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Sample records for zhangjiang river estuary

  1. Salmon habitat use, tidal-fluvial estuary (Columbia River Estuary Tidal Habitats)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the tidal-fluvial estuary study is to determine the estuarys contribution to the spatial structure and life history diversity of Columbia River salmon...

  2. In-stream PIT detection, estuary wetlands (Columbia River Estuary Tidal Habitats)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the tidal-fluvial estuary study is to determine the estuarys contribution to the spatial structure and life history diversity of Columbia River salmon...

  3. Estuary-wide genetic stock distribution (Columbia River Estuary Tidal Habitats)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the tidal-fluvial estuary study is to determine the estuary's contribution to the spatial structure and life history diversity of Columbia River salmon...

  4. Skagit IMW (Skagit River Estuary Intensively Monitored Watershed Project)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study evaluates system-level effects of several estuary restoration projects on juvenile Chinook salmon production in the Skagit River estuary. The monitoring...

  5. 76 FR 8345 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan Module for Columbia River Estuary Salmon and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ...Plan Module for Columbia River Estuary Salmon and Steelhead AGENCY: National Marine...plan module for Columbia River estuary salmon and steelhead...Species Act (ESA) Recovery Plan Module for Salmon and Steelhead (Estuary Module)....

  6. Tritium in the Savannah River estuary and adjacent marine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tritium distribution in the Savannah River estuary and adjacent marine waters was measured to provide information on the dilution, mixing and movement of Savannah River water in this region. The Savannah River marine region was chosen because the average tritium concentration in this river is approximately 5 pCi/ml, whereas other rivers in the southeastern United States of America average less than 0.5 pCi/ml. The increased tritium concentration in the Savannah River is due to releases from the Savannah River Plant of the Department of Energy. Tritium measurements have proved particularly effective in estimating the flushing time of the Savannah River estuary (2.4 days) and in delineating the relative contribution to the water masses in Ossabaw and Port Royal Sounds from the river and from sea-water. Ossabaw and Port Royal Sounds are located approximately 20 km south and north of the Savannah River estuary respectively. (author)

  7. Juvenile Salmon Usage of the Skeena River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S.; Moore, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2–8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that use the estuary, then numerous fisheries would also be negatively affected. PMID:25749488

  8. Trace elements and radionuclides in the Connecticut River and Amazon River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Connecticut River, its estuary, and the Amazon River estuary were studied to elucidate some of the processes which control river water chemistry and the flux of elements to the sea. The approach taken was to identify inputs to the Connecticut River and to investigate geochemical processes which modify the dissolved load. The form and quantity of nuclides which are in turn supplied to the estuary are altered by processes unique to that transition zone to the ocean. The Connecticut River estuary was sampled on a seasonal basis to investigate the role of the estuary in controlling the flux of elements to the sea. The knowledge gained from the Connecticut River study was applied to the quantitatively more significant Amazon River estuary. There a variety of samples were analyzed to understand the processes controlling the single greatest flux of elements to the Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that estimates of the total flux of nuclides to the oceans can best be calculated based on groundwater inputs. Unless significant repositories for nuclides exist in the river-estuarine system, the groundwater flux of dissolved nuclides is that which will eventually be delivered to the ocean despite the reactions which were shown to occur in both rivers and estuaries. 153 references, 63 figures, 28 tables

  9. The recreational value of river inflows into South African estuaries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Stephen, Hosking.

    Full Text Available Estuarine habitats are subject to increasing demand pressures. Some of these are direct, for the appealing space they provide for residences and recreation; and some are indirect, in the form of competitive demand for the inputs required to maintain their ecological functionality, for instance, rive [...] r inflows. As a result of increasing demand for river water the connection of many of South Africa's estuaries with the sea has been undermined and their recreational appeal reduced. This paper reports findings on these negative impacts for selected estuaries. The contingent valuation method was used to estimate the value of recreational benefits that would result at 40 South African estuaries if water-inflow reductions were averted. The studies were undertaken between 2000 and 2007. All the estuaries selected were known to be vulnerable to changes in river inflows. Expert opinions on the consequences of specified hypothetical changes to water inflows into estuaries were used to generate the scenarios valued. User populations were estimated and surveys administered to samples of these populations. From the elicited responses median estuary user willingness to pay bids were predicted using Tobit and OLS models. An internal credibility assessment was conducted over the plausibility of the predictive model, the consistency of the values to those estimated using an alternative valuation method (the contingent travel cost method), and the reliability of the estimates. For the 37 estimates deemed reliable (but not necessarily valid), the average of the predicted median values of river inflow into estuaries was calculated to be 3.4 c/m³ (South African cents, ZAR) and standard deviation 3.84 c/m³. The average of the predicted mean values was calculated to be 7.4 c/m³ and the standard deviation 6.7 c/m³. It was also found that where there had been extensive economic development around the river system, the values of inflows into estuaries tended to be less than the value of water abstracted upstream.

  10. Biogeochemistry of the Kem' River estuary, White Sea (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Shevchenko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The biogeochemistry of the river-sea interface was studied in the Kem' River (the largest river flowing to the White Sea from Karelian coast estuary and adjacent area of the White Sea onboard the RV 'Ekolog' in summer 2001, 2002 and 2003. The study area can be divided into 3 zones: I - the estuary itself, with water depth from 1 to 5m and low salinity in the surface layer (salinity is lower than 0.2psu in the Kem' River and varies from 15 to 20psu in outer part of this zone; II - the intermediate zone with depths from 5 to 10m and salinity at the surface from 16 to 22psu; III - the marine zone with depths from 10 to 29 m and salinity 21-24.5psu. Highest concentrations of the suspended particulate matter (SPM were registered in the Kem' mouth (5-7mg/l. They sharply decreased to values org to nitrogen (N ratio (Corg/N in both suspended matter and bottom sediments decreases from the river to the marine part of the mixing zone (from 8.5 to 6.1 in the suspended matter and from 14.6 to 7.5 in the bottom sediments, demonstrating that content of terrestrial-derived organic matter decreases and content of marine organic matter increases from the river mouth to the sea. The Kem' estuary exhibits a similar character of biogeochemial processes as in the large Arctic estuaries, but the scale of these processes (amount of river input of SPM, POC, area of estuaries is different.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the Brisbane River Estuary, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, G.R.; Connell, D.W.

    1980-12-01

    The concentrations of PCB's in water, sediment, fish, crustacea, molluscs, and polychaetes from the Brisbane River estuary in Australia were determined. Levels were comparable to other similar situations elsewhere. No relationship was found between trophic class and PCB concentration. (12 references, 1 table)

  12. Trace elements distribution in bottom sediments from Amazon River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amazon River discharges into a dynamic marine environment where there have been many interactive processes affecting dissolved and particulate solids, either those settling on the shelf or reaching the ocean. Trace elemental concentration, especially of the rare earth elements, have been determined by neutron activation analysis in sixty bottom sediment samples of the Amazon River estuary, providing information for the spatial and temporal variation study of those elements. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Geomorphologic and physical characteristics of a human impacted estuary: Quequén Grande River Estuary, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Pérez, Daniel E.; Piccolo, M. Cintia; Palma, Elbio D.; Cuadrado, Diana G.

    2005-01-01

    Even though the Quequén Grande River Estuary has economic and strategic importance from an oceanographic point of view, it has been ignored until recently. Nevertheless, many anthropogenic modifications (i.e., dredging, jetty and harbour construction, etc.) have taken place in the last 100 years which, most of them, have resulted in significative economic expenses to the harbour and city authorities due to the lack of adequate prior studies. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the present status of the geomorphology and main physical characteristics of the estuary and describe the effects of these man-made modifications upon the estuary. Data were gathered in several field cruises from 1994 to 2000 plus from continuous recording devices installed at or near the estuary directed to define the present geomorphologic and oceanographic conditions of the estuary and to establish a monitoring program. The ultimate goal is to provide some practical solutions in diminishing the maintenance of the harbour and to provide pollution-control devices. The estuary is classified as a microtidal, primary, coastal-plain system. It can be considered as a partly-mixed system 2 km from the mouth up to its head (15 km inland). Artificial dredging to accommodate the Quequén harbour in the last 2 km of the estuary has induced a highly stratified water column where the upper 2-3 m concentrates low salinity water and the lower layer is filled by water of the same or slightly higher salinity than the inner shelf waters. Due to the presence of a step at the head of the harbour, water circulation is very reduced and in some cases nonexistent, producing strong reductive and even anoxic conditions. The foot of the step is a sediment and organic matter trap that must be dredged periodically to insure adequate navigability.

  14. Impact of multichannel river network on the plume dynamics in the Pearl River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhigang; Ma, Ronghua; Gao, Guangyin; Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert C.

    2015-08-01

    Impacts of the multichannel river network on plume dynamics in the Pearl River estuary were examined using a high-resolution 3-D circulation model. The results showed that during the dry season the plume was a distinct feature along the western coast of the estuary. The plume was defined as three water masses: (a) riverine water (22 psu), respectively. A significant amount of low-salinity water from Hengmen and Hongqimen was transported through a narrow channel between the QiAo Island and the mainland of the Pearl River delta during the ebb tide and formed a local salinity-gradient feature (hereafter referred to as a discharge plume). This discharge plume was a typical small-scale river plume with a Kelvin number K = 0.24 and a strong frontal boundary on its offshore side. With evidence of a significant impact on the distribution and variability of the salinity and flow over the West Shoal, this plume was thought to be a major feature of the Pearl River plume during the dry season. The upstream multichannel river network not only were the freshwater discharge sources but also played a role in establishing an estuarine-scale subtidal pressure gradient. This pressure gradient was one of the key dynamical processes controlling the water exchange between discharge and river plumes in the Pearl River estuary. This study clearly showed the role of the river network and estuary interaction on river plume dynamics.

  15. Analysis of coastal evolution of the Pearl river estuary based on remote sensing and GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Y.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, W.; Zhao, Y

    2013-01-01

    The Pearl River Estuary is located midway along the northern boundary of the South China Sea. According to the impacts of large-scale human activities, the shape of coastline, topographical feature and the ocean dynamical environment of the Pearl River estuary have changed significantly since 1970s. In this paper, the integrated application of remote sensing and GIS technology was used to analyze the shoreline evolution in the Pearl River estuary over the past nearly 30 years. In addition, a ...

  16. The Caloosahatchee River Estuary: a monitoring partnership between Federal, State, and local governments, 2007-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The tidal Caloosahatchee River and downstream estuaries have substantial environmental, recreational, and economic value for southwest Florida residents and visitors. Modifications to the Caloosahatchee River watershed have altered the predevelopment hydrology, thereby threatening the environmental health of estuaries in the area. Hydrologic monitoring of the freshwater contributions from tributaries to the tidal Caloosahatchee River and its estuaries is necessary to adequately describe the total freshwater inflow and constituent loads to the delicate estuarine system.

  17. Environmental restoration of the Guadiaro river estuary, Cadiz (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    De la Casa, Ángel; Gomez-Pina, Gregorio; Acha Martin, Antonio; Muñoz-Perez, Juan J.

    2000-01-01

    During 1998, the Spanish Ministry of Environmental Protection has developed the restoration of the Guadiaro estuary, near the Strait of Gibraltar, through the Coastal General Directorate. The main environmental problems, amongst others, detected at the area were a high eutrophication level of the estuarine waters and fish mortality mainly due to the low summer river effluent, the urban sewage inputs and no tidal renovation caused by the blockage of the sand bar at the mouth...

  18. Salinity and turbidity distributions in the Brisbane River estuary, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingying; Zhang, Hong; Lemckert, Charles

    2014-11-01

    The Brisbane River estuary (BRE) in Australia not only plays a vital role in ecosystem health, but is also of importance for people who live nearby. Comprehensive investigations, both in the short- and long-term, into the salinity and turbidity distributions in the BRE were conducted. Firstly, the analysis of numerical results revealed that the longitudinal salinity varied at approximately 0.45 and 0.61 psu/h during neap and spring tides, respectively. The turbidity stayed at a higher level and was less impacted by tide in the upper estuary, however, the water cleared up while the tide changed from flood to ebb in the mid and lower estuary. The second investigation into the seasonal variations of salinity and turbidity in the BRE was conducted, using ten-year field measurement data. A fourth-order polynomial equation was proposed, describing the longitudinal variation in salinity dilution changes as the upstream distance in the BRE during the wet and dry seasons. From the observation, the mid and upper estuaries were vertically well-mixed during both seasons, but the lower BRE was stratified, particularly during the wet season. The estuary turbidity maximum (ETM) zone was about 10 km longer during the wet season than the dry season. Particular emphasis was given to the third investigation into the use of satellite remote sensing techniques for estimation of the turbidity level in the BRE. A linear relationship between satellite observed water reflectance and surface turbidity level in the BRE was validated with an R2 of 0.75. The application of satellite-observed water reflectance therefore provided a practical solution for estimating surface turbidity levels of estuarine rivers not only under normal weather conditions, but also during flood events. The results acquired from this study are valuable for further hydrological research in the BRE and particularly prominent for immediate assessment of flood impacts.

  19. Fluxes of nitrogen in Chaliyar River Estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Xavier, J.K.; Joseph, T.; Paimpillii, J.S.

    of nitrate, ammonia and phosphate to sea are 13.7 Mg d-2 , 1.2 Mg d-1 and 0.61 Mg d-1 respectively. Key Words: Tropical Estuary, Nutrient Fluxes, Nitrogen, Seasonal Variation INTRODUCTION The estuarine ecological environments are complex and highly... - August), and during this period, the tidal limit comes down to a distance of 5 Km from the river mouth. The lowest discharges are found to occur during April- May and the tidal incursions of seawater extends up to 2S Km from the river mouth (James...

  20. Oil spill response planning on the Columbia river estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Columbia River Estuary lies along the Washington-Oregon state boundary on the west coast of the United States. The entire area is environmentally very sensitive with numerous large, shallow bays, exposed mud flats, wetland areas, and central channels having maximum currents of three to four knots. These features make the area very difficult to protect from an oil spill. Spill response is further complicated because of the many different state, federal, and local jurisdictions with mandated responsibilities in oil spill response and environmental protection. Under the leadership of the US Coast Guard Marine Safety Office in Portland, Oregon, a steering group was established to guide the development of a response plan for the Columbia River Estuary. A concerted effort was made to include representatives from response organizations, natural resource agencies, and resource users from federal, state, and local governments, and commercial sectors in the planning process. The first draft of an operational response plan was completed the summer of 1992 through a combination of technical workshops, field trips, and small working groups meeting with local communities. The Columbia River Estuary Response Plan prioritizes areas to protect; identifies specific response strategies for protecting these areas; and outlines the Iogistics needed to implement these strategies, including equipment needs, the location of staging areas, and the identification of pre-designed command posts. The local spill response cooperative and oil transportation industry are using the plan to coordinate the purchase of response equipment and the staging of this equipment at numerous locations along the river. The key to success is ensuring that all the groups responding to an event participate in the planning process together. This process has worked well and will serve as a model for response planning for other areas along the Columbia River and coastal areas of Washington and Oregon

  1. Trace elements and radionuclides in the Connecticut River and Amazon River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Connecticut River, its estuary and the Amazon River plume were studied to elucidate processes which control the flux of nuclides to the sea. Major ions (Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, Bicarbonate) and selected trace elements (Ra, Ba, Cu, Si) are introduced to the Connecticut River in proportion to the total dissolved load of various groundwaters. Si, Ra, and Ba are subject to removal from solution by seasonal diatom productivity; whereas the other groundwater-derived elements are found in proportion to TDS both time and space. These nuclides are released in the estuary when a portion of the Ra, Ba, and Si in riverine biogenic detritus is trapped in salt marshes and coves bordering the estuary where it redissolves and is exported to the main river channel at ebb tide. In the Amazon River estuary, the Ra and Ba are released in mid-salinity waters. Ra and Ba together with Si are subsequently removed by diatom productivity as reflected in increased Ra and Ba in the suspended particles and depleted dissolved nuclide concentrations in samples from the high productivity zone. In both the Connecticut River system and the Amazon River plume, Cu behaves conservatively; whereas the fates of Fe and Al are linked to soil-derived humic acids. Trace elements in Amazon plume sediments are found simply in proportion to the percentage of fine-grained size materials, despite low Th-228/Ra-228 mean residence times in the plume and the presence of Cs-137 in the sediment column. Estimates of the total flux of nuclides to the oceans can best be calculated on a mass balance basis using groundwater inputs. Unless significant repositories for nuclides exist in the river-estuarine system, the groundwater flux of dissolved nuclides is net flux to the ocean despite the reactions which occur in both rivers and estuaries

  2. Local flows in the Quequen Grande River Estuary, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereyra, M G; Marino, B M [Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina); Thomas, L P, E-mail: mpereyra@exa.unicen.edu.a, E-mail: lthomas@exa.unicen.edu.a, E-mail: bmarino@exa.unicen.edu.a

    2009-05-01

    Quequen Grande River is one of the most important water courses of Buenos Aires Province due to the economic and strategic significance of its estuary, where the populous Quequen-Necochea area and Quequen Port are located. The minor Las Cascadas falls, at 15 km from the place where the river meets the sea is the point where the maximum tidal propagation is detected marking the head of the estuary. Artificial dredging is needed to insure the adequate navigability conditions in the Quequen harbour, which has induced a highly stratified water column in the last 2 km of the estuary. Thus, an abrupt step is established at the head of the harbour, implying a much reduced water circulation and in some cases nonexistent, producing strong reductive and even anoxic conditions. The foot of the step is a sediment and organic matter trap and becomes an interesting place of study. The goal of this article is to present the information obtained with Doppler sonar at the neighborhood of the step, which allows distinguishing local turbidity currents that may influence the deposition patterns of the sediments.

  3. Transport of fallout and reactor radionuclides in the drainage basin of the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport and fate of Strontium 90, Cesium 137 and Plutonium 239, 240 in the Hudson River Estuary is discussed. Rates of radionuclide deposition and accumulation over time and space are calculated for the Hudson River watershed, estuary, and continental shelf offshore. 37 references, 7 figures, 15 tables

  4. Expertise mission at the Rance river estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rance tidal power plant was inaugurated in 1968. This report presents the environmental impacts of the dam (choking up of Rance river with marine sediments) and proposes several remedial actions for the preservation of the site: dredging and agricultural valorization of muds by spreading. This project leads to several questions which are analyzed in the document: populations reaction, salinity of muds, dimensions of the decantation pool, impact of muds on cultures, lack of alternative solutions etc.. (J.S.)

  5. Trace metals geochemistry of Bengkulu river and estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, M. Lutfi; Darti, Puspa; Alwi, Wiwit; Swistoro, Eko; Sundaryono, Agus; Ruyani, Aceng

    2015-09-01

    Unique feature of Indonesian archipelago in addition to its location that settled between the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean has made Indonesian seas as important parts of the world ocean system. In contrast, research on Indonesian seas including its marine geochemistry is scarce. Research findings have proven that Indonesian seas and its characteristics, such as Indonesian throughflow, are important in the seawater thermohaline circulation that affect world's global climate. The transports of mass and heat from the Pacific into the Indian Ocean are crucial for the oceanic circulation and sea surface temperatures. It is only until recently known that water masses movement could be traced using chemical elements such as Zr and Hf. In modern ocean, sources of these chemicals are mostly from continents. Chemicals had been brought to the oceans through river, estuary, coastal and eventually open seawater. We have analyzed selected important trace metals of Bengkulu river and estuary starting from upper stream of Bengkulu River to coastal seawater of the Indian Ocean. Concentrations of trace metals in the sample were determined by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Dissolved and labile particulate concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, V, Sr and Zn are reported in this study.

  6. Lidar monitoring of organic matter in the Pearl River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Pan, Delu; Hu, Chuanwen; Mao, Zhihua

    2014-11-01

    A dual-wavelength lidar fluorosensor system for fast diagnosis of chromophoric dissolved matter (CDOM) in water in the Pearl River estuary was discussed. The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system used two lasers as excitation sources with wavelength at 355nm and 532 nm, and a hyperspectral CCD spectrometer was used to record the fluorescence signal. The overlapping fluorescence spectra of water Raman scattering and CDOM were separated with fitting bi- Gaussian of the least squares method. High correlation was observed between concentration of CDOM and fluorescence normalized to water Raman scattering. The in situ results demonstrated rapid characterization of dissolved organic matter can be done by the LIF technique.

  7. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a subtropical estuary (the Brisbane River estuary, Australia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musenze, Ronald S.; Werner, Ursula [Advanced Water Management Centre (AWMC), the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia); Grinham, Alistair [Advanced Water Management Centre (AWMC), the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia); School of Civil Engineering, the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia); Udy, James [Healthy Waterways Ltd, P.O. Box 13086, George Street, Brisbane, Qld 4003 (Australia); Yuan, Zhiguo, E-mail: z.yuan@awmc.uq.edu.au [Advanced Water Management Centre (AWMC), the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2014-02-01

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) are two key greenhouse gases. Their global atmospheric budgeting is, however, flout with challenges partly due to lack of adequate field studies determining the source strengths. Knowledge and data limitations exist for subtropical and tropical regions especially in the southern latitudes. Surface water methane and nitrous oxide concentrations were measured in a subtropical estuarine system in the southern latitudes in an extensive field study from 2010 to 2012 and water–air fluxes estimated using models considering the effects of both wind and flow induced turbulence. The estuary was found to be a strong net source of both CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O all-year-round. Dissolved N{sub 2}O concentrations ranged between 9.1 ± 0.4 to 45.3 ± 1.3 nM or 135 to 435% of atmospheric saturation level, while CH{sub 4} concentrations varied between 31.1 ± 3.7 to 578.4 ± 58.8 nM or 1210 to 26,430% of atmospheric saturation level. These results compare well with measurements from tropical estuarine systems. There was strong spatial variability with both CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O concentrations increasing upstream the estuary. Strong temporal variability was also observed but there were no clear seasonal patterns. The degree of N{sub 2}O saturation significantly increased with NO{sub x} concentrations (r{sup 2} = 0.55). The estimated water–air fluxes varied between 0.1 and 3.4 mg N{sub 2}O m{sup ?2} d{sup ?1} and 0.3 to 27.9 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup ?2} d{sup ?1}. Total emissions (CO{sub 2}-e) were N{sub 2}O (64%) dominated, highlighting the need for reduced nitrogen inputs into the estuary. Choice of the model(s) for estimation of the gas transfer velocity had a big bearing on the estimated total emissions. - Highlights: • The estuary is a strong source of atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide. • Emissions had strong spatial-temporal variability with unclear seasonal patterns. • Dissolved gas saturation comparable to that in tropical rivers and polluted estuaries. • Emissions are dominated by N2O, which positively correlated with NOx concentrations. • Currently existing models contribute to uncertainty in emission estimates.

  8. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a subtropical estuary (the Brisbane River estuary, Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are two key greenhouse gases. Their global atmospheric budgeting is, however, flout with challenges partly due to lack of adequate field studies determining the source strengths. Knowledge and data limitations exist for subtropical and tropical regions especially in the southern latitudes. Surface water methane and nitrous oxide concentrations were measured in a subtropical estuarine system in the southern latitudes in an extensive field study from 2010 to 2012 and water–air fluxes estimated using models considering the effects of both wind and flow induced turbulence. The estuary was found to be a strong net source of both CH4 and N2O all-year-round. Dissolved N2O concentrations ranged between 9.1 ± 0.4 to 45.3 ± 1.3 nM or 135 to 435% of atmospheric saturation level, while CH4 concentrations varied between 31.1 ± 3.7 to 578.4 ± 58.8 nM or 1210 to 26,430% of atmospheric saturation level. These results compare well with measurements from tropical estuarine systems. There was strong spatial variability with both CH4 and N2O concentrations increasing upstream the estuary. Strong temporal variability was also observed but there were no clear seasonal patterns. The degree of N2O saturation significantly increased with NOx concentrations (r2 = 0.55). The estimated water–air fluxes varied between 0.1 and 3.4 mg N2O m?2 d?1 and 0.3 to 27.9 mg CH4 m?2 d?1. Total emissions (CO2-e) were N2O (64%) dominated, highlighting the need for reduced nitrogen inputs into the estuary. Choice of the model(s) for estimation of the gas transfer velocity had a big bearing on the estimated total emissions. - Highlights: • The estuary is a strong source of atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide. • Emissions had strong spatial-temporal variability with unclear seasonal patterns. • Dissolved gas saturation comparable to that in tropical rivers and polluted estuaries. • Emissions are dominated by N2O, which positively correlated with NOx concentrations. • Currently existing models contribute to uncertainty in emission estimates

  9. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of suspended particulate matter in the Seine river estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Hubert, Francoise; Moisan, Karine; Munschy, Catherine; Tronczynski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Highly mutagenic compounds such as some PAHs have been identified in surface waters and sediments of the Seine river estuary. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) represents a dynamic medium that may contribute to the exposure of aquatic organisms to toxic compounds in the water column of the estuary. In order to investigate major sources of mutagenic contaminants along the estuary, water samples were taken at 25 in downstream of the outlet of an industrial wastewater-treatment plant (WWTP). SP...

  10. High CO2 emissions from the tropical Godavari estuary (India) associated with monsoon river discharges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Kumar, N.A.; Prasad, V.R.; Venkataramana, V.; Appalanaidu, S.; Sridevi, B.; Kumar, B.S.K.; Bharati, M.D.; Subbaiah, C.V.; Acharyya, T.; Rao, G.D.; Viswanadham, R.; Gawade, L.; Manjary, D.T.; Kumar, P.P.; Rajeev, K.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Sarma, V.V.; Kumar, M.D.; Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T.V.R.

    estuary, China. Mar. Chem.93, 21-32. Legend to Figures Figure 1. Sampling locations in the Godavari estuary. Daily time-series sampling was conducted at Yanam, in the middle of the estuary, while monthly sampling was done at all stations. River...-950 Park et al (1969) Potomac (US-Maryland) 646-878 Raymond et al (2000) Changjiang (China- Shanghai/Jiangsu) 168-2264 Gao et al (2008) Changjiang/Yangtze River (China) 700-1950 Chen et al (2008) Pearl River (China-Guangdong) 360-4785 Zhai et al (2005...

  11. Plutonium AMS measurements in Yangtze River estuary sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tims, S.G., E-mail: steve.tims@anu.edu.a [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Pan, S.M.; Zhang, R. [Key Lab of Ministry of Education of Coast and Island Development, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Fifield, L.K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Wang, Y.P.; Gao, J.H. [Key Lab of Ministry of Education of Coast and Island Development, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-04-15

    The Yangtze River is the largest single source of sediment to the continental shelf of the East China Sea. The quantity of material exported by the river is expected to decrease substantially as a consequence of an extensive continuing program of dam construction within the river catchment. We report here AMS measurements of plutonium isotope concentrations and ratios for selected depth increments from a sediment core, collected from the sub-aqueous delta of the Yangtze River estuary. The Pu derives from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s, and is potentially a useful tracer of sediment deposition times in the marine environment. The results show considerable structure in the depth-concentration profile, and offer an excellent opportunity to compare Pu with the more commonly used {sup 137}Cs isotopic tracer. The AMS data show superior sensitivity and indicate that the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio can provide a check on the deposition dates. The changes in the {sup 240}Pu and {sup 239}Pu concentrations and the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios with sediment depth all indicate the possibility of using Pu as a geochronological tool for coastal sediment studies.

  12. Plutonium AMS measurements in Yangtze River estuary sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yangtze River is the largest single source of sediment to the continental shelf of the East China Sea. The quantity of material exported by the river is expected to decrease substantially as a consequence of an extensive continuing program of dam construction within the river catchment. We report here AMS measurements of plutonium isotope concentrations and ratios for selected depth increments from a sediment core, collected from the sub-aqueous delta of the Yangtze River estuary. The Pu derives from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s, and is potentially a useful tracer of sediment deposition times in the marine environment. The results show considerable structure in the depth-concentration profile, and offer an excellent opportunity to compare Pu with the more commonly used 137Cs isotopic tracer. The AMS data show superior sensitivity and indicate that the 240Pu/239Pu ratio can provide a check on the deposition dates. The changes in the 240Pu and 239Pu concentrations and the 240Pu/239Pu ratios with sediment depth all indicate the possibility of using Pu as a geochronological tool for coastal sediment studies.

  13. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Tortorici, Cathy; Yerxa, Tracey; Leary, J.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-02-05

    The purpose ofthis document is to describe research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program. The intent of this RME effort is to provide data and information to evaluate progress toward meeting program goals and objectives and support decision-making in the Estuary Program. The goal of the Estuary Program is to understand, conserve, and restore the estuary ecosystem to improve the performance of listed salmonid populations. The Estuary Program has five general objectives, designed to fulfill the program goal, as follows. 1. Understand the primary stressors affecting ecosystem controlling factors, such as ocean conditions and invasive species. 2. Conserve and restore factors controlling ecosystem structures and processes, such as hydrodynamics and water quality. 3. Increase the quantity and quality of ecosystem structures, i.e., habitats, juvenile salmonids use during migration through the estuary. 4. Maintain the food web to benefit salmonid performance. 5. Improve salmonid performance in terms of life history diversity, foraging success, growth, and survival. The goal of estuary RME is to provide pertinent and timely research and monitoring information to planners, implementers, and managers of the Estuary Program. In conclusion, the estuary RME effort is designed to meet the research and monitoring needs of the estuary Program using an adaptive management process. Estuary RME's success and usefulness will depend on the actual conduct of adaptive management, as embodied in the objectives, implrementation, data, reporting, and synthesis, evaluation, and decision-making described herein.

  14. PARASITIC AND SYMBIONIC FAUNA IN OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) COLLECTED FROM THE CALOOSAHATCHEE RIVER AND ESTUARY, FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, collected from ten sites in the Caloosahatchee River and Estuary, Florida, revealed a varied parasite and symbiotic fauna that have never been reported from this area. Organisms observed included ovacystis virus infecting gametes...

  15. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Snohomish River Estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) co-acquired Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and Truecolor Orthophotographs of the Snohomish River Estuary, WA on July 20...

  16. Circulation and physical processes within the San Gabriel River Estuary during summer 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Xu, Jingping; Stein, Eric D.; Noble, Marlene A.; Gartner, Anne L.

    2007-01-01

    The Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP) is developing a hydrodynamic model of the SGR estuary, which is part of the comprehensive water-quality model of the SGR estuary and watershed investigated by SCCWRP and other local agencies. The hydrodynamic model will help understanding of 1) the exchange processes between the estuary and coastal ocean; 2) the circulation patterns in the estuary; 3) upstream natural runoff and the cooling discharge from PGS. Like all models, the SGR hydrodynamic model is only useful after it is fully calibrated and validated. In May 2005, SCCWRP requested the assistance of the U.S. geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology team (CMG) in collecting data on the hydrodynamic conditions in the estuary during the summer dry season. The summer was chosen for field data collection as this was assumed to be the season with the greatest potential for chronic degraded water quality due to low river flow and high thermal stratification within the estuary (due to both higher average air temperature and PGS output). Water quality can be degraded in winter as well, when higher river discharge events bring large volumes of water from the Los Angeles basin into the estuary. The objectives of this project were to 1) collect hydrodynamic data along the SGR estuary; 2) study exchange processes within the estuary through analysis of the hydrodynamic data; and 3) provide field data for model calibration and validation. As the data only exist for the summer season, the results herein only apply to summer conditions.

  17. A Suspended Sediment Budget for the Modified Subtropical Brisbane River Estuary, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, B.; Hossain, S.; McKee, L.

    1998-10-01

    Annual suspended sediment budgets, for an average flow year and a wet year, were constructed for the sub-tropical Brisbane River estuary. The input of marine sediment from Moreton Bay is the dominant source of suspended sediment (about 456 000 t) to the Brisbane River estuary during an average flow year, contributing more than 1·5 times the sediment delivered from the catchment (about 178 000 t) and urban areas (about 112 000 t) combined. As the volume of water discharged during floods increases, the sediment retention efficiency of the Brisbane River estuary decreases rapidly due to the flushing of sediment through its mouth. As such, although the input of sediment from the catchment increased three-fold (600 000 t) during 1996 associated with a 20 year return period flood, marine sediment was still the dominant source of sediment deposited in the estuary because 77% of the fluvial sediment was exported to Moreton Bay. Dredging has increased the sediment trapping capacity of the estuary with more than a two-fold increase in the flood water volume needed (about 2000×10 6 m 3) to flush the estuary fresh at the mouth compared to pre-1962. An upstream dam traps a large proportion of the catchment sediment load, but the upstream retention of flood water has also increased the trapping capacity of the estuary by reducing the freshwater flow. As such, about 22% (33 000 t) more sediment was deposited in the estuary during a 20 year return period flood in May 1996 than would have been deposited prior to dam construction. The sub-tropical Brisbane River estuary has a lower and more variable sediment trapping efficiency than typical temperate northern hemisphere estuaries.

  18. Heavy metal anomalies in the Tinto and Odiel River and estuary system, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.H.; Lamothe, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Tinto and Odiel rivers drain 100 km from the Rio Tinto sulphide mining district, and join at a 20-km long estuary entering the Atlantic Ocean. A reconnaissance study of heavy metal anomalies in channel sand and overbank mud of the river and estuary by semi-quantitative emission dc-arc spectrographic analysis shows the following upstream to downstream ranges in ppm (??g g-1): As 3,000 to heavy metals in the overbank clay throughout the river and estuary systems indicates the importance of suspended sediment transport for dispersing heavy metals from natural erosion and anthropogenic mining activities of the sulfide deposit. The organic-poor (0.21-0.37% TOC) river bed sand has been analyzed to represent bedload transport of naturally-occurring sulfide minerals. The sand has high concentrations of metals upstream but these decrease an order of magnitude in the lower estuary. Although heavy metal contamination of estuary mouth beach sand has been diluted to background levels estuary mud exhibits increased contamination apparently related to finer grain size, higher organic carbon content, precipitation of river-borne dissolved solids, and input of anthropogenic heavy metals from industrial sources. The contaminated estuary mud disperses to the inner shelf mud belt and offshore suspended sediment, which exhibit metal anomalies from natural erosion and mining of upstream Rio Tinto sulphide lode sources (Pb, Cu, Zn) and industrial activities within the estuary (Fe, Cr, Ti). Because heavy metal contamination of Tinto-Odiel river sediment reaches or exceeds the highest levels encountered in other river sediments of Spain and Europe, a detailed analysis of metals in water and suspended sediment throughout the system, and epidemiological analysis of heavy metal effects in humans is appropriate. ?? 1993 Estuarine Research Federation.

  19. Salinity intrusions into the Selangor River estuary and its effect on the mangrove species sonneratia caseolaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical profiles of salinity, temperature and suspended sediment concentration (using OBS sensors) were measured along the longitudinal axis of the Sungai Selangor estuary during neap and spring high waters for different river discharges. These were supplemented by anchor station measurements (Which include tidal current velocity) in the lower and middle of the estuary over neap and spring tidal cycles. The results of these measurements showed that for low and medium river discharges the estuary changed from partially-mixed during the neaps to a well -mixed one during the springs. During high river discharges, the estuary became a salt-wedge type for both neap and spring tidal cycles. The maximum limit of salt water intrusion reached some 16 km from the river mouth which was recorded during a low river discharges (6.0 m3/s) on a medium tide ( tidal range 3.2 m), but this was reduced to about half the distance during high river discharges. During the maximum intrusion, the salt water did not reach Kg Kuantan, the attraction centre for the fireflies display, which dwells on mangrove species sonneratia caseolaris (Beremban trees). The measurements also indicated that the mangrove species was not found in the lower estuary where the salinity frequently exceeded 10 ppt. However, these trees grow along the river banks upstream of Kg Kuantan where it could occasionally exposed to salt water. This indicates that the salinity has some influence on the distribution of sonneratia caseolaris along Sungai Selangor and this natural balance shall maintained. (Author)

  20. Impacts of dredging on dry season suspended sediment concentration in the Brisbane River estuary, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Shahadat; Eyre, Bradley D.; McKee, Lester J.

    2004-11-01

    Extensive dredging in the Brisbane River estuary since European settlement has significantly altered estuarine hydrological and sediment transport processes. A large tidal ingress resulting from extensive dredging in the lower Brisbane River estuary and gravel extraction including point and non-point inputs in the upper estuary are currently maintaining two distinct turbidity maximum zones within the estuary: at the mouth (100-150 mg/L) and at about 60 km upstream (>300 mg/L). In addition, extensive dredging has also increased Brisbane estuary dry season flushing time significantly (>300 days) and as a consequence the estuary is currently unable to flush any point and non-point inputs beyond 35 km upstream from its mouth during the entire dry season resulting in a very high suspended sediment (SS) concentration all along the estuary except an area between two turbidity zones. In general, this work shows strong ramifications of dredging estuaries in other parts of the world, which are currently facing increased pressure from urbanisation and navigation requirements in conjunction with industrial developments.

  1. River input of dissolved uranium to the oceans; the Zaire river and estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic sampling survey was carried out in the Zaire (Congo) river and estuary during November 1976 and May 1978. Dissolved 238U and 234U concentrations in filtered fresh waters are low. Simple mixing between fresh and seawater accounts for dissolved uranium concentrations in the estuary but it was not possible to confirm the predicted conservative behaviour of riverine uranium by comparison of its distribution with the theoretical dilution curve. Uranium removal in near-bottom samples taken from the almost anoxic water-body located near the head of the canyon probably accounts for the lower concentrations found in these samples. Data concerning dissolved 238U in world rivers are well correlated with total dissolved solids. This correlation permits a reassessment of 238U concentration in rivers flowing to the ocean resulting in a world wide estimate of 0.24 ?g/l. The dissolved river input of 238U to the ocean is comparable with output through the main sink processes

  2. Concentrations, loads, and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls, Neponset River and Neponset River Estuary, eastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to contaminate the Neponset River, which flows through parts of Boston, Massachusetts, and empties into the Neponset River Estuary, an important fish-spawning area. The river is dammed and impassable to fish. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, Division of Ecological Restoration, Riverways Program, collected, analyzed, and interpreted PCB data from bottom-sediment, water, and (or) fish-tissue samples in 2002, 2004-2006. Samples from the Neponset River and Neponset River Estuary were analyzed for 209 PCB congeners, PCB homologs, and Aroclors. In order to better assess the overall health quality of river-bottom sediments, sediment samples were also tested for concentrations of 31 elements. PCB concentrations measured in the top layers of bottom sediment ranged from 28 nanograms per gram (ng/g) just upstream of the Mother Brook confluence to 24,900 ng/g measured in Mother Brook. Concentrations of elements in bottom sediment were generally higher than background concentrations and higher than levels considered toxic to benthic organisms according to freshwater sediment-quality guidelines defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations of dissolved PCBs in water samples collected from the Neponset River (May 13, 2005 to April 28, 2006) averaged about 9.2 nanograms per liter (ng/L) (annual average of monthly values); however, during the months of August (about 16.5 ng/L) and September (about 15.6 ng/L), dissolved PCB concentrations were greater than 14 ng/L, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's freshwater continuous chronic criterion for aquatic organisms. Concentrations of PCBs in white sucker (fillets and whole fish) were all greater than 2,000 ng/g wet wt, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's guideline for safe consumption of fish: PCB concentrations measured in fish-tissue samples collected from the Tileston and Hollingsworth and Walter Baker Impoundments were 3,490 and 2,450 ng/g wet wt (filleted) and 6,890 and 4,080 ng/g wet wt (whole fish). Total PCB-congener concentrations measured in the whole bodies of estuarine bait fish (common mummichog) averaged 708 ng/g wet wt. PCBs that pass from the Neponset River to the Neponset River Estuary are either dissolved or associated with particulate matter (including living and nonliving material) suspended in the water column. A small proportion of PCBs may also be transported as part of the body burden of fish and wildlife. During the period May 13, 2005 to April 28, 2006, about 5,100 g (3.8 L or 1 gal) of PCBs were transported from the Neponset River to the Neponset River Estuary. Generally, about one-half of these PCBs were dissolved in the water column and the other half were associated with particulate matter; however, the proportion that was either dissolved or particulate varied seasonally. Most PCBs transported from the river to the estuary are composed of four or fewer chlorine atoms per biphenyl molecule. The data suggest that widespread PCB contamination of the lower Neponset River originated from Mother Brook, a Neponset River tributary, starting sometime around the early 1950s or earlier. In 1955, catastrophic dam failure caused by flooding likely released PCB-contaminated sediment downstream and into the Neponset River Estuary. PCBs from this source area likely continued to be released after the flood and during subsequent rebuilding of downstream dams. Today (2007), PCBs are mostly trapped behind these dams; however, some PCBs either diffuse or are entrained back into the water column and are transported downstream by river water into the estuary or volatilize into the atmosphere. In addition to the continuing release of PCBs from historically contaminated bottom sediment, PCBs are still (2007) originating from source areas along Mother and Meadow Brook as well as other sources along the river and Boston Harbor. PCBs from the river (transported by river water) and from the harbor (transported by tidal action) appear to have contaminat

  3. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2008-02-20

    The purpose of this document is to describe research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program, hereafter called 'the Estuary Program'. The intent of this RME effort is to provide data and information to evaluate progress toward meeting program goals and objectives and support decision making in the Estuary Program. The goal of the Estuary Program is to understand, conserve, and restore the estuary ecosystem to improve the performance of listed salmonid populations. The Estuary Program has five general objectives, designed to fulfill the program goal, as follows: (1) Understand the primary stressors affecting ecosystem controlling factors, such as ocean conditions and invasive species. (2) Conserve and restore factors controlling ecosystem structures and processes, such as hydrodynamics and water quality. (3) Increase the quantity and quality of ecosystem structures, i.e., habitats, juvenile salmonids use during migration through the estuary. (4) Maintain the food web to benefit salmonid performance. (5) Improve salmonid performance in terms of life history diversity, foraging success, growth, and survival. The goal of estuary RME is to provide pertinent and timely research and monitoring information to planners, implementers, and managers of the Estuary Program. The goal leads to three primary management questions pertaining to the main focus of the Estuary Program: estuary habitat conservation and restoration. (1) Are the estuary habitat actions achieving the expected biological and environmental performance targets? (2) Are the offsite habitat actions in the estuary improving juvenile salmonid performance and which actions are most effective at addressing the limiting factors preventing achievement of habitat, fish, or wildlife performance objectives? (3) What are the limiting factors or threats in the estuary/ocean preventing the achievement of desired habitat or fish performance objectives? Performance measures for the estuary are monitored indicators that reflect the status of habitat conditions and fish performance, e.g., habitat connectivity, survival, and life history diversity. Performance measures also pertain to implementation and compliance. Such measures are part of the monitoring, research, and action plans in this estuary RME document. Performance targets specific to the estuary were not included in the 2007 draft Biological Opinion.

  4. Pollution in the estuary of the Baracoa river, La Habana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regla Duthit Somoza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental quality of the Baracoa river estuary was studied from the physic (temperature and salinity, chemic variables (dissolved oxygen, oxygen biochemical demand (DBO, oxygen chemical demand (DQO, nitrogen cycle, inorganic phosphorus and total phosphorus and the microbiological variables (total and thermotolerant coliforms and faecal streptococci. The samplings were made on February 2006, May and October 2007. Spatial distribution of the physical and chemical parameters measured suggests that the estuary is dominated by the marine conditions. The salinity and temperature analyses show that in general the characteristics of the estuary could be influenced by the contribution of the river basin drainage. In general, the concentrations of the measured parameters in the Baracoa river estuary, strongly suggest that this area is under influence of human activities on the river basin, due to the low levels of dissolved oxygen and an oxygen average deficit of -1.6 mg/L. nthropogenic actions in this estuary are mainly related to the emission of domestic and farming rejects without suitable treatment. This is visibly associated with the observed values of the total coliforms concentrations as well as the concentration of faecal streptococci, that surpassed reference values from the Cuban norm for water quality, following on bad or doubtful quality levels pointing out negatively measurements made next to the communication channel the estuary and the El Doctor lagoon.

  5. Distribution, Isolation, Host Specificity, and Diversity of Cyanophages Infecting Marine Synechococcus spp. in River Estuaries

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Jingrang; Chen, Feng; Hodson, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    The abundance of cyanophages infecting marine Synechococcus spp. increased with increasing salinity in three Georgia coastal rivers. About 80% of the cyanophage isolates were cyanomyoviruses. High cross-infectivity was found among the cyanophages infecting phycoerythrin-containing Synechococcus strains. Cyanophages in the river estuaries were diverse in terms of their morphotypes and genotypes.

  6. Proceedings of the Columbia River Estuary Conference on Ecosystem Restoration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Bonneville Power Administration

    2008-08-01

    The 2008 Columbia River Estuary Conference was held at the Liberty Theater in Astoria, Oregon, on April 19-20. The conference theme was ecosystem restoration. The purpose of the conference was to exchange data and information among researchers, policy-makers, and the public, i.e., interrelate science with management. Conference organizers invited presentations synthesizing material on Restoration Planning and Implementation (Session 1), Research to Reduce Restoration Uncertainties (Session 2), Wetlands and Flood Management (Session 3), Action Effectiveness Monitoring (Session 4), and Management Perspectives (Session 5). A series of three plenary talks opened the conference. Facilitated speaker and audience discussion periods were held at the end of each session. Contributed posters conveyed additional data and information. These proceedings include abstracts and notes documenting questions from the audience and clarifying answers from the presenter for each talk. The proceedings also document key points from the discussion periods at the end of each session. The conference program is outlined in the agenda section. Speaker biographies are presented in Appendix A. Poster titles and authors are listed in Appendix B. A list of conference attendees is contained in Appendix C.

  7. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of suspended particulate matter in the Seine river estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Hubert, Françoise; Heas-Moisan, Karine; Munschy, Catherine; Tronczynski, Jacek

    2012-01-24

    Highly mutagenic compounds such as some PAHs have been identified in surface waters and sediments of the Seine river estuary. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) represents a dynamic medium that may contribute to the exposure of aquatic organisms to toxic compounds in the water column of the estuary. In order to investigate major sources of mutagenic contaminants along the estuary, water samples were taken at 25 m downstream of the outlet of an industrial wastewater-treatment plant (WWTP). SPM samples were analyzed for their genotoxicity with two short-term tests, the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay (TA98+S9 mix) and the comet assay in the human HepG2 cell line. Sampling sites receiving effluents from a chemical dye industry and WWTP showed the highest mutagenic potencies, followed by petrochemical industries, petroleum refinery and pulp and paper mills. These data indicate that frame-shift mutagens are present in the Seine river estuary. Furthermore, the comet assay revealed the presence of compounds that were genotoxic for human hepatocytes (HepG2 cells). We also observed a high level of mutagenic potency in the sediment of the lower estuary (3 × 10? revertants/g). The source of mutagenic and genotoxic compounds seems to be associated with various types of effluents discharged in the Seine river estuary. Both test systems resulted in the same assessment of the genotoxicity of particulate matter, except for three of the 14 samples, underlying the complementarity of bioassays. PMID:22079610

  8. Occurrences of dissolved trace metals (Cu, Cd, and Mn) in the Pearl River Estuary (China), a large river-groundwater-estuary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deli; Lin, Wenfang; Yang, Xiqian; Zhai, Weidong; Dai, Minhan; Arthur Chen, Chen-Tung

    2012-12-01

    This study for the first time examined dissolved metals (Cu, Cd, and Mn) together with dissolved oxygen and carbonate system in the whole Pearl River Estuary system, from the upper rivers to the groundwater discharges until the estuarine zone, and explored their potential impacts in the adjacent northern South China Sea (SCS) during May-August 2009. This river-groundwater-estuary system was generally characterized by low dissolved metal levels as a whole, whilst subject to severe perturbations locally. In particular, higher dissolved Cu and Cd occurred in the North River (as high as 60 nmol/L of Cu and 0.99 nmol/L of Cd), as a result of an anthropogenic source from mining activities there. Dissolved Cu levels were elevated in the upper estuary near the city of Guangzhou (Cu: ˜40 nmol/L), which could be attributable to sewage and industrial effluent discharges there. Elevated dissolved metal levels (Cu: ˜20-40 nmol/L; Cd: ˜0.2-0.8 nmol/L) also occurred in the groundwaters and parts of the middle and lower estuaries, which could be attributable to a series of geochemical reactions, e.g., chloride-induced desorption from the suspended sediments, oxidation of metal sulfides, and the partial dissolution of minerals. The high river discharge during our sampling period (May-August 2009) significantly diluted anthropogenic signals in the estuarine mixing zone. Of particular note was the high river discharge (which may reach 18.5 times as high as in the dry season) that transported anthropogenic signals (as indicated by dissolved Cu and Cd) into the adjacent shelf waters of the northern SCS, and might have led to the usually high phytoplankton productivity there (chlorophyll-a value >10 ?g/L).

  9. Distribution and flux of 226Ra and 228Ra in the Amazon River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of 226Ra and 228Ra in the Amazon River estuary show that desorption from riverborne suspended particulate matter in the estuary increases the riverine flux of both isotopes to the ocean by a factor of approximately 5 over the flux attributable to radium dissolved in the river water alone. The total Amazon flux supplies approximately 0.20% of the 226Ra and approximately 2.6% of the 228Ra standing crops in the near-surface Atlantic (0-200 m). Diffusive flux from estuarine and shelf sediments and desorption from resuspended sediments in the region of the estuary approximately double the estuarine 226Ra concentration and quadruple the estuarine 228Ra concentration above that caused by the dissolved and desorbed river components alone

  10. Factors Contributing to Hypoxia in the Minjiang River Estuary, Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved oxygen (DO is not only a fundamental parameter of coastal water quality, but also an indication of organics decomposed in water and their degree of eutrophication. There has been a concern about the deterioration of dissolved oxygen conditions in the Minjiang River Estuary, the longest river in Fujian Province, Southeast China. In this study, the syntheses effects on DO was analyzed by using a four year time series of DO concentration and ancillary parameters (river discharge, water level, and temperature from the Fuzhou Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, at three automated stations along the Minjiang River Estuary. Hypoxia occurred exclusively in the fluvial sections of the estuary during the high temperature and low river discharge period and was remarkably more serious in the river reach near the large urban area of Fuzhou. Enhancement of respiration by temperature and discharge of domestic sewage and industrial wastewater, versus regeneration of waters and dilution of pollutant concentration with increased river discharge, which regarded as the dominant antagonist processes that controlled the appearance of seasonal hypoxia. During the high temperature and the drought period, minimal mainstream flow above 700 m3?s?1, reduction of pollutants and forbidding sediment dredging in the South Channel should be guaranteed for strong supports on water quality management and drinking water source protection.

  11. Factors Contributing to Hypoxia in the Minjiang River Estuary, Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Pang, Yong; Pan, Hongche; Shi, Chengchun; Huang, Yawen; Wang, Jianjian

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is not only a fundamental parameter of coastal water quality, but also an indication of organics decomposed in water and their degree of eutrophication. There has been a concern about the deterioration of dissolved oxygen conditions in the Minjiang River Estuary, the longest river in Fujian Province, Southeast China. In this study, the syntheses effects on DO was analyzed by using a four year time series of DO concentration and ancillary parameters (river discharge, water level, and temperature) from the Fuzhou Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, at three automated stations along the Minjiang River Estuary. Hypoxia occurred exclusively in the fluvial sections of the estuary during the high temperature and low river discharge period and was remarkably more serious in the river reach near the large urban area of Fuzhou. Enhancement of respiration by temperature and discharge of domestic sewage and industrial wastewater, versus regeneration of waters and dilution of pollutant concentration with increased river discharge, which regarded as the dominant antagonist processes that controlled the appearance of seasonal hypoxia. During the high temperature and the drought period, minimal mainstream flow above 700 m(3)?s(-1), reduction of pollutants and forbidding sediment dredging in the South Channel should be guaranteed for strong supports on water quality management and drinking water source protection. PMID:26270670

  12. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  13. 76 FR 23306 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ...River is located at Goat Rock State Beach; the estuary...the parking lot of Goat Rock State Park and driven...outlet channel's width, slope, and alignment in consultation...type of event, from an engineering perspective, than are...access and use of Goat Rock Beach State Park,...

  14. Plutonium and americium in the sediment of the Savannah River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment samples from various locations in the Savannah River estuary were examined for their plutonium, americium, and natural alpha-radiation levels. The americium and plutonium levels represent less than 1% of the gross alpha activity from the naturally occurring radionuclides and do not differ greatly from values reported elsewhere

  15. Protocols for Monitoring Habitat Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roegner, G. Curtis; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2008-04-25

    Protocols for monitoring salmon habitat restoration projects are essential for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' environmental efforts in the Columbia River estuary. This manual provides state-of-the science data collection and analysis methods for landscape features, water quality, and fish species composition, among others.

  16. MEASURED CONCENTRATIONS OF HERBICIDES AND MODEL PREDICTIONS OF ATRAZINE FATE IN THE PATUXENT RIVER ESTUARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Laura L., Jennifer A. Harman-Fetcho and James D. Hagy, III. 2004. Measured Concentrations of Herbicides and Model Predictions of Atrazine Fate in the Patuxent River Estuary. J. Environ. Qual. 33(2):594-604. (ERL,GB X1051). The environmental fate of herbicides i...

  17. Distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation in the St. Louis River estuary: Maps and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    In late summer of 2011 and 2012 we used echo-sounding gear to map the distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE). From these data we produced maps of SAV distribution and we created logistic models to predict the probability of occurr...

  18. Habitat use and trophic position effects on contaminant bioaccumulation in St. Louis River Estuary fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of our study was to determine the relationship between fish tissue stable isotope composition and total mercury or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in the St. Louis River estuary food web. We sampled two resident fishes, Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) ...

  19. The Partitioning of Triclosan between Aqueous and Particulate Phases in the Hudson River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution of Triclosan within the Hudson River Estuary can be explained by a balance among the overall effluent inputs from municipal sewage treatment facilities, dilution of Triclosan concentrations in the water column with freshwater and seawater inputs, removal of Tricl...

  20. Brackish water snails from Qi'ao-Dan'gan Island in the Pearl River estuary, China

    OpenAIRE

    LI, Ya-fang; XU, Run-lin

    2013-01-01

    Eight brackish water snails belonging to 5 families are described. All the samples were taken from 3 different types of water body. They were taken from 1 littoral of an artificial brackish lake, 1 intertidal zone of a brackish tidal river, and 3 mangrove swamps on Qi'ao Island in the Pearl River estuary, Guangdong Province, southern China. Assiminea estuarina Habe, 1946 and Iravadia (Fairbankia) cochinchinensis Bavey & Dautzenberg, 1910 are new records for China. Cerithidea sinensis...

  1. Variability of Organic Carbon Content in Bottom Sediment of Pahang River Estuary, Pahang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    B.Y. Kamaruzzaman; A. Siti Waznah; M.C. Ong; S. Shahbudin; K.C.A. Jalal

    2009-01-01

    The percentage organic carbon content of 62 bottom estuarine sediment in Pahang river estuary were analyzed using the wet dichromate oxidation method. In this study, the organic carbon distribution ranged from 0.09 to 2.05%. The high concentration can be found near the Pahang river mouth while the low concentration occurred at upstream. The sediment particle size at the same transects were also measured with the dry sieving and laser diffraction method. The average concentration of organic ca...

  2. A numerical study of the plume in Cape Fear River Estuary and adjacent coastal ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, M.; Xia, L.; Pietrafesa, L. J.

    2006-12-01

    Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE), located in southeast North Carolina, is the only river estuary system in the state which is directly connected to the Atlantic Ocean. It is also an important nursery for economically and ecologically important juvenile fish, crabs, shrimp, and other species because of the tidal influence and saline waters. In this study, Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) is used to simulate the salinity plume and trajectory distribution at the mouth of the CFRE and adjacent coastal ocean. Prescribed with the climatological freshwater discharge rates in the rivers, the modeling system was used to simulate the salinity plume and trajectory distribution distribution in the mouth of the CFRE under the influence of climatological wind conditions and tidal effect. We analyzed the plume formation processes and the strong relationship between the various plume distributions with respect to the wind and river discharge in the region. The simulations also indicate that strong winds tend to reduce the surface CFRE plume size and distorting the bulge region near the estuary mouth due to enhanced wind induced surface mixing. Even moderate wind speeds could fully reverse the buoyancy-driven plume structure in CFRE under normal river discharge conditions. Tide and the river discharge also are important factors to influence the plume structure. The comparions between the distribution of salinity plume and trajectory also are discussed in the study.

  3. Reduced river discharge intensifies phytoplankton bloom in Godavari estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Acharyya, T.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Sridevi, B.; Venkataramana, V.; Bharathi, M.D.; Naidu, S.A.; Kumar, B.S.K.; Prasad, V.R.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Reddy, N.P.C.; DileepKumar, M.

    . The reduced water discharge, during the peak discharge period, slowed the flushing of the estuary from 1.2 days to 6.3 days, respectively. The consequent increase in stability of water column and reduced suspended material load gave rise to intense...

  4. Flushing characteristics of Amba river estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Sarma, R.V.; Josanto, V.

    of 22 tidal cycles for neap, 6 to 7 tidal cycles for spring and dry weather flushing time of 45 tidal cycles for neap, 6 to 7 tidal cycles for spring based on modified tidal prism method indicated that the load retained in the estuary after infinite...

  5. Geochemistry of the suspended sediment in the estuaries of the Mandovi and Zuari rivers, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kessarkar, P.M.; Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Chong, F.; Narvekar, T.; Zhang, J.

    The geochemistry of the suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected during the monsoon was determined to identify the sources of SPM and to understand the physicochemical processes in the Mandovi and Zuari river estuaries. The concentrations of SPM...

  6. The morphology and morphodynamics of sand-gravel subaquatic dunes: the Raba River estuary, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Artur RADECKI-PAWLIK; Leszek KSI??EK

    2013-01-01

    In the outlet of the Raba River to the Vistula, the biggest river in Poland, the morphology and morphodynamics of sand and fine-gravel subaquatic dunes were investigated. The site is situated in highland region just about the entrance to Polish Carpathians. The dunes formed on the Raba River bed estuary are composed of sand and fine gravel (d50 up to 11 mm). Systematic observation (within the 2000-2005) were made of geometry, sediment composition and hydraulic climate under which the dunes gr...

  7. Large-river delta-front estuaries as natural “recorders” of global environmental change

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Thomas S.; Allison, Mead A.

    2009-01-01

    Large-river delta-front estuaries (LDE) are important interfaces between continents and the oceans for material fluxes that have a global impact on marine biogeochemistry. In this article, we propose that more emphasis should be placed on LDE in future global climate change research. We will use some of the most anthropogenically altered LDE systems in the world, the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River and the Chinese rivers that enter the Yellow Sea (e.g., Huanghe and Changjiang) as case-studies, ...

  8. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a subtropical estuary (the Brisbane River estuary, Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musenze, Ronald S; Werner, Ursula; Grinham, Alistair; Udy, James; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-02-15

    Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are two key greenhouse gases. Their global atmospheric budgeting is, however, flout with challenges partly due to lack of adequate field studies determining the source strengths. Knowledge and data limitations exist for subtropical and tropical regions especially in the southern latitudes. Surface water methane and nitrous oxide concentrations were measured in a subtropical estuarine system in the southern latitudes in an extensive field study from 2010 to 2012 and water-air fluxes estimated using models considering the effects of both wind and flow induced turbulence. The estuary was found to be a strong net source of both CH4 and N2O all-year-round. Dissolved N2O concentrations ranged between 9.1 ± 0.4 to 45.3 ± 1.3 nM or 135 to 435% of atmospheric saturation level, while CH4 concentrations varied between 31.1 ± 3.7 to 578.4 ± 58.8 nM or 1210 to 26,430% of atmospheric saturation level. These results compare well with measurements from tropical estuarine systems. There was strong spatial variability with both CH4 and N2O concentrations increasing upstream the estuary. Strong temporal variability was also observed but there were no clear seasonal patterns. The degree of N2O saturation significantly increased with NOx concentrations (r(2)=0.55). The estimated water-air fluxes varied between 0.1 and 3.4 mg N2O m(-2)d(-1) and 0.3 to 27.9 mg CH4 m(-2)d(-1). Total emissions (CO2-e) were N2O (64%) dominated, highlighting the need for reduced nitrogen inputs into the estuary. Choice of the model(s) for estimation of the gas transfer velocity had a big bearing on the estimated total emissions. PMID:24333994

  9. Historic Habitat Opportunities and Food-Web Linkages of Juvenile Salmon in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report of Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottom, Daniel L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; Campbell, Lance [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-05-15

    In 2002 with support from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), an interagency research team began investigating salmon life histories and habitat use in the lower Columbia River estuary to fill significant data gaps about the estuary's potential role in salmon decline and recovery . The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provided additional funding in 2004 to reconstruct historical changes in estuarine habitat opportunities and food web linkages of Columbia River salmon (Onchorhynchus spp.). Together these studies constitute the estuary's first comprehensive investigation of shallow-water habitats, including selected emergent, forested, and scrub-shrub wetlands. Among other findings, this research documented the importance of wetlands as nursery areas for juvenile salmon; quantified historical changes in the amounts and distributions of diverse habitat types in the lower estuary; documented estuarine residence times, ranging from weeks to months for many juvenile Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha); and provided new evidence that contemporary salmonid food webs are supported disproportionately by wetland-derived prey resources. The results of these lower-estuary investigations also raised many new questions about habitat functions, historical habitat distributions, and salmon life histories in other areas of the Columbia River estuary that have not been adequately investigated. For example, quantitative estimates of historical habitat changes are available only for the lower 75 km of the estuary, although tidal influence extends 217 km upriver to Bonneville Dam. Because the otolith techniques used to reconstruct salmon life histories rely on detection of a chemical signature (strontium) for salt water, the estuarine residency information we have collected to date applies only to the lower 30 or 35 km of the estuary, where fish first encounter ocean water. We lack information about salmon habitat use, life histories, and growth within the long tidal-fresh reaches of the main-stem river and many tidally-influenced estuary tributaries. Finally, our surveys to date characterize wetland habitats within island complexes distributed in the main channel of the lower estuary. Yet some of the most significant wetland losses have occurred along the estuary's periphery, including shoreline areas and tributary junctions. These habitats may or may not function similarly as the island complexes that we have surveyed to date. In 2007 we initiated a second phase of the BPA estuary study (Phase II) to address specific uncertainties about salmon in tidal-fresh and tributary habitats of the Columbia River estuary. This report summarizes 2007 and 2008 Phase II results and addresses three principal research questions: (1) What was the historic distribution of estuarine and floodplain habitats from Astoria to Bonneville Dam? (2) Do individual patterns of estuarine residency and growth of juvenile Chinook salmon vary among wetland habitat types along the estuarine tidal gradient? (3) Are salmon rearing opportunities and life histories in the restoring wetland landscape of lower Grays River similar to those documented for island complexes of the main-stem estuary? Phase II extended our analysis of historical habitat distribution in the estuary above Rkm 75 to near Bonneville Dam. For this analysis we digitized the original nineteenth-century topographic (T-sheets) and hydrographic (H-sheets) survey maps for the entire estuary. Although all T-sheets (Rkm 0 to Rkm 206) were converted to GIS in 2005 with support for the USACE estuary project, final reconstruction of historical habitats throughout the estuary requires completion of the remaining H-sheet GIS maps above Rkm 75 and their integration with the T-sheets. This report summarizes progress to date on compiling the upper estuary H-sheets above Rkm 75. For the USACE estuary project, we analyzed otoliths from Chinook salmon collected near the estuary mouth in 2003-05 to estimate variability in estuary residence times among juvenile out migrants. In Phase II we expanded these a

  10. Sediment dynamics in the lower Mekong River: Transition from tidal river to estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Daniel J.; Ogston, Andrea S.; Nittrouer, Charles A.; Fricke, Aaron T.; Van, Pham Dang Tri

    2015-09-01

    A better understanding of flow and sediment dynamics in the lowermost portions of large-tropical rivers is essential to constraining estimates of worldwide sediment delivery to the ocean. Flow velocity, salinity, and suspended-sediment concentration were measured for 25 h at three cross sections in the tidal Song Hau distributary of the Mekong River, Vietnam. Two campaigns took place during comparatively high-seasonal and low-seasonal discharge, and estuarine conditions varied dramatically between them. The system transitioned from a tidal river with ephemeral presence of a salt wedge during high flow to a partially mixed estuary during low flow. The changing freshwater input, sediment sources, and estuarine characteristics resulted in seaward sediment export during high flow and landward import during low flow. The Dinh An channel of the Song Hau distributary exported sediment to the coast at a rate of about 1 t s-1 during high flow and imported sediment in a spatially varying manner at approximately 0.3 t s-1 during low flow. Scaling these values results in a yearly Mekong sediment discharge estimate about 65% smaller than a generally accepted estimate of 110 Mt yr-1, although the limited temporal and spatial nature of this study implies a relatively high degree of uncertainty for the new estimate. Fluvial advection of sediment was primarily responsible for the high-flow sediment export. Exchange-flow and tidal processes, including local resuspension, were principally responsible for the low-flow import. The resulting bed-sediment grain size was coarser and more variable during high flow and finer during low, and the residual flow patterns support the maintenance of mid-channel islands. This article was corrected on 7 OCT 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  11. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Whiting, Allan H.

    2007-12-06

    This report is the third annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration action in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). The project is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce. Measurement of the cumulative effects of ecological restoration projects in the Columbia River estuary is a formidable task because of the size and complexity of the estuarine landscape and the meta-populations of salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Despite the challenges presented by this system, developing and implementing appropriate indicators and methods to measure cumulative effects is the best way to enable estuary managers to track the overall effectiveness of investments in estuarine restoration projects. This project is developing methods to quantify the cumulative effects of multiple restoration activities in the CRE. The overall objectives of the 2006 study were to continue to develop techniques to assess cumulative effects, refine the standard monitoring protocols, and initiate development of an adaptive management system for Corps of Engineers’ habitat restoration monitoring efforts in the CRE. (The adaptive management effort will be reported at a later date.) Field studies during 2006 were conducted in tidal freshwater at Kandoll Farm on the lower Grays River and tidal brackish water at Vera Slough on Youngs Bay. Within each of area, we sampled one natural reference site and one restoration site. We addressed the overall objectives with field work in 2006 that, coupled with previous field data, had specific objectives and resulted in some important findings that are summarized here by chapter in this report. Each chapter of the report contains data on particular monitored variables for pre- and post-restoration conditions at both the Kandoll and Vera study areas.

  12. Comparison of empirical models with intensively observed data for prediction salt intrusion in the Sumjin River estuary, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Shaha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensive measurements of salt intrusion in the Sumjin River estuary were taken at high and low waters during both spring and neap tides in each season from August 2004 to April 2007. The estuary demonstrated partially- and well-mixed characteristics during the spring tide and stratified condition during the neap tide. The salt intrusion at high water varied from about 13.39 km in summer 2005 to 25.62 km in autumn 2006. The salt intrusion depended primarily on the freshwater discharges rather than those of spring-neap tidal oscillations. Analysis of three years of observed salinity data indicated that the salt intrusion length scale in the Sumjin River estuary was proportional to the river discharge to the ?1/5 power. Five empirical models were applied to the Sumjin River estuary to explore the most suitable as an easy-to-use tool for prediction of the salt intrusion length as functions of the geometry, river discharge and tide. Comparative results showed that the Nguyen and Savenije (2006 model developed under both partially- and well-mixed estuaries yielded the most satisfactory results of all the models studied for computing the salt intrusion length in the Sumjin River estuary. Our study suggests that the model can generate reasonable results for stratified conditions also.

  13. Coastal upwelling supplies oxygen-depleted water to the Columbia River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roegner, G Curtis; Needoba, Joseph A; Baptista, António M

    2011-01-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) is a common feature of many estuarine and shallow-water environments, and is often attributed to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment from terrestrial-fluvial pathways. However, recent events in the U.S. Pacific Northwest have highlighted that wind-forced upwelling can cause naturally occurring low DO water to move onto the continental shelf, leading to mortalities of benthic fish and invertebrates. Coastal estuaries in the Pacific Northwest are strongly linked to ocean forcings, and here we report observations on the spatial and temporal patterns of oxygen concentration in the Columbia River estuary. Hydrographic measurements were made from transect (spatial survey) or anchor station (temporal survey) deployments over a variety of wind stresses and tidal states during the upwelling seasons of 2006 through 2008. During this period, biologically stressful levels of dissolved oxygen were observed to enter the Columbia River estuary from oceanic sources, with minimum values close to the hypoxic threshold of 2.0 mg L(-1). Riverine water was consistently normoxic. Upwelling wind stress controlled the timing and magnitude of low DO events, while tidal-modulated estuarine circulation patterns influenced the spatial extent and duration of exposure to low DO water. Strong upwelling during neap tides produced the largest impact on the estuary. The observed oxygen concentrations likely had deleterious behavioral and physiological consequences for migrating juvenile salmon and benthic crabs. Based on a wind-forced supply mechanism, low DO events are probably common to the Columbia River and other regional estuaries and if conditions on the shelf deteriorate further, as observations and models predict, Pacific Northwest estuarine habitats could experience a decrease in environmental quality. PMID:21533083

  14. Geochemical behaviour of plutonium isotopes in natural media (lakes, rivers, estuaries)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial radionuclide activities (238Pu, 239+240Pu) were measured in natural environments. Their distribution and geochemical behaviour are evaluated and compared them to these of the 137Cs. In a volcanic crater lake, influenced only by atmospheric fallout (Lac Pavin, France), sediments are enriched in 239+240Pu, whereas 137Cs stays in the dissolved phase. Diffusion processes and migration of radionuclides is shown to occur in sediments. Remobilization of 239+240Pu is probable at the sediment/water interface. In the Garonne-Dordogne, Seine and Loire rivers, the 239+240Pu activity levels in suspended matter are little influenced by the waste discharges of nuclear power plants. The element is essentially transported in the particulate fraction, more than is 137Cs. In all the esturies studied (Gironde, Seine, Loire) 239+240Pu concentrations in suspended matter increase between the river and the estuary. Simultaneously a removal of plutonium from the dissolved phase is observed. High plutonium concentrations are measured in the Seine estuary; they are attributed to a ''marine'' contamination: the French nuclear reprocessing plant of La Hague discharges low level radioactive liquid wastes, a part may reach the Seine estuary. There are no decrease in particulate 137Cs concentrations between the river and the estuary of the Gironde, such as it occurs in the Loire. In this last case, the phenomenon is explained by the presence of ''young caesium'' originating in the power plant effluents and which is more exchangeable than 137Cs of atmospheric origin. In the Seine estuary, the influence of marine contamination causes an increase of particulate and dissolved 137Cs concentrations

  15. Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Skalski, John R.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Coleman, Andre M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Cameron, April; Corbett, C.; Donley, Erin E.; Jay, D. A.; Ke, Yinghai; Leffler, K.; McNeil, C.; Studebaker, Cindy; Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2012-05-01

    This is the seventh and final annual report of a project (2004–2010) addressing evaluation of the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the 235-km-long lower Columbia River and estuary. The project, called the Cumulative Effects (CE) study, was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District by a collaboration of research agencies led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We achieved the primary goal of the CE study to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat actions in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program. We delivered 1) standard monitoring protocols and methods to prioritize monitoring activities; 2) the theoretical and empirical basis for a CE methodology using levels-of-evidence; 3) evaluations of cumulative effects using ecological relationships, geo-referenced data, hydrodynamic modeling, and meta-analyses; and 4) an adaptive management process to coordinate and coalesce restoration efforts in the LCRE. A solid foundation has been laid for future comprehensive evaluations of progress made by the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program to understand, conserve, and restore ecosystems in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  16. Nitrification and inorganic nitrogen distribution in a large perturbed river/estuarine system: the Pearl River Estuary, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhan Dai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the spatial distribution and seasonal variation of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in a large perturbed estuary, the Pearl River Estuary, based on three cruises conducted in winter (January 2005, summer (August 2005 and spring (March 2006. On-site incubation was also carried out for determining ammonium and nitrite oxidation rates (nitrification rates. We observed a year-round pattern of dramatic decrease in NH4+, increase in NO3? but insignificant change in NO2? in the upper estuary at salinity ~0–5. However, species and concentrations of inorganic nitrogen at estuary significantly changed with season. In winter with low runoff the most upper reach of the Pearl River Estuary showed relatively low rates of ammonia oxidation (0–5.4 ?mol N L?1 d?1 and nitrite oxidation (0–5.2 ?mol N L?1 d?1, accompanied by extremely high concentrations of ammonia (up to >800 ?mol L?1 and nitrate (up to >300 ?mol L?1. In summer, the upper estuary showed higher nitrification rates (ammonia oxidation rate ~1.5–33.1 ?mol N L?1 d?1, nitrite oxidation rate ~0.6–32.0 ?mol N L?1 d?1 with lower concentrations of ammonia (<350 ?mol L?1 and nitrate (<120 ?mol L?1. The Most Probable Number test showed relatively lower nitrifier abundance in summer at most sampling stations, indicating a greater specific nitrification rate per cell in the warm season. Temperatures appeared to control nitrification rates to a large degree in different seasons. In addition to aerobic respiration, nitrification contributed significantly to the consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO and production of CO2 at the upper estuary. Nitrification-induced DO consumption accounted for approximately up to one third of the total water column community DO consumption in the upper estuary during surveyed periods, boosting environmental stress on this large estuarine ecosystem.

  17. The redox geochemistry of cerium in river water, estuaries and the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In natural waters the rare earth elements (REE) exist in the trivalent oxidation state, apart from cerium which is the only REE which undergoes redox reactions (CeIII and IV). By comparing the abundance of Ce with its trivalent neighbors (the Ce-anomaly), a natural probe with which to understand how biogeochemical reactions can modify the redox cycles of a trace element is available. Using new and published data the author will illustrate this point with with following case studies: (1) river colloids as sites for the oxidation of Ce and (2) the development of large Ce-anomalies in the Amazon Estuary due to coagulation of river colloids at low salinity and to biological activity associated with high productivity in the outer estuary. The role that these processes in controlling the Ce-anomaly of the oceans will be addressed

  18. Spatial Distribution of Lead and Copper in the Bottom Sediments of Pahang River Estuary, Pahang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottom sediment samples from 30 stations of Pahang River estuary collected in April 2008 were analyzed for the concentration of Pb and Cu using the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The average concentrations of Pb and Cu were 74.31 ± 22.97 ?g/ g dry weights and 18.65± 7.65 ?g/ g dry weights, respectively. In this study, the concentrations were significantly higher near the mouth river and declined as the sampling points were further away from the estuary. Generally, the concentrations of heavy metals were relatively low when compare with other studies in Malaysia. However, the calculated enrichment factors (EF) obtained for Pb, has a slightly higher value, and was probably influenced by anthropogenic input. The concentration for both metals increased with the decrease of mean size, suggesting their association with the fine fraction of the sediments. (author)

  19. The partitioning of Triclosan between aqueous and particulate bound phases in the Hudson River Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of Triclosan within the Hudson River Estuary can be explained by a balance among the overall effluent inputs from municipal sewage treatment facilities, dilution of Triclosan concentrations in the water column with freshwater and seawater inputs, removal of Triclosan from the water column by adsorption to particles, and loss to photodegradation. This study shows that an average water column concentration of 3 ± 2 ng/l (in the lower Hudson River Estuary) is consistent with an estimate for dilution of average wastewater concentrations with seawater and calculated rates of adsorption of Triclosan to particles. An average Triclosan sediment concentration of 26 ± 11 ng/g would be in equilibrium with the overlying water column if Triclosan has a particle-to-water partitioning coefficient of kd ? 104, consistent with laboratory estimates.

  20. Pollution in the estuary of the Baracoa river, La Habana, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Regla Duthit Somoza; Eusebio Perigó; Roberto Piñeiro; Lisset Susana Cobas Gómez

    2011-01-01

    The environmental quality of the Baracoa river estuary was studied from the physic (temperature and salinity), chemic variables (dissolved oxygen, oxygen biochemical demand (DBO), oxygen chemical demand (DQO), nitrogen cycle, inorganic phosphorus and total phosphorus) and the microbiological variables (total and thermotolerant coliforms and faecal streptococci). The samplings were made on February 2006, May and October 2007. Spatial distribution of the physical and chemical parameters measure...

  1. Particle Association of Enterococcus and Total Bacteria in the Lower Hudson River Estuary, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Suter; Juhl, Andrew R.; Gregory D. O’Mullan

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial particle association has important consequences for water-quality monitoring and modeling. Particle association can change vertical and horizontal transport of bacterial cells, as well as patterns of persistence and production. In this study, the abundance and particle association of total bacteria and the fecal-indicator, Enterococcus, were quantified between June and October 2008 in the lower Hudson River Estuary (HRE). Twelve sites were sampled, including mid-c...

  2. Multi-Scale Action Effectiveness Research in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Johnson, Jeff; Skalski, J. R.; Teel, D. J.; Brewer, Taylor; Bryson, Amanda J.; Dawley, Earl M.; Kuligowski, D. R.; Whitesel, T.; Mallette, Christine

    2013-11-30

    The study reported herein was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), University of Washington (UW), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The goal of the study was to evaluate the ecological benefits of restoration actions for juvenile salmon in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE; rkm 0–234).

  3. Comparison of empirical models with intensively observed data for prediction of salt intrusion in the Sumjin River estuary, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Shaha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance of empirical models has been compared with extensively observed data to determine the most suitable model for prediction of salt intrusion in the Sumjin River estuary, Korea. Intensive measurements of salt intrusion were taken at high and low waters during both spring and neap tide in each season from August 2004 to April 2007. The stratification parameter varied with the distance along the estuary, tidal period and freshwater discharge, indicating that the Sumjin River estuary experiences a transition from partially- or well-mixed during spring tide to stratified during neap tide. The salt intrusion length at high water varied from 13.4 km in summer 2005 to 25.6 km in autumn 2006. The salt intrusion mostly depends on the freshwater discharge rather than spring-neap tidal oscillation. Analysis of three years observed salinity data indicates that the scale of the salt intrusion length in the Sumjin River estuary is proportional to the river discharge to the ?1/5 power. Four empirical models have been applied to the Sumjin River estuary to explore the most suitable model for prediction of the salt intrusion length. Comparative results show that the Nguyen and Savenije (2006 model, developed under both partially- and well-mixed estuaries, performs best of all models studied (relative error of 4.6%. The model was also applied under stratified neap tide conditions, with a relative error of 5.2%, implying applicability of this model under stratified conditions as well.

  4. Effects of river discharge and tidal asymmetry on residual sediment transport and long-term morphodynamics in the river estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Van der Wegen, M.; Roelvink, J.; He, Q.

    2013-12-01

    The morphodynamics are of ubiquitous importance to the estuarine function with respect to navigation and ecology. This study examines the hydrodynamics, residual sediment transport processes and long-term morphodynamics in the river estuary forced by river discharge and marine tides. We systematically investigated the generation of tidal asymmetry and its modulation by varying river discharges, the interactions between the river discharge and the tides, and the induced residual sediment transport and associated morphodynamic adjustment and then the feedback mechanisms by deploying the Delft3D model in 1D mode. The model shows that the internally generated tidal asymmetry behaves nonlinearly with increasing river discharge. The internal tidal asymmetry is flood dominated in the absence of river discharge and tidal flat. Introduction of a river discharge promotes the overtide generation which reinforces the tidal asymmetry. An increasing river discharge dissipates the tidal energy and damps the tides that the overtide generation is confined in the downstream. A river discharge threshed can be figured out at which the energy transformation from the principle tide (M2) to the overtide (M4) reaches maximum. The tidal averaged residual sediment transport is decomposed into components according to a bed load transport mode. The tidal asymmetry induces a residual sediment transport whose direction is determined by the nature of the tidal asymmetry. The river discharge induces a net seaward residual transport due to enhanced seaward residual current. Moreover, the interaction between the river discharge and tides generates a river-induced asymmetry. The river-induced asymmetry enhances the seaward residual sediment transport to a large degree that it plays a significant role in flushing sediment seaward. The estuarine morphodynamics reach a (quasi-) equilibrium in a time scale of millennia. The morphodynamic equilibrium is characterized by a reducing longitudinal residual sediment transport gradient. The longitudinal residual sediment transport pattern governs the shape of the final equilibrium bed profiles which can be regionally convex or concave. A flood tidal dominance leads to sediment import. An increasing river discharge deepens the equilibrium bed profile by reinforcing the seaward residual sediment transport. Further increasing discharge rise the bed profile owing to excessive supplied sediment. The estuarine basin may be filled and it eventually evolves toward a delta in long term. This study indicates that the river discharge, the modified tidal asymmetry and the interaction between the river discharge and the tides are the driving mechanisms governing the residual sediment transport and the long-term morphodynamics in the river estuaries.

  5. Remote Sensing Observation of Particulate Organic Carbon in the Pearl River Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available River estuaries are connectors of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Riverine particulate organic carbon (POC is discharged into oceans after a series of biogeochemical reactions in estuaries. Satellite monitoring of POC will improve our understanding of the carbon dynamics of these water bodies. Based on in situ data from four seasonal survey cruises, we developed an algorithm for estimating POC concentrations in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE. Reflectance ratios, Rrs(678/Rrs(488 and Rrs(748/Rrs(412, were set as inputs to calculate POC concentration in the PRE. The algorithm was then applied to MODIS/AQUA data to inverse POC concentrations in the PRE from 2002 to 2014. Additionally, sources, impact factors, and seasonal distributions of POC were also investigated. Phytoplankton contributed more to POC in off-shore waters than that in in-shore waters in autumn and spring, but showed the opposite pattern in winter. Under the influence of freshwater from the Pearl River, underwater topography, tides, winds, etc., the seasonal POC concentrations along a specific section, vertical to water depth gradient, decreased in different seasons. These decreases could be described by exponential functions (y = aebx, b < 0. The distribution of POC concentrations in the PRE resulted from complex physical and biogeochemical processes, which can change spatially and seasonally.

  6. Trace Metal Concentration in Water of the Karnaphuli River Estuary of the Bay of Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biplob Das

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted for the determination of some trace metal (Cr, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd and Fe concentrations in water of the Karnaphuli River estuary analyzing seasonally viz., pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon by employing air acetylene flame in combination with single element hollow cathode lamps and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Sub-surface water samples were collected from 4 stations namely Mouth, Naval base, Sadarghat and Kalurghat regions of the Karnaphuli River estuary. The concentrations (?;g g -1 dry weight of Cr, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd and Fe were found to range from 0.421 to 0.925, 0.498 to 1.372, 0.472 to 1.186, 0.356 to 0.865, 0.372 to 0.973, 0.405 to 1.195, 0.090 to 0.217 and 20.025 to 42.203 respectively. The concentrations of Pb, Cu, Fe, Ni and Cr were observed higher and concentrations of Mn and Cd were found lower than that of the recommended values. It is assumed from the analytical findings that the estuary has been polluted from domestic sewage, land washout, river run-off and shipping activities.

  7. Seasonal air-water exchange fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Hudson River Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in the air and water over the Hudson River Estuary during six intensive field campaigns from December 1999 to April 2001. Over-water gas-phase ?PCB concentrations averaged 1100 pg/m3 and varied with temperature. Dissolved-phase ?PCB concentrations averaged 1100 pg/L and displayed no seasonal trend. Uncertainty analysis of the results suggests that PCBs with 5 or fewer chlorines exhibited net volatilization. The direction of net air/water exchange could not be determined for PCBs with 6 or more chlorines. Instantaneous net fluxes of ?PCBs ranged from +0.2 to +630 ng m-2 d-1. Annual fluxes of ?PCBs were predicted from modeled gas-phase concentrations, measured dissolved-phase concentrations, daily surface water temperatures and wind speeds. The net volatilization flux was +62 ?g m-2 yr-1, corresponding to an annual loss of +28 kg/yr of ?PCBs from the Hudson River Estuary for the year of 2000. - Investigation of the air-water exchange of PCBs in the Hudson River Estuary suggests that PCBs with 5 or fewer chlorines undergo net volatilization

  8. Analysis of change of red tide species in Yodo River estuary by the numerical ecosystem model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Mitsuru; Yanagi, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Occurrence number of red tides in Osaka Bay in Japan is more than 20 cases every year. Diatom red tide was dominant in Osaka Bay, but the non-diatom red tide was dominant in early 1990s. Therefore, the material cycling in Yodo River estuary in Osaka Bay during August from 1991 to 2000 was analyzed by using the numerical ecosystem model and field observation data to clarify the reasons of change in red tide species. Year-to-year variation in calculated concentration ratio of diatom to non-diatom corresponds to the variation in observed ratio of red tide days of diatom to non-diatom. Limiting nutrient of primary production is phosphate over the period. Diatom dominated from 1991 to 1993, but it was difficult for non-diatom to grow due to the limitation by physical condition. Non-diatom was able to grow because of good physical and nutrient conditions from 1994 to 1996. And diatom dominated again under the good physical condition, and phosphorus supply was not enough for non-diatom to grow from 1998 to 2000. Phosphate concentration in the lower layer of Yodo River estuary was important to the variation in red tide species in the upper layer of Yodo River estuary. PMID:18513758

  9. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Habitat Monitoring Study, 2011 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borde, Amy B.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Thom, Ronald M.; Wright, Cynthia L.

    2012-03-22

    The Ecosystem Monitoring Program is a collaborative effort between the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (LCREP), University of Washington, Wetland Ecosystem Team (UW), US Geological Survey, Water Science Center (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA-Fisheries, hereafter NOAA), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Sciences Laboratory (PNNL). The goal of the program is to conduct emergent wetland monitoring aimed at characterizing salmonid habitats in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) from the mouth of the estuary to Bonneville Dam (Figure 1). This is an ecosystem based monitoring program focused on evaluating status and trends in habitat and reducing uncertainties regarding these ecosystems to ultimately improve the survival of juvenile salmonids through the LCRE. This project comprehensively assesses habitat, fish, food web, and abiotic conditions in the lower river, focusing on shallow water and vegetated habitats used by juvenile salmonids for feeding, rearing and refugia. The information is intended to be used to guide management actions associated with species recovery, particularly that of threatened and endangered salmonids. PNNL’s role in this multi-year study is to monitor the habitat structure (e.g., vegetation, topography, channel morphology, and sediment type) as well as hydrologic patterns.

  10. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Jessica A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.

    2010-08-01

    The study reported herein was funded as part of the Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program, which is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program study code is EST P 02 01: A Study of Salmonid Survival and Behavior through the Columbia River Estuary Using Acoustic Tags. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries for the USACE Portland District. Estimated survival of acoustic-tagged juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead through the lower Columbia River and estuary in 2009 was lowest in the final 50 km of the estuary. Probability of survival was relatively high (>0.90) for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon from the Bonneville Dam forebay (rkm 236) to Three-tree Point (rkm 49.6). Survival of juvenile Chinook salmon declined sharply through the lower 50 km of the estuary. Acoustic-tagged steelhead smolts did not survive as well as juvenile Chinook salmon between Bonneville Dam and the mouth of the Columbia River. Steelhead survival began to decline farther upstream (at rkm 86) relative to that of the Chinook salmon stocks. Subyearling Chinook salmon survival decreased markedly as the season progressed. It remains to be determined whether later migrating subyearling Chinook salmon are suffering increasing mortality as the season progresses or whether some portion of the apparent loss is due to fish extending their freshwater residence. This study provided the first glimpse into what promises to be a very informative way to learn more about how juvenile salmonid passage experiences through the FCRPS may influence their subsequent survival after passing Bonneville Dam. New information regarding the influence of migration pathway through the lower 50 km of the Columbia River estuary on probability of survival of juvenile salmonids, combined with increased understanding regarding the foraging distances and time periods of avian predators should prove useful in developing or assessing management actions to reduce losses of juvenile salmonid smolts that attempt to pass through the estuary on their seaward migration.

  11. Suspended sediment transport in the freshwater reach of the Hudson river estuary in eastern New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, G.R.; Nystrom, E.A.; Litten, S.

    2008-01-01

    Deposition of Hudson River sediment into New York Harbor interferes with navigation lanes and requires continuous dredging. Sediment dynamics at the Hudson estuary turbidity maximum (ETM) have received considerable study, but delivery of sediment to the ETM through the freshwater reach of the estuary has received relatively little attention and few direct measurements. An acoustic Doppler current profiler was positioned at the approximate limit of continuous freshwater to develop a 4-year time series of water velocity, discharge, suspended sediment concentration, and suspended sediment discharge. This data set was compared with suspended sediment discharge data collected during the same period at two sites just above the Hudson head-of-tide (the Federal Dam at Troy) that together represent the single largest source of sediment entering the estuary. The mean annual suspended sediment-discharge from the freshwater reach of the estuary was 737,000 metric tons. Unexpectedly, the total suspended sediment discharge at the study site in November and December slightly exceeded that observed during March and April, the months during which rain and snowmelt typically result in the largest sediment discharge to the estuary. Suspended sediment discharge at the study site exceeded that from the Federal Dam, even though the intervening reach appears to store significant amounts of sediment, suggesting that 30-40% of sediment discharge observed at the study site is derived from tributaries to the estuary between the Federal Dam and study site. A simple model of sediment entering and passing through the freshwater reach on a timescale of weeks appears reasonable during normal hydrologic conditions in adjoining watersheds; however, this simple model may dramatically overestimate sediment delivery during extreme tributary high flows, especially those at the end of, or after, the "flushing season" (October through April). Previous estimates of annual or seasonal sediment delivery from tributaries and the Federal Dam to the ETM and harbor may be high for those years with extreme tributary high-flow events. ?? 2008 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation.

  12. Foraging patterns of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants in the Columbia River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, D.D.; Collis, K.

    2007-01-01

    We examined spatial and temporal foraging patterns of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants nesting in the Columbia River estuary, to potentially identify circumstances where juvenile salmonids listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act might be more vulnerable to predation by these avian piscivores. Data were collected during the 1998 and 1999 breeding seasons, using point count surveys of foraging birds at 40 sites along the river's banks, and using aerial strip transect counts throughout the estuary for terns. In 1998, terns selected tidal flats and sites with roosting beaches nearby for foraging, making greater use of the marine/mixing zone of the estuary later in the season, particularly areas near the ocean jetties. In 1999, cormorants selected foraging sites in freshwater along the main channel with pile dikes present, particularly early in the season. Foraging trends in the other year for each species were generally similar to the above but usually not significant. During aerial surveys we observed 50% of foraging and commuting terns within 8 km of the Rice Island colony, and ??? 5% of activity occurred ??? 27 km from this colony in both years. Disproportionately greater cormorant foraging activity at pile dikes may indicate greater vulnerability of salmonids to predation at those features. Colony relocations to sites at sufficient distance from areas of relatively high salmonid abundance may be a straightforward means of reducing impacts of avian predation on salmonids than habitat alterations within the Columbia River estuary, at least for terns. ?? 2007 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Some chemical characteristics of the River Pra Estuary in the Western region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Tufuor

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the nutrients budget and transfers of mineral nutrients from land to the sea that influence significantly the biogeochemical process operating in the coastal ecosystem. Water samples were collected fortnightly from six sites in the estuary and analysed using standard methods of analyses. It was observed that the estuary is alkaline in nature and the alkalinity increases, in the lower reach of the river as it flowed into the sea. The estuary could be classified as a well-mixed estuary due to the vertical homogenous distribution of salinity. The inorganic nitrogen in the water body exists predominately in the form of nitrate (NO3-, as compared to concentrations of ammonium (NH4+ and nitrite (NO2-. The ranges of NO3-, NH4+ and NO2- concentrations are (4.98-8.27, (0.11-0.46 and (0.005-10.95 x 10-3 mg/L. The concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and phosphate were found to be within WHO specification. The calculated residual flow (VR for both November and December are -2.7 x 107 m3 day-1 and -1.01 x 107 m3 day-1, respectively. The negative value of VR implies that water flows from the system. The corresponding residence and flush times are 324 and 109 seconds and 828 and 595.2 seconds for November and December, respectively.

  14. Bathymetric controls on sediment transport in the Hudson River estuary: Lateral asymmetry and frontal trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, David K.; Geyer, W. Rockwell; Warner, John C.

    2012-10-01

    Analyses of field observations and numerical model results have identified that sediment transport in the Hudson River estuary is laterally segregated between channel and shoals, features frontal trapping at multiple locations along the estuary, and varies significantly over the spring-neap tidal cycle. Lateral gradients in depth, and therefore baroclinic pressure gradient and stratification, control the lateral distribution of sediment transport. Within the saline estuary, sediment fluxes are strongly landward in the channel and seaward on the shoals. At multiple locations, bottom salinity fronts form at bathymetric transitions in width or depth. Sediment convergences near the fronts create local maxima in suspended-sediment concentration and deposition, providing a general mechanism for creation of secondary estuarine turbidity maxima at bathymetric transitions. The lateral bathymetry also affects the spring-neap cycle of sediment suspension and deposition. In regions with broad, shallow shoals, the shoals are erosional and the channel is depositional during neap tides, with the opposite pattern during spring tides. Narrower, deeper shoals are depositional during neaps and erosional during springs. In each case, the lateral transfer is from regions of higher to lower bed stress, and depends on the elevation of the pycnocline relative to the bed. Collectively, the results indicate that lateral and along-channel gradients in bathymetry and thus stratification, bed stress, and sediment flux lead to an unsteady, heterogeneous distribution of sediment transport and trapping along the estuary rather than trapping solely at a turbidity maximum at the limit of the salinity intrusion.

  15. Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil respiration in the Yangtze River estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Naishun; Qu, Junfeng; Li, Zhaolei; Li, Gang; Zhao, Hua; Zhao, Bin; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiakuan; Fang, Changming

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have found that plant invasion can enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) pools, by increasing net primary production (NPP) and/or decreased soil respiration. While most studies have focused on C input, little attention has been paid to plant invasion effects on soil respiration, especially in wetland ecosystems. Our study examined the effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil respiration and C dynamics in the Yangtze River estuary. The estuary was originally occupied by two native plant species: Phragmites australis in the high tide zone and Scirpus mariqueter in the low tide zone. Mean soil respiration rates were 185.8 and 142.3 mg CO2 m(-2) h(-1) in S. alterniflora and P. australis stands in the high tide zone, and 159.7 and 112.0 mg CO2 m(-2) h(-1) in S. alterniflora and S. mariqueter stands in the low tide zone, respectively. Aboveground NPP (ANPP), SOC, and microbial biomass were also significantly higher in the S. alterniflora stands than in the two native plant stands. S. alterniflora invasion did not significantly change soil inorganic carbon or pH. Our results indicated that enhanced ANPP by S. alterniflora exceeded invasion-induced C loss through soil respiration. This suggests that S. alterniflora invasion into the Yangtze River estuary could strengthen the net C sink of wetlands in the context of global climate change. PMID:25799512

  16. Sediment transport and morphodynamic changes in Ziarat Estuary and Mond River Delta, the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi Arab, Azadeh; Haghshenas, S. Abbas; Samsami, Farzin

    2014-05-01

    The Mond River, which is considered as one of the Major Iranian rivers discharging in to the Persian Gulf, is bounded within the region from 51°10' to 54°28' E and 27°20' to 29°51' N, flowing in two provinces of Fars and Boushehr. The latest part of the river is completely meandered and the river mouth has been migrating twice during the past 50 years. Total sediment discharge of the river is estimated as 12 million cubic meter per year. Analysis of meandering river phenomenon and river mouth migration as well as evolution of the down-stream sand spits has long been one of the challenges in hydrodynamic discussions. This natural process usually takes place in rivers to provide energy equilibrium and its integration with human desires has posed as a management issue. The sediment discharging to the Persian Gulf plays an essential role in formation of Mond River Delta as well as a set of sand spits formed in downstream of the river mouth. The morpho-dynamic of entire environment of the Mond River - Mond Delta highly affects marine environment in the surrounding area. The present study offers the results of a numerical and field investigation of various features of river-delta interaction on Ziarat Estuary and the Mond Delta area. A numerical model has been utilized to investigate cases of flow and sediment transport behaviour in the coastal Mond area and future migration patterns of the River Mouth is estimated. Sediment sources and relevant contributions in morphodynamic changes of the sand spits are widely investigated through sediment constituent analysis. The results of the numerical model are compared with field observations and comprehensive GIS based analysis of historic shoreline changes from aerial photos and satellite imagery. It is concluded that the model achievements are capable to predict the observed phenomena. Management guidelines and suggestions are deducted and drawn from the calibration and verification of the results with field observations and satellite image analysis.

  17. An assessment of natural radionuclides in water of Langat River estuary, Selangor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamzah, Zaini, E-mail: tengkuliana88@gmail.com; Rosli, Tengku Nurliana Tuan Mohd, E-mail: tengkuliana88@gmail.com; Saat, Ahmad, E-mail: tengkuliana88@gmail.com; Wood, Ab. Khalik, E-mail: tengkuliana88@gmail.com [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    An estuary is an area that has a free connection with the open sea and it is a dynamic semi-enclosed coastal bodies. Ex-mining, aquaculture and industrial areas in Selangor are the sources of pollutants discharged into the estuary water. Radionuclides are considered as pollutants to the estuary water. Gamma radiations emitted by natural radionuclides through their decaying process may give impact to human. The radiological effect of natural radionuclides which are {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, were explored by determining the respective activity concentrations in filtered water along the Langat estuary, Selangor. Meanwhile, in- situ water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolve oxygen (DO), salinity, total suspended solid (TSS), pH and turbidity were measured by using YSI portable multi probes meter. The activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K were determined by using gamma-ray spectrometry with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K in samples are in the range of 0.17 - 0.67 Bq/L, 0.16 - 0.97 Bq/L and 1.22 - 5.57 Bq/L respectively. On the other hand, the concentrations of uranium-238 and thorium-232 were determined by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF). The thorium concentrations are between 0.17 ppm to 0.28 ppm and uranium concentrations were 0.25 ppm to 0.31 ppm. The results show activity concentrations of radionuclides are slightly high near the river estuary. The Radium Equivalent, Absorbed Dose Rate, External Hazard Index, and Annual Effective Dose of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K are also studied.

  18. Disposal of radioactive wastes into rivers, lakes and estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to present, in the light of the information and experience accumulated to date, those principles and practices which, if applied to the disposal of radioactive wastes into inland surface and estuarial waters will ensure that man will not experience radiation exposures that are above the limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP); and further, that radiation exposures are kept as far below those limits as is practicable. Disposal into sub-surface waters has not been specifically considered as this topic has been covered in another International Atomic Energy Agency publication. The report discusses the mechanisms and parameters which affect and control the fate of radionuclides introduced into fresh waters; it discusses the concepts of ''critical nuclide'', ''critical pathway'' and ''critical population group'' and demonstrates how the use of these concepts provides a sound, convenient and economical means for setting discharge limits and maintaining a continuing surveillance. It offers practical advice on the use of these concepts; gives some detailed information on uptake and dispersion mechanisms; and offers instruction on how to use this information and these concepts to estimate potential radiation doses and thus establish discharge limits.

  19. HIDRODYNAMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CUBATÃO RIVER ESTUARY, JOINVILLE CARACTERIZAÇÃO HIDRODINÂMICA DO ESTUÁRIO DO RIO CUBATÃO, JOINVILLE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. SCHETTINI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary approach on the hydrodynamics of the Cubatão River estuary based on hydrographic data from a thirteen-hour campaign (a complete tidal cycle under spring tide condition. Current speed and direction, salinity, temperature and turbidity were recorded at 1.5 m bellow the water surface near the estuary mouth, with a moored acoustic currentmeter. Vertical profiles of salinity and temperature were done close to the mooring every hour with a CTD to give the vertical estuarine structure. Vertical profiles of CTD were also done along the estuary during the flood slack water. The results show that the Cubatão River estuary is vertically homogeneous almost time, with small periods with weak stratification during the ebb. The tidal regime was assimetric, with ebb currents stronger than flood currents. Este trabalho apresenta uma caracterização preliminar da hidrodinâmica do estuário do Rio Cubatão baseada em dados hidrográficos obtidos durante uma campanha de treze horas (um ciclo completo de maré em condições de maré de sizígia. Dados de velocidade e direção de corrente, salinidade, temperatura e turbidez foram obtidos à 1,5 m abaixo da superfície, próximo da desembocadura do estuário com o fundeio de um correntógrafo acústico. Perfis verticais de salinidade e temperatura foram realizados próximos ao fundeio a cada hora com um CTD para fornecer a estrutura vertical. Perfis de CTD também foram realizados ao longo do estuário durante a preamar. Os resultados mostram que o estuário do Rio Cubatão apresenta-se verticalmente homogêneo com períodos menores de estratificação durante a vazante. O regime de maré mostra uma assimetria acentuada, com correntes de vazante muito mais intensas do que as correntes de enchente.

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and its ?13C in the Ganga (Hooghly) River estuary, India: Evidence of DIC generation via organic carbon degradation and carbonate dissolution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Samanta, S.; Dalai, T.K.; Pattanaik, J.K.; Rai, S.K.; Mazumdar, A.

    (ca. 70%) of the annual DIC generation in the estuary. The annual DIC flux from the Hooghly estuary accounts for ca. 1% of the global river DIC flux to the oceans. This is disproportionately higher than the water contribution from the Hooghly River...

  1. Antibiotics in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta and Pearl River Estuary, China: Concentrations, mass loading and ecological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten antibiotics belonging to three groups (macrolides, fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides) were investigated in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Pearl River Estuary (PRE), South China for assessing the importance of riverine runoff in the transportation of contaminants from terrestrial sources to the open ocean. All antibiotics were detected in the eight outlets with concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 127 ng L?1. The annual mass loadings of antibiotics from the PRD to the PRE and coast were 193 tons with 102 tons from the fluoroquinolone group. It showed that antibiotics decreased from the riverine outlets to the PRE and open ocean. Risk assessment showed that most of these antibiotics showed various ecological risks to the relevant aquatic organisms, in which ofloxacin (OFL), erythromycin (ETM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) posed high ecological risks to the studied aquatic environments. -- Highlights: •Antibiotics were ubiquitous in the river water and costal water in the Pearl River Delta. •Antibiotics exhibited distinct temporal and spatial trends in the riverine runoff outlets. •Annual outflows of antibiotics were 193 tons from the Pearl River to coastal ocean. •Some antibiotics posed high risks to some organisms in the PRD environments. -- Antibiotics were ubiquitous in the river and coastal water in the Pearl River Delta and posed various ecological risks to the relevant aquatic organisms

  2. The morphology and morphodynamics of sand-gravel subaquatic dunes: the Raba River estuary, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur RADECKI-PAWLIK

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the outlet of the Raba River to the Vistula, the biggest river in Poland, the morphology and morphodynamics of sand and fine-gravel subaquatic dunes were investigated. The site is situated in highland region just about the entrance to Polish Carpathians. The dunes formed on the Raba River bed estuary are composed of sand and fine gravel (d50 up to 11 mm. Systematic observation (within the 2000-2005 were made of geometry, sediment composition and hydraulic climate under which the dunes grew and decomposed. The investigation focuses here mostly on the geometrical parameters of these bed forms such as height, length, as well as granulometric characteristics of the sediment. Based on in-site measurements different hydraulic parameters were calculated such as shear stresses, resistant coefficient, Froude and Reynolds numbers and roughness coefficient. It was found that the relation between height (H and length (L of the Raba estuary dunes describes the formula: H = 0.05L0.35. Also these dunes are steeper and flatter then classical H/L index is: H/L = 0.0518L0.622. During the field campaign, when the foot access to the estuary was possible and dunes were spotted on the river bed the range of measured water velocity was from v = 0.39 m?s-1 to v = 0.81 m?s-1 with the highest velocity over the dune crest. At the same time the measured range of shear stresses within the dune field formation were from t = 0.115 N×m-2 to t = 1.59 N×m-2. On the field investigations the CCHE2D - two-dimensional unsteady flow and sediment transport model for non-equilibrium transport of non-uniform sediment mixtures – was applied. The model was used to simulate the morphodynamic changes along the outlet of the Raba River basing on field observations of the 2005 summer flood as well as calculate hydraulics parameters. It was also used to test and confirm the range of morphodynamic changes, which take place along the research reach where the dunes are being developed. The maximum water flow velocity for and the shear stresses for the summer flood caused the hydrodynamic conditions when water velocity as well as shear stresses values reached respectively up to v = 1,93 m×s-1, and t = 19.74 N×m-2 which shows that critical conditions of bed load movement were exceeded for the Raba estuary

  3. Bayesian networks for environmental flow decision making and an application in the Yellow River estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, A. P.; Sun, T.

    2013-12-01

    We proposed an approach for environmental flow decision making based on Bayesian networks considering seasonal water use conflicts between agriculture and ecosystems. Three steps were included in the approach: water shortage assessment after environmental flow allocation using a production-loss model considering temporal variations of river flows; trade-off analysis of water use outcomes by Bayesian networks; and environmental flow decision making based on a risk assessment under different management strategies. An agricultural water shortage model and a production-loss model were integrated after satisfying environmental flows with temporal variability. The case study in the Yellow River estuary indicated that the average difference of acceptable economic loss for winter wheat irrigation stakeholders was 10% between water saving measures and water diversion projects. The combination of water diversion projects and water-saving measures would allow 4.1% more river inflow to be allocated to ecological needs in normal years without further economic losses in agriculture.

  4. Latest Holocene evolution and human disturbance of a channel segment in the Hudson River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, A.D.; Sommerfield, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    The latest Holocene sedimentary record of a cohesive channel and subtidal shoal in the lower Hudson River Estuary was examined to elucidate natural (sea-level rise, sediment transport) and anthropogenic (bulkheading, dredging) influences on the recent morphodynamic evolution of the system. To characterize the seafloor and shallow subbottom, ??? 100 km of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles (chirp) were collected within a 20-km reach of the estuary and correlated with sediment lithologies provided by eight vibracores recovered along seismic lines. Sediment geochronology with 137Cs and 14C was used to estimate intermediate and long-term sedimentation rates, respectively, and historical bathymetric data were analyzed to identify regional patterns of accretion and erosion, and to quantify changes in channel geometry and sediment volume. The shoal lithosome originated around 4 ka presumably with decelerating eustatic sea level rise during the latest Holocene. Long-term sedimentation rates on the shoal (2.3-2.6 mm/yr) are higher than in the channel (2 mm/yr) owing to hydrodynamic conditions that preferentially sequester suspended sediment on the western side of the estuary. As a result, the shoal accretes oblique to the principal axis of tidal transport, and more rapidly than the channel to produce an asymmetric cross-section. Shoal deposits consist of tidally bedded muds and are stratified by minor erosion surfaces that seismic profiles reveal to extend for 10s of meters to kilometers. The frequency and continuity of these surfaces suggest that the surficial shoal is catastrophically stripped on decadal-centennial time scales by elevated tidal flows; tidal erosion maintains the shoal at a uniform depth below sea level and prevents it from transitioning to an intertidal environment. Consequently, the long-term sedimentation rate approximates the rate of sea-level rise in the lower estuary (1-3 mm/yr). After the mid 1800s, the natural geometry of the lower Hudson River Estuary changed rapidly in response to engineering works that forced the channel to self-deepen. Analysis of historical bathymetric data indicates that the channel lost an estimated 3 ?? 106 tons of sediment between ca. 1939 and 2002 (50,000 tons/yr average) by subaqueous erosion, increasing in depth by as much as 4 m in places. Erosion appears to have been concurrent with systematic bulkheading of the shoreline after ca. 1865, which decreased the estuary surface area by ??? 19% overall. Evidently, self-deepening of the channel is a morphodynamic adjustment to reestablish equilibrium cross-sectional area, yet the state of this change locally and elsewhere in the estuary is unknown. Subaqueous erosion documented in this study is a significant source of sediment with implications to the sediment budget and environmental quality of the Hudson River Estuary. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing benthic ecological status in coastal area near Changjiang River estuary using AMBI and M-AMBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lusan; Li, Baoquan; Lin, Kuixuan; Cai, Wenqian; Wang, Quanchao

    2014-03-01

    The Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary has been subject to a variety of anthropogenic pressures in recent decades. To assess the ecological health of the coastal benthic ecosystem adjacent to the estuary, three surveys were conducted in 2005, 2009, and 2010. The AZTI's Marine Biotic Index (AMBI) and multivariate-AMBI (M-AMBI) were used to analyse the benthic ecological status of this coast. The AMBI indicate that the ecological status of the coast adjacent to the Changjiang River estuary was only slightly degraded in all 3 years. In contrast, the M-AMBI indicated that the ecological status was seriously degraded, a result that is most likely due to pollution and eutrophication induced by human activities. The assessment of the coast's ecological status by the AMBI was not in agreement with that of the M-AMBI at some stations because of lower biodiversity values at those sites. The analysis of the two indices integrated with abiotic parameters showed that the M-AMBI could be used as a suitable bio-indicator index to assess the benthic ecological status of the coast adjacent to the Changjiang River estuary. The reference conditions proposed for the coast of the Changjiang River estuary should be further evaluated in future studies. Designation of local species could also provide an important reference for Chinese waters. To improve the reliability of AMBI and M-AMBI, further research into the ecology of local species is required to understand their arrangement in ecological groups.

  6. Sediment quality in Rivers and their estuaries of an olive oil production area, Messinia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulou, Evaggelia; Pavlidou, Alexandra; Skoulikidis, Nikos; Dassenakis, Manos; Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Sediment analysis at four major rivers (Pamisos, Aris, Velikas and Nedon) and their estuaries towards heavy metals took place in the Prefecture of Messinia, Greece, during two sampling campaigns in 2008 and 2011. The main industrial activity in the region is the operation of 250 olive oil industries and the main problem concerning pollution derives from the vast quantities of olive mill waste waters that are being generated annually most of which is currently discharged in nearby streams. Chemical parameters such as phenols, total organic carbon and certain heavy metals were found to be strongly correlated with the wastes from the olive oil industries. Major and minor elements (heavy metals) were measured in riverine and estuarine sediments. In parallel heavy metals were determined in the olive waste from a local industry, using atomic absorption spectrometry, in order to correlate the results with the sediment analysis. Major and Minor elements were recorded based upon the total percentage of the sediment samples and in order to eliminate the grain size effect, the concentrations were normalized towards Al. A pollution indice, the sediment enrichment factor, was also calculated, the high values of which towards Cr are of particular interest. Additionally organic carbon and total phenolic compounds were determined in rivers and their estuaries. High concentrations of Chromium were recorded in River Aris sediment, which seems to be the most polluted. Relatively high concentrations of zinc were encountered at rivers Aris and Pamisos while the chromium load seems to be higher near the estuaries of the rivers. The olive mill waste water analysis confirmed the existence of chromium in the waste and extremely elevated values were also found at a nearby station where these wastes tend to accumulate for decades. In contrast the results from the Nedon River indicated that it is not affected, since the low values found remained constant from the source of the river until its outfall in the Messinian Gulf. A significant enrichment in phenolic content of sediments as well in organic carbon was observed in 2011 when compared to 2008, in most of the cases, indicating degradation of the study aquatic ecosystems of Messinia Prefecture.

  7. Late Holocene evolution of the River Bensafrim estuary, Lagos (Portugal) - Gearchaeological remarks concerning geomorphological changings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J. A.; Ramos-Pereira, A.; Trindade, J.

    2012-04-01

    1. The site Lagos is a city in western Algarve situated on the right margin of the Ribeira de Bensafrim. Its dissymmetric estuary has two hills: one that supports the town of Lagos and the hill of Monte Molião, known for its archaeological site. During the Late Iron Age the establishment was constrained to the top of that small hill Molião After that period, in Roman Age, people moved their location to the right river margin, founding what was then known as Laccobriga - Lagos. 2. Objectives and methodology The main objective of this study is to understand the possible causes for the abandonment of Monte Molião and what were the reasons behind the foundation of the roman city of Laccobriga? The data used were the results from the sedimentary analysis of cores in the alluvial plain of the Bensafrim valley, radiocarbon data, together with the previous excavation results and structure analysis. 3. First results: (i) In the sedimentary record, the rate sand/clay as well as several statistical parameters and shells, show different energetic environments. (ii) Radiocarbon data shows that the estuary remained open until 2800 cal BP, when a spit developed at the mouth of the estuary and a salt marsh begin to develop behind the sand barrier. (iii) Remnants of fishing activities since the Iron Age found in the archaeological site highlight different strategies for the establishment around the estuary. Archeological data tells us that, the Iron Age fishing was mainly fluvial, while later shellfish remains point that in the roman period fishing activities were made in open sea. (iv) The analyzed roman structures in the archaeological site of Monte Molião, show a clear sign of a violent seismic destruction probably related to the known 63 b.C. earthquake. 4. Conclusions (i) It is proven that in the river Bensafrim the estuary changed from an open estuary before 2800 cal BP to a closed one. This could have forced the change of the fishing habits of the populations that depended on that river. We also believe that this could have contributed to the foundation of the roman city of Lagos on the right river margin. (ii) The 63 b.C. earthquake was strong enough to alter the establishment strategy. Archaeological record shows us that in Monte Molião there was a period with no occupation between the second half of the first century b.C. and the beginning of the first century a.D.. (iii) This study not only highlights the importance of the estuary in the occupation History of Lagos city but also shows that this kind of multi-disciplinary investigations are fundamental to understand human establishment processes. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the research project, PTDC/CTE-GIX/104035/2008 - FMI 5000: Environmental changes: Fluvio-marine interactions over the last 5000 yrs, from Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation (FCT-MCTES).

  8. Heavy metals in coastal wetland sediments of the Pearl River Estuary, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment quality in coastal wetlands of the Pearl River Estuary was concerned since the wetlands were used for land reclamation, aquaculture and wildlife protection, and meanwhile served as one of the main ultimate sinks for large amount of heavy metals discharged from the rapidly developing Pearl River Delta. Total concentrations of heavy metal, such as Zn, Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Cd, and their chemical speciation were investigated. Results showed that the sediments were significantly contaminated by Cd, Zn and Ni with concentration ranges of 2.79-4.65, 239.4-345.7 and 24.8-122.1 mg/kg, respectively. A major portion (34.6-46.8%) of Pb, Cd, and Zn was strongly associated with exchangeable fractions, while Cu, Ni and Cr were predominantly associated with organic fractions, residual, and Fe-Mn oxide. Cd and Zn would be the main potential risk and the sediment quality is no longer meeting the demand of the current wetland utilization strategies. - We found that the sediment in coastal wetlands of the Pearl River Estuary was polluted by Cd, Zn and no longer suitable for the current wetland utilization strategies

  9. Use of multitracers for the study of water mixing in the Paraiba do Sul River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multitracers were used to study water mixing in the Paraiba do Sul River estuary region in August 2007 (dry season) and March 2008 (rainy season) and to evaluate the reach of the river plume in the direction of the open ocean. Two sampling campaigns were carried out, each in a different season. Based on these results, it was possible to conclude that the multitracers used in this study (salinity, Si, Ba and U, as well as the radium isotopes 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra and 228Ra) presented satisfactory results toward defining the plume reach and determining the residence time and water-mixing processes in the estuary. A strong correlation was observed between tracers and the distance to the coast. During the low river water discharge period, the riverine water took about 10 days to reach open ocean waters (salinity ? 35). During the rainy period this value decreased to 6 days. Based on the radium results, it was possible to calculate diffusion coefficients (Kh) of 23 km2 d-1 and 38 km2 d-1 for 224Ra and 223Ra, respectively, during the dry season (winter). Values of 65 km2 d-1 and 68 km2 d-1 for 223Ra and 224Ra, respectively, were found for the rainy period (summer).

  10. Use of multitracers for the study of water mixing in the Paraiba do Sul River estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Thaisa Abreu, E-mail: abreu.thaisa@gmail.co [Departamento de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, Jose Marcus [Departamento de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria IRD/CNEN, 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria IRD/CNEN, 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, Isabel [Departamento de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, Zenildo L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria IRD/CNEN, 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salomao, Marcos Sarmet M.B.; Rezende, Carlos E. [Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, 28013-600 Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    Multitracers were used to study water mixing in the Paraiba do Sul River estuary region in August 2007 (dry season) and March 2008 (rainy season) and to evaluate the reach of the river plume in the direction of the open ocean. Two sampling campaigns were carried out, each in a different season. Based on these results, it was possible to conclude that the multitracers used in this study (salinity, Si, Ba and U, as well as the radium isotopes {sup 223}Ra, {sup 224}Ra, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra) presented satisfactory results toward defining the plume reach and determining the residence time and water-mixing processes in the estuary. A strong correlation was observed between tracers and the distance to the coast. During the low river water discharge period, the riverine water took about 10 days to reach open ocean waters (salinity {approx} 35). During the rainy period this value decreased to 6 days. Based on the radium results, it was possible to calculate diffusion coefficients (K{sub h}) of 23 km{sup 2} d{sup -1} and 38 km{sup 2} d{sup -1} for {sup 224}Ra and {sup 223}Ra, respectively, during the dry season (winter). Values of 65 km{sup 2} d{sup -1} and 68 km{sup 2} d{sup -1} for {sup 223}Ra and {sup 224}Ra, respectively, were found for the rainy period (summer).

  11. Historical records of eutrophication in Changjiang (Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cheng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two sediment cores from the Changjiang (Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent East China Sea were collected and studied for eutrophication history using paleoecological records of environmental changes over the last century. A multiproxy approach by using biological and geochemical analyses revealed changes in diatom assemblages, total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (TN and biogenic silica (BSi and give an indication of nutrient in status and trends in Changjiang River estuary and its adjacent East China Sea. The diatom assemblages in the two cores generally increased gradually from the 1970s, and accelerated from the 1990s until now, reflecting the increased eutrophication and causing large algae blooms/red tides. The TOC, TN and BSi showing the similar trends, supported the interpretation of the eutrophication process indicated by diatom analyses. The two cores were located in different sea areas of the East China Sea, and we discuss their relative changes based on their environment characteristics. We also discuss the potential effect of anthropogenic influences and ongoing projects on eutrophication in the Changjiang River and its adjacent East China Sea.

  12. Some ecological studies of the lower Cape Fear River Estuary, ocean outfall, and Dutchman Creek, 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the hydrography and biological components of the Cape Fear River Estuary and nearshore ocean off Oak Island was conducted. Species diversity indices were computed from nekton samples and phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos samples are being analysed. A computer program was developed whereby data were alphabetized by species, sorted by location, station, and date, and printed. Experiments were conducted to determine the Critical Thermal Maximum of shrimp. Measurements were made on water temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen from June through October. (U.S.)

  13. Aquatic organism contamination by mercury residues in the Coatzacoalcos river estuary, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury residues in the biotic and abiotic elements of the Coatzacoalcos river estuary have been determined over a two-year period. Main attention was given to aquatic species considered as indicators of the accumulation of Hg in the sediments. The highest levels were found in sediments and benthonic organisms. Mercury in human blood and hair was measured in two groups. The first group, which was chosen from occupationally exposed workers, showed higher values than the second group of non-occupationally exposed persons. The neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption analysis methods are discussed and results are presented. (author)

  14. Impact of river basin management on coastal water quality and ecosystem services: A southern Baltic estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernewski, Gerald; Hürdler, Jens; Neumann, Thomas; Stybel, Nardine; Venohr, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Eutrophication management is still a major challenge in the Baltic Sea region. Estuaries or coastal waters linked to large rivers cannot be managed independently. Nutrient loads into these coastal ecosystems depend on processes, utilisation, structure and management in the river basin. In practise this means that we need a large scale approach and integrated models and tools to analyse, assess and evaluate the effects of nutrient loads on coastal water quality as well as the efficiency of river basin management measures on surface waters and especially lagoons and estuaries. The Odra river basin, the Szczecin Lagoon and its coastal waters cover an area of about 150,000 km² and are an eutrophication hot-spot in the Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of an optimal nitrogen and phosphorus management scenario in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35 %) would have positive effects on coastal water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased potentially toxic, blue-green algae blooms. The presentation will summarize recent results (Behrendt et al. 2009, Schernewski et al. 2009, Schernewski et al. in press, Schernewski et al. submitted) and give an overview how Climate Change and socio-economic transformation processes in the river basin will effect coastal water quality during the next decades. The opportunities and threats of a changing lagoon ecosystem for tourism and fisheries, the major economic activities, will be shown.

  15. Geochemical factors influencing the production and transport of methylmercury in St. Louis River Estuary sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Results are presented from lab study on sulfate-impacted freshwater estuary sediment. • In the lab study, sulfate in overlying water affected SRB abundance in sediment. • In the lab study, sulfate in overlying water did not affect sediment solid-phase MeHg. • Estimated dissolved MeHg flux from SLRE sediment is less than upstream MeHg inputs. - Abstract: The production of methylmercury (MeHg), a bioaccumulative neurotoxin, in freshwater systems is primarily driven by naturally occurring sulfate reducing bacteria in anoxic sediment and waters. This research used laboratory microcosms to examine the influence of sulfate on MeHg production and partitioning in sulfate-impacted freshwater estuary sediment. A laboratory sulfate addition experiment exposed 20 cm diameter intact sediment cores with varying organic carbon content to sulfate concentrations in the overlying water ranging from 5 to 50 mg L?1. Results from the 6 month incubation suggest that net MeHg production in sediment from open-water areas of the St. Louis River Estuary was not directly related to overlying water sulfate. Mercury mobility, as indicated by porewater concentrations, appeared to be related to the quantity of organic carbon and sulfur in sediment. Laboratory flux estimates were consistent with porewater concentrations and provided a means to compare diffusion-driven MeHg loading from sediment to MeHg loading from upstream sources

  16. Foraminifera in surface sediments of Mandovi River Estuary: Indicators for mining pollution and high sea stand in Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Panchang, R.; Banerjee, P.

    same season of 1994 with refer- ence to continued mining activities in the catchment area of this river. PHYSICAL SETTING OF THE STUDY AREA Geologically, the state of Goa forms a part of the Dharwar Craton of the South Indian shield and is covered... to 41 and also total species number from 22 to five in the sediments of the Mandovi estuary. These indicate the adverse effects of a continued increase in the suspended load due to mining activities in the catchment area of the Mandovi River estuary...

  17. Shoreline Change along Sheltered Coastlines: Insights from the Neuse River Estuary, NC, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Walsh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastlines are constantly changing due to both natural and anthropogenic forces, and climate change and associated sea level rise will continue to reshape coasts in the future. Erosion is not only apparent along oceanfront areas; shoreline dynamics in sheltered water bodies have also gained greater attention. Additional estuarine shoreline studies are needed to better understand and protect coastal resources. This study uses a point-based approach to analyze estuarine shoreline change and associated parameters, including fetch, wave energy, elevation, and vegetation, in the Neuse River Estuary (NRE at two contrasting scales, Regional (whole estuary and Local (estuary partitioned into eight sections, based on orientation and exposure. With a mean shoreline-change rate of –0.58 m yr?1, the majority (93% of the NRE study area is eroding. Change rates show some variability related to the land-use land-cover classification of the shoreline. Although linear regression analysis at the Regional Scale did not find significant correlations between shoreline change and the parameters analyzed, trends were determined from Local Scale data. Specifically, erosion rates, fetch, and wave exposure increase in the down-estuary direction, while elevation follows the opposite trend. Linear regression analysis between mean fetch and mean shoreline-change rates at the Local Scale provide a first-order approach to predict shoreline-change rates. The general trends found in the Local Scale data highlight the presence of underlying spatial patterns in shoreline-change rates within a complex estuarine system, but Regional Scale analysis suggests shoreline composition also has an important influence.

  18. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River estuary. Volume I. Entrainment-impact estimates for six fish populations inhabiting the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is concerned with the estimation of the direct (or annual) entrainment impact of power plants on populations of striped bass, white perch, Alosa spp. (blueback herring and alewife), American shad, Atlantic tomcod, and bay anchovy in the Hudson River estuary. Entrainment impact results from the killing of fish eggs, larvae, and young juveniles that are contained in the cooling water cycled through a power plant. An Empirical Transport Model (ETM) is presented as the means of estimating a conditional entrainment mortality rate (defined as the fraction of a year class which would be killed due to entrainment in the absence of any other source of mortality). Most of this volume is concerned with the estimation of several parameters required by the ETM: physical input parameters (e.g., power-plant withdrawal flow rates); the longitudinal distribution of ichthyoplankton in time and space; the duration of susceptibility of the vulnerable organisms; the W-factors, which express the ratios of densities of organisms in power plant intakes to densities of organisms in the river; and the entrainment mortality factors (f-factors), which express the probability that an organism will be killed if it is entrained. Once these values are obtained, the ETM is used to estimate entrainment impact for both historical and projected conditions

  19. Analysis of thermal impact in tidal rivers and estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a far field mathematical model for numerical simulation of transient one or two-dimensional thermal distributions in regions with severe reversing flow conditions. The Eulerian formulation employs the integral form of the conservation principles for mass and thermal energy. The two-dimensional (2 D) solution area is spanned by discrete elements of variable size and shape. The three-dimensional geometry of the flow region is accounted for by spatially intergrating over the enclosure surfaces of the discrete element. The derivation of the two-dimensional depth-averaged temperatur equations includes the constributions of the vertical variations of velocity and temperature. Surface heat transfer as well as turbulent effects are taken into account. Important mathematical and computational features of the model are summarized. There is a discussion of the four main algorithms, necessary to treat flow regions with complex shoreline geometries, viz. (i) specification of the boundary (ii) determination of all discrete element midpoints lying within the (possibly multiconnected) solution area (iii) construction of discrete elements of irregular geometry exactly matching the (curved) boundary, (iv) treatment of boundary condiditons and numerical solution of the resulting mathematical system of weakly coupled, ordinary differential equations derived from the conservation principles. Preliminary results of a computer simulation are compared with the available data for a section of the Lower Elbe river. The calculation of the two-dimensional temperature distribution includes existing power plants and industrial sites. (orig.)

  20. Trace metals in the Ob and Yenisei Rivers' Estuaries (the Kara Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demina, L. L.

    2014-12-01

    Behavior of some trace metals (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb) in water column (soluble metals' concentrations (µg/l) in water of the two estuaries. With salinity increase along transects Fe susp., Mn susp. and Zn susp. decreased by a factor of 100-500, that has led to a growth of a relative portion of dissolved trace metals followed by their bioaccumulation (Demina et al., 2010). A strong direct correlation between suspended Cu, Fe and SPM mass concentration was found. For the first time along the Yenisei River' Estuary -the Kara Sea transect a direct positive correlation between Cu suspended and volume concentration of SPM (mg/ml3) was found, that was attributed to contribution of phytoplankton aggregates in the SPM composition. A trend of relationship between content of suspended As and pelitic fraction (2-10 µm) of SPM was firstly found in theses basins also. Study of trace metal speciation in the bottom sediments (adsorbed, associated with Fe-Mn (oxyhydr)oxides, organic matter and fixed in the mineral lattice or refractory) has revealed the refractory fraction to be prevailing (70-95% total content) for Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Cd and Pb. That means that toxic heavy metals were not available for bottom fauna. Mn was predominantly found in the adsorbed and (oxyhydr)oxides geochemically labile forms, reflecting the redox condition change along both transects and within the sedimentary cores. References. Demina L.L., Gordeev V.V., Galkin S.V., Kravchishina M.D. Biogeochemistry of some heavy metals and metalloids along the transect the Ob River Estuary - the Kara Sea. Oceanology, 2010, vo. 50, No 5, pp. 729- 742.

  1. Relationship of Caspian tern foraging ecology to nesting success in the Columbia River estuary, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.K.; Roby, D.D.; Lyons, Donald E.; Collis, K.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) and marine forage fishes in the diet of Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) nesting in the Columbia River estuary has been established, but the relationship between diet composition, foraging distribution, and productivity of these birds has received little attention. We used radio-telemetry and on-colony observations to relate changes in off-colony distribution to patterns of colony attendance, diet composition, and productivity of adult terns nesting on East Sand Island during two years of different river and prey conditions. Average distance from the East Sand Island colony (located in the marine zone of the estuary) was 38% (6.6 km) greater in 2000 compared to 2001, associated with lower availability of marine forage fish near East Sand Island and lower prevalence of marine prey in tern diets. Colony attendance was much lower (37.0% vs. 62.5% of daylight hours), average trip duration was 40% longer (38.9 min), and nesting success was much lower (0.57 young fledged pair-1 vs. 1.40 young fledged pair-1) in 2000 compared to 2001. Higher proportions of juvenile salmonids in the diet were associated with relatively high use of the freshwater zone of the estuary by radio-tagged terns, which occurred prior to chick-rearing and when out-migrating salmonid smolts were relatively abundant. Lower availability of marine prey in 2000 apparently limited Caspian tern nesting success by markedly reducing colony attendance and lengthening foraging trips by nesting terns, thereby increasing chick mortality rates from predation, exposure, and starvation. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Cameron, April; Coleman, Andre M.; Corbett, C.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Kauffman, Ronald; Roegner, G. Curtis; Russell, Micah T.; Silva, April; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Woodruff, Dana L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2010-10-26

    This is the sixth annual report of a seven-year project (2004 through 2010) to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The project, called the Cumulative Effects Study, is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (USACE) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), and the University of Washington. The goal of the Cumulative Effects Study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the 235-km-long LCRE. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. From 2005 through 2009, annual field research involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp versus marsh), trajectory (restoration versus reference site), and restoration action (tidegate replacement vs. culvert replacement vs. dike breach).

  3. Evaluation of the Level of Organochlorinated Pesticides Contamination in Environment of the Red River and its Balat Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pollution level of OC pesticides such as Lindane, DDT and its metabolites contaminants in water, sediments and Biota collected along the Red River and from the Balat estuary have, for the first time in the North of Vietnam, been determined by GC technique using capillary columns and electron capture detection (ECD). The concentration of DDT and DDE was found to be up to 38.4 ppb and 27.3 ppb, respectively, in sediments from the Red River and its Balat estuary. Lindane residue in Red River's and Balat estuary's sediments was found at level of 1.3-4.2 and 14.6-52.6 ppb, respectively. In water Lindane contaminant was detected in the sample collected from the estuarine area only, while DDE was found in both River and estuarine water. Residue of Lindane in mussel flesh was found to be always higher (up to 145 ppb) than that of any DDT's metabolites, e.g. the highest value of DDE contaminant is 66 ppb. The finding shows that Lindane contamination in marine environmental samples from the Balat estuary is higher as compared with those from the Mediterranean Sea but DDT's ones are at the same level. (author). 8 refs., 6 tabs., 1 map

  4. Heavy ? 15N in Intertidal Benthic Algae and Invertebrates in the Scheldt Estuary (The Netherlands): Effect of River Nitrogen Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, P.; Stal, L. J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.

    2000-09-01

    The study investigated ? 15N in the intertidal benthic food webs from the middle Westerschelde Estuary and the middle Oosterschelde. Much heavier ? 15N values were observed for the main benthic primary producers and invertebrates in the Westerschelde Estuary. In the Oosterschelde, mean ? 15N values ranged from 1·4 to 7·3‰ for SOM and suspended POM, respectively, to 6·3 to 9·1‰ for Fucus vesiculosus and benthic diatoms, respectively. Mean ? 15N values in benthic invertebrates ranged from 9·7‰ for Gammarus locusta to 15·4‰ for Tubificoides sp. In the Westerschelde Estuary, mean ? 15N increased from 8·1 to 8·6‰ for suspended POM and SOM, respectively, to heavier ? 15N from 15·9 to 28·5‰ for F. vesiculosus and benthic diatoms, respectively. Mean ? 15N for intertidal invertebrates ranged from 18·1‰ for Lumbricillus sp. to 20·7‰ for Eulimnogammarus obtusatus. Higher enrichment in 15N in benthic primary producers and invertebrates from the Westerschelde Estuary are most likely due to the incorporation of 15N-enriched DIN carried by the Scheldt River by benthic algae and, then by benthic consumers. These results point to the fact that ? 15N in benthic estuarine food webs may respond directly to anthropogenic nitrogen inputs delivered into estuaries by rivers which drain highly urbanized areas.

  5. Alternative and Legacy Perfluoroalkyl Substances: Differences between European and Chinese River/Estuary Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydebreck, Franziska; Tang, Jianhui; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-07-21

    The production and use of long-chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) must comply with national and international regulations. Driven by increasingly stringent regulations, their production has been outsourced to less regulated countries in Asia. In addition, the fluoropolymer industry started to use fluorinated alternatives, such as 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(1,1,2,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropoxy)propanoic acid (HFPO-DA). Between August 2013 and September 2014, we investigated the occurrence and distribution of HFPO-DA and legacy PFASs in surface waters of the following river/estuary systems: the Elbe and Rhine Rivers in Germany, the Rhine-Meuse delta in The Netherlands, and the Xiaoqing River in China. Distinct differences were revealed among the study areas; notably, the Chinese samples were highly polluted by an industrial point source discharging mainly perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). This particular point source resulted in concentrations more than 6000 times higher than an industrial point source observed in the Scheur River, where HFPO-DA was the dominant compound with a concentration of 73.1 ng/L. Moreover, HFPO-DA was detected in all samples along the coastline of the North Sea, indicating that the compound may be transported from the Rhine-Meuse delta into the German Bight via the water current. To the best of our knowledge, the fluorinated alternative, HFPO-DA, was detected for the first time in surface waters of Germany and China. PMID:26106903

  6. Report on the workshop examining the potential effects of hydroelectric development on Beluga of the Nelson River Estuary, Winnipeg, Manitoba, November 6 and 7, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented of discussions and conclusions at a workshop held to examine the potential effects of hydroelectric development on beluga whales of the Nelson River estuary in Manitoba. Background information is provided on the estuary, beluga whales and their use of arctic and subarctic estuaries, and hydroelectric development on the Nelson River. Potential impacts of such development on the whales are reviewed in the categories of direct effects of changes in physical-chemical conditions (temperature and discharge), indirect effects of disturbances mediated through the food chain, and effects on socioeconomic conditions that may affect beluga whales. Since the biology of beluga whales and other phenomena of interest in this study are poorly known, recommendations are made for research and monitoring activities in the Nelson River estuary. In general, the workshop participants felt that changes in the estuary due to hydroelectric development would not be large enough to affect beluga whales strongly. 34 refs., 1 fig

  7. Modeling the transport of freshwater and dissolved organic carbon in the Neuse River Estuary, NC, USA following Hurricane Irene (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew M.; Mulligan, Ryan P.; Miller, Richard L.

    2014-02-01

    Numerical models are useful tools that aid in understanding complex flows and the distribution of suspended material over large geographic areas and during extreme weather events. Here we describe the use of a three-dimensional numerical model (Delft3D) to simulate freshwater and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) transport over a 3-week period, following intense precipitation that led to high river discharge into the brackish Neuse River Estuary (NRE), NC, from Hurricane Irene (Aug. 2011). The model was calibrated and validated using field measurements of water level elevations, vertical salinity profiles, and surface DOC concentrations in the estuary. DOC was simulated as a conservative tracer over the study period. Model results indicate differences in the intensity of the freshwater and DOC-laden plumes as they propagated along estuary due to a one week time lag between the maximum discharge of 540 m3 s-1 and maximum DOC concentration of 29.85 mg L-1 entering the NRE from the river. In the upper estuary, the surface DOC concentration increased by 18 mg L-1 above the pre-storm value of 7 mg L-1; the maximum concentration occurred 10 days after the passage of the storm. In the lower estuary, the outer edge of the DOC plume reached Pamlico Sound after 3 weeks with a surface DOC concentration that was 3 mg L-1 above the pre-storm value. Results also indicate cross-channel salinity differences up to 10 ppt and DOC concentration differences up to 15 mg L-1 in the upper NRE to due to wind-driven motion of the estuary. The methods described here could be applied to other coastal plain estuarine systems to simulate and characterize flow rates and DOC transport during and succeeding storm events where field measurements are often limited.

  8. Assessment of the Mutagenicity of Sediments from Yangtze River Estuary Using Salmonella Typhimurium/Microsome Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Chen, Ling; Floehr, Tilman; Xiao, Hongxia; Bluhm, Kerstin; Hollert, Henner; Wu, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    Sediments in estuaries are of important environmental concern because they may act as pollution sinks and sources to the overlying water body. These sediments can be accumulated by benthic organisms. This study assessed the mutagenic potential of sediment extracts from the Yangtze River estuary by using the Ames fluctuation assay with the Salmonella typhimurium his (?) strain TA98 (frameshift mutagen indicator) and TA100 (baseshift mutagen indicator). Most of the sediment samples were mutagenic to the strain TA98, regardless of the presence or absence of exogenous metabolic activation (S9 induction by ?-naphthoflavone/phenobarbital). However, none of the samples were mutagenic to the strain TA100. Thus, the mutagenicity pattern was mainly frameshift mutation, and the responsible toxicants were both direct (without S9 mix) and indirect (with S9 mix) mutagens. The mutagenicity of the sediment extracts increased when S9 was added. Chemical analysis showed a poor correlation between the content of priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the detected mutagenicity in each sample. The concept of effect-directed analysis was used to analyze possible compounds responsible for the detected mutagenic effects. With regard to the mutagenicity of sediment fractions, non-polar compounds as well as weakly and moderately polar compounds played a main role. Further investigations should be conducted to identify the responsible components. PMID:26606056

  9. Metals and acid volatile sulfide in sediment cores from the Sergipe River Estuary, Northeast, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José do Patrocínio H., Alves; Elisângela de Andrade, Passos; Carlos A. B., Garcia.

    Full Text Available Foram estudados o sulfeto volatilizado em meio ácido (AVS), os metais simultaneamente extraídos (SEM) e os metais em sítios de sedimentos do Estuário do Rio Sergipe, Brasil. As concentrações de AVS e SEM foram, em geral, maiores nos sedimentos dos sítios situados nas áreas que recebem maior aporte a [...] ntrópico devido à poluição urbana. Nesses sítios, o sulfeto parece ser a principal fase de ligação para os metais. No sítio do sedimento situado na área de maior influência marinha, as fases mais importantes de ligação para os metais parecem estar associadas à matéria orgânica e aos carbonatos. Os perfis de AVS permitiram identificar dois tipos de processos de sedimentação no estuário. Em todos os sítios, as relações SEM/AVS foram muito menores do que 1. Abstract in english Acid volatile sulfide (AVS), simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) and metals were studied in sediment cores from the Sergipe River Estuary, Brazil. AVS and SEM concentrations were, in general, higher in the core sediments from areas which receive a higher anthropic contribution due to urban polluti [...] on. In these cores, the sulfide seemed to be the main connection for the metals. In the core obtained from the area of major marine influence, the most important binding phases for the metals seemed to be associated with organic matter and carbonates. The AVS profiles allow identification of two types of sedimentation processes in the estuary. In all cores SEM/AVS ratios were much lower than 1.

  10. [Seasonal distribution of macrozoobenthos and its relations to environmental factors in Oujiang River estuary sea area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Lu; Zeng, Jiang-Ning; Liao, Yi-Bo; Zhao, Yong-Qiang; Jiang, Zhi-Bing; Chen, Quan-Zhen; Gao, Ai-Gen; Yang, Jia-Xin

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the seasonal distribution of macrozoobenthos and its relations to environmental factors in Oujiang River estuary and adjacent waters, two cruise surveys were conducted in May 2006 (spring) and January 2007 (winter). A total of 65 species were collected, among which, polychaeta and mollusk were the dominant groups, Capitella capitata and Nassarius succinctus were the dominant species in spring and winter, respectively. The species number of macrozoobenthos was more in adjacent sea area than in estuary, and more in spring than in winter. The average biomass and density in the two seasons were 19.66 g x m(-2) and 131 ind x m(-2), respectively. There was a significant difference in the macrozoobenthos density between the two seasons, while less difference was observed in the biomass. The Shannon-Weiner index had significant difference between the two seasons, while Pielou eveness index, Margalef abundance index, and Simpsom dominance index had not. Water temperature and phytoplankton were the key factors affecting the macrozoobenthic taxa in spring, and water total organic carbon and dissolve oxygen were the key affecting factors in winter. PMID:19947218

  11. Characterization of the Caravelas River Estuary (Bahia from a Temporal Distributional Analysis of the Foraminifera Microfauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altair de Jesus Machado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the temporal distribution of the foraminifera microfauna of the Caravelas River estuary (Bahia to determine the different stages of marine influence on this ecosystem. For this purpose, two core samples 60 cm in length were collected at different sites in the estuary. In the laboratory, subsamples were taken from the sediment columns every 2 cm. The samples were subjected to standard analysis for foraminifera. We collected, stored, and identified the first 100 samples to determine the fauna diversity. The data analysis involved calculation of relative abundances, occurrence frequencies, diversity indices, richness, dominance, and confinement. The integrated analysis of the richness and diversity indices for the TCV1A core indicated that the oscillations between the highest and lowest marine influences were not representative to the point of promoting marked events of enrichment and depletion of the fauna at this sampling site. In contrast, analysis of the TCV2A core showed a restricted marine influence during the deposition period of this sediment column, especially since the 1980s. This hypothesis can be confirmed by the richness and diversity values, which show signs of faunal impoverishment in different sections of this core.

  12. Combined Stable Carbon Isotope and C/N Ratios as Indicators of Source and Fate of Organic Matter in the Bangpakong River Estuary, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thanomsak Boonphakdee

    2008-01-01

    Stable carbon isotopes and C/N ratios of particulate organic matter (POM) in suspended solids and surficial sediment were used to define the spatial and temporal variability in an anthropogenic tropical river estuary, the Bangpakong River Estuary. Samples were taken along salinity gradients during the four different river discharges in the beginning, high river discharge and at the end of the wet season, and low river discharge during the dry season. The values of [C/N]a ratio and d13C in the...

  13. Changes in archaeal abundance and community structure along a salinity gradient in the lower Pearl River and its estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Wang, J.; Xie, W.; Wang, P.; Wei, Y.; Chen, S.; Zhou, X.

    2013-12-01

    Archaea occur in a wide range of habitats and across broad environmental gradients. At the global scale, salinity is known to be a major driving force for archaeal species diversity. The goal of this study was to examine changes in abundance and diversity of archaeal community DNA and membrane lipids in the water column along a salinity gradient in the lower Pearl River and estuary in the context of water/gas chemistry (pH, nitrate/nitrite, ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide). The pH increased and nitrate/nitrite and ammonia decreased from the lower Pearl River to the estuary. Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes were high in the lower Pearl River and decreased sharply in the estuary and toward the open ocean. The archaeal lipid profile exhibited abrupt changes from dominance of GDGT-0 (a glycerol diakly glycerol tetraether with zero cyclopentyl ring, which is commonly present in methanogens) to dominance of crenarchaeol (a specific biomarker for Thaumarchaeota) with increasing salinity from zero in the lower Pearl River to >0.5% in the estuary. Quantification of the 16S rRNA gene abundance using qPCR revealed a switch from bacteria-dominance to archaea-dominance and the ratio of archaeal nirK/bacterial-amoA genes had a peak value in the estuary, suggesting enhanced activity of ammonia oxidation by archaea. Pyrosequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA, amoA and nirK genes exhibited systematic variation defined by habitat types. Our current studies employ rate measurements of carbon fixation, ammonia oxidation, and nitrate reduction using isotope labeling approaches, which will allow us to link changes in archaeal community structure and ecological function.

  14. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in the Piauí river estuary, Northeast Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adnivia Santos, Costa; Elisangela de Andrade, Passos; Carlos A. B., Garcia; José do Patrocinio H., Alves.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A espectroscopia de fluorescência e o carbono orgânico dissolvido (COD) foram utilizados para caracterização da matéria orgânica dissolvida (MOD) no estuário do Rio Piauí, um estuário tropical situado no Estado de Sergipe, nordeste do Brasil. As intensidades de fluorescência foram maiores no período [...] chuvoso e menores no período seco, evidenciando que a variabilidade das propriedades fluorescentes da MOD é ditada, principalmente, pela descarga fluvial e pelo processo de diluição no estuário. No período chuvoso, os compostos tipo triptofano e húmicos predominaram na composição da MOD, enquanto no período seco ocorreu um aumento significativo dos constituintes tipo proteínas. As relações das intensidades de fluorescência com a salinidade sugerem um comportamento não conservativo para a MOD fluorescente. O COD mostrou um comportamento conservativo no período seco e não conservativo no período chuvoso, com produção de COD na parte superior do estuário. A complexação da MOD com o Cu(II), estudada usando a técnica de supressão da fluorescência, evidenciou o potencial de complexação dos fluoróforos tipo proteínas, tripofano e húmico. Abstract in english Fluorescence spectroscopy and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements were used to characterize the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Piauí River estuary, a tropical estuary situated in the State of Sergipe, Northeast Brazil. Fluorescence intensities were greater during the rainy period than [...] the dry period, demonstrating that variability in the fluorescence properties of the DOM was determined mainly by the fluvial discharge and the dilution processes occurring in the estuary. During the rainy period, tryptophan-like and humic substances were the main components of the DOM, while during the dry period there was a significant increase of protein-like constituents. Relationships identified between fluorescence intensities and salinity were indicative of non-conservative behavior of the fluorescent DOM. DOC showed behavior that was conservative during the dry period, and non-conservative during the rainy period, with production of DOC in the upper reaches of the estuary. The complexation of DOM with Cu(II), studied using the fluorescence suppression technique, showed the complexation potentials of protein, tryptophan and humic type fluorophores.

  15. Zooplankton community analysis in the Changjiang River estuary by single-gene-targeted metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangping; Wang, Minxiao; Li, Chaolun; Sun, Song

    2014-07-01

    DNA barcoding provides accurate identification of zooplankton species through all life stages. Single-gene-targeted metagenomic analysis based on DNA barcode databases can facilitate longterm monitoring of zooplankton communities. With the help of the available zooplankton databases, the zooplankton community of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary was studied using a single-gene-targeted metagenomic method to estimate the species richness of this community. A total of 856 mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences were determined. The environmental barcodes were clustered into 70 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). Forty-two MOTUs matched barcoded marine organisms with more than 90% similarity and were assigned to either the species (similarity>96%) or genus level (similaritymetagenomic analysis is a useful tool for zooplankton studies, with which specimens from all life history stages can be identified quickly and effectively with a comprehensive database.

  16. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Russell, Micah; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this multi-year study (2004-2010) is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. Field research in 2005, 2006, and 2007 involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp vs. marsh), trajectory (restoration vs. reference site), and restoration action (tide gate vs. culvert vs. dike breach). The field work established two kinds of monitoring indicators for eventual cumulative effects analysis: core and higher-order indicators. Management implications of limitations and applications of site-specific effectiveness monitoring and cumulative effects analysis were identified.

  17. Geochemical Proxy of Some Chemical Elements in Sediments of Kemaman River Estuary, Terengganu, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Mn, Co, Cu and Cr) were determined in the surface sediments from Kemaman River estuary using Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The relationship of heavy metal content with sediment particles size was studied. The average concentration of heavy metals are 597.8 ?g/g dry weight, 16.0 ?g/g dry weigh, 48.8 ?g/g dry weight and 100.4 ?g/g dry weight for Mn, Co, Cu and Cr, respectively. All metals showed low Enrichment Factor (EF) values (EF<1) when compared with Al which indicates that the elements in the sediment originated predominantly from crustal material or terigenous in origin. This study shows that there is a positive correlation between the mean particle size and the studied elements. (author)

  18. Spatial distribution of zooplankton in the intertidal marsh creeks of the Yangtze River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuchan; Jin, Binsong; Guo, Li; Qin, Haiming; Chu, Tianjiang; Wu, Jihua

    2009-11-01

    Zooplankton are important grazers of primary production within intertidal marshes and are the optimal prey of higher trophic consumers; however, the patterns of their spatial distribution in marsh creeks are rarely reported. The zooplankton in the intertidal creeks with different salinities at Dongtan marshes of the Yangtze River Estuary was surveyed. The mean zooplankton densities in the intertidal creeks were 53,638 ind. m -3 in April and 132,916 ind. m -3 in July, respectively, which were as high as in the near-shore subtidal waters of the Yangtze River Estuary. This high abundance implied the important roles of zooplankton in the matter flux between marshes and near-shore waters through complex intertidal creek systems. Zooplankton total densities changed significantly from northern to southern creeks. ANOSIM and CCA analyses revealed that the zooplankton community structure were significantly different among the northern, eastern and southern creeks, and between two sampling seasons. Salinity accounted for most of the spatial variation of zooplankton community, whereas water temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, and pH were the main reasons of the temporal variation observed. Copepods were the most abundant zooplankton group. A total of 24 copepod species, belonging to 15 families and 20 genera, were recorded. Planktonic copepods preferred the northern and eastern creeks, with higher densities in July than in April, while benthic copepods predominated only in the northern creeks in April. Since the role of benthic and planktonic copepods may differ in transporting nutrients in the intertidal creeks, it is suggested that the variations in their distribution may influence the ecological functions of zooplankton in the estuarine matter fluxes both spatially and temporally.

  19. Anaerobic oxidation of methane in coastal sediment from Guishan Island (Pearl River Estuary), South China Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zijun Wu; Huaiyang Zhou; Xiaotong Peng; Nan Jia; Yuhong Wang; Linxi Yuan

    2008-12-01

    The concentrations of CH4, SO$^{2?}_{4}$, CO2 and the carbon isotope compositions of CO2 and CH4 in the pore-water of the GS sedimentary core collected from Guishan Island (Pearl River Estuary), South China Sea,were determined. The methane concentration in the pore-water shows dramatic changes and sulfate concentration gradients are linear at the base of the sulfate reduction zone for the station. The carbon isotope of methane becomes heavier at the sulfate-methane transition (SMT)likely because of the Raleigh distillation effect; 12CH4 was oxidized faster than 13CH4 and this caused the enrichment of residual methane 13C and 13C- CO2 minimum. The geochemical pro?les of the pore-water support the existence of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), which is mainly controlled by the quality and quantity of the sedimentary organic matter. As inferred from the index of 13C-TOC value and TOC/TN ratio, the organic matter is a mix of mainly refractory terrestrial component plus some labile alga marine-derived in the study area. A large amount of labile organic matter (mainly labile alga marine-derived) is consumed via the process of sedimentary organic matter diagenesis, and this reduces the amount of labile organic matter incorporated into the base of the sulfate reduction zone. Due to the scarcity of labile organic matter, the sulfate will in turn be consumed by its reaction with methane and therefore AOM takes place.Based on a diffussion model, the portion of pore-water sulfate reduction via AOM is 58.6%,and the percentage of CO2 in the pore-water derived from AOM is 41.4%. Thus, AOM plays an important role in the carbon and sulfur cycling in the marine sediments of Pearl River Estuary.

  20. Occurrence of Cymbasoma longispinosum Bourne, 1890 (Copepoda: Monstrilloida in the Curuçá River estuary (Amazon Littoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália R. Leite

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to verify the occurrence and distribution of Cymbasoma longispinosum Bourne, 1890 in a tropical Amazon estuary from North Brazil. Samplings were performed bimonthly from July/2003 to July/2004 at two different transects (Muriá and Curuçá rivers situated along the Curuçá estuary (Pará, North Brazil. Samples were collected during neap tides via gentle (1 to 1.5 knots 200 ?m-mesh net tows from a small boat. Additional subsurface water samples were collected for the determination of environmental parameters. Males and females of Cymbasoma longispinosum were only observed during September and November/2003. The highest number of organisms was found in September/2003 at the Muriá River transect. The presence of C. longispinosum in samples obtained during September and November/2003 could probably be related to the reproductive period of this species in the studied estuary, which is directly related to the dry period in the region. The highest salinity values and the highest number of individuals observed in September/2003 corroborate with the previous assumption, since no C. longispinosum was found during the months comprising the rainy period (January to June.O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido para verificar a ocorrência e distribuição de Cymbasoma longispinosum Bourne, 1890 em um estuário tropical amazônico da região norte do Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas bimestralmente de julho/2003 a julho/2004 em dois diferentes transectos (rios Muriá e Curuçá situados ao longo do estuário do Curuçá (Pará, Norte do Brasil. Amostras foram coletadas durante marés de quadratura por intermédio de arrastos com redes de plâncton de 200?m de abertura de malha, através de um pequeno barco a motor (1 a 1,5 knots. Amostras adicionais de água subsuperficial foram coletadas para determinação dos parâmetros ambientais. Machos e fêmeas de C. longispinosum foram observados apenas durante os meses de setembro e novembro/2003. O maior número de organismos foi encontrado em setembro/2003, no transecto do rio Muriá. A presença de C. longispinosum nas amostras obtidas durante setembro e novembro/2003 poderia estar provavelmente relacionada ao período reprodutivo desta espécie no estuário estudado, o qual está diretamente relacionado ao período seco na região. Os mais elevados valores de salinidade, bem como os elevados números de indivíduos observados no mês de setembro/2003 confirmam a suposição anterior, visto que nenhum indivíduo de C. longispinosum foi registrado durante os meses que incluem o período chuvoso (janeiro a junho.

  1. River flow control on intertidal mudflat sedimentation in the mouth of a macrotidal estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvilliez, Antoine; Lafite, Robert; Deloffre, Julien; Lemoine, Maxence; Langlois, Estelle; Sakho, Issa

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of hydrological variability influenced by climatic phenomena upon the sedimentary exchange between the turbidity maximum (TM) and a river mouth intertidal mudflat. This study, carried out over a period of 10 years (1997-2006) in the Seine Estuary (France), is specifically focused on two extreme periods: a wet one from 2001 to 2002 and a drier one from 2005 to 2006. This study is based on an original approach combining data gathered via low-altitude remote sensing with altimeter readings and ground-level measurements. During this 10 year period, we observed a link between climate change and the sedimentary processes on the mudflat surface. The modifications of sedimentary processes are mainly connected to the multiannual variability of hydrological flow rates that control the positioning of the turbidity maximum, the source of the sedimentary material deposited in this intertidal zone. The TM at the mouth of the Seine estuary is well developed; its maximum mass is estimated to be between 300,000 tons and 500,000 tons (Avoine et al., 1981) with maximum concentrations in the surface waters ranging from 1 to 2 g • l- 1 (Le Hir et al., 2001). Most of the fine particles stored within the TM have been found to originate from within the catchment area (Dupont et al., 1994). In the Seine estuary, the dynamics of the estuarine TM, in response to hydrodynamic forcings, have been previously described (Avoine et al., 1981) and modeled (e.g. Brenon and Le Hir, 1999; Le Hir et al., 2001). The TM is upstream of the northern mudflat when the river flow is low (mudflat resulting from spring tides are less frequent during dry periods, and they deposit a smaller quantity of sediment (- 23% of total deposition mass per event). Because of the lower flow rates coupled with the impacts of local development, the flood tides have become dominant. This contributes to the addition of sandy or silty sediments on the mudflat, of which the slope has increased 450% over 8 years caused by erosion.

  2. Occurrence of Cymbasoma longispinosum Bourne, 1890 (Copepoda: Monstrilloida) in the Curuçá River estuary (Amazon Littoral)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Natália R., Leite; Luci C.C., Pereira; Fernando, Abrunhosa; Marcus A.B., Pires; Rauquírio M. da, Costa.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido para verificar a ocorrência e distribuição de Cymbasoma longispinosum Bourne, 1890 em um estuário tropical amazônico da região norte do Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas bimestralmente de julho/2003 a julho/2004 em dois diferentes transectos (rios Muriá e Curuç [...] á) situados ao longo do estuário do Curuçá (Pará, Norte do Brasil). Amostras foram coletadas durante marés de quadratura por intermédio de arrastos com redes de plâncton de 200?m de abertura de malha, através de um pequeno barco a motor (1 a 1,5 knots). Amostras adicionais de água subsuperficial foram coletadas para determinação dos parâmetros ambientais. Machos e fêmeas de C. longispinosum foram observados apenas durante os meses de setembro e novembro/2003. O maior número de organismos foi encontrado em setembro/2003, no transecto do rio Muriá. A presença de C. longispinosum nas amostras obtidas durante setembro e novembro/2003 poderia estar provavelmente relacionada ao período reprodutivo desta espécie no estuário estudado, o qual está diretamente relacionado ao período seco na região. Os mais elevados valores de salinidade, bem como os elevados números de indivíduos observados no mês de setembro/2003 confirmam a suposição anterior, visto que nenhum indivíduo de C. longispinosum foi registrado durante os meses que incluem o período chuvoso (janeiro a junho). Abstract in english The present work was carried out to verify the occurrence and distribution of Cymbasoma longispinosum Bourne, 1890 in a tropical Amazon estuary from North Brazil. Samplings were performed bimonthly from July/2003 to July/2004 at two different transects (Muriá and Curuçá rivers) situated along the Cu [...] ruçá estuary (Pará, North Brazil). Samples were collected during neap tides via gentle (1 to 1.5 knots) 200 ?m-mesh net tows from a small boat. Additional subsurface water samples were collected for the determination of environmental parameters. Males and females of Cymbasoma longispinosum were only observed during September and November/2003. The highest number of organisms was found in September/2003 at the Muriá River transect. The presence of C. longispinosum in samples obtained during September and November/2003 could probably be related to the reproductive period of this species in the studied estuary, which is directly related to the dry period in the region. The highest salinity values and the highest number of individuals observed in September/2003 corroborate with the previous assumption, since no C. longispinosum was found during the months comprising the rainy period (January to June).

  3. Effects of intratidal and tidal range variability on circulation and salinity structure in the Cape Fear River Estuary, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, May Ling; Luettich, Richard A.; Seim, Harvey

    2009-04-01

    Tidal influences on circulation and the salinity structure are investigated in the largely unstudied Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE), North Carolina, a partially mixed estuary along the southeast coast of the United States. During two different tidal conditions (high versus low tidal range) and when river flow was low, salinity and velocity data were collected over a semidiurnal tidal cycle in a 2.8 km long transect along the estuary axis. Water level data were recorded nearby. Mechanisms that influence salt transport characteristics are diagnosed from an analysis of the field data. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between tidal range and salinity through comparison of along-channel circulation characteristics, computed salt fluxes, and coefficients of vertical eddy diffusivity (Kz) based on a parameterization and on salt budget analysis. Findings indicate up-estuary tidally driven salt fluxes resulting from oscillatory salt transport are dominant near the pycnocline, while mean advective transport dominates near the bottom during both tidal range periods. Earlier research related to salt transport in estuaries with significant gravitational circulation suggests that up-estuary salt transport increases during low tidal ranges as a result of increased gravitational circulation. In the CFRE, in contrast, net (tidally averaged) near-bottom along-channel velocities are greater during higher tidal range conditions than during lower tidal range conditions. Findings indicate stronger tidal forcing and associated mixing contribute to greater near-bottom salinity gradients and, consequently, increased baroclinic circulation. Lower near-bottom salinities during the higher tidal range period are a result of a combination of increased vertical turbulent salt fluxes near the pycnocline and increased bottom-generated mixing.

  4. Effects of Salinity on Germination, Seedling Growth and Ecological Properties of Phragmites australis Communities in the Estuary of the Chikugogawa River, Southwestern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Akira Haraguchi

    2014-01-01

    Salt tolerance of Phragmites australis populations was investigated in natural reed habitats in the estuary of the Chikugogawa River, southwestern Japan. P. australis populations were selected along the salinity gradient in the estuary, including limnetic (salinity 0.05%), oligohaline (0.4%) and polyhaline sections (2.5%). The ratio of Total-P/Total-N of river water showed high values in the oligohaline section and the above ground biomass, population height and culm diame...

  5. Circulation and mixing along the North Passage in the Changjiang River estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xiang; Shi, John Z.; Hu, Guo-Dong; Xiong, Long-Bing

    2015-08-01

    Simultaneous field observations were made of time series of water level, current velocity, salinity and suspended sediment concentration at ten hydrological gauging stations along the North Passage in the Changjiang River estuary on 17 to 24 February (dry season) and 12 to 18 August 2012 (wet season), respectively. Quantitative analyses of those data are attempted to understand circulation and mixing along the Deepwater Navigational Channel in this estuary. Landward subtidal flow only appears during the neap tide. The maximum bottom landward velocity is in the order of 0.05-0.1 m·s- 1 in the dry season and 0.15-0.2 m·s- 1 in the wet season, respectively. In both dry and wet seasons, calculated mixing parameter (M), which is the ratio of the tidal timescale to the vertical mixing timescale, is below the critical value (1.0) on a neap tide but above it on a spring tide within the middle and lower reaches of the Channel. This suggests that tidal variation of mixing may be able to generate the tidal straining circulation during the periodic stratified spring tide. The interaction between significant river shear flow and longitudinal density gradient, a process termed "river effect" in this study, is revealed as the major reason for seasonal variation of stratification. The competition between tidal stirring, gravitational circulation and river effect could produce an increase in tidal mean value of the potential energy anomaly (?) from neap to spring tides. Tidal mean value of the Simpson number (Si) over a neap tide surpasses the critical value (8.4 × 10- 1) within the middle reach of the Channel, suggesting the occurrence of persistent stratification there. Tidal mean Si over a spring tide is in the order of 8.4 × 10- 1-8.8 × 10- 2 within the middle reach, suggesting the occurrence of strain induced periodic stratification (SIPS). Shear prevails within the pycnocline in the middle and lower reaches of the Channel on a neap tide, with the value of squared shear (S2) exceeding 10- 3 s- 2. Calculated gradient Richardson number (Ri) is small at the salt-fresh water interface, indicating the occurrence of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability there.

  6. Phylogenetic Analysis of Particle-Attached and Free-Living Bacterial Communities in the Columbia River, Its Estuary, and the Adjacent Coastal Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Crump, Byron C; Armbrust, E Virginia; Baross, John A.

    1999-01-01

    The Columbia River estuary is a dynamic system in which estuarine turbidity maxima trap and extend the residence time of particles and particle-attached bacteria over those of the water and free-living bacteria. Particle-attached bacteria dominate bacterial activity in the estuary and are an important part of the estuarine food web. PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes from particle-attached and free-living bacteria in the Columbia River, its estuary, and the adjacent coastal ocean were cloned, and 2...

  7. Management of a tropical river: Impacts on the resilience of the Senegal river estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Coura; Alioune KANE; Humbert, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rivers are under constant pressure and are subjected to flood control policy and planning. The Senegal River has been, for more than thirty years, under multiple types of management and planning. That has become recently more important because of significant hydro-climatic variability that has occurred during recent years. Higher levels of winter rainfall have resulted in frequent occurrence of flooding which guided Senegalese authorities to create an artificial opening on the sand o...

  8. Distribution and risk assessment of 82 pesticides in Jiulong River and estuary in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Senllin; Chen, Bin; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Meng; Ma, Zhiyuan; Yu, Xingguang

    2016-02-01

    To discover the distribution and risk of pesticides in Jiulong River and estuary, the residues of 102 pesticides were analyzed in water, sediment and clam samples collected from 35 sites in different seasons. A total number of 82 pesticides were detected and the occurrence and the risk to human and fish were assessed. Most of pesticides with high frequency were medium or low toxic except for DDTs. DDTs were the significant contaminant and the widely used dicofol was the new source of DDTs. The spatial and seasonal variation of pesticide distribution was linked with the distribution of orchards and farmlands. Health risk from river water consumption was low (RQ Pesticides in water posed great risk to fish and among the 76 water samples analyzed, 65 of them showed high risk (RQ > 1) and 6 showed medium risk (0.1 ? QR pesticides detected with concentration above 100 ng L(-1) in this study and the pesticide with the highest concentration was procymidone (3904 ng L(-1)). Further experiments illustrated that procymidone could disrupt the expression of vitellogenin in the estuarine fish even at environmental concentrations. DDTs, dicofol, triazophos, isocarbophos, terbufos, cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, fenvalerate, cyhalothrin, butachlor and procymidone have become the significant pesticides and should be considered in aquatic ecosystem risk management. PMID:26461443

  9. Impact of river discharge on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in eutrophic estuaries: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; de Swart, Huib E.

    2015-12-01

    Field observations in estuaries reveal that phytoplankton blooms are strongly affected by advection processes related to river flow. To gain quantitative insight into this dependence, experiments were performed with a new idealised model that couples physical and biological processes. Advection of phytoplankton and nutrient by subtidal flow was explicitly accounted for, as well as longitudinal and vertical mixing processes. Results show that the idealised model is capable of reproducing the observed bloom. The specific spatial distribution of phytoplankton population emerges because the latter is suppressed in the upper reach by the advection processes, and the growth is limited in the lower reach by low nutrient concentrations. A sensitivity study of model results to different river discharges reveals the presence of three regimes. In the low discharge regime, blooms form because growth is faster than decay due to advection processes. In the high discharge regime, the situation is opposite and no blooms form. If time scales of growth and advection are comparable (in moderate discharge regime), phytoplankton population increases significantly slower compared to the low discharge regime. Results of additional model runs, in which water depth and the e-folding length scale of estuarine width convergence were varied, revealed that the three regimes occur in all these cases.

  10. Diagenetic alterations of amino acids and organic matter in the upper Pearl River Estuary surface sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the sources, diagenetic alterations of, and bacterial contributions to sediment organic matter (OM in the upper Pearl River Estuary. Sediment analyses were conducted for three size fractions of OM, including coarse particulate OM (CPOM, fine particulate OM (FPOM, and ultrafiltered dissolved OM (UDOM. Results showed that the highest and lowest carbon (C: nitrogen (N ratios were in CPOM and UDOM, respectively, indicating CPOM was relatively enriched in organic C, whereas FPOM was enriched in N-containing molecules. Distributions of amino acids and their D-isomers among the sediment fractions indicated that the percentage of total N represented by total hydrolysable amino acids, C- and N-normalized yields of total D-amino acids, and C- and N-normalized yields of D-alanine, D-glutamic acid, D-serine could be used as diagenetic indicators of sediment OM. Correlations between the N yields in total D-amino acids and total hydrolysable amino acids, and total N yields suggested that the bacterial N in general reflected the bulk N changes in CPOM, FPOM, and UDOM. Our results demonstrate the crucial role of bacteria as a N source in the terrestrial (soil and vascular plant debris OM transported by the river.

  11. Artificial radionuclides in sediments of the Don River Estuary and Azov Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matishov, Genady G.; Matishov, Dimitry G.; Namjatov, Alexey A.; Carroll, JoLynn E-mail: jolynn.carroll@akvaplan.niva.no; Dahle, Salve

    2002-07-01

    The Don River Estuary-Azov Sea system is an extension of the shallow continental shelf area of the Black Sea. A large data set of artificial radionuclides in bottom sediments of the Azov Sea has been compiled in order to examine the storage and migration of radionuclides within this highly restricted inland sea and to estimate the annual dose received by individuals in the local population who regularly consume fish. In recent years (1997-1999), the radionuclide content of surface sediments has been: {sup 137}Cs{<=}0.5-100 Bq/kg d.w. (mean=33.8{+-}25.9 Bq/kg d.w., n=57), {sup 90}Sr=0.2-5.7 Bq/kg d.w. (mean=2.1{+-}1.4 Bq/kg d.w., n=34) and {sup 239,240}Pu=0.31-0.51 Bq/kg d.w. (n=2). In general, {sup 137}Cs activities increase with distance from the mouth of the Don River and correlate negatively with sediment grain size (r{sup 2}=0.77, n=21). The annual {sup 137}Cs-derived dose received by an individual through the trophic chain water-fish-humans ({approx}10{sup -6} Sv/yr) is well below regulatory recommended limits, indicating that current levels of radioactivity in the environment pose no threat to commercial fisheries operations for the bordering nations of Russia and Ukraine.

  12. Artificial radionuclides in sediments of the Don River Estuary and Azov Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Don River Estuary-Azov Sea system is an extension of the shallow continental shelf area of the Black Sea. A large data set of artificial radionuclides in bottom sediments of the Azov Sea has been compiled in order to examine the storage and migration of radionuclides within this highly restricted inland sea and to estimate the annual dose received by individuals in the local population who regularly consume fish. In recent years (1997-1999), the radionuclide content of surface sediments has been: 137Cs?0.5-100 Bq/kg d.w. (mean=33.8±25.9 Bq/kg d.w., n=57), 90Sr=0.2-5.7 Bq/kg d.w. (mean=2.1±1.4 Bq/kg d.w., n=34) and 239,240Pu=0.31-0.51 Bq/kg d.w. (n=2). In general, 137Cs activities increase with distance from the mouth of the Don River and correlate negatively with sediment grain size (r2=0.77, n=21). The annual 137Cs-derived dose received by an individual through the trophic chain water-fish-humans (?10-6 Sv/yr) is well below regulatory recommended limits, indicating that current levels of radioactivity in the environment pose no threat to commercial fisheries operations for the bordering nations of Russia and Ukraine

  13. Multi-Scale Action Effectiveness Research in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2011 - FINAL ANNUAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Johnson, Gary E.; Teel, D. J.; Skalski, J. R.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Blaine, Jennifer; Kuligowski, D. R.; Kropp, Roy K.; Dawley, Earl M.

    2012-05-31

    The study reported here was conducted by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), the University of Washington (UW), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). This research project was initiated in 2007 by the Bonneville Power Administration to investigate critical uncertainties regarding juvenile salmon ecology in shallow tidal freshwater habitats of the lower Columbia River. However, as part of the Washington Memorandum of Agreement, the project was transferred to the USACE in 2010. In transferring from BPA to the USACE, the focus of the tidal freshwater research project shifted from fundamental ecology toward the effectiveness of restoration in the Lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The research is conducted within the Action Agencies Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). Data reported herein spans the time period May 2010 to September 2011.

  14. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River, Estuary, and Plume in 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Skalski, John R.; Deters, Katherine A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Townsend, Richard L.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.; Kim, Jin A.; Trott, Donna M.

    2011-09-01

    Uncertainty regarding the migratory behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids passing through the lower Columbia River and estuary after negotiating dams on the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) prompted the development and application of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS). The JSATS has been used to investigate the survival of juvenile salmonid smolts between Bonneville Dam (river kilometer (rkm) 236) and the mouth of the Columbia River annually since 2004. In 2010, a total of 12,214 juvenile salmonids were implanted with both a passive integrated transponder (PIT) and a JSATS acoustic transmitter. Using detection information from JSATS receiver arrays deployed on dams and in the river, estuary, and plume, the survival probability of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts tagged at John Day Dam was estimated form multiple reaches between rkm 153 and 8.3 during the spring. During summer, the survival probability of subyearling Chinook salmon was estimated for the same reaches. In addition, the influence of routes of passage (e.g., surface spill, deep spill, turbine, juvenile bypass system) through the lower three dams on the Columbia River (John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville) on juvenile salmonid smolt survival probability from the dams to rkm 153 and then between rkm 153 and 8.3 was examined to increase understanding of the immediate and latent effects of dam passage on juvenile salmon survival. Similar to previous findings, survival probability was relatively high (>0.95) for most groups of juvenile salmonids from the Bonneville Dam tailrace to about rkm 50. Downstream of rkm 50 the survival probability of all species and run types we examined decreased markedly. Steelhead smolts suffered the highest mortality in this lower portion of the Columbia River estuary, with only an estimated 60% of the tagged fish surviving to the mouth of the river. In contrast, yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon smolts survived to the mouth of the river at higher rates, with estimated survival probabilities of 84% and 86%, respectively. The influence of route of passage at the lower three dams in the FCRPS on juvenile salmonid survival appeared to be relatively direct and immediate. Significant differences in estimated survival probabilities of juvenile salmonid smolts among groups with different dam passage experiences were often detected between the dams and rkm 153. In contrast, the influence of route of passage on survival to the mouth of the Columbia River was not apparent among the groups of tagged juvenile salmonids with different FCRPS passage experiences after they had already survived to a point about 80 km downstream of Bonneville Dam. Yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts that migrated through the lower estuary in off-channel habitats took two to three times longer to travel through these lower reaches and their estimated survival probabilities were not significantly different from that of their cohorts which migrated in or near the navigation channel. A large proportion of the tagged juvenile salmonids migrating in or near the navigation channel in the lower estuary crossed from the south side of the estuary near Astoria, Oregon and passed through relatively shallow expansive sand flats (Taylor Sands) to the North Channel along the Washington shore of the estuary. This migratory behavior may contribute to the avian predation losses observed on for fish (2 to 12% of fish in this study).

  15. Salmon Life Histories, Habitat, and Food Webs in the Columbia River Estuary: An Overview of Research Results, 2002-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottom, Daniel L.; Anderson, Greer; Baptisa, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    From 2002 through 2006 we investigated historical and contemporary variations in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha life histories, habitat associations, and food webs in the lower Columbia River estuary (mouth to rkm 101). At near-shore beach-seining sites in the estuary, Chinook salmon occurred during all months of the year, increasing in abundance from January through late spring or early summer and declining rapidly after July. Recently emerged fry dispersed throughout the estuary in early spring, and fry migrants were abundant in the estuary until April or May each year. Each spring, mean salmon size increased from the tidal freshwater zone to the estuary mouth; this trend may reflect estuarine growth and continued entry of smaller individuals from upriver. Most juvenile Chinook salmon in the mainstem estuary fed actively on adult insects and epibenthic amphipods Americorophium spp. Estimated growth rates of juvenile Chinook salmon derived from otolith analysis averaged 0.5 mm d-1, comparable to rates reported for juvenile salmon Oncorhynchus spp. in other Northwest estuaries. Estuarine salmon collections were composed of representatives from a diversity of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) from the lower and upper Columbia Basin. Genetic stock groups in the estuary exhibited distinct seasonal and temporal abundance patterns, including a consistent peak in the Spring Creek Fall Chinook group in May, followed by a peak in the Western Cascades Fall Chinook group in July. The structure of acanthocephalan parasite assemblages in juvenile Chinook salmon from the tidal freshwater zone exhibited a consistent transition in June. This may have reflected changes in stock composition and associated habitat use and feeding histories. From March through July, subyearling Chinook salmon were among the most abundant species in all wetland habitat types (emergent, forested, and scrub/shrub) surveyed in the lower 100 km of the estuary. Salmon densities within wetland habitats fell to low levels by July, similar to the pattern observed at mainstem beach-seining sites and coincident with high water temperatures that approached or exceeded 19 C by mid-summer. Wetland habitats were used primarily by small subyearling Chinook salmon, with the smallest size ranges (i.e., rarely exceeding 70 mm by the end of the wetland rearing season) at scrub/shrub forested sites above rkm 50. Wetland sites of all types were utilized by a diversity of genetic stock groups, including less abundant groups such as Interior Summer/Fall Chinook.

  16. Soil As Levels and Bioaccumulation in Suaeda salsa and Phragmites australis Wetlands of the Yellow River Estuary, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Junjing; Bai, Junhong; Gao, Zhaoqin; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on As contamination dynamics in the soil-plant systems of wetlands. Total arsenic (As) in soil and plant samples from Suaeda salsa and Phragmites australis wetlands was measured in the Yellow River Estuary (YRE) in summer and autumn of 2007 to investigate the seasonal changes in As concentrations in different wetlands. The results showed that soil As levels greatly exceeded the global and regional background values. As levels in soil and the roots and stems of ...

  17. Chemical risks associated with consumption of shellfish harvested on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River's lower estuary.

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnon, Fabien; Tremblay, Thierry; Rouette, Justine; Cartier, Jacques-François

    2004-01-01

    Shellfish have the capacity to accumulate chemical contaminants found in their biotope and therefore present a potential risk for consumers. This study was conducted to assess the chemical risks associated with consumption of shellfish harvested on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River's lower estuary. A survey was carried out on 162 recreational harvesters, and shellfish were sampled for chemical contaminant analysis. We quantified 10 metals, 22 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 1...

  18. Resuspension and estuarine nutrient cycling: insights from the Neuse River Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Corbett

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available For at least the past several decades, North Carolina's Neuse River Estuary (NRE has been subject to water quality problems relating to increased eutrophication. Research initiated in the past several years have addressed the nutrient processes of the water column and the passive diffusion processes of the benthic sedimentary environment. Resuspension of bottom sediments, by bioturbation, tides, or winds, may also have a significant effect on the flux of nutrients in an estuarine system These processes can result in the advective transport of sediment porewater, rich with nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon, into the water column. Thus, estimates of nutrient and carbon inputs from the sediments may be too low.

    This study focused on the potential change in bottom water nutrient concentrations associated with measured resuspension events. Previous research used short-lived radionuclides and meteorological data to characterize the sediment dynamics of the benthic system of the estuary. These techniques in conjunction with the presented porewater inventories allowed evaluation of the depth to which sediments have been disturbed and the advective flux of nutrients to the water column. The largest removal episode occurred in the lower NRE as the result of a wind event and was estimated that the top 2.2 cm of sediment and corresponding porewater were removed. NH4+ advective flux (resuspended was 2 to 6 times greater than simply diffusion. Phosphate fluxes were estimated to be 15 times greater than the benthic diffusive flux. Bottom water conditions with elevated NH4+ and PO43? indicate that nutrients stored in the sediments continue to play an important role in overall water quality and this study suggests that the advective flux of nutrients to the water column is critical to understand estuarine nutrient cycling.

  19. Diatoms as Proxies for Abrupt Events in the Hudson River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorski, W.; Abbott, D. H.; Recasens, C.; Breger, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Hudson River estuary has been subject to many abrupt events throughout its history including hurricanes, droughts and pluvials. Hurricanes in particular are rare, discrete events that if fingerprinted can be used to develop better age models for Hudson River sediments. Proxies use observed physical characteristics or biological assemblages (e.g. diatom and foraminiferal assemblages) as tools to reconstruct past conditions prior to the modern instrumental record. Using a sediment core taken from the Hudson River (CDO2-29A), in New York City, drought and pluvial layers were selected based on Cs-137 dating while hurricane layers were determined from occurrences of tropical to subtropical foraminifera. Contrary to previous studies (Weaver, 1970, Weiss et al, 1978), more than sixty different diatom species have been identified using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cosmopolitan, hurricane and drought assemblages have begun to be identified after observing multiple layers (Table 1). Tropical foraminifera dominated by Globigerinoides ruber pink were also found in a hurricane layer that we infer was deposited during Hurricane Belle in 1976. More diatom abundance analyses and cataloged SEM pictures will provide further insight into these proxies. Table 1 Diatom Genera and Species Environment Clarification Cyclotella caspia Planktonic, marine-brackish Cosmopolitan Karayevia clevei Freshwater Cosmopolitan Melosira sp Planktonic, marine Cosmopolitan Thalassiosira sp Marine, brackish Cosmopolitan Staurosirella leptostauron Benthic, freshwater Cosmopolitan Actinoptychus senarius Planktonic or benthic, freshwater to brackish Hurricane and pluvial layers Amphora aff. sp Benthic, marine or freshwater Hurricane layers only Nitzschia sp Benthic, marine or freshwater Hurricane layers only Gomphonema sp Freshwater Hurricane layers only Surirella sp Marine-brackish Drought layer only Triceratium sp Marine Drought layer only Other Genera and species Environment Clarification Globigerinoides ruber pink Tropical Hurricane layers only Silicoflagellate sp Planktonic, marine Hurricane layers only

  20. Aquatic ecology of the Elwha River estuary prior to dam removal: Chapter 7 in Coastal habitats of the Elwha River, Washington--biological and physical patterns and processes prior to dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Beirne, Matthew M.; Larsen, Kimberly; Barry, Dwight; Stenberg, Karl; McHenry, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The removal of two long-standing dams on the Elwha River in Washington State will initiate a suite of biological and physical changes to the estuary at the river mouth. Estuaries represent a transition between freshwater and saltwater, have unique assemblages of plants and animals, and are a critical habitat for some salmon species as they migrate to the ocean. This chapter summarizes a number of studies in the Elwha River estuary, and focuses on physical and biological aspects of the ecosystem that are expected to change following dam removal. Included are data sets that summarize (1) water chemistry samples collected over a 16 month period; (2) beach seining activities targeted toward describing the fish assemblage of the estuary and migratory patterns of juvenile salmon; (3) descriptions of the aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate communities in the estuary, which represent an important food source for juvenile fish and are important water quality indicators; and (4) the diet and growth patterns of juvenile Chinook salmon in the lower Elwha River and estuary. These data represent baseline conditions of the ecosystem after nearly a century of changes due to the dams and will be useful in monitoring the changes to the river and estuary following dam removal.

  1. Organic fluxes of Cameroonian rivers into the Gulf of Guinea: a quantitative approach to biodegradation in estuary and plume

    OpenAIRE

    Giresse, P.; Cahet, G.

    1997-01-01

    The modern organic carbon flux of the Sanaga River and the rivers around the Bay of Douala is estimated to be 0.62-0.79 x 10(6) t yr(-1). In reality, mean Holocene sedimentation of organic carbon, including a presumed low biological production in the euphotic zone, is only 41-52 % of this-value. Substantial biodegradation in the salty and brackish turbid waters in the estuaries affects the POC and DOC arid corresponds to the highest bacterial densities. Between salinity 6 and 21, the data ind...

  2. Controls on Bacterial Concentrations in Sediment Grab Samples from the Hudson River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batta, J.; Mailloux, B. J.; Nitsche, F. O.; Kenna, T. C.; Ferguson, A. S.; Cheung, J.; Layton, A.

    2010-12-01

    High levels of fecal bacteria resulting from sewage-related pollution are often present in the Hudson River Estuary. Die-off of the fecal bacteria in surface waters is relatively rapid but the fecal bacteria can also attach to particles and settle. It is known that fecal bacteria are present in the shallow sediments but controls on their distribution have not been closely examined. The goal of this work is to examine the relationship between the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria and sediment properties including estimates of sediment age. Forty sediment surface grabs were obtained from the Hudson River Estuary. Twenty samples were collected from near the George Washington Bridge (GWB) and twenty samples from a 15 mile transect near Hudson New York. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria were determined by the cultured based Enterolert and Colilert tests (Idexx Laboratories) and molecular based techniques for E. coli and Bacteroides. Sediments were analyzed for total metals, total organic carbon, grain size, and gamma emitting radionuclides including Beryllium-7, Lead-210, and Cesium-137. Enterococcus was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 88 cells/g and a range of 4 to 817 cells /g. Culturable E. Coli was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 168 cells /g and a range of 5 to 2247 cells /g. Enterococcus concentrations were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the northern transect. Molecular based concentrations were determined for the GWB samples and were significantly higher than culture based concentrations. Bacteroides was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 1.1x106 copies/g and a range of 3.9x104 to 4.7x106 copies /g. Molecular E. Coli was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 3.0x106 copies/g and a range of 8.7x104 to 8.9x107 copies /g. The results clearly show that a significant amount of fecal bacteria are present in the sediments. Simple linear correlations between bacterial concentrations and sediment properties have not been observed, but more complex relationships might exist.

  3. Investigating the Impacts of Landuse-landcover (LULC) Change in the Pearl River Delta Region on Water Quality in the Pearl River Estuary and Hong Kong’s Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Hongyan Xi; Yuanzhi Zhang; Yunpeng Wang; Yufei Wang

    2009-01-01

    Water quality information in the coastal region of Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) is of great concern to the local community. Due to great landuse-landcover (LULC) changes with rapid industrialization and urbanization in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, water quality in the PRE has worsened during the last 20 years. Frequent red tide and harmful algal blooms have occurred in the estuary and its adjacent coastal waters since the 1980s and have caused important economic losses, ...

  4. Myrionecta Rubra Population Genetic Diversity and Its Cryptophyte Chloroplast Specificity in Recurrent Red Tides in the Columbia River Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; McCue, Lee Ann; Crump, Byron C.; Prahl, Fredrick G.; Baptista, Antonio M.; Campbell, Victoria; Warnick, Rachel; Selby, Mikaela; Roegner, G. Curtis; Zuber, Peter A.

    2011-01-04

    For at least a decade, annually recurring blooms of the photosynthetic ciliate, Myrionecta rubra have been observed in the Columbia River estuary in late summer. In an effort to understand the dynamics of these blooms, we investigated the genetic variability of M. rubra and its cryptophyte plastids within three large estuarine blooms formed in consecutive years (2007-2009), and conducted a broader spatial survey along the coasts of Oregon/Washington. Analysis of the ‘18S-28S’ sequences specific for Mesodiniidae uncovered at least 7 variants of M. rubra within the Columbia River coastal margin in spring and summer, but only one of these M. rubra variants was implicated in estuary bloom formation. Using a multigene approach, we show that the bloom-forming variant of M. rubra appears to harbor the same cryptophyte chloroplast in recurring blooms. Analyses of chloroplast 16S rRNA, cryptophyte RuBisCO and Photosystem II D2 genes together suggest that the plastid is derived from Teleaulax amphioxeia. Free-living cells of this species and of other cryptophytes were practically absent from the bloom patches in the estuary main channels based on 18S rDNA sequence analyses. The respectively low and high proportions of T. amphioxeia nuclei and chloroplasts signals found in the M. rubra bloom of the Columbia River estuary in successive years supports the notion of a transient association between T. amphioxeia and the bloom-forming M. rubra variant, with loss of cryptophyte nuclei. The genetic variability of M. rubra uncovered here is relevant to the controversy in the literature regarding the cryptophyte /M. rubra association.

  5. A sensitivity analysis of low salinity habitats simulated by a hydrodynamic model in the Manatee River estuary in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, XinJian

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a sensitivity study of simulated availability of low salinity habitats by a hydrodynamic model for the Manatee River estuary located in the southwest portion of the Florida peninsula. The purpose of the modeling study was to establish a regulatory minimum freshwater flow rate required to prevent the estuarine ecosystem from significant harm. The model used in the study was a multi-block model that dynamically couples a three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic model with a laterally averaged (2DV) hydrodynamic model. The model was calibrated and verified against measured real-time data of surface elevation and salinity at five stations during March 2005-July 2006. The calibrated model was then used to conduct a series of scenario runs to investigate effects of the flow reduction on salinity distributions in the Manatee River estuary. Based on simulated salinity distribution in the estuary, water volumes, bottom areas and shoreline lengths for salinity less than certain predefined values were calculated and analyzed to help establish the minimum freshwater flow rate for the estuarine system. The sensitivity analysis conducted during the modeling study for the Manatee River estuary examined effects of the bottom roughness, ambient vertical eddy viscosity/diffusivity, horizontal eddy viscosity/diffusivity, and ungauged flow on the model results and identified the relative importance of these model parameters (input data) to the outcome of the availability of low salinity habitats. It is found that the ambient vertical eddy viscosity/diffusivity is the most influential factor controlling the model outcome, while the horizontal eddy viscosity/diffusivity is the least influential one.

  6. Estuarine Habitats for Juvenile Salmon in the Tidally-Influenced Lower Columbia River and Estuary : Reporting Period September 15, 2008 through May 31, 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, António M. [Oregon Health & Science University, Science and Technology Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction

    2009-08-02

    This work focuses on the numerical modeling of Columbia River estuarine circulation and associated modeling-supported analyses conducted as an integral part of a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional effort led by NOAA's Northwest Fisheries Science Center. The overall effort is aimed at: (1) retrospective analyses to reconstruct historic bathymetric features and assess effects of climate and river flow on the extent and distribution of shallow water, wetland and tidal-floodplain habitats; (2) computer simulations using a 3-dimensional numerical model to evaluate the sensitivity of salmon rearing opportunities to various historical modifications affecting the estuary (including channel changes, flow regulation, and diking of tidal wetlands and floodplains); (3) observational studies of present and historic food web sources supporting selected life histories of juvenile salmon as determined by stable isotope, microchemistry, and parasitology techniques; and (4) experimental studies in Grays River in collaboration with Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) and the Columbia Land Trust (CLT) to assess effects of multiple tidal wetland restoration projects on various life histories of juvenile salmon and to compare responses to observed habitat-use patterns in the mainstem estuary. From the above observations, experiments, and additional modeling simulations, the effort will also (5) examine effects of alternative flow-management and habitat-restoration scenarios on habitat opportunity and the estuary's productive capacity for juvenile salmon. The underlying modeling system is part of the SATURN1coastal-margin observatory [1]. SATURN relies on 3D numerical models [2, 3] to systematically simulate and understand baroclinic circulation in the Columbia River estuary-plume-shelf system [4-7] (Fig. 1). Multi-year simulation databases of circulation are produced as an integral part of SATURN, and have multiple applications in understanding estuary/plume variability, the role of the estuary and plume on salmon survival, and functional changes in the estuary-plume system in response to climate and human activities.

  7. Geographic specificity of Aroclor 1268 in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) frequenting the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary, Georgia (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulster, Erin L; Maruya, Keith A

    2008-04-15

    Coastal marine resources are at risk from anthropogenic contaminants, including legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with half-lives of decades or more. To determine if polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) signatures can be used to distinguish among local populations of inshore bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) along the southeastern U.S. coast, blubber from free-ranging and stranded animals were collected along the Georgia coast in 2004 and analyzed for PCB congeners using gas chromatography with electron capture and negative chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection (GC-ECD and GC-NCI-MS). Mean total PCB concentrations (77+/-34 microg/g lipid) were more than 10 fold higher and congener distributions were highly enriched in Cl(7)-Cl(10) homologs in free-ranging animals from the Turtle/Brunswick River estuary (TBRE) compared with strandings samples from Savannah area estuaries 90 km to the north. Using principal components analysis (PCA), the Aroclor 1268 signature associated with TBRE animals was distinct from that observed in Savannah area animals, and also from those in animals biopsied in other southeastern U.S estuaries. Moreover, PCB signatures in dolphin blubber closely resembled those in local preferred prey fish species, strengthening the hypothesis that inshore T. truncatus populations exhibit long-term fidelity to specific estuaries and making them excellent sentinels for assessing the impact of stressors on coastal ecosystem health. PMID:18272207

  8. Geographic specificity of Aroclor 1268 in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) frequenting the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary, Georgia (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulster, Erin L. [Marine Sciences Department, Savannah State University, Savannah, Georgia, 31404 (United States); Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, 10 Ocean Science Circle, Savannah, Georgia, 31411 (United States)], E-mail: epulster@mote.org; Maruya, Keith A. [Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, 10 Ocean Science Circle, Savannah, Georgia, 31411 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Coastal marine resources are at risk from anthropogenic contaminants, including legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with half-lives of decades or more. To determine if polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) signatures can be used to distinguish among local populations of inshore bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) along the southeastern U.S. coast, blubber from free-ranging and stranded animals were collected along the Georgia coast in 2004 and analyzed for PCB congeners using gas chromatography with electron capture and negative chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection (GC-ECD and GC-NCI-MS). Mean total PCB concentrations (77 {+-} 34 {mu}g/g lipid) were more than 10 fold higher and congener distributions were highly enriched in Cl{sub 7}-Cl{sub 10} homologs in free-ranging animals from the Turtle/Brunswick River estuary (TBRE) compared with strandings samples from Savannah area estuaries 90 km to the north. Using principal components analysis (PCA), the Aroclor 1268 signature associated with TBRE animals was distinct from that observed in Savannah area animals, and also from those in animals biopsied in other southeastern U.S estuaries. Moreover, PCB signatures in dolphin blubber closely resembled those in local preferred prey fish species, strengthening the hypothesis that inshore T. truncatus populations exhibit long-term fidelity to specific estuaries and making them excellent sentinels for assessing the impact of stressors on coastal ecosystem health.

  9. Geographic specificity of Aroclor 1268 in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) frequenting the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary, Georgia (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coastal marine resources are at risk from anthropogenic contaminants, including legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with half-lives of decades or more. To determine if polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) signatures can be used to distinguish among local populations of inshore bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) along the southeastern U.S. coast, blubber from free-ranging and stranded animals were collected along the Georgia coast in 2004 and analyzed for PCB congeners using gas chromatography with electron capture and negative chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection (GC-ECD and GC-NCI-MS). Mean total PCB concentrations (77 ± 34 ?g/g lipid) were more than 10 fold higher and congener distributions were highly enriched in Cl7-Cl10 homologs in free-ranging animals from the Turtle/Brunswick River estuary (TBRE) compared with strandings samples from Savannah area estuaries 90 km to the north. Using principal components analysis (PCA), the Aroclor 1268 signature associated with TBRE animals was distinct from that observed in Savannah area animals, and also from those in animals biopsied in other southeastern U.S estuaries. Moreover, PCB signatures in dolphin blubber closely resembled those in local preferred prey fish species, strengthening the hypothesis that inshore T. truncatus populations exhibit long-term fidelity to specific estuaries and making them excellent sentinels for assessing the impact of stressors on coastal ecosystem health

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and its ?13C in the Ganga (Hooghly) River estuary, India: Evidence of DIC generation via organic carbon degradation and carbonate dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Saumik; Dalai, Tarun K.; Pattanaik, Jitendra K.; Rai, Santosh K.; Mazumdar, Aninda

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we present comprehensive data on dissolved Ca, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and its carbon isotope composition (?13CDIC) of (i) the Ganga (Hooghly) River estuary water sampled during six seasons of contrasting water discharge over 2 years (2012 and 2013), (ii) shallow groundwater from areas adjacent to the estuary and (iii) industrial effluent water and urban wastewater draining into the estuary. Mass balance calculations indicate that processes other than the conservative mixing of seawater and river water are needed to explain the measured DIC and ?13CDIC. Results of mixing calculations in conjunction with the estimated undersaturated levels of dissolved O2 suggest that biological respiration and organic carbon degradation dominate over biological production in the estuary. An important outcome of this study is that a significant amount of DIC and dissolved Ca is produced within the estuary at salinity ?10, particularly during the monsoon period. Based on consideration of mass balance and a strong positive correlation observed between the "excess" DIC and "excess" Ca, we contend that the dominant source of DIC generated within the estuary is carbonate dissolution that is inferred to be operating in conjunction with degradation of organic carbon. Calculations show that groundwater cannot account for the observed "excess" Ca in the high salinity zone. Estimated DIC contributions from anthropogenic activity are minor, and they constitute ca. 2-3% of the river water DIC concentrations. The estimated annual DIC flux from the estuary to the Bay of Bengal is ca. (3-4) × 1012 g, of which ca. 40-50% is generated within the estuary. The monsoon periods account for the majority (ca. 70%) of the annual DIC generation in the estuary. The annual DIC flux from the Hooghly estuary accounts for ca. 1% of the global river DIC flux to the oceans. This is disproportionately higher than the water contribution from the Hooghly River to the oceans, which accounts for ca. 0.2% of the global river water flux. The results of this study suggest that estuaries in regions affected by tropical monsoon can be important in terms of their production of significant amounts of DIC and its delivery to the world's oceans.

  11. Infrastructure for collaborative science and societal applications in the Columbia River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, António M.; Seaton, Charles; Wilkin, Michael P.; Riseman, Sarah F.; Needoba, Joseph A.; Maier, David; Turner, Paul J.; Kärnä, Tuomas; Lopez, Jesse E.; Herfort, Lydie; Megler, V. M.; McNeil, Craig; Crump, Byron C.; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Spitz, Yvette H.; Simon, Holly M.

    2015-12-01

    To meet societal needs, modern estuarine science needs to be interdisciplinary and collaborative, combine discovery with hypotheses testing, and be responsive to issues facing both regional and global stakeholders. Such an approach is best conducted with the benefit of data-rich environments, where information from sensors and models is openly accessible within convenient timeframes. Here, we introduce the operational infrastructure of one such data-rich environment, a collaboratory created to support (a) interdisciplinary research in the Columbia River estuary by the multi-institutional team of investigators of the Science and Technology Center for Coastal Margin Observation & Prediction and (b) the integration of scientific knowledge into regional decision making. Core components of the operational infrastructure are an observation network, a modeling system and a cyber-infrastructure, each of which is described. The observation network is anchored on an extensive array of long-term stations, many of them interdisciplinary, and is complemented by on-demand deployment of temporary stations and mobile platforms, often in coordinated field campaigns. The modeling system is based on finiteelement unstructured-grid codes and includes operational and process-oriented simulations of circulation, sediments and ecosystem processes. The flow of information is managed through a dedicated cyber-infrastructure, conversant with regional and national observing systems.

  12. Body condition and gametogenic cycle of Galatea paradoxa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Volta River estuary, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei-Boateng, D.; Wilson, J. G.

    2013-11-01

    The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning begins until October when the animal is spent. The condition indices (shell-free wet weight/total wet weight, ash-free dry weight/shell weight and gonad wet weight/shell weight) showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stage rising from a minimum at stage (I) start of gametogenesis, to their highest values at stages (IIIA) ripe and (IIIB) start of spawning before declining significantly to stage (IV) spent.It is suggested that condition index may prove a valuable technique in fishery management to recognise the reproductive stages of G. paradoxa as it is less expensive and time consuming than histological techniques in addition to being easier to teach to non-specialists. The data presented in this study provide information on the timing of spawning events for G. paradoxa, which is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and selection of broodstock for aquaculture.

  13. Legacy and emerging halogenated organic pollutants in marine organisms from the Pearl River Estuary, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Run-Xia; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Tan, Xiao-Xin; Tang, Bin; Li, Zong-Rui; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-11-01

    A suite of legacy and emerging halogenated organic pollutants (HOPs) were measured in marine organisms (coastal fish and invertebrates) from the Pearl River Estuary, South China, to investigate the current contamination status after the Stockholm Convention was implemented in China. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in all samples at concentrations of 54-1500, 16-700, and 0.56-59ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Dechlorane Plus (DP), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene (pTBX), and pentabromotoluene (PBT) were also found at concentrations of ND (non-detectable) to 37ng/g lipid weight. The concentrations of these investigated contaminants in the present study were at moderate levels, as compared with those reported in other regions. Significant interspecies differences were found in the levels of DDTs, PCBs, PBDEs and the alternative halogenated flame retardants (AHFRs). DDTs were the predominant HOPs in those species and represented >50% of the total HOPs, followed by PCBs, PBDEs, and AHFRs. The total estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of DDTs, PCBs, PBDEs, and AHFRs were 28, 12, 1.0, and 0.18 (ng/kg)/d, respectively, via seafood consumption. These concentrations are not expected to pose health risks to humans. PMID:26318119

  14. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program Reference Site Study: 2011 Restoration Analysis - FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borde, Amy B.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Sagar, Jina; Buenau, Kate E.; Corbett, C.

    2012-05-31

    The Reference Site (RS) study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District [USACE], and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinions (BiOp). While the RS study was initiated in 2007, data have been collected at relatively undisturbed reference wetland sites in the LCRE by PNNL and collaborators since 2005. These data on habitat structural metrics were previously summarized to provide baseline characterization of 51 wetlands throughout the estuarine and tidal freshwater portions of the 235-km LCRE; however, further analysis of these data has been limited. Therefore, in 2011, we conducted additional analyses of existing field data previously collected for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP) - including data collected by PNNL and others - to help inform the multi-agency restoration planning and ecosystem management work underway in the LCRE.

  15. Identification and apportionment of hazardous elements in the sediments in the Yangtze River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawei; Liu, Ruimin; Wang, Haotian; Yu, Wenwen; Xu, Fei; Shen, Zhenyao

    2015-12-01

    In this study, positive matrix factorization (PMF) and principal components analysis (PCA) were combined to identify and apportion pollution-based sources of hazardous elements in the surface sediments in the Yangtze River estuary (YRE). Source identification analysis indicated that PC1, including Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, As, Cu, and Zn, can be defined as a sewage component; PC2, including Pb and Sb, can be considered as an atmospheric deposition component; and PC3, containing Cd and Hg, can be considered as an agricultural nonpoint component. To better identify the sources and quantitatively apportion the concentrations to their sources, eight sources were identified with PMF: agricultural/industrial sewage mixed (18.6 %), mining wastewater (15.9 %), agricultural fertilizer (14.5 %), atmospheric deposition (12.8 %), agricultural nonpoint (10.6 %), industrial wastewater (9.8 %), marine activity (9.0 %), and nickel plating industry (8.8 %). Overall, the hazardous element content seems to be more connected to anthropogenic activity instead of natural sources. The PCA results laid the foundation for the PMF analysis by providing a general classification of sources. PMF resolves more factors with a higher explained variance than PCA; PMF provided both the internal analysis and the quantitative analysis. The combination of the two methods can provide more reasonable and reliable results. PMID:26511260

  16. Methane (CH4) emission from a tidal marsh in the Min River estuary, southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chuan; Wang, Wei-Qi; Zeng, Cong-Sheng; Marrs, Rob

    2010-01-01

    The total methane emission to the atmosphere and hydrosphere, and its seasonal variation, were estimated using an enclosed static chamber technique from a tidal marshes dominated by Phragmites australis (common reed) in the Min River estuary, southeast China. Measurements were taken at three tidal stages (before flood, during the flooding and ebbing process, and after ebb). Potential rates of methane production from the marsh sediment layers were also measured using an incubation technique. This P. australis tidal marsh was a net methane source, emitting 32.59 and 6.87 g CH(4) x m(-2) x yr(-1) to the atmosphere and hydrosphere, respectively. There was considerable monthly variation with emissions greater before flood in some months, whereas at other months emission was greater after ebb. The average methane fluxes were 5.13, 5.06 and 4.74 mg CH(4) m(-2) h(-1) before flood, during flooding and ebbing, and after ebb, respectively. Emissions to the tidewater and the atmosphere during the flooding and ebbing process were 2.98 and 2.08 mg CH(4) m(-2) h(-1),respectively. Sediment methane production potential (0-40 cm depth) ranged from 0.028-0.123 micro g CH(4) x g(-1) x d(-1), with the greatest production was in the surface soil. Methane fluxes had a significant correlation with atmospheric, sediment temperature and above ground biomass. The implications of these data for global warming are discussed briefly. PMID:20390897

  17. Anthropogenic effects on greenhouse gas (CH4 and N2O) emissions in the Guadalete River Estuary (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, M; Sierra, A; Ortega, T; Forja, J M

    2015-01-15

    Coastal areas are subject to a great anthropogenic pressure because more than half of the world's population lives in its vicinity causing organic matter inputs, which intensifies greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Dissolved concentrations of CH4 and N2O have been measured seasonally during 2013 in the Guadalete River Estuary, which flows into the Cadiz Bay (southwestern Spanish coast). It has been intensely contaminated since 1970. Currently it receives wastewater effluents from cities and direct discharges from nearby agriculture crop. Eight sampling stations have been established along 18 km of the estuary. CH4 and N2O were measured using a gas chromatograph connected to an equilibration system. Additional parameters such as organic matter, dissolved oxygen, nutrients and chlorophyll were determinate as well, in order to understand the relationship between physicochemical and biological processes. Gas concentrations increased from the River mouth toward the inner part, closer to the wastewater treatment plant discharge. Values varied widely within 21.8 and 3483.4 nM for CH4 and between 9.7 and 147.6 nM for N2O. Greenhouse gas seasonal variations were large influenced by the precipitation regime, masking the temperature influence. The Guadatete Estuary acted as a greenhouse gas source along the year, with mean fluxes of 495.7 ?mol m(-2)d(-1) and 92.8 ?mol m(-2)d(-1) for CH4 and N2O, respectively. PMID:24993513

  18. A choice experiment application to estimate willingness to pay for controlling excessive recreational fishing demand at the Sundays River Estuary, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    DE, Lee; SG, Hosking; M, du Preez.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sundays River Estuary, situated in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, has excessive recreational demand for estuarine services, specifically recreational fishing. The estuary has been over-fished, putting its sustainability at risk. Various management interventions may be required in order to save [...] it, but how is this to be done without reducing welfare? The main aim of this paper is twofold: first, to assess and comprehend the economic value of the estuarine resources at stake; and, second, to propose policy measures to redress the situation (excessive demand, specifically recreational fishing). An application of a choice experiment reveals that the physical size of fish stocks is a very important predictor of recreational choice at the Sundays River Estuary, and it is recommended that demand be curtailed through an increase in the boat license fee for using the estuary of ZAR174 per annum

  19. Phosphorus Release from Sediments in a Riparian Phragmites australis Community at the Estuary of the Chikugogawa River, Western Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Akira Haraguchi

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine the contribution of aquatic macrophyte communities on nutrition to sustain the high primary productivity of an estuary aquatic community, we analyzed the process of phosphorus release from sediments in aquatic macrophyte community in the estuary of the Chikugogawa River, South-Western Japan. Vertical profile of PD3-4 concentration and redox potential (Eh) of pore water in sediments were investigated within and outside the <...

  20. Status of the population structure of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Decapoda: Ocypodidae) on the Piraquê-açu River estuary, Espírito Santo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rita de Cássia Conti; Rosebel Cunha Nalesso

    2010-01-01

    The land crab Ucides cordatus is a keystone species of neotropical mangrove forests and an important resource of the artisanal fisheries. The spatial and temporal distribution of U. cordatus in the mangrove area of the Piraquê-açu river estuary was determined following a longitudinal estuarine salinity gradient (lower, middle, upper estuary) and along the vertical intertidal gradient. The numbers of open and closed burrows were counted monthly on fixed transects, the inhabiting crabs were cau...

  1. Natural 222Rn and 220Rn indicate the impact of the Water–Sediment Regulation Scheme (WSRS) on submarine groundwater discharge in the Yellow River estuary, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 220Rn and 222Rn were combined to locate intensive SGD sites. • Influence of WSRS to SGD was found for the first time. • SGD was a dominant nutrient pathway in the Yellow River estuary. - Abstract: Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in estuaries brings important influences to coastal ecosystems. In this study, we observed significant SGD in the Yellow River estuary, including a fresh component, during the Water–Sediment Regulation Scheme (WSRS) period. We used the 222Rn and 220Rn isotope pair to locate sites of significant SGD within the study area. Three apparent SGD locations were found during a non-WSRS period, one of which became much more pronounced, according to the remarkably elevated radon levels, during the WSRS. Increased river discharge (from 245 m3 s?1 to 3560 m3 s?1) and the elevated river water level (from 11 m to 13 m) during the WSRS led to a higher hydraulic head, enhancing groundwater discharge in the estuary. Our results suggest that high river discharge (>3000 m3 s?1) might be necessary for elevated fresh submarine groundwater discharging (FSGD). Vertical profiles of salinity, DO and turbidity anomalies along the benthic boundary layer also indicated significant FSGD in the estuary during the WSRS. Nutrient concentrations had positive correlations with 222Rn during a 24-h observation, which indicates that SGD is a dominant nutrient pathway in this area

  2. Phytosociology of planted and natural mangrove forests in the estuary of the Ostras River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Bernini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytosociology of planted and natural mangrove forests were compared in the estuary of the Ostras River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Vegetation sampling was performed by the plot method, and the diameter at breast height (DBH and height of individuals > 1 m tall were recorded. The results indicated that the planted forest had lower average DBH and basal area and higher density of trunks in relation to natural forest. The distribution of individuals by height class and the distribution of stems per diameter class showed that the planted forest was younger. Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle occurred in both forests, while Avicennia schaueriana was found only in the planted forest. Laguncularia racemosa showed greater dominance and relative density at all sites analyzed, probably because it is characteristic of sites with less marine influence and the fact that the estuary had been altered by human disturbance.

  3. Pluriannual watershed discharges of hg into a tropical semi-arid estuary of the Jaguaribe river, NE Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz D., Lacerda; Francisco J. S., Dias; Rozane V., Marins; Talita M., Soares; José Marcos O., Godoy; Maria Luiza D. P., Godoy.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluxos de Hg foram determinados entre 2005 e 2009 nas estações seca e chuvosa no estuário do Rio Jaguaribe, que desagua no Oceano Atlântico Equatorial, NE do Brasil. Na estação chuvosa a massa d'água no estuário apresenta um curto tempo de residência no estuário (0,8 dias), quatro vezes menor que na [...] seca (3,1 dias). As concentrações e fluxos de Hg dissolvido ( Abstract in english Mercury fluxes were measured during the dry and rainy seasons (2005 to 2009) at the Jaguaribe River estuary, which discharges into the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean in NE Brazil. During rainy periods, the water masses exhibited a short residence time within the estuary (0.8 days). During dry periods, se [...] awater choked the fluvial discharge, resulting in longer residence times (3.1 days). Dissolved (

  4. Comparative Study among Microflora in El-manzala Lake Water and Rashid (Rosetta Estuary of Nile River, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair A. Mostafa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton and microbiological analysis of three different sites of each of El-Manzala Lake Water and Rashid branch of the River Nile of Egypt were examined. The results were compared and correlated with each other and with certain physico-chemical parameters using MVSP Ver. 3.1 program for Canonical Corresponding Analysis (CCA. Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae represented 47.6 and 45.9% of the total phytoplankton in El-Manzala Lake Water, which was more, polluted than Rashid estuary water. Chlorophyceae was predominant (51.7% in Rashid estuary water. Heterotrophic plate counts and indicators of faecal contamination were higher in El-Manzala than in Rashid water whereas both halophilic and halotolerant bacteria were higher at Rashid than El-Manzala locations. Thermophilic and/or thermotolerant fungi and bacteria were more abundant in El-Manzala water than in Rashid water.

  5. Nitrous oxide in the Changjiang (Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent marine area: Riverine input, sediment release and atmospheric fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.-L. Zhang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved nitrous oxide (N2O was measured in the waters of the Changjiang (Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent marine area during five surveys covering the period of 2002–2006. Dissolved N2O concentrations ranged from 6.04 to 21.3 nM, and indicate great temporal and spatial variations. Distribution of N2O in the Changjiang Estuary was influenced by multiple factors and the key factor varied between cruises. Dissolved riverine N2O was observed monthly at station Xuliujing of the Changjiang, and ranged from 12.4 to 33.3 nM with an average of 19.4 ± 7.3 nM. N2O concentrations in the river waters showed obvious seasonal variations with higher values occurring in both summer and winter. Annual input of N2O from the Changjiang to the estuary was estimated to be 15.0 × 106 mol/yr. N2O emission rates from the sediments of the Changjiang Estuary in spring ranged from ?1.88 to 2.02 ?mol m?2 d?1, which suggests that sediment can act as either a source or a sink of N2O in the Changjiang Estuary. Average annual sea-to-air N2O fluxes from the studied area were estimated to be 7.7 ± 5.5, 15.1 ± 10.8 and 17.0 ± 12.6 ?mol m?2d?1 using LM86, W92 and RC01 relationships, respectively. Hence the Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent marine area are a net source of atmospheric N2O.

  6. 76 FR 14924 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...March in the past ten years. Potential...monitoring data exists for...regular estuary management activity...operations, past monitoring...low in the past (see Table...monitoring data, NMFS has...during estuary management activities...in the years since...

  7. Change in Land Cover along the Lower Columbia River Estuary as Determined from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garono, Ralph; Anderson, Becci; Robinson, Rob

    2003-10-01

    The Lower Columbia River Estuary Management Plan (Jerrick, 1991) recognizes the positive relationship between the conservation of fish and wildlife habitat, and sustaining their populations. An important component of fish and wildlife conservation and management is the identification of habitats, trends in habitat change, and delineation of habitat for preservation, restoration or enhancement. Alterations to the environment, such as hydropower generation, dredging, forestry, agriculture, channel alteration, diking, bank stabilization and floodplain development, have dramatically altered both the type and distribution of habitats along the Columbia River Estuary (CRE) and its floodplain. Along the Columbia River, tidally influenced habitats occur from the river mouth to the Bonneville Dam, a distance of 230 km. If we are to effectively manage the natural resources of the Columbia River ecosystem, there is a need to understand how habitats have changed because fish and wildlife populations are known to respond to changes in habitat quality and distribution. The goal of this study was to measure the amount and type of change of CRE land cover from 1992 to 2000. We performed a change analysis on two spatial data sets describing land cover along the lower portion of the estuary (Fig. 1). The 1992 data set was created by the NOAA Coastal Remote Sensing, Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) in cooperation with Columbia River Estuary Study Task Force (CREST), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Point Adams Field Station, and State of Washington Department of Natural Resources (DNR). The 2000 data set was produced by Earth Design Consultants, Inc. (EDC) and the Wetland Ecosystem Team (WET: University of Washington) as part of a larger Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership) habitat mapping study. Although the image classification methodologies used to create the data sets differed, both data sets were produced by classifying Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery, making it feasible to assess land cover changes between 1992 and 2000.

  8. Estimation of the Probability of Long-Distance Dispersal: Stratified Diffusion of Spartina alterniflora in the Yangtze River Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The relative contribution of long-distance dispersal and local diffusion in the spread of invasive species has been a subject of much debate. Invasion of the intertidal mudflats by Spartina alterniflora is an ideal example of stratified diffusion, involving both long-distance dispersal of seeds and local diffusion due to clonal growth. In conjunction with experimental data on range radius-versus-time curve, a traveling wave equation-based model is used to investigate the sensitivity of the spread rate of exotic S. alterniflora to parameters of long distance dispersal (c, maximum colonial establishment rate and local colony diffusion (r, intrinsic growth rate at two tidal marshes, the Eastern Chongming and the Jiuduansha Islands, at the Yangtze River estuary. Both Eastern Chong ming and Jiuduansha Islands are now national natural reserves in China, which were established in 2005. However, the mudflats and salt marshes in the two reserves are now heavily infested with introduced S. alterniflora, which may threaten the estuarine ecosystems and their biodiversity. S. alterniflora was first found in 1995 on Chongming. For rapid sediment accretion in mudflats in the estuary, S. alterniflora was also intentionally introduced to Jiuduansha in 1997 and Chongming in 2001, which has led to a rapid range expansion in the estuary. Our results show that range expansion of species with stratified diffusion is affected by both long-distance dispersal and local colony diffusion, and that there is a critical c*, below which the spread rate is more influenced by long-distance dispersal than by local diffusion. After applying this model to the invasion of S. alterniflora in the Yangtze River estuary, we derive that c = 1.7 × 10-3, c* = 0.126 and c = 4.8 × 10-3 km-2·yr-1, c* = 0.140 km-2·yr-1 at Chongming and Jiuduansha (Shanghai, respectively. Our results suggest that the range spread of S. alterniflora in the Yangtze River estuary is more influenced by long-distance dispersal than local colony diffusion, and that S. alterniflora generates about 1.7 × 10-3 to 4.8 × 10-3 colonies per square kilometers per year. This study provides important information about dispersal dynamics of S. alterniflora that may be useful for finding optimal control strategies. ·

  9. Evaluation of organochlorine contamination in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yinglin; Shi, Jingchun; Zheng, Gene J; Li, Ping; Liang, Bo; Chen, Tufeng; Wu, Yuping; Liu, Wenhua

    2013-02-01

    Organochlorine compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), chlordanes (CHLs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were analyzed in blubber samples collected from fifteen Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) stranded in the Pearl River Delta during the period from 2004 to 2009. In general, the magnitude of the mean concentrations is: ?DDTs>?PCBs>?HCHs>?CHLs>HCB. DDT levels found in this study were very high, with the ?DDT ranging from 845 to 179,000 ng/g wet weight. Of particular importance is the fact that new inputs from diverse sources still exist in the Pearl River Delta. ?PCBs ranged from 123 to 10,200 ng/g wet weight. More studies are necessary for a better understanding of these organochlorine contaminants and their impact on the conservation of humpback dolphins residing in the Pearl River Estuary waters. PMID:23280301

  10. Bayesian networks for environmental flow decision-making and an application in the Yellow River estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, A. P.; Sun, T.

    2014-05-01

    We proposed an approach for environmental flow decision-making based on Bayesian networks considering seasonal water use conflicts between agriculture and ecosystems. Three steps were included in the approach: water shortage assessment after environmental flow allocation using a production-loss model considering temporal variations of river flows; trade-off analysis of water use outcomes by Bayesian networks; and environmental flow decision-making based on a risk assessment under different management strategies. An agricultural water shortage model and a production-loss model were integrated after satisfying environmental flows with temporal variability. The case study in the Yellow River estuary indicated that the average difference of acceptable economic loss for winter wheat irrigation stakeholders was 10% between water saving measures and water diversion projects. The combination of water diversion projects and water-saving measures would allow 4.1% more river inflow to be allocated to ecological needs in normal years without further economic losses in agriculture.

  11. Water Temperature, Specific Conductance, pH, and Dissolved-Oxygen Concentrations in the Lower White River and the Puyallup River Estuary, Washington, August-October 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbert, James C.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Washington State Department of Ecology, and Puyallup Tribe of Indians monitored water temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the White River at river miles 4.9 and 1.8 from August until mid-October 2002. Water diverted from the White River upstream from the monitoring sites into Lake Tapps is returned to the river at river mile 3.6 between the two sites. The same characteristics were measured in a cross section of the Puyallup River estuary at river mile 1.5 during high and low tides in September 2002. In late August, maximum daily water temperatures in the White River of 21.1oC (degrees Celsius) at river mile 4.9 and 19.6oC at river mile 1.8 exceeded the water-quality standard of 18oC at both monitoring sites. In mid-September, maximum daily water temperatures at river mile 4.9 exceeded the standard on 5 days. From August 2-25, water temperatures at both monitoring sites were similar and little or no water was discharged from Lake Tapps to the White River. Increases in water temperature at river mile 1.8 in late September and early October were caused by the mixing of warmer water discharged from Lake Tapps with cooler water in the White River. Specific conductance in the White River usually was lower at river mile 1.8 than at river mile 4.9 because of mixing with water from Lake Tapps, which has a lower specific conductance. Maximum values of pH in the White River at river mile 4.9 often exceeded the upper limit of the water-quality standard, 8.5 pH units, from early September until mid-October, when turbidity decreased. The pH standard was not exceeded at river mile 1.8. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the White River were often lower at river mile 1.8 than at river mile 4.9 because of mixing with water discharged from Lake Tapps, which has lower dissolved-oxygen concentrations. The lowest concentration of dissolved oxygen observed was 7.9 mg/L (milligrams per liter) at river mile 1.8. The lower limit allowed by the water-quality standard is 8 mg/L. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen measured in a cross section of the Puyallup River estuary at high tide on September 12, 2002, ranged from 9.9 to 10.2 mg/L in fresh water at the surface and from 8.1 to 8.4 mg/L in salt water near the riverbed. These values were within limits set by Washington State water-quality standards for dissolved oxygen of 8 mg/L in fresh water and 6 mg/L in marine water.

  12. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition to forest and estuary environments in the Pearl River Delta region, southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its significant ecological and climate consequences, atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition is a growing global concern, especially in the severely N-polluted regions such as the Pearl River Delta (PRD region of southern China. One-year measurements of reactive N species, including ammonium nitrogen ( -N, nitrate nitrogen (-N and total organic nitrogen (ON in dry and wet deposition, were conducted using an automated wet–dry sampler incorporated with a DDAS (dry deposition on aqueous surface sampling device at Dinghushan (DHS, a natural forest site in the northwest of PRD and at Hengmen (HM, an estuary site in the south of PRD during 2006–2007. Total deposition fluxes of N at DHS and HM were up to 48.2 and 37.8 kg ha?1 yr?1, respectively, with most of the deposition occurring in the rainy season. Wet deposition was the dominant form, contributing 65–70% to the total deposition. -N was the largest contributor to the total N deposition at DHS (47% due to significant influence of agriculture emissions. ON was the most important N component at HM (41%, which is probably attributed to the marine sources. However, -N deposition is increasing rapidly recently and is expected to be more important in the near future. The current N deposition level in PRD is much higher than those in Europe and North America. Great challenges exist in reducing reactive N emission in this region. Thus, a scenario of rising N deposition in PRD in the near future cannot be ruled out. The environmental consequences due to elevated N deposition should therefore be paid more attention in the future.

  13. Heavy metal and Pb isotopic compositions of aquatic organisms in the Pearl River Estuary, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of trace metals in aquatic organisms may lead to serious health problems through the food chain. The present research project aims to study the accumulation and potential sources of trace metals in aquatic organisms of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). Four groups of aquatic organisms, including fish, crab, shrimp, and shellfish, were collected in the PRE for trace metal and Pb isotopic analyses. The trace metal concentrations in the aquatic organism samples ranged from 0.01 to 2.10 mg/kg Cd, 0.02 to 4.33 mg/kg Co, 0.08 to 4.27 mg/kg Cr, 0.15 to 77.8 mg/kg Cu, 0.17 to 31.0 mg/kg Ni, 0.04 to 30.7 mg/kg Pb, and 8.78 to 86.3 mg/kg Zn (wet weight). High concentrations of Cd were found in crab, shrimp and shellfish samples, while high concentration of Pb was found in fish. In comparison with the baseline reference values in other parts of the world, fish in the PRE had the highest elevated trace metals. The results of Pb isotopic compositions indicated that the bioaccumulation of Pb in fish come from a wide variety of food sources and/or exposure pathways, particularly the anthropogenic inputs. - Relative high concentrations of Cd were found in crab, shrimp and shellfish samples while high concentration of Pb was found in fish, particularly from the anthropogenic inputs

  14. Microphytobenthic biomass and species composition in intertidal flats of the Nakdong River estuary, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, GuoYing; Son, Moonho; Yun, Misun; An, Soonmo; Chung, Ik Kyo

    2009-05-01

    Intertidal microphytobenthos (MPB) were investigated monthly from August 2006 to March 2008 at four different sites in the sand flats of Nakdong River estuary, Korea. Samples of surface sediment (ca. 1 cm) were collected, and chlorophyll a was extracted as biomass estimation. Species identification and enumeration were carried out by light microscopy, assisted where necessary by scanning electronic microscopy. Biomass varied between 0.47 and 16.58 ?g cm -3, abundance changed from 5.25 to 414.75 × 10 3 cells cm -3, while the Shannon diversity indexes ranged between 0.69 and 2.35 H'. Thirty-nine MPB taxa were identified, primarily composed of epipelic diatoms, among which Amphora and Navicula were the most abundant genera. Based on the biomass, abundance, species composition and their dynamics, MPB assemblages of sampling sites were grouped into three distinct communities corresponding to their sediment composition characteristics. Multivariate correlation analysis revealed that biomass was positively related to mud and very fine sand, negatively related to fine and medium sand, but not significantly related to environmental factors such as pore water nutrients, light intensity and salinity, which fluctuated rapidly during emersion period. Cluster analysis corroborated the division of MPB communities according to site types on seasonal scales, and also showed seasonality between sites by cluster of all summer groups. Principal component analysis identified that variability in species composition was significantly affected by mud, very fine sand, fine sand, light intensity, and sediment temperature. This study suggests that sediment composition plays an important role in the functioning of intertidal MPB communities in estuarine ecosystems.

  15. Waterbird Population Changes in the Wetlands at Chongming Dongtan in the Yangtze River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhijun; Wang, Yong; Gan, Xiaojing; Li, Bo; Cai, Yinting; Chen, Jiakuan

    2009-06-01

    We studied the changes in wetland habitats and waterbird communities between the 1980s and the 2000s at Chongming Dongtan, a Ramsar site in the Yangtze River estuary, an ecologically important region. This region is an important stopover site for shorebirds along the East Asian-Australasian flyway and is extensively used by waterfowl. A net loss of 11% of the wetland area was estimated during study periods at Chongming Dongtan. The change was dependent on wetland types: while the area of artificial habitats such as paddy fields and aquacultural ponds more than doubled, more than 65% of natural habitats including sea bulrush ( Scirpus mariqueter) and common reed ( Phragmites australis) marshes were lost over the two decades. An exotic plant species introduced from North America, smooth cordgrass ( Spartina alterniflora), occupied 30% of the vegetated intertidal zone by the 2000s. Although waterbird species richness did not change between the 1980s (110) and the 2000s (111), 13 species found in 1980s were replaced by 14 newly recorded species. Moreover, there were more species with declining trends (58) than with increasing trends (19). The population trends of species were affected by residential status and habitat types. Transients, wintering migrants, and habitat specialists were more likely to show declining trends compared to those breeding at Dongtan (including year-round and summer residents) and habitat generalists. Furthermore, species associated mainly with natural wetlands were more likely to decline than those associated mainly with artificial wetlands. These patterns suggest that the loss and change of wetland habitats at Chongming Dongtan adversely affected local population dynamics and might have contributed to the global decline of some waterbird species. Because Chongming Dongtan provides stopover and wintering habitats for many migratory waterbirds, protection and restoration of natural wetlands at Chongming Dongtan are urgently needed.

  16. Subsphaerolaimus minor sp. n. and Micromicron cephalatum Cobb, 1920 (Nematoda) from the Yen River Estuary of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagarin, Vladimir G; Thanh, Nguyen Vu

    2015-01-01

    Two nematode species found in Yen River Estuary of Vietnam are described and illustrated. Subsphaerolaimus minor sp. n. is similar to S. lamasus Gerlach, 1956, but differs from it in the shorter body, comparatively shorter pharynx and shorter cephalic setae. A pictorial key for determination of valid species in the genus Subsphaerolaimus Lorenzen, 1978 is given. Micromicron cephalatum Cobb, 1920 is redescribed and reillustrated based on numerous males and females. The genus Micromicron Cobb, 1920 is confirmed as a valid genus with type and only species, M. cephalatum Cobb, 1920. PMID:26250280

  17. Cadmium, manganese, nickel and lead contents in surface sediments of the lower Ulla River and its estuary (northwest Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Prego, R.; Belzunce Segarra, María Jesús; Helios-Rybicka, E.; Barciela, Mª del Carmen

    1999-01-01

    [EN] The authors determined the total contents of cadmium, manganese, nickel and lead in 16 surface sediment samples along the last 7 km of the Ulla River and in its estuary. Prior to chemical analysis, the grain-size fractions below 500, 63 and 2 ?m were separated. The metal concentrations were analysed in the fraction below 63 ?m, and in selected samples from the clay fraction (< 2 ?m). The soil samples were digested with a HF + HNO3 + HCl mixture and the total concentrations ...

  18. Sciaenidae fish of the Caeté River estuary, Northern Brazil: mitochondrial DNA suggests explosive radiation for the Western Atlantic assemblage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christina, Vinson; Grazielle, Gomes; Horacio, Schneider; Iracilda, Sampaio.

    Full Text Available Sciaenids are fish which are normally abundant in tropical estuaries of the western Atlantic. Studies on the Caeté river estuary in the northern Brazilian state of Pará have revealed that in this area Sciaenidae is the dominant family, comprising almost 50% of all teleosts sampled. In this paper we [...] present the results of the first phylogenetic study on South American estuarine sciaenids, during which we obtained mitochondrial gene 16S sequences from 15 species belonging to eight genera occurring in the Caeté estuary. Intergeneric nucleotide divergences varied from 5 to 15%, Lonchurus and Menticirrhus being the most divergent lineages. Nucleotide divergences were quite variable amongst species of the same genus, ranging from 1.2% (Stellifer microps x Stellifer naso) to 8.4% (Menticirrhus americanus x Menticirrhus littoralis). Cladograms based on maximum parsimony, minimum evolution and maximum likelihood depicted an explosive diversification pattern for the western Atlantic sciaenid assemblage. Our analysis further reveals a very close relationship between Bairdiella and Stellifer, a monophyletic clade which emerged during the more recent diversification events of the Sciaenidae family. The phylogenetic reconstruction suggests the need for a revision of the taxonomy and nomenclature of the Bairdiella/Stellifer group.

  19. Population characteristics of the swimming crab Callinectes amnicola De Rocheburne, 1883 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Portunidae in the Qua Iboe River estuary, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Udoh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the biology of Callinectes amnicola, from the Qua Iboe River estuary, south-eastern Nigeria, was investigated for twelve months from June 2008 to May 2009, with respect to its size composition and population characteristics. A total of 1,193 specimens were obtained comprising 508males and 685 females with overall (1:1.35, ?2 = 26.26, 1 df, p 2 =2.17, I df, p 2 = 11.44, 1 df, p C. amnicola inhabiting the lower reaches of the Qua Iboe River estuary, Nigeria.

  20. Physical aspects of estuarine pollution - A case study in Amba river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Josanto, V.; Sarma, R.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    in the estuary is protected from contamination and will meet the required quality standards which necessitated the study of tides, current and freshwater flow paths, dispersion potential, flushing time and also the propagation characteristics of the wastewater...

  1. A Synthesis of Environmental and Plant Community Data for Tidal Wetland Restoration Planning in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2013-12-01

    This report reanalyzes and synthesizes previously existing environmental and plant community data collected by PNNL at 55 tidal wetlands and 3 newly restored sites in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) between 2005 and 2011. Whereas data were originally collected for various research or monitoring objectives of five studies, the intent of this report is to provide only information that will have direct utility in planning tidal wetland restoration projects. Therefore, for this report, all tidal wetland data on plants and the physical environment, which were originally developed and reported by separate studies, were tabulated and reanalyzed as a whole. The geographic scope of the data collected in this report is from Bonneville Lock and Dam to the mouth of the Columbia River

  2. Surface water characteristics and trace metals level of the Bonny/New Calabar River Estuary, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onojake, M. C.; Sikoki, F. D.; Omokheyeke, O.; Akpiri, R. U.

    2015-07-01

    Surface water samples from three stations in the Bonny/New Calabar River Estuary were analyzed for the physicochemical characteristics and trace metal level in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Results show pH ranged from 7.56 to 7.88 mg/L; conductivity, 33,489.00 to 33,592.00 µScm-1; salinity, 15.33 to 15.50 ‰; turbidity, 4.35 to 6.65 NTU; total dissolved solids, 22111.00 to 23263.00 gm-3; dissolved oxygen, 4.53 to 6.65 mg/L; and biochemical oxygen demand, 1.72 mg/L. The level of some trace metals (Ca, Mg, K, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Na) were also analyzed by Atomic absorption spectrometry with K, Zn, and Co being statistically significant (P < 0.05). The results were compared with USEPA and WHO Permissible Limits for water quality standards. It was observed that the water quality parameters in the Bonny Estuary show seasonal variation with higher values for pH, DO, BOD, temperature, and salinity during the dry season than wet season. Concentrations of trace metals such as Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Cr were higher than stipulated limits by WHO (2006). The result of the Metal Pollution Index suggests that the river was slightly affected and therefore continuous monitoring is necessary to avert possible public health implications of these metals on consumers of water and seafood from the study area.

  3. A preliminary investigation on genetic diversity of Sousa chinensis in the Pearl River Estuary and Xiamen of Chinese waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongshan; Zhai, Kan; Chen, Jialin; Chen, Yulong; Wen, Haijun; Chen, Sufang; Wu, Yuping

    2008-08-01

    In this study, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) samples from the Pearl River Estuary and Xiamen waters were sequenced and analyzed. The result of mtDNA control region revealed 34 variable sites and four unique haplotypes (named as A, B, C and D) identified among the total samples from these two water areas, and the most common haplotype (A) was shared by 75% of the dolphins sampled from the two water areas. The haplotypic diversity (h) was 0.455 and the nucleotide diversity (pi) was 0.0088. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the haplotype A, C, and D were closely related, but the haplotype B (unique for XM01 from Xiamen) was far from the other three. By scanning cytochrome b fragments, two haplotypes (A and B) were identified in these two water areas, and the most common haplotype (A) was shared by 91.67% individuals, while XM01 from Xiamen as the only exception. The data suggest that there is a possibility of gene exchange between the two populations in the Pearl River Estuary and Xiamen waters, and there possibly exists a unique maternal lineage in Xiamen waters. PMID:18721786

  4. Environmental monitoring and assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments at Coleroon River Estuary in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatramanan, S; Chung, S Y; Ramkumar, T; Selvam, S

    2015-08-01

    The combined studies on grain size distribution, organic matter contents of sediments, sequential extraction and bulk concentration of heavy metals, statistical analysis, and ecological risk assessments were carried out to investigate the contamination sources and ecological risks of surface sediments at Coleroon River Estuary in Tamil Nadu, India. The sequential extraction of metals showed that a larger portion of the metals was associated with the residual phase and also in other fractions. The low concentrations of heavy metals were found in exchangeable and carbonate bounds (bioavailable phases). It revealed that sediments of Coleroon River Estuary were relatively unpolluted and were influenced mainly by natural sources. The observed order of bulk concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments was as follows: Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni > Co. Factor analyses represented that the enrichment of heavy metals was mostly resulted from lithogenic origins associated with anthropogenic sources. These sources were reconfirmed by cluster analysis. Risk assessment code (RAC) suggested that all metals were not harmful in monsoon season. However, Fe was in medium risk, and Mn and Cu were in low risk in summer. According to pollution load index (PLI) of sediments, all heavy metals were toxic. Cu might be related with adverse biological effects on the basis of sediment quality guidelines (SQG) in both seasons. These integrated approaches were very useful to identify the contamination sources and ecological risks of sediments in estuarine environment. It is expected that this research can give a useful information for the remediation of heavy metals in sediments. PMID:26178040

  5. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential indicators for detecting a signal in the estuarine system resulting from the multiple projects were also reviewed, i.e. organic matter production, nutrient cycling, sedimentation, food webs, biodiversity, salmon habitat usage, habitat opportunity, and allometry. In subsequent work, this information will be used to calculate the over net effect on the ecosystem. To evaluate the effectiveness of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary, a priority of this study has been to develop a set of minimum ecosystem monitoring protocols based on metrics important for the CRE. The metrics include a suite of physical measurements designed to evaluate changes in hydrological and topographic features, as well as biological metrics that will quantify vegetation and fish community structure. These basic measurements, intended to be conducted at all restoration sites in the CRE, will be used to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of various restoration procedures on target metrics, and (2) provide the data to determine the cumulative effects of many restoration projects on the overall system. A protocol manual is being developed for managers, professional researchers, and informed volunteers, and is intended to be a practical technical guide for the design and implementation of monitoring for the effects of restoration activities. The guidelines are intended to standardize the collection of data critical for analyzing the anticipated ecological change resulting from restoration treatments. Field studies in 2005 are planned to initiate the testing and evaluation of these monitoring metrics and protocols and initiate the evaluation of higher order metrics for cumulative effects.

  6. Distribution, historical trends and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large portion of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from e-waste released into the coastal areas may be the potential source of PCBs to the global oceans. The paper presents data of PCBs concentrations in fifty surface sediment samples and a dated sediment core in Yangtze River Delta (YRE) and adjacent East China Sea (ECS). The total PCBs levels varied from 5.08 to 19.64 ng/g dry weight, with the highest concentrations situate within the river-sea boundary zone which is so-called “marginal filter”. Concurrent with the operation of e-waste recycling over the last two decades, PCB fluxes started to rise again after 1980s and reached a maximum in this century. The full data set was used to estimate the burden of PCBs in YRE and adjacent ECS. A total sediment burdens were 192.8 tons, with the spatial density of 364 ng/cm2 which accounts for 1.9% of all the PCBs in China. - Highlights: ? PCBs residues remained widespread in Yangtze River Delta and adjacent East China Sea. ? Highest PCBs concentrations situate within the river-sea boundary zone. ? Congener profiles and PCA highlight the influence of e-waste recycling. ? Temporal distributions indicated PCB fluxes reached a maximum in this century. ? Total sediment burdens accounts for 1.9 % of all the PCBs in China. - Spatial and temporal distributions of polychlorinated biphenyls have been delineated in sediments from Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent East China Sea.

  7. Distribuição de elementos tóxicos no estuário do rio Amazonas / Toxic elements distribution in the Amazon River estuary

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone de Fátima Pinheiro, Pereira; Otílio Othon, Pires; Augusto Fonseca, Saraiva; Geiso Rafael, Oliveira; Pedro Moreira de, Sousa Junior; Rafaella Galvão, Miranda; Cleber Silva e, Silva; Reginaldo da Silva, Sales.

    Full Text Available A presença de elementos não essenciais nas águas superficiais do rio Amazonas é uma preocupação global, o objetivo da pesquisa foi estudar a distribuição dos elementos As, Al, Mn, e Pb na água do estuário do rio Amazonas. As amostras foram coletadas em três regiões distintas: Canal Norte (AP), Canal [...] Sul (PA) e rio Pará (PA) em três profundidades, com um total de 84 amostras. A espectrometria de emissão atômica com plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICPAES) foi utilizada para avaliar os teores de Al, Mn e Pb e a espectrofotometria de absorção atômica com geração de hidretos (HGAAS) foi usada para a análise do As. O As variou de Abstract in english The non-essential elements found in the superficial waters of the Amazon River is a global worry since the local hydric resources represent the world's largest fresh water reservoir. This research aimed at studying the occurrence of As, Al, Mn and Pb in the waters of the Amazon River estuary. The 84 [...] samples in three depths were collected in three different regions: North Channel of the Amazon River, in the state of Amapá; South Channel of the Amazon River, in the state of Pará; and Pará River, also in the state of Pará. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICPAES) method was employed to determine the concentrations of Al, Mn and Pb in the samples while hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) method was employed in determining their As concentrations. As concentrations varied from

  8. Eelgrass Enhancement and Restoration in the Lower Columbia River Estuary, Period of Performance: Feb 2008-Sep 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, C.; Thom, R; Borde, A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-09-08

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability to enhance distribution of eelgrass (Zostera marina) in the Columbia River Estuary to serve as refuge and feeding habitat for juvenile salmon, Dungeness crab, and other fish and wildlife. We strongly suspected that limited eelgrass seed dispersal has resulted in the present distribution of eelgrass meadows, and that there are other suitable places for eelgrass to survive and form functional meadows. Funded as part of the Bonneville Power Administration's call for Innovative Projects, we initiated a multistage study in 2008 that combined modeling, remote sensing, and field experimentation to: (1) Spatially predict habitat quality for eelgrass; (2) Conduct experimental plantings; and (3) Evaluate restoration potential. Baseline in-situ measurements and remote satellite observations were acquired for locations in the Lower Columbia River Estuary (LCRE) to determine ambient habitat conditions. These were used to create a habitat site-selection model, using data on salinity, temperature, current velocity, light availability, wave energy, and desiccation to predict the suitability of nearshore areas for eelgrass. Based on this model and observations in the field, five sites that contained no eelgrass but appeared to have suitable environmental conditions were transplanted with eelgrass in June 2008 to test the appropriateness of these sites for eelgrass growth. We returned one year after the initial planting to monitor the success rate of the transplants. During the year after transplanting, we carried out a concurrent study on crab distribution inside and outside eelgrass meadows to study crab usage of the habitat. One year after the initial transplant, two sites, one in Baker Bay and one in Young's Bay, had good survival or expansion rates with healthy eelgrass. Two sites had poor survival rates, and one site had a total loss of the transplanted eelgrass. For submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) restoration projects, these are reasonable success results and represent a small net gain in eelgrass in the LCRE. Crabs used both the eelgrass and unvegetated substrate, though in neither were there great abundance of the young-of-the-year crabs. During the field assessment of 12 potential transplant sites, divers discovered one site in southern Young's Bay that contained a previously undocumented eelgrass bed. This integrated project developed the first predictive maps of sites suitable for eelgrass and other SAV in the lower estuary. In addition, techniques developed for this project to assess light levels in existing and potential submerged habitats have great potential to be used in other regions for nearshore and coastal monitoring of SAV. Based on these preliminary results, we conclude that eelgrass distribution could likely be expanded in the estuary, though additional information on current eelgrass locations, usage by species of interest, and monitoring of current conditions would help develop a baseline and verify benefit. Our recommendations for future studies include: (1) Site Monitoring. Continued monitoring of restoration sites along with physical metrics of light, temperature and salinity within beds. Continued monitoring will both assist managers in understanding the longevity and expansion rate of planted sites and inform practical guidance on the minimum planted eelgrass required to develop a resilient meadow. (2) Natural bed documentation and monitoring. Document current eelgrass habitat conditions in the Columbia River by mapping eelgrass and other SAV species and monitoring physical metrics in natural beds. This will assist by better defining the factors that control the annual and spatial variation in eelgrass in the estuary, and thus lead to improved management. Improved information on conditions will help refine a habitat suitability model that can more accurately predict where eelgrass can be restored or areas under duress. (3) Monitor Species Use. Expanded monitoring of Dungeness crab and salmon use and benefit from eelgrass in the estuary t

  9. Extreme value analysis in typhoon prone areas: case study of the Pearl River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerman, E.; de Graaff, R.; Rego, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme events such as tropical storms and typhoons are often the determining factor for the extreme values of wind, wave and water level conditions. The storm track, its propagation speed, the air pressure drop and the wind speed intensity of a typhoon determine the maximum occurring wave heights, water levels and currents. The stochastic behaviour of typhoons and tropical storms, however, lead to uncertainty in the extreme value analysis, because a slight variation of the typhoon track, propagation speed or wind speed intensity can have a significant impact on these local extreme hydrodynamic conditions. To determine the significance of the stochastic behaviour of typhoons a model assessment is performed comparing standard extreme value analysis values of measured water levels (e.g. values of 1/10, 1/50, and 1/100 year return periods) against model results of artificial typhoons. In the model assessment, making use of Delft3D, various artificial typhoons are modelled in which the typhoon tracks, propagation speeds and wind speed intensities are varied within realistic ranges (based on observed historical typhoons). The study focusses on the Pearl River estuary (China) where typically about 5 to 10 tropical storms or typhoons are observed every year. Once every few years an extreme typhoon hits the area. By quantifying the potential impact of artificial typhoons the uncertainty in the extreme water level values in such a typhoon prone area are better assessed. The model is validated simulating several historic typhoons. Subsequently the typhoons tracks, their propagation speeds and wind speed intensities are varied. The extreme water level values (extreme surge height + mean high water value) that follow from the artificial typhoon modelling are compared against values from a standard extreme value analysis, making use of the central limit theorem for the extreme values in a sample. A Peaks over Threshold approach is applied and the extremes are fitted and extrapolated according to a Generalized Pareto Distribution. One of our main conclusions is that while the peak surge heights and related total water levels resulting from the historical and synthetic typhoon simulations can exceed the once per 100 year extreme total water level estimates, they are generally within the 95% confidence interval of the estimate.

  10. Evaluation of HCMM satellite data for estuarine tidal circulation patterns and thermal inertia soil moisture measurements. [Delaware Bay, Cooper River, and the Potomac River estuaries; Luverne, Minnesota, soil moisture, and water temperature of Lake Anna, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesnet, D. R.; Mcginnis, D. F., Jr. (principal investigators); Matson, M.; Pritchard, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Digital thermal maps of the Cooper River (SC) and the Potomac River estuaries were prepared from heat capacity mapping radiometer (HCMR) tapes. Tidal phases were correctly interpreted and verified. Synoptic surface circulation patterns were charted by location thermal fronts and water mass boundaries within the estuaries. Thermal anomalies were detected adjacent of a conventional power plant on the Potomac. Under optimum conditions, estuaries as small as the Cooper River can be monitored for generalized thermal/tidal circulation patterns by the HCMM-type IR sensors. The HCMM thermal inertia approach to estimating soil moisture at the Luverne (MN) test site was found to be unsatisfactory as a NESS operational satellite technique because of cloud cover interference. Thermal-IR data show similar structure of the Baltimore and Washington heat islands when compared to NOAA AVHRR thermal-IR data. Thermal anomalies from the warm water discharge water of a nuclear power plant were mapped in Lake Anna, Virginia.

  11. Estuarine Landcover Along the Lower Columbia River Estuary Determined from Compact Ariborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garono, Ralph; Robinson, Rob

    2003-10-01

    Developing an understanding of the distribution and changes in estuarine and riparian habitats is critical to the management of biological resources in the lower Columbia River. In a recently completed comprehensive ecosystem protection and enhancement plan for the lower Columbia River Estuary (CRE), Jerrick (1999) identified habitat loss and modification as one of the key threats to the integrity of the CRE ecosystem. This management plan called for an inventory of habitats as key first step in the CRE long-term restoration effort. While previous studies have produced useful data sets depicting habitat cover types along portions of the lower CRE (Thomas, 1980; Thomas, 1983; Graves et al., 1995; NOAA, 1997; Allen, 1999), no single study has produced a description of the habitats for the entire CRE. Moreover, the previous studies differed in data sources and methodologies making it difficult to merge data or to make temporal comparisons. Therefore, the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership) initiated a habitat cover mapping project in 2000. The goal of this project was to produce a data set depicting the current habitat cover types along the lower Columbia River, from its mouth to the Bonneville Dam, a distance of {approx}230-km (Fig. 1) using both established and emerging remote sensing techniques. For this project, we acquired two types of imagery, Landsat 7 ETM+ and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI). Landsat and CASI imagery differ in spatial and spectral resolution: the Landsat 7 ETM+ sensor collects reflectance data in seven spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30-m and the CASI sensor collects reflectance data in 19 bands (in our study) with a spatial resolution of 1.5-m. We classified both sets of imagery and produced a spatially linked, hierarchical habitat data set for the entire CRE and its floodplain. Landsat 7 ETM+ classification results are presented in a separate report (Garono et al., 2003). This report presents classification results from analysis of the CASI imagery. Data sets produced for this project from both types of imagery fill a critical information gap by creating a current description of the condition and extent of estuarine habitat cover types along the lower Columbia River. Results from this study will be used by the Estuary Partnership and its cooperators to: (1) develop indicators of 'habitat health' and biological integrity; (2) develop definitions of 'critical salmonid habitat'; (3) identify and evaluate potential wetland conservation and restoration sites; (4) track exotic and invasive species; and (5) develop an understanding of how estuarine and riverine habitats have changed over the past 200 years. This study focuses on estuarine and riparian habitat cover types important to native species, particularly juvenile salmonids. This study is meant to provide support to the multiple efforts currently underway to recover 12 species of Columbia River salmonids identified as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act.

  12. Phytotoxicity of surface waters of the Thames and Brisbane River estuaries: a combined chemical analysis and bioassay approach for the comparison of two systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson Nash, S M; Goddard, J; Müller, J F

    2006-05-15

    The Thames Estuary, UK, and the Brisbane River, Australia, are comparable in size and catchment area. Both are representative of the large and growing number of the world's estuaries associated with major cities. Principle differences between the two systems relate to climate and human population pressures. In order to assess the potential phytotoxic impact of herbicide residues in the estuaries, surface waters were analysed with a PAM fluorometry-based bioassay that employs the photosynthetic efficiency (photosystem II quantum yield) of laboratory cultured microalgae, as an endpoint measure of phytotoxicity. In addition, surface waters were chemically analysed for a limited number of herbicides. Diuron, atrazine and simazine were detected in both systems at comparable concentrations. In contrast, bioassay results revealed that whilst detected herbicides accounted for the observed phytotoxicity of Brisbane River extracts with great accuracy, they consistently explained only around 50% of the phytotoxicity induced by Thames Estuary extracts. Unaccounted for phytotoxicity in Thames surface waters is indicative of unidentified phytotoxins. The greatest phytotoxic response was measured at Charing Cross, Thames Estuary, and corresponded to a diuron equivalent concentration of 180 ng L(-1). The study employs relative potencies (REP) of PSII impacting herbicides and demonstrates that chemical analysis alone is prone to omission of valuable information. Results of the study provide support for the incorporation of bioassays into routine monitoring programs where bioassay data may be used to predict and verify chemical contamination data, alert to unidentified compounds and provide the user with information regarding cumulative toxicity of complex mixtures. PMID:16314084

  13. Continuous tidal streamflow, water level, and specific conductance data for Union Creek and the Little Back, Middle, and Front Rivers, Savannah River Estuary, November 2008 to March 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Timothy H.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    In the Water Resource Development Act of 1999, the U.S. Congress authorized the deepening of the Savannah Harbor. Additional studies were then identified by the Georgia Ports Authority and other local and regional stakeholders to determine and fully describe the potential environmental effects of deepening the channel. One need that was identified was the validation of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model developed to evaluate mitigation scenarios for a potential harbor deepening and the effects on the Savannah River estuary. The streamflow in the estuary is very complex due to reversing tidal flows, interconnections of streams and tidal creeks, and the daily flooding and draining of the marshes. The model was calibrated using very limited streamflow data and no continuous streamflow measurements. To better characterize the streamflow dynamics and mass transport of the estuary, two index-velocity sites were instrumented with continuous acoustic velocity, water level, and specific conductance sensors on the Little Back and Middle Rivers for the 5-month period of November 2008 through March 2009. During the same period, a third acoustic velocity meter was installed on the Front River just downstream from U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging station 02198920 (Savannah River at GA 25, at Port Wentworth, Georgia) where water level and specific conductance data were being collected. A fourth index-velocity site was instrumented with continuous acoustic velocity, water level, and specific conductance sensors on Union Creek for a 2-month period starting in November 2008. In addition to monitoring the tidal cycles, streamflow measurements were made at the four index-velocity sites to develop ratings to compute continuous discharge for each site. The maximum flood (incoming) and ebb (outgoing) tides measured on Little Back River were –4,570 and 7,990 cubic feet per second, respectively. On Middle River, the maximum flood and ebb tides measured were –9,630 and 13,600 cubic feet per second, respectively. On Front River, the maximum flood and ebb tides were –34,500 and 43,700 cubic feet per second, respectively; and on Union Creek, the maximum flood and ebb tides were –2,390 and 4,610 cubic feet per second, respectively. During the 5-month instrumentation deployment, computed tidal streamflows on Little Back River ranged from –7,820 to 9,600 cubic feet per second for the flood and ebb tides, respectively. On Middle River, the computed tidal streamflows ranged from –17,500 to 22,500 cubic feet per second for the flood and ebb tides, respectively. The computed tidal streamflows on Front River ranged from –78,900 to 87,200 cubic feet per second, and from –3,850 to 6,130 cubic feet per second on Union Creek for the flood and ebb tides, respectively. The streamgages on the Little Back, Middle, and Front Rivers have continued in operation following the initial 5-month deployment.

  14. Mercury in bottom sediments of the Amur River, its flood-plain lakes and estuary, Eastern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Fyodor S; Bakanov, Konstantin G; Goryachev, Nikolay A

    2010-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an element of a special concern in the Amur River basin, where numerous cinnabar deposits and manifestations have been prospected. Moreover, the territory is under heavy anthropogenic pressure due to intensive economic development that includes activities accompanied by noticeable emissions of Hg to the environment through poor waste management practices and accidental emergency discharges. Yet, information on Hg distribution and behavior in this region is scarce and inadequate. In order to evaluate Hg levels and fate in this vast territory, surveys of river, lake, and estuarine bottom sediments, as integral indicators of environmental status, were carried out in 1990, 1991, 1997, and 2004. The results showed the following: (1) stagnation of the Russian economy in the 1990s has resulted in a noticeable decrease of the Hg content in the Amur River sediments to the basin pristine level of about 0.05 mg kg(-1); (2) Hg distribution in the sediment depth proves the element redox-dependent behavior; (3) in some cases, Hg enrichment may be related to the long-term anthropogenic emission; (4) Hg concentration in bottom sediments was found to increase in the following order-the Amur River mouth, the estuary, and the Sea of Okhotsk, showing the weakly non-conservative Hg behavior during estuarine water mixing. PMID:19629736

  15. A model study of the effects of river discharges and interannual variation of winds on the plume front in winter in Pearl River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shu; Guan, Weibing; Cai, Shuqun; Wei, Xing; Huang, Daji

    2014-02-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model, Estuarine, Coastal and Ocean Modeling System with Sediments (ECOMSED), is employed to study the mechanism of plume front in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) in detail. The model is forced by winds, tides and river discharges. The modeled results of tidal elevation, current velocity and salinity are in reasonable agreement with observational data in the PRE. By analyzing momentum and saltwater transport balance equations, it is found that the wind stress term, the pressure gradient term and the local time derivative term of velocity are dominant in the momentum equation, while the local time derivative term, the horizontal advective term and the vertical mixing term of salinity are dominant in the salinity transport equation. The residual current at surface along the plume front is seaward and stronger, whilst that in the bottom layer is mainly landward. A series of sensitive experiments is also run to examine the responses of plume front to changes of river discharges at different inlets in Lingdingyang Bay and interannual variation of northeast winds in winter. The location of plume front responds differently to the change of river discharge at different inlets. An increase in the river discharge at Dahu inlet seems to affect the location of plume front most among the four river inlets, it makes the plume front move eastward and southward wholly; the variation of river discharge at Nansha or Fengmamiao inlet on the location of plume front is more local and weaker; whilst the variation of river discharge at Hengmen inlet has little effect on the plume front. The location of plume front also changes in response to the interannual variation of northeast winds in winter, the stronger or the more eastward the winds are, the more westward the plume front moves, and only in the northern PRE, the response of plume front to the variation of wind speeds is largely different from that to the variation of wind directions.

  16. Distribution and community structure of fish in Obitsu-gawa River Estuary of inner Tokyo Bay, central Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeppette J. Hermosilla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and community structure of fish in Obitsu-gawa River Estuary of inner TokyoBay, central Japan was studied from May to December 2005 and March to April 2006. A total of 19,006individuals, represented by 25 species and some unidentified species under family Clupeidae, Cyprinidae,Gobiidae, Hemiramphidae, Mugilidae, Platycephidae, Pleuronectidae and Triglidae were collected. FamilyGobiidae had the most number of taxa with 13 genera and 10 species. Greatest fish abundancehappened in August and secondarily in April and May. Species richness was evident in the warmermonths particularly in May (17 taxa, August (21 taxa, September (15 taxa and October (17 taxa.Marine teleosts significantly contributed to the species richness and abundance of fish, whichcorresponded to 52.9% (10,046 individuals of the total catch while the estuarine fishes were the secondmost abundant group with 33.5% (6,372 individuals of the total catch. Species dominance was acoherent feature of this community. The proportional contribution of marine teleosts to the fishcommunity decreased with increase distance upstream while that of estuarine fishes increased withincrease distance upstream. The developmental stages of gobies range from larvae to adult but juvenilesconstitute 77.06% of the total sample. The distribution of developmental stage of estuarine gobies wasinfluenced to a greater extent by variation in monthly water temperature and station or the interaction ofboth. Adult estuarine gobies had the tendency to aggregate in the middle estuary reflecting their hightolerance to a wide range of water salinity inherent in this station but avoided the lower estuary mostlikely due to the predominance of high salinity waters.

  17. 78 FR 23746 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ...number of management events during...low in the past, and the...monitoring data, harbor seals...during estuary management activities...in the years since appropriate...historical data. The average...in recent years during that...the lagoon management period, the...Based on past...

  18. 78 FR 14985 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ...March in the past 10 years. Potential...monitoring data exists for...regular estuary management activity...operations, past monitoring...historical data. The average...in recent years during that...the lagoon management period...Based on past...

  19. 77 FR 24471 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ...number of management events during...low in the past, and the...monitoring data, harbor seals...during estuary management activities...in the years since appropriate...historical data. The average...in recent years during that...the lagoon management period, the...Based on past...

  20. 77 FR 15722 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ...March in the past 10 years. Potential...monitoring data exists for...regular estuary management activity...operations, past monitoring...historical data. The average...in recent years during that...the lagoon management period...Based on past...

  1. The distribution of nitrogen species and adsorption of ammonium in sediments from the tidal Potomac River and estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, N.S.; Kennedy, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of dissolved ammonium, adsorbed ammonium and residual, organic and total nitrogen was measured in Potomac River tidal, transition zone and lower estuary sediments to a depth of 66 cm. For these sediments, exchangeable ammonium, and thereby adsorbed ammonium concentrations, were determined directly using an ammonia electrode in alkaline sediment suspensions. Ammonia electrode data were comparable to data obtained by KCl extraction of fresh sediment. The conventional unitless ammonium adsorption coefficient, calculated as the slope of the regression line drawn when sediment-adsorbed ammonium (??mol g-1 dry wt of sediment) is plotted against interstitial water ammonium (??mol g-1 dry wt sediment), is 1??5 for this system. When a modified ammonium adsorption coefficient is calculated from sediment-adsorbed ammonium concentrations and a ratio of interstitial water ammonium and potassium concentrations, the regression equation through the data has a zero intercept and is more nearly linear than the regression equation of data based on conventional calculations. The use of a ratio including ammonium and potassium concentrations in the interstitial water term takes into account ionic strength variations in the estuary and competition between ammonium and potassium for adsorption sites. ?? 1987.

  2. Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes the 2009 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE or Corps) project EST-09-P-01, titled “Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary.” The research was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Science Laboratory and Hydrology Group, in partnership with the University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Columbia Basin Research, and Earl Dawley (NOAA Fisheries, retired). This Columbia River Fish Mitigation Program project, referred to as “Salmonid Benefits,” was started in FY 2009 to evaluate the state-of-the science regarding the ability to quantify the benefits to listed salmonids1 of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  3. Modeling ecosystem processes with variable freshwater inflow to the Caloosahatchee River Estuary, southwest Florida. I. Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzelli, Christopher; Doering, Peter H.; Wan, Yongshan; Sun, Detong; Fugate, David

    2014-12-01

    Variations in freshwater inflow have ecological consequences for estuaries ranging among eutrophication, flushing and transport, and high and low salinity impacts on biota. Predicting the potential effects of the magnitude and composition of inflow on estuaries over a range of spatial and temporal scales requires reliable mathematical models. The goal of this study was to develop and test a model of ecosystem processes with variable freshwater inflow to the sub-tropical Caloosahatchee River Estuary (CRE) in southwest Florida from 2002 to 2009. The modeling framework combined empirically derived inputs of freshwater and materials from the watershed, daily predictions of salinity, a box model for physical transport, and simulation models of biogeochemical and seagrass dynamics. The CRE was split into 3 segments to estimate advective and dispersive transport of water column constituents. Each segment contained a sub-model to simulate changes in the concentrations of organic nitrogen and phosphorus (ON and OP), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate-nitrite (NOx-), ortho-phosphate (PO4-3), phytoplankton chlorophyll a (CHL), and sediment microalgae (SM). The seaward segment also had sub-models for seagrasses (Halodule wrightii and Thalassia testudinum). The model provided realistic predictions of ON in the upper estuary during wet conditions since organic nitrogen is associated with freshwater inflow and low salinity. Although simulated CHL concentrations were variable, the model proved to be a reliable predictor in time and space. While predicted NOx- concentrations were proportional to freshwater inflow, NH4+ was less predictable due to the complexity of internal cycling during times of reduced freshwater inflow. Overall, the model provided a representation of seagrass biomass changes despite the absence of epiphytes, nutrient effects, or sophisticated translocation in the formulation. The model is being used to investigate the relative importance of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) vs. CHL in submarine light availability throughout the CRE, assess if reductions in nutrient loads are more feasible by controlling freshwater quantity or N and P concentrations, and explore the role of inflow and flushing on the fates of externally and internally derived dissolved and particulate constituents.

  4. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in two matrices of the Bonny/New Calabar River Estuary in Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onojake, M. C.; Sikoki, F. D.; Babatunde, B. B.; Akpiri, R. U.; Akpuloma, D.; Omokheyeke, O.

    2015-06-01

    The concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Na were determined in the sediment and biota of the Bonny/New Calabar River Estuary in Niger Delta, Nigeria using atomic absorption spectrophotometer A-100. The concentration of the respective metals varied between 2011 and 2012. The range of mean values are presented in mg/kg along with variations at a statistically significant level ( P<0.05). In sediment, only Cr varied significantly ( p<0.05) within the two years. Bioaccumulation factor (BF) indicated a more potent source of metals from sediment than biota, accumulating Zn, Fe and Ni in magnitudes 10, 6 and 5 times more, respectively. The study shows elevated levels of heavy metals in sediment and bioaccumulation in biota. Regular monitoring and comparison of results with World Health Organization maximum permissible limits should be carried out, in order not to allow the metal concentration to reach alarming levels.

  5. Tissue distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins from the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Duan; Yu, Riqing; He, Xuan; Tu, Qin; Wu, Yuping

    2014-09-15

    Eleven persistent organic pollutant (POP) compounds including ?PCBs, ?DDTs, ?HCHs, aldrin, mirex, endrin, ?CHLs, dieldrin, HCB, heptachlor and pentachlorobenzene were measured in the kidney, liver, muscle, melon and other tissues of Sousa chinensis stranded on the western coast of the Pearl River Estuary in China during 2007-2013. For most parameters of POPs measured, melon tissues contained the highest mean concentrations with the exception of aldrin, which was higher in the kidney and liver tissues. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, heptachlor and endrin in the melon tissue exhibited significant correlations with body length, whereas PCBs and heptachlor also displayed significant regression with age. Our studies showed hepatic concentrations of ?DDTs, ?HCHs and mirex in S. chinensis were generally higher than those found in cetaceans from other geographic locations. The high levels of POP residues in the testis of one male dolphin suggested an increasing risk of infertility in the species. PMID:25066456

  6. The conflict between coastal environmental protection and development in the Rooi-Els-Bot River estuary area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Claasen

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available The conflict between coastal environmental protection and development in the Rooi-Els-Bot River estuary area has come under renewed attention after the Minister of Constitutional Development and Planning recently announced his intention to declare this area a “nature area”. However, no clear guidance has yet been given by the government on how this conflict can be resolved. In this article the above-mentioned area is used as an example to investigate these problems and to formulate solutions for the control of coastal zones in such a way that the conflict can be reduced to a large extent. The proposed introduction of a nature area is examined critically and suggestions are made for its control and financing.

  7. Fish community changes in the St. Louis River estuary, Lake Superior, 1989-1996: Is it ruffe or population dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, Charles R.; Evrard, Lori M.; Brown, William P.; Mayo, Kathleen R.; Edwards, Andrew J.

    1998-01-01

    Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) have been implicated in density declines of native species through egg predation and competition for food in some European waters where they were introduced. Density estimates for ruffe and principal native fishes in the St. Louis River estuary (western Lake Superior) were developed for 1989 to 1996 to measure changes in the fish community in response to an unintentional introduction of ruffe. During the study, ruffe density increased and the densities of several native species decreased. The reductions of native stocks to the natural population dynamics of the same species from Chequamegon Bay, Lake Superior (an area with very few ruffe) were developed, where there was a 24-year record of density. Using these data, short- and long-term variations in catch and correlations among species within years were compared, and species-specific distributions were developed of observed trends in abundance of native fishes in Chequamegon Bay indexed by the slopes of densities across years. From these distributions and our observed trend-line slopes from the St. Louis River, probabilities of measuring negative change at the magnitude observed in the St. Louis River were estimated. Compared with trends in Chequamegon Bay, there was a high probability of obtaining the negative slopes measured for most species, which suggests natural population dynamics could explain, the declines rather than interactions with ruffe. Variable recruitment, which was not related to ruffe density, and associated density-dependent changes in mortality likely were responsible for density declines of native species.

  8. Long-Term Effects of Changing Land Use Practices on Surface Water Quality in a Coastal River and Lagoonal Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, Meghan B.; Burkholder, Joann M.; Brownie, Cavell

    2009-09-01

    The watershed of the Neuse River, a major tributary of the largest lagoonal estuary on the U.S. mainland, has sustained rapid growth of human and swine populations. This study integrated a decade of available land cover and water quality data to examine relationships between land use changes and surface water quality. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis was used to characterize 26 subbasins throughout the watershed for changes in land use during 1992-2001, considering urban, agricultural (cropland, animal as pasture, and densities of confined animal feed operations [CAFOs]), forested, grassland, and wetland categories and numbers of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). GIS was also used together with longitudinal regression analysis to identify specific land use characteristics that influenced surface water quality. Total phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher during summer in subbasins with high densities of WWTPs and CAFOs. Nitrate was significantly higher during winter in subbasins with high numbers of WWTPs, and organic nitrogen was higher in subbasins with higher agricultural coverage, especially with high coverage of pastures fertilized with animal manure. Ammonium concentrations were elevated after high precipitation. Overall, wastewater discharges in the upper, increasingly urbanized Neuse basin and intensive swine agriculture in the lower basin have been the highest contributors of nitrogen and phosphorus to receiving surface waters. Although nonpoint sources have been emphasized in the eutrophication of rivers and estuaries such as the Neuse, point sources continue to be major nutrient contributors in watersheds sustaining increasing human population growth. The described correlation and regression analyses represent a rapid, reliable method to relate land use patterns to water quality, and they can be adapted to watersheds in any region.

  9. Long-term effects of changing land use practices on surface water quality in a coastal river and lagoonal estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, Meghan B; Burkholder, JoAnn M; Brownie, Cavell

    2009-09-01

    The watershed of the Neuse River, a major tributary of the largest lagoonal estuary on the U.S. mainland, has sustained rapid growth of human and swine populations. This study integrated a decade of available land cover and water quality data to examine relationships between land use changes and surface water quality. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis was used to characterize 26 subbasins throughout the watershed for changes in land use during 1992-2001, considering urban, agricultural (cropland, animal as pasture, and densities of confined animal feed operations [CAFOs]), forested, grassland, and wetland categories and numbers of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). GIS was also used together with longitudinal regression analysis to identify specific land use characteristics that influenced surface water quality. Total phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher during summer in subbasins with high densities of WWTPs and CAFOs. Nitrate was significantly higher during winter in subbasins with high numbers of WWTPs, and organic nitrogen was higher in subbasins with higher agricultural coverage, especially with high coverage of pastures fertilized with animal manure. Ammonium concentrations were elevated after high precipitation. Overall, wastewater discharges in the upper, increasingly urbanized Neuse basin and intensive swine agriculture in the lower basin have been the highest contributors of nitrogen and phosphorus to receiving surface waters. Although nonpoint sources have been emphasized in the eutrophication of rivers and estuaries such as the Neuse, point sources continue to be major nutrient contributors in watersheds sustaining increasing human population growth. The described correlation and regression analyses represent a rapid, reliable method to relate land use patterns to water quality, and they can be adapted to watersheds in any region. PMID:19597872

  10. Shoreline-change Rates of the Barrier Islands in Nakdong River Estuary Using Aerial Photography and SPOT-5 Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hun Jeong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoreline data of the barrier islands in Nakdong River Estuary for the last three decades wereassembled using six sets of aerial photographs and seven sets of satellite images. Canny Algorithm wasapplied to untreated data in order to obtain a wet-dry boundary as a proxy shoreline. Digital ShorelineAnalysis System (DSAS 4.0 was used to estimate the rate of shoreline changes in terms of five statisticalvariables; SCE (Shoreline Change Envelope, NSM (Net Shoreline Movement, EPR(End Point Rate, LRR(Linear Regression Rate, and LMS (Least Median of Squares. The shoreline in Jinwoodo varieddifferently from one place to another during the last three decades; the west tail has advanced (i.e., seawardor southward, the west part has regressed, the south part has advanced, and the east part has regressed.After the 2000s, the rate of shoreline changes (?2.5~6.7 m/yr increased and the east advanced. Theshoreline in Shinjado shows a counterclockwise movement; the west part has advanced, but the east part hasretreated. Since Shinjado was built in its present form, the west part became stable, but the east part hasregressed faster. The rate of shoreline changes (?16.0~12.0 m/yr in Shinjado is greater than that ofJinwoodo. The shoreline in Doyodeung has advanced at a rate of 31.5 m/yr. Since Doyodeung was built inits present form, the south part has regressed at the rate of ?18.2 m/yr, but the east and west parts haveadvanced at the rate of 13.5~14.3 m/yr. Based on Digital Shoreline Analysis, shoreline changes in thebarrier islands in the Nakdong River Estuary have varied both temporally and spatially, although the exactreason for the shoreline changes requires more investigation.

  11. Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in estuarine waters: case study of the Pearl River estuary, South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to estimate chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration in the Pearl River estuary in China. To test the performance of algorithms for the estimation of the chl-a concentration in these productive turbid waters, the maximum band ratio (MBR) and near-infrared-red (NIR-red) models are used in this study. Specific focus is placed on (a) comparing the ability of the models to estimate chl-a in the range 1-12 mg m-3, which is typical for coastal and estuarine waters, and (b) assessing the potential of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) to estimate chl-a concentrations. Reflectance spectra and water samples were collected at 13 stations with chl-a ranging from 0.83 to 11.8 mg m-3 and total suspended matter from 9.9 to 21.5 g m-3. A close relationship was found between chl-a concentration and total suspended matter concentration with the determining coefficient (R2) above 0.89. The MBR calculated in the spectral bands of MODIS proved to be a good proxy for chl-a concentration (R2 > 0.93). On the other hand, both the NIR-red three-band model, with wavebands around 665, 700, and 730 nm, and the NIR-red two-band model (with bands around 665 and 700 nm) explained more than 95% of the chl-a variation, and we were able to estimate chl-a concentrations with a root mean square error below 1 mg m-3. The two- and three-band NIR-red models with MERIS spectral bands accounted for 93% of the chl-a variation. These findings imply that the extensive database of MODIS and MERIS images could be used to quantitatively monitor chl-a in the Pearl River estuary.

  12. Heavy metal spatial variation, bioaccumulation, and risk assessment of Zostera japonica habitat in the Yellow River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haiying; Sun, Tao; Xue, Sufeng; Jiang, Xiangli

    2016-01-15

    Globally, seagrass habitats are decreasing due to both natural and environmental contaminations by human activities, including heavy metal pollution. To expand the global seagrass detection network, this study reports the spatial distributions of Zostera japonica seagrass habitats in the Yellow River Estuary, China. In addition, heavy metal concentrations of Z. japonica tissue, sediment, and surface seawater were analyzed to determine the bioaccumulation and consequent ecological risk to Z. japonica habitats due to the effects of heavy metals. It was found that concentrations of heavy metals were 1.00-2.03 times higher in seagrass-rooted sediment than in adjacent non-seagrass sediment, except for Mn (with a factor of 0.99). Pb and Hg concentrations in sediments exceeded background values more than the other heavy metals, by factors of 1.74 and 1.24, respectively. Metal concentrations in the surrounding seawater were 2.60-4.63 times higher at seagrass sites than at non-seagrass sites, except for Hg (factor of 0.97). Metal concentrations were much higher in seagrass tissues than in the sediment (e.g., bioconcentration factor of Cd is 30.95). Pb concentrations in water may cause the greatest adverse reactions among aquatic organisms, while As, Cr, Hg, Mn and Cu in sediments may occasionally cause negative ecological effects. Z. japonica showed higher bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb in the above-ground tissues. Among other recent studies of seagrasses from other parts of the world, Cd concentrations are similar to the results of the present study, but Pb concentration in present study is higher than in other studies. In conclusion, Pb and As in the surrounding environment present potential risks to the seagrass habitats of the Yellow River Estuary, China. PMID:26410718

  13. Multi-way analysis for decadal pollution trends assessment: the Guadalquivir River estuary as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, José A; Mendiguchía, Carolina; García-Vargas, Manuel; Moreno, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Alongside history, human activities have contributed to the deployment of environmental quality. In particular, during the last decades the problem of water preservation has gained increasing attention. Statistical analysis is essential to analyze environmental data and to identify trends of pollutants over space and time. Usually applied techniques for data treatment are based on the organization of data in a two-way array, missing some shades on pollutants distribution. This fact supports the use of multi-way techniques, which allow the analysis of the results through different directions at the same time. For Three Modes Principal Components Analysis (3MPCA) a principal components analysis is conducted using three modes and a "core" matrix that allows assessing their interactions. In the case of environmental studies, it offers information about the spatial-temporal evolution of pollutants in a certain water body. The Guadalquivir River estuary has been used as a model system. It is a representative human influenced system, where different pollution inputs have been characterized. In this study, decadal evolution of pollutants has been discussed, to evaluate among others the effects of EU legislation on river water quality. The aim of this work is the establishment of the evolution, during the last decade, of nutrients and metals ultra-traces distribution in an estuary affected by anthropic activities. As examples, Pb and PO4(3-) show a trend to decrease their weight on water pollution, total suspended solids (TSS) behavior is related with massive rain events, and the rising of new technologies appears as a source of emerging pollutants as Co in urban-industrial areas. PMID:24997899

  14. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Columbia River estuary - Washington/Oregon as part of the Low Level Waste Ocean Disposal project from 13 August 1979 - 27 September 1984 (NODC Accession 9500016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Columbia River estuary - Washington/Oregon from August 13, 1979 to September 27, 1984....

  15. Initial dilution zone impact assessment of selected industries in the Fraser River estuary. Technical report series No. 93-06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The initial dilution zone (IDZ) monitoring program is a study to document impacts of wastewater discharges on the receiving environment of the Lower Fraser River in the immediate vicinity of the selected effluent discharges. The IDZ study formed part of the first year of the Fraser River Estuary Monitoring Program environmental monitoring program. The study sampled receiving water and sediments within the IDZs of 10 companies that were also sampled as part of FREMP`s effluent characterization study. A reference site was established near the FREMP water quality monitoring station at Mission. Field measurements included pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and salinity. Sediment samples were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters and toxicity. All samples were analyzed for particle size, total organic carbon, and total metals. Sediments from sites related to the forest industry were analyzed for chlorophenols, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in samples from two companies. Effluent dilutions at the edge of the IDZ were calculated based on the drogue data.

  16. Distributions and source apportionment of sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes in rivers and estuaries of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Hwai, Tan Shau; Yusuff, Ferdius Mohamat; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the distributions and sources of sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes in the Malaysian rivers and estuaries were evaluated. The concentrations of 16 USEPA PAHs varied from 225.5 to 293.9 (Perlis River), 195.2 to 481.2 (Kedah River), 791.2 to 1995.4 (Merbok River), 231.2 to 426.7 (Perak River), and 3803.2 to 7442.7 ng g(-1) (Klang River) dry weight. PAHs can be classified as moderate in the Perlis, Kedah, and Perak Rivers, moderate to high in the Merbok River, and high to very high in the Klang River. The comparison of PAHs with sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicates that occasionally adverse biological effects may occur from total PAHs, low molecular weight (LMW), and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs at stations 1, 2, and 3 of the Klang River and from total PAHs at station 2 of the Merbok River. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs indicate both petrogenic and pyrogenic origin PAHs with significant dominance of pyrogenic sources in the study areas. The results suggest that Malaysian sediments had hopane ratios (C29/C30) similar to MECO suggesting MECO as a major source of the petroleum hydrocarbons found in the sediments, which is consistent with results reported in previous studies. These findings demonstrate that effective and improved environmental regulations in Malaysia have shifted the source of petroleum hydrocarbons from petrogenic to pyrogenic origin. PMID:25604562

  17. Population characteristics of the swimming crab Callinectes amnicola De Rocheburne, 1883 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Portunidae) in the Qua Iboe River estuary, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    James P. Udoh; Anthony A. Nlewadim

    2011-01-01

    Aspects of the biology of Callinectes amnicola, from the Qua Iboe River estuary, south-eastern Nigeria, was investigated for twelve months from June 2008 to May 2009, with respect to its size composition and population characteristics. A total of 1,193 specimens were obtained comprising 508males and 685 females with overall (1:1.35, ?2 = 26.26, 1 df, p < 0.05) and rainy season (1:1.2; ?2 =2.17, I df, p

  18. [Phenomena of pH instant increasing and its effect on dissolved inorganic carbon flux to sea in Yellow River estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Shang; Zhang, Long-Jun

    2007-06-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH, the partial pressure of CO (pCO2), total alkalinity (TA), dissolved oxygen saturation (DO), chlorophyll a (Chl-a), and NH4+, PO4(3-) were studied in mixing zone of Yellow River estuary from September 2004 to April 2006. The results indicate that pH value is higher than that of freshwater in low salinity area where DIC is non-conservative. NH4+, PO4(3-) sharply decreasing indicates that biogenic respiration is possibly inhibited in early mixing of freshwater and seawater, then pCO2, which is derived from biogenic respiration, swiftly decrease and lead to CaCO3 precipitation in low salinity area, and the pH value will simultaneously increase in this area. Instant increasing pH value can be used as index of CaCO3 precipitation in Yellow River estuary. According to dissolved matter mixing model in estuary, the observation of 1:1 removal of TA and DIC provides just evidence that DIC removal we observed in the field is a result of CaCO3 precipitation. The process can clean 10% (1.21 x 10(5) tons) DIC which is transported by freshwater both in dry and wet weathers, and the annually effective DIC flux to sea of Yellow River is 10.86 x 10(5) tons. Ten percent of CO2 (2.24 x 10(5) t) which is absorbed by chemical weathering process in drainage basin will release to atmosphere in Yellow River estuary. PMID:17674725

  19. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-FLAME IONIZATION DETECTION FINGERPRINT OF HYDROCARBON EXTRACTS FROM WATER AND SEDIMENTS OF THE GREAT KWA RIVER ESTUARY, SOUTH EASTERN COAST OF NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    O.R. OGRI; S.P. MALU; S. T. Ubwa

    2011-01-01

    Various fractions of hydrocarbon in water and sediments from Great Kwa River Estuary (GKRE) Southeast coast of Nigeria were studied quarterly for a period of one year by extracting the total hydrocarbons (THC) from samples. After pre-treatment, finger prints of various hydrocarbon fractions were determined by (GC-FID). Results analysis show that the sediments contain high level of hydrocarbon of crude petroleum origin, suggesting possible impact of petroleum industries in the area. Only 50% o...

  20. Evaluation of Status of Heavy Metals Pollution of Sediments in Qua-Iboe River Estuary and Associated Creeks, South-Eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ikama E. Uwah; Solomon F. Dan; Rebecca A. Etiuma; Unyime E. Umoh

    2013-01-01

    Sixteen bottom sediment samples collected from Qua-Iboe River estuary and associated creeks were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Ni, pH, Organic carbon (orgC),and grain size in order to assess the current pollution status in sediment of the study area. Concentration data were processed using Pearson correlation analysis. Sediment pollution assessment was carried out using Enrichment factor, Geo-accumulation index and Modified degree of contamination. The calculated enrichment factor show...

  1. Challenges and opportunities for the business sector in the fight against poverty : the case of Brazil’s Amazon River estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Barney Gonzalez, M.J.; Meirelles, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the actions and strategies of three companies, and the dilemmas and bottlenecks they faced in their attempts to contribute to sustainability and poverty alleviation through business operations in the Amazon River Estuary. The results of the paper are based on three case studies carried out by the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) using a quick-scan approach, as part of KIT’s research into corporate social responsibility from the perspective of social and gender equity.

  2. Contribution of Priority PAHs and POPs to Ah Receptor-Mediated Activities in Sediment Samples from the River Elbe Estuary, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Otte, Jens C.; Keiter, Steffen; Faßbender, Christopher; Higley, Eric B.; Rocha, Paula Suares; Brinkmann, Markus; Wahrendorf, Dierk-Steffen; Manz, Werner; Wetzel, Markus A.; Braunbeck, Thomas; Giesy, John P.; Hecker, Markus; Hollert, Henner

    2013-01-01

    The estuary of the River Elbe between Hamburg and the North Sea (Germany) is a sink for contaminated sediment and suspended particulate matter (SPM). One major concern is the effect of human activities on the hydrodynamics, particularly the intensive dredging activities in this area that may result in remobilization of sediment-bound pollutants. The aim of this study was to identify pollutants contributing to the toxicological risk associated with re-suspension of sediments in the Elbe Estuar...

  3. In situ fate and partitioning of waterborne perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the Youngsan and Nakdong River Estuaries of South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations, distributions, fate, and partitioning of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were investigated in surface water (n = 34) collected from the Youngsan and Nakdong River Estuaries of South Korea. Thirteen individual PFAAs in water and suspended solids (SS) were quantified by use of HPLC–MS/MS. PFAAs were detected in all samples, which indicated that they were widely distributed in the study area. Greater concentrations of PFAAs were found at some inland sites which seemed to be affected by direct input from point sources, such as wastewater treatment plants, and/or indirect diffusive sources, such as surface runoff. Spatial distributions of PFAAs in estuaries along transects toward the open sea demonstrated that these chemicals were transported to the outer region primarily by water discharged during the rainy season. Field-based partition coefficients (Kd) for long-chain PFAAs (C ? 8) were significantly correlated with salinity (r2 = 0.48 to 0.73, p d values increased exponentially as a function of salinity. Due to the ‘salting-out’ effect, PFAAs were largely scavenged by adsorption onto SS and/or sediments in estuarine environments. In addition, values for Kd of those PFAAs were directly proportional to the number of carbon atoms in the PFAAs. Salting constants of selected PFAAs were notably greater than those of other environmental organic contaminants, which indicated that adsorption of PFAAs is largely associated with salinity. Overall, the results of the present study will provide better understanding of the fate and transport of PFAAs in the zone of salinity boundary that can be used for developing fate models of PFAAs in the coastal marine environment. - Highlights: ? In situ fate and partitioning of PFAAs were described along salinity gradients in estuaries. ? Salinity was found to be the key factor controlling adsorption of waterborne PFAAs. ? The Kd for longer-chain PFAAs (C ? 8) increased as a function of salinity (salting-out effect). ? Salting constants of PFAAs were notably greater than those of other organic contaminants. ? Results of this study will provide better understanding of PFAAs fate in the field

  4. In situ fate and partitioning of waterborne perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the Youngsan and Nakdong River Estuaries of South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seongjin [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Khim, Jong Seong, E-mail: jskocean@snu.ac.kr [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinsoon [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minhee; Kim, Woong-Ki; Jung, Jinho; Hyun, Seunghun; Kim, Jeong-Gyu [Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyojin; Choi, Heeseon J. [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Ecology, GeoSystem Research Corporation, Gunpo (Korea, Republic of); Codling, Garry [Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Giesy, John P. [Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Department of Zoology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Department of Biology and Chemistry and State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR (China)

    2013-02-15

    Concentrations, distributions, fate, and partitioning of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were investigated in surface water (n = 34) collected from the Youngsan and Nakdong River Estuaries of South Korea. Thirteen individual PFAAs in water and suspended solids (SS) were quantified by use of HPLC–MS/MS. PFAAs were detected in all samples, which indicated that they were widely distributed in the study area. Greater concentrations of PFAAs were found at some inland sites which seemed to be affected by direct input from point sources, such as wastewater treatment plants, and/or indirect diffusive sources, such as surface runoff. Spatial distributions of PFAAs in estuaries along transects toward the open sea demonstrated that these chemicals were transported to the outer region primarily by water discharged during the rainy season. Field-based partition coefficients (K{sub d}) for long-chain PFAAs (C ? 8) were significantly correlated with salinity (r{sup 2} = 0.48 to 0.73, p < 0.01); K{sub d} values increased exponentially as a function of salinity. Due to the ‘salting-out’ effect, PFAAs were largely scavenged by adsorption onto SS and/or sediments in estuarine environments. In addition, values for K{sub d} of those PFAAs were directly proportional to the number of carbon atoms in the PFAAs. Salting constants of selected PFAAs were notably greater than those of other environmental organic contaminants, which indicated that adsorption of PFAAs is largely associated with salinity. Overall, the results of the present study will provide better understanding of the fate and transport of PFAAs in the zone of salinity boundary that can be used for developing fate models of PFAAs in the coastal marine environment. - Highlights: ? In situ fate and partitioning of PFAAs were described along salinity gradients in estuaries. ? Salinity was found to be the key factor controlling adsorption of waterborne PFAAs. ? The K{sub d} for longer-chain PFAAs (C ? 8) increased as a function of salinity (salting-out effect). ? Salting constants of PFAAs were notably greater than those of other organic contaminants. ? Results of this study will provide better understanding of PFAAs fate in the field.

  5. Composition of shrimp populations (Crustacea: Decapoda) in non-vegetated areas of two river islands in a Brazilian Amazon estuary

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Priscila Sousa Vilela da, Nóbrega; Bianca, Bentes; Jussara Moretto, Martinelli-Lemos.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the shrimp found in non-vegetated areas of an estuary of the Amazon River. We ascertained the input of juveniles, species' biometrics and the influence of environmental factors on the abundance of species. The samples were collected monthly, from August 2006 to July 2007, in [...] two places in the estuary, each next to an island. For collecting, we used a manual trawl to perform three hauls per month, totaling 36 samples per site. The abundance of shrimps was estimated as a function of the density of specimens per unit area. We used the Spearman's correlation to test the hypothesis that there is significant correlation between the average of the environmental variables measured and variations in shrimp density. The Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney tests showed that there were significant differences in environment factors (temperature and salinity) among the months and sites. We obtained 6,091 shrimps, from which 5,231 (85.88%) were caught off the Arapiranga Island and 860 (14.12%) off the Mosqueiro Island, Palaemonidae and Penaeidae were the only families recorded. Five species were collected: Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862), Macrobrachium surinamicum Holthuis, 1948, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879), and Farfantepenaeus subtilis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967). The latter (pink shrimp) was found for the first time in oligohaline environments (0-8). Macrobrachium amazonicum was the most abundant species. The recruitment of M. amazonicum juveniles was continuous throughout the year. The population of M. surinamicum was composed by juveniles and adults and that of F. subtilis exclusively by juveniles. The environmental factors analyzed were variable throughout the year and seem to explain the patterns of shrimp species occurrence in the region, the variation in their abundance and juvenile recruitment.

  6. Metagenomic evidence for reciprocal particle exchange between the mainstem estuary and lateral bay sediments of the lower Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maria W.; Davis, Richard E.; Youngblut, Nicholas D.; Kärnä, Tuomas; Herfort, Lydie; Whitaker, Rachel J.; Metcalf, William W.; Tebo, Bradley M.; Baptista, António M.; Simon, Holly M.

    2015-01-01

    Lateral bays of the lower Columbia River estuary are areas of enhanced water retention that influence net ecosystem metabolism through activities of their diverse microbial communities. Metagenomic characterization of sediment microbiota from three disparate sites in two brackish lateral bays (Baker and Youngs) produced ?100 Gbp of DNA sequence data analyzed subsequently for predicted SSU rRNA and peptide-coding genes. The metagenomes were dominated by Bacteria. A large component of Eukaryota was present in Youngs Bay samples, i.e., the inner bay sediment was enriched with the invasive New Zealand mudsnail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, known for high ammonia production. The metagenome was also highly enriched with an archaeal ammonia oxidizer closely related to Nitrosoarchaeum limnia. Combined analysis of sequences and continuous, high-resolution time series of biogeochemical data from fixed and mobile platforms revealed the importance of large-scale reciprocal particle exchanges between the mainstem estuarine water column and lateral bay sediments. Deposition of marine diatom particles in sediments near Youngs Bay mouth was associated with a dramatic enrichment of Bacteroidetes (58% of total Bacteria) and corresponding genes involved in phytoplankton polysaccharide degradation. The Baker Bay sediment metagenome contained abundant Archaea, including diverse methanogens, as well as functional genes for methylotrophy and taxonomic markers for syntrophic bacteria, suggesting that active methane cycling occurs at this location. Our previous work showed enrichments of similar anaerobic taxa in particulate matter of the mainstem estuarine water column. In total, our results identify the lateral bays as both sources and sinks of biogenic particles significantly impacting microbial community composition and biogeochemical activities in the estuary. PMID:26483785

  7. Quality and Behavior of Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary and Nearshore Ocean and Effects of the Ocean Environment on the Survival of Columbia River Juvenile Salmonids, 1989-1994 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, R.C.; Schiewe, Michael H.; Fisher, J.P.

    1989-05-01

    In response to this limited understanding of the factors responsible for the continuing decline of spring chinook salmon in the Columbia River, this research plan was developed. The overall goal of the proposed research is to investigate and identify relationships among smolt quality (measured in the hatchery and after recovery in the estuary and nearshore ocean), environmental conditions in the estuary and nearshore ocean during smolt migration, and long-term survival (as measured by adult returns to the hatchery of origin and contributions to the recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries). 16 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. DELAWARE ESTUARY PCB MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Delaware River Basin Commission recently completed the first phase of a program to develop and implement Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for toxic pollutants for the Delaware Estuary. This complex body of water extends from the head of tide at Trenton, NJ (River Mile 133.2...

  9. Fate and source distribution of organic constituents in a river-dominated tropical estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, P. M.; Sujatha, C. H.; Ratheesh Kumar, C. S.

    2015-08-01

    We investigated spatial and temporal changes in the quality of sedimentary organic matter and trophic status of the Cochin estuarine system, southwest coast of India. Sediment samples were collected in five sampling campaigns from January 2009 to April 2010. TOC/N ratio implied mixed input of autochthonous as well as remarkable allochthonous terrestrial higher plant debris into the sedimentary system. More depleted ? 13C values at riverine and industrial zone suggested a major contribution of terrestrial higher plant debris to sedimentary organic matter. Trophic status of the estuary changed seasonally to eutrophic via oligotrophic and mesotrophic conditions during the period January 2009 to April 2010. The protein to carbohydrate ratio was lower (1) denoted preservation of lipid compounds in the sediments. Correlation analyses provide evidence of the association of chlorophyll pigments with carbohydrates and account for the highly productive nature of the estuary and algal contributions to organic matter. Canonical correspondence analysis clearly illustrated prominence of phaeopigments in fishing zone, lipids in sewage/tourism influenced zone, carbohydrates in riverine zone and proteins in industrial zone. It also indicated the influence of sedimentary texture, pH and organic carbon to the distribution of biochemical constituents.

  10. Fate and source distribution of organic constituents in a river-dominated tropical estuary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P M Salas; C H Sujatha; C S Ratheesh Kumar

    2015-08-01

    We investigated spatial and temporal changes in the quality of sedimentary organic matter and trophic status of the Cochin estuarine system, southwest coast of India. Sediment samples were collected in five sampling campaigns from January 2009 to April 2010. TOC/N ratio implied mixed input of autochthonous as well as remarkable allochthonous terrestrial higher plant debris into the sedimentary system. More depleted $\\delta^{13}$C values at riverine and industrial zone suggested a major contribution of terrestrial higher plant debris to sedimentary organic matter. Trophic status of the estuary changed seasonally to eutrophic via oligotrophic and mesotrophic conditions during the period January 2009 to April 2010. The protein to carbohydrate ratio was lower (<1), indicating heterotrophic nature and the higher lipid to carbohydrate ratio (>1) denoted preservation of lipid compounds in the sediments. Correlation analyses provide evidence of the association of chlorophyll pigments with carbohydrates and account for the highly productive nature of the estuary and algal contributions to organic matter. Canonical correspondence analysis clearly illustrated prominence of phaeopigments in fishing zone, lipids in sewage/tourism influenced zone, carbohydrates in riverine zone and proteins in industrial zone. It also indicated the influence of sedimentary texture, pH and organic carbon to the distribution of biochemical constituents.

  11. Seasonal effects of wastewater to the water quality of the Caeté river estuary, Brazilian Amazon

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luci C.C., Pereira; Marcela C., Monteiro; Danielly O., Guimarães; Jislene B., Matos; Rauquírio M. da, Costa.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A situação socioeconômica de Bragança depende principalmente dos recursos biológicos estuarinos e marinhos, que são influenciados pelos ciclos de marés e climatologia. Coletas oceanográficas (com medidas de variáveis hidrológicas, hidro-dinâmicas e microbiológicas) foram realizadas na área mais urba [...] nizada do estuário do Caeté, para caracterizar a qualidade das águas no setor estudado. Durante o período seco, o estuário foi mais eutrófico e apresentou os maiores valores de temperatura (30,5°C em Out./06), salinidade (17 psu em Fev./07), pH (8,24 em Fev./07) e coliformes fecais (>1000 MNP/ 100 ml em Dez./06 e Fev./07). As espécies fitoplanctô-nicas Cyclotella meneghiniana, Coscinodiscus centralis e outras espécies r-estrategistas também foram observadas. A falta de saneamento básico foi responsável pela contaminação local, especialmente durante o período seco, quando o esgoto foi lançado mais concentrado no estuário, mostrando a influência humana na redução da qualidade da água estuarina estudada. A pesca é considerada uma das principais atividades econômicas do município de Bragança e, portanto, esta contaminação poderá afetar negativamente a qualidade ambiental deste ecossistema amazônico. Abstract in english Bragança's socioeconomic situation is highly dependent on estuarine and marine biological resources that are influenced by tidal cycles and climatology. Field measurements (hydrological, hydrodynamic and microbiological variables) were taken in the most urbanized zone from Caeté estuary to character [...] ise the quality of the local environment. During the dry period, the estuary was more eutrophic and presented the highest temperature (30.5 °C in Oct./06), salinity (17 psu in Feb./07), pH (8.24 in Feb./07) and fecal coliform (> 1000 MPN/100 ml in Dec./06 and Feb./07) values. The phytoplankton Cyclotella meneghiniana, Coscinodiscus centralis and other r-strategist species were observed. The lack of basic hydric canalization was responsible for the local contamination, especially during the dry period when more concentrated wastewater from the city was emitted into the estuary, showing the human influence on the reduction of local estuarine water quality. In Bragança, the fishery is considered one of the main economic activities so, this contamination is worrisome because a large part of the local economy depends on biological resources and, thus, the contamination could negatively affect the environmental health of this Amazon ecosystem.

  12. Drought and flood effects on macrobenthic communities in the estuary of Australia's largest river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Sabine; Baring, Ryan; Baggalley, Stephanie; Cantin, Agnes; Earl, Jason; Gannon, Ruan; Keuning, Justine; Mayo, Angela; Navong, Nathavong; Nelson, Matt; Noble, Warwick; Ramsdale, Tanith

    2015-11-01

    Estuaries are prone to drought and flood events, which can vary in frequency and intensity depending on water management and climate change. We investigated effects of two different drought and flow situations, including a four year long drought (referred to as Millennium drought) and a major flood event, on the macrobenthic community in the estuary and coastal lagoon of the Murray Mouth and Coorong, where freshwater inflows are strictly regulated. The analysis is based on ten years of annual monitoring of benthic communities and environmental conditions in sediment and water. The objectives were to identify changes in diversity, abundance, biomass and distribution, as well as community shifts and environmental drivers for the respective responses. The Millennium drought led to decreased taxonomic richness, abundance and biomass of macrobenthos as hypersaline conditions developed and water levels dropped. More taxa were found under very high salinities than predicted from the Remane diagram. When a flood event broke the Millennium drought, recovery took longer than from a shorter drought followed by small flows. A flow index was developed to assess the biological response subject to the duration of the preceding drought and flow volumes. The index showed higher taxonomic richness, abundance and biomass at intermediate and more continuous flow conditions. Abundance increased quickly after flows were restored, but the benthic community was initially composed of small bodied organisms and biomass increased only after several years once larger organisms became more abundant. Individual densities and constancy of distribution dropped during the drought for almost all macrobenthic taxa, but recoveries after the flood were taxon specific. Distinct benthic communities were detected over time before and after the drought and flood events, and spatially, as the benthic community in the hypersaline Coorong was split off with a salinity threshold of 64 identified by LINKTREE analysis. Salinity, low dissolved oxygen saturation and sediment properties accounted for further community splits in the estuarine Murray Mouth. This long term monitoring revealed ecological benefits of intermediate and continuous flow and that resilience of estuarine macrobenthos to drought and flood events was affected by flow history. The index can be applied to other flow regulated estuaries and inform environmental watering targets.

  13. Concentrations and fluxes of dissolved uranium in the Yellow River estuary: seasonal variation and anthropogenic (Water-Sediment Regulation Scheme) impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Water-Sediment Regulation Scheme (WSRS) of the Yellow River is a procedure implemented annually from June to July to expel sediments deposited in Xiaolangdi and other large middle-reach reservoirs and to scour the lower reaches of the river, by controlling water and sediment discharges. Dissolved uranium isotopes were measured in river waters collected monthly as well as daily during the 2010 WSRS (June 19–July 16) from Station Lijin (a hydrologic station nearest to the Yellow River estuary). The monthly samples showed dissolved uranium concentrations of 3.85–7.57 ?g l?1 and 234U/238U activity ratios of 1.24–1.53. The concentrations were much higher than those reported for other global major rivers, and showed seasonal variability. Laboratory simulation experiments showed significant uranium release from bottom and suspended sediment. The uranium concentrations and activity ratios differed during the two stages of the WSRS, which may reflect desorption/dissolution of uranium from suspended river sediments of different origins. An annual flux of dissolved uranium of 1.04 × 108 g y?1 was estimated based on the monthly average water discharge and dissolved uranium concentration in the lower reaches of the Yellow River. The amount of dissolved uranium (2.65 × 107 g) transported from the Yellow River to the sea during the WSRS constituted about 1/4 of the annual flux. -- Highlights: • Dissolved U in the Yellow River estuary has distinct seasonal variability. • Geochemistry of dissolved U influenced by the WSRS has been analyzed. • Uranium flux during the WSRS has been evaluated

  14. The distribution and occurrence of the marine manatee (Trichechus manatus in the estuary of the Mamanguape River, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Grubel da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the existing historical records of marine manatees in the Brazilian coast since the 17th century, few studies about this species were conducted in Brazil. Among them, the estuary of the Mamanguape River is told to be the main place of this species concentration in the northeastern coast of Brazil, but this one is suffering oppression due to the improvement of human activities which can compromise the ecosystem as a whole. In this way, this work viewed to obtain information about the marine manatee´s ecology and behavior in the estuary of the Mamanguape River, establishing seasonal modifications in its emergence, checking preferable places of occupation and detecting possible human activities which interfere in its biological cycle. With this purpose, it was developed one program for marine manatee groups in the region of Bar of Mamanguape and adjacent, by direct observation and interviews with fishers from 1988 to 1991. During the studies period, 608 monitoring visits were made to Bar of Mamanguape, totalizing 285 watching of isolated or grouped manatees and 2.185 hours of observation in fixed places. The major number of sightings happened from October to May, when the animals were seen more regularly and frequently in groups. From June to September, the animals went to that region sporadically and almost always alone. The biggest group observed was one formed by nine animals and the biggest one of registered animals at the same time was by 11 manatees. It was detected that the human activities which produce many noises in the water interfere with the animals´ behavior, scaring and dispersing the groups. Purse seines, drift and gill nets, used in the region, when closer to the groups, besides scaring away the animals, can be damaged due to the possible collisions with the marine manatees. Already the more resistant gill nets (caçoás imply extreme danger, because can flog the animals and get them to death. It is concluded that the region of the Bar of Mamanguape is of paramount importance for the maintenance of the reproductive cycle of the marine manatee, because it is one of their most concentration in the Northeast of Brazil. Creating restrictive zones within the Area of Environmental Preservation (AEP of the Bar of Mamanguape and ranking human activities are essential for the preservation of this species.

  15. Estimating bankfull discharge and depth in ungauged estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisen, Jacqueline Isabella Anak; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2015-04-01

    It is difficult to measure river discharge accurately in an estuary, and particularly, in the region where the tidal flow dominates over the river discharge. River discharge is important for the morphology and hydrodynamics of estuaries as it influences the salt intrusion process, tidal dynamics, freshwater supply (water resources management), and the occurrence of floods. Here we try to derive river regime characteristics from the seaward end: the estuary. It is found that there are empirical relationships that link the geometry of an estuary to its river regime, which can be used to estimate river discharge characteristics with the least of data available. The aims of this study are: (1) to derive empirical relations between geometrical characteristics of estuaries and the bankfull discharge; (2) to explore a physical explanation for this relation; and (3) to estimate the bankfull discharge in estuaries. The physical connection between an estuary and its river regime is found by combining estuary shape analysis, tidal dynamic analysis, and Lacey's hydraulic geometry theory. The relationships found between the estuary depth, width, and bankfull river discharge have been tested in 23 estuaries around the world (including seven recently surveyed estuaries). From the analysis, it shows that the depth of an estuary is a function of the bankfull flood discharge to the power of 1/3, which is in agreement with Lacey's formula. This finding not only provides a method to estimate estuary depth, it also allows estimating flood discharge characteristics from readily available estuary shape indicators.

  16. Salinity adaptation of the invasive New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) in the Columbia River estuary (Pacific Northwest, USA): physiological and molecular studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Marshal; Boese, Bruce L.; Taylor, Louise; Reusser, Deborah; Rodriguez, Rusty

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine salinity stress tolerances of two populations of the invasive species New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, one population from a high salinity environment in the Columbia River estuary and the other from a fresh water lake. In 1996, New Zealand mud snails were discovered in the tidal reaches of the Columbia River estuary that is routinely exposed to salinity at near full seawater concentrations. In contrast, in their native habitat and throughout its spread in the western US, New Zealand mud snails are found only in fresh water ecosystems. Our aim was to determine whether the Columbia River snails have become salt water adapted. Using a modification of the standard amphipod sediment toxicity test, salinity tolerance was tested using a range of concentrations up to undiluted seawater, and the snails were sampled for mortality at daily time points. Our results show that the Columbia River snails were more tolerant of acute salinity stress with the LC50 values averaging 38 and 22 Practical Salinity Units for the Columbia River and freshwater snails, respectively. DNA sequence analysis and morphological comparisons of individuals representing each population indicate that they were all P. antipodarum. These results suggest that this species is salt water adaptable and in addition, this investigation helps elucidate the potential of this aquatic invasive organism to adapt to adverse environmental conditions.

  17. Investigating the Impacts of Landuse-landcover (LULC Change in the Pearl River Delta Region on Water Quality in the Pearl River Estuary and Hong Kong’s Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Xi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Water quality information in the coastal region of Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary (PRE is of great concern to the local community. Due to great landuse-landcover (LULC changes with rapid industrialization and urbanization in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, water quality in the PRE has worsened during the last 20 years. Frequent red tide and harmful algal blooms have occurred in the estuary and its adjacent coastal waters since the 1980s and have caused important economic losses, also possibly threatening to the coastal environment, fishery, and public health in Hong Kong. In addition, recent literature shows that water nutrients in Victoria Harbor of Hong Kong have been proven to be strongly influenced by both the Pearl River and sewage effluent in the wet season (May to September, but it is still unclear how the PRE diluted water intrudes into Victoria Harbor. Due to the cloudy and rainy conditions in the wet season in Hong Kong, ASAR images will be used to monitor the PRE river plumes and track the intruding routes of PRE water nutrients. In this paper, we first review LULC change in the PRD and then show our preliminary results to analyze water quality spatial and temporal information from remote observations with different sensors in the coastal region and estuary. The study will also emphasizes on time series of analysis of LULC trends related to annual sediment yields and critical source areas of erosion for the PRD region since the 1980s.

  18. Sources and Transformations of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Potomac River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennino, M. J.; Kaushal, S.; Murthy, S.

    2011-12-01

    Urbanization has altered the transport of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in river ecosystems, making it important to understand how rivers are responding to these increased inputs of C and N. This study examines the capacity of a major tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, the Potomac River, to transform N and C inputs from the world's largest advanced wastewater treatment facility (Washington D.C. Water and Sewer Authority). Surface water and effluent samples were collected monthly for one year, along longitudinal transects of the Potomac River. Water samples were analyzed for the major dissolved and particulate forms of C and N. Nitrate stable isotopes were used to trace the fate of wastewater nitrate, as well as how other nitrate sources vary downriver. Sources of carbon downriver were traced using fluorescence spectroscopy, excitation emission matrices (EEMs), and PARAFAC modeling. Historical influent and effluent data on C and N levels were also compared with regional population growth data, climate change data, and long-term interannual records of C and N levels within downstream stations along the Potomac River. Improvements in treatment technology over the past two decades have shown significant decreases in effluent nitrogen levels, with corresponding decreases overtime of nutrients at downstream sampling stations. Levels of nitrate show increases within the vicinity of the wastewater treatment outfall, but decrease rapidly downstream, potentially indicating nutrient uptake and/or denitrification. Total organic carbon levels show a smaller decrease downstream, resulting in an increase in the C:N ratio downstream. Longitudinal river chemistry data also show that dissolved inorganic nitrogen goes down while total organic nitrogen goes up with distance downriver, indicating biological transformations are taking place along the river. Preliminary data from fluorescence EEMs suggested that more humic-like organic matter is important above the wastewater treatment plant, but more protein-like organic matter is present below the treatment plant. However, this fluorescence signal from wastewater organic matter disappears within 2-4 km downriver, indicating rapid processing of the labile organic matter within the river. Nitrate isotope data for both upriver and downriver samples show a signal from manure or sewage inputs, indicating a potential influence from animal farms upstream in the Potomac. However, only the downriver samples show evidence for denitrification. Additionally, the higher 15N isotope levels of nitrate, which are characteristic of wastewater sources, disappear by 20 km downriver. Majors rivers like the Potomac may have a huge capacity for transforming and processing large carbon and nitrogen inputs within a short distance. Greater knowledge of how land management and climate change impacts these transformations will be important in predicting changes in the amounts, forms, and stoichiometry of nutrient loads to coastal waters.

  19. Proceedings of the Columbia River Estuary Conference on Ecosystem Restoration, April 29-30, 2008, Astoria, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Sutherland, G. Bruce [Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (retired)

    2008-09-29

    The 2008 Columbia River Estuary Conference was held at the Liberty Theater in Astoria, Oregon, on April 19-20. The conference theme was ecosystem restoration. The purpose of the conference was to exchange data and information among researchers, policy-makers, and the public, i.e., interrelate science with management. Conference organizers invited presentations synthesizing material on Restoration Planning and Implementation (Session 1), Research to Reduce Restoration Uncertainties (Session 2), Wetlands and Flood Management (Session 3), Action Effectiveness Monitoring (Session 4), and Management Perspectives (Session 5). A series of three plenary talks opened the conference. Facilitated speaker and audience discussion periods were held at the end of each session. Contributed posters conveyed additional data and information. These proceedings include abstracts and notes documenting questions from the audience and clarifying answers from the presenter for each talk. The proceedings also document key points from the discussion periods at the end of each session. The conference program is outlined in the agenda section. Speaker biographies are presented in Appendix A. Poster titles and authors are listed in Appendix B. A list of conference attendees is contained in Appendix C. A compact disk, attached to the back cover, contains material in hypertext-markup-language from the conference website (http://cerc.labworks.org/) and the individual presentations.

  20. Biogeochemistry of bulk organic matter and biogenic elements in surface sediments of the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Cao, Lu; Liu, Su-Mei; Zhang, Guo-Sen

    2015-07-15

    This study investigated the distribution and roles of total organic carbon (TOC), biogenic silicon (BSi), various forms of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and the stable carbon isotope (?(13)C) in surface sediments of the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) and adjacent sea. Terrestrial input accounted for 12-63% of total organic matter in the study area. The distribution of biogenic elements was affected by the Changjiang Diluted Water, the Jiangsu Coastal Current, human activities, marine biological processes, and the sediment grain size. Potentially bioavailable N and P accounted for an average 79.6% of the total N (TN) and 31.8% of the total P (TP), respectively. The burial fluxes for TOC, BSi, TN and TP were 39.74-2194.32, 17.34-517.48, 5.02-188.85 and 3.10-62.72 ?mol cm(-2) yr(-1), respectively. The molar ratios of total N/P (1.2-5.0), Si/P (5.0-14.8) and Fe/P (21-61) indicated that much of the P was sequestered in sediments. PMID:25960273

  1. Soil as levels and bioaccumulation in Suaeda salsa and Phragmites australis wetlands of the Yellow River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjing; Bai, Junhong; Gao, Zhaoqin; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on As contamination dynamics in the soil-plant systems of wetlands. Total arsenic (As) in soil and plant samples from Suaeda salsa and Phragmites australis wetlands was measured in the Yellow River Estuary (YRE) in summer and autumn of 2007 to investigate the seasonal changes in As concentrations in different wetlands. The results showed that soil As levels greatly exceeded the global and regional background values. As levels in soil and the roots and stems of both types of plants were much higher in summer than in autumn, whereas leaf As showed higher level in autumn. Soil sulfur was the main factor influencing As levels in Suaeda salsa wetlands, whereas soil porosity was the most important factor for Phragmites australis wetlands. The contamination factor (CF) showed moderately to considerably polluted levels of As in both wetland soils. Plant roots and leaves of Suaeda salsa had higher As concentrations and biological concentration factors (BCFs) than stems, while the leaves and stems of Phragmites australis showed higher As levels and BCFs than roots. Compared to Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa generally showed higher translocation factor (TF), while TF values for both plant species were higher in summer than in autumn. PMID:25685781

  2. Geochemistry of carbon stable isotope in Shatt AL-Arab River and Khor AL-Zubair Estuary, South Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    24 samples of Mollusc shells from Shatt AL-Arab river and Khor AL-Zubair estuary were analyzed in order to determine the concentration of carbon stable isotope and also to clarify the factors that control the geochemical distribution of carbon isotopes in these two different environments. The carbon stable isotope were measured using the dosed tube method, in which shell samples are combusted to carbon dioxide for carbon isotope analysis. The carbon dioxide samples are analyzed on a Finnigan Mat 251 isotope ratio mass spectrometer equipped with a triple collector and controlled by an Apple He microcomputer. Measurements are made relative to several working standards {Norit (-24 per mille),NBS-22 (-29 per mille)}, and several secondary light methane standards at -43.4 per mille and -62.6 per mille. All values are reported versus PDB. These analyses are conducted in the department, of Oceanography in Texas A and M University. This study indicates that the differences in carbon stable isotopes were due to three factors: environmental conditions, under which these three molluscs are lived, chemistry of the water in Shatt AL-Arab and Khor AL-Zubair and feeding quality of these of these molluscs. The factors are close related with another important factor that it. is the pollution present in these two different environments. (author)

  3. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of halogenated organic pollutants in mangrove biota from the Pearl River Estuary, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Xin; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Hu, Yong-Xia; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Cai, Ming-Gang; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-10-15

    Four biota species were collected from mangrove ecosystems of the Pearl River Estuary to investigate the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dechlorane plus (DP), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE). Concentrations of ?PCBs, ?DDTs, ?PBDEs, DP, DBDPE and anti-Cl11-DP (the dechlorination product of anti-DP) in mangrove biota ranged from 32.1-466, 153-3819, 3.88-59.8, 0.18-6.88, not detected (nd)-30.6 and nd-2.65ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Daggertooth pike conger (Muraenesox cinereus) had higher concentrations of contaminants than the other three biota species. Significant positive relationship between anti-Cl11-DP and anti-DP levels was observed in mangrove biota. DDTs were the predominant HOPs in all biota species, followed by PCBs and PBDEs. All the target compounds exhibited biomagnification, with biomagnification factors greater than 1 in the studied feeding relationships. Food web magnification was found for ?PCBs, ?DDTs, ?PBDEs and DP, with trophic magnification factors of 2.76, 2.61, 2.20 and 2.31, respectively. PMID:26209127

  4. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments and water from the Brisbane River estuary, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayal, S. I.; Connell, D. W.

    1989-11-01

    Twenty-three composite sediment and eight water particulate and water filtrate samples were collected along the Brisbane River estuary from the mouth to 40 km upstream. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the samples were isolated by solvent extraction and column chromatography then identified and quantified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 72 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were identified in the samples with fluoranthene and pyrene occurring in the highest concentrations, up to 2·34±1·73 and 2·26±1·72 ?g g -1, respectively, in sediments. Total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distribution patterns showed that the most urbanized zone of the study area had the highest total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration (16·1 ?g g -1). Concentrations were relatively lower both upstream and downstream from this area. Upstream there were no significant inputs but downstream various industries constituted major point sources; however, the concentrations were comparatively low, probably due to flushing by tides and currents. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were not significantly influenced by the organic carbon content and particle size composition of sediments. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon assemblages observed in the samples were relatively rich in hydrocarbons having pyrolytic origins. However, the presence of petroleum derived components was also indicated by several characteristic component composition ratios.

  5. Preliminary assessment of the potential for mangrove oyster cultivation in Piraquê-açu river estuary (Aracruz, ES)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana, Alvarenga; Rosebel Cunha, Nalesso.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available No estuário do Rio Piraquê-açu, município de Aracruz, ES, foi avaliada a viabilidade técnica da implantação do cultivo de ostras Crassostrea rhizophorae em lanternas suspensas numa balsa de cultivo, através da estimativa de crescimento e ganho de peso fresco e seco das ostras. Verificou-se que, dura [...] nte os dez meses de cultivo (junho/98 a maio/99), as ostras atingiram, em média, 37,6 mm de altura e 3,0 g no peso total. Foi registrada uma alta taxa de mortalidade, que poderia ser atribuída aos altos valores de salinidade na água e também aos predadores observados como planárias Stylochoplana divae e gastrópodos Cymatium parthenopeum, além de incrustantes como cracas, poliquetos Serpulidae e principalmente sementes da própria ostra. Abstract in english At Piraquê-açu river estuary, Aracruz, ES, the technical viability of Crassostrea rhizophorae cultivation was determined through monthly measures in shell length and weight. Seeds of C. rhizophorae were put in cages and suspended in rafts. Increase in height and weight (flesh and dry) of the oysters [...] was measured. During ten months (July/98 to May/99), oyster shell reached an average of 37.6 mm in shell height and 3.0 g in flesh weight (the whole animal). High mortality rates were registered and could be related to the high salinity water and to high predation observed, especially by flatworms Stylochophana divae and snails Cymatium parthenopeum, as well as fouling organisms such as barnacles, Serpulidae polychaetes and seed of the same species.

  6. Development of a Hydrodynamic Model for Skagit River Estuary for Estuarine Restoration Feasibility Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Liu, Hedong; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2006-08-03

    The Skagit River is the largest river in the Puget Sound estuarine system. It discharges about 39% of total sediment and more than 20% of freshwater into Puget Sound. The Skagit River delta provides rich estuarine and freshwater habitats for salmon and many other wildlife species. Over the past 150 years, economic development in the Skagit River delta has resulted in significant losses of wildlife habitat, particularly due to construction of dikes. Diked portion of the delta is known as Fir Island where irrigation practices for agriculture land over the last century has resulted in land subsidence. This has also caused reduced efficiency of drainage network and impeded fish passages through the area. In this study, a three-dimensional tidal circulation model was developed for the Skagit River delta to assist estuarine restoration in the Fir Island area. The hydrodynamic model used in the study is the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM). The hydrodynamic model was calibrated using field data collected from the study area specifically for the model development. Wetting and drying processes in the estuarine delta are simulated in the hydrodynamic model. The calibrated model was applied to simulate different restoration alternatives and provide guidance for estuarine restoration and management. Specifically, the model was used to help select and design configurations that would improve the supply of sediment and freshwater to the mudflats and tidal marsh areas outside of diked regions and then improve the estuarine habitats for salmon migration.

  7. Development of a Hydrodynamic Model for Skagit River Estuary for Estuarine Restoration Feasibility Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Skagit River is the largest river in the Puget Sound estuarine system. It discharges about 39% of total sediment and more than 20% of freshwater into Puget Sound. The Skagit River delta provides rich estuarine and freshwater habitats for salmon and many other wildlife species. Over the past 150 years, economic development in the Skagit River delta has resulted in significant losses of wildlife habitat, particularly due to construction of dikes. Diked portion of the delta is known as Fir Island where irrigation practices for agriculture land over the last century has resulted in land subsidence. This has also caused reduced efficiency of drainage network and impeded fish passages through the area. In this study, a three-dimensional tidal circulation model was developed for the Skagit River delta to assist estuarine restoration in the Fir Island area. The hydrodynamic model used in the study is the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM). The hydrodynamic model was calibrated using field data collected from the study area specifically for the model development. Wetting and drying processes in the estuarine delta are simulated in the hydrodynamic model. The calibrated model was applied to simulate different restoration alternatives and provide guidance for estuarine restoration and management. Specifically, the model was used to help select and design configurations that would improve the supply of sediment and freshwater to the mudflats and tidal marsh areas outside of diked regions and then improve the estuarine habitats for salmon migration

  8. Radium isotopes as a tool for the study of water mixing in the Paraiba do Sul River Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four isotopes of radium with different half-lives exist in nature. In aquatic systems, radium isotopes present distinct characteristics in salt water and fresh water environments. In fresh waters, radium appears adsorbed to particulate material while in sea water radium presents a conservative behavior, being the concentration of different isotopes of radium governed by the processes of dilution, advection and diffusion, as well as radioactive decay. The four natural isotopes of radium are tracers extensively used to determine ratios of water mixture and to calculate the period since the radium was added to the water column. The short-lived isotopes, 223Ra (half-life = 11.4 days) and 224Ra (half-life = 3.66 days), are continually regenerated from decay of their thorium parents, which are perpetually bound to particles surfaces. On the other hand, the long-lived isotopes, 226Ra (half-life = 1600 yrs) and 228Ra (half-life = 5.7 yrs), require considerable time for regeneration. These fluxes must be sustained by input water from rivers, sediments, SGD, or other sources. In the present work, developed at the estuary of the Paraiba do Sul River, the short half-lived radium isotopes (224Ra and 223Ra) were determined using the technique of coincidence delayed developed. The isotopes of long half-lifed (2226Ra and 2228Ra) were determined by the technique of total alpha and beta counting, after the dissolution of the MnO2 fiber used to pre-concentrate radium. (author)

  9. Variability in salt flux and water circulation in Ota River Estuary, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SOLTANIASL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the sub-tidal and intra-tidal variations of salt fluxes in the upstream section of a shallow estuary (with a water depth of less than 3 m were investigated. The salt fluxes were estimated based on the cross-sectional average salinity and velocity measured by the fluvial acoustic tomography system (FATS. The results indicate that the magnitude of seaward fluxes is approximately two times greater than that of landward fluxes under normal conditions. The results of short-term observation in the study area indicate that there is a phase lag of the bottom and surface salinities between the regions with the largest and smallest depths. The vertical shear flux with a peak value of ?0.7 m2/s during the ebb tide indicated an important contribution to the total salt flux compared with the advective flux. A phase lag occurred between the vertical shear terms in the regions with the largest and smallest depths, which resulted from the correlation between the vertical variations of the salinity and velocity and the existence of transversal velocity circulations.

  10. Hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary, East China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Fillaux, Joelle; Saliot, Alain [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Lab. de Biogeochimie et Chimie Marines, Paris, 75 (France)

    2001-07-01

    Sedimentary aliphatic (AH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in the Changjiang Estuary and the adjacent East China Sea. Total AH ranged from 2.20 to 11.82 {mu}g g {sup -1} and consisted of n-alkanes and a dominant petroleum-related unresolved complex mixture (UCM). Within the n-alkanes, terrestrial plant wax compounds prevailed at nearly all stations. Of the PAHs, biogenic perylene dominated at stations receiving riverine inputs. Anthropogenic PAHs originating from combustion/pyrolysis processes varied from 17 to 157 ng g {sup -1}, while fossil PAH concentrations ranged from 42 to 187 ng g {sup -1}. Both biogenic and anthropogenic hydrocarbons are primarily derived from riverine discharges and accumulate at shallow-water stations. Distinct phase associations lead, nevertheless, to different sedimentation patterns. Fossil PAHs are enhanced at offshore stations where they are introduced directly by shipping activities. Biomarker fingerprints ascribe their source to Chinese crude oils. The overall levels of anthropogenic hydrocarbons are low compared to relevant areas worldwide and reveal a low/moderate level of hydrocarbon pollution. (Author)

  11. Chemical Identification of Source Waters in a Rural Sub Estuary of Chesapeake Bay (Chester River)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, E. A.; Kehm, K.; Krahforst, C.

    2014-12-01

    Complimentary trace metal and water quality surveys were conducted along a 45-km longitudinal transect of the Chester River, a tidal tributary of Chesapeake Bay, to identify potential chemical differences associated with input from different water sources. The Chester River serves as the receiving waters of a largely agricultural watershed on Maryland's Eastern Shore. Delineating water sources within the system can inform management and nutrient reduction strategies. Surface water samples were collected and syringe- filtered in the field. Samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sn, Ba, W, Pb and U. Dissolved nitrate and orthophosphate, Chlorophyll a and total suspended matter were also determined for each sample. Hydrocasts of salinity, temperature, pH, and relative fluorescence of chlorophyll were used to reconstruct water column characteristics and provide insight into mixing with Chesapeake Bay. Results from a complete transect survey conducted over a single tidal maximum (+/- 2 hours) show that Ba is elevated in the Chester River (621 nMol/L) relative to Chesapeake Bay, but exhibits no distinguishable trend with salinity in the river. The Ba results suggest complex input from groundwater along the transect and potential dissociation from riverine sediments and suspended particles. Arsenic, Cr, and V demonstrate marked conservative mixing along the salinity gradient. Arsenic ranged from 23 nMol/L at the lowest salinity and the highest concentration (218 nMol/L) at the mouth where the Chester River enters Chesapeake Bay. This apparent conservative behavior is likely the result of simple mixing between fresh- and saltwater over what is assumed to be a relatively short residence time (days) for water in the river system. The plots of U and W with salinity show curvilinear distributions with positive slopes and may reflect the importance of uptake by sediments and vegetation in the upper reaches of the river. Manganese concentrations are also curvilinear but decrease with increased salinity, potentially due to changes in redox conditions as freshwater mixes with more saline Bay water.

  12. Processes controlling the seasonal and spatial variations in sulfate profiles in the pore water of the sediments surrounding Qi'ao Island, Pearl River Estuary, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zijun; Zhou, Huaiyang; Ren, Dezhang; Gao, Hang; Li, Jiangtao

    2015-04-01

    Marine sediments are the main sink for seawater sulfate and bacterial sulfate reduction is a major component of the global sulfur cycle. Nevertheless, the factors controlling sulfate reduction in the coastal estuary sediments that undergo spatial and temporal variations are still not fully understood. In this study, we measured the concentrations of SO42-, Cl-, CH4, and DIC, and the ?13C of DIC in the pore water of five sampling stations surrounding the Qi'ao Island, Pearl River Estuary, Southern China during the dry season in November 2011 and during the wet season in May 2012. The results showed that the dilution-mixing of the Pearl River with low-concentration sulfate significantly affects the downcore profiles of the sulfate concentrations in the pore water of these estuary sediments. During the wet season, the dilution-mixing of the layers from the top of the sediments to a depth of 14-18 cm occurred at the different sampling stations. In this layer, the sulfate reduction is not appreciable based on the plot of the pore water Cl- and SO42-. Below the dilution-mixing layers, however, sulfate reduction that is driven by the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) occurs. In our comparison, it appeared that the AOM played more important role in the consumption of the pore water sulfate in May 2012 than in November 2011. Meanwhile, we observed a relatively good correlation (r2=0.64) between the depth of the sulfate-methane interface (SMI) and the sulfate concentration in the pore water of the top sediments in dry season, indicating that the pore water sulfate concentration appears to be a primary controlling factor for the depth of the SMI in this estuary. These results highlight the need for an integrated analysis of the hydrologically driven the variations in the sulfate profiles to improve our understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of C, Fe and S and their budgets in estuarine environments.

  13. A study of the management strategies for river aeolian dust inhibition at the estuary of Zhuo-shui River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S. F.; Lin, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    With the characteristics of humidity in summer and drought in winter, there existing lots of bare lands due to the decline of water level cause large amounts of aeolian dust and environmental deterioration during the monsoon seasons in central Taiwan. How to adopt effective measures to inhibit the damage of dust is an essential issue. This study selected the serious dust-affected section of Zhuo-shui river (bridge Zi-qiang to Xi-bin) to delineate the areas of potential aeolian dust occurrence, explore the relationship between elevation and water level determined from return period analysis, submit the countermeasures for dust inhibition at the bare lands and/or cultivated areas, and address the responsibilities of related authority offices for dust prevention by means of literature review. The return period of inundation for the areas of potential aeolian dust occurrence is 1.1 years. Engineering of dust prevention with highly unit price are not recommended due to could be destroyed annually. The deposition sites of a river are usually located at the convex bank, which with silt texture and high salinity are not suitable for cultivation, are delineated as the areas of potential aeolian dust occurrence. Besides technology consideration in dust prevention, this study also examined the related articles of river management to integrate a comprehensive vision for better riverside environment and air quality.

  14. Pair-Trawl Detection of PIT-Tagged Juvenile Salmonids Migrating in the Columbia River Estuary, 2008 Report of Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magie, Robert J.; Morris, Matthew S.; Ledgerwood, Richard D. [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-06-03

    In 2008, we sampled migrating juvenile Pacific salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags using a surface pair trawl in the upper Columbia River estuary (rkm 61-83). The cod-end of the trawl was replaced with a cylindrical PIT-tag detection antenna with an 86-cm-diameter fish-passage opening and two detection coils connected in series. The pair trawl was 105 m long with a 91.5-m opening between the wings and a sample depth of 4.9 m. Also during 2008, we finalized the development of a prototype 'matrix' antenna, which was larger than previous antennas by a considerable magnitude. The matrix antenna consisted of 6 coils: a 3-coil front component and a 3-coil rear component, which were separated by 1.5-m of net mesh. The fish-passage opening was 2.5 m wide by 3.0 m tall and was attached to a standard-size pair trawl net. Intermittent sampling with a single crew began on 7 March and targeted yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. Daily sampling using two crews began on 30 April and continued through 14 June; during this period we detected 2.7% of all juvenile salmonids previously detected at Bonneville Dam--a measure of sample efficiency. Sampling with a single crew continued through 20 August and targeted subyearling Chinook salmon. We detected 7,397 yearling Chinook salmon, 2,735 subyearling Chinook salmon, 291 coho salmon O. kisutch, 5,950 steelhead, and 122 sockeye salmon O. nerka in the upper estuary. We deployed the matrix antenna system and the older, cylindrical antenna system (86-cm-diameter fish-passage opening) simultaneously in mid-May 2008 to test matrix detection efficiency. The cylindrical antenna system had been used successfully in 2007 and early 2008. Because distribution of migrating salmonids in the estuary changes rapidly, we felt that a tandem sampling effort between the two systems was the only way to truly evaluate comparative detection efficiency. We deployed both systems within 1 km of each other during a period of high fish densities on 13, 14, and 15 May. Detections of the matrix system surpassed those of the cylindrical system by 53% in 14 h of simultaneous sampling (total detections 716 and 339, respectively). We believe that the higher detection rate observed with the matrix system was due to fewer smolts escaping the trawl entrance and to more smolts readily passing through the larger fish-passage opening. After tandem sampling, we continued exclusive use of the matrix system for the remainder of the 2008 juvenile migration season. Mean survival rates from Lower Granite to Bonneville Dam for yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead were 42% (SE = 3.7%) and 46% (SE = 1.5%), respectively. Over 358,000 PIT-tagged salmonids were transported, and we detected 4,619 of these fish.

  15. Scenarios involving future climate and water extraction: ecosystem states in the estuary of Australia's largest river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Rebecca E; Fairweather, Peter G; Webster, Ian T; Quin, Rebecca A

    2013-07-01

    Management of natural resources, particularly water, increasingly requires that likely benefits of particular actions (e.g., allocating an environmental flow) are quantified in advance. Therefore, new techniques are required that enable those potential benefits to be objectively compared among competing options for management (e.g., compared to a "do nothing" scenario). Scenario modeling is one method for developing such an objective comparison. We used existing hydrologic, hydrodynamic, and ecosystem response models for a case study location, the Coorong, an inverse estuary in South Australia, to illustrate the potential for such scenario modeling to inform natural resource management. We modeled a set of 12 scenarios that included different levels of water extraction, potential future climate change, and sea-level change, thereby enabling a comparison of the different drivers of possible future reductions in water availability in the Coorong. We discovered that potential future climate change combined with current extraction levels has the capacity to devastate the ecology of the Coorong, but also that much of the degradation could be averted by reducing upstream extractions of water. The inclusion of possible sea-level change had a surprising effect, whereby higher sea levels increased hydrodynamic connectivity between the Coorong's two lagoons. Increased hydrodynamic connectivity limited the occurrence of extremely low water levels and high salinities due to evapoconcentration that were simulated for dry future climates in the absence of sea-level rise. These findings strongly suggest that future ecological degradation in the Coorong is not a foregone conclusion, and that management decisions regarding water allocations upstream will determine the ecological future of this coastal lagoon. PMID:23967570

  16. Seasonal stratification and property distributions in a tropical estuary (Cochin estuary, west coast, India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shivaprasad, A.; Vinita, J.; Revichandran, C.; Reny, P.D.; Deepak, M.P.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; NaveenKumar, K.R.

    immune from extended hypoxia/anoxia and maintaining the health of the Cochin estuary. For the seasonally varying river flow in the estuary, salt intrusion receded with increasing river flow in monsoon and rebounded with decreasing river flow in dry season...

  17. Research Note:Effects of human activities on the Yangtze River suspended sediment flux into the estuary in the last century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Yang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface erosion area in the Yangtze River basin increased from 364×103 km2 in the 1950s to 707×103 km2 in 2001 due to a great increase in population. Based on the regression relationship between surface erosion area and population, the surface erosion area was predicted to be about 280×103 km2 at the beginning of the 20th century. The sediment yield, which increased by about 30% during the first six decades of the 20th century, was closely related to the surface erosion area in this river basin. The Yangtze annual suspended sediment flux into the estuary was about 395×106 t a-1 at the beginning of the century, and this gradually increased to an average of 509×106 t a-1 in the 1960s. The increase in the suspended sediment flux into the estuary was accelerated in the 1950s and the 1960s due to the rapid increase in population and land use immediately after the Second World War and the Liberation War. After the riverine suspended sediment flux reached its maximum in the 1960s, it decreased to 6 t a-1 in 2003. Construction of dams was found to be the principal cause for this decreasing trend because, during the same period, (a the riverine water discharge did not show a decreasing trend, (b water diversion was not influential and (c sedimentation in lakes and canals of the middle and lower reaches did not increase. The total storage capacity of reservoirs has increased dramatically over the past half century. The amount of sediment trapped in reservoirs has increased to more than half a billion t a-1. As a result, the suspended sediment flux into the estuary dramatically decreased, even though the sediment yield from many areas of the basin increased in recent decades. Human activities gradually increased the suspended sediment flux into the estuary before the 1960s and then rapidly decreased it. The last century was a period when the Yangtze suspended sediment flux into the estuary was dramatically affected by human activities. Keywords: riverine sediment flux, human activities, surface erosion, dam, Yangtze (Changjiang River

  18. Estuarial migration of Atlantic salmon in the River Dee (N. Wales)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes work undertaken during the period April 1991 to December 1993 by the Welsh Region of the National Rivers Authority to investigate the behaviour of radio-tagged adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Welsh Dee. Partial funding for work in 1992 and 1993 was provided by the Department of Trade and Industry under their Tidal Energy research and development programme. (author)

  19. Ionised silica in the estuary of a river as supply to seawater: Identification and ionization efficiency of silica species by FAB-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Miho; Takahashi, Kazuya

    2013-04-01

    Measurement of the dissolution state of silicic acid is difficult. In river water, silica exists in particle form, but silica particles with a diameter of less than approximately 0.45 ?m are considered as dissolved silica. In seawater, silica exists in two forms: ionic silica and particle silica. In this study, we focused on ionic silica. Using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS), the silica species in river water and seawater were detected as ionic forms. Ionic silica forms various chemical species in aquatic solutions, including the monomer ([Si]) and dimer ([Si]). The relative abundances of these species in aquatic solutions depend on the chemical and physical conditions. Silica species such as [Si(OH)2O2Na]- ([monomer-Na+]-), [Si2(OH)5O2]- ([dimer]-), [Si2(OH)4O3Na]-([dimer-Na+]-), [Si4(OH)7O5]- ([cyclic tetramer]-), [Si4(OH)6O6Na]- ([cyclic tetramer-Na+]-), [Si4(OH)9O4]- ([linear tetramer]-) and [Si4(OH)8O5Na]- ([linear tetramer-Na+]-) were directly observed by FAB-MS in river water and seawater. Some of these ionic silica species are expected to serve as "nutrients" for diatoms in seawater. Large silica particles are transported in river water, whereas in estuaries, a large amount of silica is precipitated and a small amount of silica is dissolved as ionic forms in sodium chloride solution. In river water, the concentration of silica was high, but the ionic silica species were hardly ionised by FAB-MS. In seawater, the concentration of silica was low, but the ionic silica species were well ionised. Thus, the ionization efficiency of silica species by FAB-MS indicates the type of silica species. The filtration process of silicic acid and the ionization of silicic acid to dissolve the silica species in seawater, which is an electrolyte (sodium chloride), occur in the estuary of a river. Thus, the estuary of a river plays an important role in the restructuring of silica from particle form to ionic form.

  20. Migrational Characteristics, Biological Observations, and Relative Survival of Juvenile Salmonids Entering the Columbia River Estuary, 1966-1983, 1985 Final Report of Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawley, Earl M.

    1986-04-01

    Natural runs of salmonids in the Columbia River basin have decreased as a result of hydroelectric-dam development, poor land- and forest-management, and over-fishing. This has necessitated increased salmon culture to assure adequate numbers of returning adults. Hatchery procedures and facilities are continually being modified to improve both the efficiency of production and the quality of juveniles produced. Initial efforts to evaluate changes in hatchery procedures were dependent upon adult contributions to the fishery and returns to the hatchery. Procedures were developed for sampling juvenile salmon and steelhead entering the Columbia River estuary and ocean plume. The sampling of hatchery fish at the terminus of their freshwater migration assisted in evaluating hatchery production techniques and identifying migrational or behavioral characteristics that influence survival to and through the estuary. The sampling program attempted to estimate survival of different stocks and define various aspects of migratory behavior in a large river, with flows during the spring freshet from 4 to 17 thousand cubic meters per second (m/sup 3//second).

  1. Diversity and distribution of amoA-type nitrifying and nirS-type denitrifying microbial communities in the Yangtze River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Xie, X.; Jiao, N.; Hsiao, S. S.-Y.; Kao, S.-J.

    2014-04-01

    Coupled nitrification-denitrification plays a critical role in the removal of excess nitrogen, which is chiefly caused by humans, to mitigate estuary and coastal eutrophication. Despite its obvious importance, limited information about the relationships between nitrifying and denitrifying microbial communities in estuaries, and their controlling factors have been documented. We investigated the nitrifying and denitrifying microbial communities in the estuary of turbid subtropical Yangtze River (YRE), the largest river in Asia, by analyzing the ammonia monooxygenase gene amoA, including archaeal and bacterial amoA, and the dissimilatory nitrite reductase gene nirS using clone libraries and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The diversity indices and rarefaction analysis revealed a quite low diversity for both ?-proteobacterial and archaeal amoA genes, but qPCR data showed significantly higher amoA gene copy numbers for archaea than ?-proteobacteria. Compared with the amoA gene, a significantly higher level of diversity but lower gene copy numbers were found for the nirS gene. Nitrification and denitrification rates based on 15N incubation experiments supported gene abundance data as denitrification rates were below detection limit, suggesting lower denitrification than nitrification potential. In general, the abundances of the amoA and nirS genes were significantly higher in the bottom samples than the surface ones, and in the high-turbidity river mouth, were significantly higher in the particle-associated (> 3 ?m) than the free-living (0.2 ~ 3 ?m) communities. Notably, positive correlations between the amoA and nirS gene abundances suggested potential gene-based coupling between nitrification and denitrification, especially for the particle-associated assemblages. Statistical analysis of correlations between the community structure, gene abundances and environmental variables further revealed that dissolved oxygen and total suspended material might be the key factors controlling community spatial structure and regulating nitrification and denitrification potentials in the YRE ecosystem.

  2. Prediction of the effects of nutrient loadings from a power plant at Perryman on the water quality of the Bush River estuary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A water-quality model consisting of a one-dimensional Hydraulic Module coupled with a Water Quality Module was used to assess the effects of increased nutrient loadings from the proposed Perryman Power Plant on the dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a concentrations in the Bush River estuary. The Hydraulic Module represented the longitudinal water movement (and physical transport of associated constituents) among 12 spatial segments. The Water Quality Module represented the biological processes affecting nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, and dissolved oxygen in each segment (e.g., photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, decomposition)

  3. DISTRIBUTIONS AND SOURCES OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS AND KETONES IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM THE CROSS RIVER ESTUARY, S.E. NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Oros, Daniel R.; Ekpo, Bassey O.; Oyo-Ita, Orok E.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2010-01-01

    Surface sediments from the Cross River estuary were analyzed for the quantitative determination of aliphatic lipids such as n-alkanes, n-alkanones and unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons. The concentrations of the hydrocarbons, including pristane and phytane, were in the range of 0.02-16.84 mg kg-1 (mean 2.23 ± 2.25 mg kg-1 dry weight). The high standard deviations for the n-alkanes most likely reflect the variation in sediment grain size and differences in ...

  4. Investigation of sediment movement in the North Navigation Channel Area of the estuary of the Yangtze river using natural radiotracers and INAA methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a preliminary investigation of sediment in the North Navigation Channel Area of the estuary of the Yangtze river, which has been made by determining the natural radioisotopes and the INAA of 30 natural sand samples. Multivariate statistical method was used to process and analyze the data obtained. It can be seen that there are tow sediment movement routes in the investigation area. The orientation of the main sediment movement is from northwest to southeast in accordance with the results obtained from the field submarine drag-monitorings after the radiotracer injection. Besides, there is also another sand movement route existed. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Spatial and temporal variations of nitrous oxide flux between coastal marsh and the atmosphere in the Yellow River estuary of China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Zhigao; Wang, Lingling; Mou, Xiaojie; Jiang, Huanhuan; Sun, Wanlong

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the spatial and seasonal variations of nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes and understand the key controlling factors, we explored N2O fluxes and environmental variables in high marsh (HM), middle marsh (MM), low marsh (LM), and mudflat (MF) in the Yellow River estuary throughout a year. Fluxes of N2O differed significantly between sampling periods as well as between sampling positions. During all times of day and the seasons measured, N2O fluxes ranged from ?0.0051 to 0.0805 mg N2O m?2...

  6. The impact of poultry litter application on sediment chemistry of the Broadkill River estuary system, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Oluyinka; Schreiber, Madeline E; Ciparis, Serena

    2014-01-01

    This project examined the impact of long-term poultry litter application on the chemical signatures of As, Cu, Zn, and P in stream sediments of the Broadkill River watershed within the Delmarva Peninsula, a region of intense poultry production. Thirty-seven sediment samples were collected from Broadkill River drainage systems and analyzed for litter-derived elements (As, Cu, Zn, P) and basic soil parameters such as particle size distribution, organic matter, and soluble salts. Results showed that concentrations of elements in stream sediments are approximately log-normally distributed. Spatial variability in concentrations of elements was evident, with most elements increasing in concentration and enrichment from upgradient headwaters to downgradient reaches draining predominantly agricultural areas. Results of correlation analyses showed positive significant correlation among elements; elements were also positively correlated with percent clay and silt in the sediment. Using GIS maps with overlays of hydrology and land use activities, statistical correlations between As, Cu, Zn, and P enrichment factors and land use were examined. Results showed statistically significant relationships between As, Mn, and Zn enrichment factors and residential areas within the watershed, but did not show a statistically significant relationship between element enrichment factors and agricultural land use. Factors that complicate this type of landscape-scale study include the presence of poultry processing plants, impoundments, changes in land use over time, and the influence of tides, all of which can have direct and indirect influences on element mobility. PMID:23925863

  7. Soil organic matter and soil acidity in Mangrove areas in the river Paraiba Estuary, Cabedelo, Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wilma Vasconcelos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystems are of great environmental significance, because of their fragility and role in feeding and breeding various animal species. In northeastern Brazil, the disorderly occupation of estuarine areas and the urban sprawl have led to a considerable loss of the original area occupied by mangroves. In the municipality of Cabedelo, State of Paraíba, there are about 4,900 ha of remnant mangrove areas in the estuarine complex of the Paraíba River. However, information about the attributes of mangrove soils at this location is quite scarce. The aim of this study was to quantify the soil organic matter and soil acidity in mangroves located in the estuary of the Paraíba River, State of Paraíba, Brazil, in order to increase the database of soil attributes in this region. The study area is in local influence of the Restinga de Cabedelo National Forest (Flona, an environmental conservation unit of the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation. For the choice of sampling points, we considered an area that receives direct influence of the eviction of domestic and industrial effluents. The soil of the study area is an “Organossolo Háplico” in Brazilian Soil Classification (Histosol, and was sampled at four point sites: one upstream of the effluent discharge (P1, one in the watercourse receiving effluent water (P2, one downstream of the effluent discharge (P3 and another near Flona (P4, at 0-20 and 20-40 cm, in four replications in time (28/08/2012 in the morning and afternoon, and 21/01/2013 in the morning and afternoon. Potential acidity, pH and soil organic matter (SOM were determined. No significant differences were detected in the potential acidity of the four collection sites, which ranged from 0.38 to 0.45 cmolc dm-3. Soil pH was greatest at point P4 (7.0 and lowest at point P1 (5.8. The SOM was highest at point P1 (86.4 % and lowest at P2 (77.9 %. The attributes related to soil acidity were not sensitive to indicate differences in the environments we evaluated, and seem not to indicate the contamination of mangroves by discharge of sewage into water bodies that border these environments. The high organic matter content of soils in the mangrove may have helped avoid significant fluctuations in soil acidity, because of the large buffering capacity.

  8. Hong Kong at the Pearl River Estuary: A hotspot of microplastic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Lincoln; Cheung, P K

    2015-10-15

    Large plastic (>5mm) and microplastic (0.315-5mm) debris were collected from 25 beaches along the Hong Kong coastline. More than 90% consisted of microplastics. Among the three groups of microplastic debris, expanded polystyrene (EPS) represented 92%, fragments represented 5%, and pellets represented 3%. The mean microplastic abundance for Hong Kong was 5595items/m(2). This number is higher than international averages, indicating that Hong Kong is a hotspot of marine plastic pollution. Microplastic abundance was significantly higher on the west coast than on the east coast, indicating that the Pearl River, which is west of Hong Kong, may be a potential source of plastic debris. The amounts of large plastic and microplastic debris of the same types (EPS and fragments) were positively correlated, suggesting that the fragmentation of large plastic material may increase the quantity of beach microplastic debris. PMID:26233305

  9. Modeling ecosystem processes with variable freshwater inflow to the Caloosahatchee River Estuary, southwest Florida. II. Nutrient loading, submarine light, and seagrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzelli, Christopher; Doering, Peter; Wan, Yongshan; Sun, Detong

    2014-12-01

    Short- and long-term changes in estuarine biogeochemical and biological attributes are consequences of variations in both the magnitude and composition of freshwater inputs. A common conceptualization of estuaries depicts nutrient loading from coastal watersheds as the stressor that promotes algal biomass, decreases submarine light penetration, and degrades seagrass habitats. Freshwater inflow depresses salinity while simultaneously introducing colored dissolved organic matter (color or CDOM) which greatly reduces estuarine light penetration. This is especially true for sub-tropical estuaries. This study applied a model of the Caloosahatchee River Estuary (CRE) in southwest Florida to explore the relationships between freshwater inflow, nutrient loading, submarine light, and seagrass survival. In two independent model series, the loading of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus (DIN and DIP) was reduced by 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50% relative to the base model case from 2002 to 2009 (2922 days). While external nutrient loads were reduced by lowering inflow (Q0) in the first series (Q0 series), reductions were accomplished by decreasing the incoming concentrations of DIN and DIP in the second series (NP Series). The model also was used to explore the partitioning of submarine light extinction due to chlorophyll a, CDOM, and turbidity. Results suggested that attempting to control nutrient loading by decreasing freshwater inflow could have minor effects on water column concentrations but greatly influence submarine light and seagrass biomass. This is because of the relative importance of Q0 to salinity and submarine light. In general, light penetration and seagrass biomass decreased with increased inflow and CDOM. Increased chlorophyll a did account for more submarine light extinction in the lower estuary. The model output was used to help identify desirable levels of inflow, nutrient loading, water quality, salinity, and submarine light for seagrass in the lower CRE. These findings provide information essential to the development of a resource-based approach to improve the management of both freshwater inflow and estuarine biotic resources.

  10. Geographic variability in amoeboid protists and other microbial groups in the water column of the lower Hudson River Estuary (New York, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhl, Andrew R.; Anderson, O. Roger

    2014-12-01

    In comparison to other groups of planktonic microorganisms, relatively little is known about the role of amoeboid protists (amebas) in planktonic ecosystems. This study describes the first geographic survey of the abundance and biomass of amebas in an estuarine water column. Samples collected in the lower Hudson River Estuary were used to investigate relationships between ameba abundance and biomass and hydrographic variables (temperature, salinity, and turbidity), water depth (surface and near bottom), distance from mid-channel to shore, phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll fluorescence) and the occurrence of other heterotrophic microbial groups (heterotrophic bacteria, nanoflagellates, and ciliates) in the plankton. Although salinity increased significantly towards the mouth of the estuary, there were no significant differences in the abundance or biomass of any microbial group in surface samples collected at three stations separated by 44 km along the estuary's mid-channel. Peak biomass values for all microbial groups were found at the station closest to shore, however, cross-channel trends in microbial abundance and biomass were not statistically significant. Although ameba abundance and biomass in most samples were low compared to other microbial groups, clear patterns in ameba distribution were nevertheless found. Unlike other microbial groups examined, ameba numbers and biomass greatly increased in near bottom water compared to surface samples. Ameba abundance and biomass (in surface samples) were also strongly related to increasing turbidity. The different relationships of ameba abundance and biomass with turbidity suggest a rising contribution of large amebas in microbial communities of the Hudson estuary when turbidity increases. These results, emphasizing the importance of particle concentration as attachment and feeding surfaces for amebas, will help identify the environmental conditions when amebas are most likely to contribute significantly to estuarine bacterivory and C-flux.

  11. Hazard Assessment from Storm Tides and Rainfall on a Tidal River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, P.; Conticello, F.; Cioffi, F.; Hall, T.; Georgas, N.; Lall, U.; Blumberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report on methods and results for a model-based flood hazard assessment we have conducted for the Hudson River from New York City to Troy/Albany at the head of tide. Our recent work showed that neglecting freshwater flows leads to underestimation of peak water levels at up-river sites and neglecting stratification (typical with two-dimensional modeling) leads to underestimation all along the Hudson. As a result, we use a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model and merge streamflows and storm tides from tropical and extratropical cyclones (TCs, ETCs), as well as wet extratropical cyclone (WETC) floods (e.g. freshets, rain-on-snow events). We validate the modeled flood levels and quantify error with comparisons to 76 historical events. A Bayesian statistical method is developed for tropical cyclone streamflows using historical data and consisting in the evaluation of (1) the peak discharge and its pdf as a function of TC characteristics, and (2) the temporal trend of the hydrograph as a function of temporal evolution of the cyclone track, its intensity and the response characteristics of the specific basin. A k-nearest-neighbors method is employed to determine the hydrograph shape. Out of sample validation tests demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. Thus, the combined effects of storm surge and runoff produced by tropical cyclones hitting the New York area can be included in flood hazard assessment. Results for the upper Hudson (Albany) suggest a dominance of WETCs, for the lower Hudson (at New York Harbor) a case where ETCs are dominant for shorter return periods and TCs are more important for longer return periods (over 150 years), and for the middle-Hudson (Poughkeepsie) a mix of all three flood events types is important. However, a possible low-bias for TC flood levels is inferred from a lower importance in the assessment results, versus historical event top-20 lists, and this will be further evaluated as these preliminary methods and results are finalized. Future funded work will quantify the influences of sea level rise and flood adaptation plans (e.g. surge barriers). It would also be valuable to examine how streamflows from tropical cyclones and wet cool-season storms will change, as this factor will dominate at upriver locations.

  12. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Biota from the Brisbane River Estuary, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayal, S.; Connell, D. W.

    1995-05-01

    Six species of aquatic organisms from the Brisbane River estuarine system were sampled and their tissues analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These were the sea mullet, Mugil cephalus, bony bream, Nematolosa come, blue catfish, Arius graffei, mud crab, Scylla serrata, pelican, Pelecanus conspicillatus, and silver gull, Larus novaehollandiae. PAHs in the muscle (fish and birds) and soft (crab) tissue samples were isolated by first hydrolysing these samples and then solvent extraction followed by column chromatography. The compounds were then identified and quantified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The samples contained low levels of PAHs that ranged in molecular weight from 128 (naphthalene) to 252 (benzo[k]fluoranthene). The highest total PAH level of 195 ng g -1, wet weight, was recorded in mullet samples whereas the blue catfish samples yielded the lowest level of 43 ng g -1. Relative ratios of low molecular weight (?3-rings) compounds to those with high molecular weights (?4-rings) suggested a petroleum related origin for the PAHs detected in the organisms. Results indicated that significant biomagnification of PAHs in the estuarine ecosystem sampled is highly unlikely. Characteristics such as the trophic level and size/age were not significant factors in determining the corresponding tissue PAH levels in the fish and crab species. Tissue lipid content, however, was found to be a primary factor in determining the PAH concentrations in fish species. PAH levels recorded in the samples are comparable to those levels reported from similarly urbanized areas in other geographical locations.

  13. Coupling the chemical dynamics of carbonate and dissolved inorganic nitrogen systems in the eutrophic and turbid inner Changjiang (Yangtze River Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-D. Zhai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To better understand biogeochemical processes controlling CO2 dynamics in those eutrophic large-river estuaries and coastal lagoons, we investigated surface water carbonate system, nutrients, and relevant hydrochemical parameters in the inner Changjiang (Yangtze River Estuary, covering its channel-like South Branch and the lagoon-like North Branch, shortly after a spring-tide period in April 2010. In the North Branch, with a water residence time of more than 2 months, biogeochemical additions of ammonium (7.4 to 65.7 ?mol kg?1 and alkalinity (196 to 695 ?mol kg?1 were detected along with high salinity of 4.5 to 17.4. In the South Branch upper-reach, unusual salinity values of 0.20 to 0.67 were detected, indicating spillover waters from the North Branch. The spillover waters enhanced the springtime Changjiang export fluxes of nutrients, dissolved inorganic carbon, and alkalinity. And they affected the biogeochemistry in the South Branch, by lowering water-to-air CO2 flux and continuing the nitrification reaction. In the North Branch, pCO2 was measured from 930 to 1518 ?atm at the salinity range between 8 and 16, which was substantially higher than the South Branch pCO2 of 700 to 1100 ?atm. Based on field data analyses and simplified stoichiometric equations, we suggest that the North Branch CO2 productions were quantified by biogeochemical processes combining organic matter decomposition, nitrification, CaCO3 dissolution, and acid-base reactions in the estuarine mixing zone. Although our study is subject to limited temporal and spatial coverage of sampling, we have demonstrated a procedure to quantificationally constrain net CO2 productions in eutrophic estuaries and/or coastal lagoons, by coupling the chemical dynamics of carbonate and dissolved inorganic nitrogen systems.

  14. Population structure, size at maturity and condition of sardine, Sardina pilchardus (Walb., 1792), in the nursery ground of the eastern Adriatic Sea (Krka River Estuary, Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinov?i?, Gorenka; Ke?, Vanja ?ikeš; Zorica, Barbara

    2008-03-01

    A total of 1125 specimens of sardine, Sardina pilchardus, ranging in total length from 4.9 to 12.5 cm (mean 8.31 ± 1.41 cm) and in weights between 1.02 g and 11.18 g (mean 4.40 ± 1.87 g) were randomly sampled using a beach seine from the Krka River estuary. Samples were collected monthly according to their occurrence in this area from October to February during 2002/03, 2003/04 and 2004/05, which is during the spawning period of this species. Monthly fluctuations in the length frequency distributions of sardine were observed during that time. The length-weight relationship of all sardine specimens was described by the equation: W=0.007L( r2 = 0.9626); and the isometric nature of relative growth was established ( t = -5.1495; p sardine specimens were in better somatic condition at the beginning of their appearance (spawning period) in the Krka River estuary. The length at which 50% of sardines were mature ( L50) was calculated to be 7.9 cm.

  15. An eight year (2005-2013) temporal trend of halogenated organic pollutants in fish from the Pearl River Estuary, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Run-Xia; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Tan, Xiao-Xin; Tang, Bin; Li, Zong-Rui; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-04-15

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dechlorane plus (DP), 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene (pTBX) and pentabromotoluene (PBT) were measured in baby croaker (Collichthys lucidus) and mullet (Osteomugil ophuyseni) collected in 2005 and 2013 from the Pearl River Estuary. DDTs, HCHs, PCBs, and PBDEs were detected in two fish species at concentrations of 150-8100, 1.4-120, 22-560, 2.2-280 ng/g lipid wt., respectively. The levels of these chemicals were significantly lower in 2013 than in 2005. The compositions for DDTs, HCHs, and PBDEs in 2013 differed from those in 2005, indicating source changes between the two sampling periods. DP, pTBX and PBT were detected at concentrations of ND-130 ng/g lipid wt. No clear temporal trends were found for these contaminants. Overall, these results indicated the effectiveness of regulations and source controls in substantively reducing inputs of these contaminants to the Pearl River Estuary. PMID:25769908

  16. Living in an estuary: Commerson's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii (Lacépède, 1804, habitat use and behavioural pattern at the Santa Cruz River, Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Loizaga de Castro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Commerson's dolphins, Cephalorhynchus commersonii, suffer bycatch in fisheries and are target of dolphin-watching activities along Patagonia. Here we described dolphins' habitat use and behavioural pattern at the estuary of Santa Cruz River. Behavioural observations were made from vantage points using a spotting scope. Boat surveys were conducted randomly from Puerto Santa Cruz to the mouth of the river to analyze the habitat use. The survey area was divided into 1 km² cells and characterized with depth and benthic slope. The described behaviours for the Commerson's dolphin were: travelling, slow travelling, milling, resting, socializing, stationary swimming and diving. A new behavioural context was assigned to diving, a behaviour that showed a high frequency during downing tide, suggesting a benthic foraging strategy. Additionally, we found a strong influence of the tide on Commerson's dolphin behaviour. Habitat use models indicated that dolphins prefer shallow water inside the estuary. The knowledge of the behavioural patterns and the habitat use of these endemic species, in this unexplored area, provide tools for management and conservation purposes.

  17. Monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in seawater of the Pearl River Estuary with rapid on-site active SPME sampling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siming; He, Shuming; Xu, Hao; Wu, Peiyan; Jiang, Ruifen; Zhu, Fang; Luan, Tiangang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-05-01

    An on-site active solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling technique coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for sampling and monitoring 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in seawater was developed. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that the sampling-rate calibration method was practical and could be used for the quantification of on-site sampling. The proposed method was employed for field tests which covered large amounts of water samples in the Pearl River Estuary in rainy and dry seasons. The on-site SPME sampling method can avoid the contamination of sample, the losses of analytes during sample transportation, as well as the usage of solvent and time-consuming sample preparation process. Results indicated that the technique with the designed device can address the requirement of modern environment water analysis. In addition, the sources, bioaccumulation and potential risk to human of the PAHs and OCPs in seawater of the Pearl River Estuary were discussed. PMID:25732847

  18. Model Behavior and Sensitivity in an Application of the Cohesive Bed Component of the Community Sediment Transport Modeling System for the York River Estuary, VA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey A. Fall

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Community Sediment Transport Modeling System (CSTMS cohesive bed sub-model that accounts for erosion, deposition, consolidation, and swelling was implemented in a three-dimensional domain to represent the York River estuary, Virginia. The objectives of this paper are to (1 describe the application of the three-dimensional hydrodynamic York Cohesive Bed Model, (2 compare calculations to observations, and (3 investigate sensitivities of the cohesive bed sub-model to user-defined parameters. Model results for summer 2007 showed good agreement with tidal-phase averaged estimates of sediment concentration, bed stress, and current velocity derived from Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV field measurements. An important step in implementing the cohesive bed model was specification of both the initial and equilibrium critical shear stress profiles, in addition to choosing other parameters like the consolidation and swelling timescales. This model promises to be a useful tool for investigating the fundamental controls on bed erodibility and settling velocity in the York River, a classical muddy estuary, provided that appropriate data exists to inform the choice of model parameters.

  19. Model behavior and sensitivity in an application of the cohesive bed component of the community sediment transport modeling system for the York River estuary, VA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Kelsey A.; Harris, Courtney K.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Rinehimer, J. Paul; Sherwood, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    The Community Sediment Transport Modeling System (CSTMS) cohesive bed sub-model that accounts for erosion, deposition, consolidation, and swelling was implemented in a three-dimensional domain to represent the York River estuary, Virginia. The objectives of this paper are to (1) describe the application of the three-dimensional hydrodynamic York Cohesive Bed Model, (2) compare calculations to observations, and (3) investigate sensitivities of the cohesive bed sub-model to user-defined parameters. Model results for summer 2007 showed good agreement with tidal-phase averaged estimates of sediment concentration, bed stress, and current velocity derived from Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) field measurements. An important step in implementing the cohesive bed model was specification of both the initial and equilibrium critical shear stress profiles, in addition to choosing other parameters like the consolidation and swelling timescales. This model promises to be a useful tool for investigating the fundamental controls on bed erodibility and settling velocity in the York River, a classical muddy estuary, provided that appropriate data exists to inform the choice of model parameters.

  20. Experimental simulation of antimony and chromium forms of residence in the water of the Syr-Darya river, estuary and in the water of the Aral Sea usng sup(124)Sbsup((5)) and sup(51)Crsup((6)) radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the compbination of radiochemical methods, the physicochemical state of sup(124)Sbsup((5)) and sup(51)Crsup((6)) in the waters of the Syr-Darya river, estuary and the Aral Sea is studied. It is ascertained, that in the river, estuary and Aral Sea water the main amount of sup(124)Sbsup((5)) and sup(51)Crsup((6)) migrates in the form of negatively charged anions Sb(OH)6- and CrOsub(4)sup(2-). However, in the Aral Sea estuary the formation of finely dispersed colloid forms of chromium (6) and antimony (5) is possible due to their sorption on vegetable cellulose, modified by arid water components. There is also a possibility of appearance of antimony (5) sorptional forms on other sorbents in a narrow range of the Aral Sea water salinity

  1. Sources and accumulation of organic carbon in the Pearl River Estuary surface sediment as indicated by elemental, stable carbon isotopic, and carbohydrate compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. He

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter in surface sediments from the upper reach of the Pearl River Estuary and Lingdingyang Bay, as well as the adjacent northern South China Sea shelf was characterized using a variety of techniques, including elemental (C and N ratio, bulk stable organic carbon isotopic composition (?13C, and carbohydrate composition analyses. Total organic carbon (TOC content was 1.21±0.45% in the upper reach, down to 1.00±0.22% in Lingdingyang Bay and to 0.80±0.10% on the inner shelf and 0.58±0.06% on the outer shelf. ?13C values ranged from ?25.1‰ to ?21.3‰ in Lingdingyang Bay and the South China Sea shelf, with a trend of enrichment seawards. The spatial trend in C/N ratios mirrored that of ?13C, with a substantial decrease in C/N ratio offshore. Total carbohydrate yields ranged from 22.1 to 26.7 mg (100 mg OC?1, and typically followed TOC concentrations in the estuarine and shelf sediments. Total neutral sugars, as detected by the nine major monosaccharides (lyxose, rhamnose, ribose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, and glucose, were between 4.0 and 18.6 mg (100 mg OC?1 in the same sediments, suggesting that significant amounts of carbohydrates were not neutral aldoses. Using a two end-member mixing model based on ?13C values and C/N ratios, we estimated that the terrestrial organic carbon contribution to the surface sediment TOC was ca. 78±11% for Lingdingyang Bay, 34±4% for the inner shelf, and 5.5±1% for the outer shelf. The molecular composition of the carbohydrate in the surface sediments also suggested that the inner estuary was rich in terrestrially derived carbohydrates but that their contribution decreased offshore. A relatively high abundance of deoxyhexoses in the estuary and shelf indicated a considerable bacterial source of these carbohydrates, implying that sediment organic matter had undergone extensive degradation and/or transformation during transport. Sediment budget based on calculated regional accumulation rates showed that only ~50% of the influxes of terrestrial organic carbon were accumulated in the estuary. This relatively low accumulation efficiency of terrestrial organic matter as compared to the total suspended solids (accumulation efficiency ~73% suggested significant degradation of the terrestrial organic carbon within the estuarine system after its discharge from the river. This study demonstrated that the combination of the bulk organic matter properties together with the isotopic composition and molecular-level carbohydrate compositions can be an efficient way to track down the source and fate of organic matter in highly dynamic estuarine and coastal systems. The predominance of terrestrially originated organic matter in the sediment and its generally low accumulation efficiency within the estuary is not surprising, and yet it may have important implications in light of the heavy anthropogenic discharges into the Pearl River Estuary during the past thirty years.

  2. Caracterización hidrográfica del estuario del río Valdivia, centro-sur de Chile / Hydrographic features of Valdivia river estuary south-central Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Garcés-Vargas; Marcela, Ruiz; Luis Miguel, Pardo; Sergio, Nuñez; Iván, Pérez-Santos.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La costa sureste del Océano Pacífico entre 37° y 41°S, se caracteriza por la presencia de un gran número de estuarios micromareales (rango mareal menor a 2 m). Uno de los estuarios más importantes dentro de estas latitudes es el estuario del río Valdivia, cuya estructura y dinámica termal y halina e [...] s poco conocida. Mediante mediciones hidrográficas de temperatura y salinidad tomadas durante un ciclo estacional anual y el análisis de sus principales forzantes (marea, caudal del río, vientos y radiación solar) se explica la variabilidad así como sus cambios en la estratificación vertical. El análisis de la estructura termohalina de la columna de agua reveló que el estuario varió estacionalmente comportándose como un estuario de cuña salina en invierno y primavera producto del mayor caudal de los ríos afluentes, mientras que en verano y otoño se comportó como parcialmente mezclado, producto del menor caudal de los ríos. En invierno y primavera la columna de agua presentó inversión térmica, la cual fue asociada a pérdida de calor superficial y a la advección sub-superficial de aguas cálidas desde el océano adyacente hacia el interior del estuario que no se mezclaron con las de la superficie debido a la intensa estratificación salina. El cambio en el régimen estuarino de cuña salina a parcialmente mezclado según la estación del año y presencia de la inversión térmica estacional, son características hidrográficas necesarias tanto para la implementación de esfuerzos de conservación de hábitat vulnerables presentes en la zona (áreas de crianza de juveniles de especies explotadas), como para la utilización de este sistema para actividades de acuicultura y manejo de recursos marinos. Abstract in english The area between 37° and 41°S of the southeastern Pacific coast, have a great number of microtidal (tidal range less than 2 m) estuaries. One of the most important estuaries in these latitudes is the Valdivia River estuary, whose thermal and haline structure is poorly known. Thus, this work, through [...] hydrographic measurements of temperature and salinity taken during an annual seasonal cycle and the analysis of the main forcings (tide, river flow, wind and solar radiation) explain the variability and its changes in vertical stratification. The analysis of the the thermohaline structure of the water column revealed that the estuary varied seasonally behaving like a salt-wedge estuary in winter and spring due to a higher flow of tributaries. However, in summer and autumn behaved as partially mixed due the lower river flow. In winter and spring the water column showed a temperature inversion which was associated with a large surface heat loss and subsurface advection of warm waters from the adjacent ocean to into the estuary that is not mixed with the surface due to intense stratification by salinity. The change in the estuarine salt-wedge regime to partially mixed according to the season and the presence of thermal inversion seasonal are necessary hydrographic features to implement conservation efforts of vulnerable habitat into the zone (nursery areas of juvenile species), and use of this system for aquaculture activities and marine resources management.

  3. Sources and accumulation of organic carbon in the Pearl River Estuary surface sediment as indicated by elemental, stable carbon isotopic, and carbohydrate compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, B.; Dai, M.; Huang, W.; Liu, Q.; Chen, H.; Xu, L.

    2010-10-01

    Organic matter in surface sediments from the upper reach of the Pearl River Estuary and Lingdingyang Bay, as well as the adjacent northern South China Sea shelf was characterized using a variety of techniques, including elemental (C and N) ratio, bulk stable organic carbon isotopic composition (?13C), and carbohydrate composition analyses. Total organic carbon (TOC) content was 1.21±0.45% in the upper reach, down to 1.00±0.22% in Lingdingyang Bay and to 0.80±0.10% on the inner shelf and 0.58±0.06% on the outer shelf. ?13C values ranged from -25.1‰ to -21.3‰ in Lingdingyang Bay and the South China Sea shelf, with a trend of enrichment seawards. The spatial trend in C/N ratios mirrored that of ?13C, with a substantial decrease in C/N ratio offshore. Total carbohydrate yields ranged from 22.1 to 26.7 mg (100 mg OC)-1, and typically followed TOC concentrations in the estuarine and shelf sediments. Total neutral sugars, as detected by the nine major monosaccharides (lyxose, rhamnose, ribose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, and glucose), were between 4.0 and 18.6 mg (100 mg OC)-1 in the same sediments, suggesting that significant amounts of carbohydrates were not neutral aldoses. Using a two end-member mixing model based on ?13C values and C/N ratios, we estimated that the terrestrial organic carbon contribution to the surface sediment TOC was ca. 78±11% for Lingdingyang Bay, 34±4% for the inner shelf, and 5.5±1% for the outer shelf. The molecular composition of the carbohydrate in the surface sediments also suggested that the inner estuary was rich in terrestrially derived carbohydrates but that their contribution decreased offshore. A relatively high abundance of deoxyhexoses in the estuary and shelf indicated a considerable bacterial source of these carbohydrates, implying that sediment organic matter had undergone extensive degradation and/or transformation during transport. Sediment budget based on calculated regional accumulation rates showed that only ~50% of the influxes of terrestrial organic carbon were accumulated in the estuary. This relatively low accumulation efficiency of terrestrial organic matter as compared to the total suspended solids (accumulation efficiency ~73%) suggested significant degradation of the terrestrial organic carbon within the estuarine system after its discharge from the river. This study demonstrated that the combination of the bulk organic matter properties together with the isotopic composition and molecular-level carbohydrate compositions can be an efficient way to track down the source and fate of organic matter in highly dynamic estuarine and coastal systems. The predominance of terrestrially originated organic matter in the sediment and its generally low accumulation efficiency within the estuary is not surprising, and yet it may have important implications in light of the heavy anthropogenic discharges into the Pearl River Estuary during the past thirty years.

  4. Characterization of heavy-metal contamination in surface sediments of the Minho river estuary by way of factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil-Homens, M; Costa, A M; Fonseca, S; Trancoso, M A; Lopes, C; Serrano, R; Sousa, R

    2013-05-01

    Surface sediments were collected in August 2009 from 49 sites along the Minho estuary (between Tui and Caminha) and analyzed for grain size, organic carbon (Corg) and total nitrogen (Ntot) contents, and major (silicon [Si], aluminum [Al], iron [Fe], calcium [Ca], magnesium [Mg], sodium [Na], potassium [K], titanium [Ti], and mangesese [Mn]) and trace element (arsenic [As], chromium [Cr], copper [Cu], mercury [Hg], lithium [Li], lead [Pb], rubidium [Rb], tin [Sn], and zinc [Zn]) concentrations. Factor analysis was used to decrease 22 selected variables into 4 factors accounting for 85.9 % of the total variance explained, suggesting distinct elemental sources or sediment components affecting their spatial distributions. Although factors 1 (detrital component; elements strongly associated with fine- [Na, Mg, Ti, Li, Cr, Cu, Fe, Al, Zn, Ca, and As] and coarse-grained sediments [Si, K, Rb; mean grain-size [MGS]) and 3 (Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide sediment component; Fe, Mn, As, fine fraction) are interpreted as reflecting predominance of natural contributions, factors 2 (urban and industrial contamination: sediment components [Pb, Hg, organic carbon [Corg], total nitrogen [Ntot] and 4 (components associated with contamination by nautical activities; the association of tin [Sn] and calcium [Ca]) seem to indicate anthropogenic contributions). Nevertheless, the influence of elemental contributions derived from tungsten (W)-Sn mineralizations and those resulting from mining activities can also contribute to the obtained geochemical associations and should be considered. Spatial distribution of dominant factor scores shows the dominance of factors 2 and 4 between Tui and Vila Nova de Cerveira, whereas samples dominated by factors 3 and 1 are found between Ilha da Boega and Seixas and in the Caminha areas, respectively. Despite the dominance of factor score 1 in the Caminha area, the distribution pattern of dominant factor scores shows samples dominated by other factor scores that can be explained by dredging activities in this river sector that restore ancient sedimentary characteristics or expose contaminated sediments. Through the identification of sample locations dominated by factors associated with contamination, it will be possible to select them as priority areas where new environmental (e.g., toxicity tests, organic Sn compounds, tracers of sewage contamination) studies should be implemented in the future. PMID:23299253

  5. Evaluating sedimentation rates in the estuary and shelf region of the Paraíba do Sul River, Southeastern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiana V. A., Wanderley; José Marcus, Godoy; Maria Luiza D. P., Godoy; Carlos Eduardo, Rezende; Luiz D., Lacerda; Isabel, Moreira; Zenildo L., Carvalho.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo é uma avaliação das taxas de sedimentação na região do delta do Rio Paraíba do Sul e sua correlação com a forte erosão que ocorre em Atafona, Rio de Janeiro. Os resultados obtidos são baseados 14 testemunhos de sedimentos, com um total de aproximadamente 540 amostras, coletados em janeir [...] o de 2010 e fevereiro de 2011. Os inventários de 210Pb nos pontos de amostragem ao sul da desembocadura do Rio Paraíba do Sul foram maiores do que aqueles observados para os pontos de coleta na região norte e central, o que sugere que os sedimentos são transportados ao longo da costa com as correntes nesta direção. Os resultados da datação 210Pb foram validados com base na variação de concentração elementar ao longo de dois dos testemunhos. Concentrações de Cd e Zn aumentaram significativamente em 1982 e atingindo valores máximos (0,5 mg kg-1 e 139 mg kg-1, respectivamente) em 1984. Estes máximos correspondem ao acidente da indústria Cia Paraibuna de Metais, que ocorreu em 1982. Abstract in english This study aims to evaluate sedimentation rates in the Paraíba do Sul estuary and its shelf regions. These sedimentation rates were correlated with strong erosion occurring in Atafona, Rio de Janeiro. The results were based on four transects, from which 14 sediment cores with approximately 540 sedim [...] ent samples were collected in January 2010 and February 2011. At sampling points south of the Paraíba do Sul River (PSR) mouth, 210Pb inventories were higher than those at the northern and central sampling locations, suggesting that sediment is transported southward by the alongshore current. The 210Pb dating results were validated based on the elemental concentration variation throughout two of the sediment cores. Heavy metal concentrations, such as Cd and Zn, increased significantly in 1982 and reached maximum values (0.5 mg kg-1 and 139 mg kg-1, respectively) in 1984. These maxima correspond to the Cia Paraibuna de Metais industry accident, which occurred in 1982.

  6. Artificial radionuclides in French estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements were made of 238Pu, sup(239-240)Pu, 241Am, 137Cs, 144Ce, 106Ru, 125Sb and 131I in the principal rivers and estuaries of France (Seine, Loire, Gironde, Rhone). The mean specific activities due to sup(239-240)Pu in river water suspensions (5 to 10 fCi/g) are very little affected by releases from nuclear power stations. The unexpectedly high 238Pu/sup(239-240)Pu activity ratios (0.15 to 0.25) found in media subject only to atmospheric fall-out results from fractionation in the catchment areas. The high artificial radionuclide activities measured in the Seine estuary are attributed to releases from Windscale and, above all, from La Hague. The 137Cs found in Gironde river water remains associated with particles in the estuary. It decreases downstream by ion exchange in the estuary of the Loire, whereas in the Seine estuary the values recorded are higher than upstream owing to the effects of marine contamination. Particulate sup(239-240)Pu increases in all cases between the river and the estuary, a result which is in line with its frequent deficit in solution. However, the transfer of dissolved fluvial sup(239-240)Pu (0.05 to 0.2 fCi/ltr) cannot account for the excess in the particulate phase, the origin of which is ascribed to dissolved marine plutonium. (author)

  7. Ecologia do microfitoplâncton do estuário do rio Igarassu, PE, Brasil / Microphytoplankton ecology of the Igarassu river estuary, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno Machado, Leão; José Zanon de Oliveira, Passavante; Maria da Glória Gonçalves da, Silva-Cunha; Marilene Felipe, Santiago.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas coletas mensais de outubro/2002 a setembro/2003 em baixa-mar e preamar de um mesmo dia, para estudo da comunidade fitoplanctônica do estuário do rio Igarassu, relacionando-a aos parâmetros abióticos. Foram identificadas 210 espécies, distribuídas em cinco divisões. As Bacillariophyt [...] a tiveram maior representatividade, com 146 espécies, seguidas pelas Cyanophyta (26 espécies), Chlorophyta (15 espécies), Euglenophyta (12 espécies) e Dinophyta (11 espécies). As espécies dominantes foram Chaetoceros curvisetus Cleve (97,8%, na preamar da estação 02, em abril/2003), Thalassionema nitzschioides Grunow (93,67%, na estação 03, na baixa-mar, em agosto/2003), Microcystis aeruginosa Kützing (88,37%, maio/2003, na baixa-mar da estação 02), Rhizosolenia hebetata (Bailey) Gran (87,52%, na estação 03, na preamar de fevereiro/2003) e Thalassiosira rotula Meunier (84,18% na estação 02, durante a preamar do mês de junho/2003). A densidade microfitoplanctônica esteve associada à pluviosidade, tendo ocorrido um florescimento expressivo no fim da período chuvoso e inicio do período de estiagem. A diversidade específica e equitabilidade estiveram diretamente relacionadas à baixa-mar e período de estiagem. A partir da observação dos parâmetros ambientais e da estrutura da comunidade fitoplanctônica verificou-se que existe uma forte influência da água do mar no estuário do rio Igarassu, evidenciada pela presença de espécies neríticas e oceânicas, enquanto que, na época de maior pluviosidade ocorreu à presença dominante da Cyanophyta dulcícola Microcystis aeruginosa Kützing. Abstract in english Studies on the phytoplankton community and its relationship to abiotic parameters were carried out at the Igarassu River estuarine area. Plankton collections were made monthly from October/2002 to September/2003 during low and high tides on the same day. We identified 210 species, distributed in fiv [...] e divisions. Bacillariophyta was the most taxonomically diverse with 146 species, followed by Cyanophyta (26 species), Chlorophyta (15 species), Euglenophyta (12 species) and Dinophyta (11 species). The dominant species were Chaetoceros curvisetus Cleve (97.8%, high tide, station 2, April/2003); Thalassionema nitzschioides Grunow (93.67%, low tide, station 3, August/2003); Microcystis aeruginosa Kützing (88.37%, low tide, station 2, May/2003); Rhizosolenia hebetata (Bailey) Gran (87.52%, high tide, station 3, February/2003); and Thalassiosira rotula Meunier (84.18% high tide, station 2, June/2003). Microphytoplankton density was related to rainfall, with a bloom at the end of the rainy season. Higher species diversity and evenness were related to low tide and dry season. The phytoplankton community was structured by the marine flux during the dry season in the Igarassu River estuary with the presence of neritic and oceanic species. In the rainy season the community was structured by the freshwater flux, with the dominance of the Cyanophyta Microcystis aeruginosa Kützing.

  8. Assessing the Influence of Nonpoint Source and Discharge Changes on Water Quality in a Tidal River Estuary Using a Three-Dimensional Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The change of nonpoint source and freshwater discharge as a result of land use change might affect the water quality in a river. In the current study, a coupled three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model was created and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system and its adjacent coastal ocean. The hydrodynamic and water quality models were validated using observations of water surface elevation, salinity distribution and water quality state variables. The predictions of hydrodynamics, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrients from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observational data. The validated model was then used to investigate the possible effects of the nonpoint source and freshwater discharge changes at the upstream reaches on water quality conditions in the Danshuei River estuarine system. Three scenarios were investigated to predict the dissolved oxygen using model simulations. The simulated results indicated that increasing nonpoint sources at the upstream reaches degraded the dissolved oxygen under low flow conditions. However, increasing freshwater discharges at the upstream reaches would overcome the loadings of the nonpoint source, which would result in increasing the dissolved oxygen in the tidal river estuary. The model can provide a useful tool for developing management practices for nonpoint sources to protect the water quality in the estuarine system.

  9. Satellite Remote Sensing of Chlorophyll a in Support of Nutrient Management in the Neuse and Tar-Pamlico River Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The North Carolina Environmental Management Commission (EMC) has adopted as a water quality standard that chlorophyll a concentration should not exceed 40 ug/L in sounds, estuaries and other slow-moving waters. Exceedances require regulators to develop a Total Maximum Daily Limit...

  10. A case study on the impact of industrial effluent disposal on the fishery of Amba River Estuary, Maharashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Mehta, P.; Mustafa, S.; Nair, V.R

    measures for marine disposal of waste. Experimental trawling was done at five locations covering a distance of 30 km during 1990 to 1991. The catch rate within the estuary varied from 0.6 to 255 kg/h (av 24 kg/h). The trend indicated considerable decrease...

  11. Short-term changes and longitudinal distribution of carbon metabolism in the Piauí River estuary (Sergipe, Brazil) Variações de curto prazo e distribuição longitudinal do metabolismo do carbono no estuário do Rio Piauí (Sergipe, Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    SOUZA M. F. L. de; E. C. G. COUTO

    1999-01-01

    Net pelagic metabolism (NPM) and net ecosystem metabolism (NEM) were assessed by sigmaCO2 changes in three sampling stations along Piauí River estuary. At the upper estuary station, sampling was carried out over 48 h. Samples exhibited high DIN:DIP ratios. Chlorophyll-a ranged from 0.2 to 2.5 mug.l-1, being higher at the upper estuarine station than marine ones. Net pelagic metabolic rates ranged from -13.2 to 61.2 mgC.m7-2.d-1. Presence of mucilaginous algal material can explain the net mine...

  12. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Evaluating Wetland Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary using Hydroacoustic Telemetry Arrays to Estimate Movement, Survival, and Residence Times of Juvenile Salmonids, Volume XXII (22).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Russell W.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-08-01

    Wetlands in the Columbia River estuary are actively being restored by reconnecting these habitats to the estuary, making more wetland habitats available to rearing and migrating juvenile salmon. Concurrently, thousands of acoustically tagged juvenile salmonids are released into the Columbia River to estimate their survival as they migrate through the estuary. Here, we develop a release-recapture model that makes use of these tagged fish to measure the success of wetland restoration projects in terms of their contribution to populations of juvenile salmon. Specifically, our model estimates the fraction of the population that enter the wetland, survival within the wetland, and the mean residence time of fish within the wetland. Furthermore, survival in mainstem Columbia River downstream of the wetland can be compared between fish that remained the mainstem and entered the wetland. These conditional survival estimates provide a means of testing whether the wetland improves the subsequent survival of juvenile salmon by fostering growth or improving their condition. Implementing such a study requires little additional cost because it takes advantage of fish already released to estimate survival through the estuary. Thus, such a study extracts the maximum information at minimum cost from research projects that typically cost millions of dollars annually.

  13. Behavior of arsenic in the coastal area of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary: Influences of water mass mixing, the spring bloom and hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Ren, Jing-Ling; Yan, Zhe; Liu, Su-Mei; Wu, Ying; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Jing

    2014-06-01

    The biogeochemical cycle of arsenic in the aquatic environment has received scientific attention because of the complex forms and toxicity of this element. Previous studies have shown the frequent occurrence of hypoxia in the coastal area of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary. In an especially dry year (2006), three cruises were conducted (June, August and October) in this area to investigate the impact of hypoxia on total dissolved inorganic arsenic (TDIAs: [TDIAs]=[AsO43-]+[AsO33-]), dissolved organic arsenic (DOAs) and total arsenic in surface sediments. The distribution of TDIAs in the study area was similar among the three field studies, with high concentrations being found in the coastal area and in near bottom waters offshore in the East China Sea (ECS). TDIAs was scavenged in the surface layer in June. The distribution of DOAs was opposite that of TDIAs, especially in the region having high concentrations of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The DOAs/TDAs (total dissolved arsenic: [TDAs]=[DOAs]+[TDIAs]) ratio decreased from June to October. The concentrations of total arsenic in surface sediments decreased gradually from the Changjiang Estuary to the central ECS shelf. The behavior of TDIAs was non-conservative in the coastal area of the Changjiang Estuary. Biological mediation and hypoxia are the main factors influencing the internal cycling of arsenic within the study area. The DOAs/TDAs ratio was negatively correlated with apparent oxygen utilization (r=0.71, pzone, which suggests that the decomposition of organic matter may have a significant effect on the internal transformations of various arsenic species in the coastal area of the Changjiang Estuary. Sediment-water incubation experiments conducted under various redox conditions showed that hypoxia resulted in the release of arsenic from the sediments into the water; this may contribute to the high TDIAs concentrations in bottom waters in August. With increased toxicity and residence time of inorganic arsenic species during hypoxia, the potential damage to the ecosystem and marine environment should receive more attention.

  14. Status of the population structure of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Decapoda: Ocypodidae on the Piraquê-açu River estuary, Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Conti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The land crab Ucides cordatus is a keystone species of neotropical mangrove forests and an important resource of the artisanal fisheries. The spatial and temporal distribution of U. cordatus in the mangrove area of the Piraquê-açu river estuary was determined following a longitudinal estuarine salinity gradient (lower, middle, upper estuary and along the vertical intertidal gradient. The numbers of open and closed burrows were counted monthly on fixed transects, the inhabiting crabs were caught, sexed and the carapace width measured, during 1 year. The mean crab density was 2.5 ind.m-². The highest crab density (3.9 ind.m-², linked to high numbers of juvenile crabs, was found on the upper estuary and correlated with lower salinities. High intertidal levels had higher crab densities than lower intertidal levels, except in the upper estuary. Males were smaller than females; the mean carapace width of the population was 4.89 cm, below the minimum legal harvesting size (6 cm. The predominance of females over males at some sites (especially close to villages brought out the advanced level of overfishing of this U. cordatus population and highlights the urgent need of management actions.O caranguejo Ucides cordatus é uma espécie chave nos manguezais da região neotropical e um importante recurso pesqueiro para populações tradicionais. A distribuição espacial e temporal de U. cordatus no manguezal do Rio Piraquê-açu foi estudada ao longo de um gradiente de salinidade, no estuário inferior, médio e superior na faixa entre-marés. Mensalmente durante um ano. O número de tocas abertas e fechadas ao longo de transectos fixos, foi contado mensalmente, ao longo de um ano, e os caranguejos capturados foram sexados e medidos quanto à largura da carapaça, sendo posteriormente liberados. A densidade média de caranguejos foi de 2,5 ind.m-². A maior densidade (3,9 ind.m-², juntamente com o maior número de jovens, foi encontrada na parte superior do estuário, correlacionada com baixas salinidades. Nos níveis mais altos de maré a densidade de caranguejos sempre foi alta, exceto na região superior do estuário. Os machos foram menores do que as fêmeas; o tamanho médio da carapaça da população total foi de 4,89 cm, abaixo do tamanho legal permitido para captura (6 cm. A predominância de fêmeas sobre machos em alguns pontos, principalmente próximos às vilas, revela o avançado nível de sobreexplotação da população de U. cordatus, evidenciando a necessidade urgente de ações fiscalizadoras.

  15. Status of the population structure of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Decapoda: Ocypodidae) on the Piraquê-açu River estuary, Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rita de Cássia, Conti; Rosebel Cunha, Nalesso.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O caranguejo Ucides cordatus é uma espécie chave nos manguezais da região neotropical e um importante recurso pesqueiro para populações tradicionais. A distribuição espacial e temporal de U. cordatus no manguezal do Rio Piraquê-açu foi estudada ao longo de um gradiente de salinidade, no estuário inf [...] erior, médio e superior na faixa entre-marés. Mensalmente durante um ano. O número de tocas abertas e fechadas ao longo de transectos fixos, foi contado mensalmente, ao longo de um ano, e os caranguejos capturados foram sexados e medidos quanto à largura da carapaça, sendo posteriormente liberados. A densidade média de caranguejos foi de 2,5 ind.m-². A maior densidade (3,9 ind.m-²), juntamente com o maior número de jovens, foi encontrada na parte superior do estuário, correlacionada com baixas salinidades. Nos níveis mais altos de maré a densidade de caranguejos sempre foi alta, exceto na região superior do estuário. Os machos foram menores do que as fêmeas; o tamanho médio da carapaça da população total foi de 4,89 cm, abaixo do tamanho legal permitido para captura (6 cm). A predominância de fêmeas sobre machos em alguns pontos, principalmente próximos às vilas, revela o avançado nível de sobreexplotação da população de U. cordatus, evidenciando a necessidade urgente de ações fiscalizadoras. Abstract in english The land crab Ucides cordatus is a keystone species of neotropical mangrove forests and an important resource of the artisanal fisheries. The spatial and temporal distribution of U. cordatus in the mangrove area of the Piraquê-açu river estuary was determined following a longitudinal estuarine salin [...] ity gradient (lower, middle, upper estuary) and along the vertical intertidal gradient. The numbers of open and closed burrows were counted monthly on fixed transects, the inhabiting crabs were caught, sexed and the carapace width measured, during 1 year. The mean crab density was 2.5 ind.m-². The highest crab density (3.9 ind.m-²), linked to high numbers of juvenile crabs, was found on the upper estuary and correlated with lower salinities. High intertidal levels had higher crab densities than lower intertidal levels, except in the upper estuary. Males were smaller than females; the mean carapace width of the population was 4.89 cm, below the minimum legal harvesting size (6 cm). The predominance of females over males at some sites (especially close to villages) brought out the advanced level of overfishing of this U. cordatus population and highlights the urgent need of management actions.

  16. The distribution and speciation of trace metals in surface sediments from the Pearl River Estuary and the Daya Bay, Southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface sediments collected from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the Daya Bay (DYB) were analyzed for total metal concentrations and chemical phase partitioning. The total concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the PRE were obviously higher than those in DYB. The maximum concentrations of trace metals in DYB occurred in the four sub-basins, especially in Dapeng Cove, while the concentrations of these metals in the western side of the PRE were higher than those in the east side. Such distribution pattern was primarily due to the different hydraulic conditions and inputs of anthropogenic trace metals. The chemical partitioning of metals analyzed by the BCR sequential extraction method showed that Cr, Ni, and Zn of both areas were present dominantly in the residual fraction, while Pb was found mostly in the non-residual fractions. The partitioning of Cu showed a significant difference between the two areas.

  17. Protist 18S rRNA gene Sequence Analysis Reveals Multiple Sources of Organic Matter Contributing to Turbidity Maxima of the Columbia River Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; McCue, Lee Ann; Zuber, Peter A.

    2011-10-05

    The Columbia River estuary is traditionally considered a detritus-based ecosystem fueled in summer by organic matter (OM) from expired freshwater diatoms. Since Estuarine Turbidity Maxima (ETM) are sites of accumulation and transformation of this phytoplankton-derived OM, to further characterize the ETM protist assemblage, we collected in August 2007 bottom waters throughout an ETM event, as well as surface water during the peak of bottom turbidity, and performed biogeochemical, microscopic and molecular (18S rRNA gene clone libraries) analyses. These data confirmed that the majority of the particulate OM in ETMs is derived from chlorophyll a-poor particulate organic carbon tagged by DNA too damaged to be detected by molecular analysis.

  18. Distribution and behaviour of 137Cs in nearshore sediments of the northern Adriatic and at the Adige River estuary, northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results of determinations of 137Cs and other radionuclides in bottom sediments and suspended matter collected in a coastal zone of the northern Adriatic. The activity, behaviour and distribution of 137Cs and some natural radionuclides were determined in materials sampled up to 1984. Various artificial radionuclides were detected in samples collected in 1986. The study of the distribution of 137Cs as a function of sediment properties showed that this radionuclide preferentially accumulates in the finest particles and is taken up by adsorption surface processes. This radioisotope has been used as a tracer for recent sedimentary processes occurring in the study area for predicting the fate of other inorganic and organic pollutants reaching the sediments by natural processes. Exceptionally high values of radioactivity were observed after the Chernobyl accident in the estuary of the Adige River, particularly in suspended matter. (author)

  19. Hydrophysical and hydrochemical characteristics of the sea areas adjacent to the estuaries of small rivers of the Russian coast of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavialov, P. O.; Makkaveev, P. N.; Konovalov, B. V.; Osadchiev, A. A.; Khlebopashev, P. V.; Pelevin, V. V.; Grabovskiy, A. B.; Izhitskiy, A. S.; Goncharenko, I. V.; Soloviev, D. M.; Polukhin, A. A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the results of long-term in situ and satellite measurements at shelf areas adjacent to the estuaries of the small rivers of the Russian coast of the Black Sea (Mezyb, Pshada, Vulan, Tuapse, Bitkha, Sochi, Cudepsta, Mzymta). The quantitative characteristics of the response of the hydrophysical and hydrochemical fields at the sea shelf on the influence of the continental river discharge are presented for each of these areas. A number of indicators of the water quality (the concentrations of the nitrate and nitrite forms of nitrogen, the phosphorus, the silica, the dissolved oxygen, the value of the total alkalinity and pH, the mineral and organic suspended matter, and the chlorophyll a) are considered in the context of the anthropogenic and terrigenous influence. In this paper, the emphasis was placed on the Mzymta River plume at the shelf area adjacent to the city of Sochi, where the measurements were repeatedly performed during the spring flooding conditions in the period from 2007 until 2012. The interannual variability of the water quality indicators and the seasonal and short-term variability of the area and the configuration of the plume, which transports suspended matter and anthropogenic pollution, were considered.

  20. Relationship of photosynthetic carbon fixation with environmental changes in the Jiulong River estuary of the South China Sea, with special reference to the effects of solar UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? C-fixation is the highest in turbidity front, though UV resulted in higher inhibition. ? Increased availability of CO2 appeared to stimulate photosynthetic machinery. ? Osmotic stress made phytoplankton more sensitive to UV. - Abstract: Phytoplankton cells in estuary waters usually experience drastic changes in chemical and physical environments due to mixing of fresh and seawaters. In order to see their photosynthetic performance in such dynamic waters, we measured the photosynthetic carbon fixation by natural phytoplankton assemblages in the Jiulong River estuary of the South China Sea during April 24-26 and July 24-26 of 2008, and investigated its relationship with environmental changes in the presence or the absence of UV radiation. Phytoplankton biomass (Chl a) decreased sharply from the river-mouth to seawards (17.3-2.1 ?g L-1), with the dominant species changed from chlorophytes to diatoms. The photosynthetic rate based on Chl a at noon time under PAR-alone increased from 1.9 ?g C (?g Chl a)-1 L-1 in low salinity zone (SSS -1 L-1 in turbidity front (SSS within 10-20), and then decreased to 2.1 ?g C (?g Chl a)-1 L-1 in mixohaline zone (SSS > 20); accordingly, the carbon fixation per volume of seawater increased from 12.8 to 149 ?g C L-1 h-1, and decreased to 14.3 ?g C L-1 h-1. Solar UVR caused the inhibition of carbon fixation in surface water of all the investigated zones, by 39% in turbidity area and 7-10% in freshwater or mixohaline zones. In the turbidity zone, higher availability of CO2 could have enhanced the photosynthetic performance; while osmotic stress might be responsible for the higher sensitivity of phytoplankton assemblages to solar UV radiation.

  1. GDGTs of Marine Group II Archaea in the Pearl River Estuary: Toward a Better Understanding of the Bias of TEX86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Wang, J. X.; Xie, W.; Chen, S.; Wang, P.

    2014-12-01

    TEX86, calculated based on the distribution of isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) from planktonic Thaumarchaeota, is widely used for paleo sea surface temperature reconstruction. Although increasing evidence shows that TEX86 can be affected by multiple environmental variables, little is known about the additional contribution of TEX86-related GDGTs from other planktonic archaeal groups. In this study, we test the hypothesis that GDGTs potentially derived from MG II Archaea affect TEX86 calculations. Analysis of core (C) and intact polar (IP) GDGTs and 454 sequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting MG II were performed on suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected along a salinity gradient from the lower Pearl River, its estuary, and the northern South China Sea. The results showed that the community structure varied along the salinity gradient with MG II as the second dominant group in the mixing water and seawater. qPCR data indicated that the abundance of MG II in the mixing water was four to five orders of magnitudes higher than the fresh water and seawater. The Ring Index of archaeal lipids was notably elevated in the Pearl River estuary, which may be attributed to the additional export of cyclopentane moiety-enhanced GDGTs from MG II in the mixing water. Furthermore, a linear correlation was observed between qPCR of MG II and IP-GDGTs derived from phosphate head groups, suggesting that MG II actively produces GDGTs in the water column. These results show strong evidence that MG II synthesizes GDGTs with more cyclopentane moieties, which may bias TEX86 signal derived from GDGTs of Thaumarchaeota. This study highlights that valid interpretation of TEX86 in the geologic record, particularly in coastal oceans, needs to consider the paleo-community structure of planktonic Archaea.

  2. Transport and reaction of iron and iron stable isotopes in glacial meltwaters on Svalbard near Kongsfjorden: From rivers to estuary to ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruifeng; John, Seth G.; Zhang, Jing; Ren, Jingling; Wu, Ying; Zhu, Zhuoyi; Liu, Sumei; Zhu, Xunchi; Marsay, Chris M.; Wenger, Fred

    2015-08-01

    Glacial meltwater has been suggested as a significant source of potentially bioavailable iron to the oceans. However, the supply of dissolved iron (dFe) in glacial meltwaters is poorly constrained as few sites have been studied, and because the chemical processing of Fe during transport from glaciers to the adjacent coastal ocean is not well understood. In order to better constrain glacial fluxes of dFe to the ocean, iron concentrations, iron stable isotopes (?56Fe), and other supporting chemical and physical measurements were made along a ?4 km long glacial meltwater river on Svalbard and in estuarine waters that it flows into. Dissolved iron concentrations in the Bayelva River decreased from a maximum of 734 nM near the glacier to an average value of 116 nM near the mouth of the river. Measurements in the Kongsfjorden estuary suggest that 3 to 10 nM of dFe from the Bayelva River is stabilized in glacial waters by the time it mixes into the ocean. Incubation of Bayelva River waters over two weeks in both the light and dark show similar results, with the majority of dFe being quickly precipitated and 4 to 7 nM Fe stabilized in the dissolved phase. Evidence suggests that Fe is most likely lost from the dissolved phase by aggregation and adsorption of nanoparticulate and colloidal Fe to particles. Dissolved ?56Fe was between - 0.11 ‰ and + 0.09 ‰ for all river samples and did not vary systematically with dFe concentrations. We infer that the Fe is lost from the dissolved phase by a process that fractionates Fe isotopes by less than 0.05‰, indicating that the Fe bonding environment does not change during precipitation. This is consistent with DOC loss that is much faster than predicted photo-oxidation rates, suggesting that DOC is also lost through adsorption and precipitation. Dissolved Fe concentrations in the Bayelva River (15-734 nM), and Fe concentrations which are stabilized in the dissolved phase (4-7 nM) are much lower than some previous estimates of Fe in glacial meltwaters, with roughly 80% of dFe lost during transit in the Bayelva River and roughly 90% of the remaining dFe lost in the estuary. This may mean that glaciers are a less significant source of dissolved Fe to the global oceans than has been previously hypothesized, that cold base glaciers of the type studied here do not contribute significantly to the dissolved Fe flux, or that the flux of reactive particulate Fe to the oceans is more important than the dissolved flux. In Arctic regions with similar proglacial environments, bedrock composition, weathering intensity, and as precipitation of colloidal and nanoparticulate Fe may all play an important role in regulating the glacial meltwater iron flux to the ocean.

  3. Cirripedia Balanomorpha del estuario del Río Paripe (Isla de Itamaracá, Pernambuco, Brasil) / Cirripedia Balanomorpha of Paripe River estuary (Itamaracá Island, Pernambuco, Brazil)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane Maria Rocha, Farrapeira.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Los cirrípedos son animales característicos y abundantes en la región intermareal de los ambientes marinos y estuarinos de todo el mundo, pero son poco conocidos en las áreas de manglares tropicales. El presente estudio fue realizado con el objetivo de conocer las especies de cirrípedos en el estuar [...] io del Río Paripe (Pernambuco - Brasil), señalando algunas características de su distribución a lo largo del estuario. En la estación de estiaje de 2006, los animales fueron colectados en tres estaciones del estuario, en todos los substratos duros disponibles, observando su distribución vertical en los mismos. En la estación polihalina (salinidades variando de 28,7 hasta 36,1), se encontraron ocho especies: Amphibalanus amphitrite, A. improvisus, A. reticulatus, A. venustus, Chthamalus proteus, C. bisinuatus, Microeuraphia rhizophorae y Striatobalanus amaryllis. Las especies clasificadas como eurihalinas, encontradas hasta la región mesohalina del estuario (salinidades variando de 10,8 hasta 19,6) fueran: Amphibalanus amphitrite, A. improvisus, A. reticulatus, Chthamalus proteus y Microeuraphia rhizophorae, mientras que en la región oligohalina (salinidades variando de 0,2 hasta 5,2), solamente M. rhizophorae estuvo presente, sendo por tanto, clasificada como componente estuarino. Una zonación horizontal de especies de cirrípedos fue claramente observada a partir de la desembocadura hasta al montante del río, con disminución gradual del número de especies y fue confirmado su padrón de distribución vertical en relación a las alturas de mareas, observadas las respectivas valencias ecológicas. Las especies exóticas introducidas en Brasil, Amphibalanus reticulatus y Striatobalanus amaryllis, estaban bien adaptadas en los substratos naturales y artificiales del estuario. Abstract in english Barnacles are animals characteristic and abundant of intertidal region on marine and estuarine environments worldwide, but they are little known in the areas of tropical mangroves. This study was done with the aim to know the barnacles' species of the estuary of the Paripe River (Pernambuco, Brazil) [...] , indicating some characteristics of its distribution throughout the estuary. In dry season of 2006, the animals were collected in three stations of the estuary, in all hard substrata available, observing their vertical distribution. In polihaline station (salinities varying from 28.7 to 36.1), it was found eight species: Amphibalanus amphitrite, A. improvisus, A. reticulatus, A. venustus, Chthamalus proteus, C. bisinuatus, Microeuraphia rhizophorae and Striatobalanus amaryllis. The species classified as euryhaline, found until the mesohaline region of the estuary (salinities varying from 10.8 to 19.6) were: Amphibalanus amphitrite, A. improvisus, A. reticulatus, Chthamalus proteus and Microeuraphia rhizophorae, whereas in the oligohaline region (salinities varying from 0.2 to 5.2), only M. rhizophorae was present, being classified as estuarine component. A horizontal zonation of species of barnacles was clearly observed from the mouth until the upstream, with gradual decrease of number of species and it was confirmed their pattern of vertical distribution in relation to the height of tides, according with its respective ecological valences. The introduced exotic species in Brazil, Amphibalanus reticulatus and Striatobalanus amaryllis, were well adapted on natural and artificial substrata of the estuary.

  4. Sources and accumulation of organic carbon in the Pearl River Estuary surface sediment as indicated by elemental, stable carbon isotopic, and carbohydrate compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. He

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter in surface sediments from the upper reach of the Pearl River Estuary and Lingdingyang Bay, as well as the adjacent northern South China Sea shelf was characterized by a variety of techniques, including elemental (C and N, stable carbon isotopic (? 13C composition, as well as molecular-level analyses. Total organic carbon (TOC content was 1.61±1.20% in the upper reach down to 1.00±0.22% in Lingdingyang Bay and to 0.80±0.10% on the inner shelf and 0.58±0.06% on the outer shelf. ?13C values ranged from ?25.11‰ to ?21.28‰ across the studied area, with a trend of enrichment seaward. The spatial trend in C/N ratios mirrored that of ?13C, with a substantial decrease in C/N ratio from 10.9±1.3 in the Lingdingyang Bay surface sediments to 6.5±0.09 in the outer shelf surface sediments. Total carbohydrate yields ranged from 22.1 to 26.7 mg (100 mg OC?1, and typically followed TOC concentrations in the estuarine and shelf sediments, suggesting that the relative abundance of total carbohydrate was fairly constant in TOC. Total neutral sugars as detected by the nine major monosaccharides (lyxose, rhamnose, ribose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, and glucose yielded between 4.0 and 18.6 mg (100 mg OC?1 in the same sediments, suggesting that a significant amount of carbohydrates were not neutral aldoses. The bulk organic matter properties, isotopic composition and C/N ratios, combined with molecular-level carbohydrate compositions were used to assess the sources and accumulation of terrestrial organic matter in the Pearl River Estuary and the adjacent northern South China Sea shelf. Results showed a mixture of terrestrial riverine organic carbon with in situ phytoplankton organic carbon in the areas studied. Using a two end-member mixing model based on ?13C values and C/N ratios, we estimated that the terrestrial organic carbon contribution to the surface sediment TOC was ca. 57±13% for Lingdingyang Bay, 19±2% for the inner shelf, which decreased further to 4.3±0.5% on the outer shelf. The molecular composition of the carbohydrate in surface sediments also suggested that the inner estuary was rich in terrestrial-derived carbohydrates but that the contribution of terrestrial-derived carbohydrates decreased offshore. Terrestrial organic carbon accumulation flux was estimated as 1.37±0.92×1011 g yr?1 in Lingdingyang Bay, which accounted for 37±25% of the terrestrial organic carbon transported to the Bay. The burial efficiency of terrestrial organic matter was markedly lower than that of suspended particulate substance (~71% suggesting that the riverine POC undergoes significant degradation and replacement during transportation through the estuary.

  5. Salinity and freshwater discharge determine rotifer distribution at the Mossoró River Estuary (Semiarid Region of Brazil) Salinidade e descarga de água doce determinam a distribuição de rotíferos no estuário do Rio Mossoró (região semiárida do Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    AMA. Medeiros; JEL. Barbosa; PR. Medeiros; Rocha RM; LF. Silva

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating differences in rotifer distribution in three estuarine zones in an inverse estuary located in the Semiarid Region of Brazil. Zones were chosen based on their proximity to the ocean and river border as a means of reflecting a horizontal salinity gradient. High freshwater discharge during the rainy season was the major determinant of rotifer composition. On the other hand, due to higher salinity values during the dry season, very low values of species richn...

  6. Plutonium, cesium, uranium and thorium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1983-November 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide activities were measured in sediment cores and suspended particle samples from the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137Cs, 134Cs, and 60Co, 239240Pu and 238Pu indicate rapid accumulation in marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239240Pu accumulations of more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Fallout 239240Pu moving downstream appears to be retained within the system by particle deposition, while more than 50% of the 137Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported. Significant movement of dissolved plutonium into the estuary from adjacent coastal waters may be occurring. Depth profiles of radionuclides are not significantly altered by physical mixing processes in areas accumulating particles at greater than 1 cm/yr. Transport of fallout radionuclides appears to have decreased faster than would be calculated from continuous removal from a well-mixed soil reservoir, indicating that sequestering of a substantial portion of the soil fallout burden has occurred in the watershed soils over the past two decades. Measurements of fallout 239240Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities two orders of magnitude greater than that found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ions are likely to be important in regulating plutonium solubility in some environments and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility. 45 references, 17 figures, 14 tables

  7. Plutonium, cesium and uranium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1979-November 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137Cs, 134Cs and 60Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239240Pu and 238Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239240Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived 134Cs and 60Co are found in nearly al sediment samples containing appreciable 137Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream extent of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Fallout 239240Pu reaching the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the systems by particle deposition, while 70 to 90% of the 137Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported to the coastal waters in solution. Activity levels of 239240Pu in New York harbor sediments indicate a significant source in addition to suspended particles carried down the Hudson. The most likely cause appears to be transport into the estuary of particles from offshore waters having higher specific activities of 239240Pu. Measurements of fallout 239240Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility

  8. Plutonium, cesium and uranium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1979-November 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, H. J.; Trier, R. M.; Olsen, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co determined by gamma spectrometry and /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu and /sup 238/Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co are found in nearly al sediment samples containing appreciable /sup 137/Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream extent of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Fallout /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu reaching the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the systems by particle deposition, while 70 to 90% of the /sup 137/Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported to the coastal waters in solution. Activity levels of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in New York harbor sediments indicate a significant source in addition to suspended particles carried down the Hudson. The most likely cause appears to be transport into the estuary of particles from offshore waters having higher specific activities of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu. Measurements of fallout /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility.

  9. Salt intrusion, tides and mixing in multi-channel estuaries:

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-channel estuaries, such as the Mekong Delta in Vietnam and the Scheldt in the Netherlands, have characteristics of both the river and the sea, forming a unique environment influenced by tidal movements of the sea and freshwater flow of the river. This study addresses a number of knowledge gaps in multi-channel estuaries by developing a predictive analytical approach for salinity intrusion and discharge estimate in multi-channel estuaries. The new approach agrees well with 1-D hydrodynam...

  10. Contribution of Marine Group II Euryarchaeota to cyclopentyl tetraethers in the Pearl River estuary and coastal South China Sea: impact on the TEX86 paleothermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. X.; Zhang, C. L.; Xie, W.; Zhang, Y. G.; Wang, P.

    2015-08-01

    TEX86 (TetraEther indeX of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) with 86 carbon atoms) has been widely applied to reconstruct (paleo-) sea surface temperature (SST). While Marine Group I (MG I) Thaumarchaeota have been commonly believed to be the source for GDGTs, Marine Group II (MG II Euryarchaeota) have recently been suggested to contribute significantly to the GDGT pool in the ocean. However, little is known how the MG II Euryarchaeota-derived GDGTs may influence TEX86 in marine sediment record. In this study, we characterize MG II Euryarchaeota-produced GDGTs and assess the likely effect of these tetraether lipids on TEX86. Analyses of core lipid (CL-) and intact polar lipid (IPL-) based GDGTs, 454 sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting MG II Euryarchaeota were performed on suspended particulate matter (SPM) and surface sediments collected along a salinity gradient from the lower Pearl River (river water) and its estuary (mixing water) to the coastal South China Sea (seawater). The results showed that the community composition varied along the salinity gradient with MG II Euryarchaeota as the second dominant group in the mixing water and seawater. qPCR data indicated that the abundance of MG II Euryarchaeota in the mixing water was three to four orders of magnitude higher than the river water and seawater. Significant linear correlations were observed between the gene abundance ratio of MG II Euryarchaeota vs. total archaea and the relative abundance of GDGTs-1, -2, -3, or -4 as well as the ring index based on these compounds, which collectively suggest that MG II Euryarchaeota may actively produce GDGTs in the water column. These results also show strong evidence that MG II Euryarchaeota synthesizing GDGTs with 1-4 cyclopentane moieties may bias TEX86 in the water column and sediments. This study highlights that valid interpretation of TEX86 in sediment record, particularly in coastal oceans, needs to consider the contribution from MG II Euryarchaeota.

  11. Diversity of bird communities in southern Hangzhou Bay and the Qiantang River estuary and their responses to reclamation of intertidal mudflats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyi Jiang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bird communities were surveyed in southern Hangzhou Bay and the Qiantang River estuary from November 2008 to September 2011. A total of 220 bird species belonging to 16 orders and 52 families were recorded, of which, 173 (78.6% were migrants and 24 were listed as state key protected wildlife grade I or II. The composition and diversity of bird communities in eight habitat types were compared using the G-F index and the Jaccard index. Ninety-five species (43.2% were observed in the ponds located in Cixi Wetland Centre with common reed (Phragmites australis marshes, 93 species (42.3% in the coastal woodland, and 78 species (35.5% in intertidal mudflats and coastal reservoirs. About 82.5% of the Charadriiformes species were recorded in intertidal mudflats; 69.2% of the Anatidae species in coastal reservoirs, and 73.4% of the Passeriformes species in the coastal woodland which provides the breeding habitat for the Ardeidae birds. Compared with intertidal mudflats, the highest value of the Jaccard index was obtained for bird communities in the newly reclaimed but undeveloped areas (0.56, followed by coastal reservoirs (0.34 and ponds located in Cixi Wetland Centre with common reed marshes (0.30. For the whole bird community, the highest value of G-F index was obtained in coastal reservoirs and coastal woodland, whereas the lowest value was recorded in the intertidal mudflats. However, newly reclaimed but undeveloped sites had the highest value of G-F index for the waterbird community, followed by coastal reservoirs and intertidal mudflats. Our results indicate that suitable habitat availability and human disturbance are the main factors influencing the spatial distribution of bird communities in the Hangzhou Bay and the Qiantang River estuary. The most serious human disturbance in this region was found to be coastal reclamation. Thus, diversity of local avian communities in the Hangzhou Bay and the Qiantang River estuary could increase if moderate-intensity reclamation and reasonable land use patterns were practiced. Moderate-intensity reclamation is the mode that maintains an intertidal wetland containing a sufficient width of mudflat and upper intertidal zone as well as other important habitatvariables for shorebirds and other birds. Local governments should take action to protect the natural wetlands while using them reasonably and efficiently. It is necessary to maintain several main high-tide roosting sites with sufficient areas for shorebirds and other waterbirds. Some appropriate management measures such as controlling water level in newly reclaimed but undeveloped areas should be carried out to increase the availability of suitable habitat for waterbirds. A variety of artificial wetlands should also be constructed to provide potential habitats for waterbirds and other birds after large scale coastal reclamation.

  12. Sources, transformation and fate of particulate amino acids and hexosamines under varying hydrological regimes in the tropical Wenchang/Wenjiao Rivers and Estuary, Hainan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Daniela; Herbeck, Lucia S.; Li, Min; Bao, Hongyan; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Jennerjahn, Tim

    2013-04-01

    The small tropical Wenchang and Wenjiao Rivers on the island of Hainan, tropical China, are affected by effluents from municipal sewage, aquaculture and agriculture, and by contrasting hydrological regimes related to monsoon and tropical storms. In order to obtain information on the sources, transformation and fate of organic matter (OM) we investigated the amount and composition of amino acids and hexosamines as well as the carbon isotope composition in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the Wenchang/Wenjiao Estuary. SPM was collected along the salinity gradient starting from the river sites, along the lagoon-shaped Bamen Bay to coastal waters during four sampling campaigns between 2006 and 2009. SPM concentrations ranged between 4.7 and 58.2 mg L-1. Apart from highest values after heavy rain events in spring and summer, SPM showed little seasonal variation, but increased with salinity. From SPM POC% (1.2-20.9%), C/N (4.9-16.5) and ?13Corg (-31.5 to -19.5‰), the molar composition and content of amino acids and hexosamines (8.2-156.2 mg g-1 dry weight) and by comparison with sediments, mangroves, soils and plants we are able to show that soil-derived material, freshwater and marine plankton were the major sources of suspended OM. High POC and amino acid contents were related to primary production sustained by dissolved nutrients to a large extent stemming from municipal and aquaculture effluents. Factor analysis showed that the suite of biogeochemical parameters measured clearly depict the terrestrial vs. marine origin and the freshness/reactivity of OM. The four groups of samples resulting from cluster analysis were basically related to varying hydrological regimes. With respect to the sources, degradation and fate of particulate OM the major factors were: (i) the year round input of labile, amino acid rich riverine OM matter at the freshwater dominated sites, (ii) high input of degraded soil OM after heavy rains with dispersal throughout the estuary and export to the adjacent coastal area, (iii) significant production of labile marine OM especially during summer inside the bay and the (iv) dominance of refractory marine OM during winter and spring season and in the offshore region. While a major part of the fresh OM fuelled by anthropogenic nutrients appears to be stored or recycled inside the bay, periodic torrential rainfalls can lead to a pulsed export of this OM to the coastal area where it may adversely affect seagrass meadows and coral reefs.

  13. Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, J. R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ostrand, Kenneth G.; Hanson, Kyle C.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Donley, Erin E.; Ke, Yinghai; Buenau, Kate E.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the 2010 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) project EST-P-09-1, titled Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, and known as the 'Salmon Benefits' study. The primary goal of the study is to establish scientific methods to quantify habitat restoration benefits to listed salmon and trout in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) in three required areas: habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival (Figure ES.1). The general study approach was to first evaluate the state of the science regarding the ability to quantify benefits to listed salmon and trout from habitat restoration actions in the LCRE in the 2009 project year, and then, if feasible, in subsequent project years to develop quantitative indices of habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival. Based on the 2009 literature review, the following definitions are used in this study. Habitat connectivity is defined as a landscape descriptor concerning the ability of organisms to move among habitat patches, including the spatial arrangement of habitats (structural connectivity) and how the perception and behavior of salmon affect the potential for movement among habitats (functional connectivity). Life history is defined as the combination of traits exhibited by an organism throughout its life cycle, and for the purposes of this investigation, a life history strategy refers to the body size and temporal patterns of estuarine usage exhibited by migrating juvenile salmon. Survival is defined as the probability of fish remaining alive over a defined amount of space and/or time. The objectives of the 4-year study are as follows: (1) develop and test a quantitative index of juvenile salmon habitat connectivity in the LCRE incorporating structural, functional, and hydrologic components; (2) develop and test a quantitative index of the early life history diversity of juvenile salmon in the LCRE; (3) assess and, if feasible, develop and test a quantitative index of the survival benefits of tidal wetland habitat restoration (hydrologic reconnection) in the LCRE; and (4) synthesize the results of investigations into the indices for habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival benefits.

  14. Spatial and temporal variations of nitrous oxide flux between coastal marsh and the atmosphere in the Yellow River estuary of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhigao; Wang, Lingling; Mou, Xiaojie; Jiang, Huanhuan; Sun, Wanlong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the spatial and seasonal variations of nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes and understand the key controlling factors, we explored N2O fluxes and environmental variables in high marsh (HM), middle marsh (MM), low marsh (LM), and mudflat (MF) in the Yellow River estuary throughout a year. Fluxes of N2O differed significantly between sampling periods as well as between sampling positions. During all times of day and the seasons measured, N2O fluxes ranged from -0.0051 to 0.0805 mg N2O m(-2) h(-1), and high N2O emissions occurred during spring (0.0278 mg N2O m(-2) h(-1)) and winter (0.0139 mg N2O m(-2) h(-1)) while low fluxes were observed during summer (0.0065 mg N2O m(-2) h(-1)) and autumn (0.0060 mg N2O m(-2) h(-1)). The annual average N2O flux from the intertidal zone was 0.0117 mg N2O m(-2) h(-1), and the cumulative N2O emission throughout a year was 113.03 mg N2O m(-2), indicating that coastal marsh acted as N2O source. Over all seasons, N2O fluxes from the four marshes were significantly different (p??MF (0.0107?±?0.0027 mg N2O m(-2) h(-1))?>?LM (0.0073?±?0.0020 mg N2O m(-2) h(-1))?>?MM (0.0026?±?0.0011 mg N2O m(-2) h(-1)). Temporal variations of N2O emissions were related to the vegetations (Suaeda salsa, Phragmites australis, and Tamarix chinensis) and the limited C and mineral N in soils during summer and autumn and the frequent freeze/thaw cycles in soils during spring and winter, while spatial variations were mainly affected by tidal fluctuation and plant composition at spatial scale. This study indicated the importance of seasonal N2O contributions (particularly during non-growing season) to the estimation of local N2O inventory, and highlighted both the large spatial variation of N2O fluxes across the coastal marsh (CV?=?158.31%) and the potential effect of exogenous nitrogen loading to the Yellow River estuary on N2O emission should be considered before the annual or local N2O inventory was evaluated accurately. PMID:23784055

  15. Influence of tides and winds on fishing techniques and strategies in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba State, NE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Dandara M M; Nascimento, Douglas M; Ferreira, Emmanoela N; Rocha, Pollyana D; Mourão, José S

    2012-09-01

    This work was carried out in two small fishing communities, Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia, Northeastern Brazil. The aim was to study these traditional fishermen's knowledge and perception about tide and wind classifications, as well as their fishing strategies and techniques. Our research methodology involved various techniques: free interviews and semi-structured ones, guided tours and direct observations. The results obtained show the fishermen's classification of the tides according to the phases of the moon: 'breaking tide', 'flushing tide', 'dead tide' and 'big tide' designated technically these last as neap tide and spring tide, respectively. Wind is also an essential factor for the fishermen to make successful catches, and they classify it according to direction: North, South, East, Southeast, Southwest, Northeast and Northwest. The data show that fishermen's knowledge can also be useful in devising plans for management and conservation studies for this estuary. PMID:22801380

  16. Preliminary results on the influence of river discharges on biogeochemical processes in Godavari estuary and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    in time. During the summer monsoon, discharges of many rivers are regulated through dams. Such a controlled discharge would alter the periodicity of natural estuarine circulation pattern and the associated biogeochemical processes compared to those of free... flowing rivers without dams. Biogeochemical studies along the west coast have confirmed prevalence of hypoxic waters following the southwest monsoon that has been attributed to high biological production triggered by natural upwelling and anthropogenic...

  17. Nutrient concentrations and loads and Escherichia coli densities in tributaries of the Niantic River estuary, southeastern Connecticut, 2005 and 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient concentrations and loads and Escherichia coli (E. coli) densities were studied in 2005 and from 2008 through 2011 in water-quality samples from tributaries of the Niantic River Estuary in southeastern Connecticut. Data from a water-quality survey of the base flow of subbasins in the watershed in June 2005 were used to determine the range of total nitrogen concentrations (0.09 to 2.4 milligrams per liter), instantaneous loads (less than 1 to 62 pounds per day) and the yields of total nitrogen ranging from 0.02 to 11.2 pounds per square mile per day (less than 1 to 7.2 kilograms per hectare per year) from basin segments. Nitrogen yields were positively correlated with the amount of developed land in each subbasin. Stable isotope measurements of nitrate (?15N) and oxygen (?18O) ranged from 3.9 to 9.4 per mil and 0.7 to 4.1 per mil, respectively, indicating that likely sources of nitrate in base flow are soil nitrate and ammonium fertilizers, sewage or animal waste, or a mixture of these sources. Continuous streamflow and monthly water-quality sampling, with additional storm event sampling, were conducted at the three major tributaries (Latimer Brook, Oil Mill Brook, and Stony Brook) of the Niantic River from October 2008 through September 2011. Samples were analyzed for nitrogen and phosphorus constituents and E. coli densities. Total freshwater discharge from these tributaries, which is reduced by upstream withdrawals, ranged from 25.9 to 37.8 million gallons per day. Total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations generally were low, with the mean values below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended nutrient concentration values of 0.71 milligram per liter and 0.031 milligram per liter, respectively. Total nitrogen was predominantly in the form of total ammonia plus organic nitrogen at the Oil Mill Brook and Stony Brook sites and in the form of nitrate at Latimer Brook. Annual total nitrogen loads that flowed into the Niantic River estuary from the three major tributaries, calculated with the Load Estimator computer program, ranged from 41,400 to 60,700 pounds, with about 52 to 59 percent of the load as total ammonia plus organic nitrogen. Total phosphorus loads ranged from 1,770 to 3,540 pounds per year. Yields of total nitrogen were highest from Latimer Brook, with the range from the three tributaries between 1,100 and 2,720 pounds per square mile per year. Total phosphorus yields ranged from 52 to 185 pounds per square mile per year. The geometric means of E. coli densities in samples from the three Niantic River tributaries were less than the State of Connecticut water-quality standard of 126 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters; however, individual samples from all three tributaries had densities as high as 2,400 to 2,900 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters. High densities of E. coli were more likely to be present in samples collected during wet weather events.

  18. SEDONE: a computer code for simulating tidal-transient, one-dimensional hydrodynamic conditions and three-layer, variable-size sediment concentrations in controlled rivers and estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the user's manual of the general-usage computer code SEDONE for simulating fast-transient (tidal-transient), one-dimensional hydrodynamic and three-layer, variable-size sediment concentration conditions in controlled rivers and tidal estuaries. The code is particularly designed for application to site-specific problems that require accurate predictions of the sedimentation phenomena under severely reversing flow conditions. Input data to the code includes modified geometry contours of the channel cross-sections with corrections for the embayment areas, flow conditions at the controlled dams, tidal conditions at the ocean ends, rainfall conditions in the geographical region, stream flow, drainage flow, and ground-water-seepage flow conditions, and the physical properties of the sediment size classes that determine the settling and resuspension effects which control the sedimentation. The formats of the input data are completely generalized. The code also has a user-specified option to include only the simulations of sediment concentration conditions by incorporating previously computed and stored results for the surface elevation and flow rate conditions, thereby excluding the computations for the solution of the hydrodynamic conditions. This option substantially reduces the computational cost of repeated simulations

  19. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Duan; Yu, Riqing; He, Xuan; Tu, Qin; Chen, Laiguo; Wu, Yuping

    2014-11-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) are apex predators in the Pearl River Estuary waters (PRE) of China. PCBs, DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (e.g., HCHs, HCB, mirex and dieldrin) were analysed in blubber samples of 45 dolphins and 10 prey fishes of S. chinensis collected from 2004 to 2013 in the PRE region to investigate the bioaccumulation and potential biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). DDTs were the most abundant residue in the dolphins, with an average of 6,2700 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww), followed by PCBs (average: 1,790 ng g(-1) ww) and other OCPs including ?HCHs, mirex, endrin, ?chlordanes, HCB, dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, and pentachlorobenzene. The concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in male dolphins significantly increased with age and length. In contrast, female dolphins did not show obvious bioaccumulation trends with age and body length, possibly due to the lactational and parturitional transfer of these compounds. Compared with the POP residues in the prey fishes, the concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs in the dolphin blubber increased by factors of 99, 212, and 5, respectively, whereas the residue levels of the other OCPs increased 2-185 times, indicating a potentially significant biomagnification in the top predators. The potential biomagnification factors calculated for most POPs were significantly higher than those in the cetacean species from other regions. PMID:25113190

  20. Length-weight relationship and parasites of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus in Cross River Estuary Itu local government area Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usip Lawrence Patrick Esiest

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the length-weight relationship and helminthes bioload of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Catfish in the Cross river estuary purchased at Ayaedehe, Itu Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State. A total of four hundred and twenty (420 life specimens of C. nigrodigitatus were collected by local fishing gear between June and November, 2011. Data obtained were statistically analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that the highest length was obtained in July (100.2cm while the least was obtained in June (15.30cm. The highest weight was 1410g obtained in October while the least was obtained in September (22.10g and there were significant differences in monthly distribution of length and weight (P<0.05 of the specimens. Correction coefficient (r between length and weight of C. nigrodigitatus from June November, 2011 lied between 0.89 and 0.98 representing strong relationship between length and weight, the relationship was found to be linear but in logarithmic form. Generally condition factor, (K values decreased proportionately with the length of the fish. A total of seventy two (72 (17.14% parasite specimens were recovered from the fish, out of which helminthes parasites include a cestode Proteocephalis 9 (12.5% and aspidogastrid trematode, Aspidogastrea africanus 10 (13.89% and Nematodes; Paracamallanus cyathopharynx 34 (47.22% and Contracacum sp. 19 (26.64%. Parasitic worm burden and Intensity of infection low and independent of length and weight.

  1. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in wetland soils from the young and old reclaimed regions in the Pearl River Estuary, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soils were sampled in three types of wetlands from the young (A) and old (B) reclaimed regions of the Pearl River Estuary. They were analyzed for total concentrations of heavy metals to investigate their distributions and pollution levels in both regions. Results showed that most heavy metals in ditch and riparian wetlands did not significantly differ from those in reclaimed wetlands in A region, while significantly lower for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in reclaimed wetlands in B region, suggesting higher effects of long-term reclamation. Iron, Cr and Cu were identified as metal pollutants of primary concern and had higher contributions to the total toxic units compared to other metals. Almost all metals exceeded their lowest effect levels and Fe and Cr even exceeded the severe effect levels. Multivariate analysis shows that Fe and Mn are controlled by parent rocks and other metals mainly originate from anthropogenic source. - Research highlights: ? Fe, Cr and Cu have higher contributions to the sum of toxic units. ? More than 75.4% soil samples have moderate toxicity in PRE. ? Heavy metals in typical soil profiles exceed the LEL thresholds. ? Heavy metals (except Fe and Mn) mainly originate from anthropogenic source. ? Long reclamation history can lead to greater heavy metal loss in wetland soils. - The findings of this study reveal higher effects of long-term reclamation on heavy metal pollution of wetland soils and contribute to coastal wetland management in subtropical regions.

  2. Seasonal pattern and community structure of fishes in the shallow tidal creek of Obitsu-gawa River Estuary of inner Tokyo Bay, central Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Moteki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal pattern and the community structure of fishes in the shallow tidal creek of ObitsugawaRiver Estuary of inner Tokyo Bay was studied for one year. Family Gobiidae corresponded to 98%of the total catch. Dominant species were Gymnogobius uchidai, Gymnogobius macrognathos,Gymnogobius breunigii, Eutaeniichthys gilli, Pseudogobius masago and Favonigobius gymnauchen.Stepwise modelling in canonical correspondence analysis indicated that season (p=0.02 best explainedthe variation in abundance of fish in this shallow habitat. There was a difference in fish communitybetween spring and summer while only a small difference was observed between summer and autumn aswell as winter and autumn. Species dominance was an inherent property of the tidal creek fishcommunity particularly in spring because of the remarkable abundance of G. uchidai. However, the fishcommunity had the tendency to become proportionately even as the season progresses from spring towinter. The occurrence of a particular life history stage generally showed a strong association with monthand water temperature. Adults substantially contributed to the population size structure of P. masagoand G. uchidai while juvenile 2 for G. breunigii and E. gilli . Larvae significantly contributed to thepopulation size structure of F. gymnauchen while juvenile 1 and juvenile 2 for G. macrognathos. Thecurrent study indicated that natural shallow habitat within a highly urbanized metropolitan area in innerTokyo Bay can serve as a habitat for fishes and the prevalence of certain life history stages of estuarinespecies indicated the importance of the said habitat at certain part of their life history.

  3. Distribution study of fatty acids (FAs) in sediments of Al-Kabeer Al-Shemali river estuary area using (HPLC) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of sediments from fife sites of Al-kabeer Al-shemali river estuary area were collected during the period (22/2/2007-7/11/2007). The samples were extracted to determine their content of Fatty acids qualitatively and quantitatively by using ( HPLC) technique for determination resources of organic matter in studied sediments . The total concentrations of (FAs) varied from (0.36-1245.5?g/g dry weight).The saturated fatty acids were dominated in all samples (12.1 - 100 %) of total fatty acids. The levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were tested percent (0-18 %) of total fatty acids except one sample from surficial sediments in St3 during 8/8/2007 .while the concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were low (0 -21.6 %) of total fatty acids . We can use the saturated long chain fatty acid (C-22) as terrestrial biomarker. poly unsaturated fatty acid (C18: 2?6) as plankton biomarker and the Mono unsaturated fatty acid (C18 : 1?7) as bacterial biomarker.(author)

  4. Production of branched tetraether lipids in the lower Pearl River and estuary: effects of extraction methods and impact on bGDGT proxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChuanlunZhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Branched glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs are known as bacterial lipids that occur widely in terrestrial environments, particularly in anaerobic peat bogs and soil. We examined the abundance and distribution of bGDGTs in both core (C and polar (P lipid fractions from the water column and surface sediments in the lower Pearl River (PR and its estuary using two extraction methods (sonication vs. Bligh and Dyer. A number of soil samples in the lower PR drainage basin were also collected and extracted for bGDGTs using the sonication method. The results showed aquatic production of bGDGTs as supported by substantial abundances of P-bGDGTs in the water column and sediment samples. The bGDGT-based proxies (BIT, CBT, and MBT were not affected by the method of extraction when C-bGDGTs were analyzed; in such case, the pHCBT of the sediments reflected the soil pH of the lower PR drainage basin, and the temperature close to the annual mean air temperature in the lower PR basin. On the other hand, the P-bGDGT-derived proxies were inconsistent between the two methods. The P-bGDGTs (particularly those extracted using the sonication method may not be reliable indicators of annual mean air temperatures.

  5. Eighty-year sedimentary record of heavy metal inputs in the intertidal sediments from the Nanliu River estuary, Beibu Gulf of South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    210Pb analysis in the sediment core C11 was used to reconstruct the historical fluxes of Hg, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr and As in the Nanliu River estuary during the last ?81 year. The 210Pbxs-derived sedimentation rates, molar C/N ratios, enrichment factors and excess fluxes indicated that the natural inputs prevailed till the early 1990s. When the erosion related to land-use modifications enhanced, it promoted higher accumulation rates of the sedimentary material. In the recent sediments they were found a moderate enrichment of Cd and Hg (maximum 3.5- and 2.8-fold corresponding to the local background levels, respectively) and a slight enrichment of Cr, Zn, As and Pb (maximum 1.3-, 1.3-, 1.3- and 1.2-fold, respectively). The excess metal fluxes also showed a consistently increasing tread since the early 1990s, which could be associated with the intensive use of phosphate fertilizers and the combustion of fossil fuels derived from human activities. - The enrichment factor was successfully used to identify the different sources of heavy metals derived from natural, maricultural and agricultural inputs.

  6. Eighty-year sedimentary record of heavy metal inputs in the intertidal sediments from the Nanliu River estuary, Beibu Gulf of South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Peng, E-mail: pengxia@fio.org.c [College of Marine Geo-science, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061 (China); Meng Xianwei, E-mail: mxw@fio.org.c [First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061 (China); Yin Ping [Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology, China Geological Survey, Qingdao 266071 (China); Cao Zhimin [College of Marine Geo-science, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Wang Xiangqin [First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061 (China)

    2011-01-15

    {sup 210}Pb analysis in the sediment core C11 was used to reconstruct the historical fluxes of Hg, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr and As in the Nanliu River estuary during the last {approx}81 year. The {sup 210}Pb{sub xs}-derived sedimentation rates, molar C/N ratios, enrichment factors and excess fluxes indicated that the natural inputs prevailed till the early 1990s. When the erosion related to land-use modifications enhanced, it promoted higher accumulation rates of the sedimentary material. In the recent sediments they were found a moderate enrichment of Cd and Hg (maximum 3.5- and 2.8-fold corresponding to the local background levels, respectively) and a slight enrichment of Cr, Zn, As and Pb (maximum 1.3-, 1.3-, 1.3- and 1.2-fold, respectively). The excess metal fluxes also showed a consistently increasing tread since the early 1990s, which could be associated with the intensive use of phosphate fertilizers and the combustion of fossil fuels derived from human activities. - The enrichment factor was successfully used to identify the different sources of heavy metals derived from natural, maricultural and agricultural inputs.

  7. Sea level variability in South African estuaries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eckart H., Schumann.

    Full Text Available Sea level variability in the coastal ocean affects water levels in adjacent estuaries over a wide range of periods and to varying distances landward. An assessment is given here of the responses of a number of South African estuaries, focusing on tidal and subtidal periods where the dominant effects [...] are found and the necessary data are available. Shorter period inputs tend to be limited to mouth regions and require more detailed, higher frequency data. Subtidal fluctuations, in particular those caused by coastal trapped waves, play an important part in the dynamics of estuaries in the Western Cape and Eastern Cape. In many cases their influence dominates tidal oscillations farther upstream, and it is apparent that such fluctuations must be considered in any assessment of estuarine characteristics, and indeed their upstream extent. Nonetheless, it should be emphasised that each estuary has unique properties, and must be assessed individually. Sea level variability changes dramatically north of the Kei Estuary, and particularly off the coast of KwaZulu-Natal. Unfortunately, few measurements were available from these estuaries, but the mouth conditions of the estuaries and the build-up of river flow appear to be important factors in resulting estuary water levels. These results show that using only tidal variations in the sea can result in very misleading conclusions about concurrent water levels in estuaries.

  8. FEEDING INTERACTION OF THE NON-NATIVE AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus BURCHELL, 1822) IN ITANHÉM RIVER ESTUARY, BAHIA, BRAZIL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro Bonesi, Rabelo; Lucy Satiko Hashimoto, Soares.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados 214 estômagos de Clarias gariepinus, Centropomus undecimalis e C. parallelus do rio Itanhém e rio Caravelas, nordeste do Brasil, com a finalidade de investigar o impacto da espécie exótica Clarias gariepinus sobre a trama trófica do Rio Itanhém, tendo como referência a alimentação d [...] as espécies nativas no Rio Caravelas. No Rio Itanhém, os camarões foram mais importantes na alimentação de Clarias gariepinus (55%), enquanto Teleostei (98,1%) foi para C. parallelus. Brachyura compôs 92,8% da dieta de C. parallelus do rio Caravelas, enquanto que para C. undecimalis, Teleostei compôs 72,5%. Não houve sobreposição alimentar em nenhum dos casos estudados. Pelos resultados desse trabalho não foi possível detectar indícios de mudanças na dieta de C. parallelus do Rio Itanhém. Abstract in english A total of 214 stomachs of Clarias gariepinus, Centropomus undecimalis and C. parallelus from the Itanhém and Caravelas Rivers, northeastern Brazil, were analyzed to investigate the impact of the non-native species Clarias gariepinus on the Itanhém River food web as compared to that of the adjacent [...] Caravelas River, where this species has not been registered. In Itanhém River, shrimp was the most important food for C. gariepinus, and Teleostei for C. parallelus. In the Caravelas River, Brachyura was the main food item for C. parallelus, and Teleostei for C. undecimalis. There was no food overlap between the species within or between rivers. There is no evidence, in the results of this study, of changes in the diet of the Centropomus parallelus due to the presence of the non-native species.

  9. Long-term variations in the dissolved oxygen budget of an urbanized tidal river: The upper Delaware Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaso, Daniel J.; Najjar, Raymond G.

    2015-06-01

    The dissolved oxygen budget in the upper Delaware Estuary between 1970 and 2014 was inferred from oxygen concentration measurements using a box model approach. The region was found to be a net biogeochemical sink of oxygen, with net oxygen consumption greater in the tidal fresh portion than in the oligohaline portion. Net oxygen consumption decreased from the 1970s to the 1990s by roughly a factor of 2 before increasing slightly in the 2000s. The dramatic decline in oxygen consumption was presumably due to improvements in wastewater treatment, though a comparison with biological oxygen demand measurements in wastewater was equivocal. Nonalgal oxygen consumption (i.e., oxygen consumption due to heterotrophic respiration and nitrification) was computed as the sum of the estimated net oxygen consumption and historical measurements of primary production. Nonalgal oxygen consumption was found to be highly seasonal and positively correlated with temperature, with Q10 values ranging between 1.4 and 2.3. Annual nonalgal oxygen consumption was found to be several times annual primary production. Exchange with the atmosphere is the main process that balances the net oxygen consumption throughout the study region, with advection also an important process in the tidal fresh portion. Decadal scale variability in oxygen concentration, including the recent decline in the 2000s, appears to be mainly driven by biological, not physical, processes.

  10. Enantioselectivity of polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers in sediment and biota from the Turtle/Brunswick River estuary, Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Matthew S; Pulster, Erin L; Ejsmont, Malgorzata B; Chow, Elaine A; Hessel, Colin M; Maruya, Keith A; Wong, Charles S

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the potential for enantioselective transformation and accumulation, the enantiomer distributions of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers were measured in the sediment and biota from a sub-tropical estuary heavily contaminated with Aroclor 1268, a technical mixture of highly chlorinated PCB congeners. Enantiomer fractions (EFs) of PCBs 91, 95, 136, 149, 174, 176, and 183 in marsh sediment, invertebrate, forage and predatory fish species, and bottlenose dolphins were determined. Non-racemic EFs greater than 0.75 were found in sediments for PCBs 136 and 174, likely the result of microbial dechlorination. Although enantiomer fractions in grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) mirrored those of sediment, fish species had EFs that differed significantly from sediment or grass shrimp. Similarly, bottlenose dolphins were also found to contain non-racemic quantities of PCBs 91, 136, 174, 176, and 183. Non-racemic EFs in these biota were likely a result of both uptake of non-racemic proportions of PCBs from the diet and enantioselective biotransformation. PMID:21392808

  11. Plutonium and cesium radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1976--November 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have obtained a large set of sediment cores from the Hudson estuary through much of the ambient salinity range. A number of core sections and samples of suspended particles have been analyzed for 137Cs, 134Cs and 60Co by direct gamma counting, and 239Pu, 240Pu, and 238Pu by alpha spectrometry. The distribution of both 137Cs and 239Pu, 240Pu indicates rapid accumulation in marginal cover areas, and especially in the harbor region adjacent to New York City. The distributions of both 137Cs and 239Pu, 240Pu are similar in surface sediments and with depth in cores, but there are deviations from the fallout ratio due to addition of reactor 137Cs and loss of 137Cs from the particle phases at higher salinities. Measureable amounts of reactor-derived 134Cs and 60Co are found in nearly all sediment samples containing appreciable 137Cs, between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream extent of our sampling, 70 km south of the reactor. Accumulations of 239Pu, 240Pu in New York harbor sediments are more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. The most likely explanation is accumulation of fine particles in the harbor which have been transported from upstream areas of the Hudson. Our evidence so far indicates that Indian Point is probably not a significant source of 239Pu, 240Pu or 238Pu compared with the fallout burden of these nuclides already in the sediments

  12. Plutonium and cesium radionuclides in the Hudson River Estuary. Annual technical progress report, 1 December 1975--30 November 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have obtained a large set of cores from the Hudson Estuary covering nearly all of the ambient salinity range. A number of core sections have been analyzed for 137Cs, 134Cs, 60Co and 40K by direct gamma counting and for 239,240Pu and 238Pu by alpha-spectrometry. Rapid accumulation, up to 20 cm/year, of sediments containing 239,240Pu, 137Cs, 134Cs and 60Co occurs in New York Harbor. Marginal coves upstream from the harbor also serve as depositional environments. The ratio of sediment /sup 239,240/Pu to 137Cs is higher than the fallout ratio in the seaward end of New York Harbor, despite the presence of a significant component of reactor 137Cs in the sediments, but lower than the range of ratios observed by others for nearshore environments with low sediment deposition rates. A substantial portion of gamma emitting fission product and activation nuclides released from the Indian Point nuclear facility have accumulated in New York Harbor, more than 60 km downstream from the release area. We have not yet established whether local transuranic releases to the Hudson have occurred

  13. Influence of tides and winds on fishing techniques and strategies in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba State, NE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandara M.M. Bezerra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in two small fishing communities, Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia, Northeastern Brazil. The aim was to study these traditional fishermen's knowledge and perception about tide and wind classifications, as well as their fishing strategies and techniques. Our research methodology involved various techniques: free interviews and semi-structured ones, guided tours and direct observations. The results obtained show the fishermen's classification of the tides according to the phases of the moon: 'breaking tide', 'flushing tide', 'dead tide' and 'big tide' designated technically these last as neap tide and spring tide, respectively. Wind is also an essential factor for the fishermen to make successful catches, and they classify it according to direction: North, South, East, Southeast, Southwest, Northeast and Northwest. The data show that fishermen's knowledge can also be useful in devising plans for management and conservation studies for this estuary.Este trabalho foi desenvolvido junto a duas comunidades de pescadores artesanais: Barra de Mamanguape e Tramataia, Nordeste do Brasil. O objetivo foi estudar o conhecimento e a percepção dos pescadores artesanais sobre a classificação das marés e dos ventos bem como as técnicas e estratégias de pesca. A metodologia empregada envolveu várias técnicas: entrevistas livres, entrevistas semiestruturadas, turnês guiadas e observação direta. Os resultados obtidos junto aos pescadores mostraram a classificação das marés de acordo com as fases lunares em: 'maré de quebramento', 'maré de lançamento', 'maré morta' e 'maré grande', designadas tecnicamente estas últimas como maré de quadratura e maré de sizígia, respectivamente. O vento é também um fator essencial no sucesso da pescaria, eles o classificam de acordo com a direção: Norte, Sul, Leste, Sudeste, Sudoeste, Nordeste, Noroeste. Os dados obtidos nesta pesquisa mostraram que o conhecimento dos pescadores pode ser útil na elaboração de planos de manejo e nos estudos de conservação para este estuário.

  14. Influence of tides and winds on fishing techniques and strategies in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba State, NE Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dandara M.M., Bezerra; Douglas M., Nascimento; Emmanoela N., Ferreira; Pollyana D., Rocha; José S., Mourão.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido junto a duas comunidades de pescadores artesanais: Barra de Mamanguape e Tramataia, Nordeste do Brasil. O objetivo foi estudar o conhecimento e a percepção dos pescadores artesanais sobre a classificação das marés e dos ventos bem como as técnicas e estratégias de pesc [...] a. A metodologia empregada envolveu várias técnicas: entrevistas livres, entrevistas semiestruturadas, turnês guiadas e observação direta. Os resultados obtidos junto aos pescadores mostraram a classificação das marés de acordo com as fases lunares em: 'maré de quebramento', 'maré de lançamento', 'maré morta' e 'maré grande', designadas tecnicamente estas últimas como maré de quadratura e maré de sizígia, respectivamente. O vento é também um fator essencial no sucesso da pescaria, eles o classificam de acordo com a direção: Norte, Sul, Leste, Sudeste, Sudoeste, Nordeste, Noroeste. Os dados obtidos nesta pesquisa mostraram que o conhecimento dos pescadores pode ser útil na elaboração de planos de manejo e nos estudos de conservação para este estuário. Abstract in english This work was carried out in two small fishing communities, Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia, Northeastern Brazil. The aim was to study these traditional fishermen's knowledge and perception about tide and wind classifications, as well as their fishing strategies and techniques. Our research method [...] ology involved various techniques: free interviews and semi-structured ones, guided tours and direct observations. The results obtained show the fishermen's classification of the tides according to the phases of the moon: 'breaking tide', 'flushing tide', 'dead tide' and 'big tide' designated technically these last as neap tide and spring tide, respectively. Wind is also an essential factor for the fishermen to make successful catches, and they classify it according to direction: North, South, East, Southeast, Southwest, Northeast and Northwest. The data show that fishermen's knowledge can also be useful in devising plans for management and conservation studies for this estuary.

  15. As assessment of the flux of radionuclide contamination through the Ob and Yenisei rivers and estuaries to the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent data indicate that there are potentially large sources of radionuclide contamination on the Ob River system. To quantify the existing radionuclide contamination from a possible catastrophic event data and models have been used to quantify scenarios. Using a compilation of Russian data on the radionuclide contamination, hydrologic data and studies on the sediment transport process a conceptual model has been developed of the Ob system, and a numerical model has been applied to estimate the radionuclide flux to the Kara Sea. The initial results of the river modeling in the Mayak region show how important watershed flow from the marshes are to the hydrologic budget of the area. The preliminary analysis of the sediment flux indicates the need to consider the depositional (storage) regions such as the Asanow Marsh. 31 refs., 5 figs

  16. Phytoplankton and environmental factors in the Paraíba do Norte River Estuary, northeastern Brazil: composition, distribution and quantitative remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Sassi

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports the results obtained from studies on the estuarine phytoplankton of the Paraíba do Norte River in northeastern Brazil. Surface and near-bottom samples were taken at four stations numbered seawards, during high and low tides from September 1978 to September 1979. A total of 139 phytoplankters were encountered. Diatoms and dinoflagellates showed highest diversity in most saline areas. Typical freshwater organisms were restricted to stations I and II where salinity was more re...

  17. Determination of volatile, toxic hydrogen phosphides in the sediments of the Elbe river, the Elbe estuaries and the Heligoland Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution and concentraion of phosphines in the sediments of the Elbe river were determined by selective preparation and analysis. The concentration of phosphines in one kilogram wet sediment was in the range of 0.1 to 57 n g with the bulking, anaerobic mud from harbors having the highest and the sandy, aerobic sediments having the lowest concentrations. Phosphines in fluvial sediments were detected successfully for the first time applying the method described. (orig.)

  18. Soil organic matter and soil acidity in Mangrove areas in the river Paraiba Estuary, Cabedelo, Paraiba, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Renata Wilma; Gomes, Vanessa dos Santos; Lucena, Diego Rodrigues de; Silva, Orione Alvares da; Sousa, Anaonio Cicero; D'Andrea, Alexandre Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove ecosystems are of great environmental significance, because of their fragility and role in feeding and breeding various animal species. In northeastern Brazil, the disorderly occupation of estuarine areas and the urban sprawl have led to a considerable loss of the original area occupied by mangroves. In the municipality of Cabedelo, State of Paraíba, there are about 4,900 ha of remnant mangrove areas in the estuarine complex of the Paraíba River. However, information about the attrib...

  19. Expertise mission at the Rance river estuary; Mission d'expertise sur l'estuaire de la rance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The Rance tidal power plant was inaugurated in 1968. This report presents the environmental impacts of the dam (choking up of Rance river with marine sediments) and proposes several remedial actions for the preservation of the site: dredging and agricultural valorization of muds by spreading. This project leads to several questions which are analyzed in the document: populations reaction, salinity of muds, dimensions of the decantation pool, impact of muds on cultures, lack of alternative solutions etc.. (J.S.)

  20. Tidal Heights in Hyper-Synchronous Estuaries

    OpenAIRE

    Ian M. Kidd; Shuhong Chai; Andrew Fischer

    2014-01-01

    Inconsistencies between datasets are examined with reference to flood tidal elevations in the Tamar River estuary, Tasmania Australia. Errors in a 30-year-old commonly cited dataset have been perpetuated in subsequent publications and datasets, and a clarification is herein provided. Elevation of the flood tidal wave as it propagates the estuary is evident in mean tide level and mean sea level, although the analysis is compromised by the temporal differences of the d...

  1. Ictiofauna associada às raízes de mangue do estuário do Rio Pacoti - CE, Brasil / Fish fauna associated to mangrove roots at the Pacoti River estuary

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Frederico Moreira, Osório; Wander Oliveira, Godinho; Tito Monteiro da Cruz, Lotufo.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Margens de estuários com a vegetação de manguezal formam um importante hábitat para peixes, pois são zonas de alimentação, abrigo e berçário. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar a ictiofauna associada às raízes de mangue do estuário do Rio Pacoti (CE). Foram realizados 10 censos visua [...] is com duração de 90 minutos cada. Foram feitas 671 avistagens, com densidade média de 0,74 avistagens/minuto. Os indivíduos pertencem a 22 espécies e 18 famílias. Todas as espécies registradas são de origem marinha, apesar das amostragens serem realizadas principalmente no período chuvoso. As famílias que apresentaram um maior número de espécies foram Gerreidae e Lutjanidae. As espécies que apresentaram maior frequência de ocorrência foram Lutjanus alexandrei, Lutjanus jocu e Bathygobius soporator, estando presentes em todos os censos. As duas espécies mais abundantes foram L. alexandrei (48%) e L. jocu (17%). Levando-se em consideração as estimativas de tamanho destas espécies, foi verificado que as raízes de mangue são habitadas principalmente por indivíduos jovens de ambas as espécies, o que leva a supor que estas utilizam tal habitat como área de berçário. Contudo, na estação de coleta com menor complexidade estrutural foi avistado o maior número de indivíduos do gênero Lutjanus, em praticamente todas as faixas de comprimento, o que sugere que no Rio Pacoti a quantidade de raízes pode não influenciar na quantidade de indivíduos abrigados. Aproximadamente 70% das espécies avistadas também ocorrem em ambientes recifais, o que demonstra a existência de fortes conexões entre esses dois ecossistemas. Os resultados encontrados enfatizam a importância do habitat estudado para a conservação da ictiofauna costeira e apontam a necessidade de pesquisas relacionadas principalmente ao recrutamento, padrões reprodutivos e tróficos das duas espécies mais representativas. Abstract in english The mangrove vegetation along the margins of estuaries is an important habitat for fish, serving as feeding, shelter and nursery zones. The present work describes the fish fauna associated to mangrove roots at the Pacoti River estuary. A total of ten visual censuses of 90 minutes each were conducted [...] , yielding the number of 671 fish counted, with an average of 0.74 counts/minute. The fishes were identified pertaining to 22 species from 18 different families. All the studied species are originally marine, although the samples were mainly carried out during the rainy season. Gerreidae and Lutjanidae were the more representative families. The species Lutjanus alexandrei, Lutjanus jocu and Bathygobius soporator were present in all censuses and the first two were also the most abundant, with 48 and 17% of the total counts, respectively. Taking into account size estimations of the fish, it was verified that mangrove roots are inhabited mainly by juveniles of both species, indicating the use of this habitat as a nursery area. However, in the least complex sampling site, specimens of genus Lutjanus were sought in higher quantities, comprinsing all size classes, thus suggesting the abundance of roots in Pacoti River might not influence the abundance of sheltered fishes. Another important observation is that almost 70% of the species present in the mangrove roots are typical of reef habitats, indicating the existence of strong connections between these two ecosystems. The results emphasize the importance of this habitat for ichthyofauna conservation to coastal areas. In addition, studies regarding to fish recruitment, reproductive and trophic patterns are needed, especially to those two main important species described herein.

  2. Persistent organochlorine pollutants and toxaphene congener profiles in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) frequenting the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulster, Erin L; Smalling, Kelly L; Zolman, Eric; Schwacke, Lori; Maruya, Keith A

    2009-07-01

    Although the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia (USA) is severely contaminated by persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), little information regarding POPs in higher-trophic-level biota in this system is available. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; including DDTs, chlordanes, and mirex), and chlorinated monoterpenes (toxaphene) were measured using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) in blubber of free-ranging and stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Mean total PCBs (78.6 +/- 32.4 microg/g lipid) and toxaphene (11.7 +/- 9.3 microg/g lipid) were significantly higher in dolphins sampled in the TBRE than in dolphins stranded near Savannah (GA, USA) 80 to 100 km to the north. Levels of OCPs were several-fold lower than levels of PCBs; moreover, PCBs comprised 81 and 67% of the total POP burden in TBRE and non-TBRE dolphins, respectively. Analyses with GC-ECNI-MS revealed that 2,2,5-endo,6-exo,8,8,9,10-octachlorobornane (P-42a), a major component in technical toxaphene and a major residue congener in local estuarine fish species, was the most abundant chlorobornane in both sets of blubber samples. Mean total POP concentrations (sum of PCBs, OCPs, and toxaphene) approached 100 microg/g lipid for the TBRE animals, well above published total PCB thresholds at which immunosuppresion and/or reproductive anomalies are thought to occur. These results indicate extended utilization of the highly contaminated TBRE as habitat for a group of coastal estuarine dolphins, and they further suggest that these animals may be at risk because of elevated POP concentrations. PMID:19203137

  3. Historical evolution of hypoxia in the East China Sea off the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary for the last ~13,000 years: Evidence from the benthic foraminiferal community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; Liu, Jian; Qiu, Jiandong; Wang, Hong

    2014-11-01

    The records of benthic foraminifera and lithology of a 35.60-m-long core in the East China Sea off the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary were used to decipher the paleoenvironmental changes over the last 13,000 years. The result suggests three stages of environmental evolution: a littoral environment dominated by tide influence in the period of Younger Dryas (YD) (about 13,000-11,500 cal yr BP), a nearshore to shallow-sea environment in the early-mid Holocene (11,500-4600 cal yr BP), and a shallow-sea environment with significant hypoxia since the last 4600 years. The alternation of the low-oxygen foraminiferal assemblages (LOFA) and oxic foraminiferal assemblages (OFA) suggests a weakening hypoxia condition during 4600-2000 cal yr BP, which may be linked to factors such as the weakening of Taiwan Warm Current (TWC), a stronger East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM), a moderate water depth with stable sea-level and sufficient supply of terrigenous organic materials. Together with the above mentioned factors, human activities might explain the low-oxygen conditions over the past 400 years. However, the hypoxic process was discontinued during the period of 0.6-0.4 cal ka BP, possibly due to the cold climate during Little Ice Age (LIA), which weakened EASM and reduced Total Solar Irradiance (TSI). This study confirms that the species of Epistominella naraensis, Bolivina spp., Bulimina marginata and Ammonia convexidorsa could be used as indicators for hypoxia while the Quinqueloculina spp. as a sensitive indicator of bottom oxygen levels at the core site.

  4. Plutonium and cesium radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1978-November 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137Cs, 134Cs and 60Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239240Pu and 238Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City. General distributions of 137Cs and 239240Pu are similar in surface sediments and with depth in cores, but there are deviations from the fallout ratio due to addition of reactor 137Cs and loss of 137Cs from the particle phases at higher salinities. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived 134Cs and 60Co are found in nearly all sediment samples containing appreciable 137Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Accumulations of 239240Pu in New York harbor sediments are more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate, probably primarily due to the accumulation of fine particles containing fallout plutonium in the harbor which have been transported from upstream areas of the Hudson. Measurements of fallout 239240Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulatory plutonium solubility

  5. Levels of chromium contamination in the estuary of the Iraja river (Guanabara Bay) and experimental incorporation of 51Cr in barnacles (Balanus sp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels were determined of chromium contamination in the estuary of Iraja River, produced by an electroplating industry located 3 km upstream the study area. Uptake-and release kinetics of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in barnacles (Balanus sp.) were studied. Samples of barnacles and suspended particles from Guanabara Bay were analysed. Chromium concentrations (dry weight) ranged from not detectable (ND) to 154,66 ?g/g for soft tissues and from ND to 423,76 ?g/g for suspended particles. Mean of maximum concentrations of chromium in samples from Guanabara Bay are 3 and 4 times above those of identical samples from control area (Coroa Grande). Soft tissues presented a concentration factor (CF) of 103 related to chromium available in suspended particles. 51Cr(VI) is preferentiably incorparated by soft tissues (biological half life being 100 days). Chromium uptake by Balanus sp from solution is as significant as it is from particulate matter available in sea water from experimental sets. CF for Cr(VI) in soft tissues in laboratory conditions was 102 related to 51Cr present in sea water. Environmental chromium contamination was found to be of the same order of magnitude or above levels reported for other areas subjected to industrial impacts. Barnacles appear to be able to accumulate chromium in soft tissues from the available metal in the environment. Cr(VI) is the critical form, being greatly accumulated in soft tissues of barnacles, that act as a long-term integrator of this metal. For Cr(III), this organism can only be regarded as an instantaneous indicator of environmental contamination of chromium attached to suspended particles. (M.A.)

  6. Variation of particulate organic carbon and its relationship with bio-optical properties during a phytoplankton bloom in the Pearl River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A study about relationship between POC and optical properties during a phytoplankton bloom. ? Empirical algorithms for retrieving POC concentration from optical data were developed. ? Phytoplankton carbon and it's ratio to Chl-a are estimated and discussed. ? Demonstrates that marine optical buoy can be a new platform for monitoring biogeochemical cycle. - Abstract: In this study, variations in the particulate organic carbon (POC) were monitored during a phytoplankton bloom event, and the corresponding changes in bio-optical properties were tracked at one station (114.29oE, 22.06oN) located in the Pearl River estuary. A greater than 10-fold increase in POC (112.29-1173.36 mg m-3) was observed during the bloom, with the chlorophyll a concentration (Chl-a) varying from 0.984 to 25.941 mg m-3. A power law function is used to describe the relationship between POC and Chl-a, and the POC:Chl-a ratio tends to change inversely with Chl-a. Phytoplankton carbon concentration is indirectly estimated using the conceptual model proposed by , and this carbon is found to contribute 47.21% (±10.65%) to total POC. The estimated carbon-to-chlorophyll ratio of phytoplankton in diatom-dominated waters is found to be comparable with results reported in the literature. Empirical algorithms for determining the concentrations of Chl-a and POC were developed based on the relationships of these variables with the blue-to-green reflectance ratio. With these bio-optical models, the levels of particulate organic carbon and Chl-a could be predicted from the radiometric data measured by a marine optical buoy, which showed much more detailed information about the variability in biogeochemical parameters during this bloom event.

  7. Shifts in the pelagic ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities along the eutrophic estuary of Yong River in Ningbo City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiufang; Tang, Fangyuan; Zhou, Yangjing; Xu, Jirong; Chen, Heping; Wang, Mingkuang; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic ammonia oxidation plays a key role in the nitrogen cycle, and the diversity of the responsible microorganisms is regulated by environmental factors. Abundance and composition of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were investigated in the surface waters along an environmental gradient of the Yong River in Ningbo, East China. Water samples were collected from three pelagic zones: (1) freshwaters in the urban canals of Ningbo, (2) brackish waters in the downstream Yong River, and (3) coastal marine water of Hangzhou Bay. Shifts in activity and diversity of the ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms occurred simultaneously with changes in environmental factors, among which salinity and the availabilities of ammonium and oxygen. The AOA abundance was always higher than that of AOB and was related to the ammonia oxidation activity. The ratios of AOA/AOB in the brackish and marine waters were significantly higher than those found in freshwaters. Both AOA and AOB showed similar community compositions in brackish and marine waters, but only 31 and 35% similarity, respectively, between these waters and the urban inland freshwaters. Most of AOA-amoA sequences from freshwater were affiliated with sequences obtained from terrestrial environments and those collected from brackish and coastal areas were ubiquitous in marine, coastal, and terrestrial ecosystems. All AOB from freshwaters belonged to Nitrosomonas, and the AOB from brackish and marine waters mainly belonged to Nitrosospira. PMID:26579089

  8. Composition and spatial distribution of the benthic macrofauna in the Cachoeira River estuary, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil / Composición y distribución espacial de la macrofauna bentónica en el estuario del Río de Cachoeira, Ilhéus, Bahía, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thailla M, Ourives; Alexandra E, Rizzo; Guisla, Boehs.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analizó la composición y la distribución espacial del macrobentos en el estuario del río Cachoeira, Ilhéus, Bahía, Brasil. Las muestras fueron recolectadas cada dos meses desde julio de 2008 a mayo de 2009 en seis estaciones de muestreo. En total, se recogieron 613 individuos pert [...] enecientes a 71 taxa. Los gasterópodos mostraron la mayor riqueza y abundancia, seguidos por los poliquetos. La distribución del macrobentos fue influenciada por la salinidad y los parámetros de sedimentos. En la parte externa del estuario fueron abundantes los microgastrópodos, el bivalvo Donax gemmula y el poliqueto Drilonereis sp. En la desembocadura predominaron gasterópodos carnívoros Olivella minuta y Anachis obesa y pastoreadores Neritina virginea y Littorina ziczac. Predominaron en la zona intermedia el poliqueto Hemipodia californiensis y en el sector interno bivalvos eurihalinos Tellina sp., Anomalocardia brasiliana y Tagelus plebeius y los poliquetos depositívoros Heteromastus filiformes y Capitella cf. capitata. Características de salinidad, sedimentos, y hábitos alimentarios son importantes en la composición y distribución de los organismos en este estuario. Abstract in english We analyzed the composition and spatial distribution of macrobenthos in the Cachoeira River estuary, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. Samples were taken bimonthly from July 2008 to May 2009 at six stations along the estuary. In total, 613 individuals belonging to 71 taxa were collected. Molluscs showed the hi [...] ghest richness and abundance, followed by polychaetes. The spatial distribution of macrobenthos was influenced by salinity and by sediment characteristics. In the outer area microgastropods, the bivalve Donax gemmula, and the polychaete Drilonereis sp., were conspicuous. In the river mouth, the carnivorous gastropods Olivella minuta and Anachis obesa and the algal grazers Neritina virginea and Littorina ziczac predominated. In the middle estuary, there was a predominance of the polychaete Hemipodia californiensis. The euryhaline bivalves Tellina sp., Anomalocardia brasiliana, and Tagelus plebeius and the deposit-feeding polychaetes Heteromastus filiformis and Capitella cf. capitata were predominant in the inner estuary. Salinity, sediment characteristics, and dietary habits were important in the composition and distribution of organisms in this estuary.

  9. The response of a natural phytoplankton community from the Godavari River Estuary to increasing CO2 concentration during the pre-monsoon period

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biswas, H.; Cros, A.; Yadav, K.; Ramana, V.V.; Prasad, V.R.; Acharyya, T.; Babu, P.V.R.

    The effects of increasing CO sub(2) concentrations on a natural phytoplankton assemblage in a tropical estuary (Godavari, India) is reported. Two short-term (5-day) bottle experiments were conducted (with and without nutrient addition) during...

  10. Associated fauna to the mangroves and other marshes in the Delta-estuary of the River Magdalena, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A synthesis of observations and collections of fauna associated with different vegetative communities and bodies of water present in the estuarine-delta of Magdalena river, with emphasis in the Via Park Isla Salamanca (56.200 acres) and National Reserve Flora and Fauna Sanctuary of the Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta (23.000 acres), between 1978-1985. The information was gathered through samplings and manual captures affected during 1978 and period 1981-1985, as well as accomplished direct observations sporadically in the period 1986-1998. The records of 10 species of amphibians, 40 species of reptiles, 194 species of birds and 46 species of mammals show the great variety of fauna in this Caribbean area of Colombia

  11. Phytoplankton and environmental factors in the Paraíba do Norte River Estuary, northeastern Brazil: composition, distribution and quantitative remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sassi

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results obtained from studies on the estuarine phytoplankton of the Paraíba do Norte River in northeastern Brazil. Surface and near-bottom samples were taken at four stations numbered seawards, during high and low tides from September 1978 to September 1979. A total of 139 phytoplankters were encountered. Diatoms and dinoflagellates showed highest diversity in most saline areas. Typical freshwater organisms were restricted to stations I and II where salinity was more reduced. Maximum cell densities were: 11,256,000 cells/1, 4,380,000 cells/1, 1,276,000 cells/1 and 1,035,000 cells/1, for stations I, II, III and IV, respectively. Sewage enrichments were probably responsible for the greatest values of the first two stations. However, in these stations the turbidity reduces light penetration, limiting phytoplankton growth particularly during the rainy season. The phytoflagellates (maximum of up to 4,874,000 cells/1 and the diatoms Thalassiosira spp (maximum of up to 9,262,000 cells/1 were dominant during the annual cycle. Other important taxa were Navicula spp, Cylindrotheca closterium, Paralia sulcata, Thalassionema nitzschioides and the dinoflagellate Protoperidinium spp. Seasonal variations of phytoplankton densities, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, water transparency, temperature, salinity and suspended material are also presented.

  12. Phytoplankton and environmental factors in the Paraíba do Norte River Estuary, northeastern Brazil: composition, distribution and quantitative remarks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto, Sassi.

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results obtained from studies on the estuarine phytoplankton of the Paraíba do Norte River in northeastern Brazil. Surface and near-bottom samples were taken at four stations numbered seawards, during high and low tides from September 1978 to September 1979. A total of 139 phy [...] toplankters were encountered. Diatoms and dinoflagellates showed highest diversity in most saline areas. Typical freshwater organisms were restricted to stations I and II where salinity was more reduced. Maximum cell densities were: 11,256,000 cells/1, 4,380,000 cells/1, 1,276,000 cells/1 and 1,035,000 cells/1, for stations I, II, III and IV, respectively. Sewage enrichments were probably responsible for the greatest values of the first two stations. However, in these stations the turbidity reduces light penetration, limiting phytoplankton growth particularly during the rainy season. The phytoflagellates (maximum of up to 4,874,000 cells/1) and the diatoms Thalassiosira spp (maximum of up to 9,262,000 cells/1) were dominant during the annual cycle. Other important taxa were Navicula spp, Cylindrotheca closterium, Paralia sulcata, Thalassionema nitzschioides and the dinoflagellate Protoperidinium spp. Seasonal variations of phytoplankton densities, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, water transparency, temperature, salinity and suspended material are also presented.

  13. Distribution and sources of organic matter in surface sediments of Bohai Sea near the Yellow River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongyan; Li, Xin; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Wang, Yujue; Richard, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and C and N stable isotope compositions in 64 surface sediment samples from the mouth of the Yellow River (YR) and from the Bohai Sea (BS) outline the distribution and sources (terrestrial and marine) of sediment organic matter. Comparatively high TOC (0.5-0.9%) and TN (0.07-0.11%) concentrations in the Central BS correlate with fine-grained sediments that contain high concentrations of algal-derived organic carbon (AOC) and biogenic silica (BSi). Together, they indicate a dominant contribution of autochthonous organic matter from marine primary production. Low TOC (organic carbon in the Central BS and the Bohai Strait, whereas a significant terrigenous contribution of 40-50% is indicated by lower values (organic matter produced from assimilation of marine nitrate by phytoplankton (5-5.5‰), but some relatively high values (6-7.28‰) mark the southern area of the Laizhou Bay as a significant sink of anthropogenic nitrogen.

  14. Impacts of the construction of the Port of Suape on phytoplankton in the Ipojuca River estuary (Pernambuco-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koening Maria Luise

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the impact on phytoplankton, sampling was conducted monthly at 4 fixed stations, from April/86 to March/87 at diurnal low and high tide using a plankton net (65 mum mesh size and a 1 L Van Dorn bottle. Among the 133 taxa identified, marine littoral euryhaline species were most common, outranking Gyrosigma balticum (Ehrenberg Rabenhorst, Nitzschia sigma (Kützing Wm. Smith, Licmophora abbreviata Agardh, Climacosphenia moniligera Ehrenberg, Surirella febigerii Lewis, Terpsinoe musica Ehrenberg and Cylindrotheca closterium (Ehrenberg Reiman and Lewis. The port construction caused significant changes to the phytoplankton community with a strong influence of marine species (mainly dinoflagellate because of the opening of the reef near the river mouth in 1983. The shallow depth and hydrodynamic brought many littoral species to the water columm. The community was composed by marine euryhaline and limnetic organisms, influenced by the salinity, rain and tide. Species diversity was high (> 3 bits.cel-1 owing to the high environmental heterogeneity (marine, freshwater and benthic interactions. After the port implantation, a strong decrease occurred in phytoplankton density owing to high loads of suspended matter. Lowest values (121,00 cells.l-1 were registered during rainy season. During dry season, when light intensity was higher, phytoplankton presented highest density ( 1,789,000 cells.l-1.

  15. Passive Acoustic Monitoring the Diel, Lunar, Seasonal and Tidal Patterns in the Biosonar Activity of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Tao; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Wang, Ke-Xiong; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Jian-Chang; Duan, Guo-Qin; Cao, Han-Jiang; Wang, Ding

    2015-01-01

    A growing demand for sustainable energy has led to an increase in construction of offshore windfarms. Guishan windmill farm will be constructed in the Pearl River Estuary, China, which sustains the world’s largest known population of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis). Dolphin conservation is an urgent issue in this region. By using passive acoustic monitoring, a baseline distribution of data on this species in the Pearl River Estuary during pre-construction period had been collected. Dolphin biosonar detection and its diel, lunar, seasonal and tidal patterns were examined using a Generalized Linear Model. Significant higher echolocation detections at night than during the day, in winter-spring than in summer-autumn, at high tide than at flood tide were recognized. Significant higher echolocation detections during the new moon were recognized at night time. The diel, lunar and seasonal patterns for the echolocation encounter duration also significantly varied. These patterns could be due to the spatial-temporal variability of dolphin prey and illumination conditions. The baseline information will be useful for driving further effective action on the conservation of this species and in facilitating later assessments of the effects of the offshore windfarm on the dolphins by comparing the baseline to post construction and post mitigation efforts. PMID:26580966

  16. Studies of anoxiC conditions in Framvaren fjord, Gullmaren fjord and Byfjorden and of mixing between seawater and freshwater at the Kalix river and estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sediments in the anoxic Framvaren fjord acts as a source for actinides to the overlaying water column. The remobilisation process is most likely linked to early diagenetic alteration of the marine organic material in the sediments. This is indicated by the close correlation between Pu, Am and dissolved organic carbon depth profiles in the water column. Speciation studies of the plutonium and americium in the water column shows that both to a large degree are associated to colloidal material in the size range 0.01-0.45 ?m. Less than 2% is retained by a 0.45 ?m filter which is reflected in the low KD-values obtained of about 20 000, which is at least a factor of 10 lower than in typical coastal waters. It is also proven that the plutonium exist almost entirely in the trivalent state in the anoxic water column. This study is the first ever to show extensive remobilisation of plutonium and americium from sediments in anoxic marine basins. Similar remobilisation from sediments most likely occur in other anoxic marine waters where early diagenesis results in humic and fulvic acid production. Although the remobilised actinides in the Framvaren fjord at present don't pose any radiological hazard due to the lack of fish in anoxic waters, it is of great concern to identify processes involved in the remobilisation of actinides from anoxic sediments as such sediments likely will be a major source for actinides in the Baltic Sea and other oxygen sensitive basins in the long term perspective. In such basins the remobilised plutonium may reach oxygenated and biological productive waters by convection. Results from the temporarily oxygen deficient Gullmaren fjord on the Swedish west coast shows that remobilisation from sediments can not be identified during short (a few months) periods of oxygen deficient water. The rapid bioturbation (quantified by tracer studies) in this fjord results in that sedimenting organic material rapidly is buried and distributed within the upper 10-15 cm of sediments. This means that the organic material is diluted with large amounts of inorganic material which may act as traps for the mobilised actinides. It is likely that anoxic conditions must persist for a long enough time to allow organic rich sediment to accumulate in sufficient amounts before substantial amount of humics are produced that may mobilise the actinides. This time depends on the organic matter flux to the sediments. Laminated sediments and suspended matter collected in the estuary of the Kalix river shows that the input of plutonium to the Baltic Sea from river run-off at present is of rather small importance but may in the long term perspective become one of the more important sources as the residence time of plutonium in the the Baltic Sea water column is much shorter than the residence time in the river drainage basins. Drainage basins containing large percentage of mire and wetland will be of particular importance. (EHS, LN)

  17. Managing the Brisbane River and Moreton Bay: an integrated research/management program to reduce impacts on an Australian estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abal, E G; Dennison, W C; Greenfield, P F

    2001-01-01

    The Brisbane River and Moreton Bay Study, an interdisciplinary study of Moreton Bay and its major tributaries, was initiated to address water quality issues which link sewage and diffuse loading with environmental degradation. Runoff and deposition of fine-grained sediments into Moreton Bay, followed by resuspension, have been linked with increased turbidity and significant loss of seagrass habitat. Sewage-derived nutrient enrichment, particularly nitrogen (N), has been linked to algal blooms by sewage plume maps. Blooms of a marine cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula, in Moreton Bay have resulted in significant impacts on human health (e.g., contact dermatitis) and ecological health (e.g., seagrass loss), and the availability of dissolved iron from acid sulfate soil runoff has been hypothesised. The impacts of catchment activities resulting in runoff of sediments, nutrients and dissolved iron on the health of the Moreton Bay waterways are addressed. The Study, established by 6 local councils in association with two state departments in 1994, forms a regional component of a national and state program to achieve ecologically sustainable use of the waterways by protecting and enhancing their health, while maintaining economic and social development. The Study framework illustrates a unique integrated approach to water quality management whereby scientific research, community participation and the strategy development were done in parallel with each other. This collaborative effort resulted in a water quality management strategy which focuses on the integration of socioeconomic and ecological values of the waterways. This work has led to significant cost savings in infrastructure by providing a clear focus on initiatives towards achieving healthy waterways. The Study's Stage 2 initiatives form the basis for this paper. PMID:11419140

  18. Sensitivity mapping for oil spill response at the estuaries of the rivers Eider, Elbe, Weser and Ems; Sensitivitaetskartierung zur Oelbekaempfung an den Unterlaeufen von Eider, Elbe, Weser und Ems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernem, K.H. van; Krasemann, H. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung; Fleischmann, J.; Krueger, D.; Luebbe, T.P.

    2007-07-01

    During this project the estuaries of the rivers Eider, Elbe, Weser and Ems, meeting the North Sea, were evaluated with respect to their vulnerability against oil accidents. Thus a corresponding intention concerning the ''Wadden Sea'' at the German North Sea Coast could be proceeded and completed (GKSS 2007/2). The assessment of different watersides shall provide decision support for oil spill response. Only comparatively near-natural areas of river banks were incorporated, with the basic evaluation of their importance for nature conservation as well as their oil spill sensitivity. Socioeconomic characteristics have not been evaluated, but some important properties are depicted on charts by symbols. The data used for the evaluation process cover the types of biotopes, tidal flats, nesting/non-nesting birds, rare plants as well as fishes, morphological conditions of watersides and official area-categories (i.e. protected natural area). Riverine and intertidal areas are fundamentally differentiated. With respect to seasonal aspects, the evaluation was established for three different times of the year. The result of the evaluation process is the classification of the individual watersides into 4 classes of priority (for oil spill response) and 8 classes of sensitivity. The priorityclasses are depicted by colours and the sensitivity-classes by numbers on sea-charts as topographic background (scale 1:25.000). The evaluation results are delayed on printed as well as GIS-based maps, connected to a data base. The amount of very sensitive areas is higher in the estuaries of the rivers Elbe and Eider compared to Ems and Weser and shows the highest values at all rivers during spring. The evaluation procedure is automated to a large extend by use of linked tables and a decision tree of if/then-functions. The underlying structure provides for a reliable transformation of new data into the corresponding evaluation during updating processes. (orig.)

  19. Community structure of the ichthyofauna associated with seagrass beds ( Halodule wrightii) in Formoso River estuary - Pernambuco, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro H.C., Pereira; Beatrice P., Ferreira; Sérgio M., Rezende.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pradarias de fanerógamas são utilizadas pela ictiofauna, de maneira geral como ambiente de berçário, abrigo contra predadores, diminuição de competição em aior disponibilidade de recursos alimentares, estabelecendo uma relação de conectividade com demais ecossistemas costeiros. No presente estudo fo [...] i avaliada a estrutura da ictiofauna associada às pradarias de fanerógamas do estuário do Rio Formoso no litoral de Pernambuco durante o inverno de 2008. Foram realizados no total 27 arrastos manuais (15 diurnos e 12 noturnos), nos quais foram amostrados 358 peixes pertencentes a 18 famílias, 21 gêneros e 25 espécies. A Captura por unidade de esforço (CPUE) média por arrasto foi de 13,5 indivíduos e 4,95 espécies por arrasto. As famílias mais abundantes foram Scaridae (n = 111), Tetraodontidae (n = 63), Lutjanidae (n = 56), Mullidae (n = 39) e Engraulidae (n = 19). Analisando os índices ecológicos, observou-se que os mesmos foram sempre maiores para o período da noite, confirmando o fato do uso de tais áreas pela ictiofauna de forma mais intensa neste período. A necessidade de medidas para proteção destas áreas é evidente na região devido a sua importância e vulnerabilidade a impactos antrópicos. Abstract in english Seagrass beds are used by juvenile fishes in different ways, generally as nursery sites, shelter from predators, reducing competition and increasing availability of food resources, thus establishing a relationship of connectivity with other ecosystems. In the present study, the community structure o [...] f the ichthyofauna associated with seagrass beds on the Formoso River (Pernambuco - Brazil) was evaluated during the winter of 2008. Twenty-seven manual trawls (15 daytime and 12 nighttime) were performed, and a total of 358 fishes belonging to 18 families, 21 genus and 25 species were collected. The Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE) by trawling average was 13.5 and 4.95 individuals per species per trawl. The most abundant families were Scaridae (n = 111), Tetraodontidae (n = 63), Lutjanidae (n = 56), Mullidae (n = 39) and Engraulidae (n = 19). Ecological indices for dial changes were always higher for the night period, confirming that such areas are used more frequently during this period. The need for measures to conserve these areas is emphasized, by its importance and vulnerability to human impacts.

  20. Toxicity of sediments and pore water from Brunswick Estuary, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A chloralkali plant in Brunswick, Ga, discharged 2 kg mercuryday into a tributary of the Turtle RiverBrunswick Estuary from 1966 to 1971. Mercury concentrations in...

  1. PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in blubber biopsies from free-ranging St. Lawrence River Estuary beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), 1994-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measuring contaminants only in stranded whales may result in overestimation of organochlorines. - For the first time, organochlorine (OC) contaminants were measured in blubber biopsies from free-ranging St. Lawrence River Estuary beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), to compare contaminant levels to those previously measured in dead stranded belugas. PCBs, DDTs, toxaphene and chlordane-related compounds were the major OC contaminants detected in 44 belugas biopsied in 1994-1998. ?PCB (the sum of 104 congeners) ranged from 2080 to 128,000 ng/g lipid in males (n=34; minimum estimated ages 8-22 years), and from 148 to 44,100 ng/g lipid in females (n=10; minimum estimated ages 7-22 years). The concentrations of PCBs and OC pesticides in the blubber of these whales overlapped those observed in stranded belugas from an earlier study, and demonstrated comparable age and sex-related trends. However, lower proportions of mirex, HCB, DDTs, and many of the highly chlorinated PCBs occurred in the biopsy samples compared to results for blubber from stranded carcasses. Most major OC compounds were present at lower concentrations in the biopsies, but this does not appear to be solely related to age differences between the two groups, or to emaciation in the stranded whales. Nor does it appear to be associated with the use of superficial biopsies, and the possible stratification of lipids and OCs in the blubber layer. Nevertheless, given these possible confounding factors, and the uncertainty in age estimates for the biopsied whales, the results point to the need for careful interpretation of biopsy results when comparing with data taken from the full depth of the blubber mantle in stranded whales. Taken together, results from both biopsied whales and previously studied stranded belugas indicate that PCB and OC pesticide contamination of St. Lawrence beluga whales may occur across a broader range of levels than previously thought, at least for males which formed the largest group in this study, possibly due to different degrees of dietary exposure. It also appears that measuring contaminant concentrations only in stranded whales, may overestimate OC levels in the population as a whole, especially for highly chlorinated OCs

  2. Hudson River Sub-Bottom Profile Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hudson River Estuary Shallow Water Surveys. Subbottom Profile Points. Subbottom data was collected November 5 to December 15, 2009, in the estuary north from...

  3. Impacts of the construction of the Port of Suape on phytoplankton in the Ipojuca River estuary (Pernambuco-Brazil)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Luise, Koening; Enide Eskinazi, Leça; Sigrid, Neumann-Leitão; Silvio José de, Macêdo.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A implantação do Complexo Industrial Portuário de Suape (Pernambuco-Brasil) entre 1979 e 1984, modificou os processos ecológicos observados no estuário do rio Ipojuca. As amostras foram coletadas mensalmente em 4 estações fixas, no período de abril/86 a março/87 nas preamares e baixa-mares diurnas, [...] utilizando-se uma rede de plâncton com abertura de malha de 65 mim e garrafas de Van Dorn. Foram identificados um total de 133 taxa. As espécies marinhas litorais foram as mais comuns e freqüentes, destacando-se: Gyrosigma balticum (Ehrenberg) Rabenhorst, Nitzschia sigma (Kützing) Wm. Smith, Licmophora abbreviata Agardh, Climacosphenia moniligera Ehrenberg, Surirella febigerii Lewis, Terpsinoe musica Ehrenberg and Cylindrotheca closterium (Ehrenberg) Reiman and Lewis. A composição florística do fitoplâncton mostrou diferenças significativas após a construção do Porto, tendo ocorrido uma maior representação de espécies marinhas, principalmente de dinoflagelados, as quais, com a abertura dos recifes foram mais facilmente carreadas para o estuário. A flora esteve caracterizada por espécies litorais, que em virtude da pequena profundidade e aumento do hidrodinamismo, chegam à camada superficial da coluna da água. A comunidade fitoplanctônica está influenciada pela salinidade, precipitação pluviométrica e variações de marés. Devido à interação de diversos fluxos, a diversidade específica foi elevada (> 3 bits.cel-1), demonstrando haver uma heterogeneidade ambiental. Após a construção do Porto, foi verificado uma diminuição da densidade fitoplanctônica devido à grande quantidade de material em suspensão, sendo a luz o fator limitante. Os menores valores foram registrados no período chuvoso (121.000 cel.l-1), apesar das concentrações elevadas de nutrientes. No período seco, quando a intensidade luminosa é mais intensa, o fitoplâncton apresenta as maiores densidades (1.789.000 cel.l-1). Abstract in english In order to address the impact on phytoplankton, sampling was conducted monthly at 4 fixed stations, from April/86 to March/87 at diurnal low and high tide using a plankton net (65 mum mesh size) and a 1 L Van Dorn bottle. Among the 133 taxa identified, marine littoral euryhaline species were most c [...] ommon, outranking Gyrosigma balticum (Ehrenberg) Rabenhorst, Nitzschia sigma (Kützing) Wm. Smith, Licmophora abbreviata Agardh, Climacosphenia moniligera Ehrenberg, Surirella febigerii Lewis, Terpsinoe musica Ehrenberg and Cylindrotheca closterium (Ehrenberg) Reiman and Lewis. The port construction caused significant changes to the phytoplankton community with a strong influence of marine species (mainly dinoflagellate) because of the opening of the reef near the river mouth in 1983. The shallow depth and hydrodynamic brought many littoral species to the water columm. The community was composed by marine euryhaline and limnetic organisms, influenced by the salinity, rain and tide. Species diversity was high (> 3 bits.cel-1) owing to the high environmental heterogeneity (marine, freshwater and benthic interactions). After the port implantation, a strong decrease occurred in phytoplankton density owing to high loads of suspended matter. Lowest values (121,00 cells.l-1) were registered during rainy season. During dry season, when light intensity was higher, phytoplankton presented highest density ( 1,789,000 cells.l-1).

  4. Historic Habitat Opportunities and Food-Web Linkages of Juvenile Salmon in the Columbia River Estuary and Their Implications for Managing River Flows and Restoring Estuarine Habitat, Physical Sciences Component, Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay, David A. [Portland State University

    2009-08-03

    Long-term changes and fluctuations in river flow, water properties, tides, and sediment transport in the Columbia River and its estuary have had a profound effect on Columbia River salmonids and their habitat. Understanding the river-flow, temperature, tidal, and sediment-supply regimes of the Lower Columbia River (LCR) and how they interact with habitat is, therefore, critical to development of system management and restoration strategies. It is also useful to separate management and climate impacts on hydrologic properties and habitat. This contract, part of a larger project led by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), consists of three work elements, one with five tasks. The first work element relates to reconstruction of historic conditions in a broad sense. The second and third elements consist, respectively, of participation in project-wide integration efforts, and reporting. This report focuses on the five tasks within the historic reconstruction work element. It in part satisfies the reporting requirement, and it forms the basis for our participation in the project integration effort. The first task consists of several topics related to historic changes in river stage and tide. Within this task, the chart datum levels of 14 historic bathymetric surveys completed before definition of Columbia River Datum (CRD) were related to CRD, to enable analysis of these surveys by other project scientists. We have also modeled tidal datums and properties (lower low water or LLW, higher high water or HHW, mean water level or MWL, and greater diurnal tidal range or GDTR) as a function of river flow and tidal range at Astoria. These calculations have been carried for 10 year intervals (1940-date) for 21 stations, though most stations have data for only a few time intervals. Longer-term analyses involve the records at Astoria (1925-date) and Vancouver (1902-date). Water levels for any given river flow have decreased substantially (0.3-1.8 m, depending on river flow and tidal range), and tidal ranges have increased considerably (by a factor of 1.5 to 4 for most river-flow levels) since the 1900-1940 period at most stations, with the largest percentage changes occurring at upriver stations. These changes have been caused by a combination of changes in channel roughness, shape and alignment, changes in coastal tides, and (possibly) bed degradation. Tides are growing throughout the Northeast Pacific, and Astoria (Tongue Pt) has one of the most rapid rates of increase in tidal range in the entire Eastern Pacific, about 0.3m per century. More than half of this change appears to result from changes within the system, the rest from larger scale changes in coastal tides. Regression models of HHW have been used to estimate daily shallow water habitat (SWHA) available in a {approx}25 mile long reach of the system from Eagle Cliff to Kalama for 1925-2004 under four different scenarios (the four possible combinations of diked/undiked and observed flow/ virgin flow). More than 70% of the habitat in this reach has been lost (modern conditions vs. virgin flow with not dikes). In contrast, however, to the reach between Skamokawa and Beaver, selective dike removal (instead of a combination of dike removal and flow restoration) would suffice to increase spring SWHA. The second task consists of reconstruction of the hydrologic cycle before 1878, based on historic documents and inversion of tidal data collected before the onset of the historic flow record in 1878. We have a complete list of freshet times and peak flows for 1858-1877, and scattered freshet information for 1841-1857. Based on tidal data, we have reconstructed the annual flow cycles for 1870 and 1871; other time periods between 1854 and 1867 are under analysis. The three remaining tasks relate to post-1878 hydrologic conditions (flows, sediment supply and water temperature), and separation of the human and climate influences thereon. Estimated ob-served (sometimes routed), adjusted (corrected for reservoir manipulation) and virgin (corrected also for irrigation div

  5. Morphodynamic equilibrium of alluvial estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambroni, Nicoletta; Bolla Pittaluga, Michele; Canestrelli, Alberto; Lanzoni, Stefano; Seminara, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of the longitudinal bed profile of an estuary, with given plan-form configuration, subject to given tidal forcing at the mouth and prescribed values of water and sediment supply from the river is investigated numerically. Our main goal is to ascertain whether, starting from some initial condition, the bed evolution tends to reach a unique equilibrium configuration asymptotically in time. Also, we investigate the morphological response of an alluvial estuary to changes in the tidal range and hydrologic forcing (flow and sediment supply). Finally, the solution helps characterizing the transition between the fluvially dominated region and the tidally dominated region of the estuary. All these issues play an important role also in interpreting how the facies changes along the estuary, thus helping to make correct paleo-environmental and sequence-stratigraphic interpretations of sedimentary successions (Dalrymple and Choi, 2007). Results show that the model is able to describe a wide class of settings ranging from tidally dominated estuaries to fluvially dominated estuaries. In the latter case, the solution is found to compare satisfactory with the analytical asymptotic solution recently derived by Seminara et al. (2012), under the hypothesis of fairly 'small' tidal oscillations. Simulations indicate that the system always moves toward an equilibrium configuration in which the net sediment flux in a tidal cycle is constant throughout the estuary and equal to the constant sediment flux discharged from the river. For constant width, the bed equilibrium profile of the estuarine channel is characterized by two distinct regions: a steeper reach seaward, dominated by the tide, and a less steep upstream reach, dominated by the river and characterized by the undisturbed bed slope. Although the latter reach, at equilibrium, is not directly affected by the tidal wave, however starting from an initial uniform stream with the constant 'fluvial' slope, the final equilibrium state is reached through an erosional wave, which leads to bed degradation of the upstream 'fluvial reach'. For a given river discharge, the length of the tidal reach increases quite rapidly with tidal amplitude, up to some threshold value of the tidal amplitude above which the length of the estuary becomes comparable with the length of the tidal wave. When the channel plan-form is convergent, deposition of sediments of fluvial origin in the funnel-shaped region drastically changes the equilibrium configuration. The effect of an increasing channel convergence is thus to induce bed aggradation close to the inlet. Nevertheless, tidal forcing only slightly changes the non-tidal profile. The effect of increasing tidal oscillations again leads to an increase of the bed slope at the inlet and to a general bed degradation upstream. The effects of varying sediment supply, flow discharge and river width in the upstream reach have also been investigated and play an important role. Further geomorphological implications of these results will be discussed at the meeting. References Dalrymple, R. W., and K. Choi (2007), Morphologic and facies trends through the fluvialmarine transition in tide-dominated depositional systems: A schematic framework for environmental and sequence-stratigraphic interpretation, Earth-Science Reviews, 81(3-4), 135-174, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2006.10.002. Seminara, G., M. Bolla Pittaluga, and N. Tambroni (2012), Morphodynamic equilibrium of tidal channels, Environmental Fluid Mechanics: Memorial Volume in Honour of Prof. Gerhard H. Jirka, 153-174

  6. Epipelic diatoms in the estuaries of South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GC, Bate; PA, Smailes; JB, Adams.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epipelic diatom flora was sampled around the South African coast between the Olifants Estuary, on the cool Atlantic Ocean northwest coast, and the St. Lucia Estuary, on the Indian Ocean northeast coast. Altogether, 333 taxa were identified with 14 being ubiquitous, as they were found in the cool tem [...] perate, warm temperate, and subtropical areas, as well as in St. Lucia Estuary situated close to Mocambique. There was little difference between the epipelic diatom species present in intertidal and subtidal areas and, because many of the species have a high tolerance to salinity, with some being found in conditions ranging from freshwater to a salinity of more than 150 psu, it was concluded that many of the species sampled do not appear to be reliable indicators for assessing salinity in South African estuaries. Although there was a wide spread of diatoms across all of the estuaries around the coast, the greatest species similarity occurred between the Olifants, Great Berg and Breede estuaries, suggesting that the Breede Estuary, normally considered to fall within the warm temperate region, may be more similar to the cool temperate type estuaries. Data also showed that there was very little similarity between the diatom flora in the rivers flowing into estuaries and the diatom flora in the estuaries.

  7. Nutrient budgets for large Chinese estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Liu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese rivers deliver about 5–10% of global freshwater input and 15–20% of the global continental sediment to the world ocean. We report the riverine fluxes and concentrations of major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon in the rivers of the contiguous landmass of China and Korea in the northeast Asia. The rivers are generally enriched with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN and depleted in dissolved inorganic phosphate (PO43? with very high DIN: PO43? concentration ratios. DIN, phosphorus, and silicon levels and loads in rivers are mainly affected by agriculture activities and urbanization, anthropogenic activities and adsorption on particulates, and rock types, climate and physical denudation intensity, respectively. Nutrient transports by rivers in the summer are 3–4 times higher than those in the winter with the exception of NH4+. The flux of NH4+ is rather constant throughout the year due to the anthropogenic sources such as the sewer discharge. As nutrient composition has changed in the rivers, ecosystems in estuaries and coastal sea have also changed in recent decades. Among the changes, a shift of limiting nutrients from phosphorus to nitrogen for phytoplankton production with urbanization is noticeable and in some areas silicon becomes the limiting nutrient for diatom productivity. A simple steady-state mass-balance box model was employed to assess nutrient budgets in the estuaries. The major Chinese estuaries export <15% of nitrogen, <6% of phosphorus required for phytoplankton production and ~4% of silicon required for diatom growth in the Chinese Seas (Bohai, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea. This suggests that land-derived nutrients are largely confined to the immediate estuaries, and ecosystem in the coastal sea beyond the estuaries is mainly supported by other nutrient sources such as regeneration, open ocean and atmospheric deposition.

  8. Nutrient budgets for large Chinese estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. M.; Hong, G.-H.; Zhang, J.; Ye, X. W.; Jiang, X. L.

    2009-10-01

    Chinese rivers deliver about 5-10% of global freshwater input and 15-20% of the global continental sediment to the world ocean. We report the riverine fluxes and concentrations of major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon) in the rivers of the contiguous landmass of China and Korea in the northeast Asia. The rivers are generally enriched with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and depleted in dissolved inorganic phosphate (PO43-) with very high DIN: PO43- concentration ratios. DIN, phosphorus, and silicon levels and loads in rivers are mainly affected by agriculture activities and urbanization, anthropogenic activities and adsorption on particulates, and rock types, climate and physical denudation intensity, respectively. Nutrient transports by rivers in the summer are 3-4 times higher than those in the winter with the exception of NH4+. The flux of NH4+ is rather constant throughout the year due to the anthropogenic sources such as the sewer discharge. As nutrient composition has changed in the rivers, ecosystems in estuaries and coastal sea have also changed in recent decades. Among the changes, a shift of limiting nutrients from phosphorus to nitrogen for phytoplankton production with urbanization is noticeable and in some areas silicon becomes the limiting nutrient for diatom productivity. A simple steady-state mass-balance box model was employed to assess nutrient budgets in the estuaries. The major Chinese estuaries export China Sea, South China Sea). This suggests that land-derived nutrients are largely confined to the immediate estuaries, and ecosystem in the coastal sea beyond the estuaries is mainly supported by other nutrient sources such as regeneration, open ocean and atmospheric deposition.

  9. Tidal Wetlands of the Yaquina and Alsea River Estuaries in Oregon: GIS layer development and recommendations for National Wetlands Inventory revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) layers of current and likely former tidal wetlands in two Oregon estuaries were generated by enhancing the 2010 National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data with expert local field knowledge, LiDAR-derived elevations, and 2009 aerial orthophotos. Th...

  10. Satellite remote sensing of chlorophyll a in support of nutrient management in the Neuse and Tar-Pamlico River (North Carolina) estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The North Carolina Environmental Management Commission (EMC) has adopted as a water quality standard that chlorophyll a concentration should not exceed 40 ug/L in sounds, estuaries and other slow-moving waters. Exceedances require regulators to develop a Total Maximum Daily Limit...

  11. Modelo Geomorfológico De Un Estuario Tropical Caribeño: Desembocadura Del Río Hueque, Costa Oriental Del Estado Falcón, Venezuela / Geomorphologic Model Of A Tropical Estuary In The Caribbean Region: The Mouth Of The Hueque River, East Coast Of The Falcon State, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Scarlet, Cartaya; Williams, Méndez.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available El propósito principal de este trabajo es establecer un modelo geomorfológico que sintetice la dinámica del sistema estuarino de la desembocadura del río Hueque. Para el desarrollo del modelo se realizaron trabajos de campo en los que se recolectaron muestras de sedimentos de los ambientes depositac [...] ionales identificados, así como mediciones de las dimensiones de éstos, pendientes de playa, batimetría, oleaje y mareas. Se midieron parámetros físicos y químicos del agua como temperatura, pH, salinidad, conductividad eléctrica y transparencia. El trabajo de laboratorio se fundamentó en los análisis de textura, carbonatos, materia orgánica, minerales pesados y mineralogía por difracción de rayos X de las muestras de sedimentos. Se analizaron datos de clima, red de drenaje, mareas y oleaje y se realizó una fotointerpretación detallada del área. El estuario del río Hueque se comporta similar a un caño de marea, con aguas mezcladas y sin estratificación, fuerte tendencia a la hipersalinidad y pH entre neutro y ligeramente básico. Sobre la base de los factores y los procesos implicados, las características sedimentológicas de los ambientes depositacionales y el desarrollo y evolución del área, se concluyó que la desembocadura del río Hueque puede ser definida como un sistema estuarino de edad reciente. Abstract in english The main purpose of this article is to establish a geomorphologic model that synthesizes the dynamics of the estuary system at the mouth of the Hueque River. To develop the model a field study was conducted to collect and measure samples of sediments within the identified depositional environments. [...] Simultaneously other measurements, including beach incline, tides and swell, were carried out. Physical and chemical parameters of the water were measured: temperature, pH, electric conductivity, transparency, and salinity. The laboratory work was based on analysis of textures, carbonates, organic matter, heavy minerals and mineralogy by X-ray diffraction of the sediment samples. Other types of data that was analyzed included, climate, drainage, tides, and swell. In addition, a detail photographic interpretation of the area was done. The Hueque River estuary behaves similarly to a tidal stream with mixed, non-stratified waters, strong tendency to hypersalinity and neutral pH or slightly basic. Based on the factors and implied processes, the sedimentary characteristics of the depositional environments and the development and evolution of the area, it was concluded that the mouth of the Hueque River can be define as a recent estuary system.

  12. Introduction to Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuaries, although minor geographical features at the global scale, have major importance for society and the world’s economies. This chapter introduces estuaries by presenting an overview of definitions, origins, physical, chemical and ecological attributes, and the interaction...

  13. Geochemical studies in the Godavari Estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Somayajulu, B.L.K.; Martin, J.M.; Eisma, D.; Thomas, A.J.; Borole, D.V.; Rao, K.S.

    are reported. The DOC and Fe concentrations are lower compared with those in other estuaries of the world and are below the average value reported for world rivers. Silicon behaves non-conservatively; its depletion which is most likely due to biological...

  14. Modelling of tidal hydrodynamics for a tropical ecosystem with implications for pollutant dispersion (Cochin Estuary, Southwest India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Reddy, G.S.; Revichandran, C.; Srinivas, K.; Vijayan, P.R.; Thottam, T.J.

    . The present level of pollution in the northern estuary is due to the direct release of industrial effluents into the river Periyar, which can be minimized if they are brought down to central estuary for disposal. The concept of different zones in the estuary...

  15. Bats of a varzea forest in the estuary of the Amazon River, state of Amapá, Northern Brazil / Morcegos de floresta de várzea no estuário do Rio Amazonas, estado do Amapá, Norte do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isai Jorge de, Castro; Fernanda, Michalski.

    Full Text Available As florestas de várzea do estuário do Rio Amazonas ocupam uma extensão 25. 000 km2, abrangendo os estados do Pará e Amapá. Os mamíferos destas florestas, especificamente morcegos ainda são pouco conhecidos. Este estudo visa apresentar uma lista de espécies de morcegos de três localidades em floresta [...] de várzea no estuário do Rio Amazonas, contribuindo assim com o conhecimento da quiropterofauna desta fitofisionomia. Entre Novembro e Dezembro de 2013 foram selecionados 18 sítios de coletas na foz de três rios tributários do Rio Amazonas: Rio Ajuruxí, Rio Maracá e Rio Mazagão. Com o uso de dez redes de neblina (12 x 3 m) armadas ao longo de um transecto linear de 150 metros em cada sitio de coleta e totalizando um esforço amostral de 38,888 m2. h capturamos 403 indivíduos distribuídos em 40 espécies e cinco famílias. As famílias registradas foram Phyllostomidae (n=31 espécies), Emballonuridae (n=6 espécies), Moormopidae (n=1 espécie), Vespertilionidae (n=1 espécie) e Thyropteridae (n=1 espécie). Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus planirostris e Carollia brevicauda compreenderam 45 % dos registros. Nós documentamos o primeiro registro de Glyphonycteris daviesi para o estado do Amapá. Registramos também espécies raras como Dicludurus albus e Macrophyllum macrophylum. Os dados obtidos neste estudo revelam que as florestas de várzea do estuário do Rio Amazonas abrigam uma alta riqueza e diversidade de morcegos e que politicas de conservação devem ser consideradas para a manutenção desta diversidade. Tais politicas devem ser focadas no incentivo para o manejo responsável do cultivo do açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea) e da exploração da madeira, além da redução da exploração madeireira ilegal que causa prejuízos a fauna e flora dessas florestas ricas em biodiversidade. Abstract in english The varzea forests of the estuary of the Amazon River cover 25,000 km2 within the states of Pará and Amapá. The mammals of those forests, especially bats, are still poorly known. Hence, the present study aimed at inventorying the bat species from three localities of a varzea forest in the estuary of [...] the Amazon River. Between November and December 2013, we selected 18 sampling sites in the mouths of three tributaries of the Amazon River: the rivers Ajuruxí, Maracá, and Mazagão. We set up ten mist nets (12 x 3 m) along a 150-m linear transect in each sampling site, in a total sampling effort of 38,888 m2.h. We captured 403 individual bats of 40 species and five families. We recorded the families: Phyllostomidae (n = 31 species), Emballonuridae (n = 6 species), Moormopidae (n = 1 species), Vespertilionidae (n = 1 species), and Thyropteridae (n = 1 species). Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus planirostris, and Carollia brevicauda comprised 45% of the records. We also made the first record of Glyphonycteris daviesi for Amapá state, and captured rare species, such as Dicludurus albus and Macrophyllum macrophylum. Our results show that the varzea forest of the estuary of the Amazon River harbors high bat diversity, and, hence, conservation policies should be considered for the region. Those policies should encourage the responsible management of açaí palm (Euterpe oleracea) and timber. They should also fight illegal timber exploitation that threatens the fauna and flora of those biodiverse forests.

  16. RECRUITMENT OF JUVENILE GOLDEN GREY MULLET, Liza aurata (Risso, 1810 AND FLATHEAD GREY MULLET, Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758 IN THE NERETVA RIVER ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bartulovi?

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Research of recruitment, growth and diet of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata and flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus was carried out on the sampling sites in estuary of Neretva; Mala Neretva, Kanal and port of Plo?e. On sandy–muddy beaches, samples were collected using seine net and on deeper sites with rocky bottoms, samples were collected by using small »dip net«. Total length of body and total weight were measured. Stomach contents were analysed using inverted microscope. Prey frequency (%F, abundance (%N and coefficient of empty stomach (%V were determined. Also possible food competition between different species of mullet juveniles was studied, based on space and time overlap of their recruitment. Recruitment of golden grey mullet (length category of 15–20 mm in samples lasted from October to January. Analysis of lenght–weight relationship in the area of estuary of Mala Neretva showed that population has a negative alometric growth. In analyzed stomach contents from October to February, dominant were harpacticoid copepods. There was a substantial increase in the percentage of insects in March, and gammarids in December. Juveniles of flathead grey mullet were found in samples from September to November, with small length categories of 10–15 mm in September and October. Analysis of length–weight relationship established that samples on all three sites had a negative alometric growth. Fast growth was recorded during all three months because the sea temperature was above 20 °C. In the stomachs of flathead grey mullet juveniles the dominant prey group was also harpacticoids on all three sites. Statistically significant level of competition (SI= 0.747 was determined between L. aurata and M. cephalus in the estuary of Mala Neretva, mainly because of high percentage of harpacticoids in prey content of both species.

  17. A chemometric approach to the evaluation of atmospheric and fluvial pollutant inputs in aquatic systems: The Guadalquivir River estuary as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish the quality of waters it is necessary to identify both point and non-point pollution sources. In this work, we propose the combination of clean analytical methodologies and chemometric tools to study discrete and diffuse pollution caused in a river by tributaries and precipitations, respectively. During a two-year period, water samples were taken in the Guadalquivir river (selected as a case study) and its main tributaries before and after precipitations. Samples were characterized by analysing nutrients, pH, dissolved oxygen, total and volatile suspended solids, carbon species, and heavy metals. Results were used to estimate fluvial and atmospheric inputs and as tracers for anthropic activities. Multivariate analysis was used to estimate the background pollution, and to identify pollution inputs. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were used as data exploratory tools, while box-whiskers plots and Linear Discriminant Analysis were used to analyse and distinguish the different types of water samples. - Highlights: ? Atmospheric and fluvial inputs of pollutants in Guadalquivir River were identified. ? Point (tributary rivers) and non-point sources (rains) were studied. ? Nature and extension of anthropogenic pollution in the river were established. - By combining trace environmental analysis and selected chemometric tools atmospheric and fluvial inputs of pollutants in rivers may be identified. The extension of the pollution originated by each anthropic activity developed along the River may be established, as well as the identification of the pollution introduced into the river by the tributary rivers (point sources) and by rains (non-point sources).

  18. Seasonal and interannual variability in population abundances of the intertidal macroinfauna of Queule river estuary, south-central Chile Variabilidad estacional e interanual en las abundancias poblacionales de la macroinfauna intermareal del estuario del río Queule, centro-sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    EDUARDO JARAMILLO; HERALDO CONTRERAS; PEDRO QUIJÓN

    2001-01-01

    Sediment samples were monthly collected at Queule river estuary (ca. 39° S), south-central Chile, from October 1990 to April 1992, and from September 1995 to November 1997 to study temporal variability in population abundances of the macroinfauna inhabiting sandy and muddy-sand intertidal substrates. Sandy sediments had higher percentages of sand particles and lower percentages of mud particles, biogenic aggregates and total organic matter than muddy-sand sediments. The same macroinfaunal spe...

  19. Sources and fate of organic matter in suspended and bottom sediments of the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, Western India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Kessarkar, P.M.; ManiMurali, R.

    Organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN) and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions were measured in suspended particulate matter (SPM) and surface sediment along estuaries of Mandovi and Zuari rivers, two small mountainous river systems...

  20. Key discursive themes for the environmental governance of the Vouga Estuary (Ria de Aveiro)

    OpenAIRE

    Sumares, David; Fidélis, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decades, at the same time that traditional activities declined, the Ria de Aveiro (the estuary of the river Vouga) has suffered strong development pressures (urban, agricultural and industrial), which have caused severe environmental problems such as water pollution, eutrophication, habitat destruction, among others. In particular, changes in the estuary’s hydrodynamics are being increasingly seen as especially damaging to the Ria’s ecosystems, protected under the Natura 2000...

  1. Evaluation of the sampling methods applied to phycoperiphyton studies in the Ratones River estuary, Brazil / Avaliação dos métodos de coleta aplicados no estudo do ficoperifíton no estuário do rio Ratones, SC, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bianca, Vettorato; Roselane, Laudares-Silva; Dávia, Talgatti; Mariângela, Menezes.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho tem por objetivo testar a eficiência de quatro métodos de coleta para a identificação e quantificação empregadas no estudo sobre a biodiversidade e distribuição espaço temporal do ficoperifíton no estuário do rio Ratones; MÉTODOS: As coletas foram realizadas em três est [...] ações de amostragem ao longo do rio Ratones em março e agosto de 2008. As metodologias testadas para separação do perifíton do sedimento foram realizadas através do uso de peneiras e armadilhas de tecido. Para as epífitas, foi utilizado método de remoção através de agitação manual e análise "in situ". Para avaliar a eficiência da metodologia para perifíton, foram incluídos dados sobre fitoplâncton para fins comparativos; RESULTADOS: A opção pelo método de armadilha mostrou ser mais adequada para separar os espécimes vivos, do sedimento, e para tentar minimizar os problemas encontrados nas outras duas metodologias testadas. No caso das microalgas epífitas, a melhor forma de análise resultou dos métodos "in situ"; CONCLUSÕES: Em síntese, os resultados aqui apresentados reiteram as dificuldades encontradas ao se estudar amostras ficoperifíticas em ambientes estuarinos que, por serem ambientes rasos e dinâmicos, sofrem a influência constante do sedimento na formação das comunidades presentes nestes locais. Abstract in english AIM: The present study aimed on testing the efficiency of four sampling methods for identification and quantification applied in studies on the biodiversity and spatial-temporal distribution of the phycoperiphyton in the Ratones River estuary; METHODS: The sampling were carried out in three sampling [...] stations along the Ratones River in March and August 2008. The methodologies used for the separation of the periphyton from the sediment were made with the use of sieves and trapping tissue. A removing method through manual agitation and "in situ" analysis was used for epiphytes. To evaluate the efficiency of the methodology for periphyton, data on phytoplankton was included for comparative reasons; RESULTS: The trapping method option was the most appropriate for removing the live specimens from the sediment, and to try to minimize the problems found with the other two methodologies tested. In the case of the epiphytic microalgae the best counting technique resulted from the "in situ" method; CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the results presented here support the difficulties faced in studying phycoperiphytic samples in estuaries, which are shallow and dynamic environments, and for that reason the communities occurring in these areas are constantly influenced by the sediment.

  2. Evaluation of the sampling methods applied to phycoperiphyton studies in the Ratones River estuary, Brazil Avaliação dos métodos de coleta aplicados no estudo do ficoperifíton no estuário do rio Ratones, SC, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Vettorato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The present study aimed on testing the efficiency of four sampling methods for identification and quantification applied in studies on the biodiversity and spatial-temporal distribution of the phycoperiphyton in the Ratones River estuary; METHODS: The sampling were carried out in three sampling stations along the Ratones River in March and August 2008. The methodologies used for the separation of the periphyton from the sediment were made with the use of sieves and trapping tissue. A removing method through manual agitation and "in situ" analysis was used for epiphytes. To evaluate the efficiency of the methodology for periphyton, data on phytoplankton was included for comparative reasons; RESULTS: The trapping method option was the most appropriate for removing the live specimens from the sediment, and to try to minimize the problems found with the other two methodologies tested. In the case of the epiphytic microalgae the best counting technique resulted from the "in situ" method; CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the results presented here support the difficulties faced in studying phycoperiphytic samples in estuaries, which are shallow and dynamic environments, and for that reason the communities occurring in these areas are constantly influenced by the sediment.OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho tem por objetivo testar a eficiência de quatro métodos de coleta para a identificação e quantificação empregadas no estudo sobre a biodiversidade e distribuição espaço temporal do ficoperifíton no estuário do rio Ratones; MÉTODOS: As coletas foram realizadas em três estações de amostragem ao longo do rio Ratones em março e agosto de 2008. As metodologias testadas para separação do perifíton do sedimento foram realizadas através do uso de peneiras e armadilhas de tecido. Para as epífitas, foi utilizado método de remoção através de agitação manual e análise "in situ". Para avaliar a eficiência da metodologia para perifíton, foram incluídos dados sobre fitoplâncton para fins comparativos; RESULTADOS: A opção pelo método de armadilha mostrou ser mais adequada para separar os espécimes vivos, do sedimento, e para tentar minimizar os problemas encontrados nas outras duas metodologias testadas. No caso das microalgas epífitas, a melhor forma de análise resultou dos métodos "in situ"; CONCLUSÕES: Em síntese, os resultados aqui apresentados reiteram as dificuldades encontradas ao se estudar amostras ficoperifíticas em ambientes estuarinos que, por serem ambientes rasos e dinâmicos, sofrem a influência constante do sedimento na formação das comunidades presentes nestes locais.

  3. Cycling of transuranic radionuclides in the Columbia River, its estuary and the northeast Pacific Ocean. Progress report, January-December 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes progress from 1 January 1982 through 31 December 1982 in research on the behavior of transuranic and other radionuclides in the Columbia River downstream from the Hanford Reservation and in the northeast Pacific Ocean

  4. Estuary Classification Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    The governing equations of a tidally averaged, width averaged, rectangular estuary has been investigated. It's theoretically shown that the dynamics of an estuary is entirely controlled by three parameters: (i) the Estuarine Froude number, (ii) the Tidal Froude number and (iii) the Estuarine Aspect ratio. The momentum, salinity and integral salt balance equations can be completely expressed in terms of these control variables. The estuary classification problem has also been reinvestigated. It's found that these three control variables can completely specify the estuary type. Comparison with real estuary data shows very good match. Additionally, we show that the well accepted leading order estuarine integral salt balance equation is inconsitent with the leading order salinity equation in an order of magnitude sense.

  5. The nature and distribution of particulate matter in the Mandovi Estuary, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kessarkar, P.M.; Rao, V.P.; Shynu, R.; Mehra, P.; Viegas, B.E.

    and biogenic particles occur everywhere in the estuary. Diatoms are the most common and are of marine type at the sea-end and freshwater dominated at river-end stations of the estuary. SPM is characterized by kaolinite- and smectite-rich clay mineral suites...

  6. Stable isotope composition of the Rio de la Plata estuary. An attempt to relate to meteorological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rio de la Plata estuary is the collector of a vast drainage basin of about 3.1 x 106km2. Their major tributaries are the Parana, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers. The main course of the Parana river starts at the 'Planalto do Brasil', located at the central east Brazil. Pilcomayo and Bermejo rivers contribute to Parana water from the high Andes range. Paraguay river release water coming from the Mato Grosso. The Uruguay river, directly and the Iguazu river through the Parana also contribute to the estuary. Less significant are other rivers like the Salado, Negro, etc. (au)

  7. Radioactivity from Lisboa urban wastewater discharges in the Tejo River Estuary / Radioactividade no estuário do Tejo proveniente das descargas de águas residuais de Lisboa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margarida, Malta; João M., Oliveira; Lídia, Silva; Fernando P., Carvalho.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de sedimento, água, mexilhão e peixe foram colhidos mensalmente durante um período de 19 meses em várias estações ao longo da margem norte do estuário do Tejo (Lisboa, Portugal). As amostras foram imediatamente analisadas para radionuclidos emissores gama, em especial para os de origem arti [...] ficial. Entre estes, o 131I e 99mTc foram detectados na maioria das amostras de mexilhões (Mytilus galloprovincialis) e de taínha (Liza ramada). A distribuição espacial das amostras contendo esses radionuclidos indicou contaminação continuada em Alcântara e Praça do Comércio, e, nalgumas ocasiões, também em Chelas. Ao longo do ano, em geral não se detectou contaminação em Algés, na entrada do estuário, e em Beirolas na zona média do estuário cerca da Ponte Vasco da Gama, mas a contaminação radioactiva foi consistentemente detectada nas áreas que recebiam as descargas de águas residuais urbanas da cidade de Lisboa. Os radionuclidos 131I e 99mTc são utilizados em medicina nuclear e têm origem nos efluentes líquidos hospitalares descarregados no sistema de esgotos da cidade. A sua detecção junto à Praça do Comércio relacionou-se com as descargas do esgoto principal da Baixa de Lisboa que, nos anos da amostragem ainda descarregava naquela área águas residuais urbanas não tratadas. Perto de Alcântara, onde se localiza a descarga de águas residuais urbanas tratadas pela estação de tratamento (ETAR) de Alcântara, a detecção daqueles radionuclidos indicou que o tratamento de esgotos e o atraso introduzido na descarga dos efluentes tratados não foram suficientes para permitir o decaimento radioactivo. Os valores mais elevados de concentração de 131I e 99mTc foram 12±2 e 136±20 Bq Kg-1 peso fresco (p.f.) em mexilhões e peixes, respectivamente. Essas concentrações não excederam as concentrações de radionuclidos de origem natural, tais como o 40K que em média foram de 66±13 Bq Kg-1 (p.f.) em mexilhão e 618±21 Bq Kg-1 (p.f.) no peixe. No entanto, a acumulação dos radionuclidos artificiais nos organismos aquáticos aumenta a dose de radiação recebida por esses organismos e aumenta o risco de transferência dos radionuclidos artificiais para os seres humanos. A redução da radioactividade nas descargas de efluentes urbanos para melhorar a qualidade radiológica da água e sedimento do estuário é debatida como condição necessária para um uso sustentável do estuário. Abstract in english Sediments, water, mussels and fish were collected monthly during a 19 month period at eight sampling stations along the North bank of the Tejo estuary (Lisboa, Portugal). Fresh samples were immediately analysed for short lived gamma emitting radionuclides. Amongst these, 131I and 99mTc were detected [...] in most samples of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and mullets (Liza ramada). Spatial distribution of samples containing these radionuclides consistently indicated contamination at Alcântara and Praça do Comércio, and, on occasion, at Chelas, all sites inside the estuary. Round-the-year, generally there was no contamination at Algés, near the estuary mouth, and Beirolas, upstream by the Vasco da Gama Bridge. The estuarine areas found contaminated by radionuclides correspond to the areas receiving urban wastewater discharges from the city of Lisboa. The artificial radionuclides 131I and 99mTc are used in nuclear medicine practices and originate from hospital liquid effluent discharges into the city sewage system. Their presence near Praça do Comércio was related to the nearby discharges of a main sewer discharging untreated urban wastewater. Near Alcântara, the sewer outlet discharged treated urban wastewater from the Alcântara wastewater treatment plant and the presence of short-lived radionuclides indicated that sewage treatment and the time delay introduced before discharge of the treated effluent were not sufficient to allow for radioactive decay of those radionuclides. The highest concentration values of 131I and 99mTc determined in mussels and

  8. Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Viswanadham, R.; Rao, G.D.; Prasad, V.R.; Kumar, B.S.K.; Naidu, S.A.; Kumar, N.A.; Rao, D.B.; Sridevi, T.; Krishna, M.S.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T.V.R.

    taken from Dam authorities of respective river. # Dr. S.R. Shetye Personnal communication. Figure 1: Figure 2: 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 River discharge (m 3 s -1 ) 0 4000 8000 12000 16000 20000 pC O 2 ( ? at m ) 60 70 80 90 100 110 O 2...- 1717. Raymond, P.A., and C.S. Hopkinson (2003). Ecosystem modulation of dissolved carbon age in a temperate marsh-dominated estuary. Ecosystems, 6, 694-705. Souza, M.F., V.R. Gomes, S.S. Freitas, R.C.B. Andrade, and B. Knoppers (2009). Net...

  9. Water Column Methylation in Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartup, A. T.; Calder, R.; Soerensen, A. L.; Mason, R. P.; Balcom, P. H.; Sunderland, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs and affects humans and wildlife through fish consumption. Many studies have measured active methylation/demethylation in ocean margin sediments but few have reported similar rates for the marine water column. This presentation will review available evidence for water column methylation in estuaries, including new experimental measurements of methylation/demethylation rates from a deep subarctic fjord in Labrador Canada collected in Spring and Fall of 2012-2013. We used these and other data to construct a mass budget for MeHg in the estuary and show that water column methylation (with rates ranging from 1.5 to 2.8 % day-1), is the largest contributor, followed by inputs from rivers (4.9 mol year-1), to the in situ pool of MeHg available for uptake by biota. By contrast, the sediment in this system is a net sink for MeHg (-1.5 mol year-1). We discuss the relationship between observed MeHg and other ancillary environmental factors (organic carbon, sulfur and nutrients) as well as implications for the response time of fish to future changes in mercury inputs.

  10. Tidal influence on the diel vertical migration pattern of zooplankton in a tropical monsoonal Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vineetha, G.; Jyothibabu, R.; Madhu, N.V.; Kusum, K.K.; Sooria, P.M.; Shivaprasad, A.; Reny, P.D.; Deepak, M.P.

    habitats is often determined by their dominant behavioral patterns: diel vertical migration (DVM) and tidal vertical migration (TVM). The modes of these endogenous rhythms often vary among estuaries based on the river runoff and tidal characteristics...

  11. Intra-annual variations of arsenic totals and species in tropical estuary surface sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Jayachandran, S.; Babu, P.V.R.; Karri, S.; Tyadi, P.; Yao, K.M.; Sharma, B.M.

    Arsenic totals and species were found to vary during a one year period in the surface sediments of Godavari estuary (the third largest river in India). This study suggests that increasing salinity of overlying water column of sediments may alter...

  12. Benthic Bacillariophyta of the Paripe River estuary in Pernambuco state, Brazil Bacillariophyta bentônicas do estuário do Rio Paripe, estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN. Moura

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the benthic diatom composition from the estuary sediment in the Pernambuco State, based on 32 samples. Samples were collected monthly from September through December 1999 (dry period and from April through July 2000 (rainy period during four pre established sampling stations. Results indicated 19 families and 31 specific and infraspecific taxa. Eight new records were founded for Pernambuco State: Auliscus coelatus, Fallacia nummularia, Navicula algida, Plagiograma pulchellum, Terpsinoe americana, Triceratium antideluvianna and Tryblionella coarctata and one, Auliscus punctatus Bailey, in northeastern Brazil.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a composição das diatomáceas bênticas do sedimento estuarino do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, com base na análise de 32 amostras. As amostragens foram realizadas mensalmente de setembro a dezembro de 1999 (período seco e de abril a julho de 2000 (período chuvoso em quatro estações de coleta previamente estabelecidas. As diatomáceas estiveram representadas por 19 famílias e 31 taxons específicos e infraespecíficos. Ocorreram oito novas citações para o estado de Pernambuco, quais sejam: Auliscus coelatus, Fallacia nummularia, Navicula algida, Plagiograma pulchellum, Terpsinoe americana, Triceratium antideluvianna, Tryblionella coarctata e uma, Auliscus punctatus Bailey, para a região nordeste do Brasil.

  13. Benthic Bacillariophyta of the Paripe River estuary in Pernambuco state, Brazil / Bacillariophyta bentônicas do estuário do Rio Paripe, estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    AN., Moura; MC., Bittencourt-Oliveira; EC., Nascimento.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a composição das diatomáceas bênticas do sedimento estuarino do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, com base na análise de 32 amostras. As amostragens foram realizadas mensalmente de setembro a dezembro de 1999 (período seco) e de abril a julho de 2000 (período ch [...] uvoso) em quatro estações de coleta previamente estabelecidas. As diatomáceas estiveram representadas por 19 famílias e 31 taxons específicos e infraespecíficos. Ocorreram oito novas citações para o estado de Pernambuco, quais sejam: Auliscus coelatus, Fallacia nummularia, Navicula algida, Plagiograma pulchellum, Terpsinoe americana, Triceratium antideluvianna, Tryblionella coarctata e uma, Auliscus punctatus Bailey, para a região nordeste do Brasil. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the benthic diatom composition from the estuary sediment in the Pernambuco State, based on 32 samples. Samples were collected monthly from September through December 1999 (dry period) and from April through July 2000 (rainy period) during four pre established sa [...] mpling stations. Results indicated 19 families and 31 specific and infraspecific taxa. Eight new records were founded for Pernambuco State: Auliscus coelatus, Fallacia nummularia, Navicula algida, Plagiograma pulchellum, Terpsinoe americana, Triceratium antideluvianna and Tryblionella coarctata and one, Auliscus punctatus Bailey, in northeastern Brazil.

  14. Radionuclides in sediments and biota of the south shore the estuary and the initial stretch of the river Tejo (is. Tajo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary data show a trend for which the concentrations of natural radionuclides in sediments surface near the village of Samouco, on the South Bank of the estuarine Bay of yew, is less than that is miden waters above, on a stretch of the River near the village of Valada. (Author)

  15. Contamination and restoration of an estuary affected by phosphogypsum releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Huelva Estuary in Huelva, Spain, has been one of the most studied environmental compartments in the past years from the point of view of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) releases. It has been historically affected by waste releases, enriched in radionuclides from the U-decay series, from factories located in the area devoted to the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers. Nevertheless, changes in national regulations forced a new waste management practice in 1998, prohibiting releases of phosphogypsum into the rivers. The input of natural radionuclides from phosphate factories to rivers was drastically reduced. Because of this there was a unique opportunity for the study of the response of a contaminated environmental compartment, specifically an estuary affected by tidal influences, after the cessation of the contaminant releases to, in this case, the Huelva Estuary (henceforth referred to as the Estuary). To investigate the environmental response to this new discharge regime, the specific activities of radionuclides 226Ra and 210Pb in water and sediment samples collected in four campaigns (from 1999 to 2005) were determined and compared with pre-1998 values. From this study it is possible to infer the most effective mechanisms of decontamination for the Estuary. Decontamination rates of 210Pb and 226Ra in the sediments and water have been calculated using exponential fittings and corresponding half-lives have been deduced from them. The cleaning half-life in the whole area of the Estuary is about 6 and 3.5 years for 226Ra and 210Pb respectively. The observed trend clearly shows that contamination of the Estuary by natural radionuclides is now decreasing and radioactive levels in waters and sediments are approaching the natural background references. This work attempts to evaluate whether it can be expected that the decontamination of the enhanced levels of natural radioactivity in the Estuary can be performed via natural processes.

  16. Contamination and restoration of an estuary affected by phosphogypsum releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, M., E-mail: mvilla@us.es [Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion, Universidad de Sevilla CITIUS, Av. Reina Mercedes 4B, E41012-Sevilla (Spain); Mosqueda, F. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, 21007-Huelva (Spain); Hurtado, S. [Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion, Universidad de Sevilla CITIUS, Av. Reina Mercedes 4B, E41012-Sevilla (Spain); Mantero, J.; Manjon, G. [E. T. S. Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2. 41012-Sevilla (Spain); Perianez, R. [E.U.I.T.A., Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Carretera de Utrera, Km. 1, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Vaca, F. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, 21007-Huelva (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [E. T. S. Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2. 41012-Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    The Huelva Estuary in Huelva, Spain, has been one of the most studied environmental compartments in the past years from the point of view of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) releases. It has been historically affected by waste releases, enriched in radionuclides from the U-decay series, from factories located in the area devoted to the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers. Nevertheless, changes in national regulations forced a new waste management practice in 1998, prohibiting releases of phosphogypsum into the rivers. The input of natural radionuclides from phosphate factories to rivers was drastically reduced. Because of this there was a unique opportunity for the study of the response of a contaminated environmental compartment, specifically an estuary affected by tidal influences, after the cessation of the contaminant releases to, in this case, the Huelva Estuary (henceforth referred to as the Estuary). To investigate the environmental response to this new discharge regime, the specific activities of radionuclides {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in water and sediment samples collected in four campaigns (from 1999 to 2005) were determined and compared with pre-1998 values. From this study it is possible to infer the most effective mechanisms of decontamination for the Estuary. Decontamination rates of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 226}Ra in the sediments and water have been calculated using exponential fittings and corresponding half-lives have been deduced from them. The cleaning half-life in the whole area of the Estuary is about 6 and 3.5 years for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb respectively. The observed trend clearly shows that contamination of the Estuary by natural radionuclides is now decreasing and radioactive levels in waters and sediments are approaching the natural background references. This work attempts to evaluate whether it can be expected that the decontamination of the enhanced levels of natural radioactivity in the Estuary can be performed via natural processes.

  17. Point Shapefile with a Point Every 100 meters Along the Neuse River 2004 Resistivity Survey Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  18. Hudson River Sub_Bottom Profile Data - Raw SEG-Y Files (*.sgy)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hudson River Estuary Shallow Water Surveys. Subbottom data was collected November 5 to December 15, 2009, in the estuary north from Saugerties to Troy. Data...

  19. Raw Continuous Resistivity Profile Collected in the Neuse River, April 19, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  20. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 22, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  1. Raw Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, May 5, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  2. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, May3, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  3. Processed Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, May 4, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  4. Point Shapefile with a Point Every 100 meters Along the Neuse River 2005 Resistivity Survey Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  5. Processed Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 23, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  6. Raw Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  7. Continuous Resistivity Profile Tracklines of Data Collected in 2004 in the Neuse River, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  8. Processed Continuous Resistivity Profile Collected in the Neuse River, April 19, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  9. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 23, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  10. Processed Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 21, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  11. Raw Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 22, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  12. Raw Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 23, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  13. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, May 4, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  14. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, May 5, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  15. Point Shapefile with a Point Every 500 meters Along the Neuse River 2005 Resistivity Survey Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  16. Processed Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  17. Raw Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 21, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  18. Raw Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, May 4, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  19. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profile Collected in the Neuse River, April 19, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  20. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 21, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  1. Continuous Resistivity Profile Tracklines of Data Collected in 2005 in the Neuse River, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  2. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  3. Processed Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, May 5, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  4. Raw Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, May 3, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  5. Extended Tracklines of Continues Resistivity Profile Data collected in 2005 in the Neuse River, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  6. Processed Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 22, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  7. Point Shapefile with a Point Every 500 meters Along the Neuse River 2004 Resistivity Survey Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  8. Processed Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, May3, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  9. Modeling 226Ra behaviour in a Spanish estuary affected by the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of 226Ra in a system like this estuary is complex since radionuclides are affected by tidal actions and interactions with sediments through adsorption/desorption reactions and erosion/deposition processes. A numerical 2D depth-averaged model of the estuary has been developed, including processes mentioned above. It has been applied to reproduce experimental data measured after a release from the industrial complex in the Odiel River and after an accidental release in the Tinto River from the gypsum piles. The model has also been applied to simulate the self-cleaning process observed in the estuary after the direct releases from the fertilizer complex were stopped

  10. Summer hypoxia adjacent to the Changjiang Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hao; He, Yunchang; Li, Qingji; Liu, Zhiyu; Wang, Haitang

    2007-09-01

    Changjiang, the third largest runoff in the world, empties into the East China Sea from Shanghai, the fastest developing area of China. With the increasing nutrient load from the river, a severe hypoxia zone was found to about 2 * 10 4 km 2. The mechanism of hypoxia formation adjacent to the Changjiang Estuary receives more and more attention from both scientists and managers. This paper discusses the relationship between hypoxia and the water masses, primary production, particulate material transport and the density stratification in these areas according to data obtained from a cruise in September, 2003. Hypoxia is formed by organic detritus decay. The particulate organisms do not mainly come from the Changjiang river, or from the dead algal deposed locally, but from the local benthic algae or particles advected from the south. Maintenance of hypoxia is due to the large density stratification caused by the significant salinity difference between the fresh plume and salty water from Taiwan Strait. This applies also to other estuaries with large runoff and rapid economic growth drainage, such as the Pearl River. It is suggested that the hypoxic zone here is much more sensitive than that outside Mississippi River. More cruises over different weather and tide conditions are needed to prove this hypothesis. Interdisciplinary research should be further developed in the future.

  11. NEPmap (National Estuary Program Mapper)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The NEPmap is designed to provide information in context with National Estuary Program Study Areas. There are 28 National Estuary Programs (NEPs) in the U.S.that...

  12. Sediment balance of intertidal mudflats in a macrotidal estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    lafite, R.; Deloffre, J.; Lemoine, M.

    2012-12-01

    Intertidal area contributes widely to fine-grained sediment balance in estuarine environments. Their sedimentary dynamics is controlled by several forcing parameters including tidal range, river flow and swell, affected by human activities such as dredging, construction or vessels traffic leading to modify sediment transport pattern. Although the estuarine hydrodynamics is well documented, the link between forcing parameters and these sedimentary processes is weakly understood. One of the main reasons is the difficulty to integrate spatial (from the fluvial to the estuary mouth) and temporal (from swell in seconds to pluriannual river flow variability) patterns. This study achieved on intertidal mudflats distributed along the macrotidal Seine estuary (France) aims (i) to quantify the impact of forcing parameters on each intertidal area respect to its longitudinal position in the estuarine system and (ii) to assess the fine-grained sediment budget at estuarine scale. The Seine estuary is a macrotidal estuary developed over 160 km up the upstream limit of tidal wave penetration. With an average river flow of 450m3.s-1, 80% of the Suspended Particles Matter (SPM) annual flux is discharged during the flood period. In the downstream part, the Seine estuary Turbidity Maximum (TM) is the SPM stock located near the mouth. During their transfer toward the sea, the fine particles can be trapped in (i) the intertidal mudflats; preferential areas characterized by low hydrodynamics and generally sheltered of the tidal dominant flow, the main tidal current the Seine River and (ii) the TM. The Seine estuary is an anthropic estuary in order to secure navigation: one consequence of these developments is the tidal bore disappearance. Along the macrotidal Seine estuary hydrodynamics features and sedimentary fluxes were followed during at least 1 year using respectively Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, Optical BackScatter and altimeter. Results in the fluvial estuary enhance the role of hydrological cycle that lead to (i) an increased mean water level and (ii) provide SPM from the continental area. This feature leads to significant accretion over intertidal area. In the middle and marine estuary the TM is the main SPM supplier. In these parts of the estuary deposition over these intertidal area is driven by (i) tidal cycle in particular fortnightly cycle link to maximum TM resuspension during (strongest) spring tide and (ii) TM location controlled by river inflow that varies following an annual and inter-annual variability. Outside sedimentation period, the erosion is driven by the combination of (i) progressive erosion driven by fortnightly cycle and (ii) sudden erosion controlled either by wave or boat generated waves respectively at the mouth and in the middle/upper estuary. This last is reinforced by the rheological characteristics of deposit that correspond to fluid/low consolidated mud. During most of the year, the Seine estuary mudflats record an erosion pattern. Significant and intensive sedimentation only occurs few days per year. This pattern is linked to highly variable hydrodynamics conditions (bottom shear stress ranging from 0.5 to 5 N.m-2) that control the sediment supply availability. In this infilling macrotidal anthropized system mudflats are close to equilibrium with an annual rate ranging between +/- 5cm.yrs-1: they act as temporal storage area of fined-grained sediments.

  13. Specific profiles of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish and tucuxi dolphins from the estuary of Paraíba do Sul River, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinete, Natalia; Lavandier, Ricardo; Dias, Patrick; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; Moreira, Isabel

    2011-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment and subject of several studies due to their adverse effects as endocrine disruptors. Despite the concern over widespread distribution of PBDEs even in sparsely populated regions of the world, few studies have reported their occurrence in Brazil. In this study, PBDEs and PCBs levels were measured in selected fish species and dolphins from Paraiba do Sul River, Brazil. BDE 47 and 85 were the predominant congeners. Low chlorinated congeners showed the highest concentrations in fish; however dolphins presented the highest proportion of PCBs 153, followed by 138 and 180. The daily intake of PBDEs and PCBs was estimated for the population of this region. PCB daily intake through consumption of croaker was above the limits set by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, raising great concern over the existence of a source of PCB contamination in Brazil. PMID:21168887

  14. Salt intrusion in multi-channel estuaries: a case study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Nguyen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a well-tested theory for the computation of salt intrusion in alluvial estuaries that is fully analytical and predictive. The theory uses analytical equations to predict the mixing behaviour of the estuary based on measurable quantities, such as channel topography, river discharge and tidal characteristics. It applies to single-channel topographies and estuaries that demonstrate moderate tidal damping. The Mekong delta is a multi-channel estuary where the tide is damped due to a relatively strong river discharge (in the order of 2000 m3/s, even during the dry season. As a result the Mekong is a strongly riverine estuary. This paper aims to test if the theory can be applied to such a riverine multi-channel estuary, and to see if possible adjustments or generalisations need to be made. The paper presents salt intrusion measurements that were done by moving boat in 2005, to which the salt intrusion model was calibrated. The theory has been expanded to cater for tidal damping. Subsequently the model has been validated with observations made at fixed locations over the years 1998 and 1999. Finally it has been tested whether the Mekong calibration fits the overall predictive equations derived in other estuaries. The test has been successful and led to a slight adjustment of the predictive equation to cater for estuaries that experience a sloping bottom.

  15. Allochthonous Organic Matter Subsidize the High Secondary Production of the Invasive Bivalve Corbicula fluminea in Minho Estuary (N-Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian clam Corbicula fluminea is one of the most invasive species in freshwater ecosystems. In Minho estuary, this species colonize all the middle and upper part of the estuary, dominating the abundance, biomass and secondary production in River Minho tidal freshwater area (T...

  16. Pollutant Flux Estimation in an Estuary Comparison between Model and Field Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chang Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a framework for estimating pollutant flux in an estuary. An efficient method is applied to estimate the flux of pollutants in an estuary. A gauging station network in the Danshui River estuary is established to measure the data of water quality and discharge based on the efficient method. A boat mounted with an acoustic Doppler profiler (ADP traverses the river along a preselected path that is normal to the streamflow to measure the velocities, water depths and water quality for calculating pollutant flux. To know the characteristics of the estuary and to provide the basis for the pollutant flux estimation model, data of complete tidal cycles is collected. The discharge estimation model applies the maximum velocity and water level to estimate mean velocity and cross-sectional area, respectively. Thus, the pollutant flux of the estuary can be easily computed as the product of the mean velocity, cross-sectional area and pollutant concentration. The good agreement between the observed and estimated pollutant flux of the Danshui River estuary shows that the pollutant measured by the conventional and the efficient methods are not fundamentally different. The proposed method is cost-effective and reliable. It can be used to estimate pollutant flux in an estuary accurately and efficiently.

  17. Spatial and temporal variation in hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in a temperate estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, Tiruponithura V; Dickhut, Rebecca M

    2002-12-01

    Hexachlorocylcohexanes (HCHs) are pesticides that persist in air and water of the Northern hemisphere. To understand the spatial and temporal variability in HCH levels in estuarine surface waters we measured concentrations of two HCH isomers (alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH) at six sites in the York River estuary at bimonthly intervals for a year. Bacterial abundance and activity were also monitored using acridine orange direct counts and uptake of tritiated substrates, respectively. Alpha-HCH was consistently observed to be significantly higher in marine water compared to river water entering the estuary, suggesting that the Chesapeake Bay or Atlantic Ocean is a larger source of this compound to the York River estuary compared to riverine input. Moreover, following periods of high freshwater flow into the estuary during spring and early summer, both alpha- and gamma-HCH mixing curves indicated an additional source of these pollutants to the estuary such as land-derived runoff or groundwater discharge. In contrast, during low freshwater flow (late summer and fall) the estuary was a sink for HCHs, with y-HCH more rapidly removed from the estuary than alpha-HCH. During the period of low freshwater flow, concentrations of both alpha- and gamma-HCH were negatively correlated with bacterial activity. Bacterial activity as opposed to abundance appears to control HCH degradation in estuarine surface waters. PMID:12523538

  18. Haemocytic leukemia in Prince Edward Island (PEI) soft shell clam (Mya arenaria): Spatial distribution in agriculturally impacted estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensive farming of potatoes in Prince Edward Island (PEI) relies on the repeated and widespread application of fertilizers and pesticides. In PEI the main potato farming areas are in close proximity and drain directly to estuaries. Runoff from high agricultural activity watersheds could impact benthic organism health in the depositional zone of downstream estuaries. The estuarine filter feeder Mya arenaria (soft-shell clam) could be particularly vulnerable to both particle-adsorbed and water soluble contaminants. M. arenaria is susceptible to haemocytic leukemia. In May 2009, we established that heavily proliferated leukemia (HPL) prevalence was generally higher in PEI estuaries located downstream of high intensity potato farming (Dunk and Wilmot estuaries) watersheds than in estuaries downstream of lower intensity areas. Using Mab-1E10 based immunocytochemistry we observed that leukemic haemocytes from the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries were 1E10 negative whereas those from the Ox/Sheep estuary (low potato farming intensity) were 1E10 positive. The expression of genes in the p53 tumour suppressor pathway enabled us to differentiate groups of leukemic and normal M. arenaria, validating our diagnoses. In October 2009, we confirmed that HPL prevalence was elevated in the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries compared to reference (Souris River). Moreover, leukemia prevalence declined with distance from the river mouths along transects through the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries. The pesticides ß-endosulfan and ?-endosulfan were detected in surface sediments from the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries, but not in sediments from either the Souris River or several other lower intensity potato farming watersheds. Our study provides evidence of an association between intensity of potato farming and prevalence of clam leukemia at downstream estuaries in PEI. - Highlights: ? We examined leukemia prevalence in PEI clams Mya arenaria. ? Prevalence was generally higher downstream of high intensity potato farming. ? Leukemia prevalence declined with distance from source in two impacted estuaries. ? Proteins, gene expression and immunology confirm diagnosis of disease. ? Intensive potato farming may contribute to prevalence of clam leukemia in PEI.

  19. Natural diet and feeding habits of a freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium carcinus: Crustacea, Decapoda) in the estuary of the Amazon River / Dieta natural e hábito alimentar de um camarão de água doce (Macrobrachium carcinus: Crustacea, Decapoda) no estuário do rio Amazonas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jô de Farias, Lima; Jamile da Silva, Garcia; Thibério Carvalho da, Silva.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium carcinus é uma espécie nativa com reconhecido potencial para ser utilizada na aquicultura, devido seu grande porte e seus bons índices de fecundidade e fertilidade. Apesar de seu evidente potencial para cultivo, poucas informações sobre dieta natural e habito alimentar desta espécie sã [...] o conhecidos na literatura. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi identificar os itens da dieta natural de M. carcinus, com base na análise de conteúdo estomacal de espécimes coletados no estuário do rio Amazonas entre janeiro de 2009 e janeiro de 2010. A análise do conteúdo estomacal foi feita usando frequência de ocorrência (FO), método de pontos (MP) e índice alimentar (FI). Os dados revelaram que os componentes alimentares mais importantes desta espécie foram detrito, fragmentos animais e vegetais. O item sedimento constituiu o maior componente do estômago com 43,2% pelo MP, 44,9% pelo FI e 100% pela frequência de ocorrência, respectivamente. Diferenças sexuais entre as preferências alimentares sobre os alimentos não foram encontrados no presente estudo. Diferenças sazonais na frequência de itens ingeridos por M. carcinus não foram observados. Os resultados indicaram que M. carcinus pode ser considerado como um onívoro, mas com um componente importante carnívoro, semelhante ao encontrado em outras espécies de Macrobrachium. Outros aspectos sobre o hábito alimentar e morfologia do estômago são brevemente discutidos. Abstract in english Macrobrachium carcinus is a Brazilian native prawn with recognized potential for use in aquaculture activities. However, there is little information about the natural diet and feeding habits of this species. The aim of this study was the identification of the diet items of M. carcinus based on the a [...] nalysis of the stomach contents. Specimens were collected in the Amazon River estuary between January 2009 and January 2010. The stomach analysis was carried out by using the frequency of occurrence (FO), methods of points (MP) and feeding index (FI). It was observed that prawns fed on detritus, animals and plant fragments as the most important food items. Sediment accounted for the main stomach content, accounting for 43.2% by the MP, 44.9% by FI and 100% by the FO. Sexual differences in feeding preferences were not found in this study, and seasonal differences in the frequency of items ingested by M. carcinus were not observed. The results indicated that M. carcinus can be considered omnivorous species, but with an important carnivorous component, similar to that found in other Macrobrachium species.

  20. Estrutura sazonal e espacial do microfitoplâncton no estuário tropical do rio Formoso, PE, Brasil / Seasonal and spatial structure of microphytoplankton in the tropical estuary of Formoso River, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Honorato da, Silva; Maria da Glória Gonçalves da, Silva-Cunha; José Zanon de Oliveira, Passavante; Christiana Kelly da Silva, Grego; Kátia, Muniz.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as variações espaço-temporal do microfitoplâncton e variáveis ambientais no estuário do rio Formoso, litoral sul do estado de Pernambuco. As coletas ocorreram em três pontos, no período chuvoso (maio a julho/2002) e estiagem (outubro a dezembro/2002). As a [...] mostras do plâncton foram obtidas através de arrastos horizontais superficiais, com rede de abertura de malha de 64¼m. Foram registrados in situ dados sobre temperatura e transparência e, concomitantemente, coletadas amostras de água utilizando a garrafa tipo Kitahara para a análise de salinidade, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, sais nutrientes e biomassa. Foram identificados 204 táxons predominando o grupo das diatomáceas (75%), destacando-se como dominantes Chaetoceros costatus Pavillard, Chaetoceros curvisetus Cleve, Chaetoceros sp., Coscinodiscus centralis Ehrenberg, seguidas dos dinoflagelados (10,79%), cianofíceas (6,37%), clorofíceas (3,92%), euglenofíceas (3,43%) e silicoflagelados (0,49%). As concentrações de oxigênio demonstraram uma alta capacidade de renovação do ambiente devido ao aporte de águas marinhas; maiores concentrações de nutrientes e biomassa algácea ocorreram durante o período chuvoso e nas baixa-mares. A pluviometria e o aporte marinho foram os parâmetros que mais influenciaram na hidrologia e na distribuição da comunidade fitoplanctônica com reflexo na riqueza taxonômica. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate spatial and temporal variations of the microphytoplankton and environmental variables in the Formoso River estuary, southern coast of Pernambuco state. The samples were collected at three stations, in the rainy season (May to July/2002) and dry season (October to December [...] /2002). The plankton samples were obtained through horizontal superficial hauls, with a 64ìm-mesh net. Temperature and transparency were recorded in situ and, at the same time, water samples were collected using a Kitahara bottle to analyze salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, nutrients and biomass. A total of 204 taxa were identified with the diatom group (75%) ranking first; dominant species were Chaetoceros costatus Pavillard, Chaetoceros curvisetus Cleve, Chaetoceros sp., Coscinodiscus centralis Ehrenberg, followed by the dinoflagellates (10.79%), cyanophycea (6.37%), chlorophycea (3.92%), euglenophycea (3.43%) and silicoflagellates (0.49%). Oxygen concentrations evidence a high capacity of environment renewal due to sea-water input; higher concentrations of nutrients and microalgae biomass occurred during the rainy season and at low tide. The parameters rainfall and sea-water input influenced hydrology and phytoplankton community distribution to the greatest degree, contributing to species richness.

  1. First record of parasitism in the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) at Jaguaribe River estuary - Ceará, Brazil / Primeiro registro de parasitismo na ostra do mangue Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) do Estuário do Rio Jaguaribe - Ceará, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RC, Sabry; TCV, Gesteira; G, Boehs.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Ostras do gênero Crassostrea rhizophorae foram coletadas mensalmente no Estuário do Rio Jaguaribe, litoral Leste do Estado do Ceará, Brasil, entre agosto de 2000 e dezembro de 2001, totalizando 170 animais. A temperatura da água do local variou de 26 a 30 °C e a salinidade de 21 a 42‰. O tamanho dos [...] animais variou de 3,4 a 7,2 cm de altura de concha. As ostras foram submetidas à análise macroscópica e histopatológica dos tecidos. Os exames histológicos evidenciaram protozoários e metazoários dos gêneros Nematopsis e Tylocephalum, respectivamente. A prevalência de Nematopsis variou de 60 a 100% e foi maior nas brânquias e manto. Os oocistos apresentaram tamanho médio de 11,5 µm (±1,32) e 9,1 µm (±1,06), (n = 30), sendo observados até 3 oocistos/fagócito. Alguns animais apresentaram reação hemocítica focal. A porcentagem de Tylocephalum foi de 1,7%. Apesar da elevada prevalência de infecção por Nematopsis, aparentemente os animais parasitados não tiveram o seu ciclo reprodutivo prejudicado. Abstract in english Mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae were sampled monthly in the estuary of Jaguaribe River, on the east coast of Ceará State, Brazil, between August, 2000 and December, 2001, making up 170 individuals. The water temperature varied from 26 to 30 °C and salinity from 21 to 42‰. The animals' size [...] ranged from 3.4 to 7.2 cm height. Macroscopical and histopathological analyses were carried out in the oysters' tissues. The histological exams showed protozoans and metazoans of genera Nematopsis and Tylocephalum, respectively. Nematopsis prevalence varied from 60 to 100% and it was higher in the gills and mantle. The oocysts presented a mean size of 11.5 µm (±1.32) length and 9.1 µm (±1.06) width (n = 30), up to 3 oocysts/phagocyte having been observed. Several animals presented focal hemocitical reaction. The percentage of Tylocephalum was 1.7%. In spite of the high infection prevalence by Nematopsis, infected animals did not have their reproductive cycle impaired.

  2. Parasites in the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae cultivated in the estuary of the Graciosa River in Taperoá, Bahia / Parasitos na ostra-do-mangue Crassostrea rhizophorae cultivada no estuário do rio Graciosa em Taperoá, Bahia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aliane Watanabe, Cova; Moacyr, Serafim Júnior; Guisla, Boehs; Jackson Moreira de, Souza.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, parasitos associados à ostra-do-mangue Crassostrea rhizophorae foram estudados em uma unidade de cultivo no estuário do rio Graciosa em Taperoá, Bahia. Mensalmente, entre abril de 2011 e março de 2012, 20 ostras foram coletadas, mensuradas e fixadas em formol a 10%. Para a iden [...] tificação dos parasitos, foram utilizadas técnicas histológicas de rotina, com inclusão em parafina e obtenção de cortes com 7µm, corados com hematoxilina de Harris e eosina e examinados em microscopia de luz. Os parâmetros analisados para a qualidade da água mostraram que a temperatura variou de 23,9 °C a 29,3 °C, a salinidade de 0,4 a 24,2 PSU e a pluviometria de 80 mm a 406,4 mm/mês. Nas análises parasitológicas foram observadas infestações do poliqueta Neanthes succinea em 41% das ostras. A partir das técnicas histológicas foram identificados os seguintes parasitos: colônias de organismos assemelhados a Rickettsiae (RLOs); os protozoários Nematopsis sp. e Ancistrocoma sp.; o turbelário Urastoma sp.; o metacestóide Tylocephalum sp. e um platelminto não identificado. Os dados obtidos mostraram baixa intensidade de infecção e prevalência de parasitos, exceto para Nematopsis sp., atestando a boa condição de saúde das ostras no cultivo. Abstract in english In this work, parasites associated with the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae were studied at a cultivation unit in the estuary of the Graciosa River in Taperoá, Bahia. On a monthly basis, between April 2011 and March 2012, 20 oysters were collected, measured and fixed in 10% formaldehyde. In [...] order to identify the parasites, routine histological techniques were used. The specimens were embedded in paraffin and sections, 7 µm thick, were cut. These were then stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin and were examined using an optical microscope. The parameters analyzed to investigate water quality showed that the temperature ranged from 23.9 °C to 29.3 °C, water salinity from 0.4 to 24.2 Practical Salinity Units PSU and recorded rainfall from 80 mm to 406.4 mm/month. During the parasitological analyses, infestation of the polychaete Neanthes succinea was observed in 41% of the oysters. Through histological techniques, the following parasites were identified: colonies of Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs); the protozoa Nematopsis sp. and Ancistrocoma sp.; the turbellarian Urastoma sp.; the metacestode Tylocephalum sp. and an unidentified tapeworm. The data collected showed that there was low-intensity infection with and prevalence of parasites, except for Nematopsis sp., thus attesting that these cultivated oysters were in a healthy condition.

  3. Design and implementation of an epidemiological study for the characterization of potential pathway human exposure in a contaminated estuary environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Carlos Matias; Machado, Ausenda; Paixão, Eleonora; Mateus, Inês; Joaquin, Toro; Caeiro, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Sado River estuary is located in the west coast of Portugal. Previous environmental studies identified industrial contamination, non-point anthropogenic sources and contamination coming from the river, all promoting accumulation of polluted sediments with known impacts on the ecological system. Surrounding human populations have intense economic fishery activities. Together with agriculture, estuary fishing products are available to local residents. Food usage previously chara...