrafa de Van Dorn com 3 L de capacidade volumétrica. Os indivíduos coletados foram preservados em uma solução de formol a 4% saturada com açúcar e, posteriormente, identificados e quantificados com uma câmara de contagem Sedgwick-Rafter sob microscópio, considerando um mínimo de 100 indivíduos por subamostra. RESULTADOS: a riqueza de espécies e a densidade foram maiores na estação N (próxima aos tanques-rede) quando comparadas com a estação F (distante dos tanques-rede). Com poucas exceções, espécies de Rotifera não exibiram padrões típicos de migração vertical, concentrando-se nas camadas mais profundas durante o dia e nas camadas intermediárias durante a noite. Brachionus dolabratus e Hexarthra mira foram as únicas espécies que mostraram padrões de migração vertical inversos na estação N, em oposição aos padrões do copépodo ciclopóide Termocyclops crassus. Além disso, padrões de migração vertical não foram claros para as espécies de Cladocera e Copepoda próximos aos tanques-rede, mas foram evidentes na estação F. CONCLUSÕES: a presença de tanques-rede para peixes aumentou a riqueza de espécies (a maioria rotíferos) e a densidade de zooplâncton. Movimentos verticais foram mais pronunciados nos locais distantes dos tanques-rede, sugerindo que o aumento da disponibilidade de alimento reduziu a necessidade dos movimentos verticais típicos durante o dia, nos locais próximos aos tanques-rede. Abstract in english AIM: Carneiro reservoir is an aquatic environment used for net cage aquaculture activities, located in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. Vertical distribution was evaluated in order to determine the effects of organic enrichment induced by aquaculture on zooplankton movements. METHODS: th [...] ree replicate samples were collected during midday and midnight at each of three depths along the water column (i.e. surface: 0 m; middle: 2 m and bottom: 4 m) at two sites (near and far from the net cages). Samples were collected using a 3 L volume capacity Van Dorn bottle. The collected individuals were preserved in a 4% formaldehyde solution saturated with sugar and, later, identified and counted on a Sedgwick-Rafter chamber under a microscope, considering a minimum of 100 individuals per subsample. RESULTS: higher species richness and density were observed at the N station (nearby the net cages) compared to the F station (distant from the net cages). With few exceptions, Rotifer species did not exhibit typical vertical migration patterns, concentrating at bottom depths during daytime and at intermediate depths during nighttime. Brachionus dolabratus and Hexarthra mira were the only species to show reverse vertical migration at the N station, in opposition to patterns of the cyclopoid copepod Termocyclops crassus. Furthermore, vertical migration patterns were not clear for Cladocera and Copepoda species nearby the net cages, but were rather clear at the F station. CONCLUSIONS: the presence of fish net cages increased zooplankton species richness (mostly rotifers) and density. Vertical movements were more pronounced at sites distant from net cages, suggesting that the increased food availability reduced the need for the typical vertical movements during daytime at sites nearby the net cages.

  7. Effects of diel vertical migration on ephippia production in Daphnia

    OpenAIRE

    Alekseev, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Fish presence in experimentally simulated temperature conditions (limno-towers) led to diel vertical migration and resulted in a decrease of ephippia production in Daphnia pulicaria. Diel fluctuation of food, temperature and day length similar to those experienced by migrating Daphnia were tested in laboratory experiments with flow-through-systems. Daphnids were kept under these conditions for 15 days and the proportions of females producing an ephippium were determined. In addition, maturati...

  8. Multiple threat responses in zooplankton - from communities to individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Ekvall, Mikael T.

    2015-01-01

    Most organisms on Earth live a life where they are exposed to multiple and variable threats. In order to maximise survival they need to be able to perceive and respond to these threats. Two common threats that crustacean zooplankton are faced with are predation and ultraviolet radiation (UVR). To cope with these threats zooplankton use different strategies such as diel vertical migration and the accumulation of photoprotective compounds. In this thesis I study the threat responses of z...

  9. The distribution and vertical flux of fecal pellets from large zooplankton in Monterey bay and coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagg, Michael J.; Jackson, George A.; Checkley, David M.

    2014-12-01

    We sampled zooplankton and fecal pellets in the upper 200 m of Monterey Bay and nearby coastal regions in California, USA. On several occasions, we observed high concentrations of large pellets that appeared to be produced during night-time by dielly migrating euphausiids. High concentrations of pellets were found in near-surface waters only when euphausiids co-occurred with high concentrations of large (>10 ?m) phytoplankton. Peak concentrations of pellets at mid-depth (100 or 150 m) during the day were consistent with the calculated sinking speeds of pellets produced near the surface at night. At these high flux locations (HI group), pellet concentrations declined below mid-depth. In contrast, at locations where the phytoplankton assemblage was dominated by small phytoplankton cells (populations were high. Protozooplankton concentrations did not affect this pattern. We concluded that the day and night differences in pellet concentration and flux in the HI profiles were mostly due to sinking of dielly-pulsed inputs in the surface layer, and that small zooplankton (Oithona, Oncaea), heterotrophic dinoflagellates, and bacterial activity probably caused some pellet degradation or consumption below 100 m. We estimated that consumption of sinking pellets by large copepods was insignificant. High fluxes of pellets were episodic because they required both high concentrations of large phytoplankton and large stocks of euphausiids. Under these conditions, flux events overwhelmed retention mechanisms, resulting in large exports of organic matter from the upper 200 m.

  10. Vertical instability and inclination excitation during planetary migration

    CERN Document Server

    Voyatzis, G; Tsiganis, K

    2014-01-01

    We consider a two-planet system, which migrates under the influence of dissipative forces that mimic the effects of gas-driven (Type II) migration. It has been shown that, in the planar case, migration leads to resonant capture after an evolution that forces the system to follow families of periodic orbits. Starting with planets that differ slightly from a coplanar configuration, capture can, also, occur and, additionally, excitation of planetary inclinations has been observed in some cases. We show that excitation of inclinations occurs, when the planar families of periodic orbits, which are followed during the initial stages of planetary migration, become vertically unstable. At these points, {\\em vertical critical orbits} may give rise to generating stable families of $3D$ periodic orbits, which drive the evolution of the migrating planets to non-coplanar motion. We have computed and present here the vertical critical orbits of the $2/1$ and $3/1$ resonances, for various values of the planetary mass ratio....

  11. Vertical migration and positioning behavior of copepods in a mangrove estuary: Interactions between tidal, diel light and lunar cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Li-Lee; Chong, Ving Ching; Ooi, Ai Lin; Sasekumar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Two-hourly zooplankton samplings encompassing tidal (semi-diurnal), diel (24 h), and lunar (4 phases) cycles during the dry (July 2003) and wet (November 2003) monsoon periods were conducted in the Matang estuary to investigate the vertical distribution and behavior of five different groups of copepods (estuarine, euryhaline, marine euryhaline, stenohaline and nocturnal pontellids) in response to the tidal and light regime. Diel vertical migration (DVM) was evident for all copepod groups but the observed patterns differed among species and sampling period (wet or dry and neap or spring tide). Tidally-induced vertical migration (TVM), superimposed by DVM, was observed for estuarine, marine euryhaline and stenohaline copepods but not for euryhaline and nocturnal pontellid copepods. Estuarine copepods tended to ascend during night-flood tide and descent to the bottom during day-ebb tide; this suggests a selective mechanism to penetrate upstream and maintain position in the estuary. In contrast, the marine euryhaline and stenohaline copepods remained at the bottom especially during day-flood tide and ascended into the water column during night-ebb tide; this suggests a selective mechanism to avoid upstream transport. Euryhaline copepods did not respond to tidal advection probably due to their wide range of salinity tolerance, while the large nocturnal pontellid copepods have strong swimming ability. Adaptive vertical migration appears to be a major factor structuring the copepod community in tropical estuaries, and its occurrence in most copepods suggests that neritic marine zooplankton tidally-advected into estuaries and nearshore waters can survive better than previously thought.

  12. Reproducing 137Cs vertical migration in Spanish soils - Reproducing 137Cs and 90Sr vertical migration in Spanish mainland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of caesium's and strontium's activity migration study developed in Spanish mainland soils, there has been obtained convective - diffusive migration equation that will reproduce adequately the movement that an activity deposit would follow in this land. Taking into account the dependence on rain that apparent convection velocity shows, it has been defined a new migration parameter that depends only on soil's properties. By means of a least square method and fitting the migration equation to experimental activity profiles, the values showed by the migration parameters in the studied soils, characteristics of that area, have been obtained. After that, there have been obtained the mean values of these parameters for each defined group that, depending on soil's texture, have been observed in the study performed about the movement of both radionuclides in soils and to whom these soils belong. Using these mean values and obtained equation, it has been properly reproduce those vertical activity profiles that were experimentally determined. In order to validate these values, a new sampling programme is carrying out in the north of Spain and, with obtained new sampling points' information, is going to verify if, indeed, obtained mean values also reproduce these new sampling points' activity vertical profile. (authors)

  13. Diel vertical migration arising in a habitat selection game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainmont, Julie; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Visser, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Predator and prey react to each other, adjusting their behavior to maximize their fitness and optimizing their food intake while keeping their predation risk as low as possible. In a pelagic environment, prey reduce their predation mortality by adopting a diel vertical migration (DVM) strategy, avoiding their predator during their peak performance by finding refuge in deep layers during daylight hours and feeding at the surface during the night. Due to the duality of the interaction between prey...

  14. Inverse vertical migration and feeding in glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale)

    KAUST Repository

    Dypvik, Eivind

    2011-11-08

    A bottom-mounted upward-facing 38-kHz echo sounder was deployed at ~400 m and cabled to shore in Masfjorden (~60 52?N, ~5 24?E), Norway. The scattering layers seen during autumn (September-October) 2008 were identified by trawling. Glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale) were mainly distributed below ~200 m and displayed three different diel behavioral strategies: normal diel vertical migration (NDVM), inverse DVM (IDVM) and no DVM (NoDVM). The IDVM group was the focus of this study. It consisted of 2-year and older individuals migrating to ~200-270 m during the daytime, while descending back to deeper than ~270 m during the night. Stomach content analysis revealed increased feeding during the daytime on overwintering Calanus sp. We conclude that visually searching glacier lanternfish performing IDVM benefit from the faint daytime light in mid-waters when preying on overwintering Calanus sp. 2011 The Author(s).

  15. Diatom vertical migration within land-fast Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumack, C. F.; Juhl, A. R.; Krembs, C.

    2014-11-01

    Light levels inside first-year, landfast sea ice were experimentally altered by manipulating overlying snow depths. Irradiance available for ice algae growing near the ice-bottom, and under the ice, was highly dependent on snow depths ranging from 0 to > 30 cm. Importantly, algal vertical distributions also changed under different irradiances. Under thick snow (low light), the majority of algae were found several cm above the ice-seawater interface, while progressively more were found nearer the interface at locations with thinner overlying snow (higher light). Short-term field experiments suggested that ice algae were able to reposition themselves within the ice column within 3 days after manipulating snow depths. Laboratory gliding rate measurements of a cultured ice diatom suggested that it is capable of daily cm-scale movement. Vertical migration may help ice diatoms balance opposing light and nutrient resource gradients, similar to strategies used by some benthic and pelagic algae. Moreover, when ice algae congregate near the ice-seawater interface, they may be especially susceptible to loss from the ice environment. Vertical repositioning in response to changing light dynamics may be a mechanism to optimize between vertically-opposing environmental factors and help explain the connection between melting snow cover and export of biomass from sea ice.

  16. Effects of diel vertical migration on ephippia production in Daphnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor ALEKSEEV

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish presence in experimentally simulated temperature conditions (limno-towers led to diel vertical migration and resulted in a decrease of ephippia production in Daphnia pulicaria. Diel fluctuation of food, temperature and day length similar to those experienced by migrating Daphnia were tested in laboratory experiments with flow-through-systems. Daphnids were kept under these conditions for 15 days and the proportions of females producing an ephippium were determined. In addition, maturation time, survival to maturation, size of the first clutch and female dry weight (without eggs on day 15 were traced. The most important factor affecting ephippia production in migrating Daphnia was photoperiod change, and when mother and embryo are exposed to alternating light conditions, these are thought to have the effect on the mother of acting as a signal to stop ephippia production. Such effects might be explained by the different sensitiveness to light intensity in females carrying an embryo and an embryo itself in broods. Fish presence forced Daphnia to stay in low-light conditions during daytime hours, to avoid attacks by fish. The Daphnia were able to check light intensity constantly by short vertical jumps above a light-threshold that was confirmed experimentally in limno-towers. The dim conditions were possibly light enough for adults to check day length, but were too dark for embryos shaded by the mother's body. Food conditions played a relatively small role in the process, and no effects of temperature on ephippia production were found. As expected, food affected the size of the first clutch, and temperature controlled the time to maturation. Photoperiod had a marginally significant influence on the time to maturation in Daphnia. A hypothesis on the role of photoperiod as the key factor for Daphnia life cyclic recurrence and other seasonal adaptations is proposed.

  17. Vertically averaged approaches for CO 2 migration with solubility trapping

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, S. E.

    2011-05-20

    The long-term storage security of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) is an essential component of geological carbon sequestration operations. In the postinjection phase, the mobile CO2 plume migrates in large part because of buoyancy forces, following the natural topography of the geological formation. The primary trapping mechanisms are capillary and solubility trapping, which evolve over hundreds to thousands of years and can immobilize a significant portion of the mobile CO2 plume. However, both the migration and trapping processes are inherently complex, spanning multiple spatial and temporal scales. Using an appropriate model that can capture both large- and small-scale effects is essential for understanding the role of these processes on the long-term storage security of CO2 sequestration operations. Traditional numerical models quickly become prohibitively expensive for the type of large-scale, long-term modeling that is necessary for characterizing the migration and immobilization of CO2 during the postinjection period. We present an alternative modeling option that combines vertically integrated governing equations with an upscaled representation of the dissolution-convection process. With this approach, we demonstrate the effect of different modeling choices for typical large-scale geological systems and show that practical calculations can be performed at the temporal and spatial scales of interest. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Diel vertical migration arising in a habitat selection game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainmont, Julie; Thygesen, Uffe HØgsbro

    2013-01-01

    Predator and prey react to each other, adjusting their behavior to maximize their fitness and optimizing their food intake while keeping their predation risk as low as possible. In a pelagic environment, prey reduce their predation mortality by adopting a diel vertical migration (DVM) strategy, avoiding their predator during their peak performance by finding refuge in deep layers during daylight hours and feeding at the surface during the night. Due to the duality of the interaction between prey and predator, we used a game theory approach to investigate whether DVM can be a suitable strategy for the predator as well as the prey. We formulated three scenarios in plankton ecology in order to address this question. A novel finding is that mixed strategies emerge as optimal over a range of the parameter space, where part of the predator or prey population adopts a DVM while the rest adopt one or other "sit and wait" strategies

  19. Effects of net cages on the vertical distribution of zooplankton in a semi-arid reservoir, northeastern Brazil Interferência de tanques-rede na distribuição vertical do zooplâncton num açude do semi-árido, nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Glécia Trinta de Paula Freitas; Maria Cristina Crispim; Hênio do Nascimento de Melo Júnior

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Carneiro reservoir is an aquatic environment used for net cage aquaculture activities, located in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. Vertical distribution was evaluated in order to determine the effects of organic enrichment induced by aquaculture on zooplankton movements. METHODS: three replicate samples were collected during midday and midnight at each of three depths along the water column (i.e. surface: 0 m; middle: 2 m and bottom: 4 m) at two sites (near and far from the n...

  20. Exact solutions in a model of vertical gas migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, Dmitriy B.; Patzek, Tad W.; Benson, Sally M.

    2006-06-27

    This work is motivated by the growing interest in injectingcarbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoidingatmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide and consequent global warming.One of the key questions regarding the feasibility of this technology isthe potential rate of leakage out of the primary storage formation. Weseek exact solutions in a model of gas flow driven by a combination ofbuoyancy, viscous and capillary forces. Different combinations of theseforces and characteristic length scales of the processes lead todifferent time scaling and different types of solutions. In the case of athin, tight seal, where the impact of gravity is negligible relative tocapillary and viscous forces, a Ryzhik-type solution implies square-rootof time scaling of plume propagation velocity. In the general case, a gasplume has two stable zones, which can be described by travelling-wavesolutions. The theoretical maximum of the velocity of plume migrationprovides a conservative estimate for the time of vertical migration.Although the top of the plume has low gas saturation, it propagates witha velocity close to the theoretical maximum. The bottom of the plumeflows significantly more slowly at a higher gas saturation. Due to localheterogeneities, the plume can break into parts. Individual plumes alsocan coalesce and from larger plumes. The analytical results are appliedto studying carbon dioxide flow caused by leaks from deep geologicalformations used for CO2 storage. The results are also applicable formodeling flow of natural gas leaking from seasonal gas storage, or formodeling of secondary hydrocarbon migration.

  1. Mathematical modeling of cascading migration in a tri-trophic food-chain system

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta, S.; Chowdhury, T; Chattopadhyay, J.

    2013-01-01

    Diel vertical migration is a behavioral antipredator defense that is shaped by a trade-off between higher predation risk in surface waters and reduced growth in deeper waters. The strength of migration of zooplankton increases with a rise in the abundance of predators and their exudates (kairomone). Recent studies span multiple trophic levels, which lead to the concept of coupled vertical migration. The migrations that occur at one trophic level can affect the vertical migration of the next l...

  2. Vertical migration of Cs-137 with soil particles and water-resistant microagregates along with profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of Cs-137 vertical migration with soil particles and water-resistant microagregates along soil profile have been studied. It have been shown that soil particles and water-resistant microagregates make a substantial calibration into the vertical migration

  3. Depth-selection patterns and diel vertical migration of Daphnia ambigua (Crustacea: Cladocera) in lake El Plateado / Patrones de selección de profundidad y migración vertical de Daphnia ambigua (Crustacea: Cladocera) en el lago El Plateado

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RODRIGO, RAMOS-JILIBERTO; LUIS R., ZÚÑIGA.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Los lagos templados y sub-tropicales a menudo presentan una marcada estructura vertical durante la estación cálida que involucra importantes diferencias espaciales de variables físicas, químicas y biológicas. El zooplancton se encuentra por ello expuesto a un ambiente marcadamente heterogéneo en su [...] dimensión vertical. En este trabajo analizamos la distribución vertical del cladócero D. ambigua en el lago eutrófico y monomíctico El Plateado, a mediodía y a medianoche, y su relación con la distribución vertical de la temperatura del agua y concentración de oxígeno disuelto. Intentamos también definir si esta población exhibe o no una conducta de migración vertical. Los resultados muestran cambios significativos en la distribución vertical día/noche de D. ambigua durante su periodo de crecimiento, con excepción de la última fecha. Los datos revelan también que la profundidad promedio seleccionada por D. ambigua disminuye en el tiempo, así como la amplitud de la migración vertical. Dentro del periodo de estratificación del lago, la temperatura aparece positivamente correlacionada y el oxígeno negativamente correlacionado con la frecuencia de D. ambigua. Se sugiere que la concentración de oxígeno juega un papel crucial en la modulación de la conducta de migración vertical de D. ambigua en el lago El Plateado, con importantes consecuencias para el entendimiento del patrón atípico de dinámica poblacional que presenta esta especie Abstract in english Eutrophic temperate and sub-tropical lakes often exhibit a marked vertical structure during the warm season that involves important spatial differences of physical, chemical and biological variables. Therefore, zooplankton is exposed to a highly heterogeneous environment in the vertical dimension. I [...] n this work, We analyze the depth-distribution of the cladoceran Daphnia ambigua in the eutrophic, monomictic lake El Plateado at midday and midnight, along with its relationship with the vertical distribution of water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration. We also attempt to define whether or not this population exhibits a diel vertical migration. The results show significant changes in the day/night vertical distribution of D. ambigua during its growing season, with the exception of the last date. Also, the data revealed that average depth selected by D. ambigua becomes shallower with time, and the amplitude of the vertical migration decreases throughout the season. During the period of lake stratification, temperature appears positively correlated, and oxygen negatively correlated to the frequency of D. ambigua. It is suggested that oxygen concentration plays a crucial role in modulating the vertical migration behavior of D. ambigua in lake El Plateado, which has important consequences for understanding the atypical pattern of population dynamics exhibited by this species

  4. Vertical and horizontal distribution of zooplankton and polar cod in southern Baffin Bay (66-71°N) in September 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Sanne; Dünweber, Michael; Møller, Eva Friis; Schiedek, Doris; Oskarsson, Gudmundur J.; Riget, Frank Farsø; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Mosbech, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Zooplankton are the link connecting primary producers to higher trophic levels, and knowing their distribution and community is important for predicting the distribution of predator species, like fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. However, data from open Arctic oceans are still scarce. In autumn, tens of millions of the planktivorous little auks (Alle alle) (about 75 % of the world’s population) and millions of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) pass through the Baffin Bay. To investigate their ...

  5. Vertical soil migration of radionuclide fallout from the Chernobyl' accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most suitable model for describing the behavior of radionuclide fallout on a soil surface is quasidiffusion transfer with directional transfer taken into account. The parameter values for this have been determined previously and are supplemented by the results of this work. To investigate the initial radionuclide distribution along the soil profile, monolithic soil samples 5 cm thick were taken in June-September 1986 in areas which had been subjected to contamination due to the Chernobyl' accident. The samples taken were cut up into layers. The first layer, 0.5 cm thick, was cut off from the surface of the soil monolith together with the grass. The next layer cut off was also 0.5 cm thick. Then two layers, each 1 cm in thickness, were cut off. The thickness of the last layer was 2 cm. The vertical distribution of radionuclides along the soil profile which was examined may be called the initial distribution, which will then change due to nonimmediate migration of radionuclides in the soil. Based on the research which has been performed, the following conclusions may be drawn. One portion of the radionuclides resulting from fallout is trapped by plant cover, while the other enters immediately into the soil. For a thick plant covering, about 80% of the radionuclide fallout is sorbed by the grass; for sparse cover, about 40%. The radionuclides entering the soil along with rainwater penetrate into the soil depths, producing contamination which falls off exponentially with depth. The exponent index is close to 1 cm-1. In a forest, the main amount of radionuclide fallout is trapped by litter. Approximately 10% of the contamination fallout penetrates beneath the litter

  6. Potential acidification impacts on zooplankton in CCS leakage scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Effects of CCS techniques and ocean acidification on zooplankton are under-studied. • Vulnerable zooplankton are meso-, bathypelagic and vertically migrating species. • Impacts include impaired calcification, reproduction, development and survival. • Need for modelling studies combining physico-chemical with ecological impacts. -- Abstract: Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies involve localized acidification of significant volumes of seawater, inhabited mainly by planktonic species. Knowledge on potential impacts of these techniques on the survival and physiology of zooplankton, and subsequent consequences for ecosystem health in targeted areas, is scarce. The recent literature has a focus on anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere, leading to enhanced absorption of CO2 by the oceans and a lowered seawater pH, termed ocean acidification. These studies explore the effects of changes in seawater chemistry, as predicted by climate models for the end of this century, on marine biota. Early studies have used unrealistically severe CO2/pH values in this context, but are relevant for CCS leakage scenarios. Little studied meso- and bathypelagic species of the deep sea may be especially vulnerable, as well as vertically migrating zooplankton, which require significant residence times at great depths as part of their life cycle

  7. Vertical migrations of herring, Clupea harengus, larvae in relation to light and prey distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Kiørboe, Thomas; Christensen, Villy

    1989-01-01

    The influence of light and prey abundance on the vertical distribution of herring larvae was evaluated by three investigations made under calm weather conditions in the North Sea off the Scottish coast. The investigations took place at different time after hatching and the vertical distributions of...... density peaked at the pycnocline (40 m). Larvae concentrated at this depth at noon. At dawn and dusk larvae migrated towards the surface and the vertical distributions fluctuated semidielly. In the two other investigations, copepods were homogeneously distributed in the water column and after migration...

  8. Vertical migration of nuclides seeped from an uranium tailings impoundment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 31 year operation of an uranium tailings impoundment, sub-clayey samples beneath its bottom were taken for determining concentration distribution of U, Th and Ra seeped from the impoundment. For fitting nuclide migration, one dimensional convection-dispersion model of nuclide migration in groundwater was applied, and parameters were measured such as particle size of tailings, leaching factor of nuclides from tailings and distribution coefficients of nuclides in sub-clay. Results indicate that fine tailings are the main portion of tailings, and possess higher specific activities and lower leaching factor than coarse tailings. The sub-clay has a strong adsorption ability to nuclides, and distribution coefficients of U, Th and Ra are 62, 1.3 x 103 and 9.8 x 102 mL/g, respectively. The natural and man-made sub-clay layers beneath the impoundment can reduce effectively nuclides seepage and migration. (authors)

  9. Horizontal distribution of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in zooplankton in the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, M.; Kumamoto, Y.; Kawakami, H.; Cruz, E. C.; Fujikura, K.

    2013-08-01

    The magnitude of the 9.0 Tohoku earthquake and the ensuing tsunami on 11 March 2011, inflicted heavy damage on the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP1). Fission products were emitted, falling over a broad range in the Northern Hemisphere, and water contaminated with radionuclides leaked into the ocean. In this study, we described the horizontal distribution of the Fukushima-derived radiocesium in zooplankton and in seawater in the western North Pacific Ocean (500-2100 km from the FNPP1) 10 months after the accident. 134Cs and 137Cs were detected in zooplankton and seawater from all the stations. Because of its short half-life, the 134Cs detected in our samples could only be derived from the FNPP1 accident. The highest 137Cs activity in zooplankton was the same order of magnitude as it was one month after the accident, and average activity was one or two orders of magnitude higher than 137Cs activities observed before the accident around Japan. Horizontally, the radiocesium activity concentrations in zooplankton were high at around 25° N while those in surface seawater were high at around the transition area between the Kuroshio and the Oyashio currents (36-40° N). We observed subsurface radiocesium maxima in density range of the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water and the occurrence of many diel vertical migratory zooplankton. These suggested that the high activity concentrations in the subtropical zooplankton at around 25° N were connected to the subsurface radiocesium and active vertical migration of zooplankton. However, the high activity concentrations of radiocesium in subsurface seawater did not necessarily correlate with the higher radiocesium activity in zooplankton. Activity concentrations of radiocesium in zooplankton might be influenced not only by the environmental radiocesium activity concentrations but also by other factors, which are still unknown.

  10. Horizontal distribution of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in zooplankton in the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kitamura

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of the 9.0 Tohoku earthquake and the ensuing tsunami on 11 March 2011, inflicted heavy damage on the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP1. Fission products were emitted, falling over a broad range in the northern hemisphere, and water contaminated with radionuclides leaked into the ocean. In this study, we described the horizontal distribution of the Fukushima-derived radiocesium in zooplankton and in seawater in the western North Pacific Ocean (500–2100 km from the FNPP1 10 months after the accident. 134Cs and 137Cs were detected in zooplankton and seawater from all the stations. Because of its short half-lives, 134Cs detected in our samples could only be derived from the FNPP1 accident. The highest 137Cs activity in zooplankton was same order of magnitude as that one month after the accident, and average activity was one or two orders of magnitude higher than 137Cs activities observed before the accident around Japan. Horizontally, the radiocesium activity concentrations in zooplankton were high at around 25° N while those in surface seawater were high at around the transition area between the Kuroshio and the Oyashio Currents (36–40° N. We observed subsurface radiocesium maxima in density range of the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water and occurrence of many diel vertical migratory zooplanktons. These suggested that the high activity concentrations in the subtropical zooplankton at around 25° N were connected to the subsurface radiocesium and active vertical migration of zooplankton. However, the high activity concentrations of radiocesium in subsurface seawater did not necessarily follow the higher radiocesium activity in zooplankton. Biological characteristics of zooplankton community possibly influenced how large was contamination of radiocesium in the community but it is still unknown what kind of biological factors were important.

  11. Horizontal distribution of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in zooplankton in the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kitamura

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of the 9.0 Tohoku earthquake and the ensuing tsunami on 11 March 2011, inflicted heavy damage on the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP1. Fission products were emitted, falling over a broad range in the Northern Hemisphere, and water contaminated with radionuclides leaked into the ocean. In this study, we described the horizontal distribution of the Fukushima-derived radiocesium in zooplankton and in seawater in the western North Pacific Ocean (500–2100 km from the FNPP1 10 months after the accident. 134Cs and 137Cs were detected in zooplankton and seawater from all the stations. Because of its short half-life, the 134Cs detected in our samples could only be derived from the FNPP1 accident. The highest 137Cs activity in zooplankton was the same order of magnitude as it was one month after the accident, and average activity was one or two orders of magnitude higher than 137Cs activities observed before the accident around Japan. Horizontally, the radiocesium activity concentrations in zooplankton were high at around 25° N while those in surface seawater were high at around the transition area between the Kuroshio and the Oyashio currents (36–40° N. We observed subsurface radiocesium maxima in density range of the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water and the occurrence of many diel vertical migratory zooplankton. These suggested that the high activity concentrations in the subtropical zooplankton at around 25° N were connected to the subsurface radiocesium and active vertical migration of zooplankton. However, the high activity concentrations of radiocesium in subsurface seawater did not necessarily correlate with the higher radiocesium activity in zooplankton. Activity concentrations of radiocesium in zooplankton might be influenced not only by the environmental radiocesium activity concentrations but also by other factors, which are still unknown.

  12. Reproducing {sup 137}Cs vertical migration in Spanish soils - Reproducing {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr vertical migration in Spanish mainland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olondo, C.; Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R. [The University of the Basque Country - UPV/EHU, Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics Dept. Faculty of Engineering, Alda. Urquijo 48013, Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    As a result of caesium's and strontium's activity migration study developed in Spanish mainland soils, there has been obtained convective - diffusive migration equation that will reproduce adequately the movement that an activity deposit would follow in this land. Taking into account the dependence on rain that apparent convection velocity shows, it has been defined a new migration parameter that depends only on soil's properties. By means of a least square method and fitting the migration equation to experimental activity profiles, the values showed by the migration parameters in the studied soils, characteristics of that area, have been obtained. After that, there have been obtained the mean values of these parameters for each defined group that, depending on soil's texture, have been observed in the study performed about the movement of both radionuclides in soils and to whom these soils belong. Using these mean values and obtained equation, it has been properly reproduce those vertical activity profiles that were experimentally determined. In order to validate these values, a new sampling programme is carrying out in the north of Spain and, with obtained new sampling points' information, is going to verify if, indeed, obtained mean values also reproduce these new sampling points' activity vertical profile. (authors)

  13. Vertical migration of radionuclides in undisturbed grassland soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature data on numerical values obtained for the parameters of the two most popular models for simulating the migration of radionuclides in undisturbed soils have been compiled and evaluated statistically. Due to restrictions on the applicability of compartmental models, the convection-dispersion equation and its parameter values should be preferred. For radiocaesium, recommended values are derived for its effective convection velocity and dispersion coefficient. Data deficiencies still exist for radionuclides other than caesium and for soils of non-temperate environments.

  14. Feeding ecology of mesopelagic zooplankton of the subtropical and subarctic North Pacific Ocean determined with fatty acid biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. E.; Steinberg, D. K.; Chu, F.-L. E.; Bishop, J. K. B.

    2010-10-01

    Mesopelagic zooplankton may meet their nutritional and metabolic requirements in a number of ways including consumption of sinking particles, carnivory, and vertical migration. How these feeding modes change with depth or location, however, is poorly known. We analyzed fatty acid (FA) profiles to characterize zooplankton diet and large particle (>51 ?m) composition in the mesopelagic zone (base of euphotic zone -1000 m) at two contrasting time-series sites in the subarctic (station K2) and subtropical (station ALOHA) Pacific Ocean. Total FA concentration was 15.5 times higher in zooplankton tissue at K2, largely due to FA storage by seasonal vertical migrators such as Neocalanus and Eucalanus. FA biomarkers specific to herbivory implied a higher plant-derived food source at mesotrophic K2 than at oligotrophic ALOHA. Zooplankton FA biomarkers specific to dinoflagellates and diatoms indicated that diatoms, and to a lesser extent, dinoflagellates were important food sources at K2. At ALOHA, dinoflagellate FAs were more prominent. Bacteria-specific FA biomarkers in zooplankton tissue were used as an indicator of particle feeding, and peaks were recorded at depths where known particle feeders were present at ALOHA (e.g., ostracods at 100-300 m). In contrast, depth profiles of bacterial FA were relatively constant with depth at K2. Diatom, dinoflagellate, and bacterial biomarkers were found in similar proportions in both zooplankton and particles with depth at both locations, providing additional evidence that mesopelagic zooplankton consume sinking particles. Carnivory indices were higher and increased significantly with depth at ALOHA, and exhibited distinct peaks at K2, representing an increase in dependence on other zooplankton for food in deep waters. Our results indicate that feeding ecology changes with depth as well as by location. These changes in zooplankton feeding ecology from the surface through the mesopelagic zone, and between contrasting environments, have important consequences for the quality and quantity of organic material available to deeper pelagic and benthic food webs, and for organic matter sequestration.

  15. Size distribution of particles and zooplankton across the shelf-basin system in southeast Beaufort Sea: combined results from an Underwater Vision Profiler and vertical net tows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Forest

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The size distribution and mean spatial trends of large particles (>100 ?m, in equivalent spherical diameter, ESD and mesozooplankton were investigated across the Mackenzie Shelf (southeast Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean in July–August 2009. Our main objective was to combine results from an Underwater Vision Profiler 5 (UVP5 and traditional net tows (200 ?m mesh size to characterize the structural diversity and functioning of the Arctic shelf-basin ecosystem and to assess the large-scale correspondence between the two methodological approaches. The core dataset comprised 154 UVP5 profiles and 29 net tows conducted in the shelf (<100 m isobath, slope (100–1000 m and basin (>1000 m regions of the study area. The mean abundance of total particles and zooplankton in the upper water column (<75 m depth declined exponentially with increasing distance from shore. Vertical and latitudinal patterns in total particle concentration followed those of chlorophyll a (chl a concentration, with maximum values between 30 and 70 m depth. Based on the size-spectra derived from the UVP5 dataset, living organisms (0.1–10 mm ESD accounted for an increasingly large proportion of total particle abundance (from 0.1 % to >50 % when progressing offshore and as the ESD of particles was increasing. Both the UVP5 and net tows determined that copepods dominated the zooplankton community (~78–94 % by numbers and that appendicularians were generally the second most abundant group (~1–11 %. The vertical distribution patterns of copepods and appendicularians indicated a close association between primary production and the main grazers. Manual taxonomic counts and ZooScan image analyses shed further light on the size-structure and composition of the copepod community – which was dominated at ~95 % by a guild of 10 typical taxa. The size distributions of copepods, as evaluated with the 3 methods (manual counts, ZooScan and UVP5, showed consistent patterns co-varying in the same order of magnitude over the upper size range (>1 mm ESD. Copepods <1 mm were not well quantified by the UVP5, which estimated that only ~13–25 % of the assemblage was composed of copepods <1 mm ESD compared with ~77–89 % from the net tow estimates. However, the biovolume of copepods was overwhelmingly dominated (~93–97 % by copepods >1 mm ESD. Our results illustrate that the combination of traditional sampling methods and automated imaging techniques is a powerful approach that enabled us to conclude on the prevalence of a relatively high productivity regime and dominant herbivorous food web over the shelf when compared with the low-productive recycling system detected offshore.

  16. Size distribution of particles and zooplankton across the shelf-basin system in Southeast Beaufort Sea: combined results from an Underwater Vision Profiler and vertical net tows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Forest

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The size distribution and mean spatial trends of large particles (>100 ?m, in equivalent spherical diameter, ESD and mesozooplankton were investigated across the Mackenzie Shelf (Southeast Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean in July–August 2009. Our main objective was to combine results from an Underwater Vision Profiler 5 (UVP5 and traditional net tows (200 ?m mesh size to characterize the structural diversity and functioning of the Arctic shelf-basin ecosystem and to assess the large-scale correspondence between the two methodological approaches. The core dataset comprised 154 UVP5 profiles and 29 net tows conducted in the shelf (<100 m isobath, slope (100–1000 m and basin (>1000 m regions of the study area. The mean abundance of total particles and zooplankton in the upper water column (<75 m depth declined exponentially with increasing distance from shore. Vertical and latitudinal patterns in total particle concentration followed those of chlorophyll-a (chl-a concentration, with maximum values between 30 and 70 m depth. Based on the size-spectra derived from the UVP5 dataset, living organisms (0.1–10 mm ESD accounted for an increasingly large proportion of total particle abundance (from 0.1% to > 50 % when progressing offshore and as the ESD of particles was increasing. Both the UVP5 and net tows determined that copepods dominated the zooplankton community (~78–94 % by numbers and that appendicularians were generally the second most abundant group (~1–11 %. The vertical distribution patterns of copepods and appendicularians indicated a close association between primary production and the main grazers. Manual taxonomic counts and ZooScan image analyses shed further light on the size-structure and composition of the copepod community – which was dominated at ~95 % by a guild of 10 typical taxa. The size distributions of copepods, as evaluated with the 3 methods (manual counts, ZooScan and UVP5, showed consistent patterns co-varying in the same order of magnitude over the upper size range (>1 mm ESD. Copepods < 1 mm were not well quantified by the UVP5, which estimated that only ~13–25 % of the assemblage was composed of copepods < 1 mm ESD compared with ~77–89 % from the net tow estimates. However, the biovolume of copepods was overwhelmingly dominated (~93–97 % by copepods >1 mm ESD. Our results illustrate that the combination of traditional sampling methods and automated imaging techniques is a powerful approach that enabled us to conclude on the prevalence of a relatively high productivity regime and dominant herbivorous food web over the shelf when compared with the low-productive recycling system detected offshore.

  17. Lateral and Vertical Vent Migration at Tecuitlapa Maar, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, M. H.; Carrasco-Nunez, G.

    2006-12-01

    Tecuitlapa maar, in the Serdan-Oriental Basin, east-central Mexico, is 1.5 km diameter and 100 m deep. Reworked ash and lapilli (`toba cafe'), derived from surrounding volcanic highlands via eolian and fluvial processes, provided fluidized water-saturated sediment for fuel-coolant interactions. The eruption sequence begins with 1.5 2-m bedded tuff comprising 50% clast-supported accretionary-lapilli beds and 50% lapilli tuff of juvenile (basalt) and andesite lapilli in a mostly toba-cafe matrix. This grades into a lithic-rich breccia near the vent (east end of maar at this stage). Weakly bedded wet surge deposits complete unit I. Unit I is the finest of the sequence but has poor sorting and variable median grain size. Basaltic juvenile grains dominate (50-80%) and andesite and oxidized grains are subordinate. Unit II deposits are dune-bedded tuffs and 10-20-cm-thick basalt lapilli beds, with abundant lithic lapilli and bomb sags. Breccia beds coarsen (to 1-25 cm diam.), thicken (to 1-2 m), and become more lithic-rich (to 40%) upward, but tuff beds dominate. Matrices are mostly toba cafe ash. Average grain size of the matrix (-2 - -3 phi) coarsens in unit II and sorting improves. Andesitic and oxidized accidental lapilli increase upward, to 50%. Unit III is similar to unit II, but is less regularly bedded and is dominated by tuff breccias. 3-5-m sections alternate between more breccia-like and more tuff-like, but all are mixed in texture. 1-3-cm-thick accretionary lapilli beds are common. Unit III has the coarsest median grain size (-3 phi), slightly better sorting than lower units and components are similar to unit II. Unit IV is many 20-50-cm-thick open-framework basalt lapilli-breccia beds. The uppermost 2-3 m contain a few thin tuffs. Unit IV scoria resemble those at the cinder/spatter cones on the crater floor. Juvenile scoria dominate, but andesitic fine lapilli are 15-40% in the tuff layers. Tecuitlapa erupted from an E-W dike system. Facies analysis and impact-sag and duneform orientations show the vent migrated westward. Componentry changes may correlate with excavation and lateral migration into more andesite-rich toba cafe (fluvial deposits). Stratigraphic relations show that the drying-out phase produced scoria cones in a west-to-east direction.

  18. Spatial and temporal variability of zooplankton off New Caledonia (Southwestern Pacific) from acoustics and net measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeti, Houssem; Pagano, Marc; Menkes, Christophe; Lebourges-Dhaussy, Anne; Hunt, Brian P. V.; Allain, Valerie; Rodier, Martine; de Boissieu, Florian; Kestenare, Elodie; Sammari, Cherif

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of zooplankton off New Caledonia in the eastern Coral Sea was studied during two multidisciplinary cruises in 2011, during the cool and the hot seasons. Acoustic measurements of zooplankton were made using a shipborne acoustic Doppler current profiler (S-ADCP), a scientific echosounder and a Tracor acoustic profiling system (TAPS). Relative backscatter from ADCP was converted to biomass estimates using zooplankton weights from net-samples collected during the cruises. Zooplankton biomass was estimated using four methods: weighing, digital imaging (ZooScan), ADCP and TAPS. Significant correlations were found between the different biomass estimators and between the backscatters of the ADCP and the echosounder. There was a consistent diel pattern in ADCP derived biomass and echosounder backscatter resulting from the diel vertical migration (DVM) of zooplankton. Higher DVM amplitudes were associated with higher abundance of small zooplankton and cold waters to the south of the study area, while lower DVM amplitudes in the north were associated with warmer waters and higher abundance of large organisms. Zooplankton was largely dominated by copepods (71-73%) among which calanoids prevailed (40-42%), with Paracalanus spp. as the dominant species (16-17%). Overall, zooplankton exhibited low abundance and biomass (mean night dry biomass of 4.7 ± 2.2 mg m3 during the cool season and 2.4 ± 0.4 mg m3 during the hot season) but high richness and diversity (Shannon index ˜4). Substantially enhanced biomass and abundance appeared to be episodically associated with mesoscale features contributing to shape a rather patchy zooplankton distribution.

  19. Zooplankton Distribution in Four Western Norwegian Fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, G.; Flood, P. R.; Youngbluth, M.; Picheral, M.; Grisoni, J.-M.

    2000-01-01

    A multi-instrumental array constructed in the Laboratoire d'Ecologie du Plancton Marin in Villefranche sur mer, France, named the Underwater Video Profiler (UVP), was used to investigate the vertical distribution of zooplankton in four western Norwegian fjords in the summer 1996. Six distinct zoological groups were monitored. The fauna included: (a) small crustaceans (mainly copepods), (b) ctenophores (mainly lobates), (c) siphonophores (mainly physonects), (d) a scyphomedusa Periphylla periphylla, (e) chaetognaths and (f) appendicularians. The use of the non-disturbing video technique demonstrated that the distribution of large zooplankton is heterogeneous vertically and geographically. Furthermore, the abundance of non-migrating filter feeders in the deep basins of the fjords indicates that there is enough food (living and non-living particulate organic matter) to support their dietary needs. This adaptation may be considered as a strategy for survival in fjords. Specifically, living in dark, deep water reduces visual predation and population loss encountered in the upper layer due to advective processes.

  20. Depth-selection patterns and diel vertical migration of Daphnia ambigua (Crustacea: Cladocera) in lake El Plateado Patrones de selección de profundidad y migración vertical de Daphnia ambigua (Crustacea: Cladocera) en el lago El Plateado

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGO RAMOS-JILIBERTO; LUIS R. ZÚÑIGA

    2001-01-01

    Eutrophic temperate and sub-tropical lakes often exhibit a marked vertical structure during the warm season that involves important spatial differences of physical, chemical and biological variables. Therefore, zooplankton is exposed to a highly heterogeneous environment in the vertical dimension. In this work, We analyze the depth-distribution of the cladoceran Daphnia ambigua in the eutrophic, monomictic lake El Plateado at midday and midnight, along with its relationship with the vertical ...

  1. Zooplankton and fisheries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    /prey relationship and reproductive strategies. The zooplankton patchiness is utilizEd. by higher trophic levels, particularly by pelagic fish species and larvae. In the upwelling areas, the zooplankton standing stock (biomass) is higher and zooplankton community...

  2. Dynamic patterns of zooplankton transport and migration in Catuama Inlet (Pernambuco, Brazil, with emphasis on the decapod crustacean larvae Patrones dinámicos de transporte y migración de zooplancton en el estuario Catuama (Pernambuco, Brasil, con énfasis en las larvas de crustáceos decápodos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Schwamborn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to quantify and to model zooplankton transport with emphasis on decapod crustacean larvae. Sampling was carried out at three depths with a plankton pump coupled to a 300-/¿m mesh. Current data were obtained with an ADCP. Our data showed the existence of vertically and horizontally heterogeneous current and transport fields. We identified 27 groups of Decapoda (larvae of Sergestidae, Porcellanidae, Upogebiidae, Cari dea, Brachyura. Most of the species and larval phases showed characteristic vertical migration patterns, in phase with the diurnal tidal cycles, thus enhancing retention or export from the estuary.Esta investigación tiene como objetivo cuantificar y modelar el transporte de zooplancton, con énfasis en las larvas de Crustacea Decapoda. El muestreo se realizó a tres profundidades con una bomba de plancton acoplada a una red con malla de 300 /¿m. Se obtuvieron los datos de corrientes con un ADCP. Los datos mostraron la existencia de campos de corrientes y de transporte vertical y horizontal heterogéneos. Se identificaron 27 grupos de Decapoda (larvas de Sergestidae, Porcellanidae, Upogebiidae, Caridea, Brachyura. La mayoría de las especies y fases larvales mostraron patrones de migración vertical característicos, en fase con los ciclos de la marea diurnos, favoreciendo la retención o exportación del estuario.

  3. Vertical Distribution of Daily Migrating Mesopelagic Fish in Respect to Nocturnal Lights

    KAUST Repository

    Prihartato, Perdana

    2014-12-01

    The nighttime distribution of vertically migrating mesopelagic fish in relation to nocturnal light was studied during a circumglobal survey, in the Red Sea, and in a fjord at high latitude. The study was based on data derived from ship borne echo sounders (circumglobal and the Red Sea) as well as using upward looking echo sounders mounted on the bottom (Masfjorden, Norway). We also applied a numerical model for analyzing diel vertical migration patterns. The effect of the lunar cycle was the focus in studies at low latitudes, while seasonal changes in nocturnal light climate was in focus at high latitude. Lunar phase significantly affected the distribution of mesopelagic fish at the global scale and in the Red Sea. During nights near full moon, scattering layers of mesopelagic fish distributed deeper than during darker phases of the moon. At high latitude, mesopelagic fish switched its behavior along with seasonal changes in nocturnal lights. In autumn, the population of the studied fish (Maurolicus mueleri) formed separated layers. Juveniles performed normal diel vertical migration followed by midnight sinking, with midnight sinking mainly related to temperature minima and also for avoiding predators. Meanwhile the adults did not migrate vertically, reducing foraging but increasing the adult survival. From late winter to mid-Spring, interrupted ascents behavior was noted in the afternoon. Predator avoidance, satiation, and finding temperature optimum might be the reason behind interrupted ascents. At lighter nights in mid-summer, M. muelleri took on schooling behavior, likely as an anti-predator behavior permitting access to the upper waters in the absence of darkness.

  4. Migration of 85Sr and 137Cs in vertical soil profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertical distribution of 85Sr and 137Cs in undisturbed single-contaminated agricultural soils have been studied during their irrigation with wet atmospheric precipitation in dependence on time under laboratory conditions for about one year. The soil samples were collected from several localities in the environment of nuclear power plants at Dukovany and Jaslovske Bohunice using a special auger. The samples were placed into polyethylene columns of 9 cm in diameter and 20 cm in height. The activity of radionuclides in soil profiles after their separation into single layers were counted by Ge(Li) semiconductor gamma-spectrometry. Based on the exponential depth distribution of radionuclides, the values of their migration parameters as relaxation depth, migration rate and retardation factor were calculated. The influence of the permanent grass cover and of the applied zeolite on the migration parameters of these radionuclides was also investigated. (author)

  5. Migration of 85Sr and 137Cs in vertical soil profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical distribution of Sr-85 and Cs-137 in undisturbed single-contaminated agricultural soils was studied in laboratory conditions during their irrigation with wet atmospheric precipitation in dependence on time for about one year. The soil samples were collected from several sites in the surroundings of the Dukovany and Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plants using a special auger. The samples were placed into polyethylene columns. The activity of radionuclides in the soil profiles after their separation into single layers was determined with a Ge(Li) semiconductor gamma spectrometer. Based on the exponential depth distribution of radionuclides, the values of their migration parameters as such the relaxation depth, migration rate and retardation factor were calculated. The effect of the permanent grass cover and of zeolite on the migration parameters of the two radionuclides was also investigated

  6. Vertical distribution, migration rates, and model comparison of actinium in a semi-arid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical soil characterization and migration of radionuclides were investigated at four radioactively contaminated sites on Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB), New Mexico to determine the vertical downward migration of radionuclides in a semi-arid environment. The surface soils (0-15 cm) were intentionally contaminated with Brazilian sludge (containing 232Thorium and other radionuclides) approximately 40 years ago, in order to simulate the conditions resulting from a nuclear weapons accident. Site grading consisted of manually raking or machine disking the sludge. The majority of the radioactivity was found in the top 15 cm of soil, with retention ranging from 69 to 88%. Two models, a compartment diffusion model and leach rate model, were evaluated to determine their capabilities and limitations in predicting radionuclide behavior. The migration rates of actinium were calculated with the diffusion compartment and the leach rate models for all sites, and ranged from 0.009 to 0.1 cm/yr increasing with depth. The migration rates calculated with the leach rate models were similar to those using the diffusion compartment model and did not increase with depth (0.045-0.076, 0.0 cm/yr). The research found that the physical and chemical properties governing transport processes of water and solutes in soil provide a valid radionuclide transport model. The evaluation also showed that the physical model has fewer limitations and may be more applicable to this environment

  7. Importance des phénomènes de migration verticale des hydrocarbures Significance of Vertical Migration Phenomea of Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiarelle A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette publication a pour but de démonter les mécanismes de migration verticale des hydrocarbures et d'en analyser les conséquences, à partir d'exemples concrets choisis sur les domaines d'activité de la Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (Production [SNEA (PJ. Les hydrocarbures, huile et gaz, rassemblés en phase individualisée évoluent dans un milieu poreux, fin, généralement mouillé à l'eau. Dans un tel environnement la migration suppose des pressions capillaires élevées. On démontre que cette condition se realise plus particulièrement sur Ies zones hautes fermées où les élements d'hydrocarbures expulses de la roche mère peuvent se rassembler en amas de taille importante, développant une forte poussee d'Archimède. De même le gaz, du fait de sa masse volumique faible par rapport à celle de l'eau, manifestera une grande aptitude à la migration verticale, ce qui conduira souvent à une redistribution verticale des hydrocarbures non conforme au schéma diagénétique classique : présence d'un gisement de gaz en surface et huile en profondeur. Combinés à l'effet Gussow, phénomène de refoulement de l'huile par le gaz hors de la fermeture critique d'une structure, les processus envisagés ici, où tes accidents tectoniques tiennent une place importante, aboutiront généralement à sil: aerer spatialement l'huile et le gaz. Ces transferts semblent s'accompagner fréquemment de modifications dans la composition chimique des huiles : augmentation des teneurs en soufre, en métaux traces, en hydrocarbures aromatiques, et alourdissement des huiles The purpose of this article is ta described the vertical migration mechanisms of hydrocarbons and to analyze their conséquences, on the basis of concrete examples selected in the fields of activities carried on by Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (SNEA. When hydrocarbons (ai( and gas are gathered in a distinct phase, they evolve in a fine porous medium that is usually water wet. In such on environment, migration requires high capillary pressures. lt is shown that such conditions occur especially in high closed zones where the hydrocarbons driven out of the source rock con gather together in a large-sized mass, thus building up a high degree of buoyancy. In the same way, because gas has a louver specific gravity thon water, it has a great tendency ta migrote vertically, which often brings about a vertical redistribution of hydrocarbons that does not conform ta the conventional diagenetic pattern, i. e. the presence of a gas pool above a deeper ail pool.

  8. Zooplankton Hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadhwa, Navish

    breast stroke swimming, had much faster spatial decay as compared to the other modes, resulting in 'quiet' swimming. This motivated us to examine breast stroke swimming in more detail, for which flow velocity decayed spatially as one over distance cubed. We employed a simple model using three point...... forces to represent the forces acting on the swimmer. Our analysis showed a configuration-dependent spatial decay of flow velocity. Arranging the propulsive forces close to the equator resulted in changing the far field velocity decay from one over distance squared to one over distance cubed, comparing...... flow disturbances that may attract predators. The first part of this thesis attempts to quantify the trade-offs associated with the swimming behaviour of diverse zooplankton. We measured the swimming kinematics and flow fields around the 'jumping' copepod Acartia tonsa at various stages of its life...

  9. Vertical migration of 134Cs bearing soil particles in arid soils: implications for plutonium redistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical migration of plutonium in soils at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) was evaluated based on observed 134Cs migration in soil column experiments. After applying 134Cs-labeled soil particles to the surfaces of large, undisturbed soil cores collected from each site, resulting soil columns were subjected to experimental cycles of irrigation plus drying (treatment columns) or to cycles of irrigation only (control columns). Mean losses of 134Cs inventory from soil surfaces were 3.1 ± 0.6% cycle-1 and 0.7 ± 0.6% cycle-1 respectively for RFETS treatment and control columns. WIPP columns had mean respective losses of 1.3 ± 1.2% cycle-1 and 0.5 ± 0.2% cycle-1. Bulk transport of labeled soil particles through soil cracks was an important process in RFETS soils, accounting for 64-86% of total 134Cs migration. Colloidal transport processes governed migration in WIPP soils

  10. Vertical distribution and diel vertical migration of krill beneath snow-covered ice and in ice-free waters

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege

    2013-11-11

    A bottom mounted upward looking Simrad EK60 120-kHz echo sounder was used to study scattering layers (SLs) and individuals of the krill Meganyctiphanes norvegica. The mooring was situated at 150-m depth in the Oslofjord, connected with an onshore cable for power and transmission of digitized data. Records spanned 5 months from late autumn to spring. A current meter and CTD was associated with the acoustic mooring and a shore-based webcam monitored ice conditions in the fjord. The continuous measurements were supplemented with intermittent krill sampling campaigns and their physical and biological environment.The krill carried out diel vertical migration (DVM) throughout the winter, regardless of the distribution of potential prey. The fjord froze over in mid-winter and the daytime distribution of a mid-water SL of krill immediately became shallower associated with snow fall after freezing, likely related to reduction of light intensities. Still, a fraction of the population always descended all the way to the bottom, so that the krill population by day seemed to inhabit waters with light levels spanning up to six orders of magnitude. Deep-living krill ascended in synchrony with the rest of the population in the afternoon, but individuals consistently reappeared in near-bottom waters already? 1 h after the ascent. Thereafter, the krill appeared to undertake asynchronous migrations, with some krill always being present in near-bottom waters even though the entire population appeared to undertake DVM. The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  11. UV B-induced vertical migrations of cyanobacteria in a microbial mat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to moderate doses of UV B (0.35 to 0.79 W m-2 s-1 or 0.98 to 2.2 ?mol of photons m-2 s-1 at 310 nm) caused the surface layers of microbial mats from Solar Lake, Sinai, Egypt, to become visibly lighter green. Concurrent with the color change were rapid and dramatic reductions in gross photosynthesis and in the resultant high porewater oxygen concentrations in the surface layers of the mats. The depths at which both maximum gross photosynthesis and maximum oxygen concentrations occurred were displaced downward. In contrast, gross photosynthesis in the deeper layers of the mats increased in response to UV B incident upon the surface. The cessation of exposure to UV B partially reversed all of these changes. Taken together, these responses suggest that photoautotrophic members of the mat community, most likely the dominant cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes, were migrating in response to the added UV B. The migration phenomenon was also observed in response to increases in visible radiation and UV A, but UV B was ca. 100-fold more effective than visible radiation and ca. 20-fold more effective than UV A in provoking the response. Migrating microorganisms within this mat are apparently able to sense UV B directly and respond behaviorally to limit their exposure to UV. Because of strong vertical gradients of light and dissolved substances in microbial mats, the migration and the resultant vertical redistribution of photosynthetic activity have important consequences for both the photobiology of the cyanobacteria and the net primary productivity of the mat ecosystem

  12. VERTICAL MIGRATION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RATES OF THE Thalia democratica (SALPIDAE: THALIACEA IN ARVOREDO BIOLOGICAL MARINE RESERVE, SANTA CATARINA MIGRAÇÃO VERTICAL E TAXAS FISIOLÓGICAS DE Thalia democratica (SALPIDAE: THALIACEA NA RESERVA MARINHA DO ARVOREDO, SANTA CATARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. RESGALLA JR.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Between December 17th and 18th of 1998the Soloncy Moura Research Vessel (CEPSUL/ IBAMA was stationed for 24 hours at the eastern margin of the Arvoredo island, inside of the Arvoredo Biological Marine Reserve (27°19,6'-27°8,6' S and 48°27,1'-48°9,1' W. During this time the temperature and salinity profiles were obtained using a CTD, and water samples were collected for ammonium determination. The biomass in wet weight of the size classed zooplankton, was collected by vertical trawls in 3 strata in the water column. Incubations were executed at 5 meters depth in DBO flasks, of the Salpidae Thalia democratica Oozooids and the phytoplankton collected in the same place. The filtration rates were estimated by the increase of feopigments and growth rates by blastozooids liberation. The temperature and salinity data measured along the 24 hours didn’t show a significant temporal variation, with the Tropical Water occurring at surface and the Subtropical Water below 20 meters depth. The zooplankton biomass presented a clear vertical migration behaviour, with larger concentrations in the intermediary stratum (10 to 20 m during the day and with a displacement for the superficial stratum (0 to 10 m at sunset. The ammonium concentration exhibited a similar behaviour in the water column indicating probable regeneration processes and bioconvection of this nutrient. The species Thalia democratica was the dominant organism in the fraction larger than 1000 µm and it was responsible for the highest zooplankton biomass in the samples. The incubation experiments of this species presented an average filtration rate of 176.4 mL.day-1 and growth rate of blastozooids from 8 to 10.3% in length per hour. Entre os dias 17 e 18 de dezembro de 1998 foi realizado um fundeio na margem leste da ilha do Arvoredo, dentro da Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo (27o19,6'-27o8,6' S e 48o27,1'- 48o9,1' W, com o Navio de Pesquisa Soloncy Moura (CEPSUL/IBAMA. Durante o fundeio foram realizados perfis de salinidade e temperatura utilizando um CTD bem como coletadas amostras de água para a determinação do amônio. A biomassa em peso úmido do zooplâcton, fracionada em classes de tamanho, foi coletada por arrastos verticais em 3 estratos na coluna de água. Foram executadas incubações a 5 m de profundidade, em frasco tipo DBO, de Oozooides da Salpa Thalia democrática com fitoplâncton coletado no mesmo local para as estimativas de suas taxas de filtração e de suas taxas de crescimento pela liberação de blastozooides. Os dados de temperatura e salinidade medidos durante 22 horas não mostraram uma variação temporal significativa, em que a Água Tropical ocorreu em superfície e a Água Subtropical abaixo dos 20 m de profundidade. A biomassa do zooplâncton apresentou um nítido comportamento de migração vertical, com uma maior concentração no estrato intermediário (10 a 20 m durante o dia e com um deslocamento para o estrato superficial (0 a 10 m no entardecer. Comportamento similar ocorreu com a concentração de amônio na coluna de água indicando provável processo de regeneração e bioconvecção deste nutriente. A Salpa Thalia democratica foi o organismo dominante na fração maior que 1000 µm e a responsável pela maior biomassa nas amostras. Os testes de incubação desta espécie apresentaram uma taxa de filtração média de 176,4 mL.dia-1 e taxa de crescimento de blastozooides de 8 a 10,3 % em comprimento por hora.

  13. Vertical migration of 137Cs and contamination density in soil of the South part of Baikal lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanism of vertical migration of radionuclides over soil profile is considered. At higher averaged values the process is described by a sum of effective diffusion rates and vertical advection of radionuclide. Results of theoretical calculations of 137Cs concentration profiles in light and heavy soils for actually observed atmospheric fallout in 1954-1999 are compared with experimental profiles in rock frozen-forest tundra and rock frozen-coniferous forest soils of the South Transbajkal region. The rate of vertical migration is estimated and reasons for increased density of the soil contamination by 137Cs are discussed

  14. Mathematical simulation of vertical migration of 137Cs and 134Cs in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the general case, simulation of radionuclide migration in soil reduces to a self-consistent description of the simultaneous process; exchange and nonexchange in adsorption, chemisorption, molecular adsorption, biological adsorption, diffusion of free and adsorbed ions, radionuclide transport during infiltration of atmospheric precipitation, transport of moisture in a capillary flow to the surface as a result of evaporation and under the influence of a temperature gradient, as well as transport to the root system of vegetation. The extent to which each of these processes affects the vertical distribution of radionuclides depends on the landscape and climatic conditions and is determined by a large number of factors characterizing the soil, local conditions, and physicochemical properties of radioactive fallout. The indeterminancy of many parameters affecting the radionuclide transport and the possibility of adsorption occurring by several interaction mechanisms simultaneously greatly hinder the use of the known laws of colloid and physical chemistry to describe the migration and absorption of radioactive substances. Considerable complexities are encountered in attempts to construct a model that would describe the infiltration and capillary flow of moisture with dissolved and suspended radioactive substances. By virtue of the universal laws of migration in soil, characteristic of both global fallout and fallout from the Chernobyl disaster complex mechanisms of migration can be described by a comparatively simple phenomenological model which, with a proper choice of parameters for the law, reflects the evolution of the radionuclide depth distribution in the soil layer. Such a model, the simplest versions of which were suggested back in the 1970s, is based on the use of the diffusion approximation to describe the migration of radioactive substances

  15. Type I Planet Migration in a Magnetized Disk. II. Effect of Vertical Angular Momentum Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Bans, Alissa; Uribe, Ana

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of a large-scale, ordered magnetic field in protoplanetary disks on Type I planet migration using a linear perturbation analysis in the ideal-MHD limit. We focus on wind-driving disks, in which a magnetic torque $\\propto B_{0z} \\partial B_{0\\varphi}/\\partial z$ (where $B_{0z}$ and $B_{0\\varphi}$ are the equilibrium vertical and azimuthal field components) induces vertical angular momentum transport. We derive the governing differential equation for the disk response and identify its resonances and turning points. For a disk containing a slightly subthermal, pure-$B_{0z}$ field, the total 3D torque is close to its value in the 2D limit but remains lower than the hydrodynamic torque. In contrast with the 2D pure-$B_{0\\varphi}$ field model considered by Terquem (2003), inward migration is not reduced in this case when the field amplitude decreases with radius. The presence of a subdominant $B_{0\\varphi}$ component whose amplitude increases from zero at $z=0$ has little effect on the torque w...

  16. Zooplankton fecal pellets, marine snow, phytodetritus and the ocean's biological pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jefferson T.

    2015-01-01

    The 'biological pump' is the process by which photosynthetically-produced organic matter in the ocean descends from the surface layer to depth by a combination of sinking particles, advection or vertical mixing of dissolved organic matter, and transport by animals. Particulate organic matter that is exported downward from the euphotic zone is composed of combinations of fecal pellets from zooplankton and fish, organic aggregates known as 'marine snow' and phytodetritus from sinking phytoplankton. Previous reviews by Turner and Ferrante (1979) and Turner (2002) focused on publications that appeared through late 2001. Since that time, studies of the biological pump have continued, and there have been >300 papers on vertical export flux using sediment traps, large-volume filtration systems and other techniques from throughout the global ocean. This review will focus primarily on recent studies that have appeared since 2001. Major topics covered in this review are (1) an overview of the biological pump, and its efficiency and variability, and the role of dissolved organic carbon in the biological pump; (2) zooplankton fecal pellets, including the contribution of zooplankton fecal pellets to export flux, epipelagic retention of zooplankton fecal pellets due to zooplankton activities, zooplankton vertical migration and fecal pellet repackaging, microbial ecology of fecal pellets, sinking velocities of fecal pellets and aggregates, ballasting of sinking particles by mineral contents, phytoplankton cysts, intact cells and harmful algae toxins in fecal pellets, importance of fecal pellets from various types of zooplankton, and the role of zooplankton fecal pellets in picoplankton export; (3) marine snow, including the origins, abundance, and distributions of marine snow, particles and organisms associated with marine snow, consumption and fragmentation of marine snow by animals, pathogens associated with marine snow; (4) phytodetritus, including pulsed export of phytodetritus, phytodetritus from Phaeocystis spp., picoplankton in phytodetritus, the summer export pulse (SEP) of phytodetritus in the subtropical North Pacific, benthic community responses to phytodetritus; (5) other components of the biological pump, including fish fecal pellets and fish-mediated export, sinking carcasses of animals and macrophytes, feces from marine mammals, transparent exopolymer particles (TEP); (6) the biological pump and climate, including origins of the biological pump, the biological pump and glacial/interglacial cycles, the biological pump and contemporary climate variations, and the biological pump and anthropogenic climate change. The review concludes with potential future modifications in the biological pump due to climate change.

  17. Acceleration of vertical migration of corneal epithelial cells in albino rats during chronic immobilization stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the effect of chronic immobilization stress on the kinetics of corneal epithelial cells from the basal layer into higher layers. Experiments were carried out on 49 male rats. The animals were given an intraperitoneal injection of tritium-thymidine and an additional application of 5 microCi of tritium-thymidine was made to its surface because the cornea has no blood supply. The animals were killed and the cornea removed for investigation. Values of the index of labeled nuclei and intensity of thymidine labeling, characterizing DNA synthesis in the corneas of the control and experimental animals showed no significant change compared with their values in a pervious series of experiments. Chronic exposure to stress increased the velocity of vertical migration of the cells from the basal layer toward the outer layers of the cornea

  18. Hydrothermal venting at endeavour ridge: effect on zooplankton biomass throughout the water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Brenda J.; Thomson, Richard E.

    1994-09-01

    Bio-acoustical data reveal that the hydrothermal plume emanating from the main vent field near 2100 m depth on Endeavour Ridge (47°57'N, 129°06'W) affects the distribution and migration of zooplankton throughout the entire water column. Net samples taken in July of 1991 and 1992 show that the standing stock of macrozooplankton integrated over the water column was considerably higher within several kilometers of the main vent site than at locations tens of kilometers from the vent site. Community analysis reveals that there were distinct shallow (800 m depth) faunal assemblages in the vent region. Shallow fauna infiltrated the deep zooplankton acoustic scattering layers in the immediate vicinity of Endeavour Ridge, producing a mixed assemblage of animals, including large numbers of juvenile filter-feeding copepods and their predators that normally inhabit the shallow layer. In contrast, the deep acoustic scattering layers found 11 km to the southeast and 15 km to the north of the central vent field in 1991, and 50 km to the west of the central vent field in 1992, were composed of distinctly deep-sea fauna. The enhanced, vertically-integrated biomass over the vent region appears to result from vertical migration of zooplankton. A simple circulation model indicates that fauna can make the round-trip journey between the top of the plume and the upper ocean without being advected beyond the range of the detectable hydrothermal effluent.

  19. Vertical migration of cryptosporidium parvum in unsaturated sand columns under transient flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebihara, T.; Mackert, S.D.; Graham, D.W. [Univ. of Kansas, Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Lawrence, Kansas (United States)

    2002-06-15

    The objective of this study was to identify the effect of lag time and residual water saturation on the vertical migration of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts under transient flow conditions experienced across vegetated filter strips (VFS) receiving runoff from livestock areas. The vertical migration of C. parvum oocysts through unsaturated soils was studied in laboratory sand columns. Approximately 1x10{sup 5} C. parvum oocysts and 1x10{sup 5} carboxylated latex microspheres (4.5 {mu}m diameter, Polysciences, Inc.) were applied to the top of sand columns at the beginning of each run. Transient water applications to the top of the sand columns (73 cm per hour) simulated an unusually high rate of pond overflow to the inlet area of a VFS after a large storm event, followed by a lag period of either 4 or 48 hours and a repeated water application. Residual water saturation conditions, during the lag period, were controlled to either 2.9 or 12.6 percent by applying a mild vacuum to the bottom of the sand column. The oocysts and microspheres were enumerated along the sand column profile using epifluorescence microscopy. The median travel distance for oocysts was 8.7 {+-} 1.1 cm at 12.6 percent residual saturation versus 6.7 {+-} 0.8 cm for 2.9 percent residual saturation. Lag time did not have a statistically significant effect on median travel distance. The study indicates that surface applied C. parvum oocysts have limited mobility through a uniform unsaturated sand medium experiencing high rates of transient water infiltration. (author)

  20. Inventory and vertical migration of 137Cs in Spanish mainland soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the total activity of 137Cs deposited per unit area over the Spanish peninsular territory was analysed using a 150 x 150 km2 mesh grid, with samples taken from 29 points. The deposited activities ranged between 251 and 6074 Bq/m2. A linear relationship was obtained between these values and the mean annual rainfall at each sampling point which allowed a map to be drawn, using GIS software, which shows the distribution of total deposited 137Cs activity across the Spanish mainland. At twelve of these sampling points the vertical migration profile of 137Cs was obtained. These profiles are separated into two groups with different behaviour, one of which includes clay and loam soils and the other containing sandy soils. For both groups of profiles the parameters of the convective-diffusive model, which describes the vertical migration of 137Cs in the soil, v (apparent convection velocity) and D (apparent diffusion coefficient) were calculated. - Highlights: → Measured the 137Cs activity in Spanish mainland, being within a range of [251, 6074] Bq/m2, with a mean value of 1726 Bq/m2. → Establishment of the 137Cs background by means of a 137Cs inventory map showing its distribution in the Spanish mainland. → 137Cs shows two different behaviour tendencies in soil depending on it. → The parameters which govern the applied model have been obtained for the analysed profiles. → Analysed those parameters, the two tendencies have been reflected in the obtained values.

  1. Long-term acoustical observations of the mesopelagic fish Maurolicus muelleri reveal novel and varied vertical migration patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Staby, A

    2011-11-15

    We studied the temporal dynamics in the vertical distribution of Maurolicus muelleri scattering layers (SL) by examining continuous acoustic recordings over a 15 mo period in Masfjorden, Norway, complemented by intermittent sampling campaigns. The data revealed known patterns as normal diel vertical migration (DVM), midnight sinking between dusk and dawn, and periods without migrations, as well as novel behaviours consisting of early morning ascents, reverse diel vertical migrations, and interrupted ascents in the evening. During the first autumn of the study, adult fish modified their normal DVM behaviour by suspending their migration in the evening, yet ascending toward the surface in the later part of the night to reach upper layers during dawn. This behaviour was not observed during the second autumn of the study. By mid- to end of November (1st autumn), adult fish had suspended the nocturnal ascent entirely, and in the subsequent period until the end of January, a fraction of the population rather performed limited reverse migrations, slightly shifting their vertical distribution upwards during the first part of the day. From January to March 2008, fish interrupted their evening ascent at apparently random intervals and returned to deeper waters, instead of completing a full ascent to the surface. Our study underlines the value of long-term recordings, with the results suggesting that M. muelleri has the capability of changing its behaviour in response to ontogeny and internal state (satiation and hunger) as well as to external stimuli.

  2. Providing food for zooplankton in the aboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are currently working in the laboratory with a species of zooplankton named Euphausiacea, but more commonly known as krill. This form of animal life is found abundantly in sea-water all over the world and serves as ideal food for numerous species of fish and cetaceans. Krill live in aggregates, often consisting of several thousand individuals, and migrate vertically each day; during the migration they feed, inter alia, on smaller crustaceans such as Copepoda. It is therefore highly instructive to study the part played by this form of animal life in the concentration and transport of radioactive substances in the sea. To make this possible, we have had to acclimatize the krill to laboratory conditions. In doing so many problems have been encountered, since it is a delicate creature and often difficult to keep alive. More specifically, one of our main worries has been to find food approximating as closely as possible the natural sustenance of Euphausiacea, food that is readily assimilable and relatively simple to procure. Artemia salina appeared to meet our requirements and we have begun rearing it on a mass scale

  3. Is vertical migration in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) influenced by an underlying circadian rhythm?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Edward Gaten; Geraint Tarling; Harold Dowse; Charalambos Kyriacou; Ezio Rosato

    2008-12-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a keystone species in the southern ocean ecosystem where it is the main consumer of phytoplankton and constitutes the main food item of many higher predators. Both food and predators are most abundant at the surface, thus krill hide in the depth of the ocean during the day and migrate to the upper layers at night, to feed at a time when the predatory risk is lowest. Although the functional significance of this diel vertical migration (DVM) is clear and its modulation by environmental factors has been described, the involvement of an endogenous circadian clock in this behaviour is as yet not fully resolved. We have analysed the circadian behaviour of Euphausia superba in a laboratory setting and here we present the first description of locomotor activity rhythms for this species. Our results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the circadian clock plays a key role in DVM. They also suggest that the interplay between food availability, social cues and the light:dark cycle acts as the predominant Zeitgeber for DVM in this species.

  4. Investigation of Vertical Migration of Pollutants through the Unsaturated Zone Using Stable Isotopes and Trace Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical migration of pollutants through unsaturated zone is a complicated process and is affected by a number of factors like type of soil, its chemical properties, or organic matter content, in addition to climatic conditions and biological activity of microorganisms in soil. Soil properties that influence water movement through unsaturated zone are important for determining flow paths, reactions between soil and pollutants and the ultimate destination of these pollutants, and may improve the diagnosis of the potential pollution risk. Three soil cores were sampled to a depth up to 100 cm from cultivated clayey soil, sewage irrigated sandy soil and fertilized sandy soil. The samples were collected at intervals of 5 or 10 cm. The ?13C signature of the soil shifted significantly towards that of C3-type vegetation in soil cores. The general trend toward heavier 13C enrichment with depth could be due to isotopic fractionation occurring during decomposition of soil organic matters. Increased ?15N with depth in the soil cores suggests that microbial mineralization, denitrification, or volatilization processes caused the enriched ?15N signatures. Decreasing nitrogen percent and nitrate values with depth also help support the idea of microbiological processes. The results indicate that concentrations of major and trace elements varied widely among the different soil types and decreased with depths in the studied soil profile. The accumulation pattern for these elements in the soil profiles follows the order: Co < Ni < Mo < Ag < Sr < V < Cu < Cr < Zn < Mn < B < Mg < Al < Fe. The relationships between element concentrations against ph and organic matter contents show antithetical relationships and suggest evidence that these elements arise from anthropogenic input. The results of this study show that there exists risk for the environment due to notable migration of pollutants through the unsaturated zone and that the migrations were also observed to be highly correlated with sandy soil as well as organic matter content rather than ph values

  5. Latitudinal comparisons of equatorial Pacific zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, M. R.; Dam, H. G.; Le Borgne, R.; Zhang, X.

    Zooplankton biomass and rates of ingestion, egestion and production in the equatorial Pacific Ocean along 140°W and 180° exhibit maximum values in the High-Nutrient Low-Chlorophyll (HNLC) zone associated with equatorial upwelling (5°S-5°N) as compared to the more oligotrophic regions to the north and south. Zooplankton biomass and rates are not usually highest on the equator, but increase "downstream" of the upwelling center as the zooplankton populations exhibit a delayed response to enhanced phytoplankton production. The vertical distribution of zooplankton biomass in the equatorial HNLC area tends to be concentrated in surface waters and is more uniform with depth in oligotrophic regions to the north and south of the equatorial upwelling zone. In general, the amount of mesozooplankton (>200 ?m) carbon biomass is approximately 25% of estimated phytoplankton biomass and 30% of bacterial biomass in the HNLC area of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton is low in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, generally demand, it is apparent that zooplankton in the equatorial Pacific Ocean are omnivores, consuming primarily microzooplankton and detritus. Estimated zooplankton growth rates in the warm waters of the HNLC equatorial Pacific Ocean are high, ranging from 0.58 d -1 for 64-200 ?m zooplankton to 0.08 d -1 for 1000-2000 ?m zooplankton. Thus, the numerical and functional response of equatorial zooplankton to increases in phytoplankton production are more rapid than normally occurs in sub-tropical and temperate waters. Potential zooplankton fecal pellet production, estimated from metabolic demand, is approximately 1.6 times the estimated gravitational carbon flux at 150 m in the zone of equatorial upwelling (5°S-5°N) and 1.1 times the export flux in the more oligotrophic regions to the north and south. The active flux of carbon by diel migrant zooplankton in the HNLC zone is a minor fraction of the gravitational flux (2% at 140°W, 4% at 180°) but increases in the more oligotrophic regions to the north and south where there is a deeper mixed layer and a greater relative proportion of diel migrant zooplankton.

  6. Studies of long-term vertical migration of 137Cs in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the soil surface 137Cs load estimated In Lithuania in the regions of elevated contamination in 1999-2000 are compared with those in 1992-1995. It is shown that in 1999-2000, on average, the soil surface 137Cs activity density amounted to 710 Bq m-2 (?=110 Bq m-2) in the north-western region, to 1100 Bq m-2 (?=Bq m-2) in the southern region, and to 2130 Bq m-2 ((?=240 Bq m-2) on the Curonian Spit. These values are lower than those in 1992-1995 by 48 %, 27 % and 23 %, respectively. The vertical distribution of the 137Cs activity concentration in soil is characterized by the second maximum at 8-10 cm to 14-16 cm depth. This maximum is probably caused by the 137Cs global fallout due to nuclear weapons tests in 1945-1980. The quasi-diffusion model was used to describe the vertical distribution of 137Cs in soil. Parameters of long-term vertical migration of 137Cs in soil, the transfer rate w and the diffusion coefficient D, ranged as follows: in the southern region of Lithuania (loam and sandy loam) D=0.07/0.12 cm2 year-1, w=0.28/0.30 cm year-1, in the north-western region (mainly sandy loam) D=0.08/0.16 cm2 year-1, w=0.24/0.39 cm year-1, and on the Curonian Spit (mainly fine sand) D=0.03/0.17 cm2 year-1, w=0.21/0.30 cm year-1. (author)

  7. Zooplankton abundance, species composition and ecology of tropical high-mountain crater lake Wonchi, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasil Degefu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The highlands of Ethiopia represent some of the remnants of undisturbed aquatic ecosystems; they are however highly threatened by significant socio–economic developments and associated anthropogenic impacts. Lake Wonchi is one of the few remaining fairly pristine high–mountain crater lakes in the central highlands and has never been investigated in detail. We present a first study on zooplankton taxa composition, abundance and biomass conducted over more than one year including the underlying environmental drivers. The lake is basic (pH 7.9-8.9, dilute (specific conductivity 185-245 µS cm-1 and oligotrophic with mean trophic status index of 36. The zooplankton community composition showed low species richness comprising a total of fourteen taxa with six cladocerans, one copepod and seven rotifers. Simpson´s index of diversity with values between 0.6 and 0.8 pointed towards a homogenous taxa occurrence within the single sample units. The overall mean (±SD standing biomass of zooplankton was 62.02±25.76 mg dry mass m-3,which is low compared to other highland and rift valley lakes in Ethiopia. Cyclopoid copepods, in particular Thermocyclops ethiopiensis were the most abundant group and contributed 50% to the total zooplankton abundance followed by cladocerans (38% and rotifers (12%. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling resulted in a 3-dimensional model, which revealed similar community composition on successive sampling dates except in December/January and May. Temperature, alkalinity, conductivity and nitrate-N had significant influence on this seasonal pattern. A weak, but significant positive correlation (r=0.482, N=20, P=0.037 between Chlorophyll a and zooplankton biomass mirrors a bottom-up effect of phytoplankton biomass on zooplankton dynamics. The zooplankton of Lake Wonchi displayed some degree of segregation along the epi– and metalimnion during this study, but diel vertical migration was not observed. The results show that fish predation is not the key factor in structuring the vertical distribution of zooplankton in Lake Wonchi.

  8. Spatial and temporal habitat partitioning by zooplankton in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jan; Peck, Myron A.; Barz, Kristina; Schmidt, Jörn Oliver; Hansen, Frank C.; Peters, Janna; Renz, Jasmin; Dickmann, Miriam; Mohrholz, Volker; Dutz, Jörg; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    The deep basins in the Baltic Sea such as the Bornholm Basin (BB) are subject to seasonal changes in the strength of physico-chemical stratification. These depth-related changes in key abiotic factors are strong drivers of habitat partitioning by the autochthonous zooplankton community. Species-specific ecophysiological preferences often result in both seasonal and inter-annual changes in vertical abundance that, when combined with depth-specific water currents, also lead to horizontal differences in spatial distribution. The present study documented the seasonal and depth-specific changes in the abundance and species composition of zooplankton in the BB based upon broad-scale survey data: 832 vertically-resolved (10 m) multinet samples collected at nine stations between March 2002 and May 2003. Changes in the zooplankton community were significantly correlated with changes in ambient hydrography. Each of five taxa (Bosmina coregoni maritima, Acartia spp., Pseudocalanus spp., Temora longicornis, Synchaeta spp.) contributed >10% to the zooplankton community composition. The appearance of cladocerans was mainly correlated with the phenology of thermocline development in the spring. The cladoceran B. coregoni maritima was a dominant member of this community during the warmest periods, preferring the surface waters above the thermocline. Copepods exhibited distinct, ontogenetic and seasonal changes in their distribution. The rotifers (Synchaeta sp.) were the most abundant zooplankton in May. Based on a multivariate approach and the evaluation of vertical distribution patterns, five major habitat utilisation modes were identified that were based, to a large extent, on the dynamics of thermal and haline stratification of the Baltic Sea. Our statistical analysis of one of the most thorough datasets collected on Baltic zooplankton in recent decades reveals some of the factors that make this stratified system highly dynamic with respect to the spatial overlap between predators and prey. As fish and gelatinous plankton often feed in distinct layers and/or exhibit feeding migrations, the inhomogeneous distribution of potential prey can result in a spatial mismatch. Based on the five modes identified at the community level for zooplankton, we discuss how climate-driven hydrographic variability may influence the strength of trophic coupling within the Bornholm Basin.

  9. Vertical migration and dispersion of sprat ( Sprattus sprattus ) and herring ( Clupea harengus ) schools at dusk in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lars Anders Fredrik; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Lundgren, Bo; Nielsen, Bo Friis; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Beyer, Jan

    2003-01-01

    In populations of herring (Clupea harengus) or sprat (Sprattus sprattus), one typically observes a pattern of schools forming at dawn and dispersing at dusk, usually combined with vertical migration. This behaviour influences interactions with other species; hence a better understanding of the...... processes could contribute to deeper insight into ecosystem dynamics. This paper reports field measurements of the dispersal at dusk and examines two hypotheses through statistical modelling: that the vertical migration and the dissolution of schools is determined by decrease in light intensity, and that...... patterns were analysed using the school detection module in Echoview® and local light intensities were calculated using a model for surface illuminance. The data and the analysis support that schools migrate upwards during dusk, possibly trying to remain aggregated by keeping the local light intensities...

  10. Seasonal migration, vertical activity and winter temperature experience of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum) in West Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Jesper; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Behrens, Jane

    2014-01-01

    little is known about its behavior and habitat characteristics. We tagged adult Greenland halibut in the waters off Ilulissat with electronic data storage tags that collected information on depth, temperature, and time. Although clear differences between individuals in migration and vertical behavior...... were present, we discovered a consistent seasonal migration from the relatively shallow-water Disko Bay area into the deep waters of the Ilulissat Icefjord, where the fish resided in the winter months before returning to Disko Bay. Vertical activity was pronounced at both locations, with fish covering...... vertical distances of up to 100 m within 15 min. During the winter months, the fish experienced temperatures between ca. 0 and 4°C, with most experiencing temperatures of 2 to 3°C. Irrespective of year and quarter of the year, the fish experienced warmer water and a broader range of temperatures when...

  11. Migrant biomass and respiratory carbon flux by zooplankton and micronekton in the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, A.; Garijo, J. C.; Landeira, J. M.; Bordes, F.; Hernández-León, S.

    2015-05-01

    Diel Vertical Migration (DVM) in marine ecosystems is performed by zooplankton and micronekton, promoting a poorly accounted export of carbon to the deep ocean. Major efforts have been made to estimate carbon export due to gravitational flux and to a lesser extent, to migrant zooplankton. However, migratory flux by micronekton has been largely neglected in this context, due to its time-consuming and difficult sampling. In this paper, we evaluated gravitational and migratory flux due to the respiration of zooplankton and micronekton in the northeast subtropical Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands). Migratory flux was addressed by calculating the biomass of migrating components and measuring the electron transfer system (ETS) activity in zooplankton and dominant species representing micronekton (Euphausia gibboides, Sergia splendens and Lobianchia dofleini). Our results showed similar biomass in both components. The main taxa contributing to DVM within zooplankton were juvenile euphausiids, whereas micronekton were mainly dominated by fish, followed by adult euphausiids and decapods. The contribution to respiratory flux of zooplankton (3.4 ± 1.9 mg C m-2 d-1) was similar to that of micronekton (2.9 ± 1.0 mg C m-2 d-1). In summary, respiratory flux accounted for 53% (range 23-71) of the gravitational flux measured at 150 m depth (11.9 ± 5.8 mg C m-2 d-1). However, based on larger migratory ranges and gut clearance rates, micronekton are expected to be the dominant component that contributes to carbon export in deeper waters. Micronekton estimates in this paper as well as those in existing literature, although variable due to regional differences and difficulties in calculating their biomass, suggest that carbon fluxes driven by this community are important for future models of the biological carbon pump.

  12. Diet of larvae and juvenile perch, Perca fluviatilis performing diel vertical migrations in a deep reservoir.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Michal; Peterka, Ji?í; Kube?ka, Jan; Mat?na, Josef; Vašek, Mojmír; Vaní?ková, I.; ?ech, Martin; Se?a, Jaromír

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 57, ?. 3 (2008), s. 313-323. ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA600170502; GA AV ?R(CZ) 1QS600170504; GA ?R(CZ) GA206/06/1371 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : 0+fish * Slapy Reservoir * digestive tracts fullness * zooplankton Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008

  13. A New Trait-Based Auto-Emergent Model for Zooplankton and Confrontation with Size-Structured Observations from the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandromme, Pieter; Sourisseau, Marc; Huret, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Zooplankton plays a significant role in marine ecosystems bridging the gap between primary producers and top consumers and interacting with the particle flux through complex dynamics. Scarcity of data and complexity of observing zooplankton make it difficult to integrate it in biogeochemical models where it is most often formulated in a simpler manner, i.e. classic box models with usually two compartments (micro and meso/macro zooplankton). Recent advances in automatic sizing, counting and identification allow better estimates of the dynamics and distribution of zooplankton, notably through the measurement of its size structure, and for zooplankton size matter. Most zooplankton physiological rates as well as predator:prey interactions can be significantly relied to individuals size through allometric relations. Such size-dependency was used in recent models. Yet, these models were neither confronted to observations nor integrated in 3D biogeochemical models. Here we propose a newly developed model of zooplankton dynamics based on size-dependent allometric relations but which allows various diet types regardless of the size. A size and a degree of herbivory is randomly drawn for each zooplankton species generated within the model (up to 400 here, limited by actual computational costs). By generating random degree of herbivory zooplankton species of same size could have various diet (from herbivore to carnivore). Other parameters leading to various reproductive strategies or vertical migration could also be drawn randomly (not tested here). The zooplankton model is coupled to the 3D biogeochemical model MARS3D on a test case representing a simplified view of the Bay of Biscay (i.e., continental shelf, estuary, tides). The model shows auto-emergent properties with the selection of size/diet most adapted to local conditions (here offshore vs. coastal, estuary…). Then, patterns of the modeled size-structure of the zooplankton are confronted to the ones observed during Spring-time cruises in the Bay of Biscay. The usefulness of the proposed zooplankton model for large scale biogeochemical models is further discussed.

  14. More active vertical migration of 137 Cs towards the groundwater level within areas of intensive agricultural activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of agricultural pollutants upon the rate of 137 Cs migration in soil profiles has been studied. To estimate changes in the radiocaesium migration capacity with the presence of high amounts of potassic fertilizers were applied within experimental plots with podzolic and peat-boggy soils. The results of layer-by layer soil and ground testing within experimental and untreated (without KCL) plots were used to estimate an increase of the diffusion coefficient and 137 Cs migration rate in these soils in the period from June to September. Experimental results obtained suggest that the soil section enrichment with potassium provides a several times increase of radiocaesium vertical migration along soil profiles towards the groundwater level

  15. Empirical evaluation of predator-driven diel vertical migration in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, J.D.; Hrabik, T.R.; Jensen, O.P.; Yule, D.L.; Balge, M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies on Lake Superior suggest that diel vertical migration (DVM) of prey (generalized Coregonus spp.) may be influenced by the density of predatory siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush). We empirically evaluated this hypothesis using data from acoustic, midwater trawl, and bottom trawl sampling at eight Lake Superior sites during three seasons in 2005 and a subset of sites in 2006. We expected the larger-bodied cisco (Coregonus artedi) to exhibit a shallower DVM compared with the smaller-bodied kiyi (Coregonus kiyi). Although DVM of kiyi and cisco were consistent with expectations of DVM as a size-dependent, predator-mediated process, we found no relationship between siscowet density and the magnitude of DVM of either coregonid. Cisco appear to have a size refuge from siscowet predation. Kiyi and siscowet co-occur in demersal habitat > 150 m during the day, where visual predation is unlikely, suggesting predator avoidance is not a factor in the daytime distribution of kiyi. Seasonal patterns of kiyi DVM were consistent with reported DVM of their primary prey Mysis relicta. Our results suggest that consideration of nonvisual foraging, rather than lightbased foraging theory (i.e., the antipredation window), is necessary to understand the processes driving DVM in deepwater systems.

  16. Global fallout 137Cs accumulation and vertical migration in selected soils from South Patagonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial distribution and vertical migration of global fallout 137Cs were studied in soils from South Patagonia at the austral region of South America in semi-natural and natural environments located between 50-54 deg. S and 68-74 deg. W. The 137Cs areal activity density varied from 222 to 858 Bq m-2, and was found to be significantly positively correlated (ps of 137Cs in the soil in such polar isotundra climate has been determined to be 0.056 cm y-1. This value is higher than vs determined under polar climate (-0.012 cm y-1) and is near to the upper limit of vs-values determined in temperate environments from Chile (0.019 cm y-1). The median value of the diffusion coefficient Ds (0.048 cm2 y-1) is similar to Ds observed in an Antarctic region (0.043 cm2 y-1) and lower than Ds in temperate regions of Chile (1.24 cm2 y-1). About 35 years after the highest depositions, 137Cs had penetrated to a depth of 6-14 cm in the Patagonian soils and can be expected to remain in the rooting zone of grass for many decades. Nevertheless, because of its low transfer to steppe grass observed at this region, the radioecological sensitivity of this ecosystem with respect to fallout radiocesium seems to be lower than in other polar regions

  17. Diel vertical migrations of age 0+ percids in a shallow, well-mixed reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír SE?A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of age 0+ percids (perch, Perca fluviatilis and pikeperch, Sander lucioperca was investigated in a shallow, wellmixed reservoir during a 24-h period in late May, using acoustic and netting methods. Diel vertical migrations (DVMs were acoustically recorded between the layers close to the bottom and the whole water column. The netting data showed a high abundance of larvae and juveniles at night (nearly 1 ind m-3, or 6 ind m-2, whereas negligible numbers of age 0+ percids were present in the water column during the day (3% of night abundance. Age 0+ percids remained during the day in the layer very close to bottom. Smaller pikeperch larvae dominated the pelagic age 0+ fish assemblage during daylight, while larger perch prevailed at night. A strong difference between day and night abundances along with a clear pattern discerned by acoustic methods revealed the DVM of age 0+ percids. Analyses of the fish digestive tract contents indicate that DVM was not governed by feeding behaviour, but rather a defensive strategy against predation. This is in agreement with the size distribution of age 0+ percids, since they were smaller in water column during the day as opposed to the night.

  18. VERTICAL MIGRATION OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE VICINITY OF THE CHERNOBYL CONFINEMENT SHELTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

    2011-10-01

    Studies on vertical migration of Chernobyl-origin radionuclides in the 5-km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the area of the Red Forest experimental site were completed. Measurements were made by gamma spectrometric methods using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with beryllium windows. Alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium were determined by the measurement of the x-rays from their uranium progeny. The presence of {sup 60}Co, {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 154,155}Eu, and {sup 241}Am in all soil layers down to a depth of 30 cm was observed. The presence of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am were noted in the area containing automorphous soils to a depth of 60 cm. In addition, the upper soil layers at the test site were found to contain {sup 243}Am and {sup 243}Cm. Over the past ten years, the {sup 241}Am/{sup 137}Cs ratio in soil at the experimental site has increased by a factor of 3.4, nearly twice as much as would be predicted based solely on radioactive decay. This may be due to 'fresh' fallout emanating from the ChNPP Confinement Shelter.

  19. Flight periodicity and the vertical distribution of high-altitude moth migration over southern Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C R; Reynolds, D R; Wells, P M; Barlow, J F; Woiwod, I P; Chapman, J W

    2009-10-01

    The continuous operation of insect-monitoring radars in the UK has permitted, for the first time, the characterization of various phenomena associated with high-altitude migration of large insects over this part of northern Europe. Previous studies have taken a case-study approach, concentrating on a small number of nights of particular interest. Here, combining data from two radars, and from an extensive suction- and light-trapping network, we have undertaken a more systematic, longer-term study of diel flight periodicity and vertical distribution of macro-insects in the atmosphere. Firstly, we identify general features of insect abundance and stratification, occurring during the 24-hour cycle, which emerge from four years' aggregated radar data for the summer months in southern Britain. These features include mass emigrations at dusk and, to a lesser extent, at dawn and daytime concentrations associated with thermal convection. We then focus our attention on the well-defined layers of large nocturnal migrants that form in the early evening, usually at heights of 200-500 m above ground. We present evidence from both radar and trap data that these nocturnal layers are composed mainly of noctuid moths, with species such as Noctua pronuba, Autographa gamma, Agrotis exclamationis, A. segetum, Xestia c-nigrum and Phlogophora meticulosa predominating. PMID:19224662

  20. Risks of increased UV-B radiation for zooplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zooplankters are for several reasons bound to luminous water layers and are consequently prone to the danger of UV-B radiation. Despite their various protective mechanisms (e.g. pigmentation, circardian vertical migration) and strong UV-B absorption in natural waters, this danger cannot be eliminated altogether. In eutrophic lakes during summer a few hours of exposure to sunlight can already be lethal for some species. Other species which are able to populate even shallow pools in mountainous regions may survive in similar conditions. Escape from death through UV-B radiation of course does not exclude sublethal impairment of these organisms' fitness. Such inconspicuous tendencies are nevertheless capable of altering the species make-up of pelagic biocoenoses. As the current conditions have been shown to lead to both lethal and sublethal impairment, it must be assumed that the risks for zooplankton will continue to grow with increasing UV-B radiation, especially in oligatrophic lakes. (orig.)

  1. Evidence of vertical migration in the Ipanema bat Pygoderma bilabiatum (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos E. L. Esbérard; Isaac P. de Lima; Pedro H. Nobre; Althoff, Sérgio L.; Tássia Jordão-Nogueira; Daniela Dias; Fernando Carvalho; Marta E. Fabián; Margareth L. Sekiama; Artur Stanke Sobrinho

    2011-01-01

    Migration is defined as a seasonal and cyclic population movement observed in all animal classes and studied mainly in vertebrates. A considerable part of the knowledge on migration comes from birds, for which migration is an important aspect of their biology. In the case of bats, females usually migrate larger distances than males in some species. The present study analyzes the seasonal occurrence of Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843) at different elevations, in order to test for a pattern ...

  2. Global fallout (137)Cs accumulation and vertical migration in selected soils from South Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, P; Bunzl, K; Voigt, G; Ellies, A; Castillo, A

    2004-01-01

    The spatial distribution and vertical migration of global fallout (137)Cs were studied in soils from South Patagonia at the austral region of South America in semi-natural and natural environments located between 50-54 degrees S and 68-74 degrees W. The (137)Cs areal activity density varied from 222 to 858 Bq m(-2), and was found to be significantly positively correlated (pIslands (median 8%) and in other temperate environments in south-central Chile (median 0.2%). The median of the convection velocity v(s) of (137)Cs in the soil in such polar isotundra climate has been determined to be 0.056 cm y(-1). This value is higher than v(s) determined under polar climate (-0.012 cm y(-1)) and is near to the upper limit of v(s)-values determined in temperate environments from Chile (0.019 cm y(-1)). The median value of the diffusion coefficient D(s) (0.048 cm(2) y(-1)) is similar to D(s) observed in an Antarctic region (0.043 cm(2) y(-1)) and lower than D(s) in temperate regions of Chile (1.24 cm(2) y(-1)). About 35 years after the highest depositions, (137)Cs had penetrated to a depth of 6-14 cm in the Patagonian soils and can be expected to remain in the rooting zone of grass for many decades. Nevertheless, because of its low transfer to steppe grass observed at this region, the radioecological sensitivity of this ecosystem with respect to fallout radiocesium seems to be lower than in other polar regions. PMID:14557036

  3. The effect of sorption properties of soil minerals on the vertical migration rate of cesium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertical distribution of 137Cs is shown for two types of soil: silty loamy 'supposed' soil and silty lessive one, slightly eroded, occurring in the vicinity of Lublin (Eastern Poland). Based on the distribution data the vertical migration rates of 137Cs are calculated for both soils. These rates are found to be 0.045 and 0.3 cm/year respectively. The percent contribution of 137Cs originating from the damaged reactor in Chernobyl is also calculated. The kinetics of cesium adsorption and its adsorption isotherms on minerals separated from the tested soils are also studied. The sorption of Cs on soil minerals markedly affects the migration rate of 137Cs in soil. The experimental results indicate that, among the extracted mineral fractions, the largest adsorption takes place on marls from the silty loamy soil. This work is supplemented by results of a physicochemical analysis of the studied soils. (author)

  4. Cross-shelf transport of pink shrimp larvae: Interactions of tidal currents, larval vertical migrations and internal tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criales, M.M.; Browder, J.A.; Mooers, C.N.K.; Robblee, M.B.; Cardenas, H.; Jackson, T.L.

    2007-01-01

    Transport and behavior of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum larvae were investigated on the southwestern Florida (SWF) shelf of the Gulf of Mexico between the Dry Tortugas spawning grounds and Florida Bay nursery grounds. Stratified plankton samples and hydrographic data were collected at 2 h intervals at 3 stations located on a cross-shelf transect. At the Marquesas station, midway between Dry Tortugas and Florida Bay, internal tides were recognized by anomalously cool water, a shallow thermocline with strong density gradients, strong current shear, and a high concentration of pink shrimp larvae at the shallow thermocline. Low Richardson numbers occurred at the pycnocline depth, indicating vertical shear instability and possible turbulent transport from the lower to the upper layer where myses and postlarvae were concentrated. Analysis of vertically stratified plankton suggested that larvae perform vertical migrations and the specific behavior changes ontogenetically; protozoeae were found deeper than myses, and myses deeper than postlarvae. Relative concentrations of protozoea in the upper, middle and bottom layers were consistent with a diel vertical migration, whereas that of postlarvae and myses were consistent with the semidiurnal tides in phase with the flood tide. Postlarvae, the shallowest dwellers that migrate with a semidiurnal periodicity, experienced the largest net onshore flux and larval concentrations were highly correlated with the cross-shelf current. These results provide the first evidence of an onshore tidal transport (a type of selective tidal stream transport, STST), in decapod larvae migrating in continental shelf waters offshore, ca. 100 km from the coast and at a depth of 20 m, while approaching the coastal nursery grounds. Longer time series would be necessary to establish whether internal tides play any role in the larval onshore transport of this species and determine if the STST is the dominant onshore transport mechanism. ?? Inter-Research 2007 .

  5. Vertical migration and dispersion of sprat ( Sprattus sprattus ) and herring ( Clupea harengus ) schools at dusk in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lars Anders Fredrik; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Lundgren, Bo; Nielsen, Bo Friis; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Beyer, Jan

    2003-01-01

    In populations of herring (Clupea harengus) or sprat (Sprattus sprattus), one typically observes a pattern of schools forming at dawn and dispersing at dusk, usually combined with vertical migration. This behaviour influences interactions with other species; hence a better understanding of the processes could contribute to deeper insight into ecosystem dynamics. This paper reports field measurements of the dispersal at dusk and examines two hypotheses through statistical modelling: that the vert...

  6. Inter- and intra-specific diurnal habitat selection of zooplankton during the spring bloom observed by Video Plankton Recorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainmont, Julie; Gislason, Astthor

    2014-01-01

    Diel vertical migration (DVM) is a common behavior adopted by zooplankton species. DVM is a prominent adaptation for avoiding visual predation during daylight hours and still being able to feed on surface phytoplankton blooms during night. Here, we report on a DVM study using a Video Plankton Recorder (VPR), a tool that allows mapping of vertical zooplankton distributions with a far greater spatial resolution than conventional zooplankton nets. The study took place over a full day–night cycle in Disko Bay, Greenland, during the peak of the phytoplankton spring bloom. The sampling revealed a large abundance of copepods performing DVM (up during night and down during day). Migration behavior was expressed differently among the abundant groups with either a strong DVM (euphausiids), an absence of DVM (i.e., permanently deep; ostracods) or a marked DVM, driven by strong surface avoidance during the day and more variable depth preferences at night (Calanus spp.). The precise individual depth position provided by the VPR allowed us to conclude that the escape from surface waters during daytime reduces feeding opportunities but also lowers the risk of predation (by reducing the light exposure) and thereby is likely to influence both state (hunger, weight and stage) and survival. The results suggest that the copepods select day and night time habitats with similar light levels (~10?9 ?mol photon s?1 m?2). Furthermore, Calanus spp. displayed state-dependent behavior, with DVM most apparent for smaller individuals, and a deeper residence depth for the larger individuals.

  7. Study on the rate of plutonium vertical migration in various soil types of Lublin region (Eastern Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil contamination level with 239+240Pu of Lublin region was determined using the alpha spectrometric method. Results were compared with similar data from the study performed 15 year earlier. Decrease in total 239+240Pu concentration and reducing quantity of Chernobyl fraction (up to almost negligible value of 1 %) has been observed in upper soil layer. Determination of 239+240Pu concentration in soil profile layers allows calculating a vertical migration velocity of plutonium applying a compartment migration model. It was found that 239+240Pu migration rate varies depending on soil type from 0.29 cm year-1 in Podsols to 0.58 cm year-1 in Fluvisols with mean value of 0.5 cm year-1. (author)

  8. Comparing the diel vertical migration of Karlodinium veneficum (dinophyceae) and Chattonella subsalsa (Raphidophyceae): PSII photochemistry, circadian control, and carbon assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilney, Charles L; Hoadley, Kenneth D; Warner, Mark E

    2015-02-01

    Diel vertical migration (DVM) is thought to provide an adaptive advantage to some phytoplankton, and may help determine the ecological niche of certain harmful algae. Here we separately compared DVM patterns between two species of harmful algae isolated from the Delaware Inland Bays, Karlodinium veneficum and Chattonella subsalsa, in laboratory columns. We interpreted the DVM patterns of each species with Photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry, rates of carbon assimilation, and specific growth rates. Each species migrated differently, wherein K. veneficum migrated closer to the surface each day with high population synchrony, while C. subsalsa migrated near to the surface from the first day of measurements with low population synchrony. Both species appeared to downregulate PSII in high light at the surface, but by different mechanisms. C. subsalsa grew slower than K. veneficum in low light intensities (?bottom of columns), and exhibited maximal rates of C-assimilation (Pmax) at surface light intensities, suggesting this species may prefer high light, potentially explaining this species' rapid surface migration. Contrastingly, K. veneficum showed declines in carbon assimilation at surface light intensities, and exhibited a smaller reduction in growth at low (bottom) light intensities (compared to C. subsalsa), suggesting that this species' step-wise migration was photoacclimative and determined daily migration depth. DVM was found to be under circadian control in C. subsalsa, but not in K. veneficum. However, there was little evidence for circadian regulation of PSII photochemistry in either species. Migration conformed to each species' physiology, and the results contribute to our understanding each alga's realized environmental niche. PMID:25618815

  9. Zooplankton from Lake Magelungen, Central Sweden 1960-1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of the zooplankton of Lake Magelungen, Central Sweden, was carried out over a period of three years. The aim of the investigation was to illustrate the qualitative and quantitative composition of the zooplankton before the release of waste water from the Aagesta Heat and Power Station began. Vertical sampling series were collected once a month at three different stations in the lake. The highest volumes of zooplankton were obtained in the summer. The ciliates predominated when the conditions were unfavourable for other zooplankton, as in winter just below the ice. The rotifers dominated during and immediately after the spring circulation. With one exception the crustaceans reached their peak volume values in August or September. The composition of the zooplankton indicates that Lake Magelungen is highly eutrophic

  10. Zooplankton from Lake Magelungen, Central Sweden 1960-1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almquist, Elisabeth

    1970-11-15

    The investigation of the zooplankton of Lake Magelungen, Central Sweden, was carried out over a period of three years. The aim of the investigation was to illustrate the qualitative and quantitative composition of the zooplankton before the release of waste water from the Aagesta Heat and Power Station began. Vertical sampling series were collected once a month at three different stations in the lake. The highest volumes of zooplankton were obtained in the summer. The ciliates predominated when the conditions were unfavourable for other zooplankton, as in winter just below the ice. The rotifers dominated during and immediately after the spring circulation. With one exception the crustaceans reached their peak volume values in August or September. The composition of the zooplankton indicates that Lake Magelungen is highly eutrophic

  11. Assessment of brine migration risks along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Alexander; Class, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change, shortage of resources and the growing usage of renewable energy sources has lead to a growing demand for the utilization of subsurface systems. Among these competing uses are Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), geothermal energy, nuclear waste disposal, 'renewable' methane or hydrogen storage as well as the ongoing production of fossil resources like oil, gas and coal. Additionally, these technologies may also create conflicts with essential public interests such as water supply. For example, the injection of CO2 into the subsurface causes an increase in pressure reaching far beyond the actual radius of influence of the CO2 plume, potentially leading to large amounts of displaced salt water. In this work we focus on the large scale impacts of CO2 storage on brine migration but the methodology and the obtained results may also apply to other fields like waste water disposal, where large amounts of fluid are injected into the subsurface. In contrast to modeling on the reservoir scale the spatial scale required for this work is much larger in both vertical and lateral direction, as the regional hydrogeology has to be considered. Structures such as fault zones, hydrogeological windows in the Rupelian clay or salt domes are considered as potential pathways for displaced fluids into shallow systems and their influence has to be taken into account. We put the focus of our investigations on the latter type of scenario, since there is still a poor understanding of the role that salt diapirs would play in CO2 storage projects. As there is hardly any field data available on this scale, we compare different levels of model complexity in order to identify the relevant processes for brine displacement and simplify the modeling process wherever possible, for example brine injection vs. CO2 injection, simplified geometries vs. the complex formation geometry and the role of salt induced density differences on flow. Further we investigate the impact of the displaced brine due to CO2 injection and compare it to the natural fluid exchange between shallow and deep aquifers in order to asses possible damage.

  12. Vertical migration of 85Sr, 137Cs and 131I in various arable and undisturbed soils.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palágyi, Š.; Palágyiová, Jana

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 257, ?. 2 (2003), s. 353-359. ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : radionuclides migration * models of migration * soil profiles Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2003

  13. 137Cs vertical migration in a deciduous forest soil following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large amount of 137Cs deposited on the forest floor because of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident represents a major potential long-term source for mobile 137Cs. To investigate 137Cs mobility in forest soils, we investigated the vertical migration of 137Cs through seepage water, using a lysimetric method. The study was conducted in a deciduous forest soil over a period spanning 2 month to 2 y after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Our observations demonstrated that the major part of 137Cs in the litter layer moved into the mineral soil within one year after the accident. On the other hand, the topsoil prevented migration of 137Cs, and only 2% of 137Cs in the leachate from litter and humus layer penetrated below a 10 cm depth. The annual migration below a 10 cm depth accounted for 0.1% of the total 137Cs inventory. Therefore, the migration of 137Cs by seepage water comprised only a very small part of the total 137Cs inventory in the mineral soil, which was undetectable from the vertical distribution of 137Cs in the soil profile. In the present and immediate future, most of the 137Cs deposited on the forest floor will probably remain in the topsoil successively, although a small but certain amount of bioavailable 137Cs exists in forest surface soil. -- Highlights: • Lysimeter captured 137Cs mobility in a forest soil after the Fukushima accident. • Major part of 137Cs in the litter layer moved into the mineral soil within a year. • Litter-leachate 137Cs was predominantly adsorbed within the topsoil. • The annual migration below a 10 cm depth was 0.1% of the total 137Cs inventory

  14. Vertical migration of Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in Bavarian grassland soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the behavior of radiocesium in terrestrial ecosystems has been studied in detail, as recently reviewed by Avery, long-term migration data on Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in grassland soils are scarce, especially in typical soils of Western Europe. The objective of the present investigation was therefore to determine the migration of Chernobyl-derived radiocesium within the root zone (ca. 0-15 cm) of ten undisturbed Bavarian grassland soils. To obtain information on the large-scale spatial variability of the cesium migration the sampling sites were selected randomly within an area of about 100x200 km. The migration of radiocesium was characterized by the corresponding residence half-times in the various soil layers at each site. (orig./AJ)

  15. Predator evasion in zooplankton is suppressed by polyunsaturated fatty acid limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezi?ski, Tomasz; von Elert, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Herbivorous zooplankton avoid size-selective predation by vertical migration to a deep, cold water refuge. Adaptation to low temperatures in planktonic poikilotherms depends on essential dietary lipids; the availability of these lipids often limits growth and reproduction of zooplankton. We hypothesized that limitation by essential lipids may affect habitat preferences and predator avoidance behavior in planktonic poikilotherms. We used a liposome supplementation technique to enrich the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the cyanobacterium Synecchococcus elongatus with the essential lipids, cholesterol and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and an indoor system with a stratified water-column (plankton organ) to test whether the absence of these selected dietary lipids constrains predator avoidance (habitat preferences) in four species of the key-stone pelagic freshwater grazer Daphnia. We found that the capability of avoiding fish predation through habitat shift to the deeper and colder environment was suppressed in Daphnia unless the diet was supplemented with EPA; however, the availability of cholesterol did not affect habitat preferences of the tested taxa. Thus, their ability to access a predator-free refuge and the outcome of predator-prey interactions depends upon food quality (i.e. the availability of an essential fatty acid). Our results suggest that biochemical food quality limitation, a bottom-up factor, may affect the top-down control of herbivorous zooplankton. PMID:26232092

  16. Effect of plant trichomes on the vertical migration of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae on five tropical forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Aruaque L F; Costa, Ciniro; Rodella, Roberto A; Silva, Bruna F; Amarante, Alessandro F T

    2009-06-01

    The influence of trichomes on vertical migration and survival of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3) on different forages was investigated. Four different forages showing different distributions of trichomes (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraes, Andropogon gayanus, and Stylosanthes spp.), and one forage species without trichomes (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania), were used. Forages cut at the post-grazing height were contaminated with faeces containing L3. Samples of different grass strata (0-10, 10-20, >20 cm) and faeces were collected for L3 quantification once per week over four weeks. In all forages studied, the highest L3 recovery occurred seven days after contamination, with the lowest recovery on A. gayanus. In general, larvae were found on all forages' strata. However, most of the larvae were at the lower stratum. There was no influence of trichomes on migration and survival of H. contortus L3 on the forages. PMID:18975119

  17. [Vertical Migration Characteristics of Organochlorine Pesticides in Overlying Soil in Karst Terranes and Its Impact on Groundwater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-chuan; Wang, Yong-qi; Liang, Zuo-bing; Yuan, Dao-xian

    2015-05-01

    Five soil profiles and four typical epikarst springs were selected in Nanchuan District, Chongqing Municipality as objects of the study on vertical migration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the soils and its impact on groundwater. OCPs in soil and epikarst spring water samples were quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography. The results showed that HCHs and DDTs were detected in all the 5 soil profiles, varying in the range of 0.77-18.3 and 0.34-226 ng · g(-1), and averaging 5.16 and 16 ng · g(-1) in concentration, respectively. The highest concentrations of HCHs and DDTs were found in the subsoil (10-40 cm) in most sampling sites. The detection ratios of HCHs and DDTs in four springs were 100%. The concentrations of HCHs and DDTs fluctuated greatly in epikarst spring water during the one-year observation, and the concentration ranged from 2.09 to 60.1 and from N. D. to 79.8 ng · L(-1), with a mean value of 12 and 9.16 ng · L(-1), respectively. The concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in Hougou, Baishuwan and Lanhuagou spring in rainy season were all. higher than those in dry season in these three epikarst springs. There were no good corresponding relationship between HCHs and DDTs contents in spring water and those in corresponding spring catchment soil. TOC, soil water content, clay content and pH all inhibited the vertical migration of OCPs in Hougou spring catchment, which led to the lowest content of OCPs in spring water, although the OCPs content in Hougou spring catchment soils was the highest in the four spring catchments. However, the four factors didn't inhibit the vertical migration of OCPs in Shuifang spring catchment, which led to higher OCPs content in spring water, although the OCPs content in spring catchment soils was the lowest in the four spring catchments. PMID:26314106

  18. Seasonal and regional change in vertical distribution and diel vertical migration of four euphausiid species (Euphausia pacifica, Thysanoessa inspinata, T. longipes, and Tessarabrachion oculatum) in the northwestern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogawa, Sayaka; Sugisaki, Hiroya; Saito, Hiroaki; Okazaki, Yuji; Ono, Tsuneo; Shimode, Shinji; Kikuchi, Tomohiko

    2016-03-01

    We studied seasonal and regional change in vertical distribution and DVM patterns of four euphausiid species (Euphausia pacifica, Thysanoessa inspinata, Thysanoessa longipes, and Tessarabrachion oculatum) from two years of surveys using MOCNESS above 1500 m depth across a transect in 3 regions of the northwestern (NW) Pacific, off east of Japan; Oyashio, Kuroshio, and Oyashio-Kuroshio Mixed Water Regions (MWR). The four euphausiid species exhibited a regional change in vertical distribution, i.e., slightly deeper in the MWR and much deeper in the Kuroshio region than in the Oyashio region. They found in higher and wider temperature ranges in the MWR than in the Oyashio region, which demonstrated that the four species were able to adapt to different temperatures in different regions. In the MWR and Oyashio regions, E. pacifica is a surface migrant (differences between day and night mean median depths, D-N, were ca. 300 m) and T. oculatum is a moderate subsurface migrant that performs short DVM in the upper mesopelagic zone (D-N ca. 100 m). The other two morphologically similar Thysanoessa species (T. inspinata and T. longipes) segregated vertically between E. pacifica and T. oculatum at night in the Oyashio region, suggesting vertical habitat partitioning with the former two species but not with themselves. However, a seasonal pattern was observed in the vertical distribution and DVM of T. longipes in the Oyashio region. It behaves as a surface migrant in May, whereas most of individuals were found in the mesopelagic layer in September. In contrast, T. inspinata did not exhibit a clear DVM throughout the year (i.e., a moderate subsurface migrant). This seasonal difference might be a strategy to minimize competition between related species. Among the four species, only E. pacifica was found in higher temperatures at night than during the daytime, and the highest temperatures at the median depth varied among species (from 7.5 °C to 13.7 °C) although the lowest temperature did not vary greatly (from 1.0 °C to 1.8 °C), which indicates high temperatures act as a limiting factor as opposed to low temperatures. Furthermore, the integrated chlorophyll a values exhibited significant negative correlation with median depths of only E. pacifica at night. These results indicate a strategy which makes E. pacifica the dominant species in the area, that is, it has a trade-off of long migrations and a warmer environment that accelerates metabolism, in return for obtaining a food-rich environment.

  19. Mathematical model of 137Cs vertical migration in a forest soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed simulation model for prediction of the magnitude and direction of radionuclide migration in forest soils is described. The mathematical model has been constructed to simulate 137Cs dynamics in the soddy podzolic soils of a mixed forest system (predominantly oak with some birch and pine) in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP). Field data gathered by the Radioecology Laboratory of Moscow State University were used both for parameterization of the model and also for validation. Some problems encountered in the mathematical modeling of 137Cs migration in these ecosystems are discussed. (Author)

  20. Evidence of vertical migration in the Ipanema bat Pygoderma bilabiatum (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos E. L., Esbérard; Isaac P. de, Lima; Pedro H., Nobre; Sérgio L., Althoff; Tássia, Jordão-Nogueira; Daniela, Dias; Fernando, Carvalho; Marta E., Fabián; Margareth L., Sekiama; Artur Stanke, Sobrinho.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Migration is defined as a seasonal and cyclic population movement observed in all animal classes and studied mainly in vertebrates. A considerable part of the knowledge on migration comes from birds, for which migration is an important aspect of their biology. In the case of bats, females usually mi [...] grate larger distances than males in some species. The present study analyzes the seasonal occurrence of Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843) at different elevations, in order to test for a pattern that evidences migration, using data from the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A total of 529 specimens of P. bilabiatum were captured. Pygoderma bilabiatum seems to be more frequent at intermediate and high elevations (over 80% of all captures were made above 250 m a.s.l.) and at latitudes above 22°S, where rainfall is high (over 1,500 mm) and temperatures are mild (16-23°C). Sex ratio varied with elevation; it was skewed towards males at lower elevations (N = 9, r² = 0.60, F = 12.311, p = 0.008, Sex ratio = 0.0004*elevation + 0.976), though females predominated at all altitudinal bands and in all states analyzed.

  1. Marine zooplankton studies in Brazil: a brief evaluation and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens M. Lopes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine zooplankton research in Brazil has been primarily descriptive, with most studies focusing on community structure analysis and related issues. The composition and spatial distribution of several taxonomic groups are currently well known, although less-abundant and small-sized taxa as well as initial stages of almost all species have received little attention. Some numerically important taxa such as heterotrophic protists, ctenophores, acoel turbellarians and ostracods remain virtually unstudied. Large sectors of the continental shelf have not been sampled in detail, particularly those areas influenced by the North Brazil Current (5ºN-15ºS. Zooplankton abundance and biomass in offshore waters have seldom been quantified, and information on the distribution and vertical migration of meso- and bathypelagic species are lacking. Additional faunistic assessments must target those less-studied taxa and geographical locations. However, priority in ecological studies should be given to process-oriented investigations aimed at understanding the mechanisms controlling zooplankton distribution, trophic interactions within pelagic food webs and production cycles in relation to the physical environment. An effort should be made to incorporate state-of-the-art sampling technology and analytical methods into future research projects.As pesquisas sobre o zooplâncton marinho no Brasil têm sido primariamente descritivas, com a maioria dos estudos enfocando a análise da estrutura da comunidade e assuntos relacionados. A composição e a distribuição espacial de muitos grupos taxonômicos encontram-se bem estudadas, embora os táxons menos abundantes e de menores dimensões, assimcomo os estágios iniciais do ciclo de vida da maioria das espécies, tenham recebido pouca atenção. Alguns táxons numericamenteimportantes encontram-se pouco estudados, como no caso dos protistas heterotróficos, ctenóforos, turbelários acelos e ostrácodes. Amplos setores da plataforma continental não têm sido suficientemente amostrados, em particular nas áreas influenciadas pela Corrente Norte do Brasil (5ºN-15ºS. As áreas oceânicas têm sido também pouco estudadas e praticamente inexistem dados sobre a distribuição espacial e vertical das espécies meso- e batipelágicas. Levantamentos faunísticos adicionais devem focalizar os táxons e locais menos conhecidos. No entanto, sob o ponto de vista ecológico é necessário darprioridade a estudos de processos voltados ao entendimentodos mecanismos que governam a distribuição, as interações tróficas nas teias alimentares pelágicas e os ciclos de produção do zooplâncton em relação ao ambiente físico. Deve ser feito um esforço para incorporar novas tecnologias de amostragem e métodos analíticos em futuros projetos de pesquisa.

  2. Marine zooplankton studies in Brazil: a brief evaluation and perspectives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rubens M., Lopes.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As pesquisas sobre o zooplâncton marinho no Brasil têm sido primariamente descritivas, com a maioria dos estudos enfocando a análise da estrutura da comunidade e assuntos relacionados. A composição e a distribuição espacial de muitos grupos taxonômicos encontram-se bem estudadas, embora os táxons me [...] nos abundantes e de menores dimensões, assimcomo os estágios iniciais do ciclo de vida da maioria das espécies, tenham recebido pouca atenção. Alguns táxons numericamenteimportantes encontram-se pouco estudados, como no caso dos protistas heterotróficos, ctenóforos, turbelários acelos e ostrácodes. Amplos setores da plataforma continental não têm sido suficientemente amostrados, em particular nas áreas influenciadas pela Corrente Norte do Brasil (5ºN-15ºS). As áreas oceânicas têm sido também pouco estudadas e praticamente inexistem dados sobre a distribuição espacial e vertical das espécies meso- e batipelágicas. Levantamentos faunísticos adicionais devem focalizar os táxons e locais menos conhecidos. No entanto, sob o ponto de vista ecológico é necessário darprioridade a estudos de processos voltados ao entendimentodos mecanismos que governam a distribuição, as interações tróficas nas teias alimentares pelágicas e os ciclos de produção do zooplâncton em relação ao ambiente físico. Deve ser feito um esforço para incorporar novas tecnologias de amostragem e métodos analíticos em futuros projetos de pesquisa. Abstract in english Marine zooplankton research in Brazil has been primarily descriptive, with most studies focusing on community structure analysis and related issues. The composition and spatial distribution of several taxonomic groups are currently well known, although less-abundant and small-sized taxa as well as i [...] nitial stages of almost all species have received little attention. Some numerically important taxa such as heterotrophic protists, ctenophores, acoel turbellarians and ostracods remain virtually unstudied. Large sectors of the continental shelf have not been sampled in detail, particularly those areas influenced by the North Brazil Current (5ºN-15ºS). Zooplankton abundance and biomass in offshore waters have seldom been quantified, and information on the distribution and vertical migration of meso- and bathypelagic species are lacking. Additional faunistic assessments must target those less-studied taxa and geographical locations. However, priority in ecological studies should be given to process-oriented investigations aimed at understanding the mechanisms controlling zooplankton distribution, trophic interactions within pelagic food webs and production cycles in relation to the physical environment. An effort should be made to incorporate state-of-the-art sampling technology and analytical methods into future research projects.

  3. Inventory and vertical migration of 90Sr fallout and 137Cs/90Sr ratio in Spanish mainland soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the inventory of 90Sr in 34 points distributed along the Spanish peninsular territory is presented. Obtained values range between 173 Bq/m2 and 2047 Bq/m2. From these data set and those 137Cs data obtained in a previous work the 137Cs/90Sr activity ratio has been established, laying this value between 0.9 and 3.6. Also the migration depth of both radionuclides has been analysed obtaining for 137Cs an average value 57% lower than that obtained for 90Sr. Additionally, this paper presents the results obtained in 11 sampling points in which the activity vertical profile has been measured. These profiles have been analysed to state the behaviour of strontium in soils and after, by using a convective-diffusive model, the parameters of the model which governs the vertical migration of 90Sr in the soil, v (apparent convection velocity) and D (apparent diffusion coefficient) have been evaluated. Mean values obtained are 0.20 cm/year and 3.67 cm2/year, respectively. - Highlights: → Measured 90Sr activity in Spanish mainland, being within a range of [173, 2047] Bq/m2, with a mean value of 793 Bq/m2. → Compared the migration capacity of 137Cs and 90Sr in the same soils. → 90Sr shows a unique behaviour tendency in soil. → The parameters which govern the applied model have been obtained for the analysed profiles. → Analysed those parameters' values also reflects this unique tendency.

  4. Metabolic physiology of the Humboldt squid, Dosidicus gigas: Implications for vertical migration in a pronounced oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rui; Seibel, Brad A.

    2010-07-01

    The Humboldt (or jumbo) squid, Dosidicus gigas, is an active predator endemic to the Eastern Pacific that undergoes diel vertical migrations into a pronounced oxygen minimum layer (OML). Here, we investigate the physiological mechanisms that facilitate these migrations and assess the associated costs and benefits. Exposure to hypoxic conditions equivalent to those found in the OML (?10 ?M O 2 at 10 °C) led to a significant reduction in the squid’s routine metabolic rate (RMR), from 8.9 to 1.6 ?mol O 2 g -1 h -1 ( p RMR increased significantly with temperature ( p < 0.05), from 8.9 (at 10 °C) to 49.85 ?mol O 2 g -1 h -1 (at 25 °C) which yielded a Q10 of 2.0 between 10 and 20 °C and 7.9 between 20 and 25 °C ( p < 0.05). These results suggest that 25 °C, although within the normal surface temperature range in the Gulf of California, is outside this species’ normal temperature range. By following the scattering layer into oxygen-enriched shallow water at night, D. gigas may repay any oxygen debt accumulated during the daytime. The dive to deeper water may minimize exposure to stressful surface temperatures when most prey have migrated to depth during the daytime. The physiological and ecological strategies demonstrated here may have facilitated the recent range expansion of this species into northern waters where expanding hypoxic zones prohibit competing top predators.

  5. Habitat choice by marine zooplankton in a high-latitude ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Fossheim, Maria; Primicerio, Raul

    2008-01-01

    According to habitat choice theory, zooplanktonic prey should choose a depth habitat that maximizes food intake while minimizing predation risk. Body size affects competitive ability and vulnerability in zooplankton, thereby influencing the adaptive choice of depth habitat. To study sizedependent habitat choice in marine zooplankton, we sampled their vertical distributions on a finescale with an optical plankton counter (OPC) during a post-bloom condition in late spring on the continental she...

  6. Seasonal variation of zooplankton abundance, composition and biomass in the Chabahar Bay, Oman Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Neda Fazeli; Ahmad Savari; Seyed Mohamad Bagher Nabavi; Rasool Zare

    2013-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variation of zooplankton abundance, composition and biomass were examined on the Chabahar Bay, Oman Sea. The Chabahar Bay, a subtropical and semi-enclosed bay, provides an ideal breeding ground for many fish and shellfish. Five stations were investigated along the Bay. This area is under the influence of the Indian Ocean seasonal monsoons. Zooplankton was collected with vertical plankton tows using 100 µm mesh nets. Copepods dominated the zooplankton community followed by...

  7. Seasonal migration, vertical activity and winter temperature experience of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum) in West Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Jesper; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The deep-water flatfish Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum) is common along the West Greenland coast. In the northwestern fjords, Greenland halibut is an important socio-economic resource for the Greenland community, but due to the deep and partly ice-covered environment, very little is known about its behavior and habitat characteristics. We tagged adult Greenland halibut in the waters off Ilulissat with electronic data storage tags that collected information on depth, temperature, and time. Although clear differences between individuals in migration and vertical behavior were present, we discovered a consistent seasonal migration from the relatively shallow-water Disko Bay area into the deep waters of the Ilulissat Icefjord, where the fish resided in the winter months before returning to Disko Bay. Vertical activity was pronounced at both locations, with fish covering vertical distances of up to 100 m within 15 min. During the winter months, the fish experienced temperatures between ca.0 and 4°C, with most experiencing temperatures of 2 to 3°C. Irrespective of year and quarter of the year, the fish experienced warmer water and a broader range of temperatures when resident in Disko Bay (mean range 2.6°C) than when resident in the ice fjord (mean range 1.4°C). Using the tagged halibut as a 'live tool,' we show that parts of the ice fjord are hundreds of meters deeper than previously thought. We also document the first seawater temperature measurements made beneath the Jakobshavn Isbræ outlet glacier, revealing a positive relationship between depth and temperature for the upper 600 m and a between-year variation in temperatures beneath the ice sheet in 2001, 2002, and 2003

  8. Zooplankton body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...... groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals become increasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body composition and argue that differences in feeding mechanisms and predator avoidance strategies favor either a...... watery or a condensed body form, and that in the intermediate taxa the moderately elevated water content is related to buoyancy control and ambush feeding...

  9. Zooplankton community structure in a cyclonic and mode-water eddy in the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Bethany R.; Steinberg, Deborah K.; Goldthwait, Sarah A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.

    2009-10-01

    Mesoscale eddies are important suppliers of nutrients to the surface waters of oligotrophic gyres, but little is known about the biological response, particularly that of higher trophic levels, to these physical perturbations. During the summers of 2004 and 2005, we followed the development of a cyclonic eddy and an anti-cyclonic mode-water eddy in the Sargasso Sea. Zooplankton (>150 ?m) were collected across both eddies in 9 discrete depth intervals between 0 and 700 m. Comparison of the abundance of major taxa of mesozooplankton in the upper 150 m at eddy center and outside the eddies (day and night) indicated that the cyclone and mode-water eddy supported similar mesozooplankton communities, with several taxa significantly higher in abundance inside than outside the eddies, when compared with the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site as representative of mean conditions. In both eddies copepod peak abundance occurred in the 50-100 m depth interval, coincident with the chlorophyll a maximum, suggesting elevated food concentration in the eddies may have influenced zooplankton vertical distribution. The two eddies differed in the strength of diel vertical migration of zooplankton, as indicated by the ratio of night:day abundance in the epipelagic zone, which was higher at the center of the mode-water eddy for most taxa. Over the sampling interval of 1-2 months, abundance of the three most common taxa (copepods, chaetognaths, and ostracods) decreased in the cyclone and increased in the mode-water eddy. This further supports previous findings that over the sampling period the cyclone was in a decay phase, while the mode-water eddy was sustaining nutrient fluxes and high phytoplankton concentrations. A more detailed analysis of community structure in the mode-water eddy indicated the 0-700 m integrated abundance of doliolids was significantly higher inside the mode-water eddy than outside. The presence of a mesopelagic (200-700 m) layer of lepadid barnacle cyprids in this eddy highlights the potential of eddies to transport and disperse biota. We conclude that when compared with average ambient conditions (as measured at BATS), mesoscale eddies can influence zooplankton behavior and alter zooplankton community structure which can affect food-web interactions and biogeochemical cycling in the open ocean.

  10. Zooplankton standing stock, community structure and diversity in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; Srivastava, Y.

    The effects of large scale oil spill, which occurred during the Gulf War in 1991 on zooplankton standing stock, community structure and diversity in the northern Arabian Sea were studied. Surface (1-0 m) and vertical zooplankton hauls (200-0 m, 250...

  11. Abundancia estacional y distribución vertical del zooplancton gelatinoso carnívoro en una área de surgencia en el norte del Sistema de la Corriente de Humboldt Seasonal abundance and vertical distribution of the carnivorous gelatinous zooplankton in an upwelling area of the northern Humboldt Current System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Palma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la abundancia estacional y distribución vertical del zooplancton gelatinoso colectado en cuatro cruceros efectuados frente a la bahía de Mejillones. En esta zona se identificaron 44 especies macroplanctónicas distribuidas en 23 de sifonóforos, 17 de hidromedusas, y 4 de ctenóforos, de las cuales 8 especies, Sphaeronectes irregularis, Rhizophysa eysenhardti, Amphogona apicata, Proboscidactyla stellata, Sarsia coccometra, Pleurobrachia bachei, Thalassocalyce inconstans y Velamen parallelum, se registran por primera vez para el Sistema de la Corriente de Humboldt. Se determinó un incremento de abundancia en primavera y verano, con densas agregaciones (> 2.600 ind·100 m-3 en octubre de Aglaura hemistoma, Solmundella bitentaculata, Muggiaea atlantica y Pleurobrachia bachei, y en febrero de Obelia spp. Las mayores densidades se determinaron en la estación más costera y en el frente oceánico, mientras que en la estación oceánica se registró una fuerte disminución de abundancia. La mayoría de las especies dominantes se encontraron en los primeros 100 m de la columna de agua, con una mayor concentración de ejemplares en los primeros 25 o 50 m de profundidad. Esta distribución vertical estaría limitada por la capa de mínimo oxígeno (The seasonal abundance and vertical distribution of gelatinous zooplankton collected during four cruises off Mejillones bay were analyzed. In this area we identified 44 species of macroplankton distributed in 23 siphonophores, 17 hydromedusae, and 4 ctenophores. Eight species, Sphaeronectes irregularis, Rhizophysa eysenhardti, Amphogona apicata, Proboscidactyla stellata, Sarsia coccometra, Pleurobrachia bachei, Thalassocalyce inconstans and Velamen parallelum, are the first records in the Humboldt Current System. The seasonal distribution showed an increase in abundance in spring and summer, with the highest aggregations (> 2600 ind·100 m-3 of Aglaura hemistoma, Solmundella bitentaculata, Muggiaea atlantica and Pleurobrachia bachei in October and Obelia spp. in February. The highest densities were observed in the coastal station and in the oceanic front, while the oceanic station was characterized by a strong decrease in abundance. The vertical distribution showed that the most dominant species were founded in the first 100 m of the water column, with a higher concentration of organisms in the first 25 or 50 m of depth. This vertical distribution could be limited by presence of a minimum dissolved oxygen layer (< 1 ml·L-1 in shallow waters (30-50 m during de upwelling events

  12. Type I Planet Migration in a Magnetized Disk. I. Effect of Large-Scale Vertical and Azimuthal Field Components

    CERN Document Server

    Uribe, Ana; Königl, Arieh

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of a large-scale, ordered magnetic field in protoplanetary disks on Type I planet migration using a combination of numerical simulations in 2D and 3D and a linear perturbation analysis. Steady-state models of such disks require the inclusion of magnetic diffusivity. To make progress using ideal MHD, we focus on simplified field configurations, involving purely vertical ($B_z$) and azimuthal ($B_\\varphi$) field components and a combination of the two. For each of the models we calculate the locations of the relevant resonances and of the turning points, which delineate the propagation regions of the MHD waves that transport angular momentum from the planet to the disk. We use both numerical and semianalytic methods to evaluate the cumulative back torque acting on the planet, and explore the effect of spatial gradients in the disk's physical variables on the results. We conclude that, under realistic (3D) circumstances, a large-scale magnetic field can slow down the inward migration that ch...

  13. Distribución vertical de la biomasa zooplanctónica y densidad ictioplanctónica durante un ciclo anual en la plataforma continental del sur del Golfo de México / Vertical distribution of zooplankton biomass and ichthyoplankton density during an annual cycle on the continental shelf of the southern Gulf of Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María de la Luz, Espinosa-Fuentes; César, Flores-Coto; Laura, Sanvicente-Añorve; Faustino, Zavala-García.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó estacionalmente la biomasa zooplanctónica (BZ) y la densidad ictioplanctónica (DI) en la columna de agua sobre la plataforma continental del sur del Golfo de México, para determinar sus patrones de distribución vertical y establecer si existe una relación entre ambos componentes. Se muest [...] rearon cinco niveles de profundidad: 0-6 m, 6-12 m, 12-18 m, 45-55 m y 95-105 m. El patrón de distribución vertical de la BZ y de la DI fue similar en todas las épocas de muestreo, con la mayor concentración de organismos en los niveles superficiales y la más baja en los niveles más profundos. Estos resultados sugieren que la columna de agua en el área de estudio puede estar dividida en una capa superficial (0 a 18 m) y una capa profunda (45 a 100 m) y que las diferencias estacionales pueden ser atribuidas a los procesos de mezcla. Esta diferencia entre las capas superficiales y las profundas ocurre porque, en general, las capas superficiales de la columna de agua son las más productivas. La relación entre la BZ y la DI fue positiva y significativa (ANCOVA, P Abstract in english Seasonal zooplankton biomass (ZB) and ichthyoplankton density (ID) in the water column on the continental shelf of the southern Gulf of Mexico were analyzed to determine their vertical distribution patterns and assess if there is a relationship between both components. Five depth levels were sampled [...] : 0-6, 6-12, 12-18, 45-55 and 95-105 m. The vertical distribution patterns of ZB and ID were similar for all sampling seasons, with the greatest concentration of organisms in the upper levels and the lowest at deeper levels. These results suggest that the water column in the study area may be divided into a surface layer (0-18 m) and a deep layer (45-100 m), and seasonal differences may be attributed to mixing processes. The difference between the surface and the deep layers occurs because, in general, the upper layer is the most productive sector of the water column. The relationship between ZB and ID in the water column was positive and significant (ANCOVA, P

  14. The thermal stress response to diel vertical migration in the hyperiid amphipod Phronima sedentaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Leanne E; Seibel, Brad A

    2015-09-01

    The hyperiid amphipod Phronima sedentaria experiences a temperature change of 15 °C during diel migration in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) from 8-10 °C at depth to 25-27 °C at night in the surface waters. The aim of this study was to determine if the natural temperature gradient experienced by P. sedentaria results in a thermal stress response. Individuals were initially exposed to their night time temperatures (23 °C) and subsequently subjected to temperatures within and above the range they typically experience. In the Eastern Tropical North Pacific P. sedentaria tolerates its normal night-time temperature (~23 °C), but only for the duration of its stay there (~9 h). Longer exposures (24 h) result in elevated heat shock protein (hsp) expression. 29 °C results in hsp expression, increased lactate production and 50% mortality at all exposure durations. This represents an upper critical temperature. Understanding the adaptations of pelagic amphipods to their current environment will help predict the physiological impacts of global warming for amphipods and their predators. PMID:25899739

  15. Models for the vertical migration of 137Cs in the ground - a field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil sampling was performed repeatedly at two locations in southern Sweden in order to study the behaviour of 137Cs at different times after deposition. At two locations in the city of Lund, in southern Sweden, sampling was done 5 and 7 years after the Chernobyl accident. The samples were analysed for 137Cs from nuclear weapons tests as well as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin and three different models were used to describe the vertical transport in the ground. The first study shows that the downward transport of caesium from the Chernobyl accident with time could be quantified in a simple model, valid for a few years of transport. In another model the relative amount of 137Cs at different depths was observed to change with time in a predictable way and the depth of maximum activity was shown to move downwards with a mean speed of 0·2 cm year-1. A simple compartment model has also been tested. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Influence of Clastic Dikes on Vertical Migration of Contaminants at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastic dikes are subvertical sedimentary features that cut through horizontally layered sediments, and they are common at the Hanford Site. Because of their cross-cutting relationship with the surrounding matrix, they have been proposed as potential fast paths from former contaminant discharge sites at the surface to the water table. However, little was known of the detailed hydrogeologic properties of the dikes and detailed modeling of flow and transport through the dikes had not been performed. We excavated a 2 m wide clastic dike at the Hanford Site and characterized it using an air minipermeameter, infrared imagery, and grain size analyses. Field injection experiments were also used to characterize the system. The resulting data were used to prepare a detailed numerical model of the clastic dike and surrounding matrix for a portion of the excavation. Unsaturated flow and transport through the system were modeled for several recharge rates. The highly heterogeneous nature of the system led to complex behavior, with the relative flux rates in the matrix and clastic dike being highly dependent on the recharge rates that were imposed on the system. The study suggests that the potential role of clastic dikes in vertical transport at the Hanford Site would depend on the leakage rate, and that areas of contaminant deposition formed at high flow rates might become isolated at low flow rates, and vice-versa. The results may also help explain the occurrence of complex breakthrough patterns of contaminants at the water table

  17. Habitat use and diel vertical migration of bigeye thresher shark: Overlap with pelagic longline fishing gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Rui; Fernandez-Carvalho, Joana; Santos, Miguel N

    2015-12-01

    Pelagic longliners targeting swordfish and tunas in oceanic waters regularly capture sharks as bycatch, including currently protected species as the bigeye thresher, Alopias superciliosus. Fifteen bigeye threshers were tagged with pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) in 2012-2014 in the tropical northeast Atlantic, with successful transmissions received from 12 tags for a total of 907 tracking days. Marked diel vertical movements were recorded on all specimens, with most of the daytime spent in deeper colder water (mean depth = 353 m, SD = 73; mean temperature = 10.7 °C, SD = 1.8) and nighttime spent in warmer water closer to the surface (mean depth = 72 m, SD = 54; mean temperature = 21.9 °C, SD = 3.7). The operating depth of the pelagic longline gear was measured with Minilog Temperature and Depth Recorders (TDRs), and the overlap with habitat utilization was calculated. Overlap is taking place mainly during the night and is higher for juveniles. The results presented herein can be used as inputs for Ecological Risk Assessments for bigeye threshers captured in oceanic tuna fisheries, and serve as a basis for efficient management and conservation of this vulnerable shark species. PMID:26559889

  18. Zooplankton of West Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 µm mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance <1% were also recorded, namely Salpidae (0,94%), Euphausiacea (0,44%), Tintinnidae (0,39%), Annélidae Polychètes (0,34%), Mysidacea (0,21%), Ptéropodae (0,13%). Highest number of zooplankton were found at the depth below the maximum of fluorescence during the day. Copepods distribution depends on site and depth. During this study, the number of identified species is always superior to 50 for all sampling sites. The findings of the present study will help to improve the scientific knowledge of the marine ecosystem of the west coast of Madagascar.

  19. 137Cs concentration in zooplankton and its relation to taxonomic composition in the western North Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the role of zooplankton in the transport of 137Cs in the ocean, zooplankton samples were collected in October 2005 and June 2006 in the western North Pacific Ocean. The peak zooplankton biomass was observed in the surface layer, and gelatinous plankton was more abundant in October 2005 than in June 2006 reflecting exchange of water masses. The concentrations of 137Cs in zooplankton varied from 11 to 24 mBq kg wet-1 and were higher in October 2005 than in June 2006. The elevated abundance of gelatinous zooplankton probably led to higher concentration of 137Cs in zooplankton in October 2005. Annual export fluxes of 137Cs by ontogenetic vertical migrant copepods were estimated to be 0.8 and 0.6 mBq m-2 year-1 at 200 and 1000 m depths, respectively; this suggested that transport of 137Cs by zooplankton may be no trivial pathway

  20. (137)Cs concentration in zooplankton and its relation to taxonomic composition in the western North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeriyama, Hideki; Watabe, Teruhisa; Kusakabe, Masashi

    2008-12-01

    To study the role of zooplankton in the transport of (137)Cs in the ocean, zooplankton samples were collected in October 2005 and June 2006 in the western North Pacific Ocean. The peak zooplankton biomass was observed in the surface layer, and gelatinous plankton was more abundant in October 2005 than in June 2006 reflecting exchange of water masses. The concentrations of (137)Cs in zooplankton varied from 11 to 24 mBq kg wet(-1) and were higher in October 2005 than in June 2006. The elevated abundance of gelatinous zooplankton probably led to higher concentration of (137)Cs in zooplankton in October 2005. Annual export fluxes of (137)Cs by ontogenetic vertical migrant copepods were estimated to be 0.8 and 0.6 mBq m(-2) year(-1) at 200 and 1000 m depths, respectively; this suggested that transport of (137)Cs by zooplankton may be no trivial pathway. PMID:18929436

  1. Influence of dinoflagellate diurnal vertical migrations on dimethylsulfoniopropionate and dimethylsulfide distribution and dynamics (St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzouk, A.; Levasseur, M. [Laval Univ., Sainte-Foy, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Scarratt, M.; Michaud, S. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Inst., Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Gosselin, M. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski

    2004-05-01

    Many biological processes control the production of climatically active dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in the ocean. Peaks in DMS often coincide with the collapse of algal blooms and the release of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the algal precursor of DMS. Large fluctuations in DMSP and DMS concentrations have been recently reported. While the cause for this is not well understood, it may be due to the vertical migration of dinoflagellates, physiological response to the light regime, and the impact of light on bacterial utilization of DMSP and DMS. This study, conducted in July 2000 in the lower St. Lawrence Estuary, gathered information on the influence of the diurnal migration of DMSP-rich dinoflagellates on the distribution and cycling of DMSP and DMS. A water mass with high concentration of Alexandrium tamarense and Scrippsiella trochoidea was localized through a series of short rosette casts. The water mass was marked and followed for 34 hours during calm conditions. Diel patterns were noted in particulate DMSP, dissolved DMSP and DMS with minimum concentrations during the night and maximum concentrations around noon. Similar diel variations were noted in DMSP-normalized to chlorophyll 'a', suggesting a light-induced de novo DMSP synthesis during the day. Accumulation of DMS around noon may be due to the physiological response of the algae and bacteria to light. Biological gross DMS production and bacterial DMS consumption were decoupled, resulting in prompt fluctuations in DMS. The study showed that DMS concentrations in DMSP-rich dinoflagellate systems containing DMSP lyases can vary by as much as a factor of 10 over a 24 hour period. 36 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  2. Vertical migration of gas through fractures due to salinity-buffered hydrate formation within the hydrate stability zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D.; Flemings, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor gas vents within the hydrate stability zone along continental margins are frequently associated with high saturations of gas hydrate that increase upwards towards the seafloor (e.g. NGHP 01 Site 10A, UBGH2 Site 3, ODP Site 1249A). One model for how gas migrates through the hydrate stability zone proposes that salt exclusion during hydrate formation elevates the in-situ salinity, which allows for the coexistence of gas, hydrate, and water. In some portions of these sites, however, the hydrate saturations derived from pressure cores are insufficient to elevate the bulk salinity enough to induce three-phase conditions. Commonly, hydrate in these zones exists in individual, high-angle fractures within mudstone. An alternative gas migration model, applicable to fractured regions, proposes that the fractures act as highly permeable gas conduits for upward fluid flow. We present a model to describe gas flow and hydrate formation in these fractures. Hydrate begins forming at the fracture wall, where the components (water and gas) are available. Water is continuously drawn from the mudstone to the fracture by capillary forces. Due to hydrate formation, salinity is elevated to three-phase conditions at the fracture wall. Simultaneously, salt diffuses away from the fracture into the bounding mudstone. At this point, hydrate formation is controlled by the chemical diffusion of salt away from and the advection of less-saline water towards the fracture wall. Hydrate formation is ultimately limited by either insufficient water flow to the hydrate front or elevation of the bulk salinity to three-phase conditions. We explore the timescale, nature, and limitation of hydrate formation in vertical fractures.

  3. Diel vertical migration patterns in two populations of Chaoborus flavicans larvae (Diptera: Chaoboridae in response to fish kairomones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki HANAZATO

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Diel vertical migration (DVM of larvae of the phantom midge Chaoborus flavicans (Diptera: Chaoboridae inhabiting a fishless pond and a fish-abundant lake (Lake Nakanuma was studied in the field and in the laboratory. In the fishless pond, dissolved oxygen concentration and water temperature were homogeneously distributed in the vertical profiles and Chaoborus larvae did not show DVM. In contrast, there was thermal stratification and an anoxic layer in Lake Nakanuma, and 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar Chaoborus larvae exhibited DVM. Fourth instar Chaoborus larvae collected from the two populations were introduced into thermally stratified acrylic tubes containing 'fish water' (water conditioned by fish and containing only the fish 'smell' or control water free of fish smell after a two-day acclimatization, and the larval positions in the tubes were analysed during the day and at night. The two populations of Chaoborus larvae showed different DVM patterns in the control water: the larvae from Lake Nakanuma exhibited DVM, whereas those from the fishless pond did not. Chaoborus larvae from Lake Nakanuma responded to the fish kairomones, exhibiting marked DVM in the fish water, whereas little response to the fish smell was recognized in the larvae from the fishless pond. The presence of a difference in response between the two populations implies that they had genetically different patterns of expression of DVM and thus different behavioural responses to the fish smell. The fish smell tended to cause the Chaoborus larvae in the tubes to increase their depth, during both the day and night. The effects of the fish smell became ambiguous with time, suggesting microbial degradation of the fish kairomones.

  4. [Effects of fertilization method and nitrogen application rate on soil nitrogen vertical migration in a Populus xeuramericana cv. 'Guariento' plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Teng-fei; Xi, Ben-ye; Yan, Xiao-li; Jia, Li-ming

    2015-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fertilization methods, i.e., drip (DF) and furrow fertilization (GF), and nitrogen (N) application rates (25, 50, 75 g N · plant(-1) · time(-1)) on the dynamics of soil N vertical migration in a Populus x euramericana cv. 'Guariento' plantation. The results showed that soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N contents decreased with the increasing soil depth under different fertilization methods and N application rates. In the DF treatment, soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N were mainly concentrated in the 0-40 cm soil layer, and their contents ascended firstly and then descended, reaching their maximum values at the 5th day (211.1 mg · kg(-1)) and 10th day (128.8 mg · kg(-1)) after fertilization, respectively. In the GF treatment, soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N were mainly concentrated in the 0-20 cm layer, and the content of soil NO3(-)-N rose gradually and reached its maximum at the 20th day (175.7 mg · kg(-1)) after fertilization, while the NH4(+)-N content did not change significantly after fertilization. Overall, N fertilizer had an effect within 20 days in the DF treatment, and more than 20 days in the GF treatment. In the DF treatment, the content and migration depth of soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N increased with the N application rate. In the GF treatment, the NO3(-)-N content increased with the N application rate, but the NH4(+)-N content was not influenced. Under the DF treatment, the hydrolysis rate, nitrification rate and migration depth of urea were higher or larger than that under the GF treatment, and more N accumulated in deep soil as the N application rate increased. Considering the distribution characteristics of fine roots and soil N, DF would be a better fertilization method in P. xeuramericana cv. 'Guariento' plantation, since it could supply N to larger distribution area of fine roots. When the N application rate was 50 g · tree(-1) each time, nitrogen mainly distributed in the zone of fine roots and had no risk of deep leaching, consequently improving the fertilizer utilization efficiency. PMID:26572014

  5. Assessment of vertical scar migration after classical abdominoplasty followed by lower abdominal flap fixation Avaliação da migração vertical da cicatriz pós-abdominoplastia clássica com fixação do retalho abdominal inferior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kaufmann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In plastic surgery, the postoperative scar is a frequent concern. It is very important for the surgeon to understand the natural evolution of the scar. The abdominoplasty scar has a natural tendency to move upwards over time. In this study, the extent of natural vertical scar migration after abdominoplasty was calculated and the effect of fixing the lower abdominal flap to prevent this rise was assessed. METHODS: This prospective and randomized study was conducted at the 38th Nursing service of Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Rio de Janeiro, during 2010, and included 20 female patients with an indication for abdominoplasty. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, A and B. Classical abdominoplasty was performed in group A patients, according to the technique recommended by Prof. Ivo Pitanguy. Patients in group B also underwent lower abdominal flap fixation by suturing of Scarpa's fascia and the rectus abdominis muscle aponeurosis. At both two weeks and six months after surgery, the distance of vertical scar movement was measured in 16 patients after application of exclusion criteria. The average vertical migration and the mean difference between the groups were calculated. RESULTS: The average difference between the groups in vertical migration throughout the scar was 0.4 cm, with a mean overall migration of 1.06 cm and 0.68 cm in groups A (control group and B (cases with fixation, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The scar formed after abdominoplasty undergoes vertical migration over time; this migration is decreased when the lower abdominal flap is fixed. The surgeon should be aware of scar migration for better planning of the incision locationINTRODUÇÃO: Na cirurgia plástica, uma constante preocupação é a cicatriz pós-operatória. É muito importante para o cirurgião conhecer a evolução natural da cicatriz. A cicatriz de abdominoplastia tem a tendência natural de subir com o passar do tempo. Neste estudo, calculou-se a migração vertical natural da cicatriz pós-abdominoplastia, avaliando o efeito da fixação do retalho abdominal inferior na prevenção dessa ascensão. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo e randomizado, realizado na 38ª Enfermaria da Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Rio de Janeiro durante o ano de 2010, incluindo 20 pacientes do sexo feminino com indicação de abdominoplastia, divididas em dois grupos, A e B, aleatoriamente. Nas pacientes do grupo A, foi realizada abdominoplastia clássica, segundo técnica preconizada pelo Prof. Ivo Pitanguy, e no grupo B foi incluída a fixação do retalho abdominal inferior por meio de sutura interessando a fáscia de Scarpa e a aponeurose do músculo reto abdominal. Duas semanas e seis meses após a cirurgia, foi medida a distância vertical em 16 pacientes, após aplicação dos critérios de exclusão, calculando-se a média de migração vertical e a diferença média entre os dois grupos. RESULTADOS: A diferença média de migração vertical ao longo de toda a cicatriz foi de 0,4 cm, sendo a média geral de migração nos grupo A (controle e B (casos com fixação de 1,06 cm e 0,68 cm, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: A cicatriz pós-abdominoplastia sofre migração vertical ao longo do tempo, sendo menor quando o retalho inferior é fixado. O cirurgião deve estar ciente da migração sofrida pela cicatriz para melhor planejamento da posição de sua incisão

  6. Assessment of vertical scar migration after classical abdominoplasty followed by lower abdominal flap fixation / Avaliação da migração vertical da cicatriz pós-abdominoplastia clássica com fixação do retalho abdominal inferior

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paul, Kaufmann; Luís Gustavo Moraes, Prado; Vinícius Volpe D' Angieri, Basile; Francesco, Mazzarone; Ivo, Pitanguy.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Na cirurgia plástica, uma constante preocupação é a cicatriz pós-operatória. É muito importante para o cirurgião conhecer a evolução natural da cicatriz. A cicatriz de abdominoplastia tem a tendência natural de subir com o passar do tempo. Neste estudo, calculou-se a migração vertical na [...] tural da cicatriz pós-abdominoplastia, avaliando o efeito da fixação do retalho abdominal inferior na prevenção dessa ascensão. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo e randomizado, realizado na 38ª Enfermaria da Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Rio de Janeiro durante o ano de 2010, incluindo 20 pacientes do sexo feminino com indicação de abdominoplastia, divididas em dois grupos, A e B, aleatoriamente. Nas pacientes do grupo A, foi realizada abdominoplastia clássica, segundo técnica preconizada pelo Prof. Ivo Pitanguy, e no grupo B foi incluída a fixação do retalho abdominal inferior por meio de sutura interessando a fáscia de Scarpa e a aponeurose do músculo reto abdominal. Duas semanas e seis meses após a cirurgia, foi medida a distância vertical em 16 pacientes, após aplicação dos critérios de exclusão, calculando-se a média de migração vertical e a diferença média entre os dois grupos. RESULTADOS: A diferença média de migração vertical ao longo de toda a cicatriz foi de 0,4 cm, sendo a média geral de migração nos grupo A (controle) e B (casos com fixação) de 1,06 cm e 0,68 cm, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: A cicatriz pós-abdominoplastia sofre migração vertical ao longo do tempo, sendo menor quando o retalho inferior é fixado. O cirurgião deve estar ciente da migração sofrida pela cicatriz para melhor planejamento da posição de sua incisão Abstract in english BACKGROUND: In plastic surgery, the postoperative scar is a frequent concern. It is very important for the surgeon to understand the natural evolution of the scar. The abdominoplasty scar has a natural tendency to move upwards over time. In this study, the extent of natural vertical scar migration a [...] fter abdominoplasty was calculated and the effect of fixing the lower abdominal flap to prevent this rise was assessed. METHODS: This prospective and randomized study was conducted at the 38th Nursing service of Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Rio de Janeiro, during 2010, and included 20 female patients with an indication for abdominoplasty. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, A and B. Classical abdominoplasty was performed in group A patients, according to the technique recommended by Prof. Ivo Pitanguy. Patients in group B also underwent lower abdominal flap fixation by suturing of Scarpa's fascia and the rectus abdominis muscle aponeurosis. At both two weeks and six months after surgery, the distance of vertical scar movement was measured in 16 patients after application of exclusion criteria. The average vertical migration and the mean difference between the groups were calculated. RESULTS: The average difference between the groups in vertical migration throughout the scar was 0.4 cm, with a mean overall migration of 1.06 cm and 0.68 cm in groups A (control group) and B (cases with fixation), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The scar formed after abdominoplasty undergoes vertical migration over time; this migration is decreased when the lower abdominal flap is fixed. The surgeon should be aware of scar migration for better planning of the incision location

  7. Migraciones verticales de Alexandrium excavatum (Braarud Balech et Tangen en columnas experimentales Vertical migration of Alexandrium excavatum (Braaruud Balech et Tangen In experimental columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Andrea Santos

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available As migrações verticais nicterais do dinoflagelado Alexandrium excavatum, foram observadas em uma coluna de vidro (50 cm de altura e 8 cm de diâmetro, durante um ciclo de 14 horas de luz/10 horas de escuro. As amostras foram tomadas a cada 2 ou 3 horas em superfície, meio e fundo. Verificou-se que os organismos de A. excavatum se agregam em superfície durante o dia e descem à noite. Os efeitos da estratificação da temperatura e exaustão dos nutrientes sobre o padrão da migração vertical foram examinados. A presença da termoclina de 6ºC retardou o movimento de migração. A deficiência do nitrogênio na camada superior da cultura antecipou a migração dos organismos em direção ao fundo, durante o dia; a adição de nitrato à camada de fundo antecipou a migração em direção à superfície, durante a noite. A velocidade de absorção do nitrato, no escuro, por células deficientes em nitrogênio, foi determinada a partir da diminuição da concentração desse nutriente na cultura. A taxa de absorção de nitrato foi elevada durante a primeira hora, decresceu nas três horas seguintes e foi nula a seguir. Sugere-se que a habilidade de A excavatum para absorver nitrato no período de escuro, juntamente com a migração vertical, possam ser mecanismos que regulem o seu florescimento.Diel vertical migrations of the marine dinoflagellate A excavatum were followed in a laboratory water column, and the effects of temperature stratification and nitrogen depletion on patterns of migration were examined. It was found that A. excavatum is a vertical migrator aggregating at surface during daylight, and descending at night. A six-degree thermocline did not restrict its migration but delayed the vertical movements. Nitrogen depletion in the culture was correlated with earlier downward migration in the day, and nitrate assimilation in the dark was confirmed. In another essay, with a nitrogen deficient culture, nocturnal nitrate uptake per cell was measured. It is suggested that the ability of A. excavatum to take up nitrate in the dark working together with diurnal vertical migration could be important mechanisms regulating bloom developments.

  8. Migraciones verticales de Alexandrium excavatum (Braarud) Balech et Tangen en columnas experimentales / Vertical migration of Alexandrium excavatum (Braaruud) Balech et Tangen in experimental columns

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Betina Andrea, Santos; Jose Ignacio, Carreto.

    Full Text Available As migrações verticais nicterais do dinoflagelado Alexandrium excavatum, foram observadas em uma coluna de vidro (50 cm de altura e 8 cm de diâmetro), durante um ciclo de 14 horas de luz/10 horas de escuro. As amostras foram tomadas a cada 2 ou 3 horas em superfície, meio e fundo. Verificou-se que o [...] s organismos de A. excavatum se agregam em superfície durante o dia e descem à noite. Os efeitos da estratificação da temperatura e exaustão dos nutrientes sobre o padrão da migração vertical foram examinados. A presença da termoclina de 6ºC retardou o movimento de migração. A deficiência do nitrogênio na camada superior da cultura antecipou a migração dos organismos em direção ao fundo, durante o dia; a adição de nitrato à camada de fundo antecipou a migração em direção à superfície, durante a noite. A velocidade de absorção do nitrato, no escuro, por células deficientes em nitrogênio, foi determinada a partir da diminuição da concentração desse nutriente na cultura. A taxa de absorção de nitrato foi elevada durante a primeira hora, decresceu nas três horas seguintes e foi nula a seguir. Sugere-se que a habilidade de A excavatum para absorver nitrato no período de escuro, juntamente com a migração vertical, possam ser mecanismos que regulem o seu florescimento. Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Diel vertical migrations of the marine dinoflagellate A excavatum were followed in a laboratory water column, and the effects of temperature stratification and nitrogen depletion on patterns of migration were examined. It was found that A. excavatum is a vertical migrator aggregating at surface duri [...] ng daylight, and descending at night. A six-degree thermocline did not restrict its migration but delayed the vertical movements. Nitrogen depletion in the culture was correlated with earlier downward migration in the day, and nitrate assimilation in the dark was confirmed. In another essay, with a nitrogen deficient culture, nocturnal nitrate uptake per cell was measured. It is suggested that the ability of A. excavatum to take up nitrate in the dark working together with diurnal vertical migration could be important mechanisms regulating bloom developments.

  9. Statistical Mechanics of Zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinow, Peter; Nihongi, Ai; Strickler, J Rudi

    2015-01-01

    Statistical mechanics provides the link between microscopic properties of many-particle systems and macroscopic properties such as pressure and temperature. Observations of similar "microscopic" quantities exist for the motion of zooplankton, as well as many species of other social animals. Herein, we propose to take average squared velocities as the definition of the "ecological temperature" of a population under different conditions on nutrients, light, oxygen and others. We test the usefulness of this definition on observations of the crustacean zooplankton Daphnia pulicaria. In one set of experiments, D. pulicaria is infested with the pathogen Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. We find that infested D. pulicaria under light exposure have a significantly greater ecological temperature, which puts them at a greater risk of detection by visual predators. In a second set of experiments, we observe D. pulicaria in cold and warm water, and in darkness and under light exposure. Overall, our ecological temperature is a good discriminator of the crustacean's swimming behavior. PMID:26270537

  10. Inter- and intra-specific diurnal habitat selection of zooplankton during the spring bloom observed by Video Plankton Recorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainmont, Julie; Gislason, Astthor; Heuschele, Jan; Webster, Clare N.; Sylvander, Peter; Wang, Miao; Varpe, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Recorder (VPR), a tool that allows mapping of vertical zooplankton distributions with a far greater spatial resolution than conventional zooplankton nets. The study took place over a full day–night cycle in Disko Bay, Greenland, during the peak of the phytoplankton spring bloom. The sampling revealed a...

  11. Effects of nitrate on the diurnal vertical migration, carbon to nitrogen ratio, and the photosynthetic capacity of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium splendens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, J.J.; Horrigan, S.G.

    1981-01-01

    A non-thecate dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium splendens, was studied in a 12 d laboratory experiment in 2.0 x 0.25 m containers in which light, temperature, and nutrients could be manipulated. Under a 12 h light:12 h dark cycle, the dinoflagellates exhibited diurnal vertical migrations, swimming downward before the dark period began and upward before the end of the dark period. This vertical migration probably involved geotaxis and a diel rhythm, as well as light-mediated behavior. The vertical distribution of nitrate affected the behavior and physiology of the dinoflagellate. When nitrate was present throughout the container, the organisms resembled those in exponential batch culture both in C:N ratios and photosynthetic capacity (P/sub max/); moreover, they migrated to the surface during the day. In contrast, when nitrate was depleted, C:N ratios increased, P/sub max/ decreased, and the organisms formed a subsurface layer at a depth corresponding to the light level at which photosynthesis saturated. When nitrate was present only at the bottom of the tank, C:N ratios of the population decreased until similar to those of nutrient-saturated cells and P/sub max/ increased; however, the dinoflagellates behaved the same as nutient-depleted cells, forming a subsurface layer during the light period. Field measurements revealed a migratory subsurface chlorophyll maximum layer dominated by G. splendens. It was just above the nitracline during the day, and in the nitracline during the night, which concurs with our laboratory observations.

  12. US AMLR Program zooplankton dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton research in the US AMLR Program focuses on the link between prey production, availability, and climate variability in relation to predator and fishery...

  13. Sobre a migração vertical diária do plâncton ao largo de Santos, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil / On the diurnal vertical migration of plankton off the coast of Santos, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gloria Soares, Moreira.

    Full Text Available Várias estações foram ocupadas ao largo de Santos, durante os anos de 1960, 1961 e 1962, com a finalidade do estudo da migração vertical diária do plâncton, assim como sua relação com os parâmetros temperatura, salinidade e massas de água. Os quadros gerais do movimento vertical variaram nas diferen [...] tes datas. Demonstrou-se que a luz nem sempre pôde ser considerada como o principal fator envolvido na migração. A termoclina atuou como um fator limitando o movimento em apenas uma, das cinco estações onde esteve presente. Em estações onde ocorreram massas de água de diferentes limites de salinidade, a migração dos zooplanctontes ocorreu em geral acima ou abaixo da região de encontro dessas massas de água, independente da presença ou não de termoclina. Concluiu-se que, na região onde os estudos foram feitos, a migração diária do plâncton se apresenta bastante diversificada e não pode ser diretamente relacionada a diferentes épocas do ano ou condições oceanográficas predominantes na região. Este fato deve ser levado em conta em futuros estudos de distribuição e ecologia na região, assim como, nos resultados obtidos nos estudos de indicadores planctônicos. Abstract in english Several stations were occupied off the coast of Santos, with the purpose of studying the diurnal vertical migration of plankton. The results showed that in the region, the patterns of migration of net plankton are quite diversified and they cannot be related to differ ent seasons or oceanographie pa [...] rameters.

  14. Seasonal adaptations and the role of lipids in oceanic zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, W; Auel, H

    2001-01-01

    Oceanic zooplankton species exhibit quite diverse life history traits. A major driving force determining their life strategies is the seasonal variability in food supply, which is most pronounced in polar oceans where fluctuations in primary production are extreme. Seasonal adaptations are closely related to the trophic level of zooplankters, with strongest pressures occurring on herbivorous organisms. The dominant grazers, calanoid copepods and krill (Euphausiacea), have developed fascinating solutions for successful overwintering at higher latitudes. They usually exhibit a very efficient storage and utilization of energy reserves to reduce the effect of a highly seasonal primary production. The predominant larger Calanus species from the Arctic and Calanoides acutus from the Antarctic biosynthesize large amounts of high-energy wax esters with long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids and alcohols (20:1 and 22:1 isomers) as major components. They survive the dark season at depth in a stage of dormancy called diapause. In contrast, the Antarctic Calanus propinquus, a winter-active species, synthesizes primarily triacylglycerols, which are dominated by long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids with 22 carbon atoms (2 isomers) and yield even higher calorific contents. The omnivorous and carnivorous species, which are less subjected to seasonal food shortage, usually do not exhibit such an elaborate lipid biosynthesis. Herbivores usually do not utilize much of their enormous lipid reserves for overwintering, but channel this energy towards reproductive processes in late winter/early spring. Timing of reproduction is critical especially at high latitudes due to the short production period, and lipid reserves ensure early spawning independent of external resources. These energetic adaptations (dormancy, lipid storage) are supplemented by other life strategies such as extensive vertical migrations, change in the mode of life, and trophic flexibility. PMID:16351846

  15. Future marine zooplankton research - a perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathmann, U.; Bundy, M.H.; Clarke, M.E.; Cowles, T.J.; Daly, K.; Dam, H.G.; Dekshenieks, M.M.; Donaghay, P.L.; Gibson, D.M.; Gifford, D.J.; Hansen, B.W.; Hartline, D.K.; Head, E.J.H; Hofmann, E.E.; Hopcroft, R.R.; Jahnke, R.A.; Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Kiørboe, Thomas; Kleppel, G.S.; Klinck, J.M.; Kremer, P.M.; Landry, M.R.; Lee, R.F.; Lenz, P.H.; Madin, L.P.; Manahan, D.T.; Mazzocchi, M.G.; McGillicuddy, D.J.; Miller, C.B.; Nelson, J.R.; Osborn, T.R.; Paffenhofer, G.A.; Pieper, R.E.; Prusova, I.; Roman, M.R.; Schiel, S.; Seim, H.E.; Smith, S.L.; Torres, J.J.; Verity, P.G.; Wakeham, S.G.; Wishner, K.F.

    2001-01-01

    During the Second Marine Zooplankton Colloquium (MZC2) 3 issues were added to those developed 11 yr ago during the First Marine Zooplankton Colloquium (MZC1). First, we focused on hot spots, i.e., locations where zooplankton occur in higher than regular abundance and/or operate at higher rates, We...

  16. Seasonal variation of zooplankton abundance, composition and biomass in the Chabahar Bay, Oman Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Fazeli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporal and spatial variation of zooplankton abundance, composition and biomass were examined on the Chabahar Bay, Oman Sea. The Chabahar Bay, a subtropical and semi-enclosed bay, provides an ideal breeding ground for many fish and shellfish. Five stations were investigated along the Bay. This area is under the influence of the Indian Ocean seasonal monsoons. Zooplankton was collected with vertical plankton tows using 100 µm mesh nets. Copepods dominated the zooplankton community followed by larvacea, cladocera and chaetognatha. Fifteen taxa of zooplankton were identified. Oithona nana and Euterpina acutifrons were dominated in the whole year and Larvacea showed a bloom in Northeast Monsoon. A Two-way ANOVA indicated that there were differences in abundance and biomass between sampling periods and between stations were significant. The peak zooplankton abundance in NE Monsoon could be due to winter cooling, with entrainment of nutrients into the upper layer producing phytoplankton blooms. The decline of zooplankton abundance and biomass in South West Monsoon and post-monsoon could be explained by decrease in chlorophyll a concentrations. The present result showed the composition and distribution of zooplankton differed between the monsoon seasons, resulted from changes in hydrographic conditions.

  17. Distribution and vertical dynamics of planktonic communities at Sofala Bank, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, M. C.; Sá, C.; Nordez, S.; Brotas, V.; Paula, J.

    2009-10-01

    Coastal ecosystem processes are largely influenced by the interaction of different factors operating at various temporal and spatial scales, specifically those responsible for primary production patterns that modulate zooplankton and subsequent trophic levels. Hydrological processes, such as tidal cycles and coastal currents, nutrients availability, phytoplankton groups (studied through algal pigment signatures analysed by HPLC), and zooplankton abundance and distribution were investigated at the Sofala Bank (Mozambique), with special emphasis on their horizontal distribution and vertical dynamics (48 h). Horizontal distribution has shown inshore-offshore gradients in all analysed parameters, as well as inshore waters intrusion probably related to Zambezi River delta runoff. Tidal currents were responsible for major hydrological vertical variations and for horizontal and vertical advection of phytoplankton biomass in the surface and deepest layers, respectively. Nutrient concentrations were typical from oligotrophic regions, and nutrient ratios were strongly influenced by depleted nitrate + nitrite concentrations, indicating low estuarine discharges typical from the dry season. The very low N:P ratio obtained suggests strong nitrogen limitation to phytoplankton communities, supporting the low phytoplankton abundance observed. Both phytoplankton pigments and zooplankton were found mainly near the bottom (40 m depth), despite the latter displayed vertical migrations triggered by light variations. Phytoplankton community was dominated by microflagellates, specifically prymnesiophyceans, and behaved as a whole, except Cyanobacteria that displayed vertical distribution movements different from other phytoplankton groups, being mainly concentrated at mid-water column depths (10-20 m). This investigation enhances physico-chemical phenomena and their importance determining the planktonic communities vertical dynamics at Sofala Bank, a tropical coastal ecosystem of the Western Indian Ocean where planktonic dynamics are still poorly described and understood.

  18. ANNUAL REPORT. INFLUENCE OF CLASTIC DIKES ON VERTICAL MIGRATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE VADOSE ZONE AT HANFORD

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research is testing the hypothesis that clastic dikes at the Hanford Site provide preferential pathways that enhance the vertical movement of moisture and contaminants through the vadose zone. Current flow and transport models of the vadose zone at the 200 Areas are based on...

  19. PROGRESS REPORT. INFLUENCE OF CLASTIC DIKES ON VERTICAL MIGRATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE VADOSE ZONE AT HANFORD

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research project addresses the effect of clastic dikes on contaminant transport in the vadose zone. Clastic dikes are vertically oriented subsurface heterogeneities that are common at the Hanford Site, including the subsurface sediments below the tank farms in the 200 West A...

  20. Effects of phytoplankton vertical migration on the formation of oxygen depleted water in a shallow coastal sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Chiba, S.; Shimizu, Y.; Nagao, M.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, oxygen budget was estimated for the lower layer of water column in a semi-enclosed bay, Ago Bay, Japan. Benthic oxygen consumption rates were measured directly with an in situ measurement device from 13 July to 16 August 2004. Oxygen budget was calculated based on physical, chemical and biological processes using the observed data. Along with the change of the water column structure at the time of a hit of typhoon, dominant phytoplankton species shifted from the diatom Skeletonema costatum to the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama. During the diatom-dominating period, oxygen supply rate in the lower layer due to photosynthesis was comparable to or slightly lower than the sediment oxygen consumption rate. In contrast, during the dominance of the dinoflagellate, net oxygen budget was significantly negative in the lower layer while it was positive in the upper layer. This could be attributed to the migration behavior of the dominant dinoflagellate H. circularisquama that swim up to the upper layer and produce oxygen in daytime, and swim down to the lower layer and consume oxygen in nighttime. The results of the present study suggest that phytoplankton migration behavior can enhance the development of oxygen depleted water mass in the lower layer of eutrophic shallow coastal seas.

  1. Investigation of adsorption and vertical migration of 137Cs in three kinds of soil at Lublin vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of field, column and laboratory studies carried out on three types of mineral soils are presented. Based on the field tests, average migration rates of 137Cs were calculated. The highest rate was found for the brown soil (FAO/UNESCO - Cambisol). Cesium migrated with the lowest rate in the podzol soil (FAO/UNESCO - Cambic Podzol). The column experiments confirmed the above observation. In laboratory tests the adsorption and desorption isotherms of Cs were determined on samples taken from 0-2 cm layers of each soil profile. It was found from the calculated partition coefficients that Cs is always irreversibly bonded to some extent, but it appears to be completely and irreversibly immobilized on the podzol soil. The permanent retention of cesium in the podzol soil was also confirmed by microcalorimetric studies. The desorption energy was negligibly small and amounted to -0.21 mJ/g. In the brown soil, containing prevailing amounts of loamy minerals, the desorption energy was found to be 106.89 mJ/g. The investigations are supplemented by the sorption kinetics measurements. These indicate that the adsorption equilibrium is reached after a dozen, up to twenty or so minutes. (author)

  2. Diel changes in phased-dividing cultures of Ceratium furca (dinophyceae): nucleotide triphosphates, adenylate energy charge, cell carbon, and patterns of vertical migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiler, C.S.; Karl, D.M.

    1979-12-01

    The diel pattern of cell division, cell carbon, adenine nucleotides and vertical migration was determined for laboratory cultures of the photosynthetic marine dinoflagellate, Ceratium furca (Ehr.) Clap. and Lachm., entrained on an alternating 12:12 LD schedule at 20 C. Cell division was initiated during the latter portion of the dark period with ca. 30% of the population undergoing division. Cell C increased during the light period and exhibited a linear decrease with a loss of 33% during the dark period. ATP . cell/sup -1/ increased during the light period and decreased by Ca. 40 to 50% during the dark period. The diel patterns of cell C and ATP tended to buffer the magnitude of the change in C:ATP ratios around an overall mean value of 89. There was no obvious trend in the concentration of (GTP + UTP) . cell /sup -1/ over the cell cycle. The cellular adenylate energy charge was maintained at values between 0.8 to 0.9 throughout the 24 h LD cycle, despite a ca. 40% decrease in total adenylates (A/sub T/ = ATP + ADP + AMP) during the dark period on 12:12 LD, and over a 68% decrease in ATP during 42 h of continuous darkness. These data lend experimental support to the theory of cellular metabolic control by the adenine nucleotides. With lateral illumination on 12:12 LD cycles, the cells began to concentrate at the surface of the experimental tubes shortly before the lights were turned on, and at the bottom of the tubes shortly before the lights were extinguished. This patterncontinued for 6 days in continuous darkness, suggesting that the vertical migration pattern is independent of a phototactic response and may be under the control of an endogenous rhythm.

  3. Acoustic estimates of zooplankton and micronekton biomass in cyclones and anticyclones of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, Patrick Henry

    2001-12-01

    In the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), coarse to mesoscale eddies can enhance the supply of limiting nutrients into the euphotic zone, elevating primary production. This leads to 'oases' of enriched standing stocks of zooplankton and micronekton in otherwise oligotrophic deepwater (>200 m bottom depth). A combination of acoustic volume backscattering (Sv) measurements with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and concurrent net sampling of zooplankton and micronekton biomass in GOM eddy fields between October 1996 and November 1998 confirmed that cyclones and flow confluences were areas of locally enhanced Sv and standing stock biomass. Net samples were used both to 'sea-truth' the acoustic measurements and to assess the influence of taxonomic composition on measured Sv. During October 1996 and August 1997, a mesoscale (200--300 km diameter) cyclone-anticyclone pair in the northeastern GOM was surveyed as part of a cetacean (whale and dolphin) and seabird habitat, study. Acoustic estimates of biomass in the upper 10--50 m of the water column showed that the cyclone and flow confluence were enriched relative to anticyclonic Loop Current Eddies during both years. Cetacean and seabird survey results reported by other project researchers imply that these eddies provide preferential habitat because they foster locally higher concentrations of higher-trophic-level prey. Sv measurements in November 1997 and 1998 showed that coarse scale eddies (30--150 km diameter) probably enhanced nutrients and S, in the deepwater GOM within 100 km of the Mississippi delta, an area suspected to be important habitat for cetaceans and seabirds. Finally, Sv, data collected during November-December 1997 and October-December 1998 from a mooring at the head of DeSoto Canyon in the northeastern GOM revealed temporal variability at a single location: characteristic temporal decorrelation scales were 1 day (diel vertical migration of zooplankton and micronekton) and 5 days (advective processes). A combination of acoustic and net sampling is a useful way to survey temporal and spatial patterns in zooplankton and micronekton biomass in coarse to mesoscale eddies. Further research should employ such a combination of methods to investigate plankton patterns in eddies and their implications for cetacean and seabird habitat.

  4. Influence of Irrigation Rate and Soil Type on the Vertical Migration of Iron and Manganese in the Soils of South-East Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The citrus plantations in south-east Spain, situated largely on calcareous soils which are submitted to intensive cultivation, are investigating nutritional changes caused mainly by deficiencies of trace elements, especially iron and manganese, which result in a lower yield and premature exhaustion of the trees. The paper deals with a radioactive tracer study of the behaviour of these ions in soils and with the factors influencing their migration to the root zone; the object of the work is to develop a rational and economic fertilization policy. The work has been based on two types of soil, representing extreme situations encountered in practice; one soil is calcareous and the other non-calcareous. A set of columnsiwas assembled, each column having a length of 1 m and a cross-section of 32 cm2 ; solutions of 59Fe and 54Mn were added to these columns both in sulphate and chelate form. A definite amount of water, proportional to the requirements .of citrus plantations, was intermittently passed through these columns. Soil samples were taken periodically and the total activity and the activity of the assimilable and non-assimilable fractions of the elements being studied were measured. At the same time an apparatus involving a collimated scintillation detector was developed to follow the vertical migration of these ions in soils; the water drained from the columns after each irrigation was analysed radiochemically for the same purpose. (author)

  5. Zooplankton species identities, zooplankton species number per sample, and zooplankton abundance collected using zooplankton net as part of the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, for 1994-03-01 (NODC Accession 9700104)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton species identities, zooplankton species number per sample, and zooplankton abundance were collected from March 1, 1994 to March 1, 1994. Data were...

  6. Zooplankton interactions with the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern south pacific Interacciones del zooplancton con la zona de mínimo oxigeno en el Pacífico sur oriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Escribano

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton in the coastal upwelling zone off the eastern South Pacific must cope with a shallow oxygen minimum zone. In this work, I summarize available information on the zooplankton species that interact with the OMZ in the upwelling region off northern Chile. Data are available from the MinOx cruise carried out in March 2000 and the ZOMEI cruise perfomed in October 2005, both onboard the R/V Vidal Gormaz of the Chilean navy. Nineteen species of copepods and 10 of euphausiids were analyzed in their vertical distribution and migrating behavior. Several abundante species appeared constrained by the OMZ and restricted to the upper 50m layer. However, other abundant species inhabit temporarily or permanently the OMZ contributing substantially to the vertical flux of C produced in the photic zone through active vertical migration. Population dynamics and life cycle strategies, as well as metabolic adaptations of the species, may not only modulate their contributions to vertical fluxes of C, but also to the maintenance and persistence of the oxygen-depleted water mass.El zooplancton de la zona de surgencia costera en el Pacífico Sur Oriental se encuentra afecto a una zona de mínimo de oxígeno muy somera (ZMO. En el presente trabajo, se resume la información disponible de las especies del zooplancton que interactuan con la ZMO en la región de surgencia del norte de Chile. Los datos provienen desde los cruceros MinOx y ZOMEI realizados en marzo del 2000 y octubre del 2005, respectivamente a bordo del R/V Vidal Gormáz de la Armada de Chile. Cerca de 19 especies de copépodos y 10 de eufáusidos se analizaron en su distribución vertical y conducta migratoria. Varias especies abundantes se encuentran restringidas por la ZMO a la capa superior de 50 m. Sin embargo, otras especies abundantes habitan temporal o permanentemente la ZOM, contribuyendo sustancialmente al flujo vertical de C producido en la zona fótica a través de la migración vertical activa. La dinámica poblacional y las estrategias de los ciclos de vida, así como las adaptaciones metabólicas de las distintas especies, pueden no solo modular la contribución de ellas a los flujos verticales de C, sino que además a la mantención y persistencia de la masa de agua deficiente en oxígeno.

  7. Zooplankton interactions with the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern south pacific / Interacciones del zooplancton con la zona de mínimo oxigeno en el Pacífico sur oriental

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rubén, Escribano.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available El zooplancton de la zona de surgencia costera en el Pacífico Sur Oriental se encuentra afecto a una zona de mínimo de oxígeno muy somera (ZMO). En el presente trabajo, se resume la información disponible de las especies del zooplancton que interactuan con la ZMO en la región de surgencia del norte [...] de Chile. Los datos provienen desde los cruceros MinOx y ZOMEI realizados en marzo del 2000 y octubre del 2005, respectivamente a bordo del R/V Vidal Gormáz de la Armada de Chile. Cerca de 19 especies de copépodos y 10 de eufáusidos se analizaron en su distribución vertical y conducta migratoria. Varias especies abundantes se encuentran restringidas por la ZMO a la capa superior de 50 m. Sin embargo, otras especies abundantes habitan temporal o permanentemente la ZOM, contribuyendo sustancialmente al flujo vertical de C producido en la zona fótica a través de la migración vertical activa. La dinámica poblacional y las estrategias de los ciclos de vida, así como las adaptaciones metabólicas de las distintas especies, pueden no solo modular la contribución de ellas a los flujos verticales de C, sino que además a la mantención y persistencia de la masa de agua deficiente en oxígeno. Abstract in english Zooplankton in the coastal upwelling zone off the eastern South Pacific must cope with a shallow oxygen minimum zone. In this work, I summarize available information on the zooplankton species that interact with the OMZ in the upwelling region off northern Chile. Data are available from the MinOx cr [...] uise carried out in March 2000 and the ZOMEI cruise perfomed in October 2005, both onboard the R/V Vidal Gormaz of the Chilean navy. Nineteen species of copepods and 10 of euphausiids were analyzed in their vertical distribution and migrating behavior. Several abundante species appeared constrained by the OMZ and restricted to the upper 50m layer. However, other abundant species inhabit temporarily or permanently the OMZ contributing substantially to the vertical flux of C produced in the photic zone through active vertical migration. Population dynamics and life cycle strategies, as well as metabolic adaptations of the species, may not only modulate their contributions to vertical fluxes of C, but also to the maintenance and persistence of the oxygen-depleted water mass.

  8. Vertical nutrient and trace element migration in cambisoils after application of residues from anaerobic digestion of pig manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Manfred; Unterfrauner, Hans

    2013-04-01

    Cambisols sampled in alpine pastures were packed into soil columns in order to monitor downward migration of nutrient and trace elements, applied within the residue from anaerobic digestion of a pig manure. 2 rain events per week were simulated. The manure added substantial amounts of K, ammonium, Na, Ca, P, S, Cl, B, Zn and Cu to the soil, whereas Mg, Mn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd and V were at the same level. In the eluates, total elemental composition as well as nitrate and ammonium were monitored. Addition of soluble Fe (at 1000 mg/l as FeCl3) decreased the release of soluble sulphate, but had no significant effect on the release of Fe and P. During subsequent rain events, exchangeable K remained enriched in the topsoil, wheras total sulfur moved to deeper layers. After 8 weeks, the columns were dismantled and analyzed for quasi-total and mobile fractions. Both in topsoils and subsoils, manure addition finally increased soil pH in case of low P soils, but decreased soil pH in case of high pH soils. Effects of manure applications on groundwater formation processes will be discussed.

  9. Circum-crater variability of deposits from discrete, laterally and vertically migrating volcanic explosions: Experimental evidence and field implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graettinger, A. H.; Valentine, G. A.; Sonder, I.

    2015-12-01

    Circumferential variation in sorting, thickness, granulometry, and componentry of tephra ring deposits can result from instabilities in the eruptive jet and interactions with the confining crater. Jet instabilities result in fingers of high particle concentrations that form deposits radiating away from a crater, referred to as rays. Two major types of rayed deposits are described from subsurface explosion experiments: (1) symmetrical rayed deposits with an axisymmetric ejecta blanket, which result from vertically directed eruptive jets and (2) zones of rays that extend out from sectors of a crater, with an asymmetrical proximal ejecta skirt, that result from inclined jets. Variations within each group are also associated with variations in the explosion depth relative to the energy of the explosion. Although the surface morphology of rays is likely to be lost in natural tephra rings due to overlapping deposits of numerous explosions, rayed deposits are expected to be preserved in cross section as lenses of relatively coarse and poorly sorted material compared to surrounding deposits. Asymmetrical deposits of inclined jets are anticipated to be particularly distinctive. The experimental facies associations indicate that these deposits would be easily distinguished, given sufficient exposure, from other heterogeneities caused by wind influence, collapse of the crater rim, or the influence of topography on density currents. These experimental results can also be used to further the discussion of deposits from inclined jets from other explosion scenarios, such as Vulcanian blasts and hydrothermal explosions. The experimental rayed deposits described here indicate that the classic interpretation of clast concentration zones in tephra ring deposits must be reevaluated.

  10. Zooplankton of the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Mykolaichuk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to zooplankton species composition in the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir. The greatest species diversity was found in the macrophyte communities of the upper reservoir’s littoral, but the least zooplankton diversity – in the pelagic zone of the lower reservoir.

  11. Mechanisms controlling lateral and vertical porewater migration of depleted uranium (DU) at two UK weapons testing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium associations with colloidal and truly dissolved soil porewater components from two Ministry of Defence Firing Ranges in the UK were investigated. Porewater samples from 2-cm depth intervals for three soil cores from each of the Dundrennan and Eskmeals ranges were fractionated using centrifugal ultrafiltration (UF) and gel electrophoresis (GE). Soil porewaters from a transect running downslope from the Dundrennan firing area towards a stream (Dunrod Burn) were examined similarly. Uranium concentrations and isotopic composition were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Multi-Collector-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS), respectively. The soils at Dundrennan were Fe- and Al-rich clay-loam soils whilst at Eskmeals, they were Fe- and Al-poor sandy soils; both, however, had similar organic matter contents due to the presence of a near-surface peaty layer at Eskmeals. These compositional features influenced the porewater composition and indeed the associations of U (and DU). In general, at Dundrennan, U was split between large (100 kDa-0.2 ?m) and small (3-30 kDa) organic colloids whilst at Eskmeals, U was mainly in the small colloidal and truly dissolved fractions. Especially below 10 cm depth, association with large Fe/Al/organic colloids was considered to be a precursor to the removal of U from the Dundrennan porewaters to the solid phase. In contrast, the association of U with small organic colloids was largely responsible for inhibiting attenuation in the Eskmeals soils. Lateral migration of U (and DU) through near-surface Dundrennan soils will involve both large and small colloids but, at depth, transport of the smaller amounts of U remaining in the porewaters may involve large colloids only. For one of the Dundrennan cores the importance of redox-related processes for the re-mobilisation of DU was also indicated as MnIV reduction resulted in the release of both MnII and UVI into the truly dissolved phase. - Research Highlights: ? U associations in soil porewaters at DU munitions sites were investigated. ? U distribution among colloidal/dissolved fractions varied with soil type and depth. ? U association with large Fe-Al-organic colloids led to removal from soil porewaters. ? Small organic colloidal association inhibited U removal from sandy soil porewaters. ? Reductive dissolution of Mn can release 'truly dissolved' U into soil porewaters.

  12. Trait-based approaches to zooplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtman, E.; Ohman, M.D.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    and ecosystem models is necessary to generate realistic predictions on the functioning of aquatic ecosystems but remains extremely challenging. We propose that the use of trait-based approaches is a promising way to reduce complexity while retaining realism in developing novel descriptions of...... zooplankton in ecosystem models. Characterizing zooplankton traits and trade-offs will also be helpful in understanding the selection pressures and diversity patterns that emerge in different ecosystems along major environmental gradients. Zooplankton traits can be characterized according to their function...... and type. Some traits, such as body size and motility, transcend several functions and are major determinants of zooplankton ecological strategies. Future developments of trait-based approaches to zooplankton should assemble a comprehensive matrix of key traits for diverse groups and explore it for...

  13. {sup 137}Cs concentration in zooplankton and its relation to taxonomic composition in the western North Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeriyama, Hideki [Nakaminato Laboratory for Marine Radioecology, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Isozaki 3609, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 311-1202 (Japan)], E-mail: hideki_k@nirs.go.jp; Watabe, Teruhisa [Nakaminato Laboratory for Marine Radioecology, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Isozaki 3609, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 311-1202 (Japan); Kusakabe, Masashi [Nakaminato Laboratory for Marine Radioecology, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Isozaki 3609, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 311-1202 (Japan); Fundamental Technology Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    To study the role of zooplankton in the transport of {sup 137}Cs in the ocean, zooplankton samples were collected in October 2005 and June 2006 in the western North Pacific Ocean. The peak zooplankton biomass was observed in the surface layer, and gelatinous plankton was more abundant in October 2005 than in June 2006 reflecting exchange of water masses. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in zooplankton varied from 11 to 24 mBq kg wet{sup -1} and were higher in October 2005 than in June 2006. The elevated abundance of gelatinous zooplankton probably led to higher concentration of {sup 137}Cs in zooplankton in October 2005. Annual export fluxes of {sup 137}Cs by ontogenetic vertical migrant copepods were estimated to be 0.8 and 0.6 mBq m{sup -2} year{sup -1} at 200 and 1000 m depths, respectively; this suggested that transport of {sup 137}Cs by zooplankton may be no trivial pathway.

  14. Abundance, composition, and distribution of crustacean zooplankton in relation to hypolimnetic oxygen depletion in west-central Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberger, Roy F.; Reynolds, James B.

    1977-01-01

    Samples of crustacean zooplankton were collected monthly in west-central Lake Erie in April and June to October 1968, and in July and August 1970, before and during periods of hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion. The water column at offshore stations was thermally stratified from June through September 1968, and the hypolimnion contained no DO in mid-August of 1968 or 1970. Composition, abundance, and vertical distribution of crustacean zooplankton changed coincidentally with oxygen depletion. From July to early August, zooplankton abundance dropped 79% in 1968 and 50% in 1970. The declines were attributed largely to a sharp decrease in abundance of planktonic Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi. Zooplankton composition shifted from mainly cyclopoid copepods in July to mainly cladocerans and copepod nauplii in middle to late August. We believe that mortality of adults and dormancy of copepodites in response to anoxia was the probable reason for the late summer decline in planktonic C. b. thomasi.

  15. Zooplankton

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jyothibabu, R.; Madhu, N.V.

    consequence of the following three processes. First, there is the physical mechanism of flushing of the estuary because of the large runoff that replaces the water in the estuary many times over during the rainy season. This effect is particularly high...

  16. Trait-based approaches to zooplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtman, E.; Ohman, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton are major primary consumers and predators in most aquatic ecosystems. They exhibit tremendous diversity of traits, ecological strategies and, consequently, impacts on other trophic levels and the cycling of materials and energy. An adequate representation of this diversity in community and ecosystem models is necessary to generate realistic predictions on the functioning of aquatic ecosystems but remains extremely challenging. We propose that the use of trait-based approaches is a promising way to reduce complexity while retaining realism in developing novel descriptions of zooplankton in ecosystem models. Characterizing zooplankton traits and trade-offs will also be helpful in understanding the selection pressures and diversity patterns that emerge in different ecosystems along major environmental gradients. Zooplankton traits can be characterized according to their function and type. Some traits, such as body size and motility, transcend several functions and are major determinants of zooplankton ecological strategies. Future developments of trait-based approaches to zooplankton should assemble a comprehensive matrix of key traits for diverse groups and explore it for general patterns; develop novel predictive models that explicitly incorporate traits and associated trade-offs; and utilize these traits to explain and predict zooplankton community structure and dynamics under different environmental conditions, including global change scenarios

  17. Fish-mediated trait compensation in zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hylander, Samuel; Souza, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    1. Environmental factors fluctuate spatially and temporally, and organisms that can alter phenotype in response to these changes may increase their fitness. Zooplankton are known to be able to induce body pigmentation in response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and to reduce the pigmentation when exposed to fish predators. Hence, reduced pigmentation because of the presence of fish could potentially lead to UVR damage, which calls for alternative protective echanisms. 2. We exposed zooplankton to fish cues and UVR stress to assess whether body pigmentation and cellular antioxidants are flexible predation and UVR defences. 3. Zooplankton exposed to fish predator cues (no direct predation) reduced their pigmentation by c. 30% in 20 days. However, they were able to rapidly counteract negative UVR effects by increasing the activity of antioxidant defences such as glutathione S-transferase (GST). When exposed to UVR, the GST activity increased by c. 100% in zooplankton that had previously reduced their pigmentation because of fish cues. Transparency in the zooplankton did not lead to considerably higher UVR damage, here measured as inhibition of olinesterase (ChE). 4. We conclude that zooplankton pigmentation and antioxidant enzymes are flexible UVR defence systems, which can be induced when needed. Zooplankton may employ antioxidant defences when pigmentation is reduced to counteract predation risk and thereby rapidly respond to detrimental effects of UVR exposure, that is, they can compensate one trait with another

  18. Three-dimensional acoustic visualization of zooplankton patchiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Charles H.; Wiebe, Peter H.; Pelkie, Chris; Benfield, Mark C.; Popp, Jacqueline M.

    Acoustic data were collected and visualized to characterize the 3-dimensional patchiness of zooplankton at a thermally stratified site on Georges Bank. The work was carried out as part of a field study conducted to examine the effects of springtime water-column stratification on the distributions of zooplankton and larval fish on the Bank. The acoustic data were acquired as the ship steamed a survey grid relative to the track of a surface drifter with a subsurface drogue. Although quite irregular in geographical coordinate space, the ship's track relative to the moving water closely matched the intended grid pattern once the drifter's movement in the tidal flow was taken into account. After changing coordinate systems to compensate for tidal advection, the acoustic data set was transformed from its curtain-like distribution in 3-dimensional space to a volumetric distribution. Two-dimensional point kriging was performed on the irregularly spaced data from each 2-m-thick depth stratum to produce a series of 2-dimensional, regularly spaced data grids. These data grids were then stacked to construct the 3-dimensional data grid required for volumetric visualization. A similar procedure was followed with the error variance values produced at each grid point through kriging to construct a 3-dimensional, volumetric distribution of the error variance. To examine zooplankton patchiness within the surveyed volume of water, isosurfaces corresponding to specific levels of acoustic backscatter were highlighted in the visualization. The 3-dimensional distribution of error variance was used to control the opacity of the isosurfaces to provide an objective, visual approach for displaying the statistical confidence one can have in the patches detected. In this survey, the ship steamed directly over a large, southwest- to northeast-oriented patch of zooplankton on at least three different passes. It also steamed over several smaller patches. The vertically compressed nature of the patches and their high degree of spatial heterogeneity in the horizontal plane are characteristic of the zooplankton distributions found in the deeper, seasonally stratified portions of Georges Bank.

  19. Near-surface enrichment of zooplankton over a shallow back reef: implications for coral reef food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alldredge, A. L.; King, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Zooplankton were 3-8 times more abundant during the day near the surface than elsewhere in the water column over a 1-2.4 m deep back reef in Moorea, French Polynesia. Zooplankton were also significantly more abundant near the surface at night although gradients were most pronounced under moonlight. Zooplankton in a unidirectional current became concentrated near the surface within 2 m of departing a well-mixed trough immediately behind the reef crest, indicating that upward swimming behavior, rather than near-bottom depletion by reef planktivores, was the proximal cause of these gradients. Zooplankton were highly enriched near the surface before and after a full lunar eclipse but distributed evenly throughout the water column during the eclipse itself supporting light as a proximal cue for the upward swimming behavior of many taxa. This is the first investigation of the vertical distribution of zooplankton over a shallow back reef typical of island barrier reef systems common around the world. Previous studies on deeper fringing reefs found zooplankton depletion near the bottom but no enrichment aloft. In Moorea, where seawater is continuously recirculated out the lagoon and back across the reef crest onto the back reef, selection for upward swimming behavior may be especially strong, because the surface serves both as a refuge from predation and an optimum location for retention within the reef system. Planktivorous fish and corals that can forage or grow even marginally higher in the water column might have a substantial competitive advantage over those nearer the bottom on shallow reefs. Zooplankton abundance varied more over a few tens of centimeters vertical distance than it did between seasons or even between day and night indicating that great care must be taken to accurately assess the availability of zooplankton as food on shallow reefs.

  20. Eclipse effects on field crops and marine zooplankton: the 29 March 2006 Total Solar Eclipse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Economou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects in the biosphere from the Total Solar Eclipse of 29 March 2006 were investigated in field crops and marine zooplankton. Taking into account the decisive role of light on the photoenergetic and photoregulatory plant processes, measurements of photosynthesis and stomatal behaviour were conducted on seven important field-grown cereal and leguminous crops. A drop in photosynthetic rates, by more than a factor of 5 in some cases, was observed, and the minimum values of photosynthetic rates ranged between 3.13 and 10.13 ?mol CO2 m?2 s?1. However, since solar irradiance attenuation has not at the same time induced stomatal closure thus not blocking CO2 uptake by plants, it is probably other endogenous factors that has been responsible for the observed fall in photosynthetic rates. Field studies addressing the migratory responses of marine zooplankton (micro-zooplankton (ciliates, and meso-zooplankton due to the rapid changes in underwater light intensity were also performed. The light intensity attenuation was simulated with the use of accurate underwater radiative transfer modeling techniques. Ciliates, responded to the rapid decrease in light intensity during the eclipse adopting night-time behaviour. From the meso-zooplankton assemblage, various vertical migratory behaviours were adopted by different species.

  1. Eclipse effects on field crops and marine zooplankton: the 29 March 2006 total solar eclipse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Economou

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Some effects in the biosphere from the Total Solar Eclipse of 29 March 2006 were investigated in field crops and marine zooplankton. Taking into account the decisive role of light on plant life and productivity, measurements of photosynthesis and stomatal behaviour were conducted on seven important field-grown cereal and leguminous crops. A drop in photosynthetic rates, by more than a factor of 5 in some cases, was observed, and the minimum values of photosynthetic rates ranged between 3.13 and 10.13 ?mol CO2 m?2 s?1. The drop in solar irradiance and the increase in mesophyll CO2-concentration during the eclipse did not induce stomatal closure thus not blocking CO2 uptake by plants. Light effects on the photochemical phase of photosynthesis may be responsible for the observed depression in photosynthetic rates. Field studies addressing the migratory responses of marine zooplankton (micro-zooplankton (ciliates, and meso-zooplankton due to the rapid changes in underwater light intensity were also performed. The light intensity attenuation was simulated with the use of accurate underwater radiative transfer modeling techniques. Ciliates, responded to the rapid decrease in light intensity during the eclipse adopting night-time behaviour. From the meso-zooplankton assemblage, various vertical migratory behaviours were adopted by different species.

  2. Bacteria dispersal by hitchhiking on zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Dziallas, Claudia; Leunert, Franziska; Tang, Kam W

    2010-01-01

    Microorganisms and zooplankton are both important components of aquatic food webs. Although both inhabit the same environment, they are often regarded as separate functional units that are indirectly connected through nutrient cycling and trophic cascade. However, research on pathogenic and...

  3. Toxic effects of domestic sewage on zooplankton

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.; Desai, B.N.

    The toxic effects of raw domestic sewage on different groups of zooplank-ton, was tested in the laboratory for evaluating acute toxicity. 24 hr., LC-50 values for larvae of stomatopods, gastropods and chaetognaths (2-7% concentration) indicated...

  4. Estructura comunitaria del zooplancton asociada con el fitoplancton y las masas de agua del Estrecho de Bransfield y la Isla Elefante durante el verano austral del 2006 / Zooplankton community structure and its association with the phytoplankton and water masses from the Bransfield strait and elephant island during 2006 austral summer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jessica, Bonicelli P.; Diana, López P.; Noemí, Ochoa L.; Rachael S., Shreeve.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante el verano austral del año 2006, la abundancia y distribución espacial del zooplancton y su asociación con algunas variables físicas (masas de agua) y biológicas (fitoplancton) fueron investigadas en el Estrecho de Bransfield y al sureste de la Isla Elefante. La comunidad estuvo compuesta pri [...] ncipalmente por copépodos, siendo las especies más abundantes Metridia gerlachei y Ctenocalanus sp. Mediante el análisis cluster se diferenciaron 3 grupos de estaciones asociados con las masas de agua. Un grupo se halló al sureste de la Isla Elefante y del Estrecho de Bransfield, donde predominó la masa de agua del mar de Weddell. Allí el fitoplancton fue escaso, mientras que el zooplancton fue abundante. Esto puede ser un ejemplo de un control top-down debido al pastoreo. Otro grupo se distribuyó al noroeste del Estrecho, donde predominaron las aguas del mar de Bellingshausen, en esta zona el zooplancton tuvo abundancias bajas, mientras que el fitoplancton fue encontrado en altas concentraciones. El último grupo fue encontrado en el centro del estrecho, en donde se encuentra el Frente de Bransfield. A pesar de las altas abundancias de fitoplancton, la mayoría de especies zooplanctónicas presentaron bajas abundancias, pudiendo ser por las fuertes turbulencias que se forman en el Frente. Sin embargo, Metridia gerlachei fue la más abundante en esta zona probablemente por su extensa migración vertical. Abstract in english During the austral summer of 2006 the spatial distribution of zooplankton and its association with some abiotic (water masses) and biotic variables (phytoplankton) were investigated in the Bransfield Strait and to the southeast of Elephant Island, Southern Ocean. The zooplankton community was mainly [...] composed of copepods; the main species present were Metridia gerlachei and Ctenocalanus sp. Nearest neighbor cluster analysis of zooplankton indicated the presence of three major station groupings which were influenced by water masses. One group was found in the southeast of the Bransfield Strait and Elephant Island, where the Weddell water masses predominated. This showed low phytoplankton abundance, whilst zooplankton abundance was high. This may be an example of top down grazing control. A second group was found in the northwest of the Strait, where the Bellingshausen water masses predominated. Here the zooplankton abundance was low, whilst the phytoplankton was found in high concentrations. A third group was found in the Bransfield front. Despite the high abundances of phytoplankton located here, zooplankton abundance was low. This could be due to the strong turbulence at the front. However, Metridia gerlachei was found in much higher concentrations here than other copepods. This species may be able to cope with such conditions due to its extensive diurnal vertical migrations.

  5. Metals in coastal zooplanktons - A coastal living resource hazard

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paimpillil, J.S.; Joseph, T.; Rejomon, G.; Gerson, V.J.

    concentration of lead (20 ppm) in the coastal zooplankton indicated the impacts of the high influxes of lead. The high manganese concentration in zooplankton (552 ppm) is hinting towards land drainage and of domestic sewage. The higher copper content...

  6. Collection and culture techniques for gelatinous zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskoff, Kevin A; Sommer, Freya A; Hamner, William M; Cross, Katrina M

    2003-02-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton are the least understood of all planktonic animal groups. This is partly due to their fragility, which typically precludes the capture of intact specimens with nets or trawls. Specialized tools and techniques have been developed that allow researchers and aquarists to collect intact gelatinous animals at sea and to maintain many of these alive in the laboratory. This paper summarizes the scientific literature on the capture, collection, and culture of gelatinous zooplankton and incorporates many unpublished methods developed at the Monterey Bay Aquarium in the past 15 years. PMID:12588746

  7. Emergent and floating-leaved macrophytes as refuge for zooplankton in a eutrophic temperate lake without submerged vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzanelli, Matteo; Perlt, Trine Warming

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have shown that submerged macrophytes provide a refuge for zooplankton against fish predation, whereas the role of emergent and floating-leaved species, which are often dominant in eutrophic turbid lakes, is far less investigated. Zooplankton density in open water and amongst emergent and floating-leaved vegetation was monitored in a small, eutrophic lake (Frederiksborg Slotssø) in Denmark during July-October 2006. Emergent and floating-leaved macrophytes harboured significantly higher densities of pelagic as well as plant-associated zooplankton species, compared to the open water, even during periods where the predation pressure was presumably high (during the recruitment of 0+ fish fry). Zooplankton abundance in open water and among vegetation exhibited low values in July and peaked in August. Bosmina and Ceriodaphnia dominated the zooplankton community in the littoral vegetated areas (up to 4,400 ind l-1 among Phragmites australis and 11,000 ind l-1 between Polygonum amphibium stands), whereas the dominant species in the pelagic were Daphnia (up to 67 ind l-1) and Cyclops (41 ind l-1). The zooplankton density pattern observed was probably a consequence of concomitant modifications in the predation pressure, refuge availability and concentration of cyanobacteria in the lake. It is suggested that emergent and floating-leaved macrophytes may play an important role in enhancing water clarity due to increased grazing pressure by zooplankton migrating into the plant stands. As a consequence, especially in turbid lakes, the ecological role of these functional types of vegetation, and not merely that of submerged macrophyte species, should be taken into consideration.

  8. ZOOPLANKTON OCCURANCE DURING MONSOON SEASON FROM EKRUK TANK, SOLAPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Gurav , K. R. Rao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study zooplankton occurrence and abundance were investigated from Ekruk tank, Solapur. Samples were collected bimonthly for a duration of four months in monsoon season (July to October 2012. The results showed that the occurrence of zooplanktons such as Rotifers, Copepods and Cladocerans during the investigation. Physico- chemical parameters of given water plays an important role in occurrence and abundance of zooplankton species. These environmental factors mainly affect the distribution of zooplankton species from Ekruk tank, Solapur. Our results are discussed in the light of the seasonal effect on the occurrence of zooplankton community.

  9. Fish-mediated trait compensation in zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hylander, Samuel; Souza, M.S.; Balseiro, E.; Modenutti, B.; Hansson, L.-A.

    2012-01-01

    1. Environmental factors fluctuate spatially and temporally, and organisms that can alter phenotype in response to these changes may increase their fitness. Zooplankton are known to be able to induce body pigmentation in response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and to reduce the pigmentation when ...... trait with another...

  10. Effect of Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassippes Infestation on Zooplankton Populations in Awba Reservoir, Ibadan South-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Chukwuka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water hyacinth infestation on the distribution, abundance and species composition of zooplankton in Awba reservoir were investigated. Samples were collected in each of the sampling areas (water hyacinth infested and open water by vertical zooplankton hauls using 64 um bolting silk net. The samples were immediately fixed in 4% formalin for preservation. The species composition of the zooplankton from the sampled areas consisted of 3 taxa, comprising of 6 species of Cladocera (Moina sp., Ceriodaphnia sp., Pleuroxus sp., Diaphanosoma sp., Chydorus sp. and Leydigia sp. 6 species of Rotifers (Asplanchna sp., Trichocerca, Filinia sp., Polyarthra sp., Brachionus sp. and Lecane sp. and 3 species of Copepoda (Cycloid copepods, Copepodite nauphii and Calanoid copepods. However, the study showed that the Rotifers had higher numerical abundance in the study areas. Water hyacinth infested area had a total density of 95 individuals/L while open water had 215 individuals/L. The study showed that the density of zooplanktons were significantly lower (p< 0.05 in the infested area. Biotic indices such as Margalef`s and Simpson`s indices were lower in the infested area while Shannon-wiener diversity index was significantly lower (p< 0.05 in the water hyacinth infested area. The result suggests that water hyacinth dense mats affected the numerical abundance of the zooplanktons.

  11. Zooplankton may serve as transmission vectors for viruses infecting algal blooms in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frada, Miguel José; Schatz, Daniella; Farstey, Viviana; Ossolinski, Justin E; Sabanay, Helena; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Koren, Ilan; Vardi, Assaf

    2014-11-01

    Marine viruses are recognized as a major driving force regulating phytoplankton community composition and nutrient cycling in the oceans. Yet, little is known about mechanisms that influence viral dispersal in aquatic systems, other than physical processes, and that lead to the rapid demise of large-scale algal blooms in the oceans. Here, we show that copepods, abundant migrating crustaceans that graze on phytoplankton, as well as other zooplankton can accumulate and mediate the transmission of viruses infecting Emiliania huxleyi, a bloom-forming coccolithophore that plays an important role in the carbon cycle. We detected by PCR that >80% of copepods collected during a North Atlantic E. huxleyi bloom carried E. huxleyi virus (EhV) DNA. We demonstrated by isolating a new infectious EhV strain from a copepod microbiome that these viruses are infectious. We further showed that EhVs can accumulate in high titers within zooplankton guts during feeding or can be adsorbed to their surface. Subsequently, EhV can be dispersed by detachment or via viral-dense fecal pellets over a period of 1 day postfeeding on EhV-infected algal cells, readily infecting new host populations. Intriguingly, the passage through zooplankton guts prolonged EhV's half-life of infectivity by 35%, relative to free virions in seawater, potentially enhancing viral transmission. We propose that zooplankton, swimming through topographically adjacent phytoplankton micropatches and migrating daily over large areas across physically separated water masses, can serve as viral vectors, boosting host-virus contact rates and potentially accelerating the demise of large-scale phytoplankton blooms. PMID:25438947

  12. Swimming in turbulence: zooplankton fitness in terms of foraging efficiency and predation risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Mariani, Patrizio

    2009-01-01

    Turbulence impacts zooplankton fitness in opposing manners, by increasing contacts with prey but at the same time increasing contacts with predators. We investigate the fitness of individual zooplankton in terms of a trade-off between energetic gains and costs, and risk of predation. Through idealized descriptions of foraging and predation in a turbulent water column, we determine how fast a zooplankter should swim, if at all, and where should it position itself in the vertical to maximize its fitness given certain environmental conditions. Suspension feeding has an advantage over ambush feeding at high turbulence levels, whereas cruise feeding becomes optimal at low turbulence levels. In general, behaviours that seek out low levels of turbulence increase an individual's fitness, a prediction that runs counter to turbulent encounter rate arguments, and exposes the fallacy of examining only the foraging aspects of the fitness trade-off.

  13. Influence of various cultivation techniques in combination with fertilization on the vertical radionuclide redistribution in soil and the radionuclide migration into plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plan of experiments has included 3 ranges of cultivation depths, i.e. 8 to 10 cm cultivation; 8 to 10 cm cultivation and 28 to 30 cm cultivation, in combination with using agrochemical ameliorants such as zeolites, Na humate, dung and mineral fertilizers. In 1990 average soil contamination with Cs-137 was 10-12 Ci/sq km. The results have demonstrated that radionuclide migration in cultivated soils differs substantially from that one of virgin lands. As far as soil amelioration methods are concerned, cultivation techniques are considered to be the major factors affecting the variations in radiation level. As the cultivation depth grows, surface gamma-radiation background and specific radionuclide content in soil are reducing. At the same time the thickness of the radiocontaminated layer and intensity of radionuclide migration grow. 1 refs.; 4 tabs

  14. Vertical migration of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra in agricultural soils as observed in lysimeters under crop rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinonaga, T. [Division of Environmental and Life Science, ARC Seibersdorf Research, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)]. E-mail: t.shinonaga@iaea.org; Schimmack, W. [Institute of Radiation Protection, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Gerzabek, M.H. [Division of Environmental and Life Science, ARC Seibersdorf Research, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Department for Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Science, Gregor-Mendel-Strasse 33, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    In most studies quantifying the migration parameters - apparent migration velocity and apparent dispersion coefficient - of radionuclides in the soil by model calculations, these parameters are determined for undisturbed soils. For soils disturbed by ploughing, however, no such data are available in the literature. Therefore, in the present study, the migration parameters of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra were estimated for ploughed soils by means of a convection-dispersion model. The depth distributions of the radionuclides were determined in four lysimeters (area: 1 m{sup 2}, depth of soil monolith: 0.75 m) filled with artificially contaminated soils of different types in July 1990. The lysimeters were cropped with agricultural plants. The soil in each lysimeter was ploughed manually once a year until 1996 (plough depth 20 cm). In July 1999, soil samples were collected from three pits in each lysimeter. The depth distributions of all radionuclides proved to be very similar in each soil pit. The spatial variability of the depth distributions of a given radionuclide within the lysimeters was about the same as their variability between the four lysimeters. Evaluation of the migration parameters revealed that the convective transport of the radionuclides was always rather small or even zero, while the dispersive transport caused a 'melting' process of the initially sharp activity edge at the lower border of the Ap horizon. These results are explained by the high evapotranspiration (80-90% of the total precipitation plus irrigation) and the small amounts of seepage water during the observation period of 9 years.

  15. Survival probability of larval sprat in response to decadal changes in diel vertical migration behavior and prey abundance in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Peck, Myron A.; Schmidt, Jörn; Huwer, Bastian; Voss, Rudi

    2010-01-01

    We employed a coupled three-dimensional biophysical model to explore long-term inter- and intra-annual variability in the survival of sprat larvae in the Bornholm Basin, a major sprat spawning area in the Baltic Sea. Model scenarios incorporated observed decadal changes in larval diel vertical distribution and climate-driven abiotic and biotic environmental factors including variability in the abundance of different, key prey species (calanoid copepods) as well as seasonal changes, long-term tre...

  16. Variasi Geografik Kelimpahan Zooplankton di Perairan Terganggu, Kepulauan Seribu, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Elok Faiqoh; Inna Puspa Ayu; Beginer Subhan; Yuliana Fitri Syamsuni; Aji Wahyu Anggoro; Andrianus Sembiring

    2015-01-01

    Zooplankton play a significant role in ecosystem as secondary producer. Climate change will potentially affect the abundance and global composition of zooplankton. This research aimed to study the geographical variation of zooplankton abundance relative to anthropogenic pressure. The research was conducted in April 2014 in area with presumably distinct anthropogenic level by its relative distance to the mainland of Jakarta. Samples were collected at Pramuka Island, Karang Beras Island, Kotok ...

  17. Krill diel vertical migration fine dynamics, nocturnal overturns, and their roles for aggregation in stratified flows (vol 65, pg 574, 2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Sourisseau, Marc; Simard, Y.; Saucier, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Un ensemble d'observations à haute résolution de la dynamique à court terme des migrations verticales nycthémérales (MVN) du krill dans l'estuaire du Saint-Laurent est présenté. Il incorpore des mesures de transfert de masse sur la verticale à partir d'échosondages multifréquences couplés à l'échantillonnage des strates au filet à nappe et le suivi des mouvements verticaux individuels par des mesures de pigments stomacaux sur une période de 72 h. Des séries temporelles des patrons circadiens ...

  18. Experiments on the influence of Chaoborus brasiliensis Theobald, 1901 (Diptera: Chaoboridae) on the diel vertical migration of microcrustaceans from Lake Monte Alegre, Brazil / Experimentos sobre a influência de Chaoborus brasiliensis (Diptera: Chaoboridae) sobre a migração vertical de microcrustáceos do Lago Monte Alegre, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    WJ., Minto; MS., Arcifa; A., Perticarrari.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se a migração vertical dos microcrustáceos do Lago Monte Alegre é relacionada aos predadores invertebrados, nomeadamente larvas de Chaoborus brasiliensis. A hipótese testada no experimento foi a de que o comportamento migratório da presa seria dependente do cont [...] ato físico com as larvas de Chaoborus ou dos "kairomones" liberados por elas. Dois experimentos foram realizados no laboratório, com dois tratamentos e três réplicas cada. Os experimentos foram feitos dentro de cilindros de acrílico de 1,5 m de altura e 0,20 m de diâmetro. Os tratamentos do Experimento I foram: A) predador e "kairomones" presentes e B) predador e "kairomones" presentes, mas o predador isolado em tubos de rede dentro do cilindro, não tendo contato físico com a presa. Os tratamentos do Experimento II foram: A) predador e "kairomones" ausentes e B) igual ao Experimento I. Fatores físicos e químicos (temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, condutividade elétrica) e alimento (algas) não influenciaram a distribuição vertical das presas, pois eles estavam quase homogeneamente distribuídos na coluna d'água em ambos os experimentos; as concentrações de alimento não foram limitantes. Copépodos adultos (Tropocyclops prasinus meridionalis e Thermocyclops decipiens) realizaram migração reversa no tratamento B dos dois experimentos; o cladócero Daphnia gessneri migrou de modo noturno no tratamento A do Experimento I; migração vertical não foi detectada para copepoditos, bem como para larvas de Chaoborus. Os experimentos indicaram que Daphnia respondeu ao contato físico com as larvas de Chaoborus e não aos "kairomones". Copépodos adultos foram aparentemente mais sensíveis aos "kairomones". Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate whether diel vertical migration of microcrustaceans from Lake Monte Alegre is related to invertebrate predators, namely larvae of Chaoborus brasiliensis. The hypothesis tested in the experiments was that the migratory behaviour of prey would depend on physical co [...] ntact with Chaoborus brasiliensis larvae or with kairomones released by them. Two experiments were undertaken in the laboratory, with two treatments and three replicates each. Experiments were carried out in acrylic cylinders 1.5 m high and 0.20 m in diameter. Treatments in Experiment I were: A) predator and kairomones present and B) predator and kairomones present, but predator isolated in net tube inside the cylinder, having no physical contact with prey. Treatments in Experiment II were: A) predator and kairomones absent and B) the same as in experiment I. Physical and chemical factors (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity) and food (algae) did not influence vertical distribution of prey, as they were almost homogeneously distributed in the water column in both experiments; food concentrations were not limiting. Adult copepods (Tropocyclops prasinus meridionalis and Thermocyclops decipiens) showed reverse migration in the treatment B of both experiments; the cladoceran Daphnia gessneri migrated nocturnally in the treatment A of the Experiment I; vertical migration was undetectable for copepodites, as well as for Chaoborus larvae. The experiments indicated that Daphnia responded to physical contact with Chaoborus larvae but not to kairomones alone. Adult copepods seemed to be more sensitive to kairomones.

  19. Abundance, Species Composition and Spatial Distribution of Zooplankton in Lake Hashengie of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegazeabe H. Haileselasie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Zooplanktons are an important link between phytoplankton primary production and consumers at the higher levels of the trophic cascade (i.e., secondary consumers. Furthermore, they may impact the pathways of energy flow and matter circulation in freshwater ecosystems. To this end this research was conducted to investigate the abundance and spatial distribution, production of Zooplankton in Lake Hashegie. Species composition, abundance and spatial distribution of crustacean zooplankton were studied in Lake Hashengie from late September 2010 to early June 2011. A total of 15 species were recorded, with copepod specie being numerically dominant. Variation in abundance was extremely high, ranging from 8 individuals liter for cladoceran to more than 1000 individuals liter for copepods. There was no significant difference in the distribution of rotifer species between inshore and offshore regions (t-test, n = 12 p = 0.25. Crustacean species richness was low, with only five cladoceran and three copepod species occurring in the open water. Daphnia magna and Daphnia galeata dominated the cladoceran community, whereas thermocyclops was the dominant copepod. Variation in the spatial distribution of crustacean species was neither observed horizontally between inshore and offshore areas nor vertically in the highly turbid and wind exposed to deeper part of the lake. On the other hand crustacean varied significantly in size and number between inshore and offshore areas (Anova test, n = 231, p<0.002. Adult crustaceans dominated offshore, whereas juveniles were more abundant inshore, suggesting a predominantly littoral selective predation on large and adult crustaceans by fish.

  20. Spatial and temporal habitat partitioning by zooplankton in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Peck, M.A.; Barz, K.; Schmidt, J.O.; Hansen, F.C.; Peters, J.; Renz, J.; Dickmann, M.; Mohrholz, V.; Dutz, Jörg; Hirche, H.-J.

    2012-01-01

    The deep basins in the Baltic Sea such as the Bornholm Basin (BB) are subject to seasonal changes in the strength of physico-chemical stratification. These depth-related changes in key abiotic factors are strong drivers of habitat partitioning by the autochthonous zooplankton community. Species...... multivariate approach and the evaluation of vertical distribution patterns, five major habitat utilisation modes were identified that were based, to a large extent, on the dynamics of thermal and haline stratification of the Baltic Sea. Our statistical analysis of one of the most thorough datasets collected on...

  1. Seasonal and interannual changes in zooplankton community in the coastal zone of the North-Eastern Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikishina, A. B.; Arashkevich, E. G.; Louppova, N. E.; Soloviev, K. A.

    2009-04-01

    The phenological response of zooplankton community is a result of simultaneous effect of several factors: feeding conditions, predation abundance, periods of reproduction of common species and hydrodynamic regime. The Black sea ecosystem is one of the best studied in the world, otherwise there is still some illegibility about ecosystem functioning and especially about environmental factors influence on zooplankton dynamics. For the last twenty years pelagic system of the Black Sea has changed dramatically. The invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the middle of eighties caused significant decrease in zooplankton biomass. It also altered plankton structure and shifted periods of mass reproduction of the abundant species and biomass maximums. For instance, before the invasion of Mnemiopsis the maximum of zooplankton biomass was observed in autumn (data by A. Pasternak, 1983), and after that the maximum moved to the spring (data by V.S. Khoroshilov, 1999). The incursion of ctenophore Beroe ovata feeding on Mnemiopsis in the nineties has led to the enhancement of zooplankton community. Although the detailed analysis of seasonal zooplankton dynamics wasn't performed in the recent years. The object of our research was to study seasonal and interannual changes in zooplankton community in the coastal area of the North-Eastern Black Sea. Analysis of interannual, seasonal and spatial changes in zooplankton distribution, abundance and species composition along with age structure of dominant populations were performed based on investigations during 2005-2008 years in the North-Eastern Black Sea. Plankton samples were obtained monthly since June 2005 till December 2008. Plankton was collected at three stations at depths 25m, 50m and 500-1000m along the transect from the Blue Bay to the open sea. Sampling of gelatinous animals was conducted in parallel to the zooplankton sampling. Simultaneously with plankton sampling CTD data were obtained. The feeding conditions were obtained using SSC satellite data. For studying vertical distribution of zooplankton depth stratified samples were collected in different seasons. To evaluate seasonal variations in reproduction and offspring development of dominant mesozooplankton populations, we analyzed age structure of five species: four herbivorous copepods - Acartia clausi, Pseudocalanus elongatus, Paracalanus parvus and Calanus euxinus, and carnivorous chaethognaths Parasagitta setosa. Periods of mass reproduction varied in different years. The possible reason for this variation is the effect of climate change and top-predators on seasonal shift in zooplankton dynamics. Whereas timing of reproduction is related to life strategy of species, an intensity of reproduction and success of new generations depend on food supply. The impact of food conditions on abundance and age structure of herbivores was studied in the different seasons. Vertical distribution of different species also altered from year to year. Thus, in "warm" July 2007 (sea surface temperature 27°C) most of the Calanus euxinus population concentrated in the deeper layers than in "cold" July 2005 (sea surface temperature 22°C).

  2. Experiments with vertically and laterally migrating subsurface explosions with applications to the geology of phreatomagmatic and hydrothermal explosion craters and diatremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Greg A.; Graettinger, Alison H.; Macorps, Élodie; Ross, Pierre-Simon; White, James D. L.; Döhring, Erika; Sonder, Ingo

    2015-03-01

    We present results of experiments that use small chemical explosive charges buried in layered aggregates to simulate the effects of subsurface hydrothermal and phreatomagmatic explosions at varying depths and lateral locations, extending earlier experimental results that changed explosion locations only along a vertical axis. The focus is on the resulting crater size and shape and subcrater structures. Final crater shapes tend to be roughly circular if subsurface explosion epicenters occur within each other's footprints (defined as the plan view area of reference crater produced by a single explosion of a given energy, as predicted by an empirical relationship). Craters are elongate if an epicenter lies somewhat beyond the footprint of the previous explosion, such that their footprints overlap, but if epicenters are too far apart, the footprints do not overlap and separate craters result. Explosions beneath crater walls formed by previous blasts tend to produce inclined (laterally directed) ejecta jets, while those beneath crater centers are vertically focused. Lateral shifting of explosion sites results in mixing of subcrater materials by development of multiple subvertical domains of otherwise pure materials, which progressively break down with repeated blasts, and by ejection and fallback of deeper-seated material that had experienced net upward displacement to very shallow levels by previous explosions. A variably developed collar of material that experienced net downward displacement surrounds the subvertical domains. The results demonstrate key processes related to mixing and ejection of materials from different depths during an eruptive episode at a maar-diatreme volcano as well as at other phreatomagmatic and hydrothermal explosion sites.

  3. Limnetic crustacean zooplankton of Lake Oahe, May-October 1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selgeby, James H.

    1974-01-01

    The limnetic crustacean zooplankton of Lake Oahe was dominated by copepods. Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi was the dominant crustacean throughout the lake. Mesocyclops edax, Diaptomus ashlandi and Daphnia pulex were major components of the zooplankton in the deep, downstream portion of the lake while Bosmina longirostris and Daphnia retrocurva were important constituents in the river-like, upstream section of the lake.

  4. Zooplankton composition in Dharamtar creek adjoining Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tiwari, L.R.; Nair, V.R.

    Dharamtar creek (Bombay, India) creek maintained rich zooplankton standing stock (av. 30.3 ml 100 m/3) with peak production during August-November. Zooplankton production rate for the entire system amounted to 10.32 mg C.100 m/3 d/1 with an annual...

  5. Laws of the transformation of the photon angle and energy spectra at the soil surface during vertical migration 137Cs and 134Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose burdens due to external photon bombardment are estimated with the aid of databases characterizing the local conditions, i.e., the time during which inhabitants were in the open, the composition and distribution of nuclides in the soil layer, the gamma screening factor, etc. Since these parameters usually differ substantially, conservative estimates are taken in order to obtain representative values whereby underestimation of the dose is avoided. The behavior of the radionuclides in the environment must be simulated to obtain a more precise prediction of dose burdens. The models used in this case should be somewhat conservative. In this paper, the authors propose the following treatment, simulating photon migration and transport in a soil layer. In the first stage the evolution of the radionuclide distribution function in the soil layer is studied and the distribution of radioactive substances is calculated analytically and numerically calculate as a function of the depth in the soil. In the second stage the ?-ray propagation in the soil and in the atmosphere is estimated from the known distribution of radionuclides at the given chemical composition of the soil and numerical Monte Carlo calculations are carried out to determine the screening factor and the ?-ray spectrum

  6. Mesoscale distribution and community composition of zooplankton in the Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggett, Jenny A.

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have shown the Mozambique Channel to exhibit high mesoscale variability, but how mesoscale features influence the zooplankton community in this region is not known. The biovolume, biomass, vertical distribution and community composition of mesozooplankton (>200 µm) associated with mesoscale eddies in the Mozambique Channel was investigated during four cruises in September 2007, December 2008, November 2009 and April/May 2010. Stations were categorized according to their location in cyclonic (cold-core) or anticyclonic (warm-core) eddies, frontal, divergence or shelf regions. Mean mesozooplankton biovolume in the upper 200 m was 0.33 ml m-3, with zooplankton largely concentrated in the upper 100 m during all four cruises (weighted mean depth=66.6 m). Sampling depth was the most important predictor of biovolume, which was greatest for net samples with a mid-depth of 0-40 m, but declined deeper in the water column. Biovolume at the shelf (0.37 ml m-3), divergence and cyclonic eddy stations (0.31 ml m-3) was significantly greater than at frontal and anticyclonic eddy stations (0.20 ml m-3). Mean biovolume was significantly higher during 2008 and 2010 compared to 2007 and 2009, and was also significantly higher for samples collected at night (and twilight) than during the day. The mesozooplankton community in 2007 was strongly dominated by small copepods (~70-80% abundance) followed by appendicularians (10%), ostracods (8%) and chaetognaths (7%). The most abundant copepods were the Paracalanids, Oncaea spp., Oithona spp. and Corycaeus spp. Multivariate analysis showed that the communities in 2007 and 2008 were most strongly structured by depth, but classification (cyclonic/anticyclonic) was also important in 2007 when mesoscale features were more strongly developed. Zooplankton assemblages showed a high degree of homogeneity, with differences between mesoscale features largely due to differing abundances of similar taxa. These observations suggest that mesoscale eddy and shelf interactions play a fundamental role in shaping the Mozambique Channel pelagic ecosystem through the concentration, enhanced growth and redistribution of zooplankton communities. Although frontal areas between eddies were poor in zooplankton biomass, the extensive inter-eddy divergence areas were as rich in biomass as the small cyclonic eddy core regions. These patterns are important for understanding the favorability of observed foraging areas for higher trophic levels.

  7. Inter-annual fluctuations of zooplankton communities in the Bay of Villefranche-sur-mer from 1995 to 2005 (Northern Ligurian Sea, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandromme, P.; Stemmann, L.; Berline, L.; Gasparini, S.; Mousseau, L.; Prejger, F.; Passafiume, O.; Guarini, J.-M.; Gorsky, G.

    2011-11-01

    An integrated analysis of the pelagic ecosystems of the Ligurian Sea is performed combining time series (1995-2005) of several zooplankton groups (one group for copepods smaller than 0.724 mm3 and nine groups for individuals larger than 0.724 mm3, i.e. large copepods, decapod larvæ, other crustaceans, chaetognaths, appendicularians, pteropods, thaliaceans, gelatinous predators and other zooplankton), chlorophyll-a, nutrients, salinity, temperature, density, and local weather at Point B coastal station (Northern Ligurian Sea). From 1995 to 2000 winters were wet and mild resulting in lower winter sea surface density. These years showed lower than average nutrients and zooplankton concentrations while chlorophyll-a biomass was high. After 2000, winters were colder and dryer resulting in higher sea surface density. Nutrients and zooplankton showed higher concentrations while chlorophyll-a was lower than average. The ca. 2000 change was observed for most zooplankton groups with a one-year delay for some groups. Inter-annual variability within each period was also observed. The observed patterns suggest that the pelagic ecosystem trophic state at the studied point is mostly set by the winter forcing on the vertical mixing that upwells nutrients to the surface sustaining primary production. Surprisingly, low chlorophyll-a biomass in high nitrate and zooplankton conditions during the well mixed years suggest that phytoplankton biomass is controlled by grazers. The proposed mechanisms of stronger winter vertical mixing hold for most of the time series, but specific years with contradicting patterns suggest also the possible influence of the summer climate. A review of recent literature suggests that changes in the pelagic ecosystem are not limited to the studied site but concern also the central Ligurian Sea.

  8. Inter-annual fluctuations of zooplankton communities in the Bay of Villefranche-sur-mer from 1995 to 2005 (Northern Ligurian Sea, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vandromme

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An integrated analysis of the pelagic ecosystems of the Ligurian Sea is performed combining time series (1995–2005 of several zooplankton groups (one group for copepods smaller than 0.724 mm3 and nine groups for individuals larger than 0.724 mm3, i.e. large copepods, decapod larvæ, other crustaceans, chaetognaths, appendicularians, pteropods, thaliaceans, gelatinous predators and other zooplankton, chlorophyll-a, nutrients, salinity, temperature, density, and local weather at Point B coastal station (Northern Ligurian Sea. From 1995 to 2000 winters were wet and mild resulting in lower winter sea surface density. These years showed lower than average nutrients and zooplankton concentrations while chlorophyll-a biomass was high. After 2000, winters were colder and dryer resulting in higher sea surface density. Nutrients and zooplankton showed higher concentrations while chlorophyll-a was lower than average. The ca. 2000 change was observed for most zooplankton groups with a one-year delay for some groups. Inter-annual variability within each period was also observed. The observed patterns suggest that the pelagic ecosystem trophic state at the studied point is mostly set by the winter forcing on the vertical mixing that upwells nutrients to the surface sustaining primary production. Surprisingly, low chlorophyll-a biomass in high nitrate and zooplankton conditions during the well mixed years suggest that phytoplankton biomass is controlled by grazers. The proposed mechanisms of stronger winter vertical mixing hold for most of the time series, but specific years with contradicting patterns suggest also the possible influence of the summer climate. A review of recent literature suggests that changes in the pelagic ecosystem are not limited to the studied site but concern also the central Ligurian Sea.

  9. Short term changes in zooplankton community during the summer-autumn transition in the open NW Mediterranean Sea: species composition, abundance and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Raybaud

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Short term changes in zooplankton community were investigated at a fixed station in offshore waters of the Ligurian Sea (Dynaproc 2 cruise, September–October 2004. Mesozooplankton was sampled with vertical WP2 hauls (200 µm mesh-size and large mesozooplankton, macrozooplankton and micronekton with a BIONESS multinet sampler (500 µm mesh-size. Temporal variations of total biomass, species composition and abundance of major taxa were studied. Intrusions of low salinity water masses were observed two times during the cruise. The first one, which was the most important, was associated with changes in zooplankton community composition. Among copepods, the abundance of Calocalanus, Euchaeta, Heterorhabdus, Mesocalanus, Nannocalanus, Neocalanus, Pleuromamma and also calanoid copepodites increased markedly. Among non-copepod taxa, only small ostracods abundance increased. After this low salinity event, abundance of all taxa nearly returned to their initial values. The influence of salinity on each zooplankton taxon was confirmed by a statistical analysis (Perry's method. Shannon diversity index, Pielou evenness and species richness were used to describe temporal variations of large copepod (>500 µm diversity. Shannon index and Pielou evenness decreased at the beginning of the low salinity water intrusions, but not species richness. We suggest that low salinity water masses contained its own zooplankton community and passed through the sampling area, thus causing the replacement of zooplankton population.

  10. Zooplankton species identities and other data collected from zooplankton net casts in the NE Atlantic Ocean from DISCOVERY; 12 November 1969 to 01 July 1988 (NODC Accession 9500097)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton species identities and other data were collected by DISCOVERY using zooplankton net casts in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 12...

  11. Zooplankton distribution in the polluted environment around Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    Zooplankton distribution, abundance and composition with reference to polluted environments off Bombay was estimated. This study was taken up along three transects viz. Versova, Mahim and Thana covering eleven stations around Bombay during 1980...

  12. Zooplankton ecology of the mangrove habitats of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    and fish larvae constituted bulk of zooplankton. Majority of these organisms were stragglers. The zooplankters showing better eco-physiological adaptations colonized in pools surroundEd. by thick mangroves vegetation...

  13. Zooplankton community of Bhayandar and Thane salt pans around Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mustafa, S.; Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.

    The zooplankton community of the salt pans of Bhayandar and Thane was studied based on the contribution of microzooplankton and meso-macrozooplankton. Population of microzooplankton was about 4 times more in Bhayandar as compared to Thane salt pan...

  14. Rapid local adaptation mediates zooplankton community assembly in experimental mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantel, Jelena H; Duvivier, Cathy; Meester, Luc De

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive evolution can occur over similar timescales as ecological processes such as community assembly, but its particular effects on community assembly and structure and their magnitude are poorly understood. In experimental evolution trials, Daphnia magna were exposed to varying environments (presence and absence of fish and artificial macrophytes) for 2 months. Then, in a common gardening experiment, we compared zooplankton community composition when either experimentally adapted or D. magna from the original population were present. Local adaptation of D. magna significantly altered zooplankton community composition, leading to a suppression of abundances for some zooplankton taxa and facilitation for others. The effect size of D. magna adaptation was similar to that of adding fish or macrophytes to mesocosms, two important drivers of zooplankton community structure. Our results suggest that substantial amounts of variation in community composition in natural systems may be unexplained if evolutionary dynamics are ignored. PMID:26251339

  15. Zooplankton characteristics of the coastal ecosystem off Bombay, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Ramaiah, Neelam

    spinicauda) dominated the copepod community. Four species of chaetognaths were found in the area with predominance of Sagitta bedoti. Among the penaeid larvae Metapenaeus offinis was the most common species. Population of omnivores dominated the zooplankton...

  16. Flow disturbances generated by feeding and swimming zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, Haisong; Goncalves, R. J.; Nielsen, L. T.; Wadhwa, Navish

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between planktonic organisms, such as detection of prey, predators, and mates, are often mediated by fluid signals. Consequently, many plankton predators perceive their prey from the fluid disturbances that it generates when it feeds and swims. Zooplankton should therefore seek to minimize the fluid disturbance that they produce. By means of particle image velocimetry, we describe the fluid disturbances produced by feeding and swimming in zooplankton with diverse propulsion mechanis...

  17. Climate Impacts on Zooplankton Population Dynamics in Coastal Marine Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Harold P. Batchelder; Daly, Kendra L.; Cabell S. Davis; Rubao Ji; Mark D. Ohman; Peterson, William T.; Runge, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    The 20-year US GLOBEC (Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics) program examined zooplankton populations and their predators in four coastal marine ecosystems. Program scientists learned that environmental controls on zooplankton vital rates, especially the timing and magnitude of reproduction, growth, life-cycle progression, and mortality, determine species population dynamics, seasonal and spatial distributions, and abundances. Improved knowledge of spatial-temporal abundance and distribution of in...

  18. VERMICOMPOST: QUALITY ORGANIC MANURE FOR ZOOPLANKTON PRODUCTION IN AQUACULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Kumar,; Verma, V. K.; B. J. Saud; Kumar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vermicompost on water quality parameters of fish pond and zooplankton production. No significant effect on the physico-chemical properties of pond water were observed though the zooplankton population was better with significant difference in rotifers population (68.38%) comparing with cow dung treated pond. Application of vermicompost as an organic manure in fish pond is not only better but also safe than the raw cow dung. This is ex...

  19. Improved Method for Determining Bacterial Filtration Rates in Zooplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Marvalin, Olivier; Lazarek, Stanislaw

    1988-01-01

    Filtration rates were determined for a natural population of zooplankton grazers (Bosmina longirostris [Müll.], Cyclops vicinus vicinus [Ulianine], Acanthodiaptomus denticornis [Wierz.], and Daphnia longispina [Müll.]) by using 3H-labeled bacteria as food for these organisms. There was a relationship between filtration rates of the major zooplankton grazers and the prevailing algal and bacterial composition in the lake water. Low filtration rates were obtained in the presence of colonial and ...

  20. Promotion of harmful algal blooms by zooplankton predatory activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Aditee; Flynn, Kevin J.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between algae and their zooplanktonic predators typically involves consumption of nutrients by algae, grazing of the algae by zooplankton which in turn enhances predator biomass, controls algal growth and regenerates nutrients. Eutrophication raises nutrient levels, but does not simply increase normal predator–prey activity; rather, harmful algal bloom (HAB) events develop often with serious ecological and aesthetic implications. Generally, HAB species are outwardly poor comp...

  1. On autumn zooplankton of Semipalatinsk test site water-bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autumn zooplankton in six water-bodies with mineralization diapason from 0.27 to 343.0 g/l was investigated. The species composition and number of structural characteristics were determined. The state of the zooplankton community by biodiversity and development indices is determined as normal. The observed increase of body dimensions in some species of Rotatoria and Microcrustacea requires the additional research. (author)

  2. Ecology and abundance of zooplankton in Karanja reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Majagi, Shashikanth; Vijaykumar, K.

    2008-01-01

    The present work aims to study the Zooplankton seasonal distribution and diversity in Karanja reservoir, Bidar district for the period of two years from October 2001 to September 2003. We have recorded 36 species of which, 15 species belongs to rotifera, 11 species belongs to cladocera, nine species belongs to copepoda and ostracoda three species. Among zooplankton, particularly rotifera was the dominant group throughout the study period and highest count was recorded in the month of March 20...

  3. High Mortality of Red Sea Zooplankton under Ambient Solar Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M. O.; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agust?, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiatio...

  4. Variasi Geografik Kelimpahan Zooplankton di Perairan Terganggu, Kepulauan Seribu, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elok Faiqoh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton play a significant role in ecosystem as secondary producer. Climate change will potentially affect the abundance and global composition of zooplankton. This research aimed to study the geographical variation of zooplankton abundance relative to anthropogenic pressure. The research was conducted in April 2014 in area with presumably distinct anthropogenic level by its relative distance to the mainland of Jakarta. Samples were collected at Pramuka Island, Karang Beras Island, Kotok Island, and Sepa Island where subsequently lying to the nearest until furthest distance from mainland. Zooplankton samples were collected by towing the plankton net for 10 minutes for each site for three replicates. Abundance was obtained from Pramuka Island was 266698,214 ind/L, Karang Beras Island was 597363,1 ind/L, Kotok Island was 526447,8 ind/L and Sepa Island was 438225,3 ind/L. Overall, the closer to mainland, the richer nutrient and the more abundant zooplankton was conceived in the waters. Surprisingly, in Pramuka Island, the nearest island to mainland among other sites, had the lowest abundance of zooplankton although nutrient level was the richest among others.

  5. Ecological niches of Arctic deep-sea copepods: Vertical partitioning, dietary preferences and different trophic levels minimize inter-specific competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakmann, Silke; Kochzius, Marc; Auel, Holger

    2009-05-01

    The biodiversity of pelagic deep-sea ecosystems has received growing scientific interest in the last decade, especially in the framework of international marine biodiversity initiatives, such as Census of Marine Life (CoML). While a growing number of deep-sea zooplankton species has been identified and genetically characterized, little information is available on the mechanisms minimizing inter-specific competition and thus allowing closely related species to co-occur in the deep-sea pelagic realm. Focussing on the two dominant calanoid copepod families Euchaetidae and Aetideidae in Fram Strait, Arctic Ocean, the present study strives to characterize ecological niches of co-occurring species, with regard to vertical distribution, dietary composition as derived from lipid biomarkers, and trophic level on the basis of stable isotope signatures. Closely related species were usually restricted to different depth layers, resulting in a multi-layered vertical distribution pattern. Thus, vertical partitioning was an important mechanism to avoid inter-specific competition. Species occurring in the same depth strata usually belonged to different genera. They differed in fatty acid composition and trophic level, indicating different food preferences. Herbivorous Calanus represent major prey items for many omnivorous and carnivorous species throughout the water column. The seasonal and ontogenetic vertical migration of Calanus acts as a short-cut in food supply for pelagic deep-sea ecosystems in the Arctic.

  6. Environment, but not migration rate, influences extinction risk in experimental metapopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Griffen, Blaine D; John M. Drake

    2009-01-01

    Ecological theory suggests that several demographic factors influence metapopulation extinction risk, including synchrony in population size between subpopulations, metapopulation size and the magnitude of fluctuations in population size. Theoretically, each of these is influenced by the rate of migration between subpopulations. Here we report on an experiment where we manipulated migration rate within metapopulations of the freshwater zooplankton Daphnia magna to examine how migration influe...

  7. Hydrostatic pressure and temperature effects on the membranes of a seasonally migrating marine copepod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, David W; Tarling, Geraint A; Mayor, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Marine planktonic copepods of the order Calanoida are central to the ecology and productivity of high latitude ecosystems, representing the interface between primary producers and fish. These animals typically undertake a seasonal vertical migration into the deep sea, where they remain dormant for periods of between three and nine months. Descending copepods are subject to low temperatures and increased hydrostatic pressures. Nothing is known about how these organisms adapt their membranes to these environmental stressors. We collected copepods (Calanoides acutus) from the Southern Ocean at depth horizons ranging from surface waters down to 1000 m. Temperature and/or pressure both had significant, additive effects on the overall composition of the membrane phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in C. acutus. The most prominent constituent of the PLFAs, the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexanoic acid [DHA - 22:6(n-3)], was affected by a significant interaction between temperature and pressure. This moiety increased with pressure, with the rate of increase being greater at colder temperatures. We suggest that DHA is key to the physiological adaptations of vertically migrating zooplankton, most likely because the biophysical properties of this compound are suited to maintaining membrane order in the cold, high pressure conditions that persist in the deep sea. As copepods cannot synthesise DHA and do not feed during dormancy, sufficient DHA must be accumulated through ingestion before migration is initiated. Climate-driven changes in the timing and abundance of the flagellated microplankton that supply DHA to copepods have major implications for the capacity of these animals to undertake their seasonal life cycle successfully. PMID:25338196

  8. Diel vertical migrations of bathypelagic perch fry.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?ech, Martin; Kratochvíl, Michal; Kube?ka, Jan; Draštík, Vladislav; Mat?na, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 66, ?. 3 (2005), s. 685-702. ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA6017201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Slapy Reservoir * fry distribution * echosounder Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.188, year: 2005

  9. Assessment of Zooplankton Community Composition along a Depth Profile in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.

    2015-07-17

    The composition of zooplankton in the water column has received limited attention in the main body of the Red Sea and this study investigates the change in the community both spatially and temporally across 11 stations in the central Red Sea. Using molecular methods to target the v9 region of the 18S rRNA gene a total of approximately 11.5 million reads were sequenced resulting in 2528 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity. The phylum Arthropoda dominated in terms of reads accounting for on average 86.2% and 65.3% for neuston nets and vertical multinets respectively. A reduction in the number of OTUs was noticed with depth for both total metazoa and Maxillopoda whilst there was also a significant change in the composition of the Maxillopoda community. The genus Corycaeus had a higher proportion of reads in the epipelagic zone with Pleuromamma becoming increasingly dominant with depth. No significant difference was observed in the community between night and day sampling however there was a significant difference in the zooplankton community between two sampling periods separated by 10 days.

  10. Fluxes of biogenic carbon in the Southern Ocean: roles of large microphagous zooplankton1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Fèvre, Jacques; Legendre, Louis; Rivkin, Richard B.

    1998-11-01

    The Southern Ocean is an extreme environment, where waters are permanently cold, a seasonal ice cover extends over large areas, and the solar energy available for photosynthesis is severely restricted, either by vertical mixing to considerable depths or, especially south of the Antarctic Circle, by prolonged seasonal periods of low or no irradiance. Such conditions would normally lead to low productivity and a water column dominated by recycling processes involving microbial components of pelagic communities but this does not seem to be the case in the Southern Ocean, where there is efficient export to large apex predators and deep waters. This paper investigates the role of large microphagous zooplankton (salps, krill, and some large copepods) in the partitioning of biogenic carbon among the pools of short- and long-lived organic carbon and sequestered biogenic carbon. Large microphagous zooplankton are able to ingest microbial-sized particles and thus repackage small, non-sinking particles into both metazoan biomass and large, rapidly sinking faeces. Given the wide spatio-temporal extent of microbial trophic pathways in the Southern Ocean, large zooplankton that are omnivorous or able to ingest small food particles have a competitive advantage over herbivorous zooplankton. Krill efficiently transfer carbon to a wide array of apex predators and their faecal pellets are exported to depth during occasional brief sedimentation episodes in spring time. Salps may be a significant link towards some fish (directly) and other apex predators (indirectly) and, at some locations (especially in offshore waters) and time, they may account for most of the downward flux of biogenic carbon. Large copepods are a trophic link towards fish and at least one whale species, and their grazing activity generally impedes the export of organic particles to depth. As a result, biogenic carbon is channelled mainly towards apex predators and episodically into the deep ocean. Without these original interactions, Antarctic waters might well be dominated by microbial components and recycling processes instead of active export from the generally small primary producers towards large apex predators.

  11. Planet migration

    OpenAIRE

    Thommes, Edward W.; Lissauer, Jack J

    2002-01-01

    Planet migration is the process by which a planet's orbital radius changes in time. The main agent for causing gas giant planet migration is the gravitational interaction of the young planet with the gaseous disk from which it forms. We describe the migration rates resulting from these interactions based on a simple model for disk properties. These migration rates are higher than is reasonable for planet survival. We discuss some proposed models for which the migration rates are lower. There ...

  12. Zooplankton production, composition and diversity in the coastal waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; Padmavati, G.

    Spatial and temporal variability in zooplankton production, composition and diversity in the coastal waters of Goa were studied. Zooplankton production was bimodal with primary peak during September-October and secondary peak during March...

  13. A study on the zooplankton of the Burhabalanga Estuary, Orissa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, Neelam; Chatterji, A.; Madhupratap, M.

    Annual variations in the zooplankton biomass and composition during 1991-92 were studied from the inshore, mouth and upstream regions of the Burhabalanga Estuary located in the Orissa Coast (India). Zooplankton biomass was maximum at all...

  14. NODC Standard Format Marine Zooplankton (F124) Data (1965-1983) (NODC Accession 0014196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data type contains data from sampling and analysis of marine zooplankton. Information on zooplankton abundance, distribution and productivity derived from...

  15. Locomotor adaptations of some gelatinous zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Q

    1985-01-01

    Swimming behaviour and locomotor adaptations are described in chaetognaths, larvacean tunicates, some cnidaria, and thaliacean tunicates. The first two groups swim by oscillating a flattened tail, the others by jet propulsion. In chaetognaths, the locomotor muscle fibres are extensively coupled and relatively sparsely innervated, they exhibit compound spike-like potentials. The motoneurons controlling the rhythmic activity of the locomotor muscle lie in a ventral ganglion whose organization is briefly described. Rhythmic swimming bursts in larvaceans are similarly driven by a caudal ganglion near the base of the tail, but each caudal muscle cell is separately innervated by two sets of motor nerves, as well as being coupled to its neighbours. The external epithelium is excitable, and linked to the caudal ganglion by the axons of central cells. Mechanical stimulation of the epithelium evokes receptor potentials followed by action potentials and by bursts of rapid swimming. The trachyline medusa Aglantha and the small siphonophore Chelophyes also show rapid escape responses; in Aglantha these are driven by a specialized giant axon system lacking in other hydromedusae, and in Chelophyes. Slow swimming in Aglantha apparently involves a second nerve supply to the same muscle sheets used in rapid swimming, whereas in Chelophyes slow swimming results from the activity of the smaller posterior nectophore. Slow swimming in siphonophores is more economical than the rapid responses. In the hydrozoan medusa Polyorchis (as in Chelophyes) action potentials in the locomotor muscle sheet change in shape during swimming bursts, and their duration is related to the size of the medusa; they are not simply triggers of muscular contraction. The two groups of thaliacean tunicates are specialized differently. Doliolum is adapted for single rapid jet pulses (during which it achieves instantaneous velocities of 50 body lengths s-l), whilst salps are adapted for slow continuous swimming. The cost of locomotion is greater in Doliolum. Few gelatinous zooplankton show special adaptations both for rapid escape movements, and for slow sustained swimming, those that do deserve further study. PMID:2871635

  16. Microplastics Alter the Properties and Sinking Rates of Zooplankton Faecal Pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Penelope K; Fileman, Elaine; Clark, James; Lewis, Ceri; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S

    2016-03-15

    Plastic debris is a widespread contaminant, prevalent in aquatic ecosystems across the globe. Zooplankton readily ingest microscopic plastic (microplastic, biota. Following exposure to 20.6 μm polystyrene microplastics (1000 microplastics mL(-1)) and natural prey (∼1650 algae mL(-1)) the copepod Calanus helgolandicus egested faecal pellets with significantly (P < 0.001) reduced densities, a 2.25-fold reduction in sinking rates, and a higher propensity for fragmentation. We further show that microplastics, encapsulated within egests of the copepod Centropages typicus, could be transferred to C. helgolandicus via coprophagy. Our results support the proposal that sinking faecal matter represents a mechanism by which floating plastics can be vertically transported away from surface waters. PMID:26905979

  17. Irradiation effect on zooplankton eggs applied by bremsstrahlung induced from pulsed intense electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have considered an irradiation effect on zooplankton eggs applied by bremsstrahlung induced from pulsed intense electron beam. Zooplankton eggs about 200 have been successfully inactivated using a bremsstrahlung at 3 kGy. We found that 63.9% of zooplankton eggs are inactivated by bremsstrahlung irradiation. It was the increase of 30 points in comparisons with 33.3% of zooplankton eggs inactivated for non-irradiation case. (author)

  18. Global change effects on zooplankton body size : a range of experimental approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Garzke, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    It is a major challenge to understand the impacts of recent climate change on zooplankton communities. The impacts of global warming are manifold and multiple factors, which drive ecological changes in zooplankton communities have to be understood. Increasing sea surface temperature is likely to alter zooplankton phenology and community structure. Recent studies on the global scale showed a decline in size and productivity of zooplankton, which was related to climate change. Reorganization of...

  19. Body size and food size in freshwater zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, K G; Gilbert, J J

    1984-10-01

    We used double-label liquid scintillation techniques to measure the efficiencies with which eight different-sized zooplankton species ingested four cell types relative to a standard cell type (Chlamydomonas). Efficiency ratios (ERs: clearance rate on cell type X / clearance rate on Chlamydomonas) on the three ultraplankton (ultraphytoplankton (ER generally < 0.4), and ERs on Cryptomonas proportional to their body lengths (Bosmina, Diaptomus copepodites and adults); (iii) species having extremely low ERs on all ultraplankton (mean ER < 0.05) and ERs on Cryptomonas much higher than expected given their body lengths (Keratella crassa, Polyarthra, and Diaptomus nauplii). These functional groups follow neither taxonomic nor body-length groupings. We conclude that zooplankton body length may influence the maximal particle size a species can ingest but has little influence on the ingestion of smaller particles. Two frequently used models relating zooplankton body size and food size are unrealistic. PMID:16593521

  20. Zooplankton abundance and diversity in Lake Bracciano, Latium, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza G. MARGARITORA

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The zooplankton community structure in Lake Bracciano (Latium, Central Italy was studied in monthly surveys throughout an annual cycle (November 1998 – October 1999. The seasonal cycles and population dynamics of the dominant species are described and discussed. Copepods numerically dominated the community throughout the study period with calanoid Eudiaptomus padanus etruscosexsetosus making up the largest share of zooplankton density; moreover it accounted for the largest portion of total biovolume. Cladocerans represented a significant component of the zooplankton in the summer and autumn months. No substantial differences in regard to results of previous investigations (1971, 1972, 1984 were observed. The only differences for which there is evidence consist of the appearance of Filinia terminalis, never previously found in the lake, and the replacement of Keratella cochlearis instead of Kellicottia longispina as dominant species. However, the results of the comparison of the different investigations confirm that the trophic state of the pelagial region may be classified as oligo-mesotrophic.

  1. Marine snow, zooplankton and thin layers: indications of a trophic link from small-scale sampling with the Video Plankton Recorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Klas O.; St. John, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Marine aggregates of biogenic origin, known as marine snow, are considered to play a major role in the ocean’s particle flux and may represent a concentrated food source for zooplankton. However, observing the marine snow?zooplankton interaction in the field is difficult since conventional net sampling does not collect marine snow quantitatively and cannot resolve so-called thin layers in which this interaction occurs. Hence, field evidence for the importance of the marine snow?zooplankton link is scarce. Here we employed a Video Plankton Recorder (VPR) to quantify small-scale (metres) vertical distribution patterns of fragile marine snow aggregates and zooplankton in the Baltic Sea during late spring 2002. By using this non-invasive optical sampling technique we recorded a peak in copepod abundance (ca. 18 ind. l?1) associated with a pronounced thin layer (50 to 55 m) of marine snow (maximum abundance of 28 particles l?1), a feature rarely resolved. We provide indirect evidence of copepods feeding on marine snow by computing a spatial overlap index that indicated a strong positively correlated distribution pattern within the thin layer. Furthermore we recorded images of copepods attached to aggregates and demonstrating feeding behaviour, which also suggests a trophic interaction. Our observations highlight the potential significance of marine snow in marine ecosystems and its potential as a food resource for various trophic levels, from bacteria up to fish

  2. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M O; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agust?, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h(-1), five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h(-1)% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean. PMID:25309996

  3. VERMICOMPOST: QUALITY ORGANIC MANURE FOR ZOOPLANKTON PRODUCTION IN AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vermicompost on water quality parameters of fish pond and zooplankton production. No significant effect on the physico-chemical properties of pond water were observed though the zooplankton population was better with significant difference in rotifers population (68.38% comparing with cow dung treated pond. Application of vermicompost as an organic manure in fish pond is not only better but also safe than the raw cow dung. This is excellent manure for nursery and rearing pond as it has a potential to produce good rotifers population.

  4. Reaction of fresh water zooplankton community to chronic radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristic features of ecological community as a whole and cenosis of zooplankton organisms as part of it determine the intensity of the processes of self-purification of water and the formation of a particular body of water. Identifying features of the structure and composition of the zooplankton community of aquatic ecosystems exposed to different levels of radiation exposure, it is necessary to identify patterns of changes in zooplankton and hydro-biocenosis as a whole. Industrial reservoirs, the storage of liquid low-level radioactive waste 'Mayak' for decades, have high radiation load. A large range of levels of radioactive contamination (total volume beta-activity in water varies from 2.2x103 to 2.3x107 Bq/l, total volume alpha-activity - from 2.6x10-1 to 3.1x103 Bq/l) provides a unique opportunity to study ecosystems in a number of reservoirs with increasing impact of radiation factor. We studied five reservoirs that were used as the storage of low-and intermediate-level liquid radioactive waste pond and one comparison water body. In parallel with zooplankton sampling water samples were collected for hydro-chemical analysis. 41 indicators were analysed in order to assess the water chemistry. To determine the content of radionuclides in the various components of the ecosystem samples were collected from water, bottom sediments and plankton. Sampling of zooplankton for the quantitative analysis was performed using the method of weighted average auto bathometer. Apshteyn's plankton net of the surface horizon was used for qualitative analysis of the species composition of zooplankton. Software package ERICA Assessment Tool 2012 was used for the calculation of the absorbed dose rate. Species diversity and biomass of zooplankton, the share of rotifers in the number of species, abundance and biomass decrease with the increase of the absorbed dose rate and salinity. The number of species in a sample decreases with the increase of the absorbed dose according to the S-shaped function. 5 % reduction in species diversity corresponds to 1.1x102 mcGy/hr, 50 % reduction - 1.1x103 mcGy/hr. Margalef's index and Shannon's index were 5% lower at 9.1x102 mcGy/hr and 50% lower at 1.7x103 mcGy/hr, that points to simplified communication in the plankton community. Quantitative indicators of zooplankton are less sensitive to changes in the aquatic environment under study than indicators of species richness and the complexity of relationships in the community. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  5. THE VERTICAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Stephen L.; Spencer, Jeffrey B.

    1994-01-01

    'THE VERTICAL' computer keyboard is designed to address critical factors which contribute to Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMI) (including Carpal Tunnel Syndrome) in association with computer keyboard usage. This keyboard splits the standard QWERTY design into two halves and positions each half 90 degrees from the desk. In order to access a computer correctly. 'THE VERTICAL' requires users to position their bodies in optimal alignment with the keyboard. The orthopaedically neutral forearm position (with hands palms-in and thumbs-up) reduces nerve compression in the forearm. The vertically arranged keypad halves ameliorate onset occurrence of keyboard-associated RMI. By utilizing visually-reference mirrored mylar surfaces adjustable to the user's eye, the user is able to readily reference any key indicia (reversed) just as they would on a conventional keyboard. Transverse adjustability substantially reduces cumulative musculoskeletal discomfort in the shoulders. 'THE VERTICAL' eliminates the need for an exterior mouse by offering a convenient finger-accessible curser control while the hands remain in the vertically neutral position. The potential commercial application for 'THE VERTICAL' is enormous since the product can effect every person who uses a computer anywhere in the world. Employers and their insurance carriers are spending hundreds of millions of dollars per year as a result of RMI. This keyboard will reduce the risk.

  6. Climate Impacts on Zooplankton Population Dynamics in Coastal Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold P. Batchelder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The 20-year US GLOBEC (Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics program examined zooplankton populations and their predators in four coastal marine ecosystems. Program scientists learned that environmental controls on zooplankton vital rates, especially the timing and magnitude of reproduction, growth, life-cycle progression, and mortality, determine species population dynamics, seasonal and spatial distributions, and abundances. Improved knowledge of spatial-temporal abundance and distribution of individual zooplankton taxa coupled with new information linking higher trophic level predators (salmon, cod, haddock, penguins, seals to their prey yielded mechanistic descriptions of how climate variation impacts regionally important marine resources. Coupled ecological models driven by improved regional-scale climate scenario models developed during GLOBEC enable forecasts of plausible future conditions in coastal ecosystems, and will aid and inform decision makers and communities as they assess, respond, and adapt to the effects of environmental change. Multi-region synthesis revealed that conditions in winter, before upwelling, or seasonal stratification, or ice melt (depending on region had significant and important effects that primed the systems for greater zooplankton population abundance and productivity the following spring-summer, with effects that propagated to higher trophic levels.

  7. Coprophagy in copepods and in a natural zooplankton community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    Sediment trap studies have revealed that often only a minor fraction of the zooplankton fecal pellet production leave the upper ocean, and it has been suggested that copepod grazing on pellets (coprophagy) is the reason for this. A simple model is here used to estimate rate of coprophagy from lab...

  8. Zooplankton Diversity Of Dnyanganga Reservoir Near Khamgaon, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Kale

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available :Study on zooplankton diversity of Dnyanganga Reservoir in Botha forest of Buldana district was carried out during 2008-09. The zooplankton study reveals that the Copepods are major in occurrence, 3079 in number (32.28%; Cladocera are 2323(24.36%; Rotifers in 2976(31.20%; and Ostracods are 1158 in number (12.14%. The lake exhibited high magnitude in winter season and the low during summer. The less number of genera might be attributed to low nutrients in the reservoir which consequently resulted in less productivity or might be due to depletion of important factors such as dissolved oxygen and PH. The reduction in the number of species may also due to predation and variation in the pH of water which is always associated with the species composition of zooplankton inhibiting among them .In winter, it is biotic interaction operating through feeding pressure rather than water quality seems to affect the zooplankton diversity and density particularly the stocked fish species play an important role in harvesting species of copepoda and Cladocera, thereby reducing their predatory pressure on other groups. The Rotifera and particle feeder Cladocera were higher in winter and can be linked to favorable temperature and availability of abundant food in the form of bacteria, nanoplankton and suspended detritus matter .Total 26 types of genera were recorded which indicates variable nature of productivity the Dnyanganga Reservoir .

  9. Detecting response patterns of zooplankton to environmental parameters in shallow freshwater wetlands: discovery of the role of macrophytes as microhabitat for epiphytic zooplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yun Choi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater macrophytes improve the structural heterogeneity of microhabitats in water, often providing an important habitat for zooplankton. Some studies have focused on the overall influence of macrophytes on zooplankton, but the effects of macrophyte in relation to different habitat characteristics of zooplankton (e.g., epiphytic and pelagic have not been intensively studied. We hypothesized that different habitat structures (i.e., macrophyte habitat would strongly affect zooplankton distribution. We investigated zooplankton density and diversity, macrophyte characteristics (dry weight and species number, and environmental parameters in 40 shallow wetlands in South Korea. Patterns in the data were analyzed using a self-organizing map (SOM, which extracts information through competitive and adaptive properties. A total of 20 variables (11 environmental parameters and 9 zooplankton groups were patterned onto the SOM. Based on a U-matrix, 3 clusters were identified from the model. Zooplankton assemblages were positively related to macrophyte characteristics (i.e., dry weight and species number. In particular, epiphytic species (i.e., epiphytic rotifers and cladocerans exhibited a clear relationship with macrophyte characteristics, while large biomass and greater numbers of macrophyte species supported high zooplankton assemblages. Consequently, habitat heterogeneity in the macrophyte bed was recognized as an important factor to determine zooplankton distribution, particularly in epiphytic species. The results indicate that macrophytes are critical for heterogeneity in lentic freshwater ecosystems, and the inclusion of diverse plant species in wetland construction or restoration schemes is expected to generate ecologically healthy food webs.

  10. The ICES Working Group on Zooplankton Ecology: Accomplishments of the first 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Peter H.; Harris, Roger; Gislason, Astthor; Margonski, Piotr; Skjoldal, Hein Rune; Benfield, Mark; Hay, Steve; O'Brien, Todd; Valdés, Luis

    2016-02-01

    The ICES Study Group on Zooplankton Ecology was created in 1991 to address issues of current and future concern within the field of zooplankton ecology. Within three years it became the ICES Working Group on Zooplankton Ecology (ICES WGZE) and this unique group in the world's oceanographic community has now been active for 25 years. This article reviews and synthesizes the products, and major accomplishments of the group. Achievements of the group, including the Zooplankton Methodology Manual, the Zooplankton Status Reports, and the International Zooplankton Symposia, have had an important impact on the wider field. Among the future issues that remain to be addressed by the group are the assessment of exploratory fisheries on zooplankton and micronekton species; further development of the zooplankton time-series; compilation and integration of allometric relationships for zooplankton species, and evaluation of new methodologies for the study of zooplankton distribution, abundance, physiology, and genetics. Marine science is an increasingly global undertaking and groups such as the ICES WGZE will continue to be essential to the advancement of understanding of zooplankton community structure and population dynamics in the world's oceans.

  11. Impacts of ontogenetically migrating copepods on downward carbon flux in the western subarctic Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobari, Toru; Steinberg, Deborah K.; Ueda, Ai; Tsuda, Atsushi; Silver, Mary W.; Kitamura, Minoru

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the impacts of ontogenetically (seasonally) migrating copepods on carbon transport to the mesopelagic zone, we investigated depth distribution, population structure, and feeding activity of the ontogentic copepod community in the western subarctic Pacific Ocean from day-night pairs of zooplankton samples down to 1000 m during the VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean (VERTIGO) program. Over the 31 July-16 August 2005 study period, the biomass of Neocalanus cristatus and Neocalanus plumchrus predominated in the near surface waters, while Neocalanus flemingeri was already dormant at depth. We observed a strong diel migration for Metridia pacifica, and a seasonal downward migration for Eucalanus bungii. Based on gut pigment analysis, ingestion rate of the copepod community was 214-375 mg C m -2 day -1, which was equal to 26-37% of the concurrent primary production. However, comparison of grazing estimated from gut pigments to calculated carbon demand of the copepod community indicates that phytoplankton comprised 37-59% of the ingested carbon. Thus, the copepod community appears to have also relied on detritus and microzooplankton for their nutrition, likely because primary production during this time was dominated by picophytoplankton too small to be grazed by these large copepods. Fecal pellet flux by the copepod community was estimated to account for 141-223% of the sedimentary particulate organic carbon (POC) flux at 150 m, suggesting considerable fragmentation and consumption of pellets in the upper layers. Fecal pellets alone were adequate to meet copepod carbon demand in the surface 0-150 m layer. Active carbon flux by diel migration of M. pacifica (respiration, egestion, and mortality) was 4-17 mg C m -2 day -1, equal to 6-44% of sedimentary POC flux at 150 m. Active carbon flux by N. flemingeri ontogenetic migration (i.e., respiration and mortality at depth) contributed 246 mg C m -2 year -1, equal to 9% of sedimentary POC flux at 1000 m. The imminent downward migration of N. cristatus and N. plumchrus would lead to an additional ontogenetic carbon flux on the order of 1719 mg C m -2 year -1. Copepod fecal pellet transport and active transport by diel and ontogenetic migration are thus important carbon fluxes during a season dominated by small phytoplankton, and ontogenetic migrants in the subarctic Pacific Ocean play a relatively more important role in active carbon flux compared with other open-ocean regions.

  12. Changes in fecal pellet characteristics with depth as indicators of zooplankton repackaging of particles in the mesopelagic zone of the subtropical and subarctic North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephanie E.; Steinberg, Deborah K.; Buesseler, Ken O.

    2008-07-01

    We investigated how fecal pellet characteristics change with depth in order to quantify the extent of particle repackaging by mesopelagic zooplankton in two contrasting open-ocean systems. Material from neutrally buoyant sediment traps deployed in the summer of 2004 and 2005 at 150, 300, and 500 m was analyzed from both a mesotrophic (Japanese time-series station K2) and an oligotrophic (Hawaii Ocean Time series—HOT station ALOHA) environment in the Pacific Ocean as part of the VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean (VERTIGO) project. We quantified changes in the flux, size, shape, and color of particles recognizable as zooplankton fecal pellets to determine how these parameters varied with depth and location. Flux of K2 fecal pellet particulate organic carbon (POC) at 150 and 300 m was four to five times higher than at ALOHA, and at all depths, fecal pellets were two to five times larger at K2, reflective of the disparate zooplankton community structure at the two sites. At K2, the proportion of POC flux that consisted of fecal pellets generally decreased with depth from 20% at 150 m to 5% at 500 m, whereas at ALOHA this proportion increased with depth (and was more variable) from 14% to 35%. This difference in the fecal fraction of POC with increasing depth is hypothesized to be due to differences in the extent of zooplankton-mediated fragmentation (coprohexy) and in zooplankton community structure between the two locations. Both regions provided indications of sinking particle repackaging and zooplankton carnivory in the mesopelagic. At ALOHA, this was reflected in a significant increase in the mean flux of larvacean fecal pellets from 150 to 500 m of 3-46 ?g C m -2 d -1, respectively, and at K2 a large peak in larvacean mean pellet flux at 300 m of 3.1 mg C m -2 d -1. Peaks in red pellets produced by carnivores occurred at 300 m at K2, and a variety of other fecal pellet classes showed significant changes in their distribution with depth. There was also evidence of substantially higher pellet fragmentation at K2 with nearly double the ratio of broken:intact pellets at 150 and 300 m (mean of 67% and 64%, respectively) than at ALOHA where the proportion of broken pellets remained constant with depth (mean 35%). Variations in zooplankton size and community structure within the mesopelagic zone can thus differentially alter the transfer efficiency of sinking POC.

  13. Covariability of zooplankton gradients with glider-detected density fronts in the Southern California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jesse R.; Ohman, Mark D.

    2015-02-01

    Fronts represent sharp boundaries between water masses, but seasonal and interannual variation in their occurrence and effects on the distributions of pelagic organisms are poorly understood. This study reports results from six years of ocean front observations (2006-2011) along two transect lines across the Southern California Current System (SCCS) using autonomous Spray ocean gliders. During this time, 154 positive near-surface density fronts were identified within 124 completed transects consisting of nearly 23,000 vertical profiles. The incidence of surface density fronts showed distinct seasonality along line 80 off Pt. Conception, with fewer fronts occurring during winter months and more numerous fronts in the nearshore and during spring, summer and fall. On line 90, fronts were the least common nearshore and most frequent in a transitional region offshore. Horizontal density gradients in the surface layer (0-50 m) were significantly correlated with horizontal gradients in surface layer Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) fluorescence, as well as with mean volume backscatter (MVBS) recorded by a 750 kHz acoustic Doppler profiler. Density fronts were not only zones of rapidly changing phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass concentrations, but also more likely to be zones of enhanced acoustic backscatter and Chl-a fluorescence than regions flanking the fronts. MVBS and Chl-a gradients were significantly correlated with gradients in other hydrographic variables such as temperature, salinity, and spiciness, and weakly with cross-track current velocity, though density gradients remained the single best predictor of strong MVBS and fluorescence gradients. Large mobile predators foraging in the vicinity of such features could locate habitat with higher zooplankton biomass concentrations up to 85% of the time by traveling up local density gradients (i.e., toward rather than away from denser surface waters). We discuss implications of these results in the context of long-term trends in ocean fronts in the SCCS.

  14. The Effect of Radial Migration on Galactic Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Ciro, Carlos; D'Onghia, Elena; Navarro, Julio; Abadi, Mario

    2014-10-01

    We study the radial migration of stars driven by recurring multi-arm spiral features in an exponential disk embedded in a dark matter halo. The spiral perturbations redistribute angular momentum within the disk and lead to substantial radial displacements of individual stars, in a manner that largely preserves the circularity of their orbits and that results, after 5 Gyr (~40 full rotations at the disk scale length), in little radial heating and no appreciable changes to the vertical or radial structure of the disk. Our results clarify a number of issues related to the spatial distribution and kinematics of migrators. In particular, we find that migrators are a heavily biased subset of stars with preferentially low vertical velocity dispersions. This "provenance bias" for migrators is not surprising in hindsight, for stars with small vertical excursions spend more time near the disk plane, and thus respond more readily to non-axisymmetric perturbations. We also find that the vertical velocity dispersion of outward migrators always decreases, whereas the opposite holds for inward migrators. To first order, newly arrived migrators simply replace stars that have migrated off to other radii, thus inheriting the vertical bias of the latter. Extreme migrators might therefore be recognized, if present, by the unexpectedly small amplitude of their vertical excursions. Our results show that migration, understood as changes in angular momentum that preserve circularity, can strongly affect the thin disk, but cast doubts on models that envision the Galactic thick disk as a relic of radial migration.

  15. The effect of radial migration on galactic disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera-Ciro, Carlos; D' Onghia, Elena [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 2535 Sterling Hall, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53076 (United States); Navarro, Julio [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada); Abadi, Mario, E-mail: ciro@astro.wisc.edu [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba X5000BGR (Argentina)

    2014-10-20

    We study the radial migration of stars driven by recurring multi-arm spiral features in an exponential disk embedded in a dark matter halo. The spiral perturbations redistribute angular momentum within the disk and lead to substantial radial displacements of individual stars, in a manner that largely preserves the circularity of their orbits and that results, after 5 Gyr (?40 full rotations at the disk scale length), in little radial heating and no appreciable changes to the vertical or radial structure of the disk. Our results clarify a number of issues related to the spatial distribution and kinematics of migrators. In particular, we find that migrators are a heavily biased subset of stars with preferentially low vertical velocity dispersions. This 'provenance bias' for migrators is not surprising in hindsight, for stars with small vertical excursions spend more time near the disk plane, and thus respond more readily to non-axisymmetric perturbations. We also find that the vertical velocity dispersion of outward migrators always decreases, whereas the opposite holds for inward migrators. To first order, newly arrived migrators simply replace stars that have migrated off to other radii, thus inheriting the vertical bias of the latter. Extreme migrators might therefore be recognized, if present, by the unexpectedly small amplitude of their vertical excursions. Our results show that migration, understood as changes in angular momentum that preserve circularity, can strongly affect the thin disk, but cast doubts on models that envision the Galactic thick disk as a relic of radial migration.

  16. The effect of radial migration on galactic disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the radial migration of stars driven by recurring multi-arm spiral features in an exponential disk embedded in a dark matter halo. The spiral perturbations redistribute angular momentum within the disk and lead to substantial radial displacements of individual stars, in a manner that largely preserves the circularity of their orbits and that results, after 5 Gyr (?40 full rotations at the disk scale length), in little radial heating and no appreciable changes to the vertical or radial structure of the disk. Our results clarify a number of issues related to the spatial distribution and kinematics of migrators. In particular, we find that migrators are a heavily biased subset of stars with preferentially low vertical velocity dispersions. This 'provenance bias' for migrators is not surprising in hindsight, for stars with small vertical excursions spend more time near the disk plane, and thus respond more readily to non-axisymmetric perturbations. We also find that the vertical velocity dispersion of outward migrators always decreases, whereas the opposite holds for inward migrators. To first order, newly arrived migrators simply replace stars that have migrated off to other radii, thus inheriting the vertical bias of the latter. Extreme migrators might therefore be recognized, if present, by the unexpectedly small amplitude of their vertical excursions. Our results show that migration, understood as changes in angular momentum that preserve circularity, can strongly affect the thin disk, but cast doubts on models that envision the Galactic thick disk as a relic of radial migration.

  17. Dynamics of radiation situation on the territory of Belarus and migration of radionuclides in different types of soils after Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vertical migration of radionuclides Cs, Sr and Pu in soils (in upper 5 cm) of Belarus is given. Influence of genetic parameters of soil for vertical migration of radionuclides is introduced. The main factor of the velocity for radionuclides migration is super humidity. A forecast of vertical migration of radionuclides is made for the year 2016. (author)

  18. Resurrecting the ghost of competition past with dormant zooplankton eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Christopher F; Cáceres, Carla E; Smith, Sigrid D P

    2007-03-01

    A common prediction of evolutionary theory is that the strength of interspecific competition should decline over time among sympatric populations of competing species. Here we provide experimental evidence of historical declines in competition effects among competing zooplankton populations. Using diapausing eggs, we resurrected clones of three species of zooplankton obtained from different periods of community assembly in a single lake. We show that clones of Daphnia ambigua obtained from early in assembly when D. ambigua was dominant became extinct in competition with clones of Daphnia pulicaria and Daphnia dentifera (the current lake dominants). In contrast, D. ambigua clones obtained from later in the lake's history experienced weaker competition effects and persisted with D. dentifera. While we cannot rule out the role of intraspecific competition within D. ambigua, our results are in line with the view that natural selection favors reduced interaction strength among co-occurring species, facilitating coexistence and population persistence. PMID:17238127

  19. Ecological considerations on the lake Bolonha zooplankton, Belém, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Filipe Alves Correia de Melo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton population of the lake Bolonha were sampled in three stations in September of 1993. The objective was to determine the basic characteristics of the populations, as the composition and density of species, besides some environmental parameters. Fifty six species were determined, thirty of them were of Rotifera, nineteen Cladocera and seven Copepoda. Among Rotifera, the most frequent organisms were Brachionus zahniseri gessneri, Polyarthra vulgaris and Tricocerca similis, while enter Cladocera, Bosminopsis deitersi and Bosmina hagmanni were the most important in density terms. For Copepoda, the nauplii and copepodits they were the ones that presented the largerst densities, but Oithona amazonica and Notodiaptomus amazonicus deserve to be registered for they have also presented a great density. The lake Bolonha came with a great diversity of zooplanktonic organisms, needing, meantime of more intensive studies, because that number in biodiversity terms should increase considerable.

  20. Coprophagy in copepods and in a natural zooplankton community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; KiØrboe, Thomas

    Sediment trap studies have revealed that often only a minor fraction of the zooplankton fecal pellet production leave the upper ocean, and it has been suggested that copepod grazing on pellets (coprophagy) is the reason for this. A simple model is here used to estimate rate of coprophagy from lab and field observations. In the lab Acartia tonsa and Temora longicornis have coprophagous behavior and clear fecal pellets at a rate of 10-15 ml/female/d. Observations of fecal pellet production, sedimentation, and abundance collected during a 10-d late summer study in the North Sea revealed that less than 5 % of the fecal pellet production in the upper 50 m was lost as flux below 50 m depth. Estimates of coprophagy rates showed, however, that the zooplankton community > 200 um could account for only a few percent of the fecal pellet loss. Thus, plankton organisms < 200 ?m must be responsible for the degradation of the fecal pellets

  1. Reaction of fresh water zooplankton community to chronic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, D.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I. [FSUE Mayak PA (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The characteristic features of ecological community as a whole and cenosis of zooplankton organisms as part of it determine the intensity of the processes of self-purification of water and the formation of a particular body of water. Identifying features of the structure and composition of the zooplankton community of aquatic ecosystems exposed to different levels of radiation exposure, it is necessary to identify patterns of changes in zooplankton and hydro-biocenosis as a whole. Industrial reservoirs, the storage of liquid low-level radioactive waste 'Mayak' for decades, have high radiation load. A large range of levels of radioactive contamination (total volume beta-activity in water varies from 2.2x10{sup 3} to 2.3x10{sup 7} Bq/l, total volume alpha-activity - from 2.6x10{sup -1} to 3.1x10{sup 3} Bq/l) provides a unique opportunity to study ecosystems in a number of reservoirs with increasing impact of radiation factor. We studied five reservoirs that were used as the storage of low-and intermediate-level liquid radioactive waste pond and one comparison water body. In parallel with zooplankton sampling water samples were collected for hydro-chemical analysis. 41 indicators were analysed in order to assess the water chemistry. To determine the content of radionuclides in the various components of the ecosystem samples were collected from water, bottom sediments and plankton. Sampling of zooplankton for the quantitative analysis was performed using the method of weighted average auto bathometer. Apshteyn's plankton net of the surface horizon was used for qualitative analysis of the species composition of zooplankton. Software package ERICA Assessment Tool 2012 was used for the calculation of the absorbed dose rate. Species diversity and biomass of zooplankton, the share of rotifers in the number of species, abundance and biomass decrease with the increase of the absorbed dose rate and salinity. The number of species in a sample decreases with the increase of the absorbed dose according to the S-shaped function. 5 % reduction in species diversity corresponds to 1.1x10{sup 2} mcGy/hr, 50 % reduction - 1.1x10{sup 3} mcGy/hr. Margalef's index and Shannon's index were 5% lower at 9.1x10{sup 2} mcGy/hr and 50% lower at 1.7x10{sup 3} mcGy/hr, that points to simplified communication in the plankton community. Quantitative indicators of zooplankton are less sensitive to changes in the aquatic environment under study than indicators of species richness and the complexity of relationships in the community. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  2. Estimation of zooplankton mortality caused by an Arctic glacier outflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek J. Zaj±czkowski

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The outflow of freshwater from underwater channels in the Kongsbreen tidal glacier in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, 79oN, was measured as 138.8 m3 s-1 at the peak of the melting season. Experiments on local marine plankton mortality show that when exposed to salinities below 9 PSU, all copepods die within 15 minutes. We estimate that during 100 days of the melting season, as many as 85 tonnes wet weight (WW of plankton is removed from the water column due to osmotic shock, which makes up 15% of the standing zooplankton biomass of the fjord. The dead zooplankton sinks after exposure to low salinities and is probably an important food source for scavenging benthic fauna in the fjord. This mechanism could be responsible for the high numbers of Onisimus caricus near the glacier front.

  3. Zooplankton as Potential Indicators of Biotic Condition in Large Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, K. A.; Havel, J. E.; Jack, J. D.

    2005-05-01

    As part of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, we are examining zooplankton diversity and abundance in three large rivers (Missouri, Ohio, and upper Mississippi). These rivers are particularly interesting because of large differences in their hydrologic patterns, resulting primarily from their different management strategies. Preliminary data from summer 2004 surveys of the Missouri and Ohio rivers reveals high taxonomic diversity of rotifers (32 genera), cladocerans (22 species), and copepods. Rotifers are numerically dominant in all river samples except in the late summer Ohio River samples, where they are occasionally co-dominant with calanoid copepods. Using multivariate analyses, we will present a comparison of zooplankton diversity between rivers, among sites within rivers, and correspondence with 35 physico-chemical properties of the river. These data will be used to develop bioindicators of the current condition of each river in order to support conservation and restoration decisions by management agencies.

  4. Fatty acid transformation in zooplankton: from seston to benthos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiselius, Peter; Hansen, Benni Winding; Calliari, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    All organic matter, fatty acids (FA) in particular, is transformed in the pelagic plankton food web before reaching fishes or benthic organisms. Mesozooplankton (0.2 to 2 mm) is the main conduit for FA transfer, and FA profiles in sedimenting matter should therefore be significantly affected by its activity. To test this hypothesis, we sampled seston, zooplankton and sediment trap material for FA analysis during 5 campaigns spanning 4 seasons at a coastal site on the west coast of Sweden. Satura...

  5. Zooplankton fecal pellets link fossil fuel and phosphate deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, K.G.; Robbins, E.I.

    1981-01-01

    Fossil zooplankton fecal pellets found in thinly bedded marine and lacustrine black shales associated with phosphate, oil, and coal deposits, link the deposition of organic matter and biologically associated minerals with planktonic ecosystems. The black shales were probably formed in the anoxic basins of coastal marine waters, inland seas, and rift valley lakes where high productivity was supported by runoff, upwelling, and outwelling. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  6. Flow disturbances generated by feeding and swimming zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KiØrboe, Thomas; Jiang, Haisong

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between planktonic organisms, such as detection of prey, predators, and mates, are often mediated by fluid signals. Consequently, many plankton predators perceive their prey from the fluid disturbances that it generates when it feeds and swims. Zooplankton should therefore seek to minimize the fluid disturbance that they produce. By means of particle image velocimetry, we describe the fluid disturbances produced by feeding and swimming in zooplankton with diverse propulsion mechanisms and ranging from 10-µm flagellates to greater than millimeter-sized copepods. We show that zooplankton, in which feeding and swimming are separate processes, produce flow disturbances during swimming with a much faster spatial attenuation (velocity u varies with distance r as u ? r?3 to r?4) than that produced by zooplankton for which feeding and propulsion are the same process (u ? r?1 to r?2). As a result, the spatial extension of the fluid disturbance produced by swimmers is an order of magnitude smaller than that produced by feeders at similar Reynolds numbers. The “quiet” propulsion of swimmers is achieved either through swimming erratically by short-lasting power strokes, generating viscous vortex rings, or by “breast-stroke swimming.” Both produce rapidly attenuating flows. The more “noisy” swimming of those that are constrained by a need to simultaneously feed is due to constantly beating flagella or appendages that are positioned either anteriorly or posteriorly on the (cell) body. These patterns transcend differences in size and taxonomy and have thus evolved multiple times, suggesting a strong selective pressure to minimize predation risk.

  7. Midsummer crustacean zooplankton communities in acid-stressed lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprules, W.G.

    1975-01-01

    The distribution of limnetic crustacean zooplankton species and species associations in 47 industrially acidified lakes of the La Cloche Mountains, Ontario, are examined. PH, which ranged from 3.8 to 7.0, and to a lesser extent lake area and depth are the major determinants of the structure of these communities. Mesocyclops edax, Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi, Diaptomus minutus, Holopedium gibberum, Diaphanosoma leuchtenbergianum, and Bosmina sp. were common species which occurred over the entire pH range. Tropocyclops prasinus mexicanus, Epischura lacustris, Diaptomus oregonensis, Leptodora kindtii, Daphnia galeata mendotae, D. retrocurva, D. ambigua, and D. longiremis plus some other rare species making a total of 64% of all species found never or rarely occurred below pH 5.0. Polyphemus pediculus, Daphnia catawba, and D. pulicaria were found primarily in lakes with low pH. An increase in the complexity of the zooplankton communities with increasing pH was evident. Above pH 5.0 the communities contained 9-16 species with three or four dominant species; in lakes with pH 5.0 or less the communities comprised one to seven species with only one or two dominants. Compared with relatively unspoiled lakes of similar morphometry in northwestern Ontario (Ela Lakes) the La Cloche Lakes have unusually simple zooplankton associations, particularly the very acidic lakes. In the La Cloche Lakes the group of six species occurred most frequently in lakes with pH above 5.0 although it maintained its integrity even down to pH 5.0. It is concluded that pH has a great effect on these zooplankton communities, primarily in lakes with pH below 5.0 where many species are completely eliminated and even tolerant species become progressively rarer until in some lakes a single species (D. minutus) remains.

  8. Ingestion of Microplastics by Zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Galbraith, Moira; Ross, Peter S

    2015-10-01

    Microplastics are increasingly recognized as being widespread in the world's oceans, but relatively little is known about ingestion by marine biota. In light of the potential for microplastic fibers and fragments to be taken up by small marine organisms, we examined plastic ingestion by two foundation species near the base of North Pacific marine food webs, the calanoid copepod Neocalanus cristatus and the euphausiid Euphausia pacifia. We developed an acid digestion method to assess plastic ingestion by individual zooplankton and detected microplastics in both species. Encounter rates resulting from ingestion were 1 particle/every 34 copepods and 1/every 17 euphausiids (euphausiids > copepods; p = 0.01). Consistent with differences in the size selection of food between these two zooplankton species, the ingested particle size was greater in euphausiids (816 ± 108 ?m) than in copepods (556 ± 149 ?m) (p = 0.014). The contribution of ingested microplastic fibres to total plastic decreased with distance from shore in euphausiids (r (2) = 70, p = 0.003), corresponding to patterns in our previous observations of microplastics in seawater samples from the same locations. This first evidence of microplastic ingestion by marine zooplankton indicate that species at lower trophic levels of the marine food web are mistaking plastic for food, which raises fundamental questions about potential risks to higher trophic level species. One concern is risk to salmon: We estimate that consumption of microplastic-containing zooplankton will lead to the ingestion of 2-7 microplastic particles/day by individual juvenile salmon in coastal British Columbia, and ?91 microplastic particles/day in returning adults. PMID:26066061

  9. Considerations on the biochemical composition of some freshwater zooplankton species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta RICCARDI

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The mean elemental (C, H, N and biochemical composition (lipids, carbohydrates and proteins of some abundant crustacean zooplankton species of Italian insubric lakes has been estimated by the analysis of samples collected at different seasons from various environments (Lake Maggiore, Lake Varese, Lake Comabbio, Lake Monate. From each sample an adequate number of specimens of each abundant species was sorted and analyzed by a CHN elemental analyzer. The percentage of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins and the calorific content were calculated from the elemental composition according to Gnaiger & Bitterlich (1984. Inter- and intraspecific variability of biochemical composition was quite high, while elemental composition and calorific content were less variable. An estimate of the mean elemental and biochemical composition of each species was obtained by pooling the data. These mean values have been used to estimate the pools of elements and compounds in the crustacean zooplankton of Lake Comabbio to provide an example of the importance of a multiple approach in zooplankton studies.

  10. Specificity of zooplankton distribution in meteorite crater ponds (Morasko, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuczy?ska-Kippen N.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to define the most important factors responsible for the zooplankton community structure inhabiting four meteorite crater ponds, located near the city of Pozna? (Poland. The functioning of the meteorite craters resembled that of other small water bodies, where seasonality, physical-chemical features (mainly chlorophyll a concentration, pH and conductivity or biological parameters (lack of fish structured zooplankton assemblages. Rotifer species richness and abundance were highest in the autumn (12 species and 5107 ind L-1 on average, while crustaceans prevailed in the summer (12 and 201, respectively. The dominating structure also depended on the season, with pelagic species occurring in the spring and autumn and mainly littoral species in the summer. Moreover, the temporary nature of the craters caused great differentiation in zooplankton among ponds and favoured organisms adapted to living in astatic reservoirs, e.g. bdelloids, Daphnia pulex or Macrocyclops viridis. The co-occurrence of a variable community of small crustaceans with large daphnids indicated the existence of an additional ecological niche – a thick layer of sediments. Despite the occurrence of adverse living conditions (oxygen deficiencies and periodic drying and the eutrophic character of the waters, these ponds were a source of many rare species (e.g. Keratella paludosa, even in the status of dominants. Protective measures (a nature reserve allowed the area of meteorite fall to remain quite natural, despite its location close to an urban area.

  11. Studies on the zooplankton of the deep subalpine Lake Garda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi NASELLI-FLORES

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The specific composition and seasonal dynamics of the zooplankton of Lake Garda have been studied through monthly surveys in two annual cycles (December 1994-November 1995 and January-December 1997. The assemblage is largely dominated by Copipodiaptomus steueri, a typical calanoid presently identified in deep (Garda, Iseo and shallow lakes of NE Italy and in the hinterland of the central Adriatic region (Dalmatia and Marche Region. Cladocerans and the smaller rotifers represent a significant component of the zooplankton from spring to autumn. A re-examination of the results obtained in previous studies does not seem to demonstrate substantial shifts in the composition of the dominant species. The only documentable and consolidated differences are constituted by the disappearance of Sida crystallina since the '50s and the appearance of new rotifers since the '70s and the '80s. It is stressed that, owing to the fragmentation of the available studies and the use of different methodologies, the qualitative and quantitative modifications of the zooplankton should be interpreted with special caution, requiring further in-depth and continuous monitoring for the meaning they could have as possible signs of modifications of the trophic structure of the lake. However, the results of the comparison of the different investigations do not seem to contrast with the substantial stability of the oligo-mesotrophic character of the lake formally documented since the '70s.

  12. Importance of zooplankton in the diets of Tinca tinca (L., from Danube Delta shallow lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUDOR Mihaela

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated to examine the role of zooplankton in the diet of Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758 fish species and evaluate zooplankton’s spatial and temporal distribution from Danube Delta shallow lakes in June 2007 (e.g., Cuibul cu Lebede, Uzlina, Isac, Furtuna, Nebunu, Merhei, Miazazi, Rosu, Rosulet. Fish predationappears to be the ultimate factor governing the presence or absence of certain crustaceans zooplankton species. The habitat preferred by the tench is characteristically sheltered and shallow with abundant vegetation. It is now widely accepted that predation plays a critical role in determinig zooplankton community structure in shallow lakes. Food quality may be more important than food quantity with respect to both growth and reproduction in animal population. Ecological limitation studies performed on primary consumers, proved the importance zooplankton population [5].

  13. Vertical distribution of phytoplankton functional groups in a tropical shallow lake: driving forces on a diel scale / Distribuição vertical de grupos funcionais fitoplanctônicos em um lago tropical raso: forças direcionadoras em escala nictemeral

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Gomes, Barbosa; Paulina Maria Maia, Barbosa; Francisco Antonio Rodrigues, Barbosa.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição vertical dos grupos funcionais fitoplanctônicos em dois ciclos nictemerais em um lago tropical monomítico raso; MÉTODOS: As amostragens das variáveis abióticas, comunidades fitoplanctônica e zooplanctônica foram realizadas a intervalos de 3 horas ao longo de 24 hora [...] s em perfis verticais, nos períodos de estratificação (fevereiro) e de circulação (julho); RESULTADOS: A elevada estabilidade térmica e a atelomixia parcial favoreceram a coexistência de grupos funcionais sensíveis a desestratificação N A e F, compostos por desmidias e clorofícias cocoides e pelos grupos S2 e Lo, persistentes durante a circulação, e compostos por cianobactérias filamentosas não fixadoras de N2 e dinoflagelados, respectivamente. A descontinuidade na distribuição vertical dos grupos funcionais com dominância de N A e F no epilímnio e de R e Lo no metalímnio e hipolímnio foi característica da estratificação, e diferenças entre períodos diurno e noturno não foram significativas. CONCLUSÕES: A redução em até 80% da biomassa do grupo NA durante a circulação indica a influência da estabilidade térmica e atelomixia parcial como fatores determinantes na compartimentalização dos grupos funcionais, restringindo a migração vertical diurna (MVD) e a perda por sedimentação durante a estratificação. Abstract in english AIM: This study analyzed the vertical distribution of phytoplankton functional groups in two diel cycles in a warm monomictic shallow tropical lake; METHODS: Sampling of the abiotic variables, phytoplankton and zooplankton communities was performed at intervals of 3 hours over 24 hours in vertical p [...] rofiles, in the stratification (February) and circulation (July) periods; RESULTS: The high thermal stability and the partial atelomixis favored the coexistence of functional groups that are sensitive to destratification, N A and F, composed by desmids and Chlorophyceae coccoids, and groups S2 and Lo, which persisted during the circulation, and were composed by filamentous cyanobacteria which do not fix N2 and dinoflagellates, respectively. The discontinuity in the vertical distribution of the functional groups, with dominance of N A and F in the epilimnion and R and Lo in the metalimnion and hypolimnion, was characteristic of the stratification, and differences between the daytime and nighttime periods were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction of 80% of the biomass of the NA group during the mixing period indicates the influence of thermal stability and partial atelomixis as determinant factors in the compartmentalization of functional groups, restricting daytime vertical migration (DVM) and loss by sedimentation during the stratification period.

  14. Towards methodological approaches to implement the zooplankton component in “end to end” food-web models

    OpenAIRE

    Carlotti, F.; Poggiale, JC

    2009-01-01

    The modelling of marine zooplankton has made great progress over the two last decades covering a large range of representations from detailed individual processes to functional groups. A new challenge is to dynamically represent zooplankton within marine food webs coupling lower trophic levels to fish and to thereby further our understanding of the role of zooplankton in global change. In this respect, the “rhomboid strategy” (deYoung et al., 2004) has been suggested as a generic approach to ...

  15. Aspects of the ecology of the crustacean zooplankton in the Sanyati Basin, Lake Kariba

    OpenAIRE

    B.E. Marshall

    1980-01-01

    Investigations on the zooplankton in Lake Kariba were carried out as part of a broader programme investigating components of the sardine, Limnothrissa miodon, food chain and factors affecting their productivity. This report deals mainly with the crustacean zooplankton, Bosmina longirostris and Mesocyclops leuckarti, which are the most important species in the sardine's diet. Factors which influence the number and distribution of the zooplankton are discussed. The relationship between the zoop...

  16. Natural and cultivated zooplankton as food for halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Naas, Kjell Emil; Berg, Leif; Klungsøyr, Jarle; Pittman, Karin

    1987-01-01

    Natural zooplankton were pumped into a collector and size-fractionated. The zooplankton smaller than 350 ym were fed on a diatom dominated algal suspension cultured in 3 m deep out-door plastic bags. Halibut larvae were kept through the yolk sac stages in large temperature regulated bags, and when ready to start first feeding, they were offered both cultivated and natural zooplankton. The composition of fatty acids in growing larvae were analyzed to study the influence of dietary lipids.

  17. A global analysis of zooplankton in natural and artificial fresh waters

    OpenAIRE

    Faye L. Merrix-Jones; Stephen J. Ormerod; Stephen J. Thackeray

    2013-01-01

    Water-body size and location influence zooplankton diversity in freshwaters, but less is known about systematic variations in zooplankton community composition between natural and artificial waters on different continents. We used meta-analysis to assess how zooplankton in artificial water bodies across different biomes might differ from natural water bodies of similar size. Among 79 lakes, ponds and reservoirs (11 artificial and 68 natural), proximity to other water bodies apparently increas...

  18. STUDIES ON ZOOPLANKTONS OF GODADA LAKE OF BULDHANA DISTRICT, (M. S.) INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Meena T. Nikam

    2012-01-01

    The plankton constitutes the basic food sources of any aquatic ecosystem, which supports fish and other aquatic animals. Zooplankton diversity is one of the most important ecological parameters in water quality assessment. Zooplanktons are good indicators of the changes in water quality because they are strongly affected by environmental conditions & respond quickly to changes in water quality. Zooplankton is the intermediate link between phytoplankton and fish. Hence qualitative a...

  19. Material properties of zooplankton and nekton from the California current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kaylyn

    This study measured the material properties of zooplankton, Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas), and two species of myctophids (Symbolophorus californiensis and Diaphus theta) collected from the California Current ecosystem. The density contrast (g) was measured for euphausiids, decapods (Sergestes similis), amphipods (Primno macropa, Phronima sp., and Hyperiid spp.), siphonophore bracts, chaetognaths, larval fish, crab megalopae, larval squid, and medusae. Morphometric data (length, width, and height) were collected for these taxa. Density contrasts varied within and between zooplankton taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid density contrast were 1.059 +/- 0.009. Relationships between zooplankton density contrast and morphometric measurements, geographic location, and environmental conditions were investigated. Site had a significant effect on euphausiid density contrast. Density contrasts of euphausiids collected in the same geographic area approximately 4-10 days apart were significantly higher (p < 0.001). Sound speed contrast (h) was measured for euphausiids and pelagic decapods (S. similis) and it varied between taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid sound speed were 1.019 +/- 0.009. Euphausiid mass was calculated from density measurements and volume, and a relationship between euphausiid mass and length was produced. We determined that euphausiid from volumes could be accurately estimated two dimensional measurements of animal body shape, and that biomass (or biovolume) could be accurately calculated from digital photographs of animals. Density contrast (g) was measured for zooplankton, pieces of hake flesh, myctophid flesh, and of the following Humboldt squid body parts: mantle, arms, tentacle, braincase, eyes, pen, and beak. The density contrasts varied within and between fish taxa, as well as among squid body parts. Effects of animal length and environmental conditions on nekton density contrast were investigated. The sound speed contrast (h) was measured for Pacific hake flesh, myctophid flesh, Humboldt squid mantle, and Humboldt squid braincase. Sound speed varied within and between nekton taxa. The material properties reported in this study can be used to improve target strength estimates from acoustic scattering models which would increase the accuracy of biomass estimates from acoustic surveys for these zooplankton and nekton.

  20. Phytoplanktons and zooplanktons diversity in karachi coastal seawater under high and low tide during winter monsoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper represents the population density of phytoplanktons and zooplanktons recorded during the marine environmental studies at Karachi coast in the month of February 2011. Samples were collected by towing net, preserved and quantification and identification was carried out under light microscope. Twenty-three phytoplanktons species and nine zooplankton groups were recorded in the seawater from the sampling area of 10 square kilometers. Coscinodiscus and Copepods were dominant in the population of phytoplankton and zooplankton, respectively. Phytoplankton population density increased while zooplankton abundance decreased offshore from the coastline in the open sea. (author)

  1. Migration chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration chemistry, the influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour of pollutants in the environment, is an interplay between the actual natur of the pollutant and the characteristics of the environment, such as pH, redox conditions and organic matter content. The wide selection of possible pollutants in combination with varying geological media, as well as the operation of different chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions compleactes the prediction of the influence of these processes on the mobility of pollutants. The report summarizes a wide range of potential pollutants in the terrestrial environment as well as a variety of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions, which can be expected to influence the migration behaviour, comprising diffusion, dispersion, convection, sorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, transformations/degradations, biochemical reactions and complex formation. The latter comprises the complexation of metal ions as well as non-polar organics to naturally occurring organic macromolecules. The influence of the single types of processes on the migration process is elucidated based on theoretical studies. The influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour is unambiguous, as the processes apparently control the transport of pollutants in the terrestrial environment. As the simple, conventional KD concept breaks down, it is suggested that the migration process should be described in terms of the alternative concepts chemical dispersion, average-elution-time and effective retention. (AB) (134 refs.)

  2. Zooplankton data collected from zooplankton net casts in TOGA Area - Atlantic and Indian Ocean by GAVESHANI and other platforms from 01 March 1963 to 31 March 1965 (NODC Accession 9400163)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected from GAVESHANI and other platforms using zooplankton net casts in the TOGA Area - Atlantic and Indian Ocean. Data were collected...

  3. Zooplankton data from zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 03 November 1976 - 18 November 1977 (NODC Accession 7800340)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected using zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 3, 1976 to November 18,...

  4. Zooplankton data collected from zooplankton net casts from RESEARCHER I and other platforms in TOGA Area of Pacific Ocean; 16 March 1968 to 02 July 1970 (NODC Accession 9500141)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton species identities and other data were collected using zooplankton casts in the TOGA Area of Pacific Ocean from RESEARCHER I and other platforms. Data...

  5. Vertical transport of steroid alcohols and ketones measured in a sediment trap experiment in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagosian, Robert B.; Smith, Steven O.; Nigrelli, Gale E.

    1982-07-01

    The vertical flux and free steroid alcohol (sterol) and ketone composition of particulate material was determined using sediment traps deployed at 389, 988, 3755 and 5068 m at a station in the equatorial North Atlantic, PARFLUX E. Cholest-5-en-3?-ol (cholesterol) was found to be the dominant sterol in all the traps. This compound had a maximum flux at 988 m, accounting for more than 90% of the sterols at this depth. Inputs from mesopelagic Zooplankton populations living in or migrating to depths between the 389 and 988 m traps appear to be responsible for this distribution. The deeper two traps exhibited an increased flux of phytosterols relative to cholesterol, probably due to (a) the incorporation of labile phytoplankton remains in fecal pellets and rapid transport into the deep sea and (b) differential dissolution of heterogeneous large particles. A maximum of 5-22% of the sterols produced in the euphotic zone were present in the 389 m trap. This value drops to less than 1% for the 5068 m trap, 200 m above the sediment surface. In general steroid ketone fluxes gradually decreased with depth. ?4-Stenones were found in greater abundance than their saturated counterparts. Cholest-4-en-3-one was the major steroid ketone detected in all the traps. A five-fold increase with depth in the cholest-4-en-3-one to cholesterol ratio is most likely due to microbial oxidation of sterols to steroid ketones, or higher ?4-stenone inputs relative to sterols from organisms.

  6. Zooplankton data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in Arabian Sea; 18 September 1994 to 27 December 1995 (NODC Accession 9800077)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected using zooplankton net casts in Arabian Sea from THOMAS G. THOMPSON. Data were collected from 18 September 1994 to 27 December 1995...

  7. Zooplankton data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in Bering Sea; 01 April 1980 to 13 October 1981 (NODC Accession 9800133)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected using zooplankton net casts in Bering Sea from THOMAS G. THOMPSON. Data were collected from 01 April 1980 to 13 October 1981 by...

  8. Zooplankton data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in Caribbean Sea; 01 January 1995 to 27 December 1995 (NODC Accession 9800079)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected using zooplankton net casts in Caribbean Sea from THOMAS G. THOMPSON. Data were collected from 01 January 1995 to 27 December 1995...

  9. Zooplankton data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in Arabian Sea; 01 January 1995 to 27 December 1995 (NODC Accession 9800073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected using zooplankton net casts in Arabian Sea from THOMAS G. THOMPSON. Data were collected from 01 January 1995 to 27 December 1995 by...

  10. Influence de la luminosité nocturne et de la turbidité sur le comportement vertical de migration de la civelle d'anguille (Anguilla anguilla L. dans l'estuaire de l'Adour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE CASAMAJOR M. N.

    1999-07-01

    Compte tenu des observations effectuées, le schéma migratoire vertical de l'espèce peut être modélisé de la manière suivante : l'interaction entre la luminosité nocturne et la turbidité influence les déplacements de civelles dans la colonne d'eau en relation avec leur comportement lucifuge. Plus la lumière nocturne qui pénètre dans la colonne d'eau est importante et plus les civelles migrent en profondeur.

  11. Changing climate cues differentially alter zooplankton dormancy dynamics across latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natalie T; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    In seasonal climates, dormancy is a common strategy that structures biodiversity and is necessary for the persistence of many species. Climate change will likely alter dormancy dynamics in zooplankton, the basis of aquatic food webs, by altering two important hatching cues: mean temperatures during the ice-free season, and mean day length when lakes become ice free. Theory suggests that these changes could alter diversity, hatchling abundances and phenology within lakes, and that these responses may diverge across latitudes due to differences in optimal hatching cues and strategies. To examine the role of temperature and day length on hatching dynamics, we collected sediment from 25 lakes across a 1800 km latitudinal gradient and exposed sediment samples to a factorial combination of two photoperiods (12 and 16 h) and two temperatures (8 and 12 °C) representative of historical southern (short photoperiod, warm) and northern (long photoperiod, cool) lake conditions. We tested whether sensitivity to these hatching cues varies by latitudinal origin and differs among taxa. Higher temperatures advanced phenology for all taxa, and these advances were greatest for cladocerans followed by copepods and rotifers. Although phenology differed among taxa, the effect of temperature did not vary with latitude. The latitudinal origin of the egg bank influenced egg abundance and hatchling abundance and diversity, with these latter effects varying with taxa, temperature and photoperiod. Copepod hatchling abundances peaked at mid-latitudes in the high temperature and long photoperiod treatments, whereas hatchling abundances of other zooplankton were greatest at low latitudes and high temperature. The overall diversity of crustacean zooplankton (copepods and cladocerans) also reflected distinct responses of each taxa to our treatments, with the greatest diversity occurring at mid-latitudes (~56 °N) in the shorter photoperiod treatment. Our results demonstrate that hatching cues differ for broad taxonomic groups that vary in developmental and life-history strategies. These differences are predicted to drive latitude-specific shifts in zooplankton emergence with climate change and could alter the base of aquatic food webs. PMID:26590065

  12. Neustonic microplastic and zooplankton in the North Western Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Collignon, Amandine; Hecq, Jean-Henri; Galgani, François; Voisin, Pierre; Collard, France; Goffart, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Neustonic microplastic and zooplankton abundance was determined in the North Western Mediterranean Sea during a summer cruise between July 9th and August 6th 2010, with a break between July 22th and 25th due to a strong wind event. Ninety percent of the 40 stations contained microplastic particles (size 0.3-5 mm) of various compositions: e.g., filaments, polystyrene, thin plastic films. An average concentration of 0.116 particles/m² was observed. The highest abundances (> 0.36 particles/m...

  13. Neustonic microplastic and zooplankton in the North Western Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Collignon, Amandine; Hecq, Jean-Henri; Galgani, François; Voisin, Pierre; Collard, France; Goffart, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Neustonic microplastic and zooplankton abundance was determined in the North Western Mediterranean Sea during a summer cruise between July 9th and August 6th 2010, with a break between July 22th and 25th due to a strong wind event. Ninety percent of the 40 stations contained microplastic particles (size 0.3-5 mm) of various compositions: e.g., filaments, polystyrene, thin plastic films. An average concentration of 0.116 particles/m2 was observed. The highest abundances (>0.36 particles/m2) we...

  14. Migration Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crida, Aurélien

    2015-08-01

    The great variety of the architectures of the extra-solar planetary systems has revealed the fundamental role played by planetary migration: the interactions between the planets and the gaseous disk in which they form leads to a modification of their orbits. Here, I will review the basic processes and the most recent results in this area.Planets up to ~50 Earth masses are prone to so-called type I migration.I will describe the processes at play, namely the Lindblad and corotation torques, and explain how the total torque depends on the planet mass and the local disk structure. Application to realistic disks shows one or two sweet spot(s) for outward migration of planets roughly between 5 and 30 Earth masses around the snowline ; this is confirmed by dedicated 3D numerical simulations. This has strong consequences on the formation of hot Super-Earths or mini-Neptunes.For smaller mass planets, it has been recently proposed that the heating of the neighboring gas by the luminous planet can lead to a positive torque, hence promoting outward migration. On the other hand, if the planet is not a heat source, a cold finger appears, whose resulting torque is negative. Applications of these two recent results should be discussed.Giant planets open gaps in the proto-planetary disk, and then are supposedly subject to type II migration, following the viscous accretion of the disk. This standard picture has been questioned recently, as gas appears to drift through the gap. Although the gap opening process is well understood in 2D for a planet on a fixed orbit, recent results on 3D simulations or migrating planets make the picture more accurate.Our ever better understanding of planet-disk interactions is of crucial importance as the statistics on extra solar systems keep growing and the results of these interactions are now imaged.

  15. Spatial and temporal variation in mercury bioaccumulation by zooplankton in Lake Champlain (North America)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trophic transfer of Hg across lakes within a region has been related to multiple environmental factors, but the nature of these relationships across distinct basins within individual large lakes is unknown. We investigated Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton in basins of differing trophic status in Lake Champlain (Vermont, USA) to determine the strongest predictors of Hg bioaccumulation. Zooplankton were sampled in Malletts Bay (oligotrophic) and Missisquoi Bay (eutrophic) in 2005–2008. Zooplankton in the eutrophic basin had lower concentrations of total Hg and MeHg than those in the oligotrophic basin in all years but 2007, when no bloom occurred in Missisquoi. In addition, Hg concentrations in seston and small zooplankton, sampled during 2009 at 12 sites spanning the lake, decreased with increasing phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass. Thus, Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton across basins in Lake Champlain is related to trophic status, as observed previously in multiple lake studies. - Highlights: ? Lake Champlain zooplankton Hg was lower in the eutrophic than the oligotrophic basin. ? Algal blooms in years present biodiluted Hg in plankton. ? Lake-wide spatial patterns of Hg in plankton decreased with increasing biomass. ? Lake-wide Hg bioaccumulation patterns are consistent with multiple lake studies. - Large spatiotemporal variations in MeHg bioaccumulation in zooplankton within a single large lake were linked to spatial variation in trophic status across basins and to inter-annual variation in algal density.

  16. Micro-zooplankton and its abundance relative to the larger zooplankton and other seston components, 08 February 1967 to 27 February 1967 (NODC Accession 0000916)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Micro-zooplankton populations in the upper 100 m were sampled from 5 marine environments in the northeast Pacific Ocean extending from slope waters off San Diego to...

  17. Infestation of zooplankton with Triaenophorus and Proteocephalus procercoids (Cestoda in a deep oligotrophic lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Anegg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In spring 2004, a massive infestation of the whitefish population in the Austrian Lake Achensee with Triaenophorus crassus was observed. Procercoids, the larval stage of parasitic cestodes, infest copepods as their first intermediate host. Therefore, in spring 2011, zooplankton samples were taken weekly at two sampling sites and depth ranges to determine the abundances of crustaceans as well as percentages of infected copepods and temporal occurrence of parasites. In addition, whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus stomach contents were analysed for food spectrum and parasite infestation. From the end of June to mid-August, procercoids of Triaenophorus spp. were detected in Cyclops abyssorum, the only first intermediate host for this parasite in Lake Achensee. Highest percentages of infected copepods were reached in mid-July (prevalence: 0.38%. Furthermore, an infestation of Proteocephalus sp. was observed in this copepod species, which occurred earlier until the end of the sampling period (prevalence: 1.34%. Besides C. abyssorum, also Eudiaptomus gracilis was occasionally infected with Proteocephalus (prevalence: 0.05%. The procercoids were found in both depth ranges, with no clear vertical infestation preference. More female C. abyssorum were Triaenophorus-infected than males, while the opposite was observed for Proteocephalus infection. The whitefish stomachs contained large numbers of Proteocephalus and Triaenophorus procercoids, coinciding with the occurrence of these parasites in the copepods.

  18. A three-dimensional biophysical model of Karenia brevis dynamics on the west Florida shelf: A look at physical transport and potential zooplankton grazing controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milroy, Scott P.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; He, Ruoying; Kirkpatrick, Gary J.; Lester, Kristen M.; Steidinger, Karen A.; Vargo, Gabriel A.; Walsh, John J.; Weisberg, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The development of accurate predictive models of toxic dinoflagellate blooms is of great ecological importance, particularly in regions that are most susceptible to their detrimental effects. This is especially true along the west Florida shelf (WFS) and coast, where episodic bloom events of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis often wreak havoc on the valuable commercial fisheries and tourism industries of west Florida. In an effort to explain the dynamics at work within the maintenance and termination phases of a red tide, a simple three-dimensional coupled biophysical model was used in the analysis of the October 1999 red tide offshore Sarasota, Florida. Results of the numerical experiments indicate that: (1) measured and modeled flowfields were capable of transporting the observed offshore inoculum of K. brevis to within 16 km of the coastal boundary; (2) background concentrations (1000 cells L -1) of K. brevis could grow to a red tide of over 2×10 6 cells L -1 in little more than a month, assuming an estuarine initiation site with negligible offshore advection, no grazing losses, negligible competition from other phytoplankton groups, and no nutrient limitation; (3) maximal grazing pressure could not prevent the initiation of a red tide or cause its termination, assuming no other losses to algal biomass and a zooplankton community ingestion rate similar to that of Acartia tonsa; and (4) the light-cued ascent behavior of K. brevis served as an aggregational mechanism, concentrating K. brevis at the 55 ?E m -2 s -1 isolume when mean concentrations of K. brevis exceeded 100,000 cells L -1. Further improvements in model fidelity will be accomplished by the future inclusion of phytoplankton competitors, disparate nutrient availability and limitation schemes, a more realistic rendering of the spectral light field and the attendant effects of photo-inhibition and compensation, and a mixed community of vertically-migrating proto- and metazoan grazers. These model refinements are currently under development and shall be used to aid progress toward an operational model of red tide forecasting along the WFS.

  19. 210Po uptake by zooplankton during a one year cycle in relation to trophic conditions in Monaco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Former evidence showed that in oligotrophic waters in French Polynesia there is an inverse correlation between zooplankton biomass and zooplankton 210Po concentration. To study the same phenomenon in a more seasonal environment, monthly samples of zooplankton, water, fecal pellets, and particulate organic matter were obtained in Monaco monthly and analyzed for 210Po content

  20. The effect of salinity levels on the structure of zooplankton communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paturej Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the qualitative and quantitative structure of zooplankton communities in the Vistula Lagoon and to establish whether zooplankton abundance and biodiversity are affected by salinity levels. Samples for biological analyses were collected in the summer (June-September of 2007-2011 at eleven sampling sites. Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between salinity levels and the number of species (r= -0.2020, abundance (r= 0.1967 and biomass (r= 0.3139 of zooplankton. No significant correlations were found between salinity and the biodiversity of zooplankton. The results of the study suggest that salinity affects the abundance and structure, but not the diversity of zooplankton communities in the Vistula Lagoon.

  1. Zooplankton Variation of Murat River (Elazığ- within the borders Palu district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Bulut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton of Murat River was examined from monthly taken samples between June 2011 and May 2012. As a result of research were identified total 33 species, 25 of them belong to Rotifera, 6 belong to Cladocera, 2 belong to Copepoda. Zooplanktonik species were comprised as 75.76% Rotifera 18.18% Cladocera and 6.06% Copepoda species. There was marked decrease in at the zooplankton species diversity in winter months. There was sharp increase at the zooplankton species diversity in spring and in summer months. Especially in spring month’s zooplankton were recorded in highest species and numbers individual. The most species were determined in April (nine species. At least species were determined January (four species. pH, dissolved oxygen, water temperature were measured of the study area. The study has got an importance as to be the first research on zooplankton in this area.

  2. ZOOPLANKTON DENSITY OF LONI DAM WATER, KINWAT, DIST- NANDED, MAHARASHTRA (INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maqdoom Mohiuddin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation was undertaken to study of the physicchemical parameters with relation to the zooplankton composition in Loni dam water. The physicchemical parameters of Loni Dam water were found favorable range for the growth of the zooplankton. The present investigation the three spots were selected for the study and named as Sites I, II and III respectively. The study carried out the one year during the June- 2012 to May-2013. The dominant trend in the zooplankton was Rotifera > Cladocera > Copepoda > Ostracoda and total count of zooplankton was 12 to 30 number/lit at Site- I, 11to 50 number/lit at Site- II and 13-43 number/lit at Site- III. The physicochemical parameters are favorable range for the growth of zooplankton and it may be beneficial for the fish culture.

  3. Dateline Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Lydio E., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Presents data on international migration and its effects in and between various countries in North America, Europe, and Africa. Discussions include refugee, immigrant, and migrant worker flows; the legal, political, and social problems surrounding immigrants; alien terrorism and law enforcement problems; and migrant effects on education, social…

  4. Shared iodine uptake mechanisms in marine zooplankton and phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie van Bergeijk

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is an essential trace element in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. It occurs at much higher concentrations in marine compared to terrestrial environments1, and little is known about the adaptations of marine organisms to the relative abundance of this important element. In contrast to vertebrates, where iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones (THs, we lack fundamental insights into the mechanisms of iodine function, metabolism and uptake for the majority of marine life, i.e. zooplankton and phytoplankton. Our data provide evidence for peroxide facilitated diffusion (PFD of iodine in two planktonic marine organisms, the unicellular algal species Isochrisis sp. (phytoplankton and sea urchin larvae (zooplankton. PFD has only been documented for bacteria and the seaweed Laminaria. This is in contrast to sodium iodine symporter (NIS mechanisms that are essential for iodine uptake in the vertebrate thyroid gland. Hence, PFD is used for iodine uptake in representative organisms of three kingdoms and therefore appears to be much more widespread and evolutionary ancient than NIS mechanisms. Our results also support recent reports suggesting iodine accumulation in kelp as an ancient antioxidant mechanism. These findings raise interesting new questions about the function and evolution of iodine in marine ecosystems.

  5. Effects of the ``Amoco Cadiz'' oil spill on zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samain, J. F.; Moal, J.; Coum, A.; Le Coz, J. R.; Daniel, J. Y.

    1980-03-01

    A survey of zooplankton physiology on the northern coast of Brittany (France) was carried out over a one-year period by comparing two estuarine areas, one oil-polluted area (Aber Benoit) following the oil spill by the tanker “Amoco Cadiz” and one non-oil-polluted area (Rade de Brest). A new approach to an ecological survey was made by describing trophic relationships using analysis of digestive enzyme equipment (amylase and trypsin) of zooplankton organisms, mesoplankton populations and some selected species. These measurements allowed determination of (a) groups of populations with homogeneous trophic and faunistic characteristics and (b) groups of species with homogeneous trophic characteristics. The study of the appearance of these groups over a one-year period revealed the succession of populations and their adaptation to the environment on the basis of biochemical analysis. These phenomena observed in the compared areas showed marked differences in the most polluted areas during the productive spring period. Specific treatment of the data using unusual correlations between digestive enzymes is discussed in terms of the immediate effect on the whole population and on a copepod ( Anomalocera patersoni) living in the upper 10 cm.

  6. Prestack exploding reflector modeling and migration in TI media

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, H.

    2014-01-01

    Prestack depth migration in anisotropic media, especially those that exhibit tilt, can be costly using reverse time migration (RTM). We present two-way spectral extrapolation of prestack exploding reflector modeling and migration (PERM) in acoustic transversely isotropic (TI) media. We construct systematic ways to evaluate phase angles and phase velocities in dip oriented TI (DTI), vertical TI (VTI) and tilted TI (TTI) media. Migration results from the Marmousi VTI model and the BP2007 TTI model show the feasibility of our approach.

  7. Observations of copepod feeding and vertical distribution under natural turbulent conditions in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Saito, H.; Saiz, E.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We present results of simultaneous measurements of turbulent- dissipation rate, zooplankton vertical distribution and copepod gut pigments in the northern North Sea. Analysis shows that some, but not all, copepods (by species, sex and stage) exhibit significant dependence on turbulence in respect......, Calanus spp. and Metridia lucens exhibited a significant negative response in feeding-rate index with increasing turbulence. Centropages typicus and Pseudocalanus spp, also exhibited a negative response but of less significance....

  8. Hydroacoustic estimation of zooplankton biomass at two shoal complexes in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, B.V.; Hrabik, T.R.; Branstrator, D.K.; Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Hydroacoustics can be used to assess zooplankton populations, however, backscatter must be scaled to be biologically meaningful. In this study, we used a general model to correlate site-specific hydroacoustic backscatter with zooplankton dry weight biomass estimated from net tows. The relationship between zooplankton dry weight and backscatter was significant (p biomass, we used geostatistics to analyze the mean and variance, and ordinary kriging to create spatial zooplankton distribution maps. The mean zooplankton dry weight biomass estimates from plankton net tows and hydroacoustics were not significantly different (p = 0.19) but the hydroacoustic data had a significantly lower coefficient of variation (p biomass that were not discernable from the overall means.

  9. Role of zooplankton dynamics for Southern Ocean phytoplankton biomass and global biogeochemical cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Moriarty, R.; Alvain, S.; Aumont, O.; Bopp, L.; Chollet, S.; Enright, C.; Franklin, D. J.; Geider, R. J.; Harrison, S. P.; Hirst, A.; Larsen, S.; Legendre, L.; Platt, T.; Prentice, I. C.; Rivkin, R. B.; Sathyendranath, S.; Stephens, N.; Vogt, M.; Sailley, S.; Vallina, S. M.

    2015-07-01

    Global ocean biogeochemistry models currently employed in climate change projections use highly simplified representations of pelagic food webs. These food webs do not necessarily include critical pathways by which ecosystems interact with ocean biogeochemistry and climate. Here we present a global biogeochemical model which incorporates ecosystem dynamics based on the representation of ten plankton functional types (PFTs); six types of phytoplankton, three types of zooplankton, and heterotrophic bacteria. We improved the representation of zooplankton dynamics in our model through (a) the explicit inclusion of large, slow-growing zooplankton, and (b) the introduction of trophic cascades among the three zooplankton types. We use the model to quantitatively assess the relative roles of iron vs. grazing in determining phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) region during summer. When model simulations do not represent crustacean macrozooplankton grazing, they systematically overestimate Southern Ocean chlorophyll biomass during the summer, even when there was no iron deposition from dust. When model simulations included the developments of the zooplankton component, the simulation of phytoplankton biomass improved and the high chlorophyll summer bias in the Southern Ocean HNLC region largely disappeared. Our model results suggest that the observed low phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean during summer is primarily explained by the dynamics of the Southern Ocean zooplankton community rather than iron limitation. This result has implications for the representation of global biogeochemical cycles in models as zooplankton faecal pellets sink rapidly and partly control the carbon export to the intermediate and deep ocean.

  10. Short-term variation in zooplankton community from Daya Bay with outbreaks of Penilia avirostris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaizhi Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The zooplankton community structure in bays fluctuates as a result of anthropogenic activities in such waters. We focused on the short-term variability of a zooplankton community and compared its differences at the outflow of a nuclear power plant (ONPP, in a marine cage-culture area (MCCA and in unpolluted waters (UW in the south-west part of Daya Bay from 28 April to 1 June 2001. Environmental factors and zooplankton abundance differed significantly among stations at ONPP, MCCA and UW: high temperatures and a high zooplankton abundance occurred at ONPP, while a high chlorophyll a concentration and a low zooplankton abundance prevailed in MCCA. Statistical analysis revealed that the zooplankton diversity and abundance could be reduced by the activity of the marine cage-culture in a short time. Penilia avirostris made up an important component of the zooplankton in the study area, its abundance ranging widely from 16 to 7267 indiv. m-3 from April to June and peaking at the ONPP outflow. The outbreak of P. avirostris probably resulted from the combined effects of favourable water temperature, food concentration and its parthenogenetic behaviour.

  11. Zooplankton-based assessment of the trophic state of a tropical forest river in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imoobe T.O.T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we explore the usefulness of zooplankton as a tool for assessing the trophic status of a Nigerian forest river. The river was sampled monthly and investigated for water physico-chemistry and zooplankton community structure using basic statistical measurement of diversity indices to characterize the zooplankton fauna. The trophic sta­tus of the river evaluated from its physico-chemical parameters indicates that the river is oligotrophic. The zooplankton composition was typical of a tropical freshwater river, with a total of 40 species, made up of 16 rotifers, 12 cladocerans, and 12 copepods and their developing stages in the following order of dominance: Rotifera > Cladocera > Cyclopoida > Calanoida. There were strong correlations between the lake's trophic status and its zooplankton communities. The zoo­plankton community was dominated by numerous species of rotifers and crustaceans, which are typical of oligotrophic to mesotrophic systems, such species including Conochilus dossuarius and Synchaeta longipes. However, the most dominant zooplankton species in West African freshwater ecosystems, viz., Keratella tropica, Keratella quadrata, Brachionus angularis, Trichocerca pusilla, Filinia longiseta, Pompholyx sulcata, and Proales sp., and others that are indicator species of high trophic levels, were not recorded in the river. The river is very clear and can be used for all manner of recreational activities.

  12. Zooplankton long-term changes in the NW Mediterranean Sea: Decadal periodicity forced by winter hydrographic conditions related to large-scale atmospheric changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Comas, Carmen; Stemmann, Lars; Ibanez, Frédéric; Berline, Léo; Mazzocchi, Maria Grazia; Gasparini, Stéphane; Picheral, Marc; Gorsky, Gabriel

    2011-09-01

    Copepod, chaetognath, decapod larva, siphonophore and jellyfish monthly abundances, from 1974 to 2003 at Point B (northwestern Mediterranean), were obtained with the ZooScan. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on zooplankton, and another PCA on local environment. Almost-decadal periods (1974-1982, 1983-1991, 1992-1999, and 2000-2003) were distinguished in the 1st PC of zooplankton, and that of local environment (1974-1980, 1981-1991, 1992-1998, and 1999-2003). The 1st PC of local environment was correlated with winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) until early 1990s. In early 1980s, all groups increased and the majority of the decade abundances were above the long-term average for most groups. In the 1990s, all decreased, and in early 2000s they increased. This synchrony suggests bottom-up control as main mechanism structuring these groups. The 1980s were characterized by low winter temperature and high salinity. We hypothesize that phytoplankton production was favored during that decade due to increased nutrient uprise to surface by strong winter vertical mixing. In the 1990s salinity decreased probably to the detriment of vertical mixing and carrying capacity of the system. These results stress the role of salinity as physical forcing on water-column stability, in the NW Mediterranean, and the importance of winter conditions to determine the state of pelagic ecosystems.

  13. Biochemical composition and calorific value of zooplankton from the coastal waters of South Andaman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arun Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of biochemical composition of zooplankton is important in understanding their metabolism, nutritive value and energy transfer which are relevant to the marine ecosystem. Zooplankton biomass and their biochemical composition were estimated from the coastal waters of South Andaman during October 2011 to September 2012. The dry weight biomass and chlorophyll a discerned a positive correlation (p is less than 0.05; one-way ANOVA in two stations. Protein formed the major fraction of the organic constituents. Seasonal variation in the protein content of zooplankton was observed. Carbohydrate was the minor component and ranged from 1.1-12.2% ( Mean= 3.4+-1.1 in terms of dry weight. Neither lipid nor carbohydrate appeared to be significant source of energy for these organisms. Caloric value obtained in this study ranged from 1.35 to 2.72 kcal/g dry weight ( Mean=1.8+-0.2. Relatively higher values were attributed to the dominance of calanoid copepods in the zooplankton population almost throughout the year. Zooplankton did not show an extensive lipid storage suggesting that protein may serve as metabolic reserve. It is therefore evident that zooplankton can be utilized as nutritional live feed for the cultivable species of fish and prawn in aquaculture farms. The variations in biochemical composition of zooplankton are influenced by species composition and feeding activities of zooplankton, which is in accordance with the previous studies. This study is the first report on Biochemical Composition and Calorific Value of Zooplankton from the coastal waters of Port Blair, South Andaman.

  14. Zooplankton size and distribution within mesoscale structures in the Mozambique Channel: A comparative approach using the TAPS acoustic profiler, a multiple net sampler and ZooScan image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebourges-Dhaussy, A.; Huggett, J.; Ockhuis, S.; Roudaut, G.; Josse, E.; Verheye, H.

    2014-02-01

    Two surveys were conducted in the Mozambique Channel in November 2009 and April/May 2010 to study the influence of mesoscale eddies on the zooplanktonic component of the ecosystem. Three complementary methods were used to sample zooplankton: (1) hydro-acoustics with a TAPS™ multi-frequency zooplankton profiler; (2) in situ biological sampling using a Multinet with samples processed via the classical settled biovolume technique; (3) ZooScan image analysis which determines biovolume, size and taxonomic composition. This approach presented an ideal opportunity to compare the results of these different methods which highlighted a large overlap in their detectable size range. Each method favoured a particular size fraction of the population, i.e. TAPS for the microzooplankton (3 mm ESR). In the case of the 2009 cruise, a well-established cyclone-anticyclone dipole was sampled, with results clearly indicating a higher concentration of zooplankton in the cyclonic eddy compared to the anticyclonic counterpart. The TAPS also detected high surface (0-22 m) concentrations of what appeared to be microzooplankton or marine snow in the cyclone. In 2010, the eddy field was less defined and more spatially variable compared to that in 2009. Two cyclonic and anticyclonic features were sampled during the cruise, each with different life histories and levels of stability. Results were inconsistent compared to those of 2009 and dependent on the size component of the population, with both cyclonic and anticyclonic features capable of having higher planktonic biomass. Differences in species composition between these mesoscale features were not too different and mainly a matter of relative biovolume. Less well formed eddy fields, particularly in the mid-Mozambique Channel, therefore appear to result in indistinct vertical and horizontal zooplankton distribution patterns.

  15. Elemental (C, H, N) composition of zooplankton from north Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhat, K.L.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Zooplankton samples collected from north Arabian Sea during March 1992 were analysed for elemental (C,H,N) composition. Estimated carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen concentrations displayed variations among different groups but their ratios were nearly...

  16. Studies on the associates and parasites of zooplankton from southwest and southeast coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    Associates and parasites of zooplankton from southwest and southeast coasts of India were studied. Among the epizoic forms two species of ciliates infesting copepods were new records from Indian waters. Eight species of suctorians were found epizoic...

  17. Biomass and biochemical composition of zooplankton from northwest Bay of Bengal during January 1990

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Goswami, S.C.

    Biomass, proximate composition, organic carbon and calorie content of assorted zooplankton from the surface waters were studied. Day and night stations revealed significant difference in biomass (displacement volume, dry wt and organic carbon...

  18. Zooplankton of the lagoons of the Laccadives: diel patterns and emergence

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.

    of epibenthic forms are much higher than those observed in traps. Densities of emerging plankton varied geographically. Most of the zooplankton organisms which contribute to the lagoon fauna are resident in the lagoons and rarely occurred in the surrounding sea....

  19. Zooplankton of the southwest coast of India: abundance, composition, temporal and spatial variability in 1987

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Haridas, P.; Ramaiah, Neelam; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    community. Paradoxically, this happened when nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton biomass were low. The zooplankton `high` might have arose from an earlier nutrient enrichment through land run-off and increased phytoplankton or through the microbial...

  20. Zooplankton ecology in the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padmavati, G.; Goswami, S.C.

    Seasonal variability in the physico-chemical features, zooplankton standing stock (biomass) and faunal composition in the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine system of Goa, India, during January to December 1990 were studied. Hydrobiological characteristics...

  1. Biochemical composition and caloric potential of zooplankton from Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreepada, R.A.; Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Proximate composition and variations in protein, lipid, carbohydrate, ash and organic carbon in zooplankton from 42 stations in the Bay of Bengal are reported. Average percentages of moisture, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, ash and carbon were 85...

  2. Phytoplankton and zooplankton of some paddy-cum-prawn culture fields in and around Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Devi, C.B.L.; Aravindakshan, P.N.; Nair, K.K.C.; Balasubramanian, T.; Kutty, M.K.

    The Phytoplankton and zooplankton from the paddy-cum-prawn culture fields from 4 areas in and around the Cochin backwaters were studied. Total Phytoplankton counts in the seasonal and perennial fields in all the areas showed good similarity...

  3. Production of certain hydrolytic enzymes by psychrophilic bacteria from the Antarctic krill, zooplankton and seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    Psychrophilic bacteria isolated from krill, zooplankton and water samples collected in the Indian Ocean Sector of Southern Ocean during the Ninth India Expedition (1989-1990) were enumerated and several strains subjected to various biochemical tests...

  4. Heavy metals and zooplankton with special reference to Minamata (Japan) mercury pollution - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Hirota, R.

    samples were also analysed for methyl mercury, copper, zinc, iron, manganese, cadmium, lead and nickel. The sediment in Minamata Bay still contained high mercury concentrations. The mercury levels in zooplankton suggested that the Minamata Bay where...

  5. Spatial distribution of micro- and meso-zooplankton in the seasonal ice zone of east Antarctica during 1983-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Motoha; Takahashi, Kunio T.; Tanimura, Atsushi; Odate, Tsuneo; Fukuchi, Mitsuo

    2015-09-01

    Historically, most studies about the geographic distribution of zooplankton in the Southern Ocean have been focused on the macro-sized zooplankton (2-20 mm), such as the Antarctic krill and larger-sized copepods. On the other hand, despite the high abundance and biomass, the distribution patterns of micro- (20-200 ?m) and meso-sized (200 ?m-2 mm) zooplankton communities are little understood. In this study, we investigated the distribution patterns of larger micro-zooplankton (100-200 ?m) and meso-zooplankton communities in the seasonal ice zone in the Cosmonaut Sea near Syowa Station and examined the effects of environmental factors and water properties on these communities. The investigation was based on samples collected with 100 ?m mesh nets, which are appropriate to estimate the quantitative abundance and community structure of micro- and meso-zooplankton species between 1983 and 1995. Cluster analysis of the samples revealed that the distribution of macro-zooplankton species was influenced by the temperature and salinity of ocean fronts. Among the meso-zooplankton, cyclopoid and small calanoid copepods tended to be ubiquitously distributed. However, among the micro-zooplankton, the distributions of foraminiferans and tintinnids were associated with sea ice extent. The distribution of micro- and meso-zooplankton communities could be used to estimate the impact of environmental changes on the marine ecosystem in the Southern Ocean.

  6. Cs-137 migration in soil near NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A convective-diffusion model has been employed for describing Cs-137 migration in soil. The migration parameters were determined by comparing the calculated vertical distribution profiles with the experimental ones. The migration parameters dependence on the soil state has been studied. Cs-137 penetration rate was found to be function of the soil type, surface state, soil wetness and orography. The obtained values are presented. A method is suggested for revealing the soil surface contamination by Cs-137 produced during NPP operation with distinguishing it from the global contamination background. For this purpose Cs-137 content in the upper 5 mm soil layer is estimated

  7. Spatial and temporal variation in mercury bioaccumulation by zooplankton in Lake Champlain (North America)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Celia; Kamman, Neil; Williams, Jason; Bugge, Deenie; Taylor, Vivien; Jackson, Brian; Miller, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Trophic transfer of Hg across lakes within a region has been related to multiple environmental factors, but the nature of these relationships across distinct basins within individual large lakes is unknown. We investigated Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton in basins of differing trophic status in Lake Champlain (Vermont, USA) to determine the strongest predictors of Hg bioaccumulation. Zooplankton were sampled in Malletts Bay (oligotrophic) and Missisquoi Bay (eutrophic) in 2005–2008. Zooplan...

  8. The Impact of Fish Predation and Cyanobacteria on Zooplankton Size Structure in 96 Subtropical Lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jing; Ping XIE; Tao, Min; Guo, Longgen; Chen, Jun; Li, Li; XueZhen Zhang,; Zhang, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton are relatively small in size in the subtropical regions. This characteristic has been attributed to intense predation pressure, high nutrient loading and cyanobacterial biomass. To provide further information on the effect of predation and cyanobacteria on zooplankton size structure, we analyzed data from 96 shallow aquaculture lakes along the Yangtze River. Contrary to former studies, both principal components analysis and multiple regression analysis showed that the mean zooplan...

  9. Food Quality Effects on Zooplankton Growth and Energy Transfer in Pelagic Freshwater Food Webs

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    Poor food quality can have large negative effects on zooplankton growth and this can also affect food web interactions. The main aims of this thesis were to study the importance of different food quality aspects in Daphnia, to identify potentially important differences among zooplankton taxa, and to put food quality research into a natural context by identifying the importance of food quality and quantity in lakes of different nutrient content. In the first experiment, the RNA:DNA ratio was p...

  10. Effects of the "Amoco Cadiz" oil spill on zooplankton. A new possibility of ecophysiological survey

    OpenAIRE

    Samain, J F; Moal, J.; Coum, A.; Le Coz, J.R.; Daniel, J. Y.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of zooplankton physiology on the northern coast of Brittany (France) was carried out over a one-year period by comparing two estuarine areas, one oil-polluted area (Aber Benoit) following the oil spill by the tanker "Amoco Cadiz" and one non-oil-polluted area (Rade de Brest). A new approach to an ecological survey was made by describing trophic relationships using analysis of digestive enzyme equipment (amylase and trypsin) of zooplankton organisms, mesoplankton populations and some ...

  11. Estimates of high absolute densities and emergence rates of demersal zooplankton from the Agatti Atoll, laccadives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.

    Accepted: 15 October 1990 Revised: 14 February 1991 Limnol. Oceanogr., 36(3), 1991, 585-588 0 1991, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc. Estimates of high absolute densities and emergence rates of demersal zooplankton from... are caused primarily by breakup of zoo- plankton swarms and emergence of epibenthic or demersal forms. The abun- dances and actual rates of emergence of epi- benthic zooplankton are subject to some controversy (e.g. Alldredge and King 1980; Youngbluth...

  12. Seasonal Variation of Zooplankton Population with Reference to Water Quality of Iril River in Imphal

    OpenAIRE

    Thankhum Saron; Bijen Meitei

    2013-01-01

    The zooplankton population of Iril river of Imphal valley of Manipur was investigated with reference to water quality. The fish biodiversity potential of the river remain intake despite the sub-urban exposure of the river. Since plankton play a great food chain role for fish community, knowing the population of zooplankton as secondary resource is needed. Deterioration of water quality in urban area remain, in most cases, a basic feature. The present investigation endeavour to establish the ...

  13. Ciliate Epibionts Associated with Crustacean Zooplankton in German Lakes: Distribution, Motility, and Bacterivory

    OpenAIRE

    SamanthaLynnBickel; Hans-PeterGrossart

    2012-01-01

    Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton are widespread in aquatic systems, but their ecological roles are little known. We studied the occurrence of ciliate epibionts on crustacean zooplankton in nine German lakes with different limnological features during the summer of 2011. We also measured the detachment and reattachment rates of the ciliates, changes in their motility, and the feeding rates of attached vs. detached ciliate epibionts. Epibionts were found in all lakes ...

  14. Induced pigmentation in zooplankton: a trade-off between threats from predation and ultraviolet radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Lars-Anders

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is harmful to all life, and the ongoing depletion of the ozone layer is likely to affect interactions among both terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Some organisms have evolved adaptations to reduce radiation damage, such as the various types of protective pigmentation of freshwater zooplankton. However, strong pigmentation also increases vulnerability to visually hunting predators. Hence, where both UV radiation and predation are intense, zooplankton may be sandwich...

  15. Responses of zooplankton to cane sugar additions to a small humic lake, Alinen Mustajärvi

    OpenAIRE

    Ewane, Basil

    2010-01-01

    The response to projected increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loading to boreal lakes is being studied in lake Alinen Mustajärvi, a small humic lake in southern Finland, where labile DOC concentration has been artificially increased during 2008 and 2009 by monthly additions of cane sugar. As part of this wider project, in this thesis the responses of the zooplankton community to cane sugar addition were studied. Zooplankton samples were collected monthly in the ice-free periods of 2007...

  16. A multivariate approach to environmental-zooplankton relationships in Maldonado Bay (Uruguay)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Milstein

    1986-01-01

    Environment-zooplankton relationships were analysed in Maldonado Bay (Uruguay), an estuarine area between the River Plate and the Atlantic Ocean. This was done through Principal Component Analysis. Most of the environment variability is accounted for, primarily, by the outflow of the River Plate and the inflow of coastal waters which change through the annual cycle, and in the second place by surface water conditions. On the other hand, most of the zooplankton variability is accounted for by ...

  17. Zooplankton and diatoms of temporary and permanent freshwater pans in the Mpumalanga Highveld region, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Riato, Luisa; Van Ginkel, Carin; Taylor, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a description of the zooplankton and epiphytic diatom communities of permanent and temporary freshwater pans in the Mpumalanga Highveld region of South Africa. Few studies have investigated the biota of pans in this area, which is seriously threatened by mining and agricultural development. Nineteen pan sites within a 20 km radius covering a wide range of water chemistries were sampled once for zooplankton, epiphytic diatoms and water physico-chemical data in 2009. Collect...

  18. Accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in zooplankton of Banyas coastal waters (Syria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present in this paper the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater and their levels in zooplanktonic samples. Sampling operation was carried our between August 1995 and November 1996 in the coastal area of Banyas city (Eastern Mediterranean). Petroleum hydrocarbons concentrations were: ranged between non detectable values and 16.4 pill in seawater, and between non detectable values and 4304 ?/g dry weight in zooplanktonic samples

  19. VERTIGO (VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean): A study of particle sources and flux attenuation in the North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesseler, K.O.; Trull, T.W.; Steinberg, D.K.; Silver, M.W.; Siegel, D.A.; Saitoh, S.-I.; Lamborg, C.H.; Lam, P.J.; Karl, D.M.; Jiao, N.Z.; Honda, M.C.; Elskens, M.; Dehairs, F.; Brown, S.L.; Boyd, P.W.; Bishop, J.K.B.; Bidigare, R.R.

    2008-06-10

    The VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean (VERTIGO) study examined particle sources and fluxes through the ocean's 'twilight zone' (defined here as depths below the euphotic zone to 1000 m). Interdisciplinary process studies were conducted at contrasting sites off Hawaii (ALOHA) and in the NW Pacific (K2) during 3 week occupations in 2004 and 2005, respectively. We examine in this overview paper the contrasting physical, chemical and biological settings and how these conditions impact the source characteristics of the sinking material and the transport efficiency through the twilight zone. A major finding in VERTIGO is the considerably lower transfer efficiency (T{sub eff}) of particulate organic carbon (POC), POC flux 500/150 m, at ALOHA (20%) vs. K2 (50%). This efficiency is higher in the diatom-dominated setting at K2 where silica-rich particles dominate the flux at the end of a diatom bloom, and where zooplankton and their pellets are larger. At K2, the drawdown of macronutrients is used to assess export and suggests that shallow remineralization above our 150 m trap is significant, especially for N relative to Si. We explore here also surface export ratios (POC flux/primary production) and possible reasons why this ratio is higher at K2, especially during the first trap deployment. When we compare the 500 m fluxes to deep moored traps, both sites lose about half of the sinking POC by >4000 m, but this comparison is limited in that fluxes at depth may have both a local and distant component. Certainly, the greatest difference in particle flux attenuation is in the mesopelagic, and we highlight other VERTIGO papers that provide a more detailed examination of the particle sources, flux and processes that attenuate the flux of sinking particles. Ultimately, we contend that at least three types of processes need to be considered: heterotrophic degradation of sinking particles, zooplankton migration and surface feeding, and lateral sources of suspended and sinking materials. We have evidence that all of these processes impacted the net attenuation of particle flux vs. depth measured in VERTIGO and would therefore need to be considered and quantified in order to understand the magnitude and efficiency of the ocean's biological pump.

  20. VERTIGO (VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean): A study of particle sources and flux attenuation in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesseler, K. O.; Trull, T. W.; Steinberg, D. K.; Silver, M. W.; Siegel, D. A.; Saitoh, S.-I.; Lamborg, C. H.; Lam, P. J.; Karl, D. M.; Jiao, N. Z.; Honda, M. C.; Elskens, M.; Dehairs, F.; Brown, S. L.; Boyd, P. W.; Bishop, J. K. B.; Bidigare, R. R.

    2008-07-01

    The VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean (VERTIGO) study examined particle sources and fluxes through the ocean's "twilight zone" (defined here as depths below the euphotic zone to 1000 m). Interdisciplinary process studies were conducted at contrasting sites off Hawaii (ALOHA) and in the NW Pacific (K2) during 3-week occupations in 2004 and 2005, respectively. We examine in this overview paper the contrasting physical, chemical and biological settings and how these conditions impact the source characteristics of the sinking material and the transport efficiency through the twilight zone. A major finding in VERTIGO is the considerably lower transfer efficiency ( Teff) of particulate organic carbon (POC), POC flux 500/150 m, at ALOHA (20%) vs. K2 (50%). This efficiency is higher in the diatom-dominated setting at K2 where silica-rich particles dominate the flux at the end of a diatom bloom, and where zooplankton and their pellets are larger. At K2, the drawdown of macronutrients is used to assess export and suggests that shallow remineralization above our 150-m trap is significant, especially for N relative to Si. We explore here also surface export ratios (POC flux/primary production) and possible reasons why this ratio is higher at K2, especially during the first trap deployment. When we compare the 500-m fluxes to deep moored traps, both sites lose about half of the sinking POC by >4000 m, but this comparison is limited in that fluxes at depth may have both a local and distant component. Certainly, the greatest difference in particle flux attenuation is in the mesopelagic, and we highlight other VERTIGO papers that provide a more detailed examination of the particle sources, flux and processes that attenuate the flux of sinking particles. Ultimately, we contend that at least three types of processes need to be considered: heterotrophic degradation of sinking particles, zooplankton migration and surface feeding, and lateral sources of suspended and sinking materials. We have evidence that all of these processes impacted the net attenuation of particle flux vs. depth measured in VERTIGO and would therefore need to be considered and quantified in order to understand the magnitude and efficiency of the ocean's biological pump.

  1. FORMATION OF BACTERIAL AND ZOOPLANKTON COMPONENT OF NATURAL FOOD BASE UNDER EFFECT OF TRADITIONAL ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krazhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Characterization of bacteria and zooplankton in rearing ponds using traditional fertilizers: cattle manure and bird droppings in modern conditions for fish farming. Methodology. Material collection and processing were carried out according to conventional hydrochemical and hydrobiological methods. Findings. We consider forming of bacteria and zooplankton component of natural food base of Irkliiv herbivorous fish nursery rearing ponds under the influenced of traditional organic fertilizers such as bird droppings (0,12 t/ha and cattle manure (2,0 t/ha. Each pond was planted by ongrowing Nyvka carp larvae (40,0 thousand ind./ha with silver carp (1,0 thousand ind./ha and grass carp larvae (1,0 thousand ind./ha. Qualitative and quantitative development of bacteria and zooplankton in fish-breeding ponds was investigated. The results show that in the development of the studied invertebrate groups of zooplankton in production ponds had no significant differences, except for rotifers, which group prevailed by the biomass to 3,6 times in the pond with the introduction of humus. Originality. The parameters of bacteria and zooplankton by the application of traditional organic fertilizers at present fish farming are studied. Practical value. These quantitative indicators of bacteria and zooplankton of fish-rearing ponds with water supply from Kremenchug reservoir, the application of cattle manure and bird droppings could be offered as an optimum data at present fish production stage.

  2. Effect of removal of free-floating macrophytes on zooplankton habitat in shallow wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jong-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Submerged macrophytes improve the structural heterogeneity of microhabitats in aquatic ecosystems, often providing an important habitat for zooplankton. However, excessive development of free-floating macrophytes on the water surface can reduce the biomass of submerged macrophytes and result in a relatively simple habitat structure. We hypothesized that controlling the development of free-floating macrophytes would result in a more complex habitat structure by promoting the development of submerged macrophytes. After applying three experimental treatments (NR, no removal; IR, intermediate removal; CR, complete removal of free-floating macrophytes, we found that CR of free-floating macrophytes improved the growth and development of submerged macrophytes and supported a large zooplankton assemblage. However, the largest zooplankton assemblage (in terms of abundance and diversity was recorded after the IR treatment. Although submerged macrophytes were abundant in the CR treatment, the number, abundance, and density of zooplankton species were much lower than those in the IR treatment. Preferential selection of different macrophyte types by zooplankton presumably led to variation in plant utilization of niches, and the simultaneous presence of different macrophyte life forms created a complex microhabitat structure that induced high species diversity and zooplankton density.

  3. Zooplankton Responses In A Tropical System With Environmental Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Javier Aranguren Riaño

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Processes of environmental transformation that currently occur in the climatic change context generate changes in ecosystems and biological communities. ¿How populations respond to these stressors? ¿what effects could occur on taxonomic and ecological diversity? The taxonomic composition and structure of the zooplankton was analyzed with relationship to environmental changes in a tropical water reservoir located at 6º02`18``N and 73º29`16`` W. During four months, samples were taken weekly covering stations of low, medium, and high precipitation. A high degree of temporal variability was established, it associated with a short hydraulic retention time estimated at 8 days.  Nine species were collected, of which Keratella tropica tropica and Thermocyclops decipiens were the two most abundant and constant species. Found values of H’ diversity and S richness were considered low, corresponding to a little mature community associated with a fluctuating physical environment and supported by high variation coefficients of electrical conductivity and Sechhi disk transparency. Drastic variations on the system volume in short time lapses generate important changes in the physical expression of system with a direct effect on composition and structure of the zooplankton. In general, the response model of the zooplankton in the reservoir according to the statement by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis.  RESPUESTAS DEL ZOOPLANCTON EN UN SISTEMA TROPICAL CON ALTA TENSIÓN AMBIENTAL Los procesos de transformación ambiental que se dan en la actualidad, en un marco de cambio climático, generan modificaciones en los ecosistemas y comunidades biológicas, ¿Cómo responden las poblaciones a estos factores de tensión? ¿Qué efectos se darían sobre la diversidad taxonómica y ecológica? Se analizó la variación de la composición taxonómica y estructura del zooplancton en función de los cambios ambientales en un reservorio tropical ubicado a 6º02`18``N y 73º29`16`` O.  Semanalmente se realizaron muestreos en la zona limnética del sistema durante cuatro meses que abarcaron los periodos seco, de transición y de alta precipitación. Se estableció un  alto grado de variabilidad temporal asociada al poco tiempo de retención hidráulica estimado en 8 días. Se registraron 9 especies, entre ellas Keratella tropica tropica y Thermocyclops decipiens  que fueron las más abundantes y constantes. Los valores de diversidad H´ y riqueza S hallados se consideran bajos, lo que corresponde a una comunidad poco madura vinculada a un ambiente físico fluctuante, evidenciado en los elevados coeficientes de variación de la conductividad eléctrica y la transparencia Secchi. La fluctuación del volumen del sistema en lapsos cortos de tiempo, genera cambios significativos en la expresión física del sistema con efecto directo sobre la composición y estructura del zooplancton.  En general el modelo de respuesta del zooplancton en este reservorio, se ajusta a los supuestos de la hipótesis de disturbio intermedio. 

  4. The effects of power plant passage on zooplankton mortalities: Eight years of study at the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zooplankton mortalities resulting from passage through the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant (southeastern Lake Michigan) were studied over an 8-year (1975-1982) period. The power plant operated at a low ?T (0C) and discharge water temperatures did not exceed 350C (except September 1978). While zooplankton mortalities were significantly greater in discharge than intake waters, differences were small, averaging <3%. There was no evidence of additional delayed effects on zooplankton mortality following plant passage. There was no relationship between zooplankton mortalities and temperature (?T, discharge water temperature). Mechanical stresses appeared to be the major cause of zooplankton mortality. The authors hypothesize that fish predation, rather than power plant operation, probably was the major source of zooplankton mortality in inshore waters during much of the year. (author)

  5. Vertical distribution of phytoplankton functional groups in a tropical shallow lake: driving forces on a diel scale Distribuição vertical de grupos funcionais fitoplanctônicos em um lago tropical raso: forças direcionadoras em escala nictemeral

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Gomes Barbosa; Paulina Maria Maia Barbosa; Francisco Antonio Rodrigues Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    AIM: This study analyzed the vertical distribution of phytoplankton functional groups in two diel cycles in a warm monomictic shallow tropical lake; METHODS: Sampling of the abiotic variables, phytoplankton and zooplankton communities was performed at intervals of 3 hours over 24 hours in vertical profiles, in the stratification (February) and circulation (July) periods; RESULTS: The high thermal stability and the partial atelomixis favored the coexistence of functional groups that are sensit...

  6. Measurement of vertical integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddigan, R.J.

    1981-08-01

    An index of vertical integration is constructed as a tool to examine how the average level of vertical integration has changed over time. The hypothesis that if vertical integration can lower costs or reduce risks, more firms will integrate vertically is subjected to an empirical test using the Vertical Industry Connection index. A randem sample of firms is selected from the COMPUSAT data base. The results support the contention that vertical integration has increased in contrast with Laffer's findings. 17 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Migration of birds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the migration of birds. Topics covered include why birds migrate, when birds migrate, speed, altitude, courses, distance, major flyways and...

  8. Neuronal Migration Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neuronal Migration Disorders Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neuronal Migration Disorders? Neuronal migration disorders (NMDs) are a group ...

  9. Fatty acid transformation in zooplankton: from seston to benthos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiselius, Peter; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2012-01-01

    All organic matter, fatty acids (FA) in particular, is transformed in the pelagic plankton food web before reaching fishes or benthic organisms. Mesozooplankton (0.2 to 2 mm) is the main conduit for FA transfer, and FA profiles in sedimenting matter should therefore be significantly affected by its activity. To test this hypothesis, we sampled seston, zooplankton and sediment trap material for FA analysis during 5 campaigns spanning 4 seasons at a coastal site on the west coast of Sweden. Saturated (SAFAs) and monounsaturated (MUFAs) FAs dominated seston and trap material, while copepods contained 75 to 90% polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs). Sedimentation of bulk particulate organic carbon did not vary significantly with season (coefficient of variation, CV = 33%), while pigment (CV = 49%) and in particular faecal pellet fluxes (CV = 100%) were highly variable as a result of copepod feeding activity. Copepod feeding, pellet production and egg production were all high after the spring bloom and in summer and autumn. Overall, 5 to 25% of the sedimenting FAs were affected by copepod feeding activities, and the supply of PUFAs to the benthos was significantly enhanced by copepod grazing activity. SAFAs and MUFAs were enriched by 5 to 10% in sediment traps, while the proportion of the most important PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid, was reduced by up to 15% in summer and autumn. In conclusion, the periods of significant input of PUFAs to the sediment coincide with the period of highest transformation by the mesozooplankton, which in the present study was summer and autumn.

  10. Small zooplankton sensing their environment: feeding, mating, and predator avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihongi, Ai

    2004-03-01

    Since zooplankton play a significant role at the base of the food web in aquatic environments, it is important to understand their feeding behaviors, mating behaviors, and predator avoidance. First, I will present the water flow regime of Daphnia. Using a high-speed video, I filmed how water with algae particles enters and leaves Daphnia, how the water flows within Daphnia and how the appendages of Daphnia work to produce the water flow. Second, I will discuss mate-searching behaviors of freshwater calanoid copepods and Daphnia. Male and female zooplankters have to encounter each other for successful mating in 3D environment. I have observed the behaviors of freshwater calanoid copepods from Lake Michigan. As a result, they showed different behaviors from other species studied. Likewise, I have observed differences in mate-searching behaviors of D. pulex and D. magna. Last, I will show the results of predator-prey interactions in D. pulex with kairomone, a chemical cue, from predatory fish using 3-D near infrared optical system. As experimental conditions, we used the following treatments: (a) no light/ no kairomone, (b) no light/ kairomone, (c) light/ no kairomone, and (d) light/ kairomone. While it appears that light and kairomone have an interactive effect on the swimming behaviors of Daphnia, light seems to be the most influential factor. The observed frequent spinning movements of D. pulex in a darkened tank with a predatory fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were successful predator avoidance maneuvers.

  11. Characterization of intermittency in zooplankton behaviour in turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalec, François-Gaël; Schmitt, François G; Souissi, Sami; Holzner, Markus

    2015-10-01

    We consider Lagrangian velocity differences of zooplankters swimming in still water and in turbulence. Using cumulants, we quantify the intermittency properties of their motion recorded using three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry. Copepods swimming in still water display an intermittent behaviour characterized by a high probability of small velocity increments, and by stretched exponential tails. Low values arise from their steady cruising behaviour while heavy tails result from frequent relocation jumps. In turbulence, we show that at short time scales, the intermittency signature of active copepods clearly differs from that of the underlying flow, and reflects the frequent relocation jumps displayed by these small animals. Despite these differences, we show that copepods swimming in still and turbulent flow belong to the same intermittency class that can be modelled by a log-stable model with non-analytical cumulant generating function. Intermittency in swimming behaviour and relocation jumps may enable copepods to display oriented, collective motion under strong hydrodynamic conditions and thus, may contribute to the formation of zooplankton patches in energetic environments. PMID:26490249

  12. Zooplankton diversity across three Red Sea reefs using pyrosequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.

    2014-07-30

    Coral reefs are considered among the most diverse ecosystems on Earth, yet little is known about the diversity of plankton in the surrounding water column. Moreover, few studies have utilized genomic methods to investigate zooplankton diversity in any habitat. This study investigated the diversity of taxa by sampling 45 stations around three reef systems in the central/southern Red Sea. The diversity of metazoan plankton was investigated by targeting the 18S rRNA gene and clustering OTUs at 97% sequence similarity. A total of 754 and 854 metazoan OTUs were observed in the data set for the 1380F and 1389F primer sets respectively. The phylum Arthropoda dominated both primer sets accounting for ~60% of reads followed by Cnidaria (~20%). Only about 20% of OTUs were shared between all three reef systems and the relation between geographic distance and Jaccard Similarity measures was not significant. Cluster analysis showed that there was no distinct split between reefs and stations from different reefs clustered together both for metazoans as a whole and for the phyla Arthropoda, Cnidaria and Chordata separately. This suggests that distance may not be a determining factor in the taxonomic composition of stations.

  13. Migration trends in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wanner, Philippe ( Laboratoire de démographie et d'études familiales, Université de Genève, Switzerland )

    2002-01-01

    In order to grasp the complexity of migration trends in Europe it is important, given the limitations of the available statistics, to look at the wider issue, breaking it down into four separate elements: 1. the migration flows affecting Council of Europe member states in recent decades, distinguishing between migration between member states and migration flows with other parts of the world; 2. the reasons for migration, with particular reference to illegal migration or asylum; 3. the socio-d...

  14. Seasonal Distribution of Zooplankton in Mahanadi Estuary (Odisha, East Coast of India: A Taxonomical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Panda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of coastal and estuarine water is important as they act as a medium of exchange of materials between land and ocean. Mahanadi estuarine system forms the largest system of its kind in Odisha. Zooplankton, the secondary producers plays a vital role in the hydrobiology and food chain regulation. The zooplankton diversity of Mahanadi estuary (Odisha was investigated during postmonsoon (December 2009, premonsoon (April 2010 and monsoon (July 2010. Important hydrographical parameters such as water temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen, NO2 (nitrite, NO3 (nitrate, NH4 (ammonia, TN (total nitrogen, PO4 (phosphate, TP (total phosphorous and SiO4 (silicate were measured during the present study along with the study of the qualitative and quantitative aspects of zooplankton. Zooplankton population dominated by copepod at all the stations in all the seasons except during low tide of premonsoon season where caridean larvae were dominant. In total, 86 species of zooplankton, mostly belonging to Crustacea, Chaetognatha, Mollusca, Polychaeta, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Protozoa, Larvacea among the holoplankton and 16 different types of larval forms were encountered. The population density ranged from 52 to 885 org. m-3 with highest density during high tide of post-monsoon i.e., 885 org. m-3. The copepods like Subeucalanus mucronatus, Subeucalanus subcrassus, Sapphirina maculosa, Sapphirina auronitens are recorded for the first time from marine and estuarine ecosystem of Odisha. Presence of 16 different crustacean dominated larval forms signifies the conduciveness of estuary during the whole period for breeding and spawning of shell fishes in the estuary. During the present study, zooplankton population density was positively related with zooplankton biomass.

  15. Zooplankton of an urban coastal lagoon: composition and association with environmental factors and summer fish kill

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo C. e, Souza; Christina W. C., Branco; Patrícia, Domingos; Sérgio L. C., Bonecker.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton may be regarded as a sensitive tool for monitoring environmental variations in coastal lagoons due to their ability to immediately react to changes in the water column trophic features and salinity levels. As a coastal lagoon with a broad history of anthropic influence, Rodrigo de Freita [...] s Lagoon (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) is widely used for water sports and artisanal fishing. The present study aimed to expand the knowledge base about zooplankton in the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon by assessing the composition and time-spatial distribution of the major zooplankton groups. Samples were collected fortnightly from at four distinct sampling points August 2001 to July 2002. At each point, salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and water transparency were measured. During the study period, the lagoon behaved as an spatially homogeneous environment in what regards the abiotic variables. However, all these variables showed significant differences along the time, mainly related to seasonality (air temperature and rainy and dry periods). The zooplankton community showed low taxonomic richness, with the predominance of species commonly found in coastal lagoons, especially with mesohaline conditions, as well as those found in estuaries. An interesting fact was the rise in zooplankton abundance at all sampling points right after a fish kill event. Such increase was caused mainly by the Brachionus plicatilis O.F. Müller 1786 species. Thus, the zooplankton community was affected by physical and chemical factors, mainly by the dissolved oxygen decline event and variations in the influx of seawater into the lagoon. In addition, phytoplankton availability and fish predation pressure were suggested as important regulating factors of the zooplankton community.

  16. Zooplankton of an urban coastal lagoon: composition and association with environmental factors and summer fish kill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo C. e Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton may be regarded as a sensitive tool for monitoring environmental variations in coastal lagoons due to their ability to immediately react to changes in the water column trophic features and salinity levels. As a coastal lagoon with a broad history of anthropic influence, Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is widely used for water sports and artisanal fishing. The present study aimed to expand the knowledge base about zooplankton in the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon by assessing the composition and time-spatial distribution of the major zooplankton groups. Samples were collected fortnightly from at four distinct sampling points August 2001 to July 2002. At each point, salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and water transparency were measured. During the study period, the lagoon behaved as an spatially homogeneous environment in what regards the abiotic variables. However, all these variables showed significant differences along the time, mainly related to seasonality (air temperature and rainy and dry periods. The zooplankton community showed low taxonomic richness, with the predominance of species commonly found in coastal lagoons, especially with mesohaline conditions, as well as those found in estuaries. An interesting fact was the rise in zooplankton abundance at all sampling points right after a fish kill event. Such increase was caused mainly by the Brachionus plicatilis O.F. Müller 1786 species. Thus, the zooplankton community was affected by physical and chemical factors, mainly by the dissolved oxygen decline event and variations in the influx of seawater into the lagoon. In addition, phytoplankton availability and fish predation pressure were suggested as important regulating factors of the zooplankton community.

  17. Environmental assessment of spatial distribution of zooplankton community in Lake Manzalah, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howaida Yehia ZAKARIA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Manzalah is the largest of the four Nile Delta lakes in Egypt. It provides more than 50% of the total inland fisheries of the country. During the last two decades the Lake has been exposed to multiple changes mainly due to local human activities. Monthly zooplankton samples were collected during an integrated environmental monitoring program within the MELMARINA Project that extended from July 2003 to September 2004 to study the distribution and occurrence of zooplankton community in Lake Manzalah. Results showed that, the average zooplankton standing crop was 1277 x 103 individuals m-3 . Spring was the most productive season (2127 x 103 individuals m-3 representing 41.65% to the total zooplankton counts. Five groups dominated zooplankton community; Rotifera, Copepoda, Ostracoda, Protozoa and Cladocera. The meroplanktonic larvae of Polychaeta, Cirripedia, Mysidacea and Gastropoda as well as free living nematods were rarely recorded. Rotifera contributed 81.89% to the total zooplankton community. They were represented by 38 species belonging to 19 genera dominated by genus Brachionus (86.65% of the total Rotifera followed by genus Keratella (8.68%. Keratella species has been indicated as an indicator of pollution. Copepoda (including their larval stages was the second group in order of abundance forming about 14.28% of the total zooplankton counts and represented by seven species. Acanthocyclops americanus was the dominant species. The productivity of Lake Manzalah decreased from 1979 to become highly eutrophic lake during the present study, but with higher production than the other Egyptian lakes. Management is needed to stabilize the Manzalah lake ecosystem in a way that promotes the sustainability of the system.

  18. Eutrophication and warming effects on long-term variation of zooplankton in Lake Biwa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, C. H.; Sakai, Y.; Ban, S.; Ishikawa, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Ichise, S.; Yamamura, N.; Kumagai, M.

    2011-05-01

    We compiled and analyzed long-term (1961-2005) zooplankton community data in response to environmental variations in Lake Biwa. Environmental data indicate that Lake Biwa had experienced eutrophication (according to the total phosphorus concentration) in the late 1960s and recovered to a normal trophic status around 1985, and then has exhibited warming since 1990. Total zooplankton abundance showed a significant correlation with total phytoplankton biomass. Following a classic pattern, the cladoceran/calanoid and cyclopoid/calanoid abundance ratio was related positively to eutrophication. The zooplankton community exhibited a significant response to the boom and bust of phytoplankton biomass as a consequence of eutrophication-reoligotriphication and warming. Moreover, our analyses suggest that the Lake Biwa ecosystem exhibited a hierarchical response across trophic levels; that is, higher trophic levels may show a more delayed response or no response to eutrophication than lower ones. We tested the hypothesis that the phytoplankton community can better explain the variation of the zooplankton community than bulk environmental variables, considering that the phytoplankton community may directly affect the zooplankton succession through predator-prey interactions. Using a variance partition approach, however, we did not find strong evidence to support this hypothesis. We further aggregated zooplankton according to their feeding types (herbivorous, carnivorous, omnivorous, and parasitic) and taxonomic groups, and analyzed the aggregated data. While the pattern remains similar, the results are less clear comparing the results based on finely resolved data. Our research suggests that zooplankton can be bio-indicators of environmental changes; however, the efficacy depends on data resolution.

  19. Eutrophication and warming effects on long-term variation of zooplankton in Lake Biwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Hsieh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We compiled and analyzed long-term (1961–2005 zooplankton community data in response to environmental variations in Lake Biwa. Environmental data indicate that Lake Biwa had experienced eutrophication (according to the total phosphorus concentration in the late 1960s and recovered to a normal trophic status around 1985, and then has exhibited warming since 1990. Total zooplankton abundance showed a significant correlation with total phytoplankton biomass. Following a classic pattern, the cladoceran/calanoid and cyclopoid/calanoid abundance ratio was related positively to eutrophication. The zooplankton community exhibited a significant response to the boom and bust of phytoplankton biomass as a consequence of eutrophication-reoligotriphication and warming. Moreover, our analyses suggest that the Lake Biwa ecosystem exhibited a hierarchical response across trophic levels; that is, higher trophic levels may show a more delayed response or no response to eutrophication than lower ones.

    We tested the hypothesis that the phytoplankton community can better explain the variation of the zooplankton community than bulk environmental variables, considering that the phytoplankton community may directly affect the zooplankton succession through predator-prey interactions. Using a variance partition approach, however, we did not find strong evidence to support this hypothesis. We further aggregated zooplankton according to their feeding types (herbivorous, carnivorous, omnivorous, and parasitic and taxonomic groups, and analyzed the aggregated data. While the pattern remains similar, the results are less clear comparing the results based on finely resolved data. Our research suggests that zooplankton can be bio-indicators of environmental changes; however, the efficacy depends on data resolution.

  20. Eutrophication and warming effects on long-term variation of zooplankton in Lake Biwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Hsieh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We compiled and analyzed long-term (1961–2005 zooplankton community data in response to environmental variations in Lake Biwa. Environmental data indicate that Lake Biwa had experienced eutrophication (according to total phosphorus concentration in the late 1960s and recovered to a normal trophic status around 1985, and then exhibited warming since 1990. Total zooplankton abundance showed a significant correlation with total phytoplankton biomass. Following a classic pattern, cladoceran/calanoid and cyclopoid/calanoid abundance ratio was related positively to eutrophication. Zooplankton community exhibited a significant response to the boom and bust of phytoplankton biomass as a consequence of eutrophication-reoligotriphication and warming. Moreover, our analyses suggest that the Lake Biwa ecosystem exhibited a hierarchical response across trophic levels; that is, higher trophic levels may show a more delayed response or no response to eutrophication than lower ones.

    We tested the hypothesis that phytoplankton community can better explain the variation of zooplankton community than bulk environmental variables, considering that phytoplankton community may directly affects zooplankton succession through predator-prey interactions. Using a variance partition approach, however, we did not find strong evidence to support this hypothesis. We further aggregate zooplankton according to their feeding types (herbivorous, carnivorous, omnivorous, and parasitic and taxonomic groups, and analyzed the aggregated data. While the pattern remains similar, the results are less clear comparing with the results based on finely resolved data. Our research explored the efficacy of using zooplankton as bio-indicators to environmental changes at various data resolutions.

  1. Zooplankton and associated data from CTD casts from 05 May 1997 to 04 March 1998 as part of the Columbia River Land-Margin Ecosystem Research (NODC Accession 0000384)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton densities, zooplankton species identities, chlorophyll, transmissivity, and temperature data were collected from the ROBERT GORDON SPROUL, WECOMA, and...

  2. Combined effect of predatory zooplankton and allelopathic aquatic macrophytes on algal suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shengpeng; Wan, Kun; Ma, Sumin

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the combined effects of four typical predatory zooplankton and allelopathic aquatic macrophytes on algal control in a microcosm system. It would determine the effects of diverse species and biological restoration on the growth of harmful water-bloom microalgae in great lakes polluted by excess nutrients. It was found that the mixtures of each zooplankton and the floating plant Nymphoides peltatum had stronger inhibitory effects on harmful water-bloom microalgae than the individual species in clean or eutrophic water bodies. In addition, a community of four zooplankton types had a synergistic effect on algal inhibition. Algal suppression by the zooplankton community was enhanced significantly when the macrophyte was co-cultured in the microcosm. Furthermore, Chlorella pyrenoidosa was more susceptible than Microcystis aeruginosa when exposed to grazing by zooplankton and the allelopathic potential of the macrophyte. Algal inhibition was also weaker in eutrophic conditions compared with the control. These findings indicate that diverse species may enhance algal inhibition. Therefore, it is necessary to restore biological diversity and rebuild an ecologically balanced food chain or web to facilitate the control of harmful algal blooms in eutrophic lakes. PMID:25409583

  3. Zooplankton characterisation of Pampean saline shallow lakes, habitat of the Andean flamingoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamila S. Battauz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The lowland saline shallow lakes in the Pampa de las Lagunas (Argentina, constitute an important habitat for flamingoes Phoenicopterus chilensis Molina and Phoenicoparrus andinus (Philippii. Little is known about the zooplankton communities of these systems, and their relationships with the temporal and spatial distribution of flamingoes. Ten shallow lakes in the Pampean region were studied in 2009 and 2010 winters, and in 2010 summer in order to assess the abundance, size and biomass of zooplankton and the density of flamingoes populations. Zooplankton was represented by 28 species. Copepods and cladocerans were dominant when salinity was lower (winter and summer of 2010. Seasonal changes were recorded in composition and mean abundance of zooplankton. Significant differences were  observed in mean size of zooplankton showing a negative relationship with the abundance of P. chilensis, which can be interpreted as a consequence of the selective flamingoes zooplanktophagy feeding upon the largest members of this community. Other community parameters, such as abundance, biomass, diversity and composition, did not show an apparent direct relationship with the presence or abundance of flamingoes.

  4. Zooplankton Atlas of the Southern Ocean: The SCAR SO-CPR Survey (1991-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, David J.; Hosie, Graham W.; Kitchener, John A.; Takahashi, Kunio T.; Hunt, Brian P. V.

    2010-08-01

    The SCAR Southern Ocean Continuous Plankton Recorder (SO-CPR) Survey produces one of the largest and most accessed zooplankton data sets in the world. These data serve as a reference for other Southern Ocean monitoring programmes such as those run by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) and the developing Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS). It has been instrumental in providing baseline data on zooplankton composition, communities, and distribution patterns on the ocean basin scale. The SO-CPR Survey is publishing the first detailed geographical atlas of the near-surface Southern Ocean zooplankton. This atlas is based on 22,553 CPR samples collected from 1991 to 2008 from voyages operated by Australia, Japan, Germany, New Zealand, USA and Russia. The Atlas documents the distribution and abundance of the 50 most abundant zooplankton taxa amongst the 200+ taxa sampled. The maps are printed in alphabetical order of the genera within each taxon and nomenclature is based on the Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS) developed by the SCAR Marine Biodiversity Information Network (SCAR-MarBIN). The SO-CPR Atlas will operate as a ready reference to researchers interested in the distribution of zooplankton in the Southern Ocean, for example knowing the distribution of grazers in relation to phytoplankton production or the availability of prey for higher predators.

  5. Dynamics of zooplankton community of Lake Tarasmozero in long-term anthropogenic pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchko Yaroslav Alexandrovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of zooplankton studies in Lake Tarasmozero (Lizhma river basin are presented. Wastes from the trout-breeding complex "Kedrozero" have been collected in this pond since 1992. The obtained data showed that from 1989 to 2012 a number of changes in zooplankton community take place and it is the evidence of the gradual increase in the trophic status of the reservoir. The average biomass of zooplankton increased from 500 to 1000 mg/m3. According to the trophic index (Myaemets, 1979, Tarasmozero is replaced into the category of mesotrophic water reservoirs (0.5 - 1.0. Saprobity index raised from 0.95 to 1.42. In the composition of the zooplankton there noted such species, as Polyarthra luminosa, Filinia longiseta, Trichocerca insignis, Daphnia longispina, Cyclops kolensis, which serve as indicators of increased trophic level in the conditions of moderate latitudes. After the trout farm started off, Bcrus/Brot indicator considerably decreased indicating to increasing role of rotifers in the formation of the total biomass of the zooplankton. Currently, the dominant species include D. longispina, Bosmina longirostris, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Asplanchna priodonta. In spite of the fact that the current changes are not catastrophic, it is reasonable to monitor regularly the initial links of the trophic chain of the reservoir ecosystem

  6. Local and regional factors influencing zooplankton communities in the connected Kasseb Reservoir, Tunisia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ikbel, Sellami; Jannet, Elloumi; Asma, Hamza; Mohammed Alaoui, Mhamdi; Habib, Ayadi.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Associations between zooplankton community structure and abiotic (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, nutriments) and biotic factors (chlorophyll a and phytoplankton community) were examined, in Kasseb Reservoir, northern Tunisia. Samples were taken bimonthly from July to December 2002 at 3 sa [...] mpling stations (deepest station: Station 1, Brik River: Station 2 and M'Zaz Stama River: Station 3). From our results it is evident that zooplankton exhibit seasonally and spatially heterogeneous distribution. The highest density of zooplankton was recorded in September at a depth of 5 m (10.8 × 10³ ind·?-1). At Station 1 cyclopoid copepods (65% of total abundance) were the most abundant group followed by Cladocera (21% of total abundance). At Station 2 (93% of total abundance) and Station 3 (98% of total abundance) cyclopoid copepods were numerically dominant throughout the study period. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to estimate the influence of abiotic and biotic factors in structuring the zooplankton assemblage. Zooplankton abundance was negatively correlated with turbidity (r= -0.381, P

  7. Variability of zooplankton communities at Condor seamount and surrounding areas, Azores (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Vanda; Santos, Mariana; Menezes, Gui M.; Loureiro, Clara M.; Lambardi, Paolo; Martins, Ana

    2013-12-01

    Seamounts are common topographic features around the Azores archipelago (NE Atlantic). Recently there has been increasing research effort devoted to the ecology of these ecosystems. In the Azores, the mesozooplankon is poorly studied, particularly in relation to these seafloor elevations. In this study, zooplankton communities in the Condor seamount area (Azores) were investigated during March, July and September 2010. Samples were taken during both day and night with a Bongo net of 200 µm mesh that towed obliquely within the first 100 m of the water column. Total abundance, biomass and chlorophyll a concentrations did not vary with sampling site or within the diel cycle but significant seasonal variation was observed. Moreover, zooplankton community composition showed the same strong seasonal pattern regardless of spatial or daily variability. Despite seasonal differences, the zooplankton community structure remained similar for the duration of this study. Seasonal variability better explained our results than mesoscale spatial variability. Spatial homogeneity is probably related with island proximity and local dynamics over Condor seamount. Zooplankton literature for the region is sparse, therefore a short review of the most important zooplankton studies from the Azores is also presented.

  8. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir (Miass, RU); Krivospitski, Vladimir (Miass, RU); Maksimov, Vasili (Miass, RU); Halstead, Richard (Rohnert Park, CA); Grahov, Jurij (Miass, RU)

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  9. Zooplankton data collected from BUREVESTNIK and other platforms in White Sea; 28 October 1952 to 12 February 1958 (NODC Accession 9900004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected using zooplankton net casts in White Sea from BUREVESTNIK and other platforms. Data were collected from 28 October 1952 to 12...

  10. Sound scattering by several zooplankton groups. II. Scattering models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, T K; Chu, D; Wiebe, P H

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical scattering models are derived and compared with data from zooplankton from several gross anatomical groups--fluidlike, elastic shelled, and gas bearing. The models are based upon the acoustically inferred boundary conditions determined from laboratory backscattering data presented in part I of this series [Stanton et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 225-235 (1998)]. The models use a combination of ray theory, modal-series solution, and distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA). The formulations, which are inherently approximate, are designed to include only the dominant scattering mechanisms as determined from the experiments. The models for the fluidlike animals (euphausiids in this case) ranged from the simplest case involving two rays, which could qualitatively describe the structure of target strength versus frequency for single pings, to the most complex case involving a rough inhomogeneous asymmetrically tapered bent cylinder using the DWBA-based formulation which could predict echo levels over all angles of incidence (including the difficult region of end-on incidence). The model for the elastic shelled body (gastropods in this case) involved development of an analytical model which takes into account irregularities and discontinuities of the shell. The model for gas-bearing animals (siphonophores) is a hybrid model which is composed of the summation of the exact solution to the gas sphere and the approximate DWBA-based formulation for arbitrarily shaped fluidlike bodies. There is also a simplified ray-based model for the siphonophore. The models are applied to data involving single pings, ping-to-ping variability, and echoes averaged over many pings. There is reasonable qualitative agreement between the predictions and single ping data, and reasonable quantitative agreement between the predictions and variability and averages of echo data. PMID:9440326

  11. Diel vertical migration arising in a habitat selection game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainmont, Julie; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Visser, Andre

    2013-01-01

    , avoiding their predator during their peak performance by finding refuge in deep layers during daylight hours and feeding at the surface during the night. Due to the duality of the interaction between prey and predator, we used a game theory approach to investigate whether DVM can be a suitable strategy for...... the predator as well as the prey. We formulated three scenarios in plankton ecology in order to address this question. A novel finding is that mixed strategies emerge as optimal over a range of the parameter space, where part of the predator or prey population adopts a DVM while the rest adopt one or...

  12. Metal and proton toxicity to lake zooplankton: A chemical speciation based modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WHAM-FTOX model quantifies the combined toxic effects of protons and metal cations towards aquatic organisms through the toxicity function (FTOX), a linear combination of the products of organism-bound cation and a toxic potency coefficient for each cation. We describe the application of the model to predict an observable ecological field variable, species richness of pelagic lake crustacean zooplankton, studied with respect to either acidification or the impacts of metals from smelters. The fitted results give toxic potencies increasing in the order H+ TOX to relate combined toxic effects of protons and metal cations towards lake crustacean zooplankton. • The fitted results give toxic potencies increasing in the order H+ TOX model has been applied to field data for pelagic lake crustacean zooplankton. The fitted results give metal toxic potencies increasing in the order H+ < Al < Cu < Zn < Ni

  13. Zooplankton composition in five oxbow lakes from the Upper Juruá River, Acre State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Alencar dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted in five oxbow lakes located between Cruzeiro do Sul and Rodrigues Alves counties (Acre State, Brazil, to provide additional information about the composition of zooplankton assemblages in the Upper Juruá River. Samples were collected from May 2009 to May 2010, and fixed with 4% formalina. The numeric density (ind.m -3 was obtained from subsequent sub-samples (1 mL. The study recorded 19 zooplankton families. Rotifers showed higher species richness (81 species, followed by cladocerans (3 species and various forms of copepods and other organisms. Higher zooplankton means of numeric density was found in Novo Lake, with rotifers (1879 ind.m -3, cladocerans (207 ind.m -3, copepods (870 ind.m -3 . Diversity and numeric density were similar to other Neotropical aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Zooplankton community changes confound the biodilution theory of methylmercury accumulation in a recovering mercury-contaminated lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Svetoslava; Driscoll, Charles T; Matthews, David A; Effler, Steven W

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the biodilution hypothesis of methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation was examined in a Hg-contaminated ecosystem that has undergone concurrent changes in nutrient loading and zooplankton community composition. Using a long-term record of 17 years (between 1980 and 2009), we demonstrate that zooplankton MeHg concentrations in Onondaga Lake, NY, are strongly driven by changes in the zooplankton community and body size. MeHg concentrations in zooplankton increased with an increase in body size and biomass. The highest concentrations of MeHg were observed under eutrophic and hypereutrophic conditions when large-bodied Daphnia species, Daphnia pulicaria and Daphnia galeata mendotae, were present. Bioconcentration rather than biodilution was governing the accumulation of MeHg in zooplankton without apparent growth dilution or zooplankton biomass dilution. Algal-bloom dilution controlled the variability in the MeHg concentration only under hypereutrophic conditions when Ceriodaphnia predominated the cladoceran population. Our study demonstrates that changes in zooplankton community composition confound the biodilution theory in Onondaga Lake and that the presence of large-bodied zooplankton species drives elevated MeHg concentrations. PMID:25741879

  15. Inter-annual variability of a zooplankton community: the importance of summer concentrated rainfall in a regulated river ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yun Choi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We monitored the zooplankton community dynamics of a regulated river system (the Nakdong River in South Korea,in an effort to characterize the relationship between basin rainfall quantity and changes in zooplankton communitystructure. The river studied herein has four multipurpose dams upstream and one estuarine barrage at the river mouth,resulting in intensive flow regulation. We hypothesized that flow regulation would effect zooplankton community structurechanges not only within the summer period of concentrated rainfall, but also during the subsequent seasons. Fieldmonitoring was conducted on a weekly basis (1999 to 2009 at the study site (27 km upstream from the estuary dam.The studied years were divided into two groups: rainy years with annual rainfall greater than total average annual rainfall,and dry years (years with lower than average annual rainfall. The zooplankton community data was also dividedinto two groups according to year and community structural characteristics. The summer density of zooplankton waslow during the summer concentrated rainfall period. In the autumn, zooplankton density was statistically related toriver flow (r2 = 0.30, P < 0.05, N = 11, which was affected by the summer concentrated rainfall (r2 = 0.31, P < 0.05, N = 11.Furthermore, autumn zooplankton density was positively related to that observed in the summer (r2 = 0.53, P < 0.05, N= 11. Therefore, it can be concluded that summer concentrated rainfall can affect the following seasons’ zooplanktondensities caused by dam flow control, and the potential growth rate of zooplankton

  16. International Migration and Remittances

    OpenAIRE

    Dattatray Sitaram Bagade

    2012-01-01

    Human migration is a physical movement by human beings from one geographical areato another geographical area. Migration is internal as well as external. At theinternational level, no universally accepted definition for “Migrant” exists. The UniteNations defines “migration as an individual who has resided in a foreign country formore than one year irrespective of the causes, voluntary or involuntary, and the means,regular or irregular, used migrate”. Key terms of migrations is documented migr...

  17. Food habits of Juvenile American Shad and dynamics of zooplankton in the lower Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, C.A.; Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    As many as 2.4 million adult American shad annually pass John Day Dam, Columbia River to spawn upriver, yet food web interactions of juvenile shad rearing in John Day Reservoir are unexplored. We collected zooplankton and conducted mid-water trawls in McNary (June-July) and John Day reservoirs (August-November) from 1994 through 1996 during the outmigration of subyearling American shad and Chinook salmon. Juvenile American shad were abundant and represented over 98% of the trawl catch in late summer. The five major taxa collected in zooplankton tows were Bosmina longirostris, Daphnia, cyclopoid cope-pods, rotifers, and calanoid copepods. We evaluated total crustacean zooplankton abundance and Daphnia biomass in relation to water temperature, flow, depth, diel period, and cross-sectional location using multiple regression. Differences in zooplankton abundance were largely due to differences in water temperature and flow. Spatial variation in total zooplankton abundance was observed in McNary Reservoir, but not in John Day Reservoir. Juvenile American shad generally fed on numerically abundant prey, despite being less preferred than larger bodied zooplankton. A decrease in cladoceran abundance and size in August coupled with large percentages of Daphnia in juvenile American shad stomachs indicated heavy planktivory. Smaller juvenile American shad primarily fed on Daphnia in August, but switched to more evasive copepods as the mean size of fish increased and Daphnia abundance declined. Because Daphnia are particularly important prey items for subyearling Chinook salmon in mainstem reservoirs in mid to late summer, alterations in the cladoceran food base is of concern for the management of outmigrating salmonids and other Columbia River fishes. ?? 2006 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Stable isotope methods: The effect of gut contents on isotopic ratios of zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. M.; McQuaid, C. D.

    2011-05-01

    In the past decade there has been an increased awareness of the potential for methodological bias resulting from multiple pre-analytical procedures in foodweb interpretations based on stable isotope techniques. In the case of small organisms, this includes the effect of gut contents on whole body signatures. Although gut contents may not reflect actual assimilation, their carbon and nitrogen values will be isotopically lighter than after the same material has been assimilated. The potential skewing of isotopic ratios in whole organism samples is especially important for aquatic environments as many studies involve trophic relationships among small zooplankton. This is particularly important in pelagic waters, where herbivorous zooplankton comprise small taxa. Hence this study investigated the effect of gut contents on the ?13C and ?15N ratios of three size classes of zooplankton (1.0-2.0, 2.0-4.0 and >4.0 mm) collected using bongo net tows in the tropical waters of the south-west Indian Ocean. Animals were collected at night, when they were likely to be feeding, sieved into size classes and separated into genera. We focused on Euphausia spp which dominated zooplankton biomass. Three treatment types were processed: bulk animals, bulk animals without guts and tail muscle from each size class at 10 bongo stations. The ?15N ratios were influenced by zooplankton size class, presumably reflecting ontogenetic changes in diet. ANOVA post hoc results and correlations in ?15N signatures among treatments suggest that gut contents may not affect overall nitrogen signatures of Euphausia spp., but that ?13C signatures may be significantly altered by their presence. Carbon interpretations however, were complicated by potential effects of variation in chitin, lipids and metabolism among tissues and the possibility of opportunistic omnivory. Consequently we advocate gut evacuation before sacrifice in euphausiids if specific tissue dissection is impractical and recommend caution when using isotopic ratios of whole body zooplankton for trophic interpretations.

  19. Major and trace elements in zooplankton from the Northern Gulf of California during summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentería-Cano, Margarita Elena; Sánchez-Velasco, Laura; Shumilin, Evgueni; Lavín, Miguel F; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime

    2011-09-01

    We report the distribution of major and trace element concentrations in epipelagic zooplankton collected in the Northern Gulf of California in August 2003. The Bray-Curtis index defined three element assemblages in zooplankton: (1) major metals, which included only two elements, Na (3.6-17.0%) and Ca (1.0-4.8%). Na had its highest concentrations in the shallow tidally mixed Upper Gulf, where high salinity, temperature, and zooplankton biomass (dominated by copepods) prevailed. Ca showed its highest concentrations south of Ballenas Channel, characterized by tidal mixing and convergence-induced upwelling, indicated by low sea-surface temperature, salinity, and zooplankton biomass; (2) Six biological essential elements, like Fe (80-9,100 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (20-2,570 mg kg(-1)), were detected in high concentrations in zooplankton collected near Guaymas Basin, which had high surface temperature and chlorophyll a concentrations. (3) Metals of terrigenous origin, such as Sc (0.01-1.4 mg kg(-1)) and Th (0.03-2.3 mg kg(-1)), and redox-sensitive metals, like Co (3-23.8 mg kg(-1)); this was the assemblage with the largest number of elements (15). Both types of elements of assemblage 3 had maximum concentrations in the cyclonic eddy that dominates the summer circulation in the Northern region. We concluded that sediment resuspension by tidal mixing in the Upper Gulf, upwelling south of Ballenas Channel, and the cyclonic eddy were key oceanographic features that affected the element concentrations of epipelagic zooplankton in the Northern Gulf of California. Oceanographic mechanisms such as these may contribute to element incorporation in marine organisms in other seas. PMID:20820942

  20. Potential Importance of Fish Predation and Zooplankton Grazing on Natural Populations of Freshwater Bacteria †

    OpenAIRE

    Riemann, Bo

    1985-01-01

    The rates of ingestion of natural bacterial assemblages by natural populations of zooplankton (>50 ?m in size) were measured during a 19-day period in eutrophic Frederiksborg Slotssø, Denmark, as well as in experimental enclosures (containing 5.3 m3 of lake water). The fish and nutrients of the enclosures were manipulated. In enclosures without fish, large increases in ingestion by zooplankton >140 ?m in size were found (up to 3 ?g of C liter?1 h?1), compared with values less than 0.3 ?g of C...

  1. Zooplankton of the waters adjacent to the C. P. Crane generating station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, G.C.; Womack, C.J.; Olney, J.E.

    1980-08-01

    Zooplankton population in the Gunpowder River and its tributaries were sampled monthly from July, 1979-March, 1980 in a continuation of similar studies begun in March, 1979. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the present once-through cooling system of the Crane Power Plant. The principal effect of the C.P. Crane generating station on zooplankton of the area is a displacement of an original freshwater community through the pumping of cooling water from Seneca Creek to Saltpeter Creek.

  2. Signatures of currency vertices

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2008-01-01

    Many real-world networks have broad degree distributions. For some systems, this means that the functional significance of the vertices is also broadly distributed, in other cases the vertices are equally significant, but in different ways. One example of the latter case is metabolic networks, where the high-degree vertices -- the currency metabolites -- supply the molecular groups to the low-degree metabolites, and the latter are responsible for the higher-order biological function, of vital importance to the organism. In this paper, we propose a generalization of currency metabolites to currency vertices. We investigate the network structural characteristics of such systems, both in model networks and in some empirical systems. In addition to metabolic networks, we find that a network of music collaborations and a network of e-mail exchange could be described by a division of the vertices into currency vertices and others.

  3. Downward particle flux and carbon export in the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean; the role of zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J.-C.; Gasser, B.; Martín, J.; Marec, C.; Babin, M.; Fortier, L.; Forest, A.

    2015-08-01

    As part of the international, multidisciplinary project Malina, downward particle fluxes were investigated by means of a drifting multi-sediment trap mooring deployed at three sites in the Canadian Beaufort Sea in late summer 2009. Mooring deployments lasted between 28 and 50 h and targeted the shelf-break and the slope along the Beaufort-Mackenzie continental margin, as well as the edge between the Mackenzie Shelf and the Amundsen Gulf. Besides analyses of C and N, the collected material was investigated for pigments, phyto- and microzooplankton, faecal pellets and swimmers. The measured fluxes were relatively low, in the range of 11-54 mg m-2 d-1 for the total mass, 1-15 mg C m-2 d-1 for organic carbon and 0.2-2.5 mg N m-2 d-1 for nitrogen. Comparison with a long-term trap data set from the same sampling area showed that the short-term measurements were at the lower end of the high variability characterizing a rather high flux regime during the study period. The sinking material consisted of aggregates and particles that were characterized by the presence of hetero- and autotrophic microzooplankters and diatoms and by the corresponding pigment signatures. Faecal pellets contribution to sinking carbon flux was important, especially at depths below 100 m, where they represented up to 25 % of the total carbon flux. The vertical distribution of different morphotypes of pellets showed a marked pattern with cylindrical faeces (produced by calanoid copepods) present mainly within the euphotic zone, whereas elliptical pellets (produced mainly by smaller copepods) were more abundant at mesopelagic depths. These features, together with the density of matter within the pellets, highlighted the role of the zooplankton community in the transformation of carbon issued from the primary production and the transition of that carbon from the productive surface zone to the Arctic Ocean's interior. Our data indicate that sinking carbon flux in this late summer period is primarily the result of a heterotrophic-driven ecosystem.

  4. Current status of zooplankton in reservoir R-3 of the 'Mayak' production association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipova, O.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I. [FSUE Mayak PA (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    One of the commonly used objects for the study of human influence on aquatic ecosystems is zooplankton. Zooplankton community is a sensitive component of biota in reservoir which can change their functional parameters and species composition in response to exposure to different factors. The role of zooplankton in the transformation of energy and in the biotic cycling of the substance is very important. The study of the responses of this element in the water ecosystem with anthropogenic influences, including radioactive contamination, is an important task. The object of the study was the zooplankton in the reservoir R-3, Chelyabinsk region, Russia. R-3 is located in the buffer zone of the 'Mayak' PA and is the storage for low-level radioactive waste. In addition to the high content of radionuclides (the average specific activity of {sup 90}Sr in water was 2.8 kBq/l, {sup 137}Cs - 0.7 kBq/l), this reservoir is characterized by high values of dichromate oxidizability and phosphate contamination. Previously, the study of the zooplankton of this reservoir was conducted in 1952, regular observations were not organized. Assessment of the current status of the community, more than half a century residing in the conditions of radioactive and chemical contamination, seems highly interesting. Sampling was carried out in 2011-2012 at three stations: in the upper, middle, and near the dam of the reservoir by the method of weighted average of samples with bathometer. Analysis of samples showed that the zooplankton community consists of the following major groups: rotifers and cladocerans and copepods crustaceans. In total in R-3 27 species of zooplankton, including 19 species of rotifers, 3 species of copepod and 3 species of cladocerans, as well as two species of ciliates were discovered. Zooplankton abundance in 2011 was 9±9 million individuals/m{sup 3} (given the mean and standard deviation), in 2012 - 26.0±0.9 million individuals/m{sup 3}. The main contribution was that of rotifers: 88.5 % of the total number of zooplankton organisms in 2011 and 97.5 % - in 2012. In general, the studied community is characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity of the structure without overwhelming dominance of one species. When compared with data obtained in 1952 by team headed by A.N. Marey, it could be said that the crustacean species has almost completely disappeared from zooplankton community along with the increase in the total abundance of planktonic animals which is two or three orders of magnitude higher due to the development of rotifers. These changes are characteristic of eutrophication processes that obviously play an important role in shaping the modern image of the zooplankton community in the reservoir R-3. Further investigation is required to determine the stability of the changes and clarify the role of radiation and chemical factors in these processes. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  5. Current status of zooplankton in reservoir R-3 of the 'Mayak' production association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the commonly used objects for the study of human influence on aquatic ecosystems is zooplankton. Zooplankton community is a sensitive component of biota in reservoir which can change their functional parameters and species composition in response to exposure to different factors. The role of zooplankton in the transformation of energy and in the biotic cycling of the substance is very important. The study of the responses of this element in the water ecosystem with anthropogenic influences, including radioactive contamination, is an important task. The object of the study was the zooplankton in the reservoir R-3, Chelyabinsk region, Russia. R-3 is located in the buffer zone of the 'Mayak' PA and is the storage for low-level radioactive waste. In addition to the high content of radionuclides (the average specific activity of 90Sr in water was 2.8 kBq/l, 137Cs - 0.7 kBq/l), this reservoir is characterized by high values of dichromate oxidizability and phosphate contamination. Previously, the study of the zooplankton of this reservoir was conducted in 1952, regular observations were not organized. Assessment of the current status of the community, more than half a century residing in the conditions of radioactive and chemical contamination, seems highly interesting. Sampling was carried out in 2011-2012 at three stations: in the upper, middle, and near the dam of the reservoir by the method of weighted average of samples with bathometer. Analysis of samples showed that the zooplankton community consists of the following major groups: rotifers and cladocerans and copepods crustaceans. In total in R-3 27 species of zooplankton, including 19 species of rotifers, 3 species of copepod and 3 species of cladocerans, as well as two species of ciliates were discovered. Zooplankton abundance in 2011 was 9±9 million individuals/m3 (given the mean and standard deviation), in 2012 - 26.0±0.9 million individuals/m3. The main contribution was that of rotifers: 88.5 % of the total number of zooplankton organisms in 2011 and 97.5 % - in 2012. In general, the studied community is characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity of the structure without overwhelming dominance of one species. When compared with data obtained in 1952 by team headed by A.N. Marey, it could be said that the crustacean species has almost completely disappeared from zooplankton community along with the increase in the total abundance of planktonic animals which is two or three orders of magnitude higher due to the development of rotifers. These changes are characteristic of eutrophication processes that obviously play an important role in shaping the modern image of the zooplankton community in the reservoir R-3. Further investigation is required to determine the stability of the changes and clarify the role of radiation and chemical factors in these processes. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  6. Horizontal and vertical dynamics of zooplankton and larval fish communities during mid-summer in Disko Bay, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2015-01-01

    Disko Bay is a highly productive inlet at the border between high- and low-arctic sectors of west Greenland. The physical/chemical conditions in the bay have changed during recent decades, specifically during an inflow event in 1996–1997 that led to increased deep-water temperatures. To further...

  7. Horizontal and vertical dynamics of zooplankton and larval fish communities during mid-summer in Disko Bay, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2015-01-01

    Disko Bay is a highly productive inlet at the border between high- and low-arctic sectors of west Greenland. The physical/chemical conditions in the bay have changed during recent decades, specifically during an inflow event in 1996–1997 that led to increased deep-water temperatures. To further understand the consequences of physical changes to the plankton community in the bay, we examine findings from a field study on mesozooplankton and fish larvae in the areas of Disko Bay and Disko Bank car...

  8. The Vertical Distribution of Zooplankton at Ocean Station "P" in June-July, 1971 (NODC Accession 7500631)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The report contains the data gathered at Ocean Station "P" in late June and early July of 1971 on the "SUBARCTIC-A" cruise of R/V YAQUINA. The data include: 1)...

  9. In different pressure an experimental study on migration of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The migration study of Radon in the air is the foundation theory problems of radon measurement and protection. Basing on experiment, this paper uses the method of active carbon accumulated measuring radon to study the migration regularity of radon gas in different gas pressure. Through series experiments, following conclusions can be obtained: the migration velocity of radon in the air is related with the air pressure, with greater air pressure, the conveyance speed is faster. Especially at low-pressure state the downward migration is more apparent. Through the comparison of measurement results of radon in vertical direction and a horizontal direction, the migration ability of radon in the vertical height is far larger than that in the horizontal direction whatever the pressure is. The average speed of radon in different pressures cases are estimated as follows: the upward migration average speed under atmospheric environment is 1.02 × 10-6 m/s, the downward migration average speed is 2.08 × 10-6 m/s; The upward migration average speed under -0.06 MPa vacuum environment is 0 91 × 10-6 m/s, the downward migration average speed is 2.77 × 10-6 m/s. As is consistent with the practical measurement result. (authors)

  10. Vertical distribution and isotopic composition of living planktonic foraminifera in the western North Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen species of planktonic foraminifera collected with vertically stratified zooplankton tows in the slope water, Gulf Stream cold core ring, and northern Sargasso Sea show significant differences in their vertical distributions in the upper 200 meters of these different hydrographic regimes. Gulf Stream cold core rings may be responsible for a southern displacement of the faunal boundary associated with the Gulf Stream when reconstructed from the deep-sea sediment record. Oxygen isotope analyses of seven species reveal that nonspinose species (algal symbiont-barren) apparently calcify in oxygen isotope equilibrium, whereas spinose species usually calcify out of oxygen isotope equilibrium by approximately -0.3 to -0.4 per mil in delta18O values. The isotope data indicate that foraminifera shells calcify in depth zones that are significantly narrower than the overall vertical distribution of a species would imply

  11. Vertical pump assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mounting is described of the drive assembly of a vertical pump for nuclear power plants in areas with seismic risk. The assembly is attached to the building floor using flexible and damping elements. The design allows producing seismically resistant pumps without major design changes in the existing types of vertical pumps. (E.S.). 1 fig

  12. First study on the zooplankton of the Kerid (Kerið Crater Lake, Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Evtimova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied the qualitative composition of zooplankton of the Kerid Crater Lake. We found 10 taxa from which five rotifers and two lower crustaceans. Three of the recorded species are new to the freshwater fauna of Iceland: the rotifer species Keratella cf. americana Carlin, 1943 and Colurella sulcata (Stenroos, 1898, and the crustacean harpacticoid Bryocamptus (Bryocamptus minutus (Claus, 1863.

  13. Pollution effect on specific composition and diversity of zooplankton in Syrian coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to compare specific composition of zooplankton in relatively polluted water with that in water considered clean. Certain differences in specific composition and in number of species were found for the two types of water

  14. Metal and proton toxicity to lake zooplankton: A chemical speciation based modelling approach.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stockdale, A.; Tipping, E.; Lofts, S.; Fott, J.; Garmo, Ø.; Hruška, Jakub; Keller, B.; Löfgren, S.; Maberlyh, S.; Majer, V.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A.; Persson, G.; Schartau, A.; Thackeray, S. J.; Valois, A.; Vrba, Jaroslav; Walseng, B.; Yan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 186, MAR (2014), s. 115-125. ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA ?R GA206/07/1200 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : chemical speciation * bioavailability * recovery * crustacean zooplankton * lakes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.143, year: 2014

  15. Zooplankton Linkages between Rivers and Great Lakes: Case Study from the St. Louis River

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this case study, we characterized the spatial and seasonal distribution and abundance of zooplankton within the hydrologically complex drowned river mouth of the St. Louis River, the second largest tributary to Lake Superior and an important fish nursery. We hypothesize that z...

  16. Relative abundance and diel variation of zooplankton from south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Peter, K.J.

    the traditional fishing grounds of Kerala Coast. Average biomass values ranged from 45-95 ml 100/m sup(-3). Increase in zooplankton at night was discernible at most of the stations and the highest biomass noticed was 131 ml 100/m sup(-3). Copepods formed the most...

  17. Zooplankton biomass and potential fishery resources of the EEZ of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    An assessment of zooplankton biomass, secondary production and potential fishery resources of the EEZ of India was made from the data collected during a period of 15 years from 1976 to 1991. The areas studied included the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal...

  18. Changes in fish production effectivity in eutrophic fishponds of zooplankton structure.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potužák, J.; H?da, J.; Pechar, Libor

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 15, - (2007), s. 201-210. ISSN 0967-6120 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/640/18/03; GA MŽP(CZ) SL/1/6/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : fishponds * zooplankton * eutrophication * fish management * primary production Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 0.828, year: 2007

  19. Phosphorus flux through a littoral ecosystem: The importance of cladoceran zooplankton and young fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foodchain relationships in water within a helophytic vegetation stand were experimentally investigated using 33P as tracer. The results proved the importance of cladoceran zooplankton (mainly Bosmina longispina Leydig) in the control of phytoplankton and the importance of young fish in the control of Bosmina abundance in the littoral water. (author)

  20. Correlations between zooplankton assemblages and environmental factors in the downtown rivers of Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Na; Li, Erchao; Feng, Dexiang; Xiao, Baicai; Wei, Chaoqun; Zhang, Meiling; Chen, Liqiao

    2014-11-01

    Most urban rivers play an important role in urban flood control and drainage in China, but pollution is fast becoming an issue of greater importance in water management. In this study, 63 zooplankton species were recorded in four downtown rivers in Shanghai between November 2007 and October 2008. Of these, 44 species belonged to the Rotifera, 13 to Cladocera, and six to Copepoda. The three most frequently occurring zooplankton ( Brachionus calyciflorus, Microcyclops leuckarti, and Asplanchna priodonta) accounted for 80.00%, 76.84%, and 53.68%, respectively. Rotifera were found to be dominant, comprising 86.26% of total zooplankton, while cladoceran and copepod abundance amounted to 5.08% and 8.67%, respectively. Water temperature, salinity, electrical conductivity, and total nitrogen were of the greatest significance in the occurrence of zooplankton. Two species ( Schmackeria forbesi and Lepadella ovalis) were notably more sensitive to environmental factors such as salinity and electrical conductivity than other species. The population size and community were inversely correlated with the increasing nutrient levels of the four rivers, suggesting that the water quality of the four rivers had been gradually recovering from a severe eutrophic state and that water conditions of the rivers had been gradually improved.

  1. Effects of acid and cadmium on improved zooplankton in a Canadian shield lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of plankton invertebrate populations of added acid and of cadmium were monitored in seven 1.5 x 10/sup 5/ L impoundments placed over sediments in a lake being artificially acidified. Two enclosures were acidified to pH 5 and pH 4 and immediate effects on the zooplankton community studied. 1, 3, 10, and 30 ..mu..g cadmium/L were added to each of four enclosures in 1977 and residual effects of 1-10 ..mu..g Cd/L on the zooplankton community studied in 1978. The system containing 30 ..mu..g Cd/L was acidified to pH 4 in 1978 and effects on the zooplankton monitored. The biomass of the control impoundment was dominated by Diaptomus minutus. In all but one manipulated system the average total biomass was lower than in the control. The zooplankton biomass of manipulated systems were dominated by Tropocyclops prasinus mexicanus, Bosmina longirostris or rotifers. 14 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Relative abundance of resident versus oceanic zooplankton over an interisland reef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zooplankton were collected from various substrate types. Densities were determined and results indicated that demersal plankton were abundant on the Japtan reef flat. Behavioral mechanisms were exhibited by many organisms including swimming near the substrate or in the lees of coral heads. Demersal plankton may provide an important food source for nocturnally foraging fishes

  3. Seasonal composition and population density of zooplankton in Lake Timsah, Suez Canal, Egypt:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. El-Sherbiny

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton composition and abundance were investigated seasonally at ten sites in Lake Timsah and the adjacent, connected western lagoon in relation to the physico-chemical conditions. A total of 42 taxa (including larval stages were identified, among them 21 species of copepods, 6 rotifers, 5 cladocerans, 1 chaetognath and 1 urochordate. Copepods represented the predominant component (77.7% of the total community, followed by rotifers, molluscs, cladocerans and (9.2, 4.7 and 3.9% respectively, while other groups collectively formed about 4.5% of the total zooplankton population. Summer was the most productive season with an average count of 40 864 individuals m-3. The dominant copepod species were Paracalanus crassirostris and Oithona nana representing 28.3 and 24.3% of the total zooplankton respectively. The total zooplankton count, including copepods, and its dominant species showed significant positive correlations with temperature, pH and total phytoplankton density. However, negative correlations were detected between densities of rotifers, and salinity and dissolved oxygen.

  4. Field responses to zooplankton populations to temperature changes caused by reactor operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field determinations of thermal tolerance limits for zooplankton have helped in the definition of experiments needed to evaluate the effects of reactor operations upon these animals. Currently, the rates of births and deaths for populations of Cladocera are being quantified in hyperthermal and nonhyperthermal areas of the reactor cooling reservoir, Par Pond

  5. Biochemical composition of zooplankton of Bombay High (oil platform) area in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, K.L.; Wagh, A.B.

    Variations in the biochemical constituents and calorific values of zooplankton from an off-shore oil processing platform were estimated. Mean value of biomass was 0.35 ml.m/3 with relatively higher values during post-monsoon period. Copepods formed...

  6. ZOOPLANKTON SIZE-SPECTRA AS AN INDICATOR IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zooplankton size-spectra has the potential to be used as an indicator of ecological condition. Mean size and size-distribution are effected by planktivore pressure and therefore reflect trophic cascade interactions as well as size selective predation. We used an optical plankton ...

  7. Application of normalized biomass size spectra to laser optical plankton counter net intercomparisons of zooplankton distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, A. W.; Harvey, M.

    2006-05-01

    The optical plankton counter (OPC) and recently the laser OPC (LOPC) have been used primarily in two measurement applications: (1) identification of specific zooplankton species and (2) changes in zooplankton community structure using size-based spectral measurements. The normalized biomass size spectra (NBSS) are one representation of the size-based approach. The present study is based on utilizing the NBSS to describe the conditions or characteristics of the zooplankton community that allow a reasonable intercomparison of net samples and LOPC measurements made simultaneously for data collected during two oceanographic cruises carried out in the Lower Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence in spring 2001 and 2002, respectively. NBSS linear slopes plankton material such as diatom aggregates and gelatinous material (present during or immediately following blooms) that are less present in nets and are not intercomparable with LOPC measurements. Conversely, slopes >-0.7, or more "blue water" conditions, indicate the potential for reasonable intercomparison of the two methods. This observation applies to smaller-sized zooplankton such as copepodites of Calanus spp. with equivalent spherical diameter gelatinous material and reasonable intercomparisons between LOPC and net were obtained for both sampling years. The LOPC signals produced by Calanus spp. (IV-VI) were larger and more easily separated.

  8. Migration and revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nando Sigona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Spring has not radically transformed migration patterns in the Mediterranean, and the label ‘migration crisis’ does not do justice to the composite and stratified reality.

  9. Population, migration and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Despite recent estimates that natural increase is becoming a more important component of urban growth than rural urban transfer (excess of inmigrants over outmigrants), the share of migration in the total population growth has been consistently increasing in both developed and developing countries. From a demographic perspective, the migration process involves 3 elements: an area of origin which the mover leaves and where he or she is considered an outmigrant; the destination or place of inmigration; and the period over which migration is measured. The 2 basic types of migration are internal and international. Internal migration consists of rural to urban migration, urban to urban migration, rural to rural migration, and urban to rural migration. Among these 4 types of migration various patterns or processes are followed. Migration may be direct when the migrant moves directly from the village to the city and stays there permanently. It can be circular migration, meaning that the migrant moves to the city when it is not planting season and returns to the village when he is needed on the farm. In stage migration the migrant makes a series of moves, each to a city closer to the largest or fastest growing city. Temporary migration may be 1 time or cyclical. The most dominant pattern of internal migration is rural urban. The contribution of migration to urbanization is evident. For example, the rapid urbanization and increase in urban growth from 1960-70 in the Republic of Korea can be attributed to net migration. In Asia the largest component of the population movement consists of individuals and groups moving from 1 rural location to another. Recently, because urban centers could no longer absorb the growing number of migrants from other places, there has been increased interest in the urban to rural population redistribution. This reverse migration also has come about due to slower rates of employment growth in the urban centers and improved economic opportunities in rural areas. According to UN data, at the global level the trend in longterm and permanent migration is towards stabilization or decline in the rate of movement into developed countries like the US, Canada, the UK, and Australia from developing countries. Migrants in the Asian and Pacific region mostly tend to be in the 15-25 year age group. Most migrants streams are male dominant. The rural urban migration stream includes a large proportion of people who are better educated than their rural counterparts but generally less educated than the urban natives. Reasons for migrating in the Asian and Pacific region are economic, educational, sociocultural and political. A negative factor in rural migration is that it deprives villages of the ablest people. PMID:12265662

  10. The possibilities of least-squares migration of internally scattered seismic energy

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali

    2015-05-26

    Approximate images of the earth’s subsurface structures are usually obtained by migrating surface seismic data. Least-squares migration, under the single-scattering assumption, is used as an iterative linearized inversion scheme to suppress migration artifacts, deconvolve the source signature, mitigate the acquisition fingerprint, and enhance the spatial resolution of migrated images. The problem with least-squares migration of primaries, however, is that it may not be able to enhance events that are mainly illuminated by internal multiples, such as vertical and nearly vertical faults or salt flanks. To alleviate this problem, we adopted a linearized inversion framework to migrate internally scattered energy. We apply the least-squares migration of first-order internal multiples to image subsurface vertical fault planes. Tests on synthetic data demonstrated the ability of the proposed method to resolve vertical fault planes, which are poorly illuminated by the least-squares migration of primaries only. The proposed scheme is robust in the presence of white Gaussian observational noise and in the case of imaging the fault planes using inaccurate migration velocities. Our results suggested that the proposed least-squares imaging, under the double-scattering assumption, still retrieved the vertical fault planes when imaging the scattered data despite a slight defocusing of these events due to the presence of noise or velocity errors.

  11. Irregular Migration of Egyptians

    OpenAIRE

    ROMAN, Howaida

    2008-01-01

    After defining irregular migration and tackling its different dimensions, the analytical note proposes to analyse the causes and dynamics of irregular migration in Egypt. It highlights furthermore the determinants of EU Policies in the realm of irregular migration, and Egypt’s policy-making approach towards irregular migrants. The conclusion emphasizes the necessity of forging coherent and effective policies on irregular migration in the context of a partnership between origin countries and d...

  12. Globalization, Migration and Development

    OpenAIRE

    George, Susan; Samuel, John

    2002-01-01

    EnglishMigration may become the most important branch of demography in the earlydecades of the new millennium in a rapidly globalizing world. This paper discusses the causes, costsand benefits of international migration to countries of the South and North, and key issues of commonconcern. International migration is as old as national boundaries, though its nature, volume,direction, causes and consequences have changed. The causes of migration are rooted in the rate ofpopulation growth and the...

  13. Marriage, money and migration

    OpenAIRE

    Åström, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    The thesis consists of a summary and four self-contained papers. Paper [I] examines the effects of interregional migration on gross earnings in married and cohabiting couples. In particular, we examine the link between education level and income gains. We find that pre-migration education level is a key determinant of migration and economic outcomes and is also a determinant of the effect of migration on income distribution within the household. The positive average effect on household earnin...

  14. Migration and Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gois, William

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the role of adult education as a tool in addressing labour migration issues, specifically those concerning the protection of migrant workers' rights and the transformation of the impact of migration into positive holistic developmental gains. The view of labour migration as a means to forge the economic…

  15. More Myths of Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Linda; Lerner, Gail

    1986-01-01

    Challenges "myths" about women and migration, including (1) the causes of migration are economic, not racism; (2) migrant women receive support from feminist groups and trade unions; (3) transnational corporations are positive forces in developing nations; (4) migration today has little impact on family life; and (5) most migrants cluster in…

  16. Bridging the gap between marine biogeochemical and fisheries sciences; configuring the zooplankton link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Aditee; Castellani, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Exploring climate and anthropogenic impacts on marine ecosystems requires an understanding of how trophic components interact. However, integrative end-to-end ecosystem studies (experimental and/or modelling) are rare. Experimental investigations often concentrate on a particular group or individual species within a trophic level, while tropho-dynamic field studies typically employ either a bottom-up approach concentrating on the phytoplankton community or a top-down approach concentrating on the fish community. Likewise the emphasis within modelling studies is usually placed upon phytoplankton- dominated biogeochemistry or on aspects of fisheries regulation. In consequence the roles of zooplankton communities (protists and metazoans) linking phytoplankton and fish communities are typically under-represented if not (especially in fisheries models) ignored. Where represented in ecosystem models, zooplankton are usually incorporated in an extremely simplistic fashion, using empirical descriptions merging various interacting physiological functions governing zooplankton growth and development, and thence ignoring physiological feedback mechanisms. Here we demonstrate, within a modelled plankton food-web system, how trophic dynamics are sensitive to small changes in parameter values describing zooplankton vital rates and thus the importance of using appropriate zooplankton descriptors. Through a comprehensive review, we reveal the mismatch between empirical understanding and modelling activities identifying important issues that warrant further experimental and modelling investigation. These include: food selectivity, kinetics of prey consumption and interactions with assimilation and growth, form of voided material, mortality rates at different age-stages relative to prior nutrient history. In particular there is a need for dynamic data series in which predator and prey of known nutrient history are studied interacting under varied pH and temperature regimes

  17. Bridging the gap between marine biogeochemical and fisheries sciences; configuring the zooplankton link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Aditee; Castellani, Claudia; Gentleman, Wendy C.; Jónasdóttir, Sigrún H.; Flynn, Kevin J.; Bode, Antonio; Halsband, Claudia; Kuhn, Penelope; Licandro, Priscilla; Agersted, Mette D.; Calbet, Albert; Lindeque, Penelope K.; Koppelmann, Rolf; Møller, Eva F.; Gislason, Astthor; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; St. John, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Exploring climate and anthropogenic impacts on marine ecosystems requires an understanding of how trophic components interact. However, integrative end-to-end ecosystem studies (experimental and/or modelling) are rare. Experimental investigations often concentrate on a particular group or individual species within a trophic level, while tropho-dynamic field studies typically employ either a bottom-up approach concentrating on the phytoplankton community or a top-down approach concentrating on the fish community. Likewise the emphasis within modelling studies is usually placed upon phytoplankton-dominated biogeochemistry or on aspects of fisheries regulation. In consequence the roles of zooplankton communities (protists and metazoans) linking phytoplankton and fish communities are typically under-represented if not (especially in fisheries models) ignored. Where represented in ecosystem models, zooplankton are usually incorporated in an extremely simplistic fashion, using empirical descriptions merging various interacting physiological functions governing zooplankton growth and development, and thence ignoring physiological feedback mechanisms. Here we demonstrate, within a modelled plankton food-web system, how trophic dynamics are sensitive to small changes in parameter values describing zooplankton vital rates and thus the importance of using appropriate zooplankton descriptors. Through a comprehensive review, we reveal the mismatch between empirical understanding and modelling activities identifying important issues that warrant further experimental and modelling investigation. These include: food selectivity, kinetics of prey consumption and interactions with assimilation and growth, form of voided material, mortality rates at different age-stages relative to prior nutrient history. In particular there is a need for dynamic data series in which predator and prey of known nutrient history are studied interacting under varied pH and temperature regimes.

  18. A global analysis of zooplankton in natural and artificial fresh waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye L. Merrix-Jones

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Water-body size and location influence zooplankton diversity in freshwaters, but less is known about systematic variations in zooplankton community composition between natural and artificial waters on different continents. We used meta-analysis to assess how zooplankton in artificial water bodies across different biomes might differ from natural water bodies of similar size. Among 79 lakes, ponds and reservoirs (11 artificial and 68 natural, proximity to other water bodies apparently increased species richness in all lake types, probably reflecting dispersal. However, richness did not differ systematically between natural and artificial water bodies of comparable size. In contrast, community composition differed between artificial and natural waters after accounting for depth, productivity, longitude and conductivity, with models explaining up to 50% of the overall variance at genus level. Leptodiaptomus, Chydorus, Cyclops, Acanthocyclops, Skistodiaptomus, Epischura, Limnocalanus, Senecella, Heterocope, Arctodiaptomus and Aglaodiaptomus all occurred more frequently in natural waters, whilst Thermocyclops, Moina and Epischura occurred more frequently in artificial lakes. Rank-occurrence data revealed that Ceriodaphnia, Orthocyclops, Holopedium and Eucyclops were equitably distributed across water bodies of contrasting sizes, depths and climates. Other genera occurred under more specific conditions, typically where they had strong associations with natural lakes (e.g. Limnocalanus, Senecella, Heterocope, Arctodiaptomus and Aglaodiaptomus. These results are among the first to illustrate systematic differences in zooplankton composition between natural and artificial lakes at a global scale. Potential explanations require further evidence, but might include provision for niche specialists in natural lakes versus reduced heterogeneity, management or disturbance effects in artificial lakes; and effects of lake age, stability and habitat naturalness in natural lakes. While zooplankton communities in natural lakes are well studied globally, more extensive data are required from artificial lakes.

  19. Evaluation of abiotic stresses of temperate estuaries by using resident zooplankton: A community vs. population approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sourav; Wooldridge, Tris; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-03-01

    By using permanently resident zooplankton, we assessed the ecological level (i.e. community and or population) that provides more in-depth indication of the stress related to salinity and temperature fluctuations in temperate estuaries. In the semi-arid warm temperate South Africa, the Gamtoos estuary experiences a full salinity gradient maintained by irregular but relatively frequent freshwater pulses, whereas the Kromme estuary is euhaline throughout its extent and receives only occasional freshwater inputs when the storage reservoir six km upstream overtops. Changes in the species evenness index of Pielou and the abundances of estuarine resident zooplankton species were modelled against salinity and temperature variations of respective estuaries. In the Gamtoos estuary, response of individual populations provided more in-depth information regarding zooplankton variability. However the most abundant resident zooplankton i.e. Acartia longipatella a copepod was not the best predictor of the salinity and temperature fluctuations. Conversely, the Kromme estuary study provided insights into the potential vulnerability of the resident estuarine zooplankton community to cold. Further, the population level study exposed responses of specific species against salinity changes. We discuss the pros and cons of designing ecological indicators of abiotic stress based on specific species, targeted to specific ecological level, and needs of considering the frequency and magnitude of fresh water inflow in an estuary. A suggestion is to use specific taxonomic group(s) (e.g. Copepods) to better understand the abiotic stress factors of specific set of estuaries (e.g. freshwater rich/starved) until a 'one size fits all' indicator is found for temperate estuaries.

  20. Response of zooplankton to physical changes in the environment: coastal upwelling along central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Nair, S.R.S.; Haridas, P.; Padmavati, G.

    -426 Fort Lauderdale, Florida Response of Zooplankton to Physical Changes in the Environment: Coastal Upwelling Along the Central West Coast of India b~ M. Madhupratap,t S.R. Sreekumaran Nair/ P. Haridas,* and Gadi PadmavatP tNational Institute... of zooplankton to physical changes in the environment: COlistlil upwelling along the central west coast of India. Journal of Coastal Research, 6(2), 413-426. Fort Lauderdale (Florida). ISSN 0749-0208. Zooplankton composition lind abundance were studied in a...

  1. Concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb in Zooplankton at Pulau Redang, Terengganu, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Che Abd Rahim Mohamed; Phang Feong Kuan

    2005-01-01

    Zooplankton samples collected from eight stations around Pulau Redang, Terengganu, Malaysia were use for measure the concentration activities of 210Po and 210Pb using Alpha Spectrometry. Mean activity in zooplankton tissue for 210Po [364.67?21.00 Bq kg 1 (dry wt.)] was much greater than 210Pb [93.67?6.83 Bq kg 1 (dry wt.)] with ranging ratio of 210Po/210Pb from 3.46 to 4.71. These fluctuated may be related to the feeding habits of zooplankton and daily biological processes occurred in water c...

  2. Restoring lakes by using artificial plant beds: habitat selection of zooplankton in a clear and a turbid shallow lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Majbritt Overgård; Risholt, Casper; Lauridsen, Torben L.; Søndergaard, Martin; Grønkjær, Peter; Jacobsen, Lene; Berg, Søren; Skov, Christian; Brucet, Sandra; Jeppesen, Erik

    2009-01-01

    1. Return of large-bodied zooplankton populations is of key importance for creating a shift from a turbid to a clear-water state in shallow lakes after a nutrient loading reduction. In temperate lakes, recovery is promoted by submerged macrophytes which function as a daytime refuge for large zooplankton. However, recovery of macrophytes is often delayed and use of artificial plant beds (APB) has been suggested as a tool to enhance zooplankton refuges, thereby reinforcing the shift to a clear-wat...

  3. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smaller stomach is about the size of a banana. It limits the amount of food you can ... staples. This creates a long vertical tube or banana-shaped stomach. The surgery does not involve cutting ...

  4. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  5. Recent blooms of the dinoflagellate Ceratium in Albert Falls Dam (KZN): history, causes, spatial features and impacts on a reservoir ecosystem and its zooplankton

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rob C, Hart; Peter D, Wragg.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A lake-wide bloom of the dinoflagellate Ceratium hirundinella, discovered in Albert Falls Dam in October 2006, exposed a significant ecological change indicative of reduced water quality in this historically mesotrophic reservoir. The spatial distribution of the bloom was examined synoptically in Oc [...] tober 2006 and January 2007; these surveys revealed generally higher dinoflagellate densities in inshore reaches of the lake, and especially in the discharge plume of the inflowing Mgeni River. Ceratium totally dominated the phytoplankton assemblage, accounting almost completely for coincident chlorophyll levels, which generally increased with depth to generate a 'deep' chlorophyll maximum. Vertical oxygen profiles during the bloom differed substantially from corresponding profiles during non-bloom conditions historically typical in this reservoir. Direct count data and ordination analysis using non-metric multidimensional scaling exposed marked changes in zooplankton community structure compared to seasonally congruent non-bloom conditions in other years. Changes included the effective replacement of Moina by Bosmina, substantial reductions in Daphnia and Ceriodaphnia, and smaller but definite increases in abundance especially of calanoid copepods, as well as cyclopoid copepods and of Chaoborus, although not all of these differences were apparent in both survey months. These compositional changes are attributable to intrinsic differences in feeding biology among taxa and their associated susceptibility to the altered food environment, which was commensurate with Ceratium's emergence. In addition, chydorid cladocerans appeared as a new (but spatially restricted) eutrophic bio-indicator component of the zooplankton, and the species diversity of cyclopoid copepods was enriched. The historical incidence of Ceratium in the lake since 1995 coincided with low NO3-N:TP values (used here as an N:P ratio proxy), particularly of inflow waters, and with broadly coincident values in the open lake. Ceratium was present but sparse in 1995, at average N:P ratios around 5.5. It disappeared in 1996 when the ratio increased radically to >10, and reappeared in 2004 after an erratic decline of the ratio to

  6. Bull Run vertical variation of groundwater flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Bull Run Fossil Plant near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to determine the strata of greatest groundwater flow and vertical variation of hydraulic conductivity. The information will be used as input into a three-dimensional flow model to determine the direction of groundwater flow, and to analyze the potential for migration of coal-ash leachate offsite. It was hypothesized that the overburden has very low hydraulic conductivity and most of the flow is through deep fracture zones in the bedrock

  7. Three decades of sea water abstraction by Kapar power plant (Malaysia): What impacts on tropical zooplankton community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, L L; Chong, V C; Wong, R C S; Lehette, P; Ng, C C; Loh, K H

    2015-12-15

    Zooplankton samples collected before (1985-86) and after (2013-14) the establishment of Kapar power station (KPS) were examined to test the hypothesis that increased sea surface temperature (SST) and other water quality changes have altered the zooplankton community structure. Elevated SST and reduced pH were detected between before and after impact pairs, with the greatest impact at the station closest to KPS. Present PAHs and heavy metal concentrations are unlikely causal factors. Water parameter changes did not affect diversity but community structure of the zooplankton. Tolerant small crustaceans, salps and larvaceans likely benefited from elevated temperature, reduced pH and shift to a more significant microbial loop exacerbated by eutrophication, while large crustaceans were more vulnerable to such changes. It is predicted that any further rise in SST will remove more large-bodied crustacean zooplankton, the preferred food for fish larvae and other meroplankton, with grave consequences to fishery production. PMID:26581817

  8. Observations on phytoplankton pigments, zooplankton and physico-chemical parameters in surface waters from southern Indian Ocean and Antarctic region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JiyalalRam, M.; Goswami, S.C.

    Observations on distribution of chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, zooplankton and physico-chemical parameters in the Southern Ocean were carried out during 9th Indian Antarctic-Expedition (1989-1990). The results indicated high phytoplankton biomass...

  9. Effects of acidification and cadmium pollution on the populations and habitats of limnetic zooplankton; Effekter av forsuring og kadmium-forurensning paa populasjoner og samfunn av limnisk zooplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schartau, A.K.L. [Norsk Inst. for Naturforskning, Trondheim (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with executed field tests on the adding of cadmium alone or combined with acidification of an enclosed space under different nutrient and predatory conditions. The addition of cadmium changed the biomass and the composition of the phytoplankton. In combination with the added nutrient salts, the biomass of special algae increased in the Cd loaded spaces, and the addition of acid changed the effect of Cd concentration by increased production of the same. The effect of a given Cd concentration on the zooplankton varied in a wide range of environmental conditions. 22 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Factors influencing zooplankton size structure at contrasting temperatures in coastal shallow lakes: Implications for effects of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Brucet Balmaña, Sandra; Boix Masafret, Dani; Quintana Pou, Xavier; Jensen, Elisabeth; Nathansen, Louise W.; Trochine, Carolina; Meerhoff, Mariana; Gascón Garcia, Stéphanie; Jeppesen, Erik

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the importance of temperature, salinity, and predation for the size structure of zooplankton and provided insight into the future ecological structure and function of shallow lakes in a warmer climate. Artificial plants were introduced in eight comparable coastal shallow brackish lakes located at two contrasting temperatures: cold-temperate and Mediterranean climate region. Zooplankton, fish, and macroinvertebrates were sampled within the plants and at open-water habitats. The fis...

  11. Zooplankton communities fluctuations from 1995 to 2005 in the Bay of Villefranche-sur-Mer (Northern Ligurian Sea, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Vandromme, P.; Stemmann, L.; Berline, L.; Gasparini, S.; Mousseau, L.; Prejger, F.; Passafiume, O.; J.-M. Guarini; Gorsky, G.

    2010-01-01

    An integrated analysis of the pelagic ecosystems of the Ligurian Sea is performed combining time series of different zooplankton groups (small and large copepods, chaetognaths, appendicularians, pteropods, thaliaceans, decapods larvae, other crustaceans, other gelatinous and other zooplankton), chlorophyll-a and nutrients, seawater salinity, temperature and density and local weather at the Point B coastal station (Northern Ligurian Sea). From January 1995 to December 2005, ...

  12. Long-term changes of the crustacean zooplankton community in Lake Mjøsa, the largest lake in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Løvik, Jarl Eivind; Gösta KJELLBERG

    2003-01-01

    Lake Mjøsa has been subject to an accelerating eutrophication from the 1950s to the mid 1970s, but comprehensive nutrient reduction efforts caused marked reductions of phytoplankton production and biomass during the 1980s, a process that continued during the 1990s. Zooplankton biomass and species composition was considerably affected during the eutrophication and subsequent oligotrophication. Total crustacean zooplankton biomass decreased along with decreasing algal biomass during the 1980s a...

  13. Feminization of migrations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morokvaši? Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Women have always taken part in migrations, but their presence varied depending on their origins, on the labour market situation both in the areas of origin and in the target areas, as well as the migration policies in the immigration areas. Their presence was not always visible and did not attract as much scholarly and political attention as today. What happened, how can one explain such an interest lately, whereas only few years ago the subject was marginal, in the shadow of the "mainstream - malestream", i.e. migration as a phenomenon which focuses on geographic mobility of men, while women are not considered as equal protagonists, they either follow or remain at home. Could the so called "feminization" of migration explain the great and sudden interest for women and gender in migrations? This text critically examines the notion of "feminization" considered today as one of the main dimensions of global migration flows. Drawing on trends both globally and in specific countries, it shows that "feminization" is neither a new nor a sudden trend and entails variations depending on the origins, level of development and maturity of migration flows. In some groups men were primo-migrants and with a gradual feminization the flows reach a balanced sex ratio. There where women migrated first, or became numerically predominant, one observs the opposite trend: a "masculinization". Some authors rightly refer to "gender transition", the term which covers both trends. It is argued in the conclusion that the visibility and growing interest for women in migration and, more recently, for a gender perspective in migration, is not only due to the changing migration patterns and profile of migrants but also to the renewal of theoretical perspectives in migration and gender studies in a context that largely facilitated that renewal. The focus of our attention today on specific aspects of migration is triggered not only by genuine changes in migration trends, but it is also a result of a long process of visibilisation in the academic production on migration, women and gender. These trends may have existed earlier in the migration history but had remained in the shadow of categories defining, recording and analyzing migration.

  14. A model to resolve organochlorine pharmacokinetics in migrating humpback whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, Roger; Nash, Susan Bengtson; Hawker, Darryl

    2014-07-01

    Humpback whales are iconic mammals at the top of the Antarctic food chain. Their large reserves of lipid-rich tissues such as blubber predispose them to accumulation of lipophilic contaminants throughout their lifetime. Changes in the volume and distribution of lipids in humpback whales, particularly during migration, could play an important role in the pharmacokinetics of lipophilic contaminants such as the organochlorine pesticide hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Previous models have examined constant feeding and nonmigratory scenarios. In the present study, the authors develop a novel heuristic model to investigate HCB dynamics in a humpback whale and its environment by coupling an ecosystem nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model, a dynamic energy budget (DEB) model, and a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The model takes into account the seasonal feeding pattern of whales, their energy requirements, and fluctuating contaminant burdens in the supporting plankton food chain. It is applied to a male whale from weaning to maturity, spanning 20 migration and feeding cycles. The model is initialized with environmental HCB burdens similar to those measured in the Southern Ocean and predicts blubber HCB concentrations consistent with empirical concentrations observed in a southern hemisphere population of male, migrating humpback whales. Results show for the first time some important details of the relationship between energy budgets and organochlorine pharmacokinetics. PMID:24733631

  15. Feeding of dominant zooplankton species and their grazing impact on autotrophic phytoplankton in the Yenisei Estuary in autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drits, A. V.; Arashkevich, E. G.; Nikishina, A. B.; Sergeeva, V. M.; Solovyev, K. A.; Flint, M. V.

    2015-07-01

    Feeding of dominant mesozooplankton species was investigated in freshwater zone, estuarine frontal zone of Yenisei Estuary and adjacent inner shelf area during autumn season. Ingestion rate was estimated based on gut fluorescence measurements. It was shown that in spite on the end of productive season daily ingestion of phytoplankton for the most of the investigated freshwater, brackish and marine zooplankton species was higher than their metabolic requirements. Total phytoplankton consumption by zooplankton differed in different zones. In freshwater zone under high level of autotrophic phytoplankton biomass and primary production zooplankton grazing impact was low: 1.5% of standing stock and 20% of primary production. In the estuarine frontal zone 3.2-14.3% of standing stock and 150-290% of primary production was grazed by zooplankton per day, in adjacent inner shelf: 1.4-7.0% and 130%, accordingly. Based on comparatively analysis of obtained data and results of investigation of zooplankton feeding in Ob Estuary during the same season some general patterns of the zooplankton role in organic matter biotransformation in the large arctic rivers estuarine areas were revealed.

  16. Synthetic seismic monitoring using reverse-time migration and Kirchhoff migration for CO2 sequestration in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W.; Kim, Y.; Min, D.; Oh, J.; Huh, C.; Kang, S.

    2012-12-01

    During last two decades, CO2 sequestration in the subsurface has been extensively studied and progressed as a direct tool to reduce CO2 emission. Commercial projects such as Sleipner, In Salah and Weyburn that inject more than one million tons of CO2 per year are operated actively as well as test projects such as Ketzin to study the behavior of CO2 and the monitoring techniques. Korea also began the CCS (CO2 capture and storage) project. One of the prospects for CO2 sequestration in Korea is the southwestern continental margin of Ulleung basin. To monitor the behavior of CO2 underground for the evaluation of stability and safety, several geophysical monitoring techniques should be applied. Among various geophysical monitoring techniques, seismic survey is considered as the most effective tool. To verify CO2 migration in the subsurface more effectively, seismic numerical simulation is an essential process. Furthermore, the efficiency of the seismic migration techniques should be investigated for various cases because numerical seismic simulation and migration test help us accurately interpret CO2 migration. In this study, we apply the reverse-time migration and Kirchhoff migration to synthetic seismic monitoring data generated for the simplified model based on the geological structures of Ulleung basin in Korea. Synthetic seismic monitoring data are generated for various cases of CO2 migration in the subsurface. From the seismic migration images, we can investigate CO2 diffusion patterns indirectly. From seismic monitoring simulation, it is noted that while the reverse-time migration generates clear subsurface images when subsurface structures are steeply dipping, Kirchhoff migration has an advantage in imaging horizontal-layered structures such as depositional sediments appearing in the continental shelf. The reverse-time migration and Kirchhoff migration present reliable subsurface images for the potential site characterized by stratigraphical traps. In case of vertical CO2 migration at injection point, the reverse time migration yields better images than Kirchhoff migration does. On the other hand, Kirchhoff migration images horizontal CO2 migration clearer than the reverse time migration does. From these results, we can conclude that the reverse-time migration and Kirchhoff migration can complement with each other to describe the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. Acknowledgement This work was financially supported by the Brain Korea 21 project of Energy Systems Engineering, the "Development of Technology for CO2 Marine Geological Storage" program funded by the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs (MLTM) of Korea and the Korea CCS R&D Center (KCRC) grant funded by the Korea government (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology) (No. 2012-0008926).

  17. Migration and pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Raghbendra; Whalley, John

    2003-01-01

    We explore the links between migration of labour and location specific (urban) pollution, suggesting a sense in which pollution can be welfare improving. In a conventional Harris-Todaro model of urban-rural migration, individuals migrate so as to equate the expected urban wage (given a downward rigid real wage in the urban sector) to the real wage. Unemployment is endogenously determined. Interpreting unemployment as damage, urban pollution (damage denoted in units of labour) can also support...

  18. Multilateral resistance to migration

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoli, Simone; Fernández-Huertas Moraga, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    The scale of migration ows between two countries does not only depend on their relative attractiveness, but also on the one of alternative destinations. Following the trade literature, we term the influence exerted by other destinations on bilateral flows as Multilateral Resistance to Migration, and we show how it can be accounted for when estimating the determinants of bilateral migration flows in the context of a general individual random utility maximization model. We propose the use of th...

  19. Many Faces of Migrations

    OpenAIRE

    Milica Antić Gaber; Marko Krevs

    2013-01-01

    Temporary or permanent, local or international, voluntary or forced, legal or illegal, registered or unregistered migrations of individuals, whole communities or individual groups are an important factor in constructing and modifying (modern) societies. The extent of international migrations is truly immense. At the time of the preparation of this publication more than 200 million people have been involved in migrations in a single year according to the United Nations. Furthermore, three time...

  20. Structure, seasonal dynamics and distribution of zooplankton in lake Drukshiai in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations on the zooplankton of Lake Drukshiai were carried out in 1994. There were registered 62 taxons of protozoa and 50 taxons of metazoa, and compared with the data of 1979 - 1986 the diversity of species composition decreased 2.1 times. Eurytermic and stenothermic thermophylic species prevailed in the plankton biocenosis. In protozooplankton dominated ciliates of subclasses teolotricha and spirotricha, in metazooplankton -planctonic crustacea (Copopeda and Cladocera). Rotifers (Rotaria) were abundant only in the shallow and heated water outlet area. Seasonal dynamics of protozooplankton indicated one maximum in spring and metazooplankton - in summer. High diferentiation in quantity and biomass of zooplankton in the lake revealed different level of eutrophication of some areas. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs

  1. Phytoplankton response to winter warming modified by large-bodied zooplankton: an experimental microcosm study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu He

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available While several field investigations have demonstrated significant effects of cool season (winter or spring warming on phytoplankton development, the role played by large-bodied zooplankton grazers for the responses of phytoplankton to winter warming is ambiguous. We conducted an outdoor experiment to compare the effect of winter warming (heating by 3°C in combination with presence and absence of Daphnia grazing (D. similis on phytoplankton standing crops and community structure under eutrophic conditions. When Daphnia were absent, warming was associated with significant increases in phytoplankton biomass and cyanobacterial dominance. In contrast, when Daphnia were present, warming effects on phytoplankton dynamics were offset by warming-enhanced grazing, resulting in no significant change in biomass or taxonomic dominance. These results emphasize that large-bodied zooplankton like Daphnia spp. may play an important role in modulating the interactions between climate warming and phytoplankton dynamics in nutrient rich lake ecosystems.

  2. Incorporation of nitrogen from N2 fixation into amino acids of zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loick-Wilde, Natalie; Dutz, Jörg; Miltner, Anja; Gehre, Matthias; Montoya, Joseph P.; Voss, Maren

    2012-01-01

    Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda) were fed 15N-labeled Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta) or 15N-labeled Nodularia spumigena (Cyanobacteria) in excess under controlled laboratory conditions. Zooplankton collected from the Baltic Sea were fed natural phytoplankton amended with 15N-labeled N. spumigena. We...... quantified the direct incorporation of 15N tracer from N2-fixing N. spumigena (diazotroph nitrogen) and ammonium-utilizing R. salina into the amino acid nitrogen (AA-N) of zooplankton using complementary gas chromatography– combustion–isotope ratio mass spectrometry, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and...... incorporation was found in E. affinis relying on N. spumigena. Decreasing specific and mass-specific rates during field experiments possibly were due to food shortage, whereas decreasing rates in E. affinis grazing on R. salina were more likely due to satiation. Specific and mass-specific rates were...

  3. Distribution and Abundance of Gelatinous Zooplankton along Tamil Nadu Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of the gelatinous zooplankton namely hydromedusae, scyphomedusae, siphonophore, ctenophore, salps, doliolids, appendicularians and chaetognaths were investigated in two seasons at seven stations in East Tamil Nadu coast, India. The occurrences of gelatinous zooplankton were observed to be more in summer than in winter. However, the composition of different species in each group varied from all the stations and seasons. Apart from the individual variation in seasonal distribution, most of the species appeared to be cosmopolitan in the Indian waters. A total of 34 species from summer and 17 species from winter were recorded during the present study. The hydromedusae were dominant in both the seasons of the study period. Ephyrae of the scyphomedusae were also noticed in both the seasons.

  4. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenhofer, G.A.

    1992-09-25

    This study sought to determine and understand the major processes governing the abundance, distribution, composition and eventual fate of zooplankton on the southeastern shelf of the US in relation to water circulation. Over much of the shelf circulation is dominated by the Gulf Stream and/or atmospheric forcing. Most of our studies concentrated on processes on the middle and outer shelf. On the latter, pronounced biological production occurs year-round at frequent intervals and is due to Gulf Stream eddies which move by at an average frequency of one every week. These eddies are rich in nutrients which, when upwelled into the euphoric zone, lead to pronounced primary production which then triggers zooplankton production.

  5. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenhofer, G.A.

    1992-09-25

    This study sought to determine and understand the major processes governing the abundance, distribution, composition and eventual fate of zooplankton on the southeastern shelf of the US in relation to water circulation. Over much of the shelf circulation is dominated by the Gulf Stream and/or atmospheric forcing. Most of our studies concentrated on processes on the middle and outer shelf. On the latter, pronounced biological production occurs year-round at frequent intervals and is due to Gulf Stream eddies which move by at an average frequency of one every week. These eddies are rich in nutrients which, when upwelled into the euphoric zone, lead to pronounced primary production which then triggers zooplankton production.

  6. Regional Redistribution and Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manasse, Paolo; Schultz, Christian

    We study a model with free migration between a rich and a poor region. Since there is congestion, the rich region has an incentive to give the poor region a transfer in order to reduce immigration. Faced with free migration, the rich region voluntarily chooses a transfer, which turns out to be...... equal to that a social planner would choose. Provided migration occurs in equilibrium, this conclusion holds even in the presence of moderate mobility costs. However, large migration costs will lead to suboptimal transfers in the market solution...

  7. Physical-chemical parameters and zooplankton community structure of the Odra oxbow in the spring season

    OpenAIRE

    ?awniczak, Jacek; ?widnicki, Kasper; Wi?niewska, Ma?gorzata; Bodzioch, Adam; Kuczy?ska-Kippen, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    The examination of the distribution of rotifers and crustaceans between particular stations located within vegetated (zones of helophytes and nymphaeids) and unvegetated (open water area) zones of an oxbow lake situated within the River Odra valley was carried out during the period of high water level in April of 2007. The obtained results revealed a considerable species diversity along with low densities of particular zooplankton species, which are characteristic features for ...

  8. Zooplankton characterisation of Pampean saline shallow lakes, habitat of the Andean flamingoes

    OpenAIRE

    José de Paggi, Susana B.; Marcelo Romano; Juan C. Paggi; Ignacio Barberis; Yamila S. Battauz

    2013-01-01

    The lowland saline shallow lakes in the Pampa de las Lagunas (Argentina), constitute an important habitat for flamingoes Phoenicopterus chilensis Molina and Phoenicoparrus andinus (Philippii). Little is known about the zooplankton communities of these systems, and their relationships with the temporal and spatial distribution of flamingoes. Ten shallow lakes in the Pampean region were studied in 2009 and 2010 winters, and in 2010 summer in order to assess the abundance, size and biomass of zo...

  9. Manipulation of dietary lipids, fatty acids and vitamins in zooplankton cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Coutteau, P.; Sorgeloos, P.

    2000-01-01

    A wide range of species that are cultivated in commercial mariculture are planktonic during at least part of their life cycle; for example, the larval stages of shellfish (shrimp and molluscs) and the live feeds (rotifers, brine shrimp, copepods) used in the larviculture of marine fish and shellfish. Over the last decades various techniques have been developed to deliver nutrients to these zooplanktonic organisms either through artificial diets or by manipulating the composition of the live p...

  10. Seasonal succession of crustacean zooplankton in Wular Lake of the Kashmir Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Javaid Ahmad; Pandit Ashok Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken on Wular Lake, a Ramsar Site in Kashmir Himalaya, to study the seasonal succession of crustacean zooplankton from September 2010 to August 2011. A total of 42 crustacean taxa belonging to Cladocera (23), Copepoda (16) and Ostracoda (3) were identified at five different sampling sites. Among the crustaceans, Cladocera was numerically the most dominant group at sites III, IV and V, followed by Copepoda at sites I and II. On an average basis total crustacea...

  11. Stability and bifurcation in a two harmful phytoplankton-zooplankton system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a mathematical model consisting of two harmful phytoplankton and zooplankton with discrete time delays is considered. We prove that a sequence of Hopf bifurcations occur at the interior equilibrium as the delay increases. Meanwhile, the phenomenon of stability switches is found under certain conditions. The direction of the Hopf bifurcations and the stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are determined by using the theory of normal form and center manifold. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results.

  12. Spatial variations in zooplankton diversity in waters contaminated with composite effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asitava CHATTERJEE

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton species are cosmopolitan in their clean freshwater habitat and are also found in industrial and municipal wastewaters. The present study records for the first time the aspects of zooplankton diversity in relation to physico-chemical environment of five selected sites of the East Calcutta wetlands, a Ramsar site of Kolkata city, India, heavily contaminated by industrial and municipal wastewaters. The study revealed the occurrence of 22 species of zooplankton, among these 3 species of Cladocera, 2 species of Copepoda, 15 species of Rotifera, and 2 species of Ostracoda were recorded. The copepod Mesocyclops leuckarti was found in all the five sites, rotifers Asplanchna brightwelli, Brachionus angularis, B. calyciflorus and Cladocera Ceriodaphnia cornuta were found in four sites; Moina micrura and Diaphanosoma sarsi were found at three sites. Site wise variation in dominance, diversity, evenness and richness were calculated. Site 1, a fish-pond that stabilized composite wastewater, showed the maximum species richness having 17 species, while Site 2, SWF wastewater carrying canal, showed only 4 species. The calculated Jack 1 values of Sites 1 to 5 were 21.78, 3.77, 18.63, 12.5 and 16.95 respectively. Shannon-Wiener species diversity index (H/ values were almost similar for all the three relatively less polluted sites viz, Site 1 (1.959, Site 4 (2.010, Site 5 (2.047. However, at highly polluted sites viz., 2 and 3, H/ value of 1.336 and 0.984 respectively, were calculated. Simpson’s Dominance index (Dsimp value was highest at Site 3 (0.618 indicating maximum dominance, whereas at Site 5 dominance was lowest (0.1680 and diversity was highest. We discuss the role of zooplankton in the amelioration of wastewater.

  13. Carbon partitioning in the food web of a high mountain lake: from bacteria to zooplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra PUGNETTI

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The organisms of the microbial loop in Lake Paione Superiore (LPS, a high mountain lake in the Italian Alpine region, were studied together with phytoplankton and zooplankton for three successive years. The biomass of bacteria, HNF (heterotrophic nanoflagellates, ciliates and phytoplankton, as mean carbon concentration in the three years, was 30 and 37 ?g C l-1 near the surface (SUR and the bottom (BOT respectively. Under the ice-cover the mean biomass carbon decreased especially at the BOT, whereas at SUR the decrease was less evident due to the maintenance of higher phytoplankton biomass (mixotrophic flagellates. In LPS ~50% of the carbon was confined in bacteria, 20% in protozoa and 30% in phytoplankton. The ratio Autotrophs/Heterotrophs was lower than 1 (mean: 0,97 at SUR and 0,58 at BOT thus indicating a system with a predominance of the heterotrophs. This might be the result of light inhibition of algal growth coupled to a production of dissolved carbon, utilized by bacteria. During late summer the peak of Daphnia longispina, the main component of the zooplankton of LPS, increased the carbon content in the lake to a total of 158 and 300 ?g C l-1 in 1997 and 1998 respectively. At the late summer peaks, zooplankton represented from 78 to 89% of the total carbon of the pelagic communities. Furthermore, the presence of Daphnia could be responsible for a decrease in the biomass carbon of a variety of organisms (algae, protozoa and bacteria. It may be possible that this is an instance of zooplankton grazing on algae, protozoa and also bacteria, as Daphnia has very broad niches and may eat pico-, nanoplankton and small ciliates. In the oligotrophic LPS, a diet which also includes protozoa could give Daphnia a further chance of survival, as ciliates are an important source of fatty acids and sterols.

  14. Zooplankton community occurrence in an area influenced by uranium mine, Caldas, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ore Treatment Unit (UTM), situated on the Pocos de Caldas - MG Plateau, is Brazil's first venture in uranium ore mining and chemical treatment and it belongs to Brazilian Nuclear Industries today. At UTM, radioactive effluents are generated due to the mine's acid drainage processes (MAD). Thus, due to the lack of scientific information with emphasis on Zooplankton Communities in areas impacted by uranium mine and MAD, the current study aimed to evaluate parameters such as electrical conductivity, pH, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, sulfate, fluoride, uranium, thorium, manganese, zinc and aluminum, as well as richness and density of the zooplankton organism's, all in samples from the Pit Mine. The electrical conductivity values observed were elevated (1976 to 2760 ?S cm-1), while the pH values remained acidic (3.6 to 4.1). In respect to the SO4-2, elevated concentrations were observed (366.6 - 1832.0 mg L-1), as well as for F- (33.4 to 75.1 mg L-1). The U presented highest and lowest concentrations in Oct/08 and July/09, that is, 4.25 mg L-1 and 0.12 mg L-1, respectively. The Th concentrations remained constant (0.10 - 0.30 mg L-1). In respect to the Zooplankton Community low species richness and density were observed throughout the whole period. The low richness and density values of the zooplankton species can be related to the adverse environmental conditions, which are unfavorable to the development of this community: elevated values of electrical conductivity and acidic pH, both associated to the chemical composition of the effluent in natura. (author)

  15. The effects of seston lipids on zooplankton fatty acid composition in Lake Washington, Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravet, Joseph L; Brett, Michael T; Arhonditsis, George B

    2010-01-01

    We collected suspended particulate matter (seston) and zooplankton samples from Lake Washington in Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., over a 10-month period to investigate the effects of food availability on zooplankton fatty acid (FA) composition. The percentage of nutritionally critical omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the seston varied from 8% of the FA pool in midsummer to 30% during the spring diatom bloom. Zooplankton accumulated much higher percentages omega3 PUFA than was available in the seston. In particular, cladocerans preferentially accumulated eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5omega3), copepods accumulated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6omega3), and both copepods and cladocerans accumulated 18 carbon chain omega3 PUFAs (C18 omega3). By comparison, the FA of zooplanktivorous juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were strongly dominated by EPA (12.5% +/- 2.1%) and DHA (28.2% +/- 8.7%). The saturated fatty acid and the arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4omega6) composition of Diaptomus ashlandi was strongly (r2 = 0.76) and moderately (r2 = 0.54) correlated with the prevalence of these FAs in the seston. Furthermore, the DHA content of Diaptomus was moderately correlated with the seston's DHA content (r2 = 0.45) and very strongly correlated with seston EPA (r2 = 0.89). Since EPA was the most prevalent PUFA in the seston and DHA was the most prevalent PUFA in Diaptomus, these results suggest that Diaptomus may synthesize DHA from the EPA in their food. In general, zooplankton species in Lake Washington were strongly enriched with those FA molecules that are most physiologically important for fish nutrition (i.e., ARA, EPA, and DHA), indicating a clear mechanism by which changes in seston composition influence fisheries ecology. PMID:20380207

  16. Fatty acid profiling reveals seasonal and spatial shifts in zooplankton diet in a temperate estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, A.M.M.; Azeiteiro, U. M.; Pardal, M.A.; M. De Troch

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids composition of copepod and cladoceran species and their possible food sources was investigated in the Mondego estuary (southern Europe) in order to explain the seasonal variation of the small copepods Acartia clausi, Acartia tonsa, Copidodiaptomus numidicus, Temora longicornis and the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia longispina. A total of 12 zooplankton species (7 marine, 2 estuarine and 3 freshwater species) were studied. A multivariate analysis revealed a clear seasonal distributi...

  17. Practice based 3D surface design research: Zooplankton Lamp & Particle fluid lamp

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Andrew; Unver , Ertu

    2012-01-01

    Concept 1: Surface Design as an emergent material practice is evolving rapidly through interdisciplinary research, and digital technologies for concept design and production. The research aims to explore this emergence by generating organic 3D morphologies and to reflectively record this making process and the experiences for future learning and teaching practice. The Zooplankton lamp is first in a series of practice based collaborations,nature design experiments, product development and exhi...

  18. Metal and proton toxicity to lake zooplankton: a chemical speciation based modelling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Stockdale, Anthony; Tipping, Edward; Lofts, Stephen; Fott, Jan; Garmo, Oyvind A.; Hruska, Jakub; Keller, Bill; Lofgren, Stefan; Maberly, Stephen C; Majer, Vladimir; Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A.; Persson, Gunnar; Schartau, Ann-Kristin; Stephen J. Thackeray; Valois, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The WHAM-FTOX model quantifies the combined toxic effects of protons and metal cations towards aquatic organisms through the toxicity function (FTOX), a linear combination of the products of organism-bound cation and a toxic potency coefficient for each cation. We describe the application of the model to predict an observable ecological field variable, species richness of pelagic lake crustacean zooplankton, studied with respect to either acidification or the impacts of metals from smelters. ...

  19. Estimates of zooplankton abundance and size distribution with the Optical Plankton Counter (OPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Petersen, D.; Schnack, D.

    1997-01-01

    The capability of the Optical Plankton Count er (OPC) to examine the abundance and size distribution of zooplankton was tested in Storfjorden, Norway, in June 1993. Selected material obtained from net sampling was measured with a laboratory version of the OPC and compared with microscope analysis in order to identify main species in the in situ size frequency distributions obtained by the submersible version of the OPC. Differences in the particle concentration between shallow and deep water lay...

  20. Infestation of zooplankton with Triaenophorus and Proteocephalus procercoids (Cestoda) in a deep oligotrophic lake

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Anegg; Roland Psenner; Barbara Tartarotti

    2014-01-01

    In spring 2004, a massive infestation of the whitefish population in the Austrian Lake Achensee with Triaenophorus crassus was observed. Procercoids, the larval stage of parasitic cestodes, infest copepods as their first intermediate host. Therefore, in spring 2011, zooplankton samples were taken weekly at two sampling sites and depth ranges to determine the abundances of crustaceans as well as percentages of infected copepods and temporal occurrence of parasites. In addition, whitefish (Core...

  1. Seasonal composition and population density of zooplankton in Lake Timsah, Suez Canal, Egypt:

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M.; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; Ali Gab-Alla

    2011-01-01

    Zooplankton composition and abundance were investigated seasonally at ten sites in Lake Timsah and the adjacent, connected western lagoon in relation to the physico-chemical conditions. A total of 42 taxa (including larval stages) were identified, among them 21 species of copepods, 6 rotifers, 5 cladocerans, 1 chaetognath and 1 urochordate. Copepods represented the predominant component (77.7% of the total community), followed by rotifers, molluscs, cladocerans and (9.2, 4.7 and 3.9% respecti...

  2. Hopf-Pitchfork Bifurcation in a Phytoplankton-Zooplankton Model with Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Fang Zhang; Dan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamics of a phytoplankton-zooplankton model with toxin delay. By studying the distribution of the eigenvalues of the associated characteristic equation, the pitchfork bifurcation curve of the system is obtained. Furthermore, on the pitchfork bifurcation curve, we find that the system can undergo a Hopf bifurcation at the positive equilibrium, and we derive the critical values where Hopf-Pitchfork bifurcation occurs.

  3. Migratory and grazing behavior of copepods and vertical distribution of phytoplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Daro, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    The vertical distribution and grazing activity of copepods was studied during the summer of 1985 throughout the North Sea. In most areas, copepods did not vertically migrated and their vertical distribution followed that of the phytoplankton which was restricted to the upper 20-30 m. This behavior may be a consequence of barely sufficient or limiting food concentrations (about 200 mg multiplied by m-3. The diel grazing patterns as a function of variations in phytoplankton are described for th...

  4. Vertical emitting aperture nanoantennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacobi, Ami; Timurdogan, Erman; Watts, Michael R

    2012-05-01

    Herein we propose, theoretically investigate, and numerically demonstrate a compact design for a vertical emitter at a wavelength of 1.5 ?m based on nanophotonic aperture antennas coupled to a dielectric waveguide. The structure utilizes a plasmonic antenna placed above a Si3N4 waveguide with a ground plane for breaking the up-down symmetry and increasing the emission efficiency. Three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations reveal that up to 60% vertical emission efficiency is possible in a structure only four wavelengths long with a 3 dB bandwidth of over 300 nm. PMID:22555702

  5. Zooplankton community resilience and aquatic environmental stability on aquaculture practices: a study using net cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, J D; Simões, N R; Bonecker, C C

    2012-02-01

    Fish farming in net cages causes changes in environmental conditions. We evaluated the resilience of zooplankton concerning this activity in Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples were taken near the net cages installed at distances upstream and downstream, before and after net cage installation. The resilience was estimated by the decrease in the groups' abundance after installing the net cages. The zooplankton community was represented by 106 species. The most abundant species were Synchaeta pectinata, S. oblonga, Conochilus coenobasis, Polyarthra dolichoptera and C. unicornis (Rotifera), Ceriodaphnia cornuta, Moina minuta, Bosmina hagmanni and C. silvestrii (Cladocera) and Notodiaptomus amazonicus (Copepoda). The resilience of microcrustaceans was affected in the growing points as this activity left the production environment for longer, delaying the natural ability of community responses. Microcrustaceans groups, mainly calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, had a different return rate. The net cage installation acted as a stress factor on the zooplankton community. Management strategies that cause fewer risks to the organisms and maximize energy flow may help in maintaining system stability. PMID:22437379

  6. Quantifying Preferences and Responsiveness of Marine Zooplankton to Changing Environmental Conditions using Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Christoph A.; Arendt, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Global environmental change significantly affects marine species composition. However, analyzing the impact of these changes on marine zooplankton communities was so far mostly limited to assessing lethal doses through mortality assays and hence did not allow a direct assessment of the preferred conditions, or preferendum. Here, we use a microfluidic device to characterize individual behavior of actively swimming zooplankton, and to quantitatively determine their ecological preferendum. For the annelid zooplankton model Platynereis dumerilii we observe a broader pH preferendum than for the copepod Euterpina acutifrons, and reveal previously unrecognized sub-populations with different pH preferenda. For Platynereis, the minimum concentration difference required to elicit a response (responsiveness) is ~1 ?M for H+ and ~13.7 mM for NaCl. Furthermore, using laser ablations we show that olfactomedin-expressing sensory cells mediate chemical responsiveness in the Platynereis foregut. Taken together, our microfluidic approach allows precise assessment and functional understanding of environmental perception on planktonic behaviour. PMID:26517120

  7. Effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid on the zooplanktonic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Hans; Boudreau, Timothy M; Mabury, Scott A; Solomon, Keith R

    2004-05-01

    This comparative survey summarizes six individual studies on the ecological effects of two common perfluorinated surfactants, PFOS and PFOA, on zooplankton. We compare the test designs and quantify the relative sensitivity and statistical power (1-beta > or = 0.8). The survey compares 30-L indoor microcosm to 12,000-L outdoor microcosm experiments, with 225-mL single species laboratory tests as reference. By this we elucidate the extrapolation of ecological effects in space and complexity. Generally, zooplankton had lower tolerance toward PFOS than toward PFOA. With increasing concentrations the zooplankton community became simplified toward more robust rotifer species, which, as an indirect effect, increased their abundance due to a shift in competition and predation. The statistical power of the designs exhibits inverse proportionality between complexity and realism, indoor microcosm>outdoor microcosm. Surprisingly, the 30-L study had a lower LOEC value for Daphnia magna than the laboratory chronic test, indicating that D. magna and D. pulicaria were not the most sensitive species and that laboratory tests are not always conservative relative to microcosm experiments. Food scarcity due to phytotoxicity was not the reason for the difference. PMID:15087165

  8. Zooplankton biomass and electron transport system activity around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.

    2014-03-01

    Measuring electron transport system (ETS) activity in zooplankton provides an index of respiration, theoretically, the potential respiration rate. We apply the ETS technique to estimate potential respiration and carbon demand from the zooplankton community in the upper 200 m of the water column near the Balearic Islands. The investigation was focused on two areas with different oceanographic conditions: the Balearic and Algerian subbasins. It compared the biomass, potential respiration and specific potential respiration of different size fractions (53-200, 200-500, > 500 ?m) in both areas. In these regions the largest contribution to respiration was found in the larger sizes. The specific respiration (per unit biomass) was greater in smaller fractions, indicating that they have a more active metabolism. Both biomass and potential respiration increased in the Algerian subbasin and for both regions biomass and potential respiration were greater in shallow waters over the continental shelf (depressed (shifted down). In cultures and in eutrophic ocean waters (upwelling areas) b normally is greater than 0.75, consequently we intuit that the low value of b over the Balearic and Algerian subbasins indicates that the zooplankton is not well fed and that they are living under oligotrophic stress.

  9. Reprint of “Zooplankton biomass and electron transport system activity around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.

    2014-10-01

    Measuring electron transport system (ETS) activity in zooplankton provides an index of respiration, theoretically, the potential respiration rate. We apply the ETS technique to estimate potential respiration and carbon demand from the zooplankton community in the upper 200 m of the water column near the Balearic Islands. The investigation was focused on two areas with different oceanographic conditions: the Balearic and Algerian subbasins. It compared the biomass, potential respiration and specific potential respiration of different size fractions (53-200, 200-500, > 500 ?m) in both areas. In these regions the largest contribution to respiration was found in the larger sizes. The specific respiration (per unit biomass) was greater in smaller fractions, indicating that they have a more active metabolism. Both biomass and potential respiration increased in the Algerian subbasin and for both regions biomass and potential respiration were greater in shallow waters over the continental shelf (depressed (shifted down). In cultures and in eutrophic ocean waters (upwelling areas) b normally is greater than 0.75, consequently we intuit that the low value of b over the Balearic and Algerian subbasins indicates that the zooplankton is not well fed and that they are living under oligotrophic stress.

  10. Biodiversity and community structure of zooplankton in the Sub-basin of Rio Poxim, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria de Souza Nogueira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The zooplankton of aquatic environments is composed mostly of protozoans, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods, which play an important role in the food chain, transferring mass and energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels. This work was prepared with the objective of contributing to the knowledge of zooplankton biodiversity that occurs in the Sub-basin of Rio Poxim. Water samples were taken at monthly intervals at four sampling stations located along the sub-basin in the period August 2009 to July 2010. To obtain the zooplankton community, 100 L of water were filtered on nylon net with an aperture of 50 mm. Were identified 72 taxa distributed in the following taxonomic categories Rotifera, Protozoa, Porifera, Nematoda, Anellida, Cladocera, Copepoda, Ostracoda, Isopoda and Insecta. In terms of species richness, the phylum Rotifera followed by the Protoctista were the most relevant with forty and fifteen taxa, respectively. The most representative taxa in numerical terms were Arcella vulgaris, Notholca sp. Rotary sp. and nematodes. Regarding the community diversity index, the community was characterized as low diversity, but the taxa were distributed evenly in all monitoring points.

  11. Evidence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, J P G L; Otero, V; Sobral, P

    2014-04-01

    Records of high concentrations of plastic and microplastic marine debris floating in the ocean have led to investigate the presence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters. Zooplankton samples collected at four offshore sites, in surveys conducted between 2002 and 2008, with three different sampling methods, were used in this preliminary study. A total of 152 samples were processed and microplastics were identified in 93 of them, corresponding to 61% of the total. Costa Vicentina, followed by Lisboa, were the regions with higher microplastic concentrations (0.036 and 0.033 no. m?³) and abundances (0.07 and 0.06 cm³ m?³), respectively. Microplastic: zooplankton ratios were also higher in these two regions, which is probably related to the proximity of densely populated areas and inputs from the Tejo and Sado river estuaries. Microplastics polymers were identified using Micro Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (?-FTIR), as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyacrylates (PA). The present work is the first report on the composition of microplastic particles collected with plankton nets in Portuguese coastal waters. Plankton surveys from regular monitoring campaigns conducted worldwide may be used to monitor plastic particles in the oceans and constitute an important and low cost tool to address marine litter within the scope of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC). PMID:24461782

  12. Simultaneous measurement of 3D zooplankton trajectories and surrounding fluid velocity field in complex flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Deepak; Gemmell, Brad J; Hallberg, Michael P; Longmire, Ellen K; Buskey, Edward J

    2015-11-01

    We describe an automated, volumetric particle image velocimetry (PIV) and tracking method that measures time-resolved, 3D zooplankton trajectories and surrounding volumetric fluid velocity fields simultaneously and non-intrusively. The method is demonstrated for groups of copepods flowing past a wall-mounted cylinder. We show that copepods execute escape responses when subjected to a strain rate threshold upstream of a cylinder, but the same threshold range elicits no escape responses in the turbulent wake downstream. The method was also used to document the instantaneous slip velocity of zooplankton and the resulting differences in trajectory between zooplankton and non-inertial fluid particles in the unsteady wake flow, showing the method's capability to quantify drift for both passive and motile organisms in turbulent environments. Applications of the method extend to any group of organisms interacting with the surrounding fluid environment, where organism location, larger-scale eddies and smaller-scale fluid deformation rates can all be tracked and analyzed. PMID:26486364

  13. Fatty acid profiling reveals seasonal and spatial shifts in zooplankton diet in a temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, A. M. M.; Azeiteiro, U. M.; Pardal, M. A.; De Troch, M.

    2012-08-01

    Fatty acids composition of copepod and cladoceran species and their possible food sources was investigated in the Mondego estuary (southern Europe) in order to explain the seasonal variation of the small copepods Acartia clausi, Acartia tonsa, Copidodiaptomus numidicus, Temora longicornis and the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia longispina. A total of 12 zooplankton species (7 marine, 2 estuarine and 3 freshwater species) were studied. A multivariate analysis revealed a clear seasonal distribution of zooplankton species in terms of fatty acids composition and abundance, with winter and spring zooplankton species showing maximal concentrations and diversity of total fatty acids. These findings underline the role of lipids as storage during the colder seasons in a highly variable environment like an estuary. Estuarine and freshwater species showed a more diverse array of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids rather than marine species, except for Centropages typicus. Fatty acids markers of trophic position indicated the presence of two trophic levels: copepod species were primarily omnivorous, whereas cladocerans showed to be herbivorous. Our results suggest that feeding patterns of plankton change spatially and temporally, reflecting the shifts in dominance between diatoms and flagellates as well as between dinoflagellates/diatoms and small animals.

  14. Estimation of the toxicity of pollutants to marine phytoplanktonic and zooplanktonic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the basic components of the action plans sponsored by UNEP in the framework of the Regional Seas Programme is the assessment of the state of the marine environment and of its resources, and of the sources and trends of the pollution, and the impact of pollution on human health, marine ecosystems, and amenities. In order to ensure that the data obtained through this assessment can be compared on a world-wide basis and thus contribute to the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of UNEP, a set of Reference Methods and Guidelines for marine pollution studies are being developed as part of a programme of comprehensive technical support which includes the provision of expert advice, reference methods and materials, training and data quality assurance. This reference method describes procedures for estimating the toxicity of pollutants to marine phytoplankton and zooplankton. Procedures are given for estimating the media effective concentrations (EC50) of toxicants to phytoplankton, and the minimum algistatic concentration (MAC-5). For zooplankton, procedures are given for determining median lethal concentrations. Organisms are exposed to each of a range of concentrations of the test substance. For phytoplankton, the median effective concentration (EC50) is estimated in terms of the number of individuals surviving, the biomass of individuals surviving, or the chlorophyll content of the individuals surviving. For zooplankton, the media lethal concentration (LC50) is estimated by conventional log-probit analysis of the mortality data

  15. Biotic Spectrum of Chando Lake in Context of Ecological Status and Zooplankton Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Shukla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering an area of approximate 650 ha, Chando Lake is located in South East of Basti, (U.P.. No precise study regarding its hydrobiology has been conducted. Hence, present study has been undertaken to observe its ecological status and zooplankton diversity from June 2010 to May 2012. The early mean flow in this lake relied on rains and the mean annual rain fall was recorded to be 1094 cm with in 51 average rainy days. The average value of the temperature was recorded to be 28.46°C, pH 7.38, transparency 58.52 cm, DO 6024 mg/L, free CO2 3.70 mg/L, TDS 1 52.20 mg/L, total hardness 153.69 mg/L , total alkalinity 272.44 mg/L , Nitrate 7.11 mg/L, phosphate 0.83 mg/L and chloride 34.63 mg/L. In the present study 23 species of zooplankton were noticed out of which six species belong to cladocerans, six species of copepods, four species of protozoans and seven species of rotiferans. The study of zooplankton species diversity and abundance with respect to biotic factors may assist in future planning for the management of intensive fish culture in this vast lake.

  16. Mechanisms of compensatory dynamics in zooplankton and maintenance of food chain efficiency under toxicant stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yoshinari

    2016-03-01

    Communities with species that are tolerant to environmental stresses may be able to maintain the ecosystem functions under the stress, because the tolerant species can compensate for the loss of sensitive species. In this study, we focused on the food chain efficiency (FCE), the trophic transfer across three trophic levels, as an important process for ecosystem function, and examined the conditions under which such compensation could occur with aquarium experiments using an insecticide (methomyl) as the stressor. Our aquariums included one of two pairs of insecticide-tolerant and insecticide-sensitive cladoceran species, and a fish as the predator. The response of FCE to the insecticide stress, as indicated by the fish biomass production, depended on the zooplankton species combinations. FCE and total zooplankton biomass were maintained in the pair in which the compensatory changes of species abundances were clear, whereas they decreased in the pair in which the compensatory changes were not clear. This indicated the compensatory dynamics in the zooplankton community responsible for the observed resistance to the stress. We inferred the driving factors for the compensatory dynamics and the community resistance with respect to species traits of ecological importance, and concluded that a dissimilarity between species as regards the tolerance trait and a clear trade-off between the tolerance and the competitive ability was required to drive the compensatory dynamics, and a similarity or a superiority of the tolerant species as regards the functional effect trait (the predator avoidance and the reproductive potential) were required to maintain FCE. PMID:26683817

  17. From Immigration to Migration Systems: New Concepts in Migration History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerder, Dirk

    1999-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of migration systems where two or more societies are connected through migration patterns. Identifies the four major migration systems that populated North America. Reviews the literature in relation to migration systems and discusses autobiographical accounts of migration. Provides an extensive bibliography. (CMK)

  18. Size-related response of zooplankton to hydroclimatic variability and water-quality in an organically polluted estuary of the Basque coast (Bay of Biscay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intxausti, Lander; Villate, Fernando; Uriarte, Ibon; Iriarte, Arantza; Ameztoy, Iban

    2012-06-01

    Seasonal, interannual and spatial variabilities were analysed for the > 100 μm and > 200 μm zooplankton assemblages in the estuary of Bilbao throughout 1997-2000, and related to hydroclimatic and water-quality factors. Seasonal and interannual patterns of abundance differed between assemblages, and only the abundance of the > 100 μm zooplankton was correlated with temperature. The large-sized zooplankton decreased more drastically than the small-sized zooplankton with decreasing salinity, and showed highest correlations with dissolved oxygen and water transparency. Seasonal changes were the major variability mode of zooplankton composition in both assemblages. Interannual changes associated to phytoplankton biomass and temperature were more evident in the small-sized zooplankton, whilst spatial differences related to oxygen depletion were more evident in the large-sized zooplankton. This indicates that small zooplankton was more sensitive to climate-related factors, while large zooplankton was more sensitive to water quality. Small copepods, cirriped larvae, appendicularians and Noctiluca were the main taxa responsible for the interannual variations in the > 100 μm assemblage. In the > 200 μm assemblage, large copepods were the main zooplankton responsible for the spatial variability related to oxygen depletion. Cnidarians and cladocerans responded mainly to decreases in salinity, and polychaete larvae were found to be unaffected by the decrease in dissolved oxygen and salinity. Results suggest that size-related differential responses of zooplankton should be considered when zooplankton monitoring is performed to assess the effect of climate forcing and pollution in coastal and estuarine environments.

  19. Regime shifts in shallow lakes: the importance of seasonal fish migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brönmark, Christer; Brodersen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Shallow eutrophic lakes commonly exist in two alternative stable states: a clear-water state and a turbid water state. A number of mechanisms, including both abiotic and biotic processes, buffer the respective states against changes, whereas other mechanisms likely drive transitions between states. Our earlier research shows that a large proportion of zooplanktivorous fish populations in shallow lakes undertake seasonal migrations where they leave the lake during winter and migrate back to the lake in spring. Based on our past research, we propose a number of scenarios of how feedback processes between the individual and ecosystem levels may affect stability of alternative stable states in shallow lakes when mediated by fish migration. Migration effects on shallow lakes result from processes at different scales, from the individual to the ecosystem. Our earlier research has shown that ecosystem properties, including piscivore abundance and zooplankton productivity, affect the individual state of zooplanktivorous fish, such as growth rate or condition. Individual state, in turn, affects the relative proportion and timing of migrating zooplanktivorous fish. This change, in turn, may stabilize states or cause runaway processes that eventually lead to state shifts. Consequently, such knowledge of processes coupled to seasonal migration of planktivorous fish should increase our understanding of shallow lake dynamics.

  20. Vertical shaft windmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.