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1

Zebra (Equus burchelli) foraging in the Kruger National Park, South Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

A photo of a zebra (Equus burchelli) foraging in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Zebras impact the composition of vegetation within the shrubby grassland in which they live. In turn, shortages of water and nutrients in the ecosystem impact the ability of zebras to live in these ecosystems. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecology (84:8) in August of 2003.

Klemow, Kenneth

2010-02-16

2

Parasite-mediated selection drives an immunogenetic tradeoff in plains zebra (Equus quagga)  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathogen evasion of the host immune system is a key force driving extreme polymorphism in genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Although this gene family is well characterized in structure and function, there is still much debate surrounding the mechanisms by which MHC diversity is selectively maintained. Many studies have investigated relationships between MHC variation and specific pathogens, and have found mixed support for and against the hypotheses of heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent or fluctuating selection. Few, however, have focused on the selective effects of multiple parasite types on host immunogenetic patterns. Here, we examined relationships between variation in the equine MHC gene, ELA-DRA, and both gastrointestinal (GI) and ectoparasitism in plains zebras (Equus quagga). Specific alleles present at opposing population frequencies had antagonistic effects, with rare alleles associated with increased GI parasitism and common alleles with increased tick burdens. These results support a frequency-dependent mechanism, but are also consistent with fluctuating selection. Maladaptive GI parasite ‘susceptibility alleles’ were reduced in frequency, suggesting that these parasites may play a greater selective role at this locus. Heterozygote advantage, in terms of allele mutational divergence, also predicted decreased GI parasite burden in genotypes with a common allele. We conclude that an immunogenetic trade-off affects resistance/susceptibility to parasites in this system. Because GI and ectoparasites do not directly interact within hosts, our results uniquely show that antagonistic parasite interactions can be indirectly modulated through the host immune system. This study highlights the importance of investigating the role of multiple parasites in shaping patterns of host immunogenetic variation.

Kamath, Pauline L.; Turner, Wendy C.; Küsters, Martina; Getz, Wayne M.

2014-01-01

3

Cross-species chromosome painting in the Perissodactyla: delimitation of homologous regions in Burchell's zebra (Equus Burchellii) and the white (Ceratotherium Simum) and black rhinoceros (Diceros Bicornis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Conserved chromosomal segments in the black rhinoceros, Diceros Bicornis (DBI, 2n = 84), and its African sister-species the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium Simum (CSI, 2n = 82), were detected using Burchell's zebra (Equus Burchellii, EBU, 2n = 44) chromosome-specific painting probes supplemented by a subset of those developed for the horse (Equus Caballus, ECA, 2n = 64). In total 41 and 42 conserved autosomal segments were identified in C. Simum and D. Bicornis respectively. Only 21 rearrangements (20 fissions and 1 fusion) are necessary to convert the Burchell's zebra karyotype into that of the white rhinoceros. One fission distinguishes the D. Bicornis and C. Simum karyotypes which, excluding heterochromatic differences, are identical in all respects at this level of resolution. Most Burchell's zebra chromosomes correspond to two rhinoceros chromosomes although in four instances (EBU18, 19, 20 and 21) whole chromosome synteny has been retained among these species. In contrast, one rhinoceros chromosome (DBI1, CSI1) comprises two separate Burchell's zebra chromosomes (EBU11 and EBU17). In spite of the high diploid numbers of the two rhinoceros species their karyotypes are surprisingly conserved offering a glimpse of the putative ancestral perissodactyl condition and a broader understanding of genome organization in mammals. PMID:15004472

Trifonov, V; Yang, F; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Robinson, T J

2003-01-01

4

Zebra batteries  

Science.gov (United States)

By using molten sodium chloroaluminate as secondary electrolyte, a series of solid transition metal chlorides can be used as positive electrodes in cells with sodium as the negative and beta-alumina as the solid electrlyte. Nickel chloride is preferred and Zebra batteries based on this cell reaction have been developed to the pilot-line production stage. The batteries have a number of features which make them attractive for electric-vehicle applications. Thus, the cells can be assebled in the discharged state eliminating the need to handle liquid sodium. By locating the positive electrode inside the beta-alumina tube, square cell cases can be used giving maximum packing efficiency in batteries. The absence of corrosion in the cell leads to a long life and high reliability. For electric-vehicle applications safety is very imporant, and crash testing has shown that even serious damage to the battery in a crash situation would not present a significant additional hazard to the driver or passengers. The remaining technical challenges are to increase the specific power of the battery towards the end of discharge and to demonstrate that the processes, which have been developed for cell and battery production, are capable of meeting the cost targets.

Sudworth, J. L.

5

Zebra batteries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By using molten sodium chloroaluminate as secondary electrolyte, a series of solid transition metal chlorides can be used as positive electrodes in cells with sodium as the negative and beta-alumina as the solid electrolyte. Nickel chloride is preferred and Zebra batteries based on this cell reaction have been developed to the pilot-line production stage. The batteries have a number of features which make them attractive for electric-vehicle applications. Thus, the cells can be assembled in the discharged state eliminating the need to handle liquid sodium. By locating the positive electrode inside the beta-alumina tube, square cell cases can be used giving maximum packing efficiency in batteries. The absence of corrosion in the cell leads to a long life and high reliability. For electric-vehicle applications safety is very important, and crash testing has shown that even serious damage to the battery in a crash situation would not present a significant additional hazard to the driver or passengers. The remaining technical challenges are to increase the specific power of the battery towards the end of discharge and to demonstrate that the processes, which have been developed for cell and battery production, are capable of meeting the cost targets. (orig.)

Sudworth, J.L. (Beta Research and Development, Sinfin (United Kingdom))

1994-08-15

6

Zebra Finch Song Archive  

Science.gov (United States)

The Zebra Finch Song Archive was developed by Biology Professor Heather Williams of Williams College as an informational web resource. The archive currently contains songs and sonograms for 83 male zebra finches that are all descendants from a single pair. Songs can be accessed through a tabular form titled Birds and Clutches or through a well-designed Family Tree. For site visitors that would like more background about the zebra finch (including its song and brain), see the Bird Songs and Bird Brains section.

7

Shedding of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 by zoo animals, and report of an unstable metronidazole-resistant isolate from a zebra foal (Equus quagga burchellii).  

Science.gov (United States)

Clostridium difficile is an emerging and potentially zoonotic pathogen, but its prevalence in most animal species, including exhibition animals, is currently unknown. In this study we assessed the prevalence of faecal shedding of C. difficile by zoo animals, and determined the ribotype, toxin profile and antimicrobial susceptibility of recovered isolates. A total of 200 samples from 40 animal species (36.5% of which came from plains zebra, Equus quagga burchellii) were analysed. C. difficile was isolated from 7 samples (3.5% of total), which came from the following animal species: chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), dwarf goat (Capra hircus), and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica), with one positive sample each; and plains zebra, with 4 positive samples from 3 different individuals. Most recovered isolates (4/7, 57.1%) belonged to the epidemic PCR ribotype 078, produced toxins A and B, and had the genes encoding binary toxin (i.e. A(+)B(+)CDT(+) isolates). The remaining three isolates belonged to PCR ribotypes 039 (A(-)B(-)CDT(-)), 042 (A(+)B(+)CDT(-)) and 110 (A(-)B(+)CDT(-)). Regardless of their ribotype, all isolates displayed high-level resistance to the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and levofloxacin. Some isolates were also resistant to meropenem and/or ertapenem. A ribotype 078 isolate recovered from a male zebra foal initially showed in vitro resistance to metronidazole (MIC ? 256 ?g/ml), but lost that trait after subculturing on non-selective media. We conclude that zoo animals belonging to different species can carry ribotype 078 and other toxigenic strains of C. difficile showing resistance to antimicrobial compounds commonly used in veterinary and/or human medicine. PMID:24467928

Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; Blanco, José L; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Peláez, Teresa; Harmanus, Celine; Kuijper, Ed; García, Marta E

2014-03-14

8

We fight zebra mussel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the encyclopedia, zebra mussel (lat. Dreissena polymorpha) is a mollusk. In the conditions of hydro power plants (HPP), its appearance was monitored for the first time in 2000, when there occurred problems in Kralova Hydro Power Plant (HPP). (author)

2007-01-01

9

The Swiss ZEBRA battery system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ZEBRA{sup R} advanced battery technology, which was discontinued in recent years, has now returned to the market after MES-DEA of Switzerland acquired the complete system for commercialization. The ZEBRA{sup R} battery technology consists of nickel and salt electrode materials combined with a {beta}-alumina ceramic electrolyte. The Ah-efficiency of the battery is 100 per cent, the theoretical specific energy is 790 Wh/kg. The desired voltage and capacity of different battery types is achieved by connecting the cells in series and in parallel. The low voltage version is used mostly for cars and vans. The high voltage version is used for hybrid electric-powered trucks and buses. The smallest unit size produced today is about 10 kWh and there is no limit for the upper end. The current standard battery is the Z5C. The ZEBRA{sup R} chemistry is such that it inherently contributes to safety by the reaction of the liquid electrolyte with the sodium in case of a ceramic crack. This reaction produces one third less energy than the normal cell reaction, absorbs the available sodium and partially relaxes the cathode. In addition, no material can escape because all materials have low vapour pressure even at high temperatures. Projects are underway to develop this battery for use in transit buses (214 kWh), school buses (125 kWh) and shuttle buses. The goal is to develop this battery to enable full scale commercialization of electric-powered vehicles. The new ZEBRA{sup R} plant is currently under construction. It is forecasted that the plant will produce at least 400 - 5k and 30k units per year depending on the demand. refs., tabs., figs.

Dustmann, C.H. [MES-DEA (Switzerland)

2000-07-01

10

Zebra A5 Leaflet.indd  

...Zebra should have access to natural light. 11. Ventilation If the...diet of these animals, usually supplemented with a commercial concentrated horse...also be provided, and supplementary vitamin E is recommended if fresh...

11

EPRI's zebra mussel monitoring and control guidelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Zebra Mussel Monitoring and Control Guidelines is a comprehensive compilation of US and European practices. The zebra mussel has infested all the Great Lakes and is positioned to spread to the adjoining river basins. The impact of the zebra mussel on power plants is as a biofouler clogging water systems and heat exchangers. The EPRI guidelines discuss the distribution of the zebra mussel in the US, identification of the zebra mussel, potential threats to power plants, and methods to initiate the monitoring and control program. Both preventive and corrective measures are presented. Preventive measures include various monitoring methods to initiate control techniques. The control techniques include both chemical and nonchemical together with combining techniques. Corrective methods include operational considerations, chemical cleaning, and mechanical/physical cleaning. It may also be possible to incorporate design changes, such as open to closed-loop backfit, backflushing, or pretreatment for closed systems. Table 1 shows a matrix of the monitoring methods. Table 2 presents a control matrix related to nuclear, fossil, and hydro raw water systems. Table 3 is a summary of the applicability of treatments to the various raw water systems. Appendixes are included that contain specifications to aid utilities in implementing several of the control technologies

1992-03-01

12

Monitoring the condition of mountain zebra habitat in the Mountain Zebra National Park  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study aimed at determining an appropriate sampling design for monitoring the quality of mountain zebra habitat. The parameter used for monitoring was an index of habitat suitability. The value of this index was greater than 20 in the habitat that was most favoured by the mountain zebras, whereas values below 20 were characteristic of moderate to poor habitat. It is recommended that if the index in the most favoured habitat declines to below 20, management intervention in the form of a red...

Novellie, P. A.

1994-01-01

13

Proton recoil counter techniques in ZEBRA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spherical hydrogen-filled proton recoil proportional counters are used for measurements of neutron spectra between 5 keV and 1 MeV in fast reactor assemblies built in ZEBRA. The technique used for these measurements and their analysis is described. (author)

1969-01-01

14

Research continues on zebra mussel control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Researchers are working on many fronts to learn methods for controlling and combatting zebra mussels, a species of mussel that can attach to the inside of water intakes at hydroelectric and thermal power plants, and can reduce or block water flow. Biologists at the University of Toledo in Ohio report that compounds from the African soapberry plant called lemmatoxins are lethal to zebra mussels. In laboratory tests, researchers have determined 1 to 2 milligrams of purified lemmatoxins per liter will kill the mussels. In field tests, biologist Harold Lee flushed water through a mussel-infested pipe. He found that the berry extract killed mussels in four to eight hours, making continuous treatment of water intake pipes unnecessary, according to a report in New Scientists. The University of Toledo participated in another project, funded by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation. That project team included the cities of Toledo and Cleveland, Ohio, Finkbeiner, Pettis ampersand Strout, Ltd. consulting engineers, and researchers from Ohio's Case Western Reserve University. The team identified a chemical oxidant, sodium hypochlorite, as a cost-effective agent for controlling zebra mussels at water treatment plant intakes. Toledo has used the sodium hypochlorite and reports the chemical has cleared colonies of zebra mussels that had attached to the intake of its water treatment plant

1993-04-01

15

ZEBRA - providing high-energy output  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ZEBRA battery is a new high-energy with an energy density of approximately 100Wh/kg. The use of nickel chloride for the positive electrode and sodium for the negative electrode, in addition to a solid ceramic electrolyte together with a molten salt liquid electrolyte, combine to ensure safe, reliable and maintenance-free operation. (author)

Anon.

1996-12-31

16

Actinide fission rate measurements in Zebra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fission rates in U-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Am-241, Am-243 and Cm-244 have been measured at the centre of Zebra Core 14 where the neutron energy spectrum was similar to that of the Prototype Fast Reactor. The experimental values are compared with those predicted by the FGL5 cross-section library. (author)

1977-01-01

17

Control of zebra mussels with ultraviolet radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of research on the effects of low and medium pressure ultraviolet (UV) radiation on zebra mussel mortality carried out between 1992 and 1995. An initial 1992 study, carried out by Aquatic Sciences (ASI), showed that flow-through UV systems have the ability to kill zebra mussels and prevent them from attaching to downstream surfaces. However, this work did not include expanded testing to determine the limitations of UV radiation at higher flow rates or to further define effective working parameters. The 1994 study was carried out at the Lennox Thermal Generating Station (TGS) of Ontario Hydro in Kingston, Ontario. This study involved the testing of two open channel UV systems (medium and low pressure) in an effort to determine flow rates and volumes for which UV disinfection would be effective and practical for the prevention of zebra mussel infestation. It was recommended that medium pressure (MP) and low pressure (LP) UV systems be tested for their ability to control downstream settlement of zebra mussels, in flow-through trials.

Lewis, D.P.

1998-07-01

18

Nematode parasites from Burchell's zebras in South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-five Burchell's zebras (Equus burchelli antiquorum) which were culled at monthly intervals in the Kruger National Park were examined for helminths. Twenty-nine species of nematodes belonging to the families Atractidae, Habronematidae, Onchocercidae, Oxyuridae, Strongylidae, Strongyloididae and Trichostrongylidae were recovered. The cyathostomes (small strongyles) most abundant were Cyathostomum tetracanthum, Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylindropharynx sp. (? C. intermedia Theiler, 1923) and Cylicocyclus auriculatus. Cyathostomum alveatum, Cyathostomum montgomeryi, Cylicostephanus calicatus and Cylindropharynx sp. (? C. intermedia Theiler, 1923) were the most prevalent cyathostomes (small strongyles) while Craterostomum acuticaudatum was the most prevalent of the large strongyles. Of all the species recovered those most abundant were Crossocephalus viviparus and Probstmayria vivipara with intensities of 100 to 3,857,772 and 18,400 to 104,120,467, respectively. Four new species, two Triodontophorus spp. (Strongylidae) and two Habronema spp. (Habronematidae) were identified. Furthermore, this study furnishes a first report of Triodontophorus minor in zebras. The fourth stage cyathostomes as well as the adults of 11 of the 14 species were present in significantly greater intensities in autumn and winter. PMID:3625897

Krecek, R C; Malan, F S; Reinecke, R K; de Vos, V

1987-07-01

19

CA/CPS: A Communications ZEBRA implementation using CPS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CZ/CPS is an implementation of the Communications ZEBRA distributed computing environment utilizing the CPS communications protocol. CZ/CPS is intended for parallelization of high energy physics application programs using the CERN Program Library memory and data structure management features. CZ/CPS provides transparent communication of ZEBRA data structures among cooperative processes using standard interfaces for ZEBRA I/O. Examples of usage in a CPS HBOOK4 and GEANT3 application are provided

1991-01-01

20

CA/CPS: A Communications ZEBRA implementation using CPS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CZ/CPS is an implementation of the Communications ZEBRA distributed computing environment utilizing the CPS communications protocol. CZ/CPS is intended for parallelization of high energy physics application programs using the CERN Program Library memory and data structure management features. CZ/CPS provides transparent communication of ZEBRA data structures among cooperative processes using standard interfaces for ZEBRA I/O. Examples of usage in a CPS HBOOK4 and GEANT3 application are provided.

Roberts, L.A.

1991-05-01

 
 
 
 
21

Embryological staging of the Zebra Finch, Taeniopygia guttata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are the most commonly used laboratory songbird species, yet their embryological development has been poorly characterized. Most studies to date apply Hamburger and Hamilton stages derived from chicken development; however, significant differences in development between precocial and altricial species suggest that they may not be directly comparable. We provide the first detailed description of embryological development in the Zebra Finch under standard artificial incubation. These descriptions confirm that some of the features used to classify chicken embryos into stages are not applicable in an altricial bird such as the Zebra Finch. This staging protocol will help to standardize future studies of embryological development in the Zebra Finch. PMID:23813920

Murray, Jessica R; Varian-Ramos, Claire W; Welch, Zoe S; Saha, Margaret S

2013-10-01

22

Production of electrolyte membranes for ZEBRA batteries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ZEBRA batteries (Zero Emission Battery Research Activities), are one of the possible solutions to electrical storage for stationary applications due to their high energy and power density. These systems are based on nickel-sodium chloride cells operating at high temperatures (about 270-350°C), and that rely on a ceramic ?"-alumina tube or planar membrane as solid electrolyte. The ceramic process needed to produce the electrolytic compartment has a key role to enhance and adapt the b...

Mercadelli, Elisa; Capiani, Claudio; Sanson, Alessandra

2012-01-01

23

Reproductive impairment in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as compounds that may disrupt endocrine activity and, consequently, alter reproductive performance were investigated in altricial zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). The breeding performance and breeding cycle of zebra finches differed significantly between nonexposed birds and those experimentally pulse-exposed to Aroclor 1248, a PCB compound (40 microg/bird). Aroclor-exposed birds showed significantly increased numbers of clutches laid, nests constructed per pair, incubation time per pair, and percentage of hatchling mortality compared to controls. Not all reproductive parameters were affected. Those traditionally regarded as indicators of reproductive capacity (number of eggs laid per clutch, number of eggs laid per pair, hatchlings per clutch, and fledglings per clutch) did not differ statistically between exposed and control birds. Findings support the hypothesis that very low PCB doses may be associated with endocrine disruption. It is suggested that evaluation of reproductive parameters related to parental care is more adequate to assess endocrine disruption than is evaluation of reproductive success parameters. Given its short breeding cycle, altricial breeding behavior, and other advantages not possessed by precocial birds, we propose using the zebra finch for evaluations of chemicals with endocrine-disruptive activity. PMID:15683187

Hoogesteijn, Almira L; DeVoogd, Timothy J; Quimby, Fred W; De Caprio, Tony; Kollias, George V

2005-01-01

24

Environmentally Safe Control of Zebra Mussel Fouling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two primary objectives of this USDOE-NETL contract were successfully achieved during the project: (1) to accelerate research on the development of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A) as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis)--two invasive freshwater bivalve species that are infesting water pipes in power plants; and (2) to identify a private-sector company that would move forward to commercialize Pf-CL145A as a substitute for the current polluting use of biocide chemicals for control of these dreissenid mussels in power plant pipes.

Daniel Molloy

2008-02-29

25

The Zebra Multi-Chamber Scanning System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Multi-Chamber Scanning System developed for the zero-power fast reactor Zebra comprises an integral array of 150 parallel-plate fission chambers loaded into fuel elements in a similar manner to standard core components. The chamber outputs are counted sequentially under computer control to provide a rapid three-dimensional power mapping facility. The report describes the basic concept, design and calibration of the fission chambers, design of the electronics and computer interface, and overall system performance as exemplified by measurements on a mock-up of the core of the Prototype Past Reactor. (author)

1974-01-01

26

The zebra mussel: US utility implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dreissena polymorpha, the freshwater macrofouling zebra mussel, was introduced to Lake St. Clair, near Detroit, Michigan, in 1985. It has since spread throughout Lake Erie. Its planktonic veliger larval stage disperses on water currents and adults are transported by human and natural vectors, making it likely to spread throughout most of the United States and southern Canada except for the southwestern and southern United State, where summer water temperatures are above tolerated levels. Veligers enter raw water systems on intake currents to settle and grow to adults attached by secreted byssal threads to hard surfaces. Accumulations of adults impede flow, aggravate sedimentation and corrosion, and foul small-diameter components. Settlement occurs at flow velocities less than 1.5--2.0 m/sec. Mussels can reduce effective pipe diameters and foul intake structures, steam condensers, heat exchangers, fire protection systems, and cooling tower basins. Establishment of mussels in raw water systems should be prevented because subsequent removal is difficult and expensive. Mitigation procedures include manual removal, robotic cleaning, thermal backwashing, water jetting, application of molluscicides, and possibly line pigging and acidic chemical cleaning. Control technologies include oxidizing and non-oxidizing molluscicides, robotic cleaning, shell strainers, exposure of veligers to high voltage electrical fields, thermal backwashing and sand-filtration. The United States power industry can utilize extensive European experience with this species and domestic experience with the Asian clam in its development of effective controls for zebra mussel fouling

1990-01-01

27

Monitoring the condition of mountain zebra habitat in the Mountain Zebra National Park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aimed at determining an appropriate sampling design for monitoring the quality of mountain zebra habitat. The parameter used for monitoring was an index of habitat suitability. The value of this index was greater than 20 in the habitat that was most favoured by the mountain zebras, whereas values below 20 were characteristic of moderate to poor habitat. It is recommended that if the index in the most favoured habitat declines to below 20, management intervention in the form of a reduction in stocking rate of large herbivores should be considered. A sample size of 20 randomly located monitoring plots should be adequate to detect a decline to below the critical level. There was considerable patchiness in the distribution of grazing pressure within plant communities, and this needs to be taken into account in the design of the monitoring programme.

P.A. Novellie

1994-09-01

28

Studies on the parasites of zebras. 1. Nematodes of the Burchell's zebra in the Kruger National Park.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nineteen species of gastro-intestinal nematodes were recovered from 10 Burchell's zebra. These include: Cyathostomum alveatum, C. montgomeryi and C. tetracanthum; Cylicocyclus auriculatus, C. gyalocephaloides, C. insigne and C. triramosus; Cylicodontophorus schürmanni and Cylicodontophorus n.sp., Cylicostephanus bidentatus, C. calicatus and C. minutus; Poteriostomum ratzii, Craterostomum acuticaudatum, Triodontophorus minor, Habronema majus, H. muscae, H. zebrae, and Draschia megastoma, as well as Cylindropharynx spp. The highest burdens encountered were those of Cylicocyclus triramosus (159 491), Cylindropharynx (19 875), Cylicocyclus auriculatus (15 792), Cylicostephanus calicatus (16 658) and Cyathostomum tetracanthum (13 723). The nematodes consistently present in all zebras were: Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylindropharynx spp. and Draschia megastoma. PMID:6634083

Scialdo-Krecek, R C

1983-06-01

29

Zebra: An advanced PWR lattice code  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an overview of an advanced PWR lattice code ZEBRA developed at NECP laboratory in Xi'an Jiaotong Univ.. The multi-group cross-section library is generated from the ENDF/B-VII library by NJOY and the 361-group SHEM structure is employed. The resonance calculation module is developed based on sub-group method. The transport solver is Auto-MOC code, which is a self-developed code based on the Method of Characteristic and the customization of AutoCAD software. The whole code is well organized in a modular software structure. Some numerical results during the validation of the code demonstrate that this code has a good precision and a high efficiency. (authors)

Cao, L.; Wu, H.; Zheng, Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi' an, ShannXi, 710049 (China)

2012-07-01

30

Zebra: An advanced PWR lattice code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an overview of an advanced PWR lattice code ZEBRA developed at NECP laboratory in Xi'an Jiaotong Univ.. The multi-group cross-section library is generated from the ENDF/B-VII library by NJOY and the 361-group SHEM structure is employed. The resonance calculation module is developed based on sub-group method. The transport solver is Auto-MOC code, which is a self-developed code based on the Method of Characteristic and the customization of AutoCAD software. The whole code is well organized in a modular software structure. Some numerical results during the validation of the code demonstrate that this code has a good precision and a high efficiency. (authors)

2012-04-15

31

Doppler coefficient measurements in Zebra Core 5  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements using a central hot loop in Zebra Core 5 are described. Results are given for the Doppler coefficients found in a number of assemblies with PuO2 and 16% PuO2/84% depleted UO2 pins, loaded with different combinations of steel, sodium or void pins. The mixed oxide results are in general about 20% more negative than was calculated using the FD2 data set, but agreement is good if the plutonium contributions in the calculations are omitted. The small positive Doppler coefficient calculated for Pu239 was not observed, and two measurements indicated instead a small negative effect. The Doppler effect in the mixed oxide systems was found to vary approximately as 1/T. The results from the empty loop and non-fissile assemblies indicate either a small negative Doppler effect in steel or alternatively the presence of an unexplained expansion effect. (author)

1965-01-01

32

The zebra finch neuropeptidome: prediction, detection and expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Among songbirds, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata is an excellent model system for investigating the neural mechanisms underlying complex behaviours such as vocal communication, learning and social interactions. Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are cell-to-cell signalling molecules known to mediate similar behaviours in other animals. However, in the zebra finch, this information is limited. With the newly-released zebra finch genome as a foundation, we combined bioinformatics, mass-spectrometry (MS-enabled peptidomics and molecular techniques to identify the complete suite of neuropeptide prohormones and final peptide products and their distributions. Results Complementary bioinformatic resources were integrated to survey the zebra finch genome, identifying 70 putative prohormones. Ninety peptides derived from 24 predicted prohormones were characterized using several MS platforms; tandem MS confirmed a majority of the sequences. Most of the peptides described here were not known in the zebra finch or other avian species, although homologous prohormones exist in the chicken genome. Among the zebra finch peptides discovered were several unique vasoactive intestinal and adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 peptides created by cleavage at sites previously unreported in mammalian prohormones. MS-based profiling of brain areas required for singing detected 13 peptides within one brain nucleus, HVC; in situ hybridization detected 13 of the 15 prohormone genes examined within at least one major song control nucleus. Expression mapping also identified prohormone messenger RNAs in areas associated with spatial learning and social behaviours. Based on the whole-genome analysis, 40 prohormone probes were found on a commonly used zebra finch brain microarray. Analysis of these newly annotated transcripts revealed that six prohormone probes showed altered expression after birds heard song playbacks in a paradigm of song recognition learning; we partially verify this result experimentally. Conclusions The zebra finch peptidome and prohormone complement is now characterized. Based on previous microarray results on zebra finch vocal learning and synaptic plasticity, a number of these prohormones show significant changes during learning. Interestingly, most mammalian prohormones have counterparts in the zebra finch, demonstrating that this songbird uses similar biochemical pathways for neurotransmission and hormonal regulation. These findings enhance investigation into neuropeptide-mediated mechanisms of brain function, learning and behaviour in this model.

Annangudi Suresh P

2010-04-01

33

Song Recognition in Zebra Finches: Are There Sensitive Periods for Song Memorization?  

Science.gov (United States)

Male zebra finches learn to sing songs that they hear between 25 and 65 days of age, the sensitive period for song learning. In this experiment, male and female zebra finches were exposed to zebra finch songs either before (n = 9) or during (n = 4) the sensitive period. Following song exposure, recognition memory for the songs was assessed with an…

Braaten, Richard F.

2010-01-01

34

IMPACT OF WATER PH ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experiments conducted this past quarter have suggested that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels throughout the entire range of pH values tested (7.2 to 8.6). Highest mortality was achieved at pH values characteristic of preferred zebra mussel waterbodies, i.e., hard waters with a range of 7.8 to 8.6. In all water types tested, however, ranging from very soft to very hard, considerable mussel kill was achieved (83 to 99% mean mortality), suggesting that regardless of the pH or hardness of the treated water, significant mussel kill can be achieved upon treatment with P. fluorescens strain CL0145A. These results further support the concept that this bacterium has significant potential for use as a zebra mussel control agent in power plant pipes receiving waters with a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics

2002-01-01

35

IMPACT OF WATER PH ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The experiments conducted this past quarter have suggested that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels throughout the entire range of pH values tested (7.2 to 8.6). Highest mortality was achieved at pH values characteristic of preferred zebra mussel waterbodies, i.e., hard waters with a range of 7.8 to 8.6. In all water types tested, however, ranging from very soft to very hard, considerable mussel kill was achieved (83 to 99% mean mortality), suggesting that regardless of the pH or hardness of the treated water, significant mussel kill can be achieved upon treatment with P. fluorescens strain CL0145A. These results further support the concept that this bacterium has significant potential for use as a zebra mussel control agent in power plant pipes receiving waters with a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics.

Daniel P. Molloy

2002-10-15

36

FindZebra : a search engine for rare diseases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: The web has become a primary information resource about illnesses and treatments for both medical and non-medical users. Standard web search is by far the most common interface to this information. It is therefore of interest to find out how well web search engines work for diagnostic queries and what factors contribute to successes and failures. Among diseases, rare (or orphan) diseases represent an especially challenging and thus interesting class to diagnose as each is rare, diverse in symptoms and usually has scattered resources associated with it. Methods: We design an evaluation approach for web search engines for rare disease diagnosis which includes 56 real life diagnostic cases, performance measures, information resources and guidelines for customising Google Search to this task. In addition, we introduce FindZebra, a specialized (vertical) rare disease search engine. FindZebra is powered by open source search technology and uses curated freely available online medical information. Results: FindZebra outperforms Google Search in both default set-up and customised to the resources used by FindZebra. We extend FindZebra with specialized functionalities exploiting medical ontological information and UMLS medical concepts to demonstrate different ways of displaying the retrieved results to medical experts. Conclusions: Our results indicate that a specialized search engine can improve the diagnostic quality without compromising the ease of use of the currently widely popular standard web search. The proposed evaluation approach can be valuable for future development and benchmarking. The FindZebra search engine is available at http://www.findzebra.com/. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dragusin, Radu; Petcu, Paula

2013-01-01

37

FindZebra: A search engine for rare diseases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: The web has become a primary information resource about illnesses and treatments for both medical and non-medical users. Standard web search is by far the most common interface for such information. It is therefore of interest to find out how well web search engines work for diagnostic queries and what factors contribute to successes and failures. Among diseases, rare (or orphan) diseases represent an especially challenging and thus interesting class to diagnose as each is rare, diverse in symptoms and usually has scattered resources associated with it. Methods: We use an evaluation approach for web search engines for rare disease diagnosis which includes 56 real life diagnostic cases, state-of-the-art evaluation measures, and curated information resources. In addition, we introduce FindZebra, a specialized (vertical) rare disease search engine. FindZebra is powered by open source search technology and uses curated freely available online medical information. Results: FindZebra outperformsGoogle Search in both default setup and customised to the resources used by FindZebra. We extend FindZebra with specialized functionalities exploiting medical ontological information and UMLS medical concepts to demonstrate different ways of displaying the retrieved results to medical experts. Conclusions: Our results indicate that a specialized search engine can improve the diagnostic quality without compromising the ease of use of the currently widely popular web search engines. The proposed evaluation approach can be valuable for future development and benchmarking. The FindZebra search engine is available at http://www.findzebra.com/.

Lioma, Christina Amalia; Cox, Ingemar

2013-01-01

38

A simple index of habitat suitability for Cape mountain zebras  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An index of habitat suitability for Cape mountain zebras was calculated using two parameters: acceptability indices for different grass species, and the aerial cover of the grass species in the habitat. The index was tested by calculating its value for a range of different habitat patches and comparing this with the frequency of use of the patches by zebras. The close relationship between the index and the observed frequency of use verified that the index could be used as a guide to habitat s...

Novellie, P.; Winkle, A.

1993-01-01

39

A simple index of habitat suitability for Cape mountain zebras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An index of habitat suitability for Cape mountain zebras was calculated using two parameters: acceptability indices for different grass species, and the aerial cover of the grass species in the habitat. The index was tested by calculating its value for a range of different habitat patches and comparing this with the frequency of use of the patches by zebras. The close relationship between the index and the observed frequency of use verified that the index could be used as a guide to habitat suitability. Two methods were used to determine the frequency of use of the patches: counts of faecal pellet groups and frequency of sightings. Both methods yielded similar results but the pellet group counts were less time- consuming and expensive. It is recommended that the index of habitat suitability be used (i as a parameter for monitoring of long-term changes in habitat suitability in the Mountain Zebra National Park and (ii as a guide for selecting appropriate areas to re- introduce mountain zebras.

A. Winkle

1993-09-01

40

Zebra - sõbralik ja lillelõhnaline / Ell-Maaja Randküla  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Tallinnas Narva mnt. 7 asuva kohviku Zebra sisekujundus. Sisearhitekt Tiiu Truus. Ehitus: AS KMG Ehitus. Materjalidest on kasutatud triibulise mustriga puitu Zebrano ja looduskivi. Laes on dekoratiivsed lipud, mille graafiline kujundus on Tiiu Priskolt ja Mati Veermetsalt. Tualettruumi looduskivist valamu ja põrandavaasi autor on Kaido Kivi. Ill.: põhiplaan, 11 värv. vaadet

Randküla, Ell-Maaja

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Pathology and immunohistochemistry of papillomavirus-associated cutaneous lesions in Cape mountain zebra, giraffe, sable antelope and African buffalo in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Skin lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. Bovine papillomavirus (BVP) affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with BVP types 1 and 2. This publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of BPV-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in Cape mountain zebra (Equus zeb...

Williams, June H.; Dyk, Enette; Lane, Emily P.; Wilpe, Erna; Bengis, Roy G.; Klerk-lorist, Lin Mari; Heerden, J.; Nel, P. J.

2011-01-01

42

Pathology and immunohistochemistry of papillomavirus-associated cutaneous lesions in Cape mountain zebra, giraffe, sable antelope and African buffalo in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Skin lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. Bovine papillomavirus (BVP) affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with BVP types 1 and 2. This publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of BPV-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in Cape mountain zebra (Equus zeb...

Williams, J. H.; Dyk, E.; Nel, P. J.; Lane, E.; Wilpe, E.; Bengis, R. G.; L-m, Klerk-lorist; Heerden, J.

2012-01-01

43

Do zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) alter lake water chemistry in a way that favours Microcystis growth?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined possible relationships between the presence of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and Microcystis spp. abundance. Experiments were conducted in 12 microcosms designed to mimic shallow lake ecosystems. Fresh, aerated water with phytoplankton (pseudokirchneriella spp. and Microcystis spp.) was pumped into each microcosm daily to ensure zebra mussels were exposed to oxygen and food. Microcosms containing zebra mussels experienced significantly higher fluxes of nitrate (p=0.019) and lower fluxes of ortho-phosphate (p=0.047) into sediments. In a second experiment, water column nutrient concentrations were compared in microcosms with and without live zebra mussels. Consistent with results of the previous experiment, microcosms with zebra mussels had significantly less nitrate (p=0.023) and organic nitrogen (p=0.003) in the water column, while ammonium (p=0.074), phosphate (p=0.491), and dissolved organic carbon (p=0.820) in the water column were not different between microcosms with or without zebra mussels. Microcosms with zebra mussels also experienced a reduction in green algae (pseudokirchneriella) (pabundance of Microcystis (prelative to microcosms without zebra mussels. In an experiment without zebra mussels, nutrient ratios (N/P) were manipulated to determine potential links between N/P and relative abundance of each phytoplankton. Manipulation of N/P was intended to mimic differences observed in microcosms with and without zebra mussels in the previous experiment. Low N/P (mimicking microcosms with zebra mussels) was related to an increase in Microcystis (prelative abundance of Microcystis. In lakes invaded by zebra mussels, alterations in the processing of nitrogen and phosphorus could contribute to the re-emergence of Microcystis blooms. PMID:17011023

Bykova, Olga; Laursen, Andrew; Bostan, Vadim; Bautista, Joseph; McCarthy, Lynda

2006-12-01

44

Relative salience of envelope and fine structure cues in zebra finch song  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zebra finches produce a learned song that is rich in harmonic structure and highly stereotyped. More is generally known about how birds learn and produce this song than how they perceive it. Here, zebra finches were trained with operant techniques to discriminate changes in natural and synthetic song motifs. Results show that zebra finches are quite insensitive to changes to the overall envelope of the motif since they were unable to discriminate more than a doubling in inter-syllable interva...

Vernaleo, Beth A.; Dooling, Robert J.

2011-01-01

45

Mammalian-like features of sleep structure in zebra finches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A suite of complex electroencephalographic patterns of sleep occurs in mammals. In sleeping zebra finches, we observed slow wave sleep (SWS), rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, an intermediate sleep (IS) stage commonly occurring in, but not limited to, transitions between other stages, and high amplitude transients reminiscent of K-complexes. SWS density decreased whereas REM density increased throughout the night, with late-night characterized by substantially more REM than SWS, and relatively ...

Low, Philip Steven; Shank, Sylvan S.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Margoliash, Daniel

2008-01-01

46

Improving Production of Zebra Fish Embryos in the Lab  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The utilization of fish embryos in toxicity testing of hazardous chemicals has recently been adopted in order to satisfy stricter rules and regulations related to using adult animals in toxicity testing. This paper presents optimising steps towards improving zebra fish embryo production in the laboratory. Culture conditions were maintained in the aquaria as stipulated in the OECD draft proposal for a new guideline on fish embryo tests. Furthermore, a sequence of steps were adopted and followe...

Robert Ohene Adu; Jens Peter Thomsen

2011-01-01

47

Mortality of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, veligers during downstream transport  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Streams flowing from lakes which contain zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, provide apparently suitable habitats for mussel colonization and downstream range expansion, yet most such streams contain few adult mussels. We postulated that mussel veligers experience high mortality during dispersal via downstream transport. They tested this hypothesis in Christiana Creek, a lake-outlet stream in south-western Michigan, U.S.A., in which adult mussel density declined exponentially with distance downstream. 2. A staining technique using neutral red was developed and tested to distinguish quickly live and dead veligers. Live and dead veligers were distinguishable after an exposure of fresh samples to 13.3 mg L-1 of neutral red for 3 h. 3. Neutral red was used to determine the proportion of live veligers in samples taken longitudinally along Christiana Creek. The proportion of live veligers (mean ?? SE) declined from 90 ?? 3% at the lake outlet to 40 ?? 8% 18 km downstream. 4. Veligers appear to be highly susceptible to damage by physical forces (e.g. shear), and therefore, mortality in turbulent streams could be an important mechanism limiting zebra mussel dispersal to downstream reaches. Predictions of zebra mussel spread and population growth should consider lake-stream linkages and high mortality in running waters.

Horvath, T. G.; Lamberti, G. A.

1999-01-01

48

ZebraHunter: Searching Rare Medical Diagnoses and Retrieving Relevant Citations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The clinicopathological conferences and case reports that are published in the medical literature contain rare and complex medical cases that are of general interest to the medical community. We present ZebraHunter, an information retrieval resource that allows clinicians to input clinical findings, search for rare diseases (medical zebras), and fetch the associated citations.

Silfen, Eric; Patel, Chintan; Mendonc?a, Eneida; Friedman, Carol

2006-01-01

49

Studies on the parasites of zebras. III Nematodes of the mountain zebra from the farm "Kelpie" and the Namib-Naukluft Park, South West Africa/Namibia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twelve mountain zebra which were culled at monthly intervals on the farm " Kelpie " in South West Africa/Namibia were examined for helminths. The zebras varied in age from 2-15 years, the middle group of which, aged 4-7 years, had the highest worm burdens. Fourteen species of nematodes belonging to the families Atractidae , Strongylidae , Oxyuridae , Setariidae and Spiruridae were recovered. The highest worm burdens were those of Crossocephalus sp. with 692-61 066 680 and Probstmayria vivipara with 1 257 810-42 004 300. The predominance of the atractids is discussed. The nematodes consistently present were: Cylicodontophorus n. sp. (44-2 107), Triodontophorus spp. (2-934), Cylindropharynx spp. (20-2 332), Crossocephalus sp. and P. vivipara. Two new species, Cylicostephanus longiconus and Cylicodontophorus n. sp., were reported. An additional 3 mountain zebra, culled in the Namib - Naukluft Park, were also examined for helminths. Of 3 zebras ranging in age from 2-7 years, the 2 older animals had the highest helminth burden. Ten species of the nematodes belonging to the same families mentioned above were recovered. The only Spiruridae present were 3 Habronema majus in 1 zebra. The highest worm burdens were those of Crossocephalus sp. with 64 052-883 070 and P. vivipara with 50 720-220 200. The nematodes consistently present were the same as those in the " Kelpie " zebra. In addition, a 2nd, new species of Cylicodontophorus was reported. PMID:6676691

Scialdo-Krecek, R C; Reinecke, R K; Biggs, H C

1983-12-01

50

Digital gene expression analysis of the zebra finch genome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand patterns of adaptation and molecular evolution it is important to quantify both variation in gene expression and nucleotide sequence divergence. Gene expression profiling in non-model organisms has recently been facilitated by the advent of massively parallel sequencing technology. Here we investigate tissue specific gene expression patterns in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata with special emphasis on the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC. Results Almost 2 million 454-sequencing reads from cDNA of six different tissues were assembled and analysed. A total of 11,793 zebra finch transcripts were represented in this EST data, indicating a transcriptome coverage of about 65%. There was a positive correlation between the tissue specificity of gene expression and non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution ratio of genes, suggesting that genes with a specialised function are evolving at a higher rate (or with less constraint than genes with a more general function. In line with this, there was also a negative correlation between overall expression levels and expression specificity of contigs. We found evidence for expression of 10 different genes related to the MHC. MHC genes showed relatively tissue specific expression levels and were in general primarily expressed in spleen. Several MHC genes, including MHC class I also showed expression in brain. Furthermore, for all genes with highest levels of expression in spleen there was an overrepresentation of several gene ontology terms related to immune function. Conclusions Our study highlights the usefulness of next-generation sequence data for quantifying gene expression in the genome as a whole as well as in specific candidate genes. Overall, the data show predicted patterns of gene expression profiles and molecular evolution in the zebra finch genome. Expression of MHC genes in particular, corresponds well with expression patterns in other vertebrates.

Burke Terry

2010-04-01

51

Diet quality and resource allocation in the zebra finch.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated the effect of diet quality on resource allocation in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) by providing females with a high-quality (HQ) or low-quality (LQ) diet for six weeks prior to pairing, and continuing these diets during egg laying and chick rearing. Diet treatments were then reversed and the experiment repeated. When females laid on the HQ diet, egg mass increased with laying order, but the reverse was true on the LQ diet. Females laid significantly more male eggs on the...

Rutstein, A. N.; Slater, P. J. B.; Graves, J. A.

2004-01-01

52

Experimental pathogenicity of aeromonas spp. for the zebra mussel, dreissena polymorpha  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were conducted to determine whether species of Aeromonas were pathogenic to the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. A. jandaei, A. veronii, and A. media, identified with Biolog, were originally isolated from dead zebra mussels. When inoculated into living mussels, these bacteria resulted in the mortality of the bivalves. Two additional species, A. salmonicida salmonicida (ATCC 33678) and A. hydrophila (ATCC 7966), were also demonstrated to be pathogenic to the mussels. In addition to the pathogenicity, the data also suggest that the zebra mussels may be an important reservoir for these bacteria in freshwater environments. PMID:9405741

Maki; Patel; Mitchell

1998-01-01

53

The zebra mussel: US utility implications. [Contains Glossary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dreissena polymorpha, the freshwater macrofouling zebra mussel, was introduced to Lake St. Clair, near Detroit, Michigan, in 1985. It has since spread throughout Lake Erie. Its planktonic veliger larval stage disperses on water currents and adults are transported by human and natural vectors, making it likely to spread throughout most of the United States and southern Canada except for the southwestern and southern United State, where summer water temperatures are above tolerated levels. Veligers enter raw water systems on intake currents to settle and grow to adults attached by secreted byssal threads to hard surfaces. Accumulations of adults impede flow, aggravate sedimentation and corrosion, and foul small-diameter components. Settlement occurs at flow velocities less than 1.5--2.0 m/sec. Mussels can reduce effective pipe diameters and foul intake structures, steam condensers, heat exchangers, fire protection systems, and cooling tower basins. Establishment of mussels in raw water systems should be prevented because subsequent removal is difficult and expensive. Mitigation procedures include manual removal, robotic cleaning, thermal backwashing, water jetting, application of molluscicides, and possibly line pigging and acidic chemical cleaning. Control technologies include oxidizing and non-oxidizing molluscicides, robotic cleaning, shell strainers, exposure of veligers to high voltage electrical fields, thermal backwashing and sand-filtration. The United States power industry can utilize extensive European experience with this species and domestic experience with the Asian clam in its development of effective controls for zebra mussel fouling.

McMahon, R.F. (Macrofouling Consultants, Arlington, TX (USA))

1990-11-01

54

IRPHE-ZEBRA, AEEW Fast Reactor Experiments, Primary Documentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description of program or function: ZEBRA, the zero energy breeder reactor assembly, was used to study the neutron physics of fast reactors (R D Smith, Nuclear Engineering Vol. 7 No. 76, Sept 1962, 'ZEBRA, a Zero Power Fast Reactor'). It operated from 1962 until 1982. Mock-up type assemblies representing PFR, Monju and the proposed European Fast Reactor, EFR, were studied, as well as simple assemblies for nuclear data validation. Some experiments were designed to validate the Methods used to treat the heterogeneity of the composition and to calculate control rods. Most ZEBRA assemblies were built using 2 inch square plates (51 mm square) stacked in stainless steel tubes, with the tubes, or elements, being located in holes in the reactor base plate. Blocks of 5x5 elements are grouped inside a mild steel superlattice and so the spacing of elements is not completely uniform. This size of plates was chosen to be compatible with the components in the ZPR facilities in Argonne National Laboratory and is also compatible with the MASURCA and SNEAK components, permitting these to be combined to build large assemblies. Mini-calandria containing sodium (or voided of sodium) and with uranium oxide and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel in pin form (4x4 pins per mini-calandria) are also used in the later assemblies. The ZEBRA control rods use smaller components. In addition, special assemblies simulating power reactor control rods, rod followers and other singularities have been studied. These replace groups of elements. The compositions of the components are detailed in PLATEDATA. The arrangement of these components to form cells and the loading of the cells in elements and special assemblies is detailed in the documents listed below, together with the arrangement of the elements in the reactor. Control rod studies and sodium voiding studies have been carried out on several assemblies. Spectral indices, small sample reactivity worths and reaction rate distributions were measured on most assemblies. Neutron spectrum measurements have also been made on some assemblies. In the later assemblies a multi-chamber scanning system was used to measure fission rates at a large number of points in the core. Various simplifications were made in developing calculational models to analyse the measurements, although information is also provided giving the full details of the core loadings. Simplifications include corrections to replace the ZEBRA control rods by standard core elements and replacing the slightly different plutonium plates by a single one. These differences result in small differences in core height for the different elements and a correction is also made for this. In the earlier cores equivalent homogeneous compositions were derived and cylindrical (and even spherical) equivalent models derived. Later the plates were represented explicitly in the cell calculations used to derive homogeneous cell-averaged cross-sections for whole reactor calculations, including representation of the cladding materials (in a three dimensional, XYZ representation). NEA-1661/02: April 2006: this is the DVD version

55

Comparative Study of the Desiccation Resistance of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and Quagga Mussels (Dreissena bugensis).  

Science.gov (United States)

The emersion tolerance of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis) was comparatively studied. Mussels (n = 60) were emersed at 15 deg C under relative humidities (R.H.) of 95 percent LT50 (i.e., tim...

T. A. Ussery R. F. McMahon

1995-01-01

56

Additions and amendments to the bird and mammal lists of the Mountain Zebra National Park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The following account updates and amends various previous publications dealing with the birds and mammals of the Mountain Zebra National Park (MZNP. In the case of birds, Roberts' Birds of South Africa numbers are used.

P. J Bronkhorst

1981-01-01

57

Monitoring of zebra mussels in the Shannon-Boyle navigation, other  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population has been closely monitored in Ireland following its discovery in 1997. The species has spread from lower Lough Derg, where it was first introduced, to most of the navigable areas of the Shannon and other interconnected navigable waters. This study took place in the summers of 2000 and 2001 and investigated the relative abundance and biomass of zebra mussels found in the main navigations of the Shannon and elsewhere in rivers, canals and lakes...

Minchin, D.; Lucy, F.; Sullivan, M.

2002-01-01

58

Transcription-dependent induction of G1 phase during the zebra fish midblastula transition.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The early development of the zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryo is characterized by a series of rapid and synchronous cell cycles with no detectable transcription. This period is followed by the midblastula transition (MBT), during which the cell cycle gradually lengthens, cell synchrony is lost, and zygotic transcription is initially detected. In this work, we examined the changes in the pattern of the cell cycle during MBT in zebra fish and whether these changes are dependent on the initiation...

Zamir, E.; Kam, Z.; Yarden, A.

1997-01-01

59

Interpretation of experiments made in ZEBRA CADENZA assemblies with CEA formulary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A benchmark exercise on fast critical heterogeneity method assessment has been proposed in the framework of NEACRP. It is based on the analysis of two integral experiments performed by UKAEA on the ZEBRA facility (the CADENZA assemblies): - a plate fuelled core (ZEBRA 22); - a 75% pin fuelled core (ZEBRA 23). The interpretation of these experiments has been done using the current standard CEA methods. We find a relevant (650 pcm) discrepancy between the ''k'' values of ZEBRA 22 and ZEBRA 23 pin assemblies. We try in this report to find out the origin of this discrepancy. The spatial k-value calculation results and corrections are affected by nomore than 150 pcm and are partially correlated. Moreover, this discrepancy does not seem to be explained in terms of homogenous infinite dilute cross section effects. It has been found that most of the discrepancy can be traced back to heterogeneity effects, and mainly to the heterogeneity effects of the metallic fuel plate in the metallic fuel plate in the ZEBRA 22 cell. Finally, the pin core gives, in the CEA analysis, a Keff E-C value well inside the known performance of the adjusted CARNAVAL IV formulaire (i.e. E-C =+ 300 + +500+-200 pcm) for plutonium fuelled cores

1983-06-21

60

IMPACT OF OXYGEN CONCENTRATION ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These tests have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels in environments having dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations ranging from very low to very high. The results suggest that the highest mussel kill can be achieved in moderately to highly aerated environments, while kill may be 0-20% lower under conditions of very low oxygen. For example, under highly oxygenated conditions 97% kill was achieved while conditions having low DO produced 79% mussel kill. Service water measured in a local power plant indicated that DO concentrations were in the range of 8-9 ppm (e.g., highly aerated) within their pipes. Therefore, we will not expect to see decreases in the efficacy of CL0145A treatments due to oxygen levels within such power plant pipes

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Seasonal incidence of helminths in the Burchell's zebra.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten Burchell's zebras were culled in conjunction with the Kruger National Park's game management programme. The colts ranged in age from 9-17 months and the stallions from 2 1/2-23 years. The gastro-intestinal tract and the abdominal cavity were examined for helminths. The principal families of nematodes recovered included the Atractidae, Strongylidae and Spiruridae. The Atractidae included Crossocephalus and Probstmayria; the Strongylidae 2 subfamilies, Cyathostominae and Strongylinae, and the genera of the Cyathostominae were Cyathostomum, Cylicocyclus, Cylicodontophorus, Cylicostephanus, Cylindropharynx and Poteriostomum. Craterostomum, Oesophagodontus, Strongylus and Triodontophorus represent the Strongylinae. The last of the 3 principal families, the Spiruridae, included Draschia and Habronema. Total worm burdens ranged from 0-1 947 474. Despite the fact that the 3 families have life-cycles that differ greatly, their seasonal incidence over the 11-month period showed similar trends. PMID:7177583

Scialdo, R C; Reinecke, R K; De Vos, V

1982-06-01

62

Improving production of Zebra Fish Embryos in the lab  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The utilization of fish embryos in toxicity testing of hazardous chemicals has recently been adopted in order to satisfy stricter rules and regulations related to using adult animals in toxicity testing. This paper presents optimising steps towards improving zebra fish embryo production in the laboratory. Culture conditions were maintained in the aquaria as stipulated in the OECD draft proposal for a new guideline on fish embryo tests. Furthermore, a sequence of steps were adopted and followed to improve upon previous work done in the lab in 2006. About 200 eggs were produced in one spawn trap within an hour of onset of light, an improvement over the 50-60 eggs produced in the previous work. This result demonstrates that with the right culture conditions and proper optimisation of procedure the required number of embryos needed for toxicity testing can be obtained.

Thomsen, Jens Peter; Adu, Robert Ohene

2011-01-01

63

Remote cerebellar hemorrhage (zebra sign) in vascular neurosurgery: pathophysiological insights.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemorrhage in regions remote from the site of initial intracranial operations is rare, but may be fatal. Postoperative cerebellar hemorrhage as a complication of supratentorial surgery, with a radiological appearance known as zebra sign, is an increasingly recognized clinical entity and is associated mainly with vascular neurosurgery or temporal lobe resection. The pathophysiology remains unclear. Three cases of remote cerebellar hematoma occurred after neck clipping of anterior communicating artery aneurysms. All patients had similar clinical findings and underwent pterional craniotomy with the head in accentuated extension. One patient died and the two were discharged without symptoms. Cerebellar hemorrhage probably has a multifactorial origin involving positioning associated with abundant cerebrospinal fluid drainage causing cerebellar sag with resultant vein stretching and bleeding, and use of aspirin or other antiplatelet agents. PMID:19556730

Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; de Amorim, Robson Luis Oliveira; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

2009-06-01

64

Safety and reliability of high energy batteries, using the example of the ZEBRA battery. Sicherheit und Zuverlaessigkeit von Hochenergiebatterien am Beispiel der ZEBRA-Batterie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ZEBRA battery is a battery system based on sodium and nickel chloride. The construction and method of operation of the system are described. Experiments show that if the battery breaks, no uncontrollable reactions occur. Due to the pair of nickel and sodium aluminium chloride electrodes, the battery has a 'built-in' overcharging protection. Under the heading of reliability, the points of thermal resistance, corrosion behaviour and electrical properties are examined. Overall, it is found that with the ZEBRA battery, a battery system is available which, in spite of high energy and output densities, is safe and reliable. (BWI)

Boehm, H. (Beta R and D, Derby (United Kingdom)); Sudworth, J.L. (Beta R and D, Derby (United Kingdom))

1993-01-01

65

The hippocampus and caudomedial neostriatum show selective responsiveness to conspecific song in the female zebra finch.  

Science.gov (United States)

The perception of song is vital to the reproductive success of both male and female songbirds. Several neural structures underlying this perception have been identified by examining expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) following the presentation of conspecific or heterospecific song. In the few avian species investigated, areas outside of the circuit for song production contain neurons that are active following song presentation, specifically the caudal hyperstriatum ventrale (cHV) and caudomedial neostriatum (NCM). While studied in detail in the male zebra finch, IEG responses in these neural substrates involved in song perception have not been quantified in females. Therefore, adult female zebra finches were presented with zebra finch song, nonzebra finch song, randomly generated tones, or silence for 30 min. One hour later they were sacrificed, and their brains removed, sectioned, and immunocytochemically processed for FOS expression. Animals exposed to zebra finch song had a significantly higher density of FOS-immunoreactive cells in the NCM than those presented with other songs, tones, or silence. Neuronal activation in the cHV was equivalent in birds that heard zebra finch and non-zebra finch song, expression that was higher than that observed in the groups that heard no song. Interestingly, the hippocampus (HP) and adjacent parahippocampal area (AHP) were activated in a manner comparable to the NCM. These results suggest a general role for the cHV in song perception and a more specific role for the NCM and HP/AHP in facilitating recognition of and responsiveness to species-specific song in female zebra finches. PMID:12115892

Bailey, David J; Rosebush, Julia C; Wade, Juli

2002-07-01

66

LETHALITY OF PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS STRAIN CLO145A TO THE 2 ZEBRA MUSSEL SPECIES PRESENT IN NORTH AMERICA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These experiments indicated that bacterial strain CL0145A of Pseudomonas fluorescens is equally lethal to the 2 zebra mussel species present in North America, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis. Thus, this bacterial strain should be equally effective at killing zebra mussels in power plant pipes, irrespective of which species is present

2001-01-01

67

Inhibition and sex specific induction of spawning by serotonergic ligands in the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas).  

Science.gov (United States)

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) stimulates spawning in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), a macrofouling European bivalve that has recently invaded North America. To develop methods of controlling zebra mussel spawning, two vertebrate serotonin antagonists, methiothepin and metergoline, known to bind with high affinity to snail 5-HT receptors, were tested for their ability to block 5-HT-induced spawning in zebra mussels. Methiothepin inhibited 5-HT-induced spawning at concentrations as low as 10(-6) M. Metergoline (10(-4) M) inhibited 5-HT-induced spawning; however, at lower concentrations (10(-8) to 10(-5) M), metergoline by itself significantly induced spawning in male, but not female zebra mussels. Metergoline (10(-5) M)-induced male spawning was inhibited by 10(-5) M methiothepin. Thus, methiothepin is the most effective inhibitor and metergoline the most powerful inducer of spawning yet tested in zebra mussels. PMID:8194589

Fong, P P; Duncan, J; Ram, J L

1994-05-15

68

Prevention and control of zebra mussels: proactive and reactive strategies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most plant people would agree that having zebra mussels in any raw water system is not desirable. System blockage, loss of heat transfer and other associated safety hazards are not pleasant to deal with. Therefore most industries strive to minimise the effect of infestation. Opinions differ as to how to do this most efficiently and economically. Some facilities are committed to preventing the settlement of veligers in their piping systems and on some of the externalstructures they consider critical. This is the proactive approach. Others allow settlement and only treat the system or surface after fouling has occurred. This is the reactive approach. Which is the best and most economical treatment will depend on the individual facility and sometimes on the individual system. The paper examines the different proactive and reactive strategies available to-date and how they are being used. It will also discuss some of the criteria for choosing a proactive vs. reactive approach and why the decision has to be made individually by each facility. (author)

Claudi, R. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto, ON (Canada)

1998-07-01

69

Prevention and control of zebra mussels: proactive and reactive strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most plant people would agree that having zebra mussels in any raw water system is not desirable. System blockage, loss of heat transfer and other associated safety hazards are not pleasant to deal with. Therefore most industries strive to minimise the effect of infestation. Opinions differ as to how to do this most efficiently and economically. Some facilities are committed to preventing the settlement of veligers in their piping systems and on some of the external structures they consider critical. This is the proactive approach. Others allow settlement and only treat the system or surface after fouling has occurred. This is the reactive approach. Which is the best and most economical treatment will depend on the individual facility and sometimes on the individual system. The paper examines the different proactive and reactive strategies available to-date and how they are being used. It will also discuss some of the criteria for choosing a proactive vs. reactive approach and why the decision has to be made individually by each facility. (author)

1998-10-18

70

Some aspects of fast reactor operation studied in Zebra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four aspects of the fast reactor operating cycle that have been experimentally investigated in Zebra are described. Sensitive radiochemical techniques for measuring the capture rates in 241Am and 243Am leading to 242Cm and 244Cm have been applied to samples irradiated in spectra characteristic of PFR and of a commercial-size reactor. The derived cross sections are compared with those predicted using recent evaluations. Gamma activities induced in a range of elements of potential significance to contamination of the primary circuit in core and axial-breeder locations have been determined by standardised liquid-source counting techniques. Samples of fuel-clad and subassembly-wrapper alloys have also been examined. Results are compared with predictions using currently-recommended cross-sections. The energy release by B-particles from fission products of 235U and 239Pu following a 105-second irradiation has been measured over a cooling period of 1 year using a catcher-foil technique and a plastic scintillation detector. Comparisons with summation-code predictions are presented. The formation of plutonium in a radial breeder has been simulated by replacing UO2 plates by PuO2/UO2 to give an average level of 2% Pu/U. The influence of this enrichment on the reaction rates of 235U, and 238U and 239Pu was measured by foil activation methods. Comparisons with diffusion and transport-theory calculations are made. (author)

1979-04-01

71

Neural correlates of nesting behavior in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)  

Science.gov (United States)

Nest building in birds involves a behavioral sequence (nest material collection and deposition in the nest) that offers a unique model for addressing how the brain sequences motor actions. In this study, we identified brain regions involved in nesting behavior in male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We used Fos immunohistochemistry to quantify production of the immediate early gene protein product Fos (a molecular indicator of neuronal activity) in the brain correlated this expression with the variation in nesting behavior. Using this technique, we found that neural circuitry involved in motor sequencing, social behavior, reward and motivation were active during nesting. Within pairs of nesting birds, the number of times a male picked up or deposited nesting material and the amount of time a female spent in the nest explained the variation in Fos expression in the anterior motor pathway, social behavior network, and reward neural circuits. Identification of the brain regions that are involved in nesting enables us to begin studying the roles of motor sequencing, context, and reward in construction behavior at the neural level.

Hall, Zachary J.; Bertin, Marion; Bailey, Ida E.; Meddle, Simone L.; Healy, Susan D.

2014-01-01

72

Rotationally driven `zebra stripes' in Earth's inner radiation belt  

Science.gov (United States)

Structured features on top of nominally smooth distributions of radiation-belt particles at Earth have been previously associated with particle acceleration and transport mechanisms powered exclusively by enhanced solar-wind activity. Although planetary rotation is considered to be important for particle acceleration at Jupiter and Saturn, the electric field produced in the inner magnetosphere by Earth's rotation can change the velocity of trapped particles by only about 1-2 kilometres per second, so rotation has been thought inconsequential for radiation-belt electrons with velocities of about 100,000 kilometres per second. Here we report that the distributions of energetic electrons across the entire spatial extent of Earth's inner radiation belt are organized in regular, highly structured and unexpected `zebra stripes', even when the solar-wind activity is low. Modelling reveals that the patterns are produced by Earth's rotation. Radiation-belt electrons are trapped in Earth's dipole-like magnetic field, where they undergo slow longitudinal drift motion around the planet because of the gradient and curvature of the magnetic field. Earth's rotation induces global diurnal variations of magnetic and electric fields that resonantly interact with electrons whose drift period is close to 24 hours, modifying electron fluxes over a broad energy range into regular patterns composed of multiple stripes extending over the entire span of the inner radiation belt.

Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sitnov, M. I.; Mitchell, D. G.; Takahashi, K.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Mauk, B. H.

2014-03-01

73

Cannabinoids inhibit zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) byssal attachment: a potentially green antifouling technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Macrofouling by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) has serious environmental, economic and legal consequences for freshwater shipping and raw water facilities. Current antifouling technologies, such as organometallics or aggressive oxidisers, have negative environmental impacts limiting their application. As part of an effort to discover antifoulants with a reduced environmental footprint, the endocannabinoid, anandamide and nine other compounds sharing structural or functional features were tested for their ability to inhibit zebra mussel byssal attachment. A byssal attachment bioassay identified six efficacious compounds; four compounds also had no negative impact on mussels at concentrations maximally inhibiting byssal attachment and three of them had no significant cumulative toxicity towards a non-target organism, Daphnia magna. This discovery demonstrates that both naturally occurring and synthetic cannabinoids can serve as non-toxic efficacious zebra mussel antifoulants. Applications with this technology may lead to a new genre of cleaner antifoulants, because the strategy is to prevent attachment rather than to poison mussels. PMID:19037826

Angarano, Maj-Britt; McMahon, Robert F; Schetz, John A

2009-01-01

74

Structural activity relationship studies of zebra mussel antifouling and antimicrobial agents from verongid sponges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several dibromotyramine derivatives including moloka'iamine were selected as potential zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) antifoulants due to the noteworthy absence of fouling observed on sponges of the order Verongida. Sponges of the order Verongida consistently produce these types of bromotyrosine-derived secondary metabolites. Previously reported antifouling data for the barnacle Balanus amphitrite(EC50 = 12.2 microM) support the results reported here that the compound moloka'iamine may be a potential zebra mussel antifoulant compound (EC50 = 10.4 microM). The absence of phytotoxic activity of the compound moloka'iamine toward Lemna pausicostata and, most importantly, the compound's significant selectivity against macrofouling organisms such as zebra mussels suggest the potential utility of this compound as a naturally derived antifoulant lead. PMID:15620267

Diers, Jeffrey A; Pennaka, Hari Kishore; Peng, Jiangnan; Bowling, John J; Duke, Stephen O; Hamann, Mark T

2004-12-01

75

ZebraZoom: an automated program for high-throughput behavioral analysis and categorization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The zebrafish larva stands out as an emergent model organism for translational studies involving gene or drug screening thanks to its size, genetics, and permeability. At the larval stage, locomotion occurs in short episodes punctuated by periods of rest. Although phenotyping behavior is a key component of large-scale screens, it has not yet been automated in this model system. We developed ZebraZoom, a program to automatically track larvae and identify maneuvers for many animals performing discrete movements. Our program detects each episodic movement and extracts large-scale statistics on motor patterns to produce a quantification of the locomotor repertoire. We used ZebraZoom to identify motor defects induced by a glycinergic receptor antagonist. The analysis of the blind mutant atoh7 (lak revealed small locomotor defects associated with the mutation. Using multiclass supervised machine learning, ZebraZoom categorizes all episodes of movement for each larva into one of three possible maneuvers: slow forward swim, routine turn, and escape. ZebraZoom reached 91% accuracy for categorization of stereotypical maneuvers that four independent experimenters unanimously identified. For all maneuvers in the data set, ZebraZoom agreed 73.2-82.5% of cases with four independent experimenters. We modeled the series of maneuvers performed by larvae as Markov chains and observed that larvae often repeated the same maneuvers within a group. When analyzing subsequent maneuvers performed by different larvae, we found that larva-larva interactions occurred as series of escapes. Overall, ZebraZoom reaches the level of precision found in manual analysis but accomplishes tasks in a high-throughput format necessary for large screens.

ClaireWyart

2013-06-01

76

Pathology and immunohistochemistry of papillomavirus-associated cutaneous lesions in Cape mountain zebra, giraffe, sable antelope and African buffalo in South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Skin lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. Bovine papillomavirus (BVP) affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with BVP types 1 and 2. This publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of BPV-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra) from the Gariep Dam Nature Reserve, 2 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) from the Kruger National Park, and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) from the Kimberley area of South Africa. An African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) cow from Kruger National Park also had papillomatous lesions but molecular characterisation of lesional virus was not done. Immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal rabbit antiserum to chemically disrupted BPV-1, which cross-reacts with the L1 capsid of most known papillomaviruses, was positive in cells of the stratum granulosum of lesions in Giraffe 1, the sable and the buffalo and negative in those of the zebra and Giraffe 2. Fibropapillomatous and sarcoid-like lesions from an adult bovine were used as positive control for the immunohistochemistry and are described and the immunohistochemistry illustrated for comparison. Macroscopically, both adult female giraffe had severely thickened multifocal to coalescing nodular and occasionally ulcerated lesions of the head, neck and trunk with local poorly-circumscribed invasion into the subcutis. Necropsy performed on the 2nd giraffe revealed neither internal metastases nor serious underlying disease. Giraffe 1 had scattered, and Giraffe 2 numerous, large, anaplastic, at times indistinctly multinucleated dermal fibroblasts with bizarre nuclei within the sarcoid-like lesions, which were BPV-1 positive in Giraffe 1 and BPV-1 and -2 positive in Giraffe 2 by RT-PCR. The sable antelope presented with a solitary large lesion just proximal to the right hind hoof, which recurred after excision, and was BPV-1 positive by RT-PCR. Other wart-like growths were present elsewhere on the body. The Cape mountain zebra either succumbed from their massive lesions or were euthanased or removed from the herd because of them. The lesions were BPV-1 and/or -2 positive by RT-PCR. The buffalo lesions were wart-like papillomatous projections in the inguinal and udder region. Stratum granulosum cells that stained immunohistochemically positive in the various species appeared koilocyte-like, as described in human papillomaviral lesions. PMID:22135923

Williams, J H; van Dyk, E; Nel, P J; Lane, E; Van Wilpe, E; Bengis, R G; de Klerk-Lorist, L M; van Heerden, J

2011-06-01

77

Pathology and immunohistochemistry of papillomavirus-associated cutaneous lesions in Cape mountain zebra, giraffe, sable antelope and African buffalo in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Skin lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. Bovine papillomavirus (BVP) affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with BVP types 1 and 2. [...] This publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of BPV-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra) from the Gariep Dam Nature Reserve, 2 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) from the Kruger National Park, and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) from the Kimberley area of South Africa. An African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) cow from Kruger National Park also had papillomatous lesions but molecular characterisation of lesional virus was not done. Immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal rabbit antiserum to chemically disrupted BPV-1, which cross-reacts with the L1 capsid of most known papillomaviruses, was positive in cells of the stratum granulosum of lesions in Giraffe 1, the sable and the buffalo and negative in those of the zebra and Giraffe 2. Fibropapillomatous and sarcoid-like lesions from an adult bovine were used as positive control for the immunohistochemistry and are described and the immunohistochemistry illustrated for comparison. Macroscopically, both adult female giraffe had severely thickened multifocal to coalescing nodular and occasionally ulcerated lesions of the head, neck and trunk with local poorly-circumscribed invasion into the subcutis. Necropsy performed on the 2nd giraffe revealed neither internal metastases nor serious underlying disease. Giraffe 1 had scattered, and Giraffe 2 numerous, large, anaplastic, at times indistinctly multinucleated dermal fibroblasts with bizarre nuclei within the sarcoid-like lesions, which were BPV-1 positive in Giraffe 1 and BPV-1 and -2 positive in Giraffe 2 by RT-PCR. The sable antelope presented with a solitary large lesion just proximal to the right hind hoof, which recurred after excision, and was BPV-1 positive by RT-PCR. Other wart-like growths were present elsewhere on the body. The Cape mountain zebra either succumbed from their massive lesions or were euthanased or removed from the herd because of them. The lesions were BPV-1 and/or -2 positive by RT-PCR. The buffalo lesions were wart-like papillomatous projections in the inguinal and udder region. Stratum granulosum cells that stained immunohistochemically positive in the various species appeared koilocyte-like, as described in human papillomaviral lesions.

J H, Williams; E van, Dyk; P J, Nel; E, Lane; E Van, Wilpe; R G, Bengis; L-M de, Klerk-Lorist; J, van Heerden.

78

Pathology and immunohistochemistry of papillomavirus-associated cutaneous lesions in Cape mountain zebra, giraffe, sable antelope and African buffalo in South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Skin lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. Bovine papillomavirus (BVP affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with BVP types 1 and 2. This publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of BPV-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra from the Gariep Dam Nature Reserve, 2 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis from the Kruger National Park, and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger from the Kimberley area of South Africa. An African buffalo (Syncerus caffer cow from Kruger National Park also had papillomatous lesions but molecular characterisation of lesional virus was not done. Immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal rabbit antiserum to chemically disrupted BPV-1, which cross-reacts with the L1 capsid of most known papillomaviruses, was positive in cells of the stratum granulosum of lesions in Giraffe 1, the sable and the buffalo and negative in those of the zebra and Giraffe 2. Fibropapillomatous and sarcoid-like lesions from an adult bovine were used as positive control for the immunohistochemistry and are described and the immunohistochemistry illustrated for comparison. Macroscopically, both adult female giraffe had severely thickened multifocal to coalescing nodular and occasionally ulcerated lesions of the head, neck and trunk with local poorly-circumscribed invasion into the subcutis. Necropsy performed on the 2nd giraffe revealed neither internal metastases nor serious underlying disease. Giraffe 1 had scattered, and Giraffe 2 numerous, large, anaplastic, at times indistinctly multinucleated dermal fibroblasts with bizarre nuclei within the sarcoid-like lesions, which were BPV-1 positive in Giraffe 1 and BPV-1 and -2 positive in Giraffe 2 by RT-PCR. The sable antelope presented with a solitary large lesion just proximal to the right hind hoof, which recurred after excision, and was BPV-1 positive by RT-PCR. Other wart-like growths were present elsewhere on the body. The Cape mountain zebra either succumbed from their massive lesions or were euthanased or removed from the herd because of them. The lesions wereBPV-1 and/or -2 positive byRT-PCR. The buffalo lesions were wart-like papillomatous projections in the inguinal and udder region. Stratum granulosum cells that stained immunohistochemically positive in the various species appeared koilocyte-like, as described in human papillomaviral lesions.

L-M. de Klerk-Lorist

2012-04-01

79

Maternal effects in quail and zebra finches: Behavior and hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal effects are influences of parents on offspring phenotype occurring through pathways other than inherited DNA. In birds, two important routes for such transmission are parental behavior and non-DNA egg constituents such as yolk hormones. Offspring traits subject to parental effects include behavior and endocrine function. Research from the Adkins-Regan lab has used three avian species to investigate maternal effects related to hormones and behavior. Experiments with chickens and Japanese quail have shown that maternal sex steroids can influence sex determination to produce biased offspring sex ratios. Because all birds have a ZZ/ZW chromosomal sex determining system in which the female parent determines the sex of the offspring, these results raise the possibility that maternal steroids can influence the outcome of sex chromosome meiosis. Learning has been shown to influence egg investment by female quail in ways that are likely to alter offspring phenotype. In quail, embryonic and exogenous sex steroids have well established and long-lasting effects on sexual differentiation of behavior during a critical period in ovo, but elevated yolk testosterone has long-term effects on behavior that do not seem to be occurring through an alteration in sexual differentiation. In biparental zebra finches, removal of mothers alters not only later behavior, but also the adult response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to an environmental stressor, as indicated by plasma corticosterone. Birds raised only by fathers have lower levels of mRNA for both glucocorticoid receptors in several brain regions as adults. These studies add to the evidence that one generation influences the behavioral or endocrine phenotype of the next through routes other than transmission of DNA. Additional research will be required to understand the adaptive significance of these effects. PMID:23499787

Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Sunayana B; Correa, Stephanie M; Schweitzer, Cécile

2013-09-01

80

Caractérisation de la propriété de la protéine ZEBRA du virus Epstein-Barr à pénétrer dans les cellules  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Il a été récemment démontré que l'activateur de transcription ZEBRA du virus Epstein-Barr contenant un motif "basic-leucine zipper (bZIP)" traverse la membrane externe des cellules vivantes et s'accumule dans le noyau des lymphocytes. Durant mon travail de thèse, j'ai étudié la possibilité d'utiliser ZEBRA comme protéine de transport afin de faciliter la transduction de protéines cargo. L'analyse de différentes formes tronquées de ZEBRA a permis de mettre en évidence que le doma...

Rothe, Romy

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Transcriptional response of stress genes to metal exposure in zebra mussel larvae and adults  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of stress markers for the invader freshwater zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is of great interest for both conservation and biomonitoring purposes. Gene expression profiles of several putative or already established gene expression stress markers (Metallothionein, Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione S transferase, Glutathione peroxidase, Cytochrome c oxidase, the multixenobiotic resistance P-gp1, and heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90) were analyzed by quantitative Real-Time PCR in adults and pediveliger larvae after exposure to metals (Hg, Cu, Cd). A defined pattern of coordinated responses to metal exposure and, presumably, to oxidative stress was observed in gills and digestive gland from adults. A similar, albeit partial response was observed in larvae, indicating an early development of stress-related gene responses in zebra mussel. The tools developed in this study may be useful both for future control strategies and for the use of zebra mussel as sentinel species in water courses with stable populations. - Coordinated expression of stress genes in zebra mussel.

Navarro, Anna; Faria, Melissa; Barata, Carlos [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Pina, Benjamin, E-mail: bpcbmc@cid.csic.e [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

2011-01-15

82

Feeding rates, assimilation efficiencies and growth of two amphipod species on biodeposited material from zebra mussels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. Accumulation of organic material by the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha is assumed to be the source of a biodeposition-based food web. However, only little is known about the importance of the biodeposited material as a food source and its contribution to increased abundances of macroinvertebrates in the presence of D. polymorpha.

2008-01-01

83

DNA damage and effects on antioxidative enzymes in zebra fish (Danio rerio) induced by atrazine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1, 3, 5-triazine) on the activity of some antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; and guaiacol peroxidase, POD) and DNA damage induced by atrazine were investigated in zebra fish (Danio rerio). Zebra fish were exposed to four different concentrations of atrazine (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/L) for 7, 14, and 21 days, with three replicates of 10 fishes per treatment. Compared to the controls, the SOD activity in the 2.5 mg/L treatment was markedly stimulated in 21 days, while the SOD activities in the 5 mg/L treatment was stimulated at first and then inhibited. The change of CAT activity at 2.5 mg/L was similar to the SOD activity at 2.5 mg/L. The POD activities in the 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/L treatment were markedly higher on days 14 and 21 compared with the controls. The olive tail moments of single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) of zebra fish enhanced after treatment of different doses on days 7, 14, and 21, and significant differences were found compared to the controls. In conclusion, these findings showed the effect regularity of atrazine to zebra fish, and also provide the basis for the future research of adverse effects induced by atrazine in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:21114466

Zhu, Lu-Sheng; Shao, Bo; Song, Yan; Xie, Hui; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jin-Hua; Liu, Wei; Hou, Xin-Xin

2011-01-01

84

Pulse power generated electric fields as a means to control zebra mussels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1994, a study was conducted to determine if pulsed electric fields could reduce zebra mussel settlement rates. The study was a continuation of a study that began in 1991. Several types of fields were generated over the four-year study. The 1994 study concluded that fast rise DC, pulse power signals could stun post-veligers and significantly reduce settlement.

Smythe, A.G.; Lange, C.L.; Doyle, J.F. [Acres International Corporation, Buffalo, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

85

Zebra mussel antifouling activity of the marine natural product aaptamine and analogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several aaptamine derivatives were selected as potential zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) antifoulants because of the noteworthy absence of fouling observed on Aaptos sponges. Sponges of the genus Aaptos collected in Manado, Indonesia consistently produce aaptamine-type alkaloids. To date, aaptamine and its derivatives have not been carefully evaluated for their antifoulant properties. Structure-activity relationship studies were conducted using several aaptamine derivatives in a zebra mussel antifouling assay. From these data, three analogs have shown significant antifouling activity against zebra mussel attachment. Aaptamine, isoaaptamine, and the demethylated aaptamine compounds used in the zebra mussel assay produced EC(50) values of 24.2, 11.6, and 18.6 microM, respectively. In addition, neither aaptamine nor isoaaptamine produced a phytotoxic response (as high as 300 microM) toward a nontarget organism, Lemna pausicostata, in a 7-day exposure. The use of these aaptamine derivatives from Aaptos sp. as potential environmentally benign antifouling alternatives to metal-based paints and preservatives is significant, not only as a possible control of fouling organisms, but also to highlight the ecological importance of these and similar biochemical defenses. PMID:16718618

Diers, Jeffrey A; Bowling, John J; Duke, Stephen O; Wahyuono, Subagus; Kelly, Michelle; Hamann, Mark T

2006-01-01

86

Characterization of metallothionein-like proteins from zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are freshwater mollusks that have recently infested the Great Lakes ecosystem. Possessing a large capacity for filtration, these mussel populations act as bioconcentrators for contaminants, such as heavy metals, found in the Great Lakes ecosystem. Metallothionein is a low-molecular-weight, heavy metal-binding protein found in most living organisms. Characterization and partial purification of metallothionein-like Cd-binding proteins from zebra mussels were performed. Zebra mussels were exposed to 500 {micro}g/L Cd for 14 d. During the exposure period, two mussels were removed on alternate days for analysis of Cd-binding proteins. Gel-filtration high-performance liquid chromatography-microatomization-atomic absorption spectrophotometry results showed a single Cd-binding molecular weight protein fraction after 2 d of Cd exposure. After 10 d of Cd exposure, however, mussels exhibited an additional higher molecular weight, Cd-binding protein fraction. The lower molecular weight metallothionein-like Cd-binding protein was further isolated and purified by acetone fractionation, Sephadex G75, and diethylaminoethyl anion-exchange chromatography. The quantities of Zn, Cu, and Cd in the anion-exchange metallothionein-like protein isoforms were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The ability to bioconcentrate heavy metals in a metallothionein-like form coupled with their large population in the Great Lakes make zebra mussels suitable for use in a freshwater biomonitoring program for aquatic metal contamination.

High, K.A.; Barthet, V.J.; Blais, J.S. [McGill Univ., Sainte Anne de Bellevue, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Food Science and Agricultural Chemistry; McLaren, J.W. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

1997-06-01

87

Transcriptional response of stress genes to metal exposure in zebra mussel larvae and adults  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of stress markers for the invader freshwater zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is of great interest for both conservation and biomonitoring purposes. Gene expression profiles of several putative or already established gene expression stress markers (Metallothionein, Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione S transferase, Glutathione peroxidase, Cytochrome c oxidase, the multixenobiotic resistance P-gp1, and heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90) were analyzed by quantitative Real-Time PCR in adults and pediveliger larvae after exposure to metals (Hg, Cu, Cd). A defined pattern of coordinated responses to metal exposure and, presumably, to oxidative stress was observed in gills and digestive gland from adults. A similar, albeit partial response was observed in larvae, indicating an early development of stress-related gene responses in zebra mussel. The tools developed in this study may be useful both for future control strategies and for the use of zebra mussel as sentinel species in water courses with stable populations. - Coordinated expression of stress genes in zebra mussel.

2011-01-01

88

Cultivation of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) within their invaded range to improve water quality in reservoirs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Algal and cyanobacterial blooms in reservoirs are driven by nutrient enrichment and may present economic and conservation challenges for water managers. Current approaches such as suppression of algal growth with barley straw, ferric dosing or manipulation of fish stocks have not yielded long term successes. A possibility that has sparked growing interest is the encouragement and cultivation of natural filter feeders, such as mussels, which remove suspended matter from the water and reduce nutrient levels through biodeposition and assimilation. This review focusses on the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) as a tool for enhancement of water quality in reservoirs. Native to the Ponto-Caspian region, this species has invaded many lakes and reservoirs across North America and Western Europe, where it occurs in very high densities. While purposeful introduction of a non-native species into new sites is socially unacceptable, we investigate the possible benefits of encouraging increased abundance of zebra mussels in sites where the species is already established. We estimate that the annual nitrogen and phosphorus input into a large UK reservoir (Grafham Water) could be assimilated into zebra mussel biomass by encouraging settlement onto 3075 m and 1400 m of commercial mussel ropes, respectively. While zebra mussel cultivation has an incredible capacity to push eutrophic systems towards a clear water state, there are many risks associated with encouraging an invasive species, even within sites where it has already established. The zebra mussel is a prominent biofouler of native unionid mussels and raw water pipes, it changes the physical characteristics of the places it inhabits, in sites low in phosphorus it can be responsible for toxic cyanobacterial blooms, it alters nutrient cycling and community structure and it can have negative impacts on amenity value. Increased propagule pressure from elevated numbers of veliger larvae in the water column may increase the risk of spread to other locations. This may render some reservoir systems, such as dammed rivers which have outflows to downstream watercourses, unsuitable for cultivation. Such reservoirs are especially common in North America. We consider the practicalities of putting a zebra mussel cultivation system into place and identify gaps in knowledge. We conclude that zebra mussel cultivation offers an attractive tool for managing nutrient-enriched reservoirs, but that the benefits and costs must be balanced on a site-by-site basis. PMID:23764587

McLaughlan, C; Aldridge, D C

2013-09-01

89

Robotic removal of zebra mussel accumulations in a nuclear power plant screenhouse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zebra mussel accumulations in the power plant intake system have increased over the last four years and have become a maintenance issue. Several treatment methods have been used, including mechanical cleaning by divers. This is limited to areas of relatively low flow velocity. Various sections of the screenhouse are not accessible except during an outage or when one of the intake tunnels can be otherwise be blocked and flow reduced. In addition, diver services are relatively costly. For the above reasons, the Indiana Michigan Power Co., Cook Nuclear Plant, contracted with ARD Environmental Inc. to develop and test a robotic system as an alternative to cleaning by divers. The first phase of this project addressed the requirement to clean the screenhouse floor in all areas, including those with high flow velocity. Subsequent phases will address robotic cleaning of other areas of the intake and the screenhouse structures. The objectives of the project were to: (1) Demonstrate the ability to deploy and retrieve a modified XT1000 vehicle in the inlet bay and screen bays; (2) Remove the accumulations of zebra mussels and possibly other pumpable material from the floor; (3) Reduce or eliminate the need for diver services and reduce overall cost of removing accumulations of zebra mussels; and, (4) Critique operations and develop recommendations for further enhancements to the robotic equipment and materials handling system. Implementation of the operating plan commenced on September 8, 1994, and was completed on October 7, 1994. The project demonstrated that robotic techniques are an efficient and cost effective alternative to diver operations for mechanical removal of zebra mussels. In particular, the robotic system was able to operate effectively in the high flow velocity areas including those at the intake tunnels. The ability to operate in the high flow areas means that zebra mussel removal may take place at any time, without affecting normal plant operations.

Kotler, S.R. [ARD Environmental, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Mallen, E.C. [Indiana Michigan Power Co./Cook Nuclear Plant, Bridgman, MI (United States); Tamms, K.M.

1995-06-01

90

Robotic removal of zebra mussel accumulations in a nuclear power plant screenhouse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zebra mussel accumulations in the power plant intake system have increased over the last four years and have become a maintenance issue. Several treatment methods have been used, including mechanical cleaning by divers. This is limited to areas of relatively low flow velocity. Various sections of the screenhouse are not accessible except during an outage or when one of the intake tunnels can be otherwise be blocked and flow reduced. In addition, diver services are relatively costly. For the above reasons, the Indiana Michigan Power Co., Cook Nuclear Plant, contracted with ARD Environmental Inc. to develop and test a robotic system as an alternative to cleaning by divers. The first phase of this project addressed the requirement to clean the screenhouse floor in all areas, including those with high flow velocity. Subsequent phases will address robotic cleaning of other areas of the intake and the screenhouse structures. The objectives of the project were to: (1) Demonstrate the ability to deploy and retrieve a modified XT1000 vehicle in the inlet bay and screen bays; (2) Remove the accumulations of zebra mussels and possibly other pumpable material from the floor; (3) Reduce or eliminate the need for diver services and reduce overall cost of removing accumulations of zebra mussels; and, (4) Critique operations and develop recommendations for further enhancements to the robotic equipment and materials handling system. Implementation of the operating plan commenced on September 8, 1994, and was completed on October 7, 1994. The project demonstrated that robotic techniques are an efficient and cost effective alternative to diver operations for mechanical removal of zebra mussels. In particular, the robotic system was able to operate effectively in the high flow velocity areas including those at the intake tunnels. The ability to operate in the high flow areas means that zebra mussel removal may take place at any time, without affecting normal plant operations

1995-06-01

91

Ontogeny of adaptive antibody response to a model antigen in captive altricial zebra finches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on studies from the poultry literature, all birds are hypothesized to require at least 4 weeks to develop circulating mature B-cell lineages that express functionally different immunoglobulin specificities. However, many altricial passerines fledge at adult size less than four weeks after the start of embryonic development, and therefore may experience a period of susceptibility during the nestling and post-fledging periods. We present the first study, to our knowledge, to detail the age-related changes in adaptive antibody response in an altricial passerine. Using repeated vaccinations with non-infectious keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antigen, we studied the ontogeny of specific adaptive immune response in altricial zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata. Nestling zebra finches were first injected at 7 days (7d), 14 days (14d), or 21 days post-hatch (21d) with KLH-adjuvant emulsions, and boosted 7 days later. Adults were vaccinated in the same manner. Induced KLH-specific IgY antibodies were measured using ELISA. Comparisons within age groups revealed no significant increase in KLH-specific antibody levels between vaccination and boost in 7d birds, yet significant increases between vaccination and boost were observed in 14d, 21d, and adult groups. There was no significant difference among age groups in KLH antibody response to priming vaccination, yet KLH antibody response post-boost significantly increased with age among groups. Post-boost antibody response in all nestling age groups was significantly lower than in adults, indicating that mature adult secondary antibody response level was not achieved in zebra finches prior to fledging (21 days post-hatch in zebra finches). Findings from this study contribute fundamental knowledge to the fields of developmental immunology and ecological immunology and strengthen the utility of zebra finches as a model organism for future studies of immune ontogeny. PMID:23056621

Killpack, Tess L; Karasov, William H

2012-01-01

92

Effects of zebra mussels on a native amphipod and the invasive Dikerogammarus villosus : the influence of biodeposition and structural complexity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last decades, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) have invaded many freshwater systems with severe consequences for entire communities. Most benthic macroinvertebrates, especially amphipods and chironomids, increase in abundance in the presence of zebra mussels. Increased structural complexity and an unknown biotic factor lead to this effect. Dreissena-associated factors that might influence populations of the native Gammarus roeselii and the invader Dikerogammarus villosus in Lake Co...

2008-01-01

93

Zebra Fish Dnmt1 and Suv39h1 Regulate Organ-Specific Terminal Differentiation during Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

DNA methylation and histone methylation are two key epigenetic modifications that help govern heterochromatin dynamics. The roles for these chromatin-modifying activities in directing tissue-specific development remain largely unknown. To address this issue, we examined the roles of DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) and the H3K9 histone methyltransferase Suv39h1 in zebra fish development. Knockdown of Dnmt1 in zebra fish embryos caused defects in terminal differentiation of the intestine, exocr...

Rai, Kunal; Nadauld, Lincoln D.; Chidester, Stephanie; Manos, Elizabeth J.; James, Smitha R.; Karpf, Adam R.; Cairns, Bradley R.; Jones, David A.

2006-01-01

94

Assessing short- and long-term repeatability and stability of personality in captive zebra finches using longitudinal data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Assessing behavioural consistency is crucial to understand the evolution of personality traits. In the present study we examined the short- and long-term repeatability and stability of two unrelated personality traits—exploratory tendencies and struggling rate—using captive female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We performed two experimental sessions of behavioural tests with a seven-month interval, which represents up to one quarter of a zebra finch's life expectancy. We showed that...

David, Morgan; Auclair, Yannick; Cezilly, Frank

2012-01-01

95

High-Throughput Selection of Retrovirus Producer Cell Lines Leads to Markedly Improved Efficiency of Germ Line-Transmissible Insertions in Zebra Fish  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G-pseudotyped mouse retroviral vectors have been used as mutagens for a large-scale insertional mutagenesis screen in the zebra fish. To reproducibly generate high-titer virus stocks, we devised a method for rapidly selecting cell lines that can yield high-titer viruses and isolated a producer cell line that yields virus at a high titer on zebra fish embryos. Virus produced from this line, designated GT virus, is nontoxic following injection of zebra fi...

Chen, Wenbiao; Burgess, Shawn; Golling, Greg; Amsterdam, Adam; Hopkins, Nancy

2002-01-01

96

Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the ease of quantification and experimental manipulation, the zebra finch song system has great potential for use in undergraduate labs. Unfortunately, the...

Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Mccauley, Lisa M. Beck; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

2011-01-01

97

A model of so-called "Zebra" emissions in solar flare radio burst continua  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simple mechanism for the generation of electromagnetic "Zebra" pattern emissions is proposed. "Zebra" bursts are regularly spaced narrow-band radio emissions on the otherwise broadband radio continuum emitted by the active solar corona. The mechanism is based on the generation of an ion-ring distribution in a magnetic mirror geometry in the presence of a properly directed field-aligned electric potential field. Such ion-rings or ion-conics are well known from magnetospheric observations. Under coronal conditions they may become weakly relativistic. In this case the ion-cyclotron maser generates a number of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron harmonics which modulate the electron maser emission. The mechanism is capable of switching the emission on and off or amplifying it quasi-periodically which is a main feature of the observations.

R. A. Treumann

2011-09-01

98

Statistics and Classification of the Microwave Zebra Patterns Associated with Solar Flares  

CERN Document Server

The microwave zebra pattern (ZP) is the most interesting, intriguing, and complex spectral structure frequently observed in solar flares. A comprehensive statistical study will certainly help us to understand the formation mechanism, which is not exactly clear now. This work presents a comprehensive statistical analysis on a big sample with 202 ZP events collected from observations at the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at Huairou and the Ondrejov Radiospectrograph in Czech Republic at frequencies of 1.00 - 7.60 GHz during 2000 - 2013. After investigating the parameter properties of ZPs, such as the occurrence in flare phase, frequency range, polarization degree, duration, etc., we find that the variation of zebra stripe frequency separation with respect to frequency is the best indicator for a physical classification of ZPs. Microwave ZPs can be classified into 3 types: equidistant ZP, variable-distant ZP, and growing-distant ZP, possibly corresponding to mechanisms of Bernstein wave model, whistl...

Tan, Baolin; Zhang, Yin; Meszarosova, H; Karlicky, M

2013-01-01

99

Chemical defense in the zebra swallowtail butterfly, Eurytides marcellus, involving annonaceous acetogenins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few herbivores feed on the foliage of the North American paw paw tree, Asimina triloba; notable exceptions are the larvae of the zebra swallowtail butterfly, Eurytides marcellus. Toxic annonaceous acetogenins, produced by A. triloba, are responsible for the relative unpalatability of the leaves. Acetogenins found in A. triloba extracts are potent pesticidal and antineoplastic agents and have emetic activity in vertebrates. In this study, partitioned aqueous MeOH fractions of the bioactive CH2Cl2 extracts, of freeze-dried and pulverized larvae, and of mature butterflies revealed acetogenin content through the use of HPLC coupled to tandem MS (LC-MS/MS). This sensitive technique provides an uncomplicated method for the detection of trace compounds and, in this instance, has confirmed tissue presence of acetogenins that serve a probable role as chemical defense agents against bird predation in zebra swallowtail larvae and adults. PMID:9917274

Martin, J M; Madigosky, S R; Gu, Z M; Zhou, D; Wu, J; McLaughlin, J L

1999-01-01

100

Oscillating magnetic field disrupts magnetic orientation in Zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background Zebra finches can be trained to use the geomagnetic field as a directional cue for short distance orientation. The physical mechanisms underlying the primary processes of magnetoreception are, however, largely unknown. Two hypotheses of how birds perceive magnetic information are mainly discussed, one dealing with modulation of radical pair processes in retinal structures, the other assuming that iron deposits in the upper beak of the birds are involved. Oscillating magnetic fields...

Keary, Nina; Ruploh, Tim; Voss, Joe; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Roswitha; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Bischof, Hans-joachim

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Photosynthetic performance of rock-colonising lichens in the Mountain Zebra National Park, South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The photosynthetic behaviour of endolithic andepilithic lichens characteristic of sedimentary and volcanic rock was investigated in situ in the Mountain Zebra National Park, South Africa. The park forms part of an inland semi-desert known as the Karoo, in the Cape Province. Temperatures within Balfour sandstone were monitored, the results showing that during the early morning, temperatures within the sandstone were nearly 5@C lower than ambient air temperatures. This may enhance the frequency...

Dirk Wessels; Ludger Kappen

1993-01-01

102

EFFECTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHATES ON ACUTE POISONING AND ACETYL CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ZEBRA FISH  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organophosphates (Ops.) are the most widely used insecticides available today. These are a group of insecticides used in chemical sprays to kill bugs, and insects in orchards, vineyards, vegetables and cereal crops. The present study examined effects of the pesticide Methyl parathion, Dichlorvos and Chlorpyrifos on adult zebra fish were exposed to various concentrations (5, 10 & 25mg/L) for 24 and 48hrs acute toxic study. Chlorpyrifos showed mortality in all concentrations and Methyl parathio...

Th Mv, Sukirtha Usharani

2013-01-01

103

GABA Immunoreactivity in Auditory and Song Control Brain Areas of Zebra Finches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inhibitory transmission is critical to sensory and motor processing and is believed to play a role in experience-dependent plasticity. The main inhibitory neurotransmitter in vertebrates, GABA, has been implicated in both sensory and motor aspects of vocalization in songbirds. To understand the role of GABAergic mechanisms in vocal communication, GABAergic elements must be characterized fully. Hence, we investigated GABA immunohistochemistry in the zebra finch brain, emphasizing auditory area...

Pinaud, Raphael; Mello, Claudio V.

2007-01-01

104

Compensatory investment in zebra finches: females lay larger eggs when paired to sexually unattractive males  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The classical version of the differential allocation hypothesis states that, when females reproduce over their lifetime with partners that differ in their genetic quality, they should invest more in reproduction with high-quality males. However, in species with lifetime monogamy, such as the zebra finch, partner quality will typically remain the same. In this case, the compensatory investment (CI) hypothesis predicts higher investment for low-quality males, because low genetic quality offspri...

Bolund, Elisabeth; Schielzeth, Holger; Forstmeier, Wolfgang

2009-01-01

105

TLD gamma-ray energy deposition measurements in the zero energy fast reactor ZEBRA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A recent study of gamma-ray energy deposition was carried out in the Zebra reactor at AEE Winfrith during a collaborative programme between the UKAEA and PNC of Japan. The programme was given the title MOZART. This paper describes the TLD experiments in the MOZART MZB assembly and discusses the technique and various corrections necessary to relate the measured quantity to the calculated energy deposition

1975-09-26

106

Involvement of Apoptosis in Host-Parasite Interactions in the Zebra Mussel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The question of whether cell death by apoptosis plays a biological function during infection is key to understanding host-parasite interactions. We investigated the involvement of apoptosis in several host-parasite systems, using zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha as test organisms and their micro- and macroparasites. As a stress response associated with parasitism, heat shock proteins (Hsp) can be induced. In this protein family, Hsp70 are known to be apoptosis inhibitors. Mussels were diagn...

Minguez, Lae?titia; Brule?, Nelly; Sohm, Be?ne?dicte; Devin, Simon; Giambe?rini, Laure

2013-01-01

107

Timing of Ossification in Duck, Quail, and Zebra Finch: Intraspecific Variation, Heterochronies, and Life History Evolution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Skeletogenic heterochronies have gained much attention in comparative developmental biology. The temporal appearance of mineralized individual bones in a species – the species ossification sequence – is an excellent marker in this kind of study. Several publications describe interspecific variation, but only very few detail intraspecific variation. In this study, we describe and analyze the temporal order of ossification of skeletal elements in the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, the Ja...

Mitgutsch, Christian; Wimmer, Corinne; Sa?nchez-villagra, Marcelo R.; Hahnloser, Richard; Schneider, Richard A.

2011-01-01

108

Rearing conditions affect neuron morphology in a telencephalic area of the zebra finch  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

THE morphology of ANC (Archi-neostriatum caudale) neurons in zebra finches is affected by arousal and rearing conditions. Branching index and spine density of ANC neurons are decreased in isolated birds and enhanced in cage reared animals, compared to aviary reared animals. Chasing the birds around the cage, or seven days of social contact with a female, raises these indices in birds isolated until adulthood relative to those of the aviary reared animals. We conclude that branching index and ...

Rollenhagen, Astrid; Bischof, Hans-joachim

1991-01-01

109

Testosterone facilitates some conspecific song discriminations in castrated zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experiment was designed to test for the influence of testosterone on song discriminations. We found that testosterone did have an effect, which interacted with practice and the nature of the stimuli. Fourteen adult castrated zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were grouped into seven pairs. In each pair, one bird was implanted with a testosterone-filled silastic tube and the other was implanted with an empty silastic tube. They were then trained on a go/no-go operant task to discriminate b...

Cynx, J.; Nottebohm, F.

1992-01-01

110

Sexual differentiation of the zebra finch song system: potential roles for sex chromosome genes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that some sex differences in brain and behavior might result from direct genetic effects, and not solely the result of the organizational effects of steroid hormones. The present study examined the potential role for sex-biased gene expression during development of sexually dimorphic singing behavior and associated song nuclei in juvenile zebra finches. Results A microarray screen revealed more than 2400 putative gene...

Tomaszycki Michelle L; Peabody Camilla; Replogle Kirstin; Clayton David F; Tempelman Robert J; Wade Juli

2009-01-01

111

Plant communities of the Ebenhaezer section of the Mountain Zebra National Park  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The long-term conservation of viable ecosystems requires a broader understanding of the ecological processes involved. Because ecosystems react differently to different management practices, it is important to have a description and classification of the vegetation of an area available. As part of a vegetation survey programme for the newly acquired farms to be incorporated into the Mountain Zebra National Park, the vegetation of the Ebenhaezer section was investigated. Ahierarchical classifi...

Klerk, J.; Brown, L. R.; Bezuidenhout, H.

2003-01-01

112

The vegetation of the farms Ingleside and Welgedacht of the Mountain Zebra National Park, Eastern Cape  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

South Africa is well known for its semi-arid lowland areas that have a distinct flora and species composition. Because ecosystems react differently to different management practices, it is important that a description and classification of the vegetation of an area be done. As part of a vegetation survey programme for the newly acquired farms incorporated into the Mountain Zebra National Park, the vegetation of the Ingleside and Welgedacht sections were surveyed following the Braun-Blanquet a...

Brown, L. R.; Bezuidenhout, H.

2005-01-01

113

The phytosociology of the De Rust section of the Mountain Zebra National Park, Eastern Cape  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As part of a vegetation survey programme for conservation areas in South Africa, the plant communities of the De Rust section of the Mountain Zebra National Park were investigated. From a TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, 14 plant communities, which can be placed into six major groups, were identified. A clas- sification and description of these communities, as well as a vegetation map are presented. Associated gradients in habitat were identified by using an ordi...

Brown, L. R.; Bezuidenhout, H.

2000-01-01

114

Sex-specific effects of yolk testosterone on survival, begging and growth of zebra finches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Yolk androgens affect offspring hatching, begging, growth and survival in many bird species. If these effects are sex-specific, yolk androgen deposition may constitute a mechanism for differential investment in male and female offspring. We tested this hypothesis in zebra finches. In this species, females increase yolk-testosterone levels and produce male-biased sex ratios when paired to more attractive males. We therefore predicted that especially sons benefit from elevated yolk androgens. E...

Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Carere, Claudio; Dijkstra, Cor; G G Groothuis, Ton

2006-01-01

115

Vegetation description of the Doornhoek section of the Mountain Zebra National Park (MZNP), South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Mountain Zebra National Park (MZNP) has been extended over the last couple of years. One of the newly procured areas is the Doornhoek section, which had been adjacent to the park. To develop scientifically sound management programmes for conservation areas, it is essential that an inventory of their natural resources be undertaken. The aim of this study was to classify, describe and map the vegetation of the Doornhoek section of the park. The floristic data were analysed in accordance wit...

2008-01-01

116

Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging of visual system activity in zebra finches and mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-scale brain activity patterns can be visualized by optical imaging of intrinsic signals (OIS) based on activity-dependent changes in the blood oxygenation level. Another method, flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging (AFI), exploits the mitochondrial flavoprotein autofluorescence, which is enhanced during neuronal activity. In birds, topographic mapping of visual space has been shown in the visual wulst, the avian homologue of the mammalian visual cortex by using OIS. We here applied the AFI method to visualize topographic maps in the visual wulst because with OIS, which depends on blood flow changes, blood vessel artifacts often obscure brain activity maps. We then compared both techniques quantitatively in zebra finches and in C57Bl/6J mice using the same setup and stimulation conditions. In addition to experiments with craniotomized animals, we also examined mice with intact skull (in zebra finches, intact skull imaging is not feasible probably due to the skull construction). In craniotomized animals, retinotopic maps were obtained by both methods in both species. Using AFI, artifacts caused by blood vessels were generally reduced, the magnitude of neuronal activity significantly higher and the retinotopic map quality better than that obtained by OIS in both zebra finches and mice. In contrast, our measurements in non-craniotomized mice did not reveal any quantitative differences between the two methods. Our results thus suggest that AFI is the method of choice for investigations of visual processing in zebra finches. In mice, however, if researchers decide to use the advantages of imaging through the intact skull, they will not be able to exploit the higher signals obtainable by the AFI-method. PMID:24400130

Michael, Neethu; Bischof, Hans-Joachim; Löwel, Siegrid

2014-01-01

117

Oscillating magnetic field disrupts magnetic orientation in Zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Zebra finches can be trained to use the geomagnetic field as a directional cue for short distance orientation. The physical mechanisms underlying the primary processes of magnetoreception are, however, largely unknown. Two hypotheses of how birds perceive magnetic information are mainly discussed, one dealing with modulation of radical pair processes in retinal structures, the other assuming that iron deposits in the upper beak of the birds are involved. O...

Keary Nina; Ruploh Tim; Voss Joe; Thalau Peter; Wiltschko Roswitha; Wiltschko Wolfgang; Bischof Hans-Joachim

2009-01-01

118

Flavoprotein Autofluorescence Imaging of Visual System Activity in Zebra Finches and Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-scale brain activity patterns can be visualized by optical imaging of intrinsic signals (OIS) based on activity-dependent changes in the blood oxygenation level. Another method, flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging (AFI), exploits the mitochondrial flavoprotein autofluorescence, which is enhanced during neuronal activity. In birds, topographic mapping of visual space has been shown in the visual wulst, the avian homologue of the mammalian visual cortex by using OIS. We here applied the AFI method to visualize topographic maps in the visual wulst because with OIS, which depends on blood flow changes, blood vessel artifacts often obscure brain activity maps. We then compared both techniques quantitatively in zebra finches and in C57Bl/6J mice using the same setup and stimulation conditions. In addition to experiments with craniotomized animals, we also examined mice with intact skull (in zebra finches, intact skull imaging is not feasible probably due to the skull construction). In craniotomized animals, retinotopic maps were obtained by both methods in both species. Using AFI, artifacts caused by blood vessels were generally reduced, the magnitude of neuronal activity significantly higher and the retinotopic map quality better than that obtained by OIS in both zebra finches and mice. In contrast, our measurements in non-craniotomized mice did not reveal any quantitative differences between the two methods. Our results thus suggest that AFI is the method of choice for investigations of visual processing in zebra finches. In mice, however, if researchers decide to use the advantages of imaging through the intact skull, they will not be able to exploit the higher signals obtainable by the AFI-method.

Michael, Neethu; Bischof, Hans-Joachim; Lowel, Siegrid

2014-01-01

119

The effects of rearing conditions on sexual traits and preferences in zebra finches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although theory predicts that females should prefer the highest quality male, female mating preferences within populations often show pronounced variation. What causes and maintains this variation remains poorly understood. This thesis addresses the influence of rearing conditions both on female mating preferences and male advertising signals in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata. It reconciles earlier apparently contradicting findings on the relative importance of visual versus acoustic sig...

Holveck, Marie-jeanne

2008-01-01

120

Relative salience of envelope and fine structure cues in zebra finch song.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zebra finches produce a learned song that is rich in harmonic structure and highly stereotyped. More is generally known about how birds learn and produce this song than how they perceive it. Here, zebra finches were trained with operant techniques to discriminate changes in natural and synthetic song motifs. Results show that zebra finches are quite insensitive to changes to the overall envelope of the motif since they were unable to discriminate more than a doubling in inter-syllable interval durations. By contrast, they were quite sensitive to changes in individual syllables. A series of tests with synthetic song syllables, including some made of frozen noise and Schroeder harmonic complexes, showed that birds used a suite of acoustic cues in normal listening but they could also distinguish among syllables simply on the basis of the temporal fine structure in the waveform. Thus, while syllable perception is maintained by multiple redundant cues, temporal fine structure features alone are sufficient for syllable discrimination and may be more important for communication than previously thought. PMID:21568438

Vernaleo, Beth A; Dooling, Robert J

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

Castration modulates singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of RA projection neurons in adult male zebra finches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Castration can change levels of plasma testosterone. Androgens such as testosterone play an important role in stabilizing birdsong. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is an important premotor nucleus critical for singing. In this study, we investigated the effect of castration on singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of projection neurons (PNs) in the RA of adult male zebra finches. Adult male zebra finches were castrated and the changes in bird song assessed. We also recorded the electrophysiological changes from RA PNs using patch clamp recording. We found that the plasma levels of testosterone were significantly decreased, song syllable's entropy was increased and the similarity of motif was decreased after castration. Spontaneous and evoked firing rates, membrane time constants, and membrane capacitance of RA PNs in the castration group were lower than those of the control and the sham groups. Afterhyperpolarization AHP time to peak of spontaneous action potential (AP) was prolonged after castration.These findings suggest that castration decreases song stereotypy and excitability of RA PNs in male zebra finches. PMID:24765586

Wang, Songhua; Liao, Congshu; Li, Fengling; Liu, Shaoyi; Meng, Wei; Li, Dongfeng

2014-01-01

122

A daily oscillation in the fundamental frequency and amplitude of harmonic syllables of zebra finch song.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complex motor skills are more difficult to perform at certain points in the day (for example, shortly after waking), but the daily trajectory of motor-skill error is more difficult to predict. By undertaking a quantitative analysis of the fundamental frequency (FF) and amplitude of hundreds of zebra finch syllables per animal per day, we find that zebra finch song follows a previously undescribed daily oscillation. The FF and amplitude of harmonic syllables rises across the morning, reaching a peak near mid-day, and then falls again in the late afternoon until sleep. This oscillation, although somewhat variable, is consistent across days and across animals and does not require serotonin, as animals with serotonergic lesions maintained daily oscillations. We hypothesize that this oscillation is driven by underlying physiological factors which could be shared with other taxa. Song production in zebra finches is a model system for studying complex learned behavior because of the ease of gathering comprehensive behavioral data and the tractability of the underlying neural circuitry. The daily oscillation that we describe promises to reveal new insights into how time of day affects the ability to accomplish a variety of complex learned motor skills. PMID:24312654

Wood, William E; Osseward, Peter J; Roseberry, Thomas K; Perkel, David J

2013-01-01

123

Primary structure of pancreatic polypeptide from four species of Perissodactyla (Przewalski's horse, zebra, rhino, tapir).  

Science.gov (United States)

Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been purified from extracts of the pancreas of four species of odd-toed ungulates (Perissodactyla): Przewalski's horse, mountain zebra, white rhinoceros, and mountain tapir. The amino acid sequence of Przewalski's horse pancreatic polypeptide was established as Ala-Pro-Met-Glu-Pro-Val-Tyr-Pro-Gly-Asp10-Asn- Ala-Thr-Pro-Glu-Gln-Met-Ala-Gln-Tyr20-Ala-Ala-Glu-Leu-Arg-Arg-Tyr- Ile-Asn-Met30 - Leu-Thr-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr.NH2. Zebra PP was identical to Przewalski's horse PP, rhinoceros PP contained three substitutions relative to the horse (Ser for Ala1, Leu for Met3, and Glu for Gln16), and tapir PP contained one substitution relative to the horse (Leu for Met3). On the basis of morphological characteristics and the fossil record, the rhinocerotids are classified with the tapirids in the suborder Ceratomorpha, whereas the horse and zebra belong to a separate suborder, Hippomorpha. On the basis of structural similarity of the PP molecules, however, it would appear that the tapir is more closely related to the horse than to the rhinoceros. These observations provide a further example of the need for extreme caution when inferring taxonomic or phylogenetic relationships between species from the structures of homologous peptides. PMID:1808025

Henry, J S; Lance, V A; Conlon, J M

1991-12-01

124

[Mollusc diversity in an Arca zebra (Mollusca: Bivalvia) community, Chacopata, Sucre, Venezuela].  

Science.gov (United States)

The diversity of a subtidal epifaunal mollusk community was studied from September, 1990 to September, 1991 in Chacopata, Sucre State, Venezuela. There were 40 species (24 bivalves and 16 gastropods). The diversity indexes (H' = 2.087, J' = 0.392, 1/D = 0.528) were low when compared with other tropical zones. Monthly diversity reached its maximum in September, 1990 (1.63 bits/ind.) and July, 1991 (1.60 bits/ind.); minimum diversity occurred in June, 1991 (0.52 bits/ind.). A Log series model applied to species abundance data showed a straight line with a diversity index alpha of 5.56. Of 40 species identified, the turkeywing Arca zebra was dominant (69% in number of individuals and 72% of biomass) followed by Pinctada imbricata, Modiolus squamosus, Chama macerophyla and Anadara notabilis. The predatory snails Phyllonotus pomum, Chicoreus brevifrons and Murex recurvirostris seemed to have trophic relationships with A. zebra. The total mean biomass in wet weight (469.20 +/- 263 g m-2, shell included) was high which indicates that A. zebra, a species with a rapid growth rate, occupies a central role in the assemblage as an efficient filter feeder that converts planktonic food into available biomass, supporting one of the most important fisheries in Venezuela. PMID:11935909

Prieto, A S; Ruiz, L J; García, N; Alvarez, M

2001-06-01

125

Maternal Effects Underlie Ageing Costs of Growth in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata)  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal effects provide a mechanism to adapt offspring phenotype and optimize the mother’s fitness to current environmental conditions. Transferring steroids to the yolk is one way mothers can translate environmental information into potential adaptive signals for offspring. However, maternally-derived hormones might also have adverse effects for offspring. For example, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress and telomere loss) were increased after egg-injection of corticosterone (CORT). Still, we have few experimental data describing the effect of maternal effects on the growth-ageing trade-off in offspring. Here, we chronically treated pre-laying zebra finch females (Taeniopygia guttata) with 17-?-estradiol (E2) or CORT, and followed offspring growth and cellular ageing rates (oxidative stress and telomere loss). CORT treatment decreased growth rate in male chicks and increased rate of telomere loss in mothers and female offspring. E2 increased body mass gain in male offspring, while reducing oxidative stress in both sexes but without affecting telomere loss. Since shorter telomeres were previously found to be a proxy of individual lifespan in zebra finches, maternal effects may, through pleiotropic effects, be important determinants of offspring life-expectancy by modulating ageing rate during embryo and post-natal growth.

Tissier, Mathilde L.; Williams, Tony D.; Criscuolo, Francois

2014-01-01

126

Gene duplication and fragmentation in the zebra finch major histocompatibility complex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to its high polymorphism and importance for disease resistance, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC has been an important focus of many vertebrate genome projects. Avian MHC organization is of particular interest because the chicken Gallus gallus, the avian species with the best characterized MHC, possesses a highly streamlined minimal essential MHC, which is linked to resistance against specific pathogens. It remains unclear the extent to which this organization describes the situation in other birds and whether it represents a derived or ancestral condition. The sequencing of the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata genome, in combination with targeted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC sequencing, has allowed us to characterize an MHC from a highly divergent and diverse avian lineage, the passerines. Results The zebra finch MHC exhibits a complex structure and history involving gene duplication and fragmentation. The zebra finch MHC includes multiple Class I and Class II genes, some of which appear to be pseudogenes, and spans a much more extensive genomic region than the chicken MHC, as evidenced by the presence of MHC genes on each of seven BACs spanning 739 kb. Cytogenetic (FISH evidence and the genome assembly itself place core MHC genes on as many as four chromosomes with TAP and Class I genes mapping to different chromosomes. MHC Class II regions are further characterized by high endogenous retroviral content. Lastly, we find strong evidence of selection acting on sites within passerine MHC Class I and Class II genes. Conclusion The zebra finch MHC differs markedly from that of the chicken, the only other bird species with a complete genome sequence. The apparent lack of synteny between TAP and the expressed MHC Class I locus is in fact reminiscent of a pattern seen in some mammalian lineages and may represent convergent evolution. Our analyses of the zebra finch MHC suggest a complex history involving chromosomal fission, gene duplication and translocation in the history of the MHC in birds, and highlight striking differences in MHC structure and organization among avian lineages.

Burt David W

2010-04-01

127

Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module  

Science.gov (United States)

Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

2011-01-01

128

Diversidad malacológica en una comunidad de Arca zebra (Mollusca: Bivalviaen Chacopata, Estado Sucre, Venezuela  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La diversidad malacológica de una comunidad submareal de Arca zebra se estudió, desde septiembre, 1990 hasta septiembre, 1991, en Chacopata, Estado Sucre, Venezuela. Se identificaron 40 especies (24 de bivalvos y 16 de gasterópodos. Los parámetros de diversidad en número de la comunidad fueron bajos (H` = 2.087 bits /ind., J` = 0.392, Simpson = 0.528 cuando se comparan con otros reportes de áreas tropicales. Los datos del número de individuos por especies con el rango conforman una línea recta ajustada por la serie logaritmica, con un índice de diversidad (a de 5.66. Las máximas diversidades mensuales se observaron en septiembre, 1990 (1.63 bits/ind. y julio, 1991 (1.60 bits/ind., la mínima ocurrió en junio, 1991 (0.52 bits/ind.. De las 40 especies identificadas, la pepitona, Arca zebra fue la especie dominante en número (68.87 % y en biomasa (72.34 %, seguida por Pinctada imbricata, Modiolus squamosus, Chama macerophyla y Anadara notabilis. Los gasterópodos predadores Phyllonotus pomum, Chicoreus brevifrons y Murex recurvirostris parecen tener relaciones tróficas con la especie dominante. La biomasa promedio total en peso húmedo con la concha (469.20 + 263 g m-2 es alta e indica que A. zebra, la especie dominante de rápido crecimiento, desempeña el papel más importante en la comunidad como un eficiente filtrador, que convierte el alimento planctónico en biomasa disponible, soportando una de las pesquerías más importantes de la región.The diversity of a subtidal epifaunal mollusk community was studied from September, 1990 to September, 1991 in Chacopata, Sucre State, Venezuela. There were 40 species (24 bivalves and 16 gastropods. The diversity indexes (H` = 2.087, J`=0.392, 1/D = 0.528 were low when compared with other tropical zones. Monthly diversity reached its maximum in September, 1990 (1.63 bits/ind. and July, 1991 (1.60 bits/ind.; minimum diversity occurred in June, 1991 (0.52 bits/ind.. A Log series model applied to species abundance data showed a straight line with a diversity index a of 5.56. Of 40 species identified, the turkeywing Arca zebra was dominant (69 % in number of individuals and 72 % of biomass followed by Pinctada imbricata, Modiolus squamosus, Chama macerophyla and Anadara notabilis. The predatory snails Phyllonotus pomum, Chicoreus brevifrons and Murex recurvirostris seemed to have trophic relationships with A. zebra. The total mean biomass in wet weight (469.20 + 263g m-2, shell included was high which indicates that A. zebra, a species with a rapid growth rate, occupies a central role in the assemblage as an efficient filter feeder that converts planktonic food into available biomass, supporting one of the most important fisheries in Venezuela.

Antulio S. Prieto

2001-06-01

129

Origin of Spanish invasion by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha is an aquatic nuisance invasive species originally native to the Ponto-Caspian region where it is found in lakes and delta areas of large rivers draining into the Black and Caspian seas. The dispersal of D. polymorpha began at the end of the 18th century, at a time when shipping trade become increasingly important and many canals were built for linking different navigable river systems in Europe. Over the past 200 years, zebra mussels spread to most of t...

Rajagopal, S.; Pollux, B. J. A.; Peters, J. L.; Cremers, G.; Moon- Staay, S. Y.; Alen, T.; Eygensteyn, J.; Hoek, A. H. A. M.; Palau, A.; Vaate, A. B.; Velde, G.

2009-01-01

130

Analysis of an ankyrin-like region in Epstein Barr Virus encoded (EBV BZLF-1 (ZEBRA protein: implications for interactions with NF-?B and p53  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The carboxyl terminal of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV ZEBRA protein (also termed BZLF-1 encoded replication protein Zta or ZEBRA binds to both NF-?B and p53. The authors have previously suggested that this interaction results from an ankyrin-like region of the ZEBRA protein since ankyrin proteins such as I?B interact with NF-?B and p53 proteins. These interactions may play a role in immunopathology and viral carcinogenesis in B lymphocytes as well as other cell types transiently infected by EBV such as T lymphocytes, macrophages and epithelial cells. Methods Randomization of the ZEBRA terminal amino acid sequence followed by statistical analysis suggest that the ZEBRA carboxyl terminus is most closely related to ankyrins of the invertebrate cactus I?B-like protein. This observation is consistent with an ancient origin of ZEBRA resulting from a recombination event between an ankyrin regulatory protein and a fos/jun DNA binding factor. In silico modeling of the partially solved ZEBRA carboxyl terminus structure using PyMOL software demonstrate that the carboxyl terminus region of ZEBRA can form a polymorphic structure termed ZANK (ZEBRA ANKyrin-like region similar to two adjacent I?B ankyrin domains. Conclusions Viral capture of an ankyrin-like domain provides a mechanism for ZEBRA binding to proteins in the NF-?B and p53 transcription factor families, and also provides support for a process termed "Ping-Pong Evolution" in which DNA viruses such as EBV are formed by exchange of information with the host genome. An amino acid polymorphism in the ZANK region is identified in ZEBRA from tumor cell lines including Akata that could alter binding of Akata ZEBRA to the p53 tumor suppressor and other ankyrin binding protein, and a novel model of antagonistic binding interactions between ZANK and the DNA binding regions of ZEBRA is suggested that may be explored in further biochemical and molecular biological models of viral replication.

Ghoda Lucy Y

2011-09-01

131

Rapid and reliable sedation induced by diazepam and antagonized by flumazenil in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Songbirds have emerged as attractive model systems in many areas of biological research. Notably, songbirds are used in studies of the neurobiological and neuroendocrine mechanisms that shape vocal communication, and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are the most commonly studied species. In these studies, some form of chemical restraint is often needed to facilitate procedures and to minimize the risk of injury during handling. To determine the minimum dose of the benzodiazepine diazepam that is adequate to achieve deep sedation across individual birds, a low dose (5 mg/kg) and a high dose (10 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly to 20 zebra finches. Results showed that a 10 mg/kg dose of diazepam resulted in deep sedation, defined by dorsal recumbency, which was achieved in minutes and lasted for several hours. Sedation was induced without complication, because no birds displayed signs of distress during sedation or lethargy after recovery, and was adequate to permit minimally invasive surgical procedures. In addition, the duration of sedation was dose dependent, which provides additional information for researchers who seek to match the depth of sedation to their experimental requirements. Finally, complete recovery from the deeply sedated state was induced by a 0.3 mg/kg dose of the antagonist flumazenil, which enabled birds to more rapidly resume homeostatic behaviors to promote well-being and survival. Together, these results indicate that diazepam is a safe and reliable sedative for use in zebra finches and support specific recommendations to achieve rapid and reliable sedation and recovery. PMID:22872979

Prather, Jonathan F

2012-06-01

132

Toxicity and cytopathogenic properties toward human melanoma cells of activated cancer therapeutics in zebra fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an increasing body of data showing that activated cancer therapy--the synergistic effect of "preloaded" molecules and a tuned energy source to produce cytopathogenic moieties--is a promising new modality for cancer treatment. The key activated therapies are photodynamic therapy (PDT), which involves the synergy between light and photosensitizer molecules, and ultrasound activated therapy (USAT; also referred to as sonodynamic therapy), which involves the synergy between ultrasound and sonosensitizer molecules. PDT is a well-known activated therapy with roots dating back to 1900. However, minimal data exist on USAT. One reason is the lack of suitable sonosensitizers for clinical USAT use. The authors present both LC(50) toxicity and cancer cell cytotoxicity studies on 2 dual activation agents. These compounds function as both sonosensitizers and photosensitizers, and are referred to as SonneLux agents, designated SF1 and SF2. The sensitizers are derived from chlorophyll and are metal centered porphyrins known to specifically accumulate in hyperproliferating tissue. LC(50) studies on both SF1 and SF2 as determined in zebra fish reveal that both are essentially nontoxic to zebra fish. In the worst case, 5% zebra fish death is noted at the maximum soluble concentration of the sensitizer. In the cytotoxicity studies, melanoma cell line WM-266-4, derived from a metastatic site of a malignant melanoma, was tested against SF1 and SF2. Both sensitizer systems showed marked efficacy in the destruction of the implanted melanoma cells. They show great promise for clinical use in the future. PMID:20308086

Lewis, Thomas J

2010-03-01

133

Investigation of geographic variation in the thermal tolerance of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data previously collected from endemic northern European populations indicated a maximum, long-term upper thermal limit of 28{degrees}C for D. polymorpha, a temperature well below maximum, summer-daytime, surface water temperatures in the lower Mississippi River ({>=}30{degrees}C). Thus, it has been speculated that natural selection for thermal tolerance among zebra mussels in the warm waters may have led to development of genetically more thermally tolerant populations than presently occur in the cooler waters of the Great Lakes. In order to investigate this possibility, thermal tolerance times on continual exposure to a lethal temperature of 33{degrees}C were determined for samples of zebra mussels collected biweekly in the lower Mississippi River from 14 March through 18 October, 1994 and from the Niagara River on 24 May and 9 August 1994. Multiple factor ANOVA indicated that while there were differences in mean thermal tolerance times among acclimation groups and with time of collection, there was no difference in thermal tolerance between the Niagara and lower Mississippi River populations. Least Squares Analysis indicated that sample mean thermal tolerance times among lower Mississippi River mussels increased, suggestive of a seasonal pattern of thermal tolerance regulation which could not be eliminated by laboratory temperature acclimation. Such seasonal thermal tolerance acclimatization may make fouling populations of D. polymorpha more resistant to thermal mitigation during summer months. It may also partially account for the reduced thermal tolerance reported among northern European populations drawn from much cooler waters than those of the lower Great Lakes and lower Mississippi River. Lack of significant thermal tolerance differences between Niagara and lower Mississippi River zebra mussels suggests that there has been no selection for a thermally tolerant physiological race of D. polymorpha in the lower Mississippi River.

Hernandez, M.R.; McMahon, R.F. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Dietz, T.H. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1995-06-01

134

Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH ampersand S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design com- pels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective

1998-01-01

135

IMPACT OF THE DURATION OF BACTERIAL EXPOSURE ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These tests indicated that: (1) duration of exposure to bacterial strain CL0145A of Pseudomonas fluorescens is a key variable in obtaining zebra mussel mortality; (2) that given a choice of exposure periods up to 96 hr, the longer the exposure period, the higher the mean mortality that will be achieved; (3) that the first few hours that the mussels are exposed to the bacteria are the most important in achieving kill; (4) that the mortality achieved by exposure periods {>=}72 hr may be somewhat amplified by the degraded water quality conditions which can develop in recirculating water systems over such extended time periods.

Daniel P. Molloy

2002-01-21

136

Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

Trickett, D.

1998-12-15

137

Sexual dimorphism in song-induced ZENK expression in the medial striatum of juvenile zebra finches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the brains of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), the nuclei that direct song learning and production are larger than the corresponding regions in females, who do not sing. The dimorphism in Area X of the medial striatum (MSt), an area important for song learning, is even more dramatic in that it is identifiable in males but not females by Nissl stain. In the present study, conspecific song, but not other auditory stimuli, induced expression of the immediate early gene ZENK in the MS...

Bailey, David J.; Wade, Juli

2006-01-01

138

Oscillating magnetic field disrupts magnetic orientation in Zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebra finches can be trained to use the geomagnetic field as a directional cue for short distance orientation. The physical mechanisms underlying the primary processes of magnetoreception are, however, largely unknown. Two hypotheses of how birds perceive magnetic information are mainly discussed, one dealing with modulation of radical pair processes in retinal structures, the other assuming that iron deposits in the upper beak of the birds are involved. Oscillating magnetic fields in the MHz range disturb radical pair mechanisms but do not affect magnetic particles. Thus, application of such oscillating fields in behavioral experiments can be used as a diagnostic tool to decide between the two alternatives. Methods In a setup that eliminates all directional cues except the geomagnetic field zebra finches were trained to search for food in the magnetic north/south axis. The birds were then tested for orientation performance in two magnetic conditions. In condition 1 the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field was shifted by 90 degrees using a helmholtz coil. In condition 2 a high frequently oscillating field (1.156 MHz was applied in addition to the shifted field. Another group of birds was trained to solve the orientation task, but with visual landmarks as directional cue. The birds were then tested for their orientation performance in the same magnetic conditions as applied for the first experiment. Results The zebra finches could be trained successfully to orient in the geomagnetic field for food search in the north/south axis. They were also well oriented in test condition 1, with the magnetic field shifted horizontally by 90 degrees. In contrast, when the oscillating field was added, the directional choices during food search were randomly distributed. Birds that were trained to visually guided orientation showed no difference of orientation performance in the two magnetic conditions. Conclusion The results indicate that zebra finches use a receptor that bases on radical pair processes for sensing the direction of the earth magnetic field in this short distance orientation behavior.

Wiltschko Wolfgang

2009-10-01

139

Nestling diet, secondary sexual traits and fitness in the zebra finch  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examined the effect of nestling diet quality on a suite of physiological, morphological and life-history traits in adult male zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata. Compared with birds reared on a supplemented diet, nestlings reared on a seed-only diet showed a reduced rate of growth and reduced cell-mediated immune function as measured by an in vivo response to a T lymphocyte-dependent mitogen. There were no differences between birds reared on the two diets in any of the following adult trai...

Birkhead, T. R.; Fletcher, F.; Pellatt, E. J.

1999-01-01

140

A model of so-called `Zebra' emissions in type IV radio bursts  

CERN Multimedia

A simple mechanism for the generation of electromagnetic Zebra pattern emission is proposed. The mechanism is based on the generation of an ion-ring distribution in a magnetic mirror geometry in the presence of a properly directed field-aligned electric potential field. The ion-cyclotron maser then generates a number of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron harmonics which modulate the electron maser emission. The mechanism is capable of switching the emission on and off or amplifying it quasi-periodically which is a main feature of the observations.

Treumann, R A; Baumjohann, W

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Differences in metal sequestration between zebra mussels from clean and polluted field locations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Organisms are able to detoxify accumulated metals by, e.g. binding them to metallothionein (MT) and/or sequestering them in metal-rich granules (MRG). The different factors involved in determining the capacity or efficiency with which metals are detoxified are not yet known. In this work we studied how the sub-cellular distribution pattern of cadmium, copper and zinc in whole tissue of zebra mussels from clean and polluted surface waters is influenced by the total accumulated metal concentration and by its physiological condition. Additionally we measured the metallothionein concentration in the mussel tissue. Metal concentration increased gradually in the metal-sensitive and detoxified sub-cellular fractions with increasing whole tissue concentrations. However, metal concentrations in the sensitive fractions did not increase to the same extent as metal concentrations in whole tissues. In more polluted mussels the contribution of MRG and MT became more important. Nevertheless, metal detoxification was not sufficient to prevent metal binding to heat-sensitive low molecular weight proteins (HDP fraction). Finally we found an indication that metal detoxification was influenced by the condition of the zebra mussels. MT content could be explained for up to 83% by variations in Zn concentration and physiological condition of the mussels.

Voets, Judith [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Redeker, Erik Steen [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Institute for Materials Research, Chemistry Division, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D G1-36, B 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Bervoets, Lieven, E-mail: Lieven.bervoets@ua.ac.be [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

2009-06-04

142

Zebra: Searching for Rare Diseases : A Case of Task-Based Search in the Medical Domain  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Task-based search addresses situations where standard off-the-shelf Information Retrieval (IR) technology may not suffice to satisfy users in their tasks. In these situations, IR systems should be tailored to the userâ??s task-specific needs and requirements. One such task is searching for rare disease diagnostic hypotheses in the domain of medical IR. In this work, we build upon an existing vertical medical search engine, Zebra, that is focused on rare disease diagnosis. In previous work, Zebra has been evaluated using real-life medical cases of rare and difficult diseases, and has been found to be a useful and competitive tool for clinicians. In this work, we extend Zebraâ??s functionalities to optimise the task of medical diagnosis through search as follows: we add the option of grouping retrieved documents into clusters based on disease name occurrence, and we offer a â??disease-rankingâ?? option, in addition to the standard â??document-rankingâ?? option. This paper presents and discusses these functionalities.

Dragusin, Radu; Petcu, Paula

2012-01-01

143

Autoradiographic localization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have localized nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the zebra finch brain by using three 125I-labelled ligands: alpha bungarotoxin and two monoclonal antibodies to neuronal nicotinic receptors. Unfixed brains from intact adult male and female zebra finches were prepared for in vitro autoradiography. Low-resolution film autoradiograms and high-resolution emulsion autoradiograms were prepared for each of the three ligands. The major brain structures that bind all three of the ligands are hippocampus; hyperstriatum dorsalis; hyperstriatum ventralis; nucleus lentiformis mesencephali; nucleus pretectalis, some layers of the optic tectum; nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis; pars dorsalis; locus ceruleus; and all cranial motor nuclei except nucleus nervi hypoglossi. The major structures labelled only by [125I]-alpha bungarotoxin binding included hyperstriatum accessorium and the nuclei: preopticus medialis, medialis hypothalami posterioris, semilunaris, olivarius inferior, and the periventricular organ. Of the song control nuclei, nucleus magnocellularis of the anterior neostriatum; hyperstriatum ventralis, pars caudalis; nucleus intercollicularis; and nucleus hypoglossus were labelled. The binding patterns of the two antibodies were similar to one another but not identical. Both labelled nucleus spiriformis lateralis and nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars ventralis especially heavily and also labelled the nucleus habenula medialis; nucleus subpretectalis; nucleus isthmi, pars magnocellularis; nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis; nucleus reticularis lateralis; nucleus tractus solitarii; nucleus vestibularis dorsolateralis; nucleus vestibularis lateralis; nucleus descendens nervi trigemini; and the deep cerebellar nuclei

1988-08-08

144

Autoradiographic localization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have localized nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the zebra finch brain by using three 125I-labelled ligands: alpha bungarotoxin and two monoclonal antibodies to neuronal nicotinic receptors. Unfixed brains from intact adult male and female zebra finches were prepared for in vitro autoradiography. Low-resolution film autoradiograms and high-resolution emulsion autoradiograms were prepared for each of the three ligands. The major brain structures that bind all three of the ligands are hippocampus; hyperstriatum dorsalis; hyperstriatum ventralis; nucleus lentiformis mesencephali; nucleus pretectalis, some layers of the optic tectum; nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis; pars dorsalis; locus ceruleus; and all cranial motor nuclei except nucleus nervi hypoglossi. The major structures labelled only by (125I)-alpha bungarotoxin binding included hyperstriatum accessorium and the nuclei: preopticus medialis, medialis hypothalami posterioris, semilunaris, olivarius inferior, and the periventricular organ. Of the song control nuclei, nucleus magnocellularis of the anterior neostriatum; hyperstriatum ventralis, pars caudalis; nucleus intercollicularis; and nucleus hypoglossus were labelled. The binding patterns of the two antibodies were similar to one another but not identical. Both labelled nucleus spiriformis lateralis and nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars ventralis especially heavily and also labelled the nucleus habenula medialis; nucleus subpretectalis; nucleus isthmi, pars magnocellularis; nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis; nucleus reticularis lateralis; nucleus tractus solitarii; nucleus vestibularis dorsolateralis; nucleus vestibularis lateralis; nucleus descendens nervi trigemini; and the deep cerebellar nuclei.

Watson, J.T.; Adkins-Regan, E.; Whiting, P.; Lindstrom, J.M.; Podleski, T.R.

1988-08-08

145

Lipid imaging in the zebra finch brain with secondary ion mass spectrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipids have diverse functions in the nervous system, but the study of their anatomical distributions in the intact brain is rather difficult using conventional methodologies. Here we demonstrate the application of high resolution time-of-flight (ToF) secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to image various lipid components and cholesterol across an entire brain section prepared from an adult zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), with a spatial resolution of 2.3 [mu]m, resulting in the formation of 11.5 megapixel chemical images. The zebra finch is a songbird in which specific neural and developmental functions have been ascribed to discrete "song control nuclei" of the forebrain. We have observed a relative increase of palmitic acid C16:0 and oleic acid C18:1 in song control nuclei versus the surrounding tissue, while phosphate (PO3-), representative of phospholipids, was lower in these regions. Cholesterol was present at a high level only in the white matter of the optic tectum. More diffuse distributions were observed for stearic, arachidonic, linolenic, and palmitoleic acids. The presented results illustrate that SIMS imaging is a useful approach for assessing changes in lipid content during song circuit development and song learning.

Amaya, Kensey R.; Monroe, Eric B.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Clayton, David F.

2007-02-01

146

Zebra tape identification for the instantaneous angular speed computation and angular resampling of motorbike valve train measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental test campaign was performed on the valve train of a racing motorbike engine in order to get insight into the dynamic of the system. In particular the valve motion was acquired in cold test conditions by means of a laser vibrometer able to acquire displacement and velocity signals. The valve time-dependent measurements needed to be referred to the camshaft angular position in order to analyse the data in the angular domain, as usually done for rotating machines. To this purpose the camshaft was fitted with a zebra tape whose dark and light stripes were tracked by means of an optical probe. Unfortunately, both manufacturing and mounting imperfections of the employed zebra tape, resulting in stripes with slightly different widths, precluded the possibility to directly obtain the correct relationship between camshaft angular position and time. In order to overcome this problem, the identification of the zebra tape was performed by means of the original and practical procedure that is the focus of the present paper. The method consists of three main steps: namely, an ad-hoc test corresponding to special operating conditions, the computation of the instantaneous angular speed, and the final association of the stripes with the corresponding shaft angular position. The results reported in the paper demonstrate the suitability of the simple procedure for the zebra tape identification performed with the final purpose to implement a computed order tracking technique for the data analysis.

Rivola, Alessandro; Troncossi, Marco

2014-02-01

147

Assimilation and depuration of microcystin-LR by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are an important component of the foodweb of shallow lakes in the Netherlands, amongst others in Lake IJsselmeer, an international important wetland. Large numbers of ducks feed on these mussels in autumn and winter. The mussels are filter feeders and are exposed to high densities of cyanobacteria in summer and autumn. Mussels and cyanobacteria both thrive in Lake IJsselmeer. Apparently the mussels are somehow protected against accumulation of harmful quantities of cyanobacterial toxins. In this study, we investigated the assimilation of the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in zebra mussels when fed the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa as sole food or in a mixture with the eustigmatophyte Nannochloropsis limnetica. After 3 weeks of assimilation we studied the depuration of MC-LR during 3 weeks when the food of the mussels was free of cyanobacteria. These assimilation/depuration experiments were combined with grazing experiments, using the same food treatments. Microcystins were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS); in addition, covalently bound MC were analyzed using the MMPB method. The mussels showed higher clearance rates on Microcystis than on Nannochloropsis. No selective rejection of either phytoplankton species was observed in the excretion products of the mussels. Zebra mussels fed Microcystis as single food, assimilated microcystin-LR relatively fast, and after 1 week the maximum value of free unbound microcystin assimilation (ca. 11 microg g DW(-1)) was attained. For mussels, fed with the mixed food, a maximum of only 3.9 microg g DW(-1) was recorded after 3 weeks. Covalently bound MC never reached high values, with a maximum of approximately 62% of free MC in the 2nd week of the experiment. In the depuration period microcystin decreased rapidly to low values and after 3 weeks only very low amounts of microcystin were detectable. The amount of toxin that accumulated in the mussels would appear to be high enough to cause (liver) damage in diving ducks. However, death by exposure to microcystin seems unlikely. Mussels seem efficient in minimizing the assimilation of microcystin. If it were not for this, mass mortalities of ducks in shallow lakes in the Netherlands would presumably occur on a much more widespread scale than is currently observed. PMID:15312721

Pires, L M Dionisio; Karlsson, K M; Meriluoto, J A O; Kardinaal, E; Visser, P M; Siewertsen, K; Donk, E Van; Ibelings, B W

2004-09-20

148

Enhanced fos expression in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) brain following first courtship.  

Science.gov (United States)

Young zebra finch males that court a female for the first time develop a stable preference for the females of that species. On the neuronal level, consolidation of the imprinted information takes place. Here we demonstrate that first courtship or being chased around in the cage leads to enhanced fos expression in forebrain areas implicated in learning and imprinting in zebra finch males compared with birds reared in isolation or in the aviary. Two of the forebrain areas highly active during first courtship (as demonstrated by the 14C-2-deoxyglucose technique), the imprinting locus latral neo/hyperstriatum ventrale (LNH) and the secondary visual area hyperstriatum accessorium/dorsale (HAD), demonstrate enhanced fos expression. Two other imprinting-related areas, the medial neo/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH) and archistriatum/neostriatum caudale (ANC), do show c-fos induction; however, the areas are not congruous with those demarcated by the 2-DG autoradiographic studies. Additional telencephalic areas include the olfactory lobe, the information storage site lobus parolfactorius (LPO), the memory site hippocampus, the auditory caudomedial neostriatum implicated in the strength of song learning, and the caudolateral neostriatum, which is comparable to the mammalian prefrontal cortex. In addition, c-fos is induced by first courtship and chasing in neurosecretory cell groups of the preoptic area and hypothalamus associated with the repertoire of sexual behavior and stress or enhanced arousal. Enhanced fos expression is also observed in brainstem sources of specific (noradrenergic, catecholaminergic) and nonspecific (reticular formation) activating pathways with inputs to higher brain areas implicated in the imprinting process. Birds reared in isolation or alternatively in the aviary with social and sexual contact to conspecifics showed attenuated or no fos expression in most of the above-mentioned areas. First courtship and chasing both lead to enhanced uptake of 2-DG in the four imprinting areas, as well as subsequent changes in spine density-an anatomical manifestation of the imprinting process. fos expression in the imprinting and other telencephalic, preoptic, hypothalamic, and mesencephalic brain regions indicates processing of stimuli originating from exposure (like chasing) and the analysis of stimuli in a behaviorally relevant, sexually explicit context (like first courtship). c-fos induction in these brain areas indicates its involvement in the triggering of neural changes that accompany the learning process of imprinting, leading eventually to alterations in dendritic spine density in the zebra finch. PMID:12012427

Sadananda, Monika; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

2002-06-24

149

Song exposure regulates known and novel microRNAs in the zebra finch auditory forebrain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In an important model for neuroscience, songbirds learn to discriminate songs they hear during tape-recorded playbacks, as demonstrated by song-specific habituation of both behavioral and neurogenomic responses in the auditory forebrain. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs may participate in the changing pattern of gene expression induced by song exposure. To test this, we used massively parallel Illumina sequencing to analyse small RNAs from auditory forebrain of adult zebra finches exposed to tape-recorded birdsong or silence. Results In the auditory forebrain, we identified 121 known miRNAs conserved in other vertebrates. We also identified 34 novel miRNAs that do not align to human or chicken genomes. Five conserved miRNAs showed significant and consistent changes in copy number after song exposure across three biological replications of the song-silence comparison, with two increasing (tgu-miR-25, tgu-miR-192 and three decreasing (tgu-miR-92, tgu-miR-124, tgu-miR-129-5p. We also detected a locus on the Z sex chromosome that produces three different novel miRNAs, with supporting evidence from Northern blot and TaqMan qPCR assays for differential expression in males and females and in response to song playbacks. One of these, tgu-miR-2954-3p, is predicted (by TargetScan to regulate eight song-responsive mRNAs that all have functions in cellular proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Conclusions The experience of hearing another bird singing alters the profile of miRNAs in the auditory forebrain of zebra finches. The response involves both known conserved miRNAs and novel miRNAs described so far only in the zebra finch, including a novel sex-linked, song-responsive miRNA. These results indicate that miRNAs are likely to contribute to the unique behavioural biology of learned song communication in songbirds.

Kim Jong H

2011-05-01

150

Quagga and zebra mussel risk via veliger transfer by overland hauled boats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Invasive quagga and zebra mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis and Dreissena polymorpha, respectively pose a great threat to USwaters. Recreational boats constitute a significant risk for spreading the organisms. Recreational boats circulate large amounts of raw waterwhen in use, and if not drained and dried correctly can transport many mussel larvae, called veligers. Veligers experience very high mortality rates; however, the number of potentially transported veligers can be a serious risk to non-infested bodies of water, especially if multiple boats are involved. The risk of veliger transport was calculated for Lake Mead and Lake Michigan using boat capacities for water circulation and specific veliger density data. Results illustrate the importance of draining, drying, and/or decontaminating recreational boats after use.

Larry B. Dalton

2013-04-01

151

Spawning of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and rearing of veligers under laboratory conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

The spawning cycle of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is amenable to laboratory manipulations. Techniques are presented that can be used to initiate spawning and rear veligers from fertilized egg to settlement stage. Spawning can be induced in sexually mature mussels by temperature flucuations or by the addition of ripe gametes. Embryonic survival is excellent until the straight-hinge stage when the first wave of mortality occurs, usually due to improper food. The second critical stage of development occurs just prior to settlement when mortality increases again. Veliger mortality averaged over 90% from egg to settlement. The results indicate that obtaining large numbers of veligers for laboratory experiments to be conducted year-round is difficult.

Nichols, S. Jerrine

1992-01-01

152

The basic unit of the imaging plane of the ZEBRA low energy gamma ray telescope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanical, electrical, and performance characteristics of one element of the ZEBRA telescope's position sensitive detection plane are presented. One unit comprises a NaI (T1) bar 55 x 5, 8 x 5 cm thick and two photomultiplier tubes one mounted on each end. The surface of the bar has been treated to enhance the exponential attenuation of the scintillation light produced by an event. The signal from the two tubes are taken in coincidence and, by the application of two simple algorithms, the energy and position of the event along the bar can be calculated. The tubes are powered by two programmable low consumption high tension supplies. Their digital control makes automatic gain correction feasible during the flight

1986-02-01

153

A Very Small and Super Strong Zebra Pattern Burst at the Beginning of a Solar Flare  

CERN Document Server

Microwave emission with spectral zebra pattern structures (ZPs) is observed frequently in solar flares and the Crab pulsar. The previous observations show that ZP is only a structure overlapped on the underlying broadband continuum with slight increments and decrements. This work reports an extremely unusual strong ZP burst occurring just at the beginning of a solar flare observed simultaneously by two radio telescopes located in China and Czech Republic and by the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) telescope on board NASA's satellite Solar Dynamics Observatory on 2013 April 11. It is a very short and super strong explosion whose intensity exceeds several times that of the underlying flaring broadband continuum emission, lasting for just 18 s. EUV images show that the flare starts from several small flare bursting points (FBPs). There is a sudden EUV flash with extra enhancement in one of these FBPs during the ZP burst. Analysis indicates that the ZP burst accompanying EUV flash is an unusual explosion revealing a str...

Tan, Baolin; Zhang, Yin; Huang, Jing; Meszarosova, Hana; Karlicky, Marian; Yan, Yihua

2014-01-01

154

Increased mortality in a colony of zebra finches exposed to continuous light.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over a 1-mo period, increased morbidity and mortality occurred in a flock of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Complete postmortem examination was performed on 6 of the affected birds, 4 of which subsequently were diagnosed with the avian gastric yeast previously known as megabacteriosis (Macrorhabdus ornithogaster). The remaining 2 birds were diagnosed with a cloacal abscess and with large bowel perforation and peritonitis. All the birds had been prophylactically treated with amphotericin B for megabacteria 2 mo previously. An environmental assessment revealed that the light cycle had been altered, and the birds were being exposed to constant light. With correction of the light cycle, the health of the birds improved dramatically. The remaining birds were treated again with amphotericin B, and baseline mortality returned to normal. The birds in this report show several similarities to previous reports of sleep deprivation syndrome in mammals. PMID:23849414

Snyder, Jessica M; Molk, Denise M; Treuting, Piper M

2013-01-01

155

Evaluation of several priority pollutants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the largest Italian subalpine lakes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been used for the biomonitoring of several POPs (PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs) in the largest Italian subalpine great lakes (Lake Maggiore, Garda, Como, Iseo and Lugano). Samplings were carried out in April 2003 at 15 locations selected according to industrial and anthropic levels of lakes. Results have pointed out high DDT levels in D. polymorpha specimens from Lake Maggiore (700-1400 ng/g lipids, 5-9 times higher than those measured in mussels of other Italian lakes), due to a contamination from a chemical plant located on one of the main lake inlet that occurred in 1996. On the contrary, PCB levels (400-2509 ng/g lipids) highlighted an overall pollution, with some sporadic peaks of contamination. Data showed a moderate increase trend compared to those found in a previous monitoring campaign carried out in 1996. Future monitoring is needed in order to confirm this tendency. PMID:17561323

Riva, Consuelo; Binelli, Andrea; Provini, Alfredo

2008-02-01

156

Impact of European zebra mussel infestation to the electric power industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on Dreissena polymorpha, the European freshwater zebra mussel, introduced to the Great Lakes in 1985. It is now found throughout Lakes St. Clair and Erie, in Green Bay, Lake Michigan and invaded western Lake Ontario by Fall 1989. As its planktonic veliger larva is dispersed on water currents and adults are transported by human and natural vectors, it is likely to spread throughout U.S. and southern Canadian freshwaters. Mussel accumulations impede flow, and aggravate sedimentation and corrosion. Settlement occurs at flow velocities less than 1.5-2.0 m/sec. Mussels foul intake structures, low-flow piping, steam condensors, heat exchangers, fire protection systems, and cooling tower basins. Monitoring of source waters for mussels and veligers allows initiation of control measures before macrofouling occurs. Mussel fouling should be prevented as removal is difficult and expensive.

McMahon, R.F. (Center for Biological Macrofouling Research, Univ. of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (US))

1990-01-01

157

Myosin heavy-chain isoforms in the flight and leg muscles of hummingbirds and zebra finches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform complement is intimately related to a muscle's contractile properties, yet relatively little is known about avian MHC isoforms or how they may vary with fiber type and/or the contractile properties of a muscle. The rapid shortening of muscles necessary to power flight at the high wingbeat frequencies of ruby-throated hummingbirds and zebra finches (25-60 Hz), along with the varied morphology and use of the hummingbird hindlimb, provides a unique opportunity to understand how contractile and morphological properties of avian muscle may be reflected in MHC expression. Isoforms of the hummingbird and zebra finch flight and hindlimb muscles were electrophoretically separated and compared with those of other avian species representing different contractile properties and fiber types. The flight muscles of the study species operate at drastically different contraction rates and are composed of different histochemically defined fiber types, yet each exhibited the same, single MHC isoform corresponding to the chicken adult fast isoform. Thus, despite quantitative differences in the contractile demands of flight muscles across species, this isoform appears necessary for meeting the performance demands of avian powered flight. Variation in flight muscle contractile performance across species may be due to differences in the structural composition of this conserved isoform and/or variation within other mechanically linked proteins. The leg muscles were more varied in their MHC isoform composition across both muscles and species. The disparity in hindlimb MHC expression between hummingbirds and the other species highlights previously observed differences in fiber type composition and thrust production during take-off. PMID:24671242

Velten, Brandy P; Welch, Kenneth C

2014-06-01

158

Sex-specific effects of maternal immunization on yolk antibody transfer and offspring performance in zebra finches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Trans-generational antibody transfer constitutes an important mechanism by which mothers may enhance offspring resistance to pathogens. Thus, differential antibody deposition may potentially allow a female to differentiate offspring performance. Here, we examined whether maternal immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) prior to egg laying affects sex-specific yolk antibody transfer and sex-specific offspring performance in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We showed that immunized m...

Martyka, Rafa?; Rutkowska, Joanna; Cichon?, Mariusz

2011-01-01

159

Comparing a microbial biocide and chlorine as zebra mussel control strategies in an Irish drinking water treatment plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A need exists for an environmentally friendly mussel control method to replace chlorine and other traditional control methods currentlyutilised in drinking water plants and other infested facilities. Zequanox® is a newly commercialised microbial biocide for zebra and quaggamussels comprised of killed Pseudomonas fluorescens CL145A cells. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of adevelopmental formulation of Zequanox (referred to as MBI 401 FDP and chlorine treatments on adult and juvenile zebra mussels byrunning a biobox trial in conjunction with chlorine treatments at an infested Irish drinking water treatment plant. Since 2009, the plantmanagement has used a residual chlorine concentration of 2 mg/L in autumn to control both adult zebra mussels and juvenile settlement intheir three concrete raw water chambers. Juvenile mussel settlement was monitored in three bioboxes as well as in three treatment chambersin the plant for three months prior to treatment. Adult mussels were seeded into the chambers and bioboxes four days before treatment. InOctober 2011, the bioboxes were treated with MBI 401 FDP at 200 mg active substance/L, while chlorine treatment took place in the waterchambers. The MBI 401 FDP treatment lasted only 8 hours while chlorine treatment lasted seven days. Juvenile numbers were reduced tozero in both the bioboxes and treated chambers within seven days. Adult mussel mortality reached 80% for both the chlorine and MBI 401FDP treatment; however, mortality was achieved faster in the chlorine treatment. These results provided important insights into zebra musselcontrol alternatives to chlorine and supported further development of the now commercial product, Zequanox.

Sara Meehan

2013-06-01

160

Sexual equality in zebra finch song preference: evidence for a dissociation between song recognition and production learning.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Song in oscine birds is a culturally inherited mating signal and sexually dimorphic. From differences in song production learning, sex differences in song recognition learning have been inferred but rarely put to a stringent test. In zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, females never sing and the species has one of the greatest neuroanatomical differences in song-related brain nuclei reported for songbirds. Preference tests with sibling groups for which exposure to song had been identical duri...

Riebel, Katharina; Smallegange, Isabel M.; Terpstra, Nienke J.; Bolhuis, Johan J.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Ecological impact assessment of sediment remediation in a metal-contaminated lowland river using translocated zebra mussels and resident macroinvertebrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study investigated to what extent accumulated metal levels in aquatic invertebrates can reflect environmental contamination and how these tissue levels can be related to alterations in macroinvertebrate communities in the dredged River Dommel. Metal accumulation was measured in translocated zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and resident Chironomidae. Furthermore, macroinvertebrate community composition was assessed. Our results indicated that trends of total metal concentrations in surface water of the Dommel in time are reflected well by metal levels in tissue of D. polymorpha. In contrast, sediment-bound metals were the most dominant exposure route for Chironomidae. Alterations in macroinvertebrate community composition were observed during dredging and significant relations between metal levels in invertebrate tissues and ecological responses were found. Our results demonstrated that metal accumulation in both zebra mussels and Chironomidae can be used as an integrated measure of metal bioavailability and to predict ecological effects of metal toxicity on macroinvertebrate communities. - Highlights: ? The use of tissue concentrations to assess environmental metal pollution was studied. ? Metal accumulation was measured in caged zebra mussels and resident Chironomidae. ? Shell condition of mussels and macroinvertebrate taxa distribution was assessed. ? Different accumulation between biota and relations with community level were found. ? Bioaccumulation is an integrated measure of metal toxicity in aquatic communities. - Metal accumulation in selected aquatic invertebrates can be used as an integrated measure of metal bioavailability and to predict ecological effects of metal toxicity.

2012-12-01

162

Localized immediate early gene expression related to the strength of song learning in socially reared zebra finches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent evidence showed that exposure of tape-tutored zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata castanotis) males to the tutor song involves neuronal activation in brain regions outside the conventional 'song control pathways', particularly the caudal part of the neostriatum (NCM) and of the hyperstriatum ventrale (CMHV). Zebra finch males were reared with a live tutor during the sensitive period for song learning. When, as adults, they were re-exposed to the tutor song, the males showed increased expression of Fos, the protein product of the immediate early gene c-fos, in the NCM and CMHV, compared with expression in two conventional 'song control nuclei', high vocal centre (HVC) and Area X. The strength of the Fos response (which is a reflection of neuronal activation) in the NCM (but not in the other three regions) correlated significantly and positively with the number of song elements that the birds had copied from the tutor song. Thus, socially tutored zebra finch males show localized neural activation in response to tutor song exposure, which correlates with the strength of song learning. PMID:11422458

Bolhuis, J J; Hetebrij, E; Den Boer-Visser, A M; De Groot, J H; Zijlstra, G G

2001-06-01

163

Contaminant and genotoxicity profiles of sediments and zebra mussels as indicators of chemical contamination in Hamilton Harbour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples of bottom sediments, suspended sediments and Zebra mussels were collected from Hamilton Harbour, an embayment of western Lake Ontario. In addition, sediment samples were collected from creeks which flow into the Harbour. These sediment samples were extracted with dichloromethane and the organic extract was cleaned up prior to analysis for PAH and thia-arenes by GC-MS. These extracts were also subjected to genotoxicity bioassays (Ames assays) in two strains of Salmonella typhimurium (a TA98-like strain, YG1024-S9 and a TA100-like strain, YG1025 + S9). The sediment and Zebra mussels samples collected near sites of heavy coal tar contamination showed PAH, thia-arene and genotoxicity profiles that are very similar to the corresponding profiles for coal tar. These observations are consistent with the resuspension and distribution of coal tar-contaminated bottom sediments in the water column. The sediment samples collected in a major creek entering the Harbor and the sediment and Zebra mussels samples collected in Windemere Arm near the mouth of this creek showed very different chemical and genotoxicity profiles. Thus, the chemical and genotoxicity burdens on Hamilton Harbour posed by the resuspension of coal tar-contaminated sediments and the inputs from urban activity into a major creek and the Harbor can be differentiated

1996-11-17

164

Bioaccumulation of pollutants in the zebra mussel from hazardous industrial waste and evaluation of spatial distribution using GAMs.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Flix Reservoir (Ebro River, Spain), ca. 300,000tons of industrial waste were dumped because of the activity of a factory plant in Flix. Within the recovery program implemented, this exceptional situation provides a unique opportunity to test the value of zebra mussel as sentinel organism. Ten metal concentrations were measured in mussels from different sites to assess spatial redistribution of metals and bioavailability to the food web. Our results showed an important metal uptake by mussels; metal concentrations (except As) measured in impacted sites were up to 10 times higher than in control sites, and Mn and Hg exceeded several times the levels previously reported for polluted waters. Concentrations increased downstream showing the metal mobilization from polluted sediments in Flix Reservoir. The higher metal concentrations measured in zebra mussel individuals clearly indicated their bioavailability to the food web, allowing the toxics transfer to predators and occasionally to humans. Thus, zebra mussel is a valuable sentinel organism to identify highly polluted waters, transport routes and trophic transfer. PMID:21176943

Alcaraz, Carles; Caiola, Nuno; Ibáñez, Carles

2011-02-01

165

Physiological and behavioral responses to an acute-phase response in zebra finches: immediate and short-term effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activation of the immune system to clear pathogens and mitigate infection is a costly process that might incur fitness costs. When vertebrates are exposed to pathogens, their first line of defense is the acute-phase response (APR), which consists of a suite of physiological and behavioral changes. The dynamics of the APR are relatively well investigated in mammals and domesticated birds but still rather unexplored in passerine birds. In this study, we injected male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) to assess the potential physiological, immunological, and behavioral responses during the time course of an APR and also to record any potential short-term effects by measuring the birds during the days after the expected APR. We found that LPS-injected zebra finches decreased activity and gained less body mass during the APR, compared to control individuals. In addition, LPS-injected birds increased their production of LPS-reactive antibodies and reduced their metabolic rate during the days after the expected APR. Our results show that zebra finches demonstrate sickness behaviors during an APR but also that physiological effects persist after the expected time course of an APR. These delayed effects might be either a natural part of the progression of an APR, which is probably true for the antibody response, or a short-term carryover effect, which is probably true for the metabolic response. PMID:24642546

Sköld-Chiriac, Sandra; Nord, Andreas; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Hasselquist, Dennis

2014-01-01

166

Screening of POP pollution by AChE and EROD activities in Zebra mussels from the Italian Great Lakes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increase of ethoxyresorufin dealkylation (EROD) and the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as biomarkers have been commonly used in vertebrates for the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) biomonitoring of aquatic environments, but very few studies have been performed for invertebrates. Previous researches demonstrated the interference due to some chemicals on EROD and AChE activities of the freshwater bivalve Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in laboratory and field studies, showing its possible use for the screening of POP effects. We investigated the contamination of the Italian sub-alpine great lakes (Maggiore, Lugano, Como, Iseo, Garda) by the biomarker approach on Zebra mussel specimens collected at 17 sampling sites with different morphometric characteristics and anthropization levels. Results showed a homogeneous contamination of AChE inhibitors in Lake Garda, Maggiore, Como and Iseo with values ranging from 0.5 to 3 nmol/min/mg proteins and with an average inhibition of about 66% to controls. The planar compounds pollution, able to activate the EROD activity, seems higher in some sampling stations of Lake Garda, Como and Iseo (2-4 pmol/min/mg proteins) than that measured in Lake Lugano (1.5-3 pmol/min/mg proteins). On the contrary, the enzyme activity in Lake Maggiore showed an interesting opposite effect of AhR-binding compounds and trace metals. Finally, the possible use of Zebra mussel specimens maintained at laboratory conditions as controls against the selection of the less polluted sampling site is discussed. PMID:16263378

Binelli, A; Ricciardi, Francesco; Riva, Consuelo; Provini, Alfredo

2005-12-01

167

Cannabinoid exposure during zebra finch sensorimotor vocal learning persistently alters expression of endocannabinoid signaling elements and acute agonist responsiveness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we have found that cannabinoid treatment of zebra finches during sensorimotor stages of vocal development alters song patterns produced in adulthood. Such persistently altered behavior must be attributable to changes in physiological substrates responsible for song. We are currently working to identify the nature of such physiological changes, and to understand how they contribute to altered vocal learning. One possibility is that developmental agonist exposure results in altered expression of elements of endocannabinoid signaling systems. To test this hypothesis we have studied effects of the potent cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 (WIN on endocannabinoid levels and densities of CB1 immunostaining in zebra finch brain. Results We found that late postnatal WIN treatment caused a long-term global disregulation of both levels of the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG and densities of CB1 immunostaining across brain regions, while repeated cannabinoid treatment in adults produced few long-term changes in the endogenous cannabinoid system. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the zebra finch endocannabinoid system is particularly sensitive to exogenous agonist exposure during the critical period of song learning and provide insight into susceptible brain areas.

Lichtman Aron H

2011-01-01

168

Differential expression of the immediate early genes FOS and ZENK following auditory stimulation in the juvenile male and female zebra finch.  

Science.gov (United States)

The brains of adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are tuned to the songs of conspecifics. In adult males, the caudomedial neostriatum (NCM) responds to zebra finch song, and in adult females the NCM and hippocampus (HP) are active following exposure to zebra finch song more than other auditory stimuli. The caudal hyperstriatum ventrale (cHV) in both sexes also responds to song, but in females not as selectively as the NCM and HP. While much is known about the adult perceptual circuit, less is known about its development. The present study exposed d30 male and female zebra finches to conspecific or heterospecific song, tones or silence, and examined the densities of FOS- and ZENK-immunoreactive nuclei in the NCM, cHV and HP. Significant interactions existed between sex and auditory stimulus condition for both immediate early genes, but they were in opposite directions. That is, across the three regions, FOS-immunoreactive neurons were increased in females following presentation of conspecific songs; males did not show an effect of stimulus exposure. In contrast, the density of ZENK-positive neurons was increased in males, but not females, following zebra finch song exposure. The FOS results demonstrate that some neural responses required for song perception may develop earlier in females than males; data on ZENK induction suggest the opposite. Overall, differences in juvenile immediate early gene activation suggest either that males and females employ divergent neural mechanisms for song perception or that the developmental trajectories leading to common neural responses differ. PMID:12941470

Bailey, David J; Wade, Juli

2003-08-19

169

Evaluation of detachable coatings to control zebra mussel attachment : a feasibility study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using underwater detachable coatings to control zebra mussel infestation. Two candidates, a two coat polyvinyl butyryl/acrylic polymer system (EMR 1) and a single coat polyvinyl butyryl polymer (EMR 2), were considered. In terms of fouling, the study showed that coating EMR 1 was poor to very good for unpainted concrete, very good to excellent for painted concrete, good to excellent for unpainted steel, and fair to excellent for painted steel. Coating EMR 2 was poor for unpainted and painted concrete, very good for unpainted steel and excellent for painted steel. In terms of durability, coating EMR 1 exhibited topcoat blistering and cracking for all substrates except painted steel, but its undercoat remained intact on all substrates. For EMR 2 blistering and cracking were present on all substrates but the painted steel. Laboratory testing also showed that the effect of elevated temperatures on both coatings varied with the material property considered. 113 figs., 10 tabs., 25 refs.

Gowda, G.; Leitch, E.G.; Spencer, F.S.; Lewak, R.

1994-11-01

170

Changes in Benthic Invertebrate Communities During the Introduction of Zebra Mussels Into an Impounded Michigan River  

Science.gov (United States)

Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha, ZM) were introduced into the Croton impoundment on the Muskegon River, MI, sometime during the late 1990s, and subsequently colonized downstream. We evaluated changes in invertebrate communities in the Muskegon River during ZM colonization. ZM were not found in benthic samples collected during 1998-1999 but densities reached 12,000 m-2 and 26,000 m-2 in 2000 and 2001 respectively, immediately below the Croton impoundment. ZM densities remained relatively low (relative abundance of Hyropsychidae varied between 1998-99 and 2001 at each sample site. Cheumatopsyche sp. increased significantly below Croton dam occupying spaces within and below ZM clumps, but declined at downstream sites following introduction of ZM. Chironomidae were uncommon in 1998-99 samples but were numerically dominant in 2000 and 2001 averaging 16525 m-2 over both years. Data from 2003 indicated that ZM remove 32% of suspended Chl. a in the first 500 m below Croton Dam. Thus, ZM may affect benthic invertebrate communities in impounded river systems by redistributing particulate organic matter within the system.

Luttenton, M.; Godby, N.; Rutherford, E.; Vankampen, S.

2005-05-01

171

Photosynthetic performance of rock-colonising lichens in the Mountain Zebra National Park, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The photosynthetic behaviour of endolithic andepilithic lichens characteristic of sedimentary and volcanic rock was investigated in situ in the Mountain Zebra National Park, South Africa. The park forms part of an inland semi-desert known as the Karoo, in the Cape Province. Temperatures within Balfour sandstone were monitored, the results showing that during the early morning, temperatures within the sandstone were nearly 5@C lower than ambient air temperatures. This may enhance the frequency of water condensing on the sandstone, which may be particularly important for the endoliths Leciclea aff. sarcogynoides and Sarcogyne cf. austroafricana. Maximum photosynthetic rates of the investigated species were found at temperatures between 20@C and 30@C, far higher than the recorded optimum temperatures for lichens from temperate and desert regions. Parmelia chlorea was the most productive species. Compared to the other epiliths, Peltula capensis was found to be a moderately productive species. The photosynthetic gain of Leciclea aff. sarcogynoides and Sarcogyne cf. austro-africana was low, but the photosynthetic gain of these two species still exceeded that of Acarospora sp.

Ludger Kappen

1993-09-01

172

EFFECTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHATES ON ACUTE POISONING AND ACETYL CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ZEBRA FISH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organophosphates (Ops. are the most widely used insecticides available today. These are a group of insecticides used in chemical sprays to kill bugs, and insects in orchards, vineyards, vegetables and cereal crops. The present study examined effects of the pesticide Methyl parathion, Dichlorvos and Chlorpyrifos on adult zebra fish were exposed to various concentrations (5, 10 & 25mg/L for 24 and 48hrs acute toxic study. Chlorpyrifos showed mortality in all concentrations and Methyl parathion and Dichlorvos showed the same in 25 mg/L. LC 50 value for Methyl parathion and Dichlorvos was 5 & 10 mg/L respectively. The total protein, LPO content was increased except SOD, Catalase in the brain tissue of the treated fishes.  There was no significant decrease in the GPX activity at 5ppm test groups. The GPX activity decreased significantly in test group treated with 10ppm and a significant difference was found between 5ppm and 10ppm test groups. The histopathological studies of brain tissue showed that neuronal degeneration and tissue damages in the brain of treated fishes when compared with the control. Ops. produce toxicity by inhibiting the cholinesterase enzymes in the nervous system. Monitoring of acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibition has been widely used in terrestrial and freshwater aquatic systems as an indicator of OP exposure and effects.

TH Sukirtha* MV Usharani

2013-03-01

173

Annual and seasonal variations in zebra mussel (Dreissena spp.) veliger density in the upper Niagara River  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This poster will review and compare 1994 zebra mussel (Dreissena spp.) veliger density data with those that were collected since 1991. The objective of this analysis is to illustrate differences and similarities in veliger density trends between these years. Three locations along the upper Niagara River were sampled weekly from June 1991 through December 1994. Generally, veliger density fluctuated in magnitude and spawning duration throughout the four year period. Spawning season occurred early in 1991 and was brief, starting in July and concluding in early September. The 1991 season was characterized by relatively high densities occurring over a short period of time. The spawning seasons in 1992 through 1994 were much longer than those observed in 1991. In 1992, spawning was observed by mid-July and concluded in November. Two peaks of 20,000/m{sup 3} were observed, one in August, the other in September 1992. The spawning seasons of 1993 and 1994 did not occur until September and was characterized by moderate to high densities with a single high peak density of 57,000/m{sup 3}. 1993 and 1994 spawning seasons were relatively late in the year compared to earlier seasons. Spawning from 1994 was generally similar to 1993 in timing and magnitude. Viable veligers were observed each year during winter months.

Ferro, T.A.; Keppner, H.T.; Adrian, D.J. [AquaTech Environmental, Inc., Clarence, NY (United States)

1995-06-01

174

Environmental and genetic control of brain and song structure in the zebra finch.  

Science.gov (United States)

Birdsong is a classic example of a learned trait with cultural inheritance, with selection acting on trait expression. To understand how song responds to selection, it is vital to determine the extent to which variation in song learning and neuroanatomy is attributable to genetic variation, environmental conditions, or their interactions. Using a partial cross fostering design with an experimental stressor, we quantified the heritability of song structure and key brain nuclei in the song control system of the zebra finch and the genotype-by-environment (G × E) interactions. Neuroanatomy and song structure both showed low levels of heritability and are unlikely to be under selection as indicators of genetic quality. HVC, in particular, was almost entirely under environmental control. G × E interaction was important for brain development and may provide a mechanism by which additive genetic variation is maintained, which in turn may promote sexual selection through female choice. Our study suggests that selection may act on the genes determining vocal learning, rather than directly on the underlying neuroanatomy, and emphasizes the fundamental importance of environmental conditions for vocal learning and neural development in songbirds. PMID:24102614

Woodgate, Joseph L; Buchanan, Katherine L; Bennett, Andrew T D; Catchpole, Clive K; Brighton, Roswitha; Leitner, Stefan

2014-01-01

175

Lifelong exposure to methylmercury disrupts stress-induced corticosterone response in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Mercury can disrupt the endocrine systems of mammals and fish, but little is known about its effects on avian hormones. The authors employed an experimental manipulation to show that methylmercury suppresses the stress-induced corticosterone response in birds, an effect previously unreported in the literature. Corticosterone regulates many normal metabolic processes, such as the maintenance of proper blood glucose levels during stressful daily fasting; an inability to increase corticosterone levels in response to stressors renders a bird less able to face a wide array of environmental challenges. The authors studied reproductively mature zebra finches that had been exposed to 0.0?µg/g, 0.3?µg/g, 0.6?µg/g, 1.2?µg/g, or 2.4?µg/g (wet wt) dietary methylmercury throughout their life (i.e., from the egg onward). In contrast to some field studies, the present study found no significant change in baseline plasma corticosterone concentrations attributable to chronic methylmercury exposure. However, a comparison between the baseline corticosterone levels and levels after 30?min of handling stress revealed that the ability of birds to mount a stress response was reduced with increasing blood total mercury concentration. These results are consistent with adrenal corticoid disruption caused by chronic mercury exposure and mirror a similar study on free-living nestling songbirds exposed to environmental mercury. PMID:24436046

Moore, Christina S; Cristol, Daniel A; Maddux, Sarah L; Varian-Ramos, Claire W; Bradley, Eric L

2014-05-01

176

Auditory synapses to song premotor neurons are gated off during vocalization in zebra finches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Songbirds use auditory feedback to learn and maintain their songs, but how feedback interacts with vocal motor circuitry remains unclear. A potential site for this interaction is the song premotor nucleus HVC, which receives auditory input and contains neurons (HVCX cells) that innervate an anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) important to feedback-dependent vocal plasticity. Although the singing-related output of HVCX cells is unaltered by distorted auditory feedback (DAF), deafening gradually weakens synapses on HVCX cells, raising the possibility that they integrate feedback only at subthreshold levels during singing. Using intracellular recordings in singing zebra finches, we found that DAF failed to perturb singing-related synaptic activity of HVCX cells, although many of these cells responded to auditory stimuli in non-singing states. Moreover, in vivo multiphoton imaging revealed that deafening-induced changes to HVCX synapses require intact AFP output. These findings support a model in which the AFP accesses feedback independent of HVC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01833.001. PMID:24550254

Hamaguchi, Kosuke; Tschida, Katherine A; Yoon, Inho; Donald, Bruce R; Mooney, Richard

2014-01-01

177

ZebraBeat: a flexible platform for the analysis of the cardiac rate in zebrafish embryos  

Science.gov (United States)

Heartbeat measurement is important in assesssing cardiac function because variations in heart rhythm can be the cause as well as an effect of hidden pathological heart conditions. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as one of the most useful model organisms for cardiac research. Indeed, the zebrafish heart is easily accessible for optical analyses without conducting invasive procedures and shows anatomical similarity to the human heart. In this study, we present a non-invasive, simple, cost-effective process to quantify the heartbeat in embryonic zebrafish. To achieve reproducibility, high throughput and flexibility (i.e., adaptability to any existing confocal microscope system and with a user-friendly interface that can be easily used by researchers), we implemented this method within a software program. We show here that this platform, called ZebraBeat, can successfully detect heart rate variations in embryonic zebrafish at various developmental stages, and it can record cardiac rate fluctuations induced by factors such as temperature and genetic- and chemical-induced alterations. Applications of this methodology may include the screening of chemical libraries affecting heart rhythm and the identification of heart rhythm variations in mutants from large-scale forward genetic screens.

de Luca, Elisa; Zaccaria, Gian Maria; Hadhoud, Marwa; Rizzo, Giovanna; Ponzini, Raffaele; Morbiducci, Umberto; Santoro, Massimo Mattia

2014-05-01

178

EVALUATION OF BIOTIC AND TREATMENT FACTORS RELATING TO BACTERIAL CONTROL OF ZEBRA MUSSELS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Testing over the last quarter has indicated the following regarding control of zebra mussels with bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A: (1) the concentration of bacteria suspended in water is directly correlated with mussel kill; (2) the ratio of bacterial mass per mussel, if too low, could limit mussel kill; a treatment must be done at a high enough ratio so that mussels do not deplete all the suspended bacteria before the end of the desired exposure period; (3) bacteria appear to lose almost all their toxicity after suspension for 24 hr in highly oxygenated water; (4) in a recirculating pipe system, the same percentage mussel kill will be achieved irrespective of whether all the bacteria are applied at once or divided up and applied intermittently in smaller quantities over a 10-hr period. Since this is the fourth quarterly report, a summation of all test results over the last twelve months is provided as a table in this report. The table includes the above-mentioned fourth-quarter results

2002-01-01

179

Evaluation of several priority pollutants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the largest Italian subalpine lakes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been used for the biomonitoring of several POPs (PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs) in the largest Italian subalpine great lakes (Lake Maggiore, Garda, Como, Iseo and Lugano). Samplings were carried out in April 2003 at 15 locations selected according to industrial and anthropic levels of lakes. Results have pointed out high DDT levels in D. polymorpha specimens from Lake Maggiore (700-1400 ng/g lipids, 5-9 times higher than those measured in mussels of other Italian lakes), due to a contamination from a chemical plant located on one of the main lake inlet that occurred in 1996. On the contrary, PCB levels (400-2509 ng/g lipids) highlighted an overall pollution, with some sporadic peaks of contamination. Data showed a moderate increase trend compared to those found in a previous monitoring campaign carried out in 1996. Future monitoring is needed in order to confirm this tendency. - Significant levels of DDTs and PCBs are still present in the Italian subalpine great lakes

2008-02-01

180

Localized neuronal activation in the zebra finch brain is related to the strength of song learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Songbirds (Oscines) learn their songs from a tutor. It is not known where in the brain the memories of these learned sounds are stored. Recent evidence suggests that song perception in songbirds involves neuronal activation in brain regions that have not traditionally been implicated in the control of song production or song learning, notably the caudal part of the neostriatum (NCM) and of the hyperstriatum ventrale. Zebra finch males (Taeniopygia guttata castanotis) were reared without their father and exposed to a tape-recorded song during the sensitive period for song learning. When, as adults, they were reexposed to the tutor song, the males showed increased expression of the protein products of the immediate early genes egr-1 (ZENK) and c-fos in the NCM and caudal hyperstriatum ventrale, but not in the conventional "song-control nuclei." The strength of the immediate early gene response (which is a reflection of neuronal activation) in the NCM correlated significantly and positively with the number of song elements that the birds had copied from the tutor song. These results show localized neural activation in response to tutor song exposure that correlates with the strength of song learning. PMID:10681421

Bolhuis, J J; Zijlstra, G G; den Boer-Visser, A M; Van Der Zee, E A

2000-02-29

 
 
 
 
181

Cell Degradation of a Na-NiCl2 (ZEBRA) Battery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, the parameters influencing the degradation of a Na-NiCl2 (ZEBRA) battery were investigated. Planar Na-NiCl2 cells using ?”-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) were tested with different C-rates, Ni/NaCl ratios, and capacity windows, in order to identify the key parameters for the degradation of Na-NiCl2 battery. The morphology of NaCl and Ni particles were extensively investigated after 60 cycles under various test conditions using a scanning electron microscope. A strong correlation between the particle size (NaCl and Ni) and battery degradation was observed in this work. Even though the growth of both Ni and NaCl can influence the cell degradation, our results indicate that the growth of NaCl is a dominant factor in cell degradation. The use of excess Ni seems to play a role in tolerating the negative effects of particle growth on degradation since the available active surface area of Ni particles can be still sufficient even after particle growth. For NaCl, a large cycling window was the most significant factor, of which effects were amplified with decrease in Ni/NaCl ratio.

Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

2013-11-01

182

Post-transcriptional regulation of zenk expression associated with zebra finch vocal development.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the male zebra finch, highly variable juvenile song and stereotyped adult song induce mRNA expression of the immediate early gene zenk in telencephalon. However, the functional consequences of this behavior-driven gene expression remain unknown. Here we characterize the developmental expression of zenk mRNA and protein in two forebrain song regions (HVC, the higher vocal center, and RA, the robust nucleus of the archistriatum). In HVC, singing results in similar percentages of cells producing zenk mRNA and zenk protein at different stages of vocal development. Similarly, song behavior at all stages of vocal development induces a comparable percentage of RA cells expressing zenk mRNA. However, the percentage of RA zenk immunoreactive cells is low during early vocal learning, increasing only as the vocal pattern matures. Early induction of a stereotyped vocal pattern in juvenile birds is associated with increased zenk immunoreactivity in RA, indicating that it is the form of the behavior (and not the age of the bird) that correlates with changes in zenk immunoreactivity. Together, our findings reveal a previously unrecognized relationship between behavioral development and post-transcriptional gene regulation. PMID:11038263

Whitney, O; Soderstrom, K; Johnson, F

2000-09-15

183

Evaluation of several priority pollutants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the largest Italian subalpine lakes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been used for the biomonitoring of several POPs (PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs) in the largest Italian subalpine great lakes (Lake Maggiore, Garda, Como, Iseo and Lugano). Samplings were carried out in April 2003 at 15 locations selected according to industrial and anthropic levels of lakes. Results have pointed out high DDT levels in D. polymorpha specimens from Lake Maggiore (700-1400 ng/g lipids, 5-9 times higher than those measured in mussels of other Italian lakes), due to a contamination from a chemical plant located on one of the main lake inlet that occurred in 1996. On the contrary, PCB levels (400-2509 ng/g lipids) highlighted an overall pollution, with some sporadic peaks of contamination. Data showed a moderate increase trend compared to those found in a previous monitoring campaign carried out in 1996. Future monitoring is needed in order to confirm this tendency. - Significant levels of DDTs and PCBs are still present in the Italian subalpine great lakes.

Riva, Consuelo [Department of Biology, Ecology Section, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy)], E-mail: consuelo.riva@unimi.it; Binelli, Andrea; Provini, Alfredo [Department of Biology, Ecology Section, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy)

2008-02-15

184

Multi-functional foot use during running in the zebra-tailed lizard (Callisaurus draconoides)  

CERN Document Server

A diversity of animals that run on solid, level, flat, non-slip surfaces appear to bounce on their legs; elastic elements in the limbs can store and return energy during each step. The mechanics and energetics of running in natural terrain, particularly on surfaces that can yield and flow under stress, is less understood. The zebra-tailed lizard (Callisaurus draconoides), a small desert generalist with a large, elongate, tendinous hind foot, runs rapidly across a variety of natural substrates. We use high speed video to obtain detailed three-dimensional running kinematics on solid and granular surfaces to reveal how leg, foot, and substrate mechanics contribute to its high locomotor performance. Running at ~10 body length/s (~1 m/s), the center of mass oscillates like a spring-mass system on both substrates, with only 15% reduction in stride length on the granular surface. On the solid surface, a strut-spring model of the hind limb reveals that the hind foot saves about 40% of the mechanical work needed per s...

Li, Chen; Goldman, Daniel I; 10.1242/jeb.061937

2013-01-01

185

A comparative study of the sulfation of bile acids and a bile alcohol by the Zebra danio (Danio rerio) and human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current study was designed to examine the sulfation of bile acids and bile alcohols by the Zebra danio (Danio rerio) SULTs in comparison with human SULTs. A systematic analysis using the fifteen Zebra danio SULTs revealed that SULT3 ST2 and SULT3 ST3 were the major bile acid/alcohol-sulfating SULTs. Among the eleven human SULTs, only SULT2A1 was found to be capable of sulfating bile acids and bile alcohols. To further investigate the sulfation of bile acids and bile alcohols by the two Ze...

Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Krasowski, Matthew D.; Injeti, Elisha; Liu, Ming-yih; Williams, Frederick E.; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-cheh

2011-01-01

186

Alteration of antioxidant enzymes and impairment of DNA in the SiO2 nanoparticles exposed zebra fish (Danio rerio).  

Science.gov (United States)

The incorporation of nanoparticles in industrial and biomedical applications has increased significantly in recent years, yet their hazardous and toxic effects have not been studied extensively. While standard toxicological test methods are generally capable of detecting the toxic effects, the choice of relevant methods for nanomaterials is still discussed. Among the various oxide nanomaterials, silica nanoparticles are widely used in biological applications that include nano-medicine. But studies on adverse effects of silica nanoparticle exposure to fish remain unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the oxidative toxic effects of silicon dioxide nanoparticles using fish model. The size of the SiO2 nanoparticles was between 68 and 100 nm which was confirmed by X-ray diffractometer, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The zebra fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (5 and 2.5 mg/L) of characterized SiO2 nanoparticles for a period of 7 days. After 7 days, SiO2 nanoparticle-treated fishes were sacrificed, and tissues such as liver, muscle and gill were dissected out for the analysis of antioxidant enzymes and DNA fragmentation. The DNA profiles were analysed in the tissues of zebra fish that treated with SiO2 nanoparticles. Tissues of fish from clean water were used as control, and DNA profiles were analysed. It is found that DNA from control tissues was intact, whereas the tissues treated with SiO2 were all fragmented. SiO2 nanoparticle-mediated antioxidant enzymes activities, such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH)-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and GSH, in the tissues of zebra fish were measured. The results revealed that alteration of antioxidant enzymes due to SiO2 nanoparticle can be considered as a biomarker to SiO2-mediated oxidative stress in biological samples. PMID:23196406

Ramesh, R; Kavitha, P; Kanipandian, N; Arun, S; Thirumurugan, R; Subramanian, P

2013-07-01

187

Water Quality Impacts and Indicators of the Metabolic Activity of the Zebra Mussel Invasion of the Seneca River  

Science.gov (United States)

The conspicuous shifts in summertime values of common measures of water qualify that have persisted for 10 years (1993 to 2002) in the Seneca River, New York, as a result of the zebra mussel invasion are documented. Resolution of patterns in time and space is supported by water quality monitoring that extends back to the late 1970s. Patterns are evaluated to describe the stability of impacts and quantify metabolic activity of the invader. The water quality impacts that have persisted unabated for 10 years since the invasion are the most severe documented for a river in North America. Changes in summer median conditions since the invasion include: (1) a 16-fold decrease in chlorophyll concentration (Chl), (2) a 2.5-fold increase in Secchi disc transparency, (3) a 17-fold increase in soluble reactive phosphorus concentration, (4) a 3.7-fold increase in total ammonia concentration, (5) a greater than 25 percent decrease in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, and (6) a decrease in pH of 0.55 units. The strength of these signatures has been driven by anthropogenic influences that include upstream nutrient loading and morphometric modifications of the river, and the functioning of Cross Lake, through which the river flows. This hypereutrophic lake sustains dense zebra mussel populations and related water quality impacts in the river downstream of the lake outflow by acting as a source of veligers and suitable food for this bivalve. Evidence is presented that levels of metabolic activity of the zebra mussel in this river have been resource limited, manifested through increased consumption of Chl and DO with increased delivery of these constituents in the lake's outflow.

Effler, Steven W.; Matthews, David A.; Brooks-Matthews, Carol M.; Perkins, Mary Gail; Siegfried, Clifford A.; Hassett, James M.

2004-06-01

188

Underwater cleaning techniqued used for removal of zebra mussels at the FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the use of a mechanical brush cleaning technology recently used to remove biofouling from the Circulating Water (CW) System at New York Power Authority's James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant. The FitzPatrick plant had previously used chemical molluscicide to treat zebra mussels in the CW system. Full system treatment was performed in 1992 with limited forebay/screenwell treatment in 1993. The New York Power Authority (NYPA) decided to conduct a mechanical cleaning of the intake system in 1994. Specific project objectives included: (1) Achieve a level of surface cleaniness greater than 98%; (2) Remove 100% of debris, both existing sediment and debris generated as a result of cleaning; (3) Inspect all surfaces and components, identifying any problem areas; (4) Complete the task in a time frame within the 1994-95 refueling outage schedule window, and; (5) Determine if underwater mechanical cleaning is a cost-effective zebra mussel control method suitable for future application at FitzPatrick. A pre-cleaning inspection, including underwater video photography, was conducted of each area. Cleaning was accomplished using diver-controlled, multi-brush equipment included the electro-hydraulic powered Submersible Cleaning and Maintenance Platform (SCAMP), and several designs of hand-held machines. The brushes swept all zebra mussels off surfaces, restoring concrete and metal substrates to their original condition. Sensitive areas including pump housings, standpipes, sensor piping and chlorine injection tubing, were cleaned without degradation. Submersible vortex vacuum pumps were used to remove debris from the cavity. More than 46,000 ft2 of surface area was cleaned and over 460 cubic yards of dewatered debris were removed. As each area was completed, a post-clean inspection with photos and video was performed

1995-06-01

189

In search of greener pastures: Using satellite images to predict the effects of environmental change on zebra migration  

Science.gov (United States)

ungulate migrations occurred in most grassland and boreal woodland ecosystems, but many have been lost due to increasing habitat loss and fragmentation. With the rate of environmental change increasing, identifying and prioritizing migration routes for conservation has taken on a new urgency. Understanding the cues that drive long-distance animal movements is critical to predicting the fate of migrations under different environmental change scenarios and how large migratory herbivores will respond to increasing resource heterogeneity and anthropogenic influences. We used an individual-based modeling approach to investigate the influence of environmental conditions, monitored using satellite data, on departure date and movement speed of migrating zebras in Botswana. Daily zebra movements between dry and rainy season ranges were annotated with coincident observations of precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission data set and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). An array of increasingly complex movement models representing alternative hypotheses regarding the environmental cues and controls for movement was parameterized and tested. The best and most justified model predicted daily zebra movement as two linear functions of precipitation rate and NDVI and included a modeled departure date as a function of cumulative precipitation. The model was highly successful at replicating both the timing and pace of seven actual migrations observed using GPS telemetry (R2 = 0.914). It shows how zebras rapidly adjust their movement to changing environmental conditions during migration and are able to reverse migration to avoid adverse conditions or exploit renewed resource availability, a nomadic behavior which should lend them a degree of resilience to climate and environmental change. Our results demonstrate how competing individual-based migration models, informed by freely available satellite data, can be used to evaluate the weight of evidence for multiple hypotheses regarding the use of environmental cues in animal movement. This modeling framework can be applied to quantify how animals adapt the timing and pace of their movements to prevailing environmental conditions and to forecast migrations in near real time or under alternative environmental scenarios.

Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L. A.; Beck, Pieter S. A.; Bohrer, Gil; Harris, Stephen

2013-12-01

190

Metallothionein (MT) response after chronic palladium exposure in the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of different exposure concentrations of palladium (Pd) on relative metallothionein (MT) response and bioaccumulation were investigated in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). The mussels were exposed to 0.05, 5, 50, and 500 ?g/L Pd2+ for 10 weeks under controlled temperature and fasting conditions. Relative MT contents were assessed by a modified Ag-saturation method, which allows to discriminate between MT bound to Pd (Pd-MT) and MT bound to unidentified metals (Ag-MT). Determination of metal contents resulted from atomic absorption spectrometry following a microwave digestion. For unexposed mussels and mussels exposed to 0.05 ?g/L Pd no metal accumulation could be detected. All other exposure concentrations resulted in detectable Pd accumulation in mussels with final tissue concentrations of 96 ?g/g (500 ?g/L), 45 ?g/g (50 ?g/L), and 9 ?g/g (5 ?g/L). Compared with initial levels Pd-MT concentrations at the end of the exposure period were 600 (500 ?g/L), 160 (50 ?g/L), and 27 (5 ?g/L) times higher. These results show that an increase in MTs in D. polymorpha already occurs at relatively low aqueous Pd concentrations indicating that there is the need for detoxification of Pd in the mussel. Furthermore, correlations between Ag-MT and Pd accumulation indicate that higher exposure concentrations are associated with adverse effects on the mussels. Thus, harmful effects of chronic Pd exposure of organisms even in lowest concentrations cannot be excluded in the environment

2008-11-01

191

Identification of the molecules involved in zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) hemocytes host defense.  

Science.gov (United States)

The invasion of North American waterbodies by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has caused ecological catastrophies in North America. Unfortunately, little is known about this nuisance mollusk and its host defense mechanisms. In this study, 32 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) associated with hemocyte stimulation were obtained from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. This SSH-cDNA library was produced by using a cDNA library of naïve hemocytes as the driver and a cDNA library of hemocytes stimulated with a mixture of microbial antigens namely, lipopolysacchride (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), and zymosan (ZYM), as the tester. The driver cDNA was subtracted from the tester to increase the relative abundance of the cDNAs that were induced by stimulations. The putative function of 27 ESTs were obtained by using the homologue searching program BLASTx and BLASTn. Four ESTs encoding the protein product homologous to matrilin (Matrn, AM503947), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, EU835391), seryl-tRNA synthetase (STS, AM503950), and glycine-rich protein (GRP, AM502279) were selected for a subsequent study using quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays with the RNA extracted from hemocytes stimulated with LPS alone. The results of quantitative PCR with stimulated hemocyte RNA demonstrated that the four candidate genes were upregulated by LPS stimulation. The expression levels of both HSP70 and Matrn genes between naïve and 1-h stimulated hemocyte samples are the most significant with 2.78 and 2.20 fold increases, respectively. The significant changes of GRP and STS genes were observed after 2-h stimulation. The phylogenetic analysis of HSP70 molecule indicated that this protein is phylogenetically close to the HSP70 identified from other mollusks. This study shed light on hemocyte-mediated host defense mechanisms of D. polymorpha. PMID:19482094

Xu, Wei; Faisal, Mohamed

2009-09-01

192

Neurotoxic effects of DSP-4 on the central noradrenergic system in male zebra finches.  

Science.gov (United States)

When administered systemically, the noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) appears to target the noradrenergic innervation originating in the locus coeruleus causing long-term decrements in noradrenergic function. In songbirds, DSP-4-treatment decreased female-directed singing by males and copulation solicitation responses of females to male songs. However, DSP-4 treatment in songbirds did not lower measures of NE function in the brain to the same extent as it does in mammals. The current study had two goals: determining if two DSP-4 treatments 10 days apart would cause significant decrements in noradrenergic function in male zebra finches and determining if, as in other species, the noradrenergic innervation of midbrain and cortical areas would be profoundly affected while hypothalamic areas were spared. Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase immunoreactivity (DBH-ir) was quantified in thirteen brain regions (five vocal control nuclei, one auditory nucleus, two hypothalamic nuclei, and five additional areas that demonstrated high DBH labeling in controls). Within 20 days, DSP-4 treatment profoundly reduced the number of DBH-ir cells in both the locus coeruleus and ventral subcoeruleus. Unlike a previous study, DBH labeling delineated four out of five vocal control nuclei and an auditory nucleus. As expected, DSP-4 treatment significantly decreased DBH labeling in all areas examined in the mesencephalon and telencephalon without significantly affecting DBH-ir in hypothalamic areas. This double treatment regime appears to be much more effective in decreasing noradrenergic function in songbirds than the single treatment typically used. PMID:18160108

Waterman, Susanna A; Harding, Cheryl F

2008-04-01

193

Vegetation description of the Doornhoek section of the Mountain Zebra National Park (MZNP, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Mountain Zebra National Park (MZNP has been extended over the last couple of years. One of the newly procured areas is the Doornhoek section, which had been adjacent to the park. To develop scientifically sound management programmes for conservation areas, it is essential that an inventory of their natural resources be undertaken. The aim of this study was to classify, describe and map the vegetation of the Doornhoek section of the park. The floristic data were analysed in accordance with the Braun-Blanquet procedures using the BBPC suite. The data analysis resulted in the identification of eight communities, which can be grouped into seven major community types (Rhus lucida–Buddleja glomerata Shrubland, Rhigozum obovatum–Rhus longispina Shrubland, Helichrysum dregeanum–Aristida diffusa Grassland, Pentzia globosa–Enneapogon scoparius Grassland, Aristida adscensionus–Pentzia globosa Grassland, Cadaba aphylla–Acacia karroo Woodland and Lycium oxycarpum–Acacia karroo Woodland. Four of these communities occur on the higher-lying plateau, mid-slope and crest areas, while the other four communities are located on the lower-lying mid-plateau and foot slope, along drainage lines and in valley-bottom areas. The description of the plant communities, together with the vegetation map, can serve as a basis for formulating a management programme for the larger park. Although sections of Doornhoek have been overgrazed and degraded in the past, its recent addition to the MZNP contributes to the available habitat preferred by large herbivores, such as valley bottoms, foot-slopes and plateaux.

Leslie R. Brown

2008-05-01

194

The vegetation of the farms Ingleside and Welgedacht of the Mountain Zebra National Park, Eastern Cape  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available South Africa is well known for its semi-arid lowland areas that have a distinct flora and species composition. Because ecosystems react differently to different management practices, it is important that a description and classification of the vegetation of an area be done. As part of a vegetation survey programme for the newly acquired farms incorporated into the Mountain Zebra National Park, the vegetation of the Ingleside and Welgedacht sections were surveyed following the Braun-Blanquet approach. From a TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, 10 shrub and grassland plant communities, which can be grouped into seven major groups, were identified. A classification and description of these communities, as well as a vegetation map are presented. The diagnostic species as well as the prominent and less conspicuous species of the tree, shrub, herb and grass strata are outlined. The area generally comprises lowland communities and higher-lying communities. The lower-lying communities consist mainly of two communities and comprise the largest proportion of the area in hectares. In contrast, the higher-lying communities are more diverse with specific habitats. Using the Ecological Index Method the veld condition and grazing capacity were calculated for each community and the total study area. Large sections of the lowland areas are overgrazed due to previous farming grazing practices while the higher-lying areas that were less accessible to the animals are in a slightly better condition. Overall this has resulted in the area generally being degraded within a high grazing capacity of 30.1 ha/LSU.

H. Bezuidenhout

2005-12-01

195

Definition and connections of the entopallium in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).  

Science.gov (United States)

In birds the entopallium (formerly known as the core region of ectostriatum) is the major thalamorecipient zone, within the telencephalon, of the tectofugal visual system. Here we sought to redefine the entopallium in the zebra finch, particularly with respect to a laterally adjacent zone, known as the perientopallium (formerly known as the periectostriatal belt), and to determine its projections. We show that the entopallium can be defined by the almost complete overlap of dense terminations of thalamic rotundal afferents and intense cytochrome oxidase activity and parvalbumin immunoreactivity. The perientopallium, on the other hand, can be defined by relatively sparse projections from nucleus rotundus, a calretinin-positive plexus of nerve fibers, and weak cytochrome oxidase activity and parvalbumin immunoreactivity. Within the entopallium, medial and lateral parts can be distinguished on the basis of cell packing density, differential patterns of parvalbumin immunoreactivity and cytochrome oxidase activity, and different projections. We show that the entopallium projects laterally and diffusely to the perientopallium and nidopallium (formerly the neostriatum) and specifically and densely to a teardrop-shaped nucleus in the ventrolateral mesopallium (formerly known as the hyperstriatum ventrale), here called MVL (abbreviation used as a proper name). This latter projection arises predominantly from medial parts of the entopallium, which also receives a reciprocal projection from MVL, and projects to the lateral striatum. These findings suggest that the entopallium can be divided into medial and lateral parts having different functions, one of which is to provide for an extratelencephalic outflow from the medial part, via the lateral striatum. The findings also challenge the idea that informational flow through the various stations of the telencephalic tectofugal visual system is largely sequential and, together with findings in the chicken (Alpar and Tömböl), suggest instead that further substantial projections to telencephalic visual areas in birds can arise independently from both E (entopallium) and Ep (perientopallial belt). PMID:14681937

Krützfeldt, Nils O E; Wild, J Martin

2004-01-12

196

Expression of androgen receptor mRNA in zebra finch song system: developmental regulation by estrogen.  

Science.gov (United States)

By using improved methods for in situ hybridization to detect expression of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA, the distribution of expression was mapped in the adult male zebra finch brain. In the neural song circuit, robust expression was found in area X of the lobus parolfactorius (LPO) as well as in other song regions previously reported. Expression was also found in many areas of the hypothalamus and dorsal thalamic nuclei, nucleus intercollicularis and ventricular areas of the midbrain, cerebellar Purkinje and granule cells, the hyperstriatum, medial neostriatum, medial LPO, and archistriatum. In juvenile males, AR mRNA expression was first detected in nucleus high vocal center (HVC) at posthatch day 9 (P9), in area X at P9-P11, and in the region of the robust nucleus (RA) in the medial archistriatum by P7. Estrogen treatment of hatchling females caused an increase in the expression of AR mRNA in HVC and area X by P11, whereas treatment of hatchling males with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole decreased the expression of AR mRNA at P11. The present results indicate that masculine development of AR expression begins in area X and HVC before they are thought to be synaptically connected, suggesting that different song nuclei initiate sexual differentiation independently of transsynaptic masculinizing influences. The present results suggest that estrogen is necessary for full masculine AR expression in the song system and that the estrogenic regulation of AR contributes to subsequent differential actions of androgen in male and female song nuclei. PMID:14755534

Kim, Yong-Hwan; Perlman, William R; Arnold, Arthur P

2004-02-16

197

Mutations of amino acids in the DNA-recognition domain of Epstein-Barr virus ZEBRA protein alter its sub-nuclear localization and affect formation of replication compartments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ZEBRA, a transcription factor and DNA replication protein encoded by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BZLF1 gene, plays indispensable roles in the EBV lytic cycle. We recently described the phenotypes of 46 single amino acid substitutions introduced into the DNA-recognition region of ZEBRA [Heston, L., El-Guindy, A., Countryman, J., Dela Cruz, C., Delecluse, H.J., and Miller, G. 2006]. The 27 DNA-binding-proficient mutants exhibited distinct defects in their ability to activate expression of the kinetic classes of viral genes. Four phenotypic variants could be discerned: wild-type, defective at activating Rta, defective at activating early genes, and defective at activating late genes. Here we analyze the distribution of ZEBRA within the nucleus and the localization of EA-D (the viral DNA polymerase processivity factor), an indicator of the development of replication compartments, in representatives of each phenotypic group. Plasmids encoding wild-type (WT) and mutant ZEBRA were transfected into 293 cells containing EBV-bacmids. WT ZEBRA protein was diffusely and smoothly distributed throughout the nucleus, sparing nucleoli, and partially recruited to globular replication compartments. EA-D induced by WT ZEBRA was present diffusely in some cells and concentrated in globular replication compartments in other cells. The distribution of ZEBRA and EA-D proteins was identical to WT following transfection of K188R, a mutant with a conservative change. The distribution of S186A mutant ZEBRA protein, defective for activation of Rta and EA-D, was identical to WT, except that the mutant ZEBRA was never found in globular compartments. Co-expression of Rta with S186A mutant rescued diffuse EA-D but not globular replication compartments. The most striking observation was that several mutant ZEBRA proteins defective in activating EA-D (R179A, K181A and A185V) and defective in activating lytic viral DNA replication and late genes (Y180E and K188A) were localized to numerous punctate foci. The speckled appearance of R179A and Y180E was more regular and clearly defined in EBV-positive than in EBV-negative 293 cells. The Y180E late-mutant induced EA-D, but prevented EA-D from localizing to globular replication compartments. These results show that individual amino acids within the basic domain influence localization of the ZEBRA protein and its capacity to induce EA-D to become located in mature viral replication compartments. Furthermore, these mutant ZEBRA proteins delineate several stages in the processes of nuclear re-organization which accompany lytic EBV replication

2008-12-20

198

Ophryoglena hemophaga n. sp. (Ciliophora: Ophryoglenidae): a parasite of the digestive gland of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ophryoglena hemophaga n. sp. is described from a freshwater Dreissena polymorpha population in the Rhine delta of the Netherlands. This is the first ophryoglenine species (order Hymenostomatida, suborder Ophryoglenina) recorded as a molluscan parasite. As is typical of ciliates in the suborder Ophryoglenina, O. hemophaga exhibits a polymorphic life history with cystment and reproduction by palintomy. Trophonts were observed within digestive gland lumina, and zebra mussel hemocytes were present in some of their digestive vacuoles. The presence of a single, longitudinal tract of multiple contractile vacuoles represents its most unique feature and distinguishes it from all other described Ophryoglena spp. The number of somatic kineties of O. hemophaga (range 100 to 124) is also distinguishing as it is one of the lowest for [corrected] an Ophryoglena sp. Other characteristics of this species include: ovoid to elongate trophonts 96 to 288 microm in length, with an elongate macronucleus 41 to 65 microm in length; tomonts 50 to 150 microm in diameter producing a clear mucous cyst envelope, whose thickness is approximately half of the tomont diameter; elongated theronts 96 to 131 microm in length which emerge after 1 to 3 cell divisions taking 36 to 48 h at 20 +/- 3 degrees C. Protomonts and theronts are, respectively, negatively and positively phototactic--characteristics that likely aid in maintenance of infection in zebra mussel populations. PMID:16119892

Molloy, Daniel P; Lynn, Denis H; Giamberini, Laure

2005-07-18

199

Karyotypic conservatism in samples of Characidium cf. zebra (Teleostei, Characiformes, Crenuchidae): physical mapping of ribosomal genes and natural triploidy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Basic and molecular cytogenetic analyses were performed in specimens of Characidium cf. zebra from five collection sites located throughout the Tietê, Paranapanema and Paraguay river basins. The diploid number in specimens from all samples was 2n = 50 with a karyotype composed of 32 metacentric and [...] 18 submetacentric chromosomes in both males and females. Constitutive heterochromatin was present at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and pair 23, had additional interstitial heterochromatic blocks on its long arms. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were located on the long arms of pair 23, while the 5S rDNA sites were detected in different chromosomes among the studied samples. One specimen from the Alambari river was a natural triploid and had two extra chromosomes, resulting in 2n = 77. The remarkable karyotypic similarity among the specimens of C. cf. zebra suggests a close evolutionary relationship. On the other hand, the distinct patterns of 5S rDNA distribution may be the result of gene flow constraints during their evolutionary history.

José Carlos, Pansonato-Alves; Claudio, Oliveira; Fausto, Foresti.

200

HTR2 receptors in a songbird premotor cortical-like area modulate spectral characteristics of zebra finch song.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is involved in modulating an array of complex behaviors including learning, depression, and circadian rhythms. Additionally, HTR2 receptors on layer V pyramidal neurons are thought to mediate the actions of psychedelic drugs; the native function of these receptors at this site, however, remains unknown. Previously, we found that activation of HTR2 receptors in the zebra finch forebrain song premotor structure the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) led to increased excitation, and that endogenous 5-HT could roughly double spontaneous firing rate. Here, using in vivo single-unit recordings, we found that direct application of 5-HT to these same RA projection neurons, which are analogous to layer V cortical pyramidal neurons, caused a significant increase in the number of action potentials per song-related burst, and a dramatic decrease in signal-to-noise ratio. Injection of the serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine into the third ventricle greatly reduced telencephalic 5-HT and resulted in decreased fundamental frequency of harmonic syllables as well as increased goodness of pitch. Both of these results can be explained by the observed actions of 5-HT on RA projection neurons, and both effects recovered to baseline within 2 weeks following the toxin injection. These results show that 5-HT is involved in modulating spectral properties of song, likely via effects on RA projection neurons, but that adult zebra finches can partially compensate for this deficit within 7 d. PMID:23407949

Wood, William E; Roseberry, Thomas K; Perkel, David J

2013-02-13

 
 
 
 
201

Separating natural from anthropogenic causes of impairment in Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) populations living across a pollution gradient.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between the reproductive stage, the total lipid content and eight broadly used biochemical stress responses were used to assess seasonal and pollutant effects across eleven different zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) populations from the Ebro and Mijares river basin, Spain. Biochemical markers included superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione S transferase (GST), multixenobiotic transporter activity (MXR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and single strand DNA breaks. Principal component analyses of zebra mussel responses across an annual cycle, showed a marked gonad stage component in total lipid content and biochemical responses. The same response pattern was observed across the populations sampled along a broad geographical and pollution gradient. Population differences on the gonad developmental stage were highly correlated with most of the measured responses and unrelated with the pollution gradient. Conversely, bioaccumulation of organic and inorganic contaminant residues was more related to pollution sources than with the reproductive cycle. These results indicate that the reproductive cycle is the major factor affecting the temporal and spatial variation of the studied markers in D. polymorpha. PMID:24742819

Faria, Melissa; Ochoa, Victoria; Blázquez, Mercedes; Juan, Maria Fernandes San; Lazzara, Raimondo; Lacorte, Silvia; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Barata, Carlos

2014-07-01

202

Use of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) to assess trace metal contamination in the largest Italian subalpine lakes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trace metal (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) contamination was evaluated in zebra mussels from the lakes Maggiore, Lugano, Como, Iseo and Garda, which are located in the most highly populated and industrialised area in Italy. Zebra mussels from Lake Maggiore contained the highest concentrations (3.44, 1.51, 4.97, 0.158, 5.87, 346 microg g(-1) for Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Pb, Zn, respectively) of all metals analysed except Cu and Ni. The lowest levels of most metals were in animals from Garda and Lugano (0.78 and 0.60 microg g(-1) for Cd, 2.87 and 2.03 microg g(-1) for Cr, 0.065 and 0.049 microg g(-1) for Hg, 12.1 and 11.9 microg g(-1) for Ni, 1.96 and 2.46 microg g(-1) for Pb, 158 and 163 microg g(-1) for Zn). The most contaminated sites and possible local sources of metals were identified for each lake, and the lakes classified into quality classes concerning metal pollution. PMID:11444309

Camusso, M; Balestrini, R; Binelli, A

2001-07-01

203

Exploration of structure-antifouling relationships of capsaicin-like compounds that inhibit zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) macrofouling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Macrofouling of aquatic man-made structures by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) poses significant economic burdens on commercial freshwater shipping and facilities utilising raw water. The negative environmental impact of some current antifouling technologies has limited their use and prompted investigation of non-organometallic and non-oxidising antifoulants as possible environment-friendly alternatives. The plant-derived natural product capsaicin and 18 other compounds with one or more capsaicin-like structural features were tested for their potential to inhibit zebra mussel byssal attachment at a single high concentration of 30 microM. Of these, three compounds displaying the highest levels of attachment inhibition where selected for further concentration-response testing. This testing revealed that capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-trans-6-nonenamide), N-vanillylnonanamide, and N-benzoylmonoethanolamine benzoate all inhibited byssal attachment with potency values (EC(50)) in the micromolar range. None of these compounds were lethal to adult specimens of the water flea, Daphnia magna, at concentrations that inhibited mussel byssal attachment. PMID:17852065

Angarano, Maj-Britt; McMahon, Robert F; Hawkins, Doyle L; Schetz, John A

2007-01-01

204

Developmental exposure to a brominated flame retardant: An assessment of effects on physiology, growth, and reproduction in a songbird, the zebra finch  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as additive flame retardants, and BDE-99 is one of the most predominant congeners found in the environment. BDE-99 has been reported in avian samples worldwide, yet knowledge of its toxicity to birds is minimal. We assessed the short- and long-term effects of nestling exposure to environmentally relevant levels of BDE-99 in a model passerine, the zebra finch. Early exposure to BDE-99 did not affect hematocrit, oxidative stress, or thyroid hormones in either the juvenile or adult stages, and there were no effects on chick growth or survival. BDE-99 exposure caused a dose-dependent delay in timing of reproduction, but there were no other effects on reproductive success. In zebra finches, endpoints related to reproductive behavior appear to be the most sensitive to BDE-99. However, passerines overall appear to be less sensitive than birds of prey or mammals to PBDE exposure. -- Highlights: •We exposed zebra finches nestlings to BDE-99 and raised them to sexual maturity. •Found no effects on physiology, chick growth, survival, or reproductive success. •As BDE-99 dose increased, laying interval increased. •Passerine birds possibly less sensitive to BDE-99 than mammals or other bird species. -- Nestling exposure to BDE-99 affects timing of breeding in zebra finches, but overall passerines appear to be less sensitive to PBDEs than mammals or other bird species

2013-07-01

205

Development of a brain nucleus involved in song production in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) is disrupted by Aroclor 1248.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may alter the development of song control brain nuclei in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) offspring of pulse-exposed hens. We orally administered 40 microg of Aroclor 1248 to adult female finches before egg laying. When the progeny were 50 d old, we measured the volumes of the song control nuclei robustus arcopallialis (RA) and higher vocal center (HVC) using light microscopy. Both male and female progeny of exposed birds had a significantly smaller RA than control birds (36 and 16%, respectively; p < or = 0.05). The HVC did not differ in either sex between exposed and control groups. Perhaps impaired development of RA was caused by PCB action on steroid receptors. We conclude that animals living in contaminated areas may be at risk of neurological damage in hormone-sensitive brain areas and that changes in brain nuclei related to song may be a sensitive indicator of low-level PCB exposure. PMID:18380522

Hoogesteijn, Almira L; Kollias, George V; Quimby, Fred W; De Caprio, Anthony P; Winkler, David W; DeVoogd, Timothy J

2008-10-01

206

X-ray pulse shaping in experiments with planar wire arrays at the 1.6 MA Zebra generator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The shaping of the x-ray radiation pulse is very important in both radiation physics research and Inertial Confinement Fusion studies. The novel planar wire array (PWA) was found to be the effective radiator tested at the university-scale 1.6 MA, 100 ns Zebra generator. The single PWA consists of a single row of wires that are parallel to each other, while the double planar wire array (DPWA) and triple planar wire array (TPWA) include two or three parallel plane wire rows, respectively. All multi-planar geometries resulted in a cascade-type array implosion with a complicated multi-step precursor formation before plasma stagnation. The PWAs (without additional core foam target) feature a dynamic precursor evolution that is a powerful tool for x-ray pulse shaping. The shape and timing of the x-ray pulse from different PWAs were theoretically predicted and experimentally analyzed for a variety of planar wire arrays.

Kantsyrev, V L; Safronova, A S; Esaulov, A A; Williamson, K M; Shrestha, I; Osborne, G C; Weller, M E; Yilmaz, M F; Ouart, N D; Shlyaptseva, V V [Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno NV 89557 (United States); Velikovich, A L [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Rudakov, L I, E-mail: victor@physics.unr.ed [Icarus Research Inc., Bethesda, MD 20824 (United States)

2010-08-01

207

Analysis of results of recent implosions of palladium wire loads arranged in single planar wire arrays on Zebra at UNR  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments with palladium wire loads were performed on Zebra at UNR to understand the implosion and radiative properties of this unique wire material. The loads were planar wire arrays (PWA) arranged in a single row for a uniform load with twelve palladium 10 ?m wires (total mass M ˜ 227 ?g) and a combined load with five palladium 25 ?m wires and one aluminum 40 ?m wire (M˜656 ?g). A full diagnostic set which included more than ten different beam-lines was implemented. The implosion of these Pd loads produced a high radiation yield (27 kJ for a heavier load) which is comparable to recently tested Ag PWA loads. The main focus was put on comparison of implosion and radiative characteristics of these two shots and with results for the identical Ag PWA load. Future experiments with modified palladium wires and their applications are discussed.

Covington, A. M.; Darling, T.; Safranova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Shrestha, I.; Williamson, K. M.; Keim, S.; Shylaptseva, V.; Osborne, G. C.; Weller, M. E.; Ouart, N. D.

2010-11-01

208

Analysis of Ag Single-Wire Explosion Experiments on 1 MA Zebra pulsed power generator at UNR  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to better understand implosion and radiative characteristics of wire arrays, single wire (SW) loads can be employed due to their uncomplicated configuration. Ag has been a recent focus for wire arrays as the highest atomic number element (z = 47) to be investigated for L-shell radiative properties on the Zebra generator and has been shown to produce radiation yields up to 29kJ in planar wire arrays (PWA). The results of two experiments with Ag wire loads, both consisting of a single 30?m wire (M ˜ 150?g), are analyzed using a full time gated and time integrated diagnostic suite, from 10eV to 50keV. A detailed comparison with results from implosions of Ag PWAs is accomplished. Both generally and specific to SWs, mechanisms of ablation and heating as well as radiative properties during and after the stagnation phase are discussed.

Keim, S. F.; Weller, M. E.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Esaulov, A. A.; Shrestha, I.; Osborne, G. C.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.

2011-11-01

209

A description of the equipment for time-of-flight spectrum measurements on the fast reactor ZEBRA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pulsed source for the time-of-flight equipment consists of 14 MeV S-band linear electron accelerator, drift tube and water-cooled uranium-molybdenum alloy target installed on the ZEBRA lattice. Neutrons are extracted via a probe tube inserted into the core and an evacuated flight tube with counting stations at 50 m, 97 m and 200 m from the core centre. Two types of neutron detector are described and also the Perranti Argus 500 on-line computer which is used for data collection. The equipment is used for measuring the neutron energy spectra from the lowest energies up to about 1 MeV. (author)

1969-01-01

210

An overview of filtration methods that can provide protection from the macrofouling zebra mussel at hydroelectric facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The non-indigenous freshwater zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena, spp.) threaten to foul freshwater conduits throughout much of the United States and southern Canada. Initially, many electric facilities within the lower Great Lakes drainage were fouled. More recently, other systems both in and out of the Great Lakes, have been exposed to infested water facilitated by canals and boat traffic and impacted by the mussels. Mussels have clogged conduits and fouled equipment and monitoring sensors in relatively distant regions including the Hudson River, the Mississippi River south to New Orleans, and the Arkansas River into Oklahoma. Chemicals can effectively control the mussels, however, filtration methods promise to be a relatively cost effective, environmentally safe alternative control approach. Information on traditional filtration methods will be presented in this paper along with recent research results for in-line filters.

Smythe, A.G.; Short, T.M. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

211

Influence of ortho-substitution homolog group on polychlorobiphenyl bioaccumulation factors and fugacity ratios in plankton and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accumulation of a set of non- and mono-ortho (coplanar) PCB congeners in aquatic ecosystems is of interest due to their dioxin-like toxicities. Chemical properties (octanol-water partition coefficients) suggest that the coplanar congeners may accumulate in organisms to a greater extent than homologs with greater ortho substitution. The authors analyzed a set of 65 PCB congeners with zero to four ortho-chlorines from seven homolog groups in water, suspended particulate matter, and zebra mussels from Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA, on four dates throughout the ice-free season. The suspended particulate matter was separated by size and characterized as phytoplankton or zooplankton using diagnostic carotenoid pigments and light microscopy. Median bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for accumulation from water by phytoplankton and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for accumulation from water plus food by zooplankton and zebra mussels ranged from 1 x 10{sup 4} to 1 x 10{sup 6} and were generally the greatest for the tetra- to heptachlorobiphenyls. The average coplanar congener BCFs and BAFs for accumulation from water by phytoplankton, zooplankton, and zebra mussels for the tri-, tetra-, and pentachlorobiphenyls were 54% larger than corresponding values for their homologs. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) of the tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorobiphenyls between zooplankton and zebra mussels and their food source, phytoplankton, typically ranged between 1 and 10, but the average coplanar congener BMFs were 25% less than values for their corresponding homologs. The tendency for coplanar congeners to accumulate to a lesser extent between trophic levels was not as large as their tendency to accumulate from water to a greater extent. Based on accumulation factors, the authors conclude that the dioxin-like tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls generally accumulate in the phytoplankton, zooplankton, and zebra mussels of the Green Bay ecosystem to a greater extent than other congeners. Fugacity ratios suggest that, in phytoplankton and zooplankton, homolog concentrations were below equilibrium with water throughout the field season, particularly for the more chlorinated groups, but that concentrations in zebra mussels were at or above equilibrium with water.

Willman, E.J.; Manchester-Neesvig, J.B.; Agrell, C.; Armstrong, D.E.

1999-07-01

212

Alteration of CaBP Expression Pattern in the Nucleus Magnocellularis following Unilateral Cochlear Ablation in Adult Zebra Finches  

Science.gov (United States)

Songbirds have the rare ability of auditory-vocal learning and maintenance. Up to now, the organization and function of the nucleus magnocellularis (NM), the first relay of the avian ascending auditory pathway is largely based on studies in non-vocal learning species, such as chickens and owls. To investigate whether NM exhibits different histochemical properties associated with auditory processing in songbirds, we examined the expression patterns of three calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs), including calretinin (CR), parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin-D28k (CB), and their relations to auditory inputs in NM in adult zebra finches. We found enriched and co-localized immunostaining of CR, PV and CB in the majority of NM neurons, without neuronal population preference. Furthermore, they were sensitive to adult deafferentation with differential plasticity patterns. After unilateral cochlear removal, CR staining in the ipsilateral NM decreased appreciably at 3 days after surgery, and continued to decline thereafter. PV staining showed down-regulation first at 3 days, but subsequently recovered slightly. CB staining did not significantly decrease until 7 days after surgery. Our findings suggest that the three CaBPs might play distinct roles in association with auditory processing in zebra finches. These results are in contrast to the findings in the NM of chickens where CR is the predominant CaBP and deafferentation had no apparent effect on its expression. Further extended studies in other avian species are required to establish whether the difference in CaBP patterns in NM is functionally related to the different auditory-vocal behaviors.

Li, Jie; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Li; Fu, Xin; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Xinwen; Sun, Yingyu; Zuo, Mingxue

2013-01-01

213

Purification and characterization of insulin and the C-peptide of proinsulin from Przewalski's horse, zebra, rhino, and tapir (Perissodactyla).  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the order Perissodactyla, the primary structure of insulin has been strongly conserved. Insulin from Przewalski's horse and the mountain zebra (suborder Hippomorpha) is the same as that from the domestic horse and differs from insulin from the white rhinoceros and mountain tapir (suborder Ceratomorpha) by a single substitution (Gly-->Ser) at position 9 in the A-chain. A second molecular form of Przewalski's horse insulin isolated in this study was shown to represent the gamma-ethyl ester of the Glu17 residue of the A-chain. This component was probably formed during the extraction of the pancreas with acidified ethanol. The amino acid sequence of the C-peptide of proinsulin has been less well conserved. Zebra C-peptide comprises 31 amino acid residues and differs from Przewalski's horse and domestic horse C-peptide by one substitution (Gln30-->Pro). Rhino C-peptide was isolated only in a truncated form corresponding to residues (1-23) of intact C-peptide. Its amino acid sequence contains three substitutions compared with the corresponding region of horse C-peptide. It is postulated that the substitution (Pro23-->Thr) renders rhino C-peptide more liable to proteolytic cleavage by a chymotrypsin-like enzyme than horse C-peptide. C-peptide could not be identified in the extract of tapir pancreas, suggesting that proteolytic degradation may have been more extensive than in the rhino. In contrast to the ox and pig (order Artiodactyla), there was no evidence for the expression of more than one proinsulin gene in the species of Perissodactyla examined. PMID:8454175

Henry, J S; Lance, V A; Conlon, J M

1993-02-01

214

An assessment of in ovo toxicity of the flame retardant 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl) cyclohexane (TBECH) in the zebra finch.  

Science.gov (United States)

Embryonic toxicity of a brominated flame retardant, TBECH (1,2-dibromo-4-(1, 2-dibromoethyl) cyclohexane) was investigated using the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) as our model. Using in ovo dosing procedures, we injected the technical TBECH compound, consisting of 50:50 ?-/?-isomers, directly into the yolk of freshly laid eggs at concentrations of 2.3-94 ng/g egg. No significant effects were observed in terms of growth or survival for either pre-hatch embryos or post-hatch chicks. Analysis of tissue samples at various developmental stages suggests that ?-/?-TBECH was metabolized rapidly, and thus is unlikely to cause any direct, long-term effects on the development of zebra finch embryos or offspring. PMID:23903759

Currier, Heidi A; Letcher, Robert J; Williams, Tony D; Elliott, John E

2013-10-01

215

Molecular and Physiological Properties Associated with Zebra Complex Disease in Potatoes and Its Relation with Candidatus Liberibacter Contents in Psyllid Vectors  

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Zebra complex (ZC) disease on potatoes is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLs), an ?-proteobacterium that resides in the plant phloem and is transmitted by the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc). The name ZC originates from the brown striping in fried chips of infected tubers, but the whole plants also exhibit a variety of morphological features and symptoms for which the physiological or molecular basis are not understood. We determined that compared to heal...

Alvarado, Veria Y.; Odokonyero, Denis; Duncan, Olivia; Mirkov, T. Erik; Scholthof, Herman B.

2012-01-01

216

Prevalencia de Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio spp. y enterobacterias en carne de pepitona, Arca zebra, comercializada en Cumaná, Venezuela / Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio spp., and enterobacteria in pepitona, Arca zebra, commercialized in Cumaná, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La pepitona, Arca zebra, (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Arcidae) es un producto de consumo masivo en el oriente de Venezuela. Se recolectaron mensualmente (marzo a septiembre 2004), muestras de pepitonas provenientes de expendios del Mercado Municipal de Cumaná, con el fin de determinar su condición higiénico [...] -sanitaria. Se efectuaron recuentos en placa de Staphylococcus aureus, enterobacterias y detección de Vibrio spp. La identificación se realizó utilizando pruebas bioquímicas diferenciales basadas en la actividad metabólica de cada cepa aislada. Los análisis revelaron contaminación por S. aureus y enterobacterias en las muestras de carne de pepitonas, con valores promedio de 1,8 x 10² a 6,4 x 10³ y 2,5 x 10² a 5,4 x 10³ UFC/g, respectivamente. Se aislaron 61 cepas de S. aureus, de las cuales 37,7% resultaron ser positivas a la prueba de coagulasa y 42,6% a la DNAsa. Se identificaron diez especies pertenecientes a la familia Enterobacteriaceae, siendo la predominante Escherichia coli con 25% de prevalencia. También fueron identificadas las siguientes especies de Vibrio: V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. metchinikovii, V. fluvialis y V. mimicus. Se demostró la presencia de patógenos en carne de pepitona libremente expendida en el Mercado Municipal de Cumaná. Abstract in english Pepitona or turkey wing, Arca zebra (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Arcidae), is a product of massive consumption in eastern Venezuela. Monthly samples (march to september 2004) of pepitona meat were taken from vending places in the Cumana Municipal Market, in order to determine their hygienic conditions. Plat [...] e cultures of Staphylococcus aureus and enterobacteriae, and detection of Vibrio spp. were made. The identification was made using differential biochemical tests based upon the metabolic activity of each isolated strain. The analyses showed a high degree of contamination by S. aureus and enterobacteria in samples of pepitona meat, with average values 1.8 x 10² to 6.4 x 10³, and 2.5 x 10² to 5.4 x 10³ CFU/g, respectively. A total number of 61 strains of S. aureus were isolated, of which 39.1% yielded positive to the coagulase test and 41.7% to the DNAse test. Ten species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were identified, being Escherichia coli the most predominant with 25% prevalence. The following Vibrio species were identified: V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. metchinikovii, V. fluvialis and V. mimicus. The presence of pathogens in pepitona meat freely sold to the public in the Municipal Market of Cumaná was demonstrated.

Daniel, Muñoz; Crucita, Graü de Marín; Carlos, Martínez; Hilda, Marval; Aracelis, Zerpa.

217

Contribución al conocimiento de los macromoluscos bentónicos asociados a la pepitona, Arca zebra (Swainson, 1833), del banco natural de Chacopata, Península de Araya, Venezuela / Contribution to the knowledge of benthonic macromollusks associated to pepitona, Arca zebra (Swainson, 1833), in the natural bank of Chacopata, Araya Peninsula, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Como parte de un programa de monitoreo de áreas marinas del norte del estado Sucre, Venezuela, se analizó la diversidad malacológica de los macromoluscos asociados a la pepitona, Arca zebra, ubicado en el banco natural de Chacopata, desde enero hasta marzo 2006. Se identificaron un total de 31 espec [...] ies pertenecientes a 21 familias y 4 clases de moluscos, que incluyeron 12 especies de bivalvos, 17 gasterópodos, un cefalópodo y un poliplacóforo. Los parámetros de diversidad numérica fueron bajos (H’ = 1,907 a 2,034 bits/ind; J’ = 0,591 a 0,649, IS = 0,209 a 0,258) mientras que la dominancia osciló entre 35,9 y 46,4%. El índice ? de la serie logarítmica mensual fluctúo entre 4,819 y 6,917. La escasa variación mensual de la diversidad confirma investigaciones previas e indican que la estructura comunitaria es estable. Se determinaron 19 especies constantes siendo las mas abundantes los bivalvos Arca zebra, Chama congregata, Chama sarda y Chama sarda, mientras que en los gasterópodos fueron Chicoreus brevifrons y Crepidula ausitulata. Arca zebra fue la especie dominante en numero, indicando que desempeña el papel más importante en la comunidad como un eficiente filtrador, lo cual le permite soportar una de las pesquerías más importantes de la región. Abstract in english As part of a monitoring program of the marine areas at northern of Sucre state, Venezuela, we examined the malacological diversity of macromollusk associated to ark shell, Arca zebra, located in the natural bank of Chacopata. Monthly sampling was made from January to March 2006. A total of 31 specie [...] s were identified belonging to 21 families of 4 classes of mollusk that included 12 species of bivalves, 17 gastropods, one cephalopods and one poliplacophoro. Parameters of numeric diversity were low (H’ = 1.907 to 2.034 bits/ind; J’= 0.591 to 0.649; IS = 0.209 to 0.258), while the dominance oscillated between 35.99 and 43.61%. Alpha index of the logarithmic series model fluctuated between 4.819 and 6.917. The scarce monthly variation confirms previous research and they indicate that the community structure is stable. Fourteen constant species were determined being those more abundant the bivalves Arca zebra, Chama congregate y Chama sarda, while the gastropods were Chicoreus brevifrons and Crepidula ausitulata. Arca zebra was the dominant species in number and occupied a central role in the community, supporting one of the most important fisheries in the area.

Licet, Berenice; Acosta, Vanesa; Prieto, Antulio; Garcia, Natividad.

218

Metallothionein mRNA induction is correlated with the decrease of DNA strand breaks in cadmium exposed zebra mussels.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously shown that cadmium (Cd) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) induced early DNA damages in zebra mussels, and that the level of DNA strand breaks (SB) returned to a basal level after 3 days of exposure to Cd. The aim of the present study was to go further in the mechanisms of Cd and BaP detoxification. For that purpose, expression of genes encoding for metallothionein (MT), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), P-gp, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) proteins have been measured using RT-qPCR. Data reported here show that Cd is a strong inducer of MT and HSP70 genes, and that BaP is a strong inducer of P-gp and AHR genes. Exposure to Cd and BaP resulted in moderate changes in antioxidant enzymes mRNA. Since the increase of MT mRNA occurred when the DNA SB level returned to its basal level, we can suggest that MT is implicated in cadmium detoxification. PMID:24681118

Vincent-Hubert, Françoise; Châtel, Amélie; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine

2014-05-15

219

Systemic Amyloidosis and Testicular Interstitial Tumor in a Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata: a Case Report in Iran  

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Full Text Available Abstract Systemic amyloidosis and testicular interstitial tumor are rare conditions in birds and this is the first report in Iran. A male zebra finch was presented because of white diarrhea, anorexia, loss of weight and lethargy. At necropsy, the small intestine was edematous and congested. The spleen appeared pale. The liver was large, firm and brown. One testis was cystic and neoplastic and the remaining testis was atrophic. Histologically, amyloid materials were seen predominantly in the liver and spleen. Hyaline substances were deposited in the Disse space and in the media of blood vessels of the liver. In spleen, marked deposits thickened the basement membranes of blood vessels and extended into the surrounding parenchyma. In addition, there were lesser degrees of amyloidosis in other organs such as small intestine. Amyloid stained positively with Congo red. In testis, there was encapsulated unilateral interstitial cell tumor, with multiple foci of necrosis and hemorrhage. The neoplastic cells were round to polyhedral, with small round hyperchromatic nuclei and finely vacuolated cytoplasm. Signs of feminization were observed. The cause of amyloidosis in this study was not conclusively identified.

Mehrnoush Moeini Jazani

2011-09-01

220

Combined electric and acoustic hearing performance with Zebra(®) speech processor: Speech reception, place, and temporal coding evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the auditory performance of Digisonic(®) cochlear implant users with electric stimulation (ES) and electro-acoustic stimulation (EAS) with special attention to the processing of low-frequency temporal fine structure. METHOD: Six patients implanted with a Digisonic(®) SP implant and showing low-frequency residual hearing were fitted with the Zebra(®) speech processor providing both electric and acoustic stimulation. Assessment consisted of monosyllabic speech identification tests in quiet and in noise at different presentation levels, and a pitch discrimination task using harmonic and disharmonic intonating complex sounds (Vaerenberg et al., 2011). These tests investigate place and time coding through pitch discrimination. All tasks were performed with ES only and with EAS. RESULTS: Speech results in noise showed significant improvement with EAS when compared to ES. Whereas EAS did not yield better results in the harmonic intonation test, the improvements in the disharmonic intonation test were remarkable, suggesting better coding of pitch cues requiring phase locking. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that patients with residual hearing in the low-frequency range still have good phase-locking capacities, allowing them to process fine temporal information. ES relies mainly on place coding but provides poor low-frequency temporal coding, whereas EAS also provides temporal coding in the low-frequency range. Patients with residual phase-locking capacities can make use of these cues. PMID:23321588

Vaerenberg, Bart; Péan, Vincent; Lesbros, Guillaume; De Ceulaer, Geert; Schauwers, Karen; Daemers, Kristin; Gnansia, Dan; Govaerts, Paul J

2012-11-15

 
 
 
 
221

Multi-biomarker approach for the evaluation of the cyto-genotoxicity of paracetamol on the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).  

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Paracetamol (PCM; N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic agent that is utilized in human medicine. Its use is so widespread that it is constantly being introduced into global water bodies where it reaches concentrations up to several microgL(-1). A battery of eight biomarkers was applied in the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha in order to evaluate its potential sub-lethal effect. Mussels were exposed for 96h to increasing environmental concentrations (1, 5, 10nM) of PCM. Cyto-genotoxicity was determined in mussel hemocytes by the lysosomal membrane stability (Neutral Red Retention Assay), the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, the micronucleus test (MN test) and assessments of the apoptotic frequency (DNA diffusion assay). Moreover, in order to evaluate the probable alterations to the mussels' oxidative status, measurements of the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) were performed using the cytosolic fraction extracted from a pool of entire mussels. The biomarker battery demonstrated moderate cyto-genotoxicity in zebra mussel hemocytes since no primary DNA fragmentation was measured by the SCGE assay and only a slight increase in fixed DNA damage was registered by apoptotic and MN frequencies. Significant destabilization of the lysosomal membrane from baseline levels was evident at 5 and 10nM at the end of the exposures, as was a high induction capacity of the activities of CAT and GST. PMID:20227746

Parolini, Marco; Binelli, Andrea; Cogni, Daniele; Provini, Alfredo

2010-04-01

222

The influence of temperature, daylength and sucrose concentration on the growth and development of Alstroemeria 'Zebra' in vitro  

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Full Text Available The influence of temperature, daylength and sucrose concentration on the growth and development of Alstroemeria 'Zebra' in vitro was investigated. Only slightly more lateral rhizomes were formed at 25°C in comparison with 17°C on the medium with BA. Presence of BA in the medium strongly increased number of upright growing shoots and more shoots were formed in temperature 25°C than in temperature 17°C. Rhizome multiplication and formation of upright growing shoots were not significantly influenced by daylength. Sucrose was required for the formation of lateral rhizomes, upright growing shoots and roots. The highest number Of lateral rhizomes was observed on the medium containing 60 and 80 gl-1 sucrose and BA. Presence of BA in the medium with different sucrose concentrations markedly influenced the formation of upright growing shoots; the highest number of shoots was found on the explants cultured on the media with 20 and 30 gl-1 sucrose. Low and high concentrations of sucrose inhibited upright growing shoots formation and their elongation. Rhizogenesis was not observed on rhizomes growing on the medium without sucrose and with 10 gl-1 sucrose, either in the presence or absence of NAA„ The number of roots per plantlet on the medium with NAA increased with increasing sucrose levels. The highest sucrose concentrations slightly inhibited roots formation.

Eleonora Gabryszewska

1996-12-01

223

Encoding of naturalistic optic flow by motion sensitive neurons of nucleus rotundus in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata.  

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Full Text Available The retinal image changes that occur during locomotion, the optic flow, carry information about self-motion and the three-dimensional structure of the environment. Especially fast moving animals with only little binocular vision depend on these depth cues for manoeuvring. They actively control their gaze to facilitate perception of depth based on cues in the optic flow. In the visual system of birds, nucleus rotundus neurons were originally found to respond to object motion but not to background motion. However, when background and object were both moving, responses increase the more the direction and velocity of object and background motion on the retina differed. These properties may play a role in representing depth cues in the optic flow. We therefore investigated how neurons in nucleus rotundus respond to optic flow that contains depth cues. We presented simplified and naturalistic optic flow on a panoramic LED display while recording from single neurons in nucleus rotundus of anaesthetized zebra finches. Unlike most studies on motion vision in birds, our stimuli included depth information. We found extensive responses of motion selective neurons in nucleus rotundus to optic flow stimuli. Simplified stimuli revealed preferences for optic flow reflecting translational or rotational self-motion. Naturalistic optic flow stimuli elicited complex response modulations, but the presence of objects was signalled by only few neurons. The neurons that did respond to objects in the optic flow, however, show interesting properties.

DennisEckmeier

2013-09-01

224

Effects of Freshwater Pollution on the Genetics of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) at the Molecular and Population Level  

Science.gov (United States)

Revealing long-term effects of contaminants on the genetic structure of organisms inhabiting polluted environments should encompass analyses at the population, molecular, and cellular level. Following this concept, we studied the genetic constitution of zebra mussel populations from a polluted (Dp) and reference sites (Cl) at the river Drava, Croatia, and applied microsatellite and DNA damage analyses (Comet assay, micronucleus test (MNT)). Additionally, mussels from both populations were exposed to polluted wastewater in the laboratory for three days, and DNA damage was analyzed to evaluate acclimatization and genetic adaptation of the investigated populations to the polluted environment. The two populations differed in their genetic constitution. Microsatellite analysis suggested that Dp had undergone a genetic bottleneck. Comet assay did not indicate any difference in DNA damage between the two populations, but MNT revealed that Dp had an increased percentage of micronuclei in hemocytes in comparison to Cl. The laboratory experiment revealed that Dp had a lower percentage of tail DNA and a higher percentage of micronuclei than Cl. These differences between populations were possibly caused by an overall decreased fitness of Dp due to genetic drift and by an enhanced DNA repair mechanism due to acclimatization to pollution in the source habitat.

Thomas, Emilia G.; Srut, Maja; Stambuk, Anamaria; Klobucar, Goran I. V.; Seitz, Alfred; Griebeler, Eva Maria

2014-01-01

225

Analysis of Implosion and Radiative Properties of Ag Single Planar Wire Array Z-pinches on Zebra at UNR*  

Science.gov (United States)

Silver is the highest atomic number element (z = 47) to be investigated for L-shell radiative characteristics at 1.0MA on the Zebra pulsed-power generator at UNR and has been shown to produce radiation yields up to 29kJ in planar wire arrays (PWAs). Silver is also expected to reach the highest electron temperature for PWAs. In order to investigate this more thoroughly, the results of experiments with two Ag single PWA implosions are explored using a full diagnostic suite. In particular, implosion and radiative characteristics of the two single PWA loads, one consisting of eight 15?m Ag wires (M ˜ 296 ?g) and another of nearly identical mass consisting of seven 15?m Ag wires and one 30?m Al wire, are analyzed over a broad spectral range, from 15eV to 10keV. Synthetic spectra produced by a new non-LTE kinetic model of Ag are compared to the results of spatially resolved time-integrated x-ray spectroscopy to assess L-shell Ag plasma parameters and their axial gradients. The importance of the continued study of Ag PWAs is also discussed. *This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Cooperative Agreements DE-FC52-06NA27588, DE-FC52-06NA27586, and in part by DE-FC52-06NA27616.

Keim, S. F.; Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Shrestha, I.; Weller, M. E.; Williamson, K. M.; Ouart, N. D.; Shlyaptseva, V.; Osborne, G. C.

2010-11-01

226

Larger Size Planar Wire Arrays with a Modified Central Plane and Their Applications on Zebra with LCM  

Science.gov (United States)

The increase in current up to 1.7 MA on Zebra with a Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allows implosions of larger size wire arrays compared to loads at 1 MA. In the previous experiments without LCM, different planar wire arrays (PWA) were tested, all with distance between the outer planes of 6 mm or less. Recently, we collected and analyzed the results of implosions of complex PWAs with a larger distance of 9 mm between outer planes, allowing better diagnostic access to early-time plasma flows near the stagnation axis. In particular, Triple PWAs with outer planes from mid-Z material and with a modified central plane from Al, were investigated. Different designs of the central Al plane were used to exclude magnetic field from the central volume. Shadowgraphy images show formation of stationary shock waves which existed over tens of ns. Time-gated spectroscopy indicates for the first time emissions from both Al K- and Ni L-shell plasmas as early as 20 ns before the main x-ray burst. This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Coop. Agr. DE-FC52-06NA27588, 06NA27586, and in part by DE-FC52-06NA27616. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Safronova, A. S.; Esaulov, A. A.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Weller, M. E.; Stafford, A.; Shrestha, I.; Osborne, G. C.; Keim, S. F.

2012-10-01

227

Integrated use of biomarkers and bioaccumulation data in Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) for site-specific quality assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the useful biological tools for environmental management is the measurement of biomarkers whose changes are related to the exposure to chemicals or environmental stress. Since these responses might vary with different contaminants or depending on the pollutant concentration reached in the organism, the support of bioaccumulation data is needed to prevent false conclusions. In this study, several persistent organic pollutants -- 23 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), six dichlorodiphenyltricholroethane (DDT) relatives, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlorpyrifos and its oxidized metabolite -- and some herbicides (lindane and the isomers alpha, beta, delta; terbutilazine; alachlor; metolachlor) were measured in the soft tissues of the freshwater mollusc Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) from 25 sampling sites in the Italian portions of the sub-alpine great lakes along with the measure of ethoxyresorufin dealkylation (EROD) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The linkage between bioaccumulation and biomarker data allowed us to create site-specific environmental quality indexes towards man-made chemicals. This classification highlighted three different degrees of xenobiotic contamination of the Italian sub-alpine great lakes: a high water quality in Lake Lugano with negligible pollutant levels and no effects on enzyme activities, an homogeneous poor quality for Lakes Garda, Iseo and Como, and the presence of some xenobiotic point-sources in Lake Maggiore, whose ecological status could be jeopardized, also due to the heavy DDT contamination revealed since 1996. PMID:16966160

Binelli, A; Ricciardi, F; Riva, C; Provini, A

2006-01-01

228

Encoding of naturalistic optic flow by motion sensitive neurons of nucleus rotundus in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)  

Science.gov (United States)

The retinal image changes that occur during locomotion, the optic flow, carry information about self-motion and the three-dimensional structure of the environment. Especially fast moving animals with only little binocular vision depend on these depth cues for maneuvering. They actively control their gaze to facilitate perception of depth based on cues in the optic flow. In the visual system of birds, nucleus rotundus neurons were originally found to respond to object motion but not to background motion. However, when background and object were both moving, responses increased the more the direction and velocity of object and background motion on the retina differed. These properties may play a role in representing depth cues in the optic flow. We therefore investigated, how neurons in nucleus rotundus respond to optic flow that contains depth cues. We presented simplified and naturalistic optic flow on a panoramic LED display while recording from single neurons in nucleus rotundus of anaesthetized zebra finches. Unlike most studies on motion vision in birds, our stimuli included depth information. We found extensive responses of motion selective neurons in nucleus rotundus to optic flow stimuli. Simplified stimuli revealed preferences for optic flow reflecting translational or rotational self-motion. Naturalistic optic flow stimuli elicited complex response modulations, but the presence of objects was signaled by only few neurons. The neurons that did respond to objects in the optic flow, however, show interesting properties.

Eckmeier, Dennis; Kern, Roland; Egelhaaf, Martin; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

2013-01-01

229

Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XIX. Ixodid ticks and fleas on rock dassies (Procavia capensis) in the Mountain-Zebra National Park.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five or 6 rock dassies (Procavia capensis) were shot at monthly intervals for 13 consecutive months in the Mountain Zebra National Park and processed for arthropod parasite recovery. Ten species of ixodid ticks and 2 flea species were recovered. The seasonal prevalence of the rock dassie ticks, Haemaphysalis hyracophila and Rhipicephalus distinctus, and of the immature stages of Rhipicephalus arnoldi, a tick that usually infests the red rock rabbit (Pronolagus rupestris), was determined. Only 10 of the approximately 10 000 ticks recovered from the rock dassies belonged to species that may infest domestic livestock. PMID:3725332

Horak, I G; Fourie, L J

1986-06-01

230

Nutritional studies on production of antibacterial activity by the zebra mussel antagonist, Pseudomonas fluorescens CL0145A.  

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Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A was discovered at the New York State Museum Field Research Laboratory as an effective agent against the environmentally destructive zebra mussel, which has contaminated US waters. Dried cells of the microbe are being commercialized as an environmentally friendly solution to the problem. We found that antibiotic activity against the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is produced and excreted by this strain. We have carried out studies to optimize production of the antibiotic. Studies were begun in a complex corn meal medium. Activity was found in both cells and culture supernates and was maximal after one day of fermentation. Static fermentation conditions were found to be superior to shaken culture. Production of extracellular antibiotic in complex medium was found to be dependent on the content of sucrose and enzymehydrolyzed casein. Indeed, production was greater in sucrose plus enzyme-hydrolyzed casein than in the complex medium. Of a large number of carbon sources studied as improvements over sucrose, the best was glycerol. An examination of nitrogen sources showed that production was improved by replacement of enzymehydrolyzed casein with soy hydrolysates. Production in the simple glycerol-Hy-Soy medium was not improved by addition of an inorganic salt mixture or by complex nitrogen sources, with the exception of malt extract. In an attempt to keep the medium more defined, we studied the effect of amino acids and vitamins as replacements for malt extract. Of 21 amino acids and 7 vitamins, we found tryptophan, glutamine, biotin, and riboflavin to be stimulatory. The final medium contained glycerol, Hy- Soy, tryptophan, glutamine, biotin, and riboflavin. PMID:23648855

Polanski-Cordovano, Grace; Romano, Lea; Marotta, Lauren L C; Jacob, Sarena; Soo Hoo, Jennifer; Tartaglia, Elena; Asokan, Deepa; Kar, Simkie; Demain, Arnold L

2013-05-01

231

Neighbours' breeding success and the sex ratio of their offspring affect the mate preferences of female zebra finches.  

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Several hypotheses on divorce predict that monogamous pairs should split up more frequently after a breeding failure. Yet, deviations from the expected pattern "success-stay, failure-leave" have been reported in several species. One possible explanation for these deviations would be that individuals do not use only their own breeding performance (i.e., private information) but also that of others (i.e., public information) to decide whether or not to divorce. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relative importance of private and public information for mate choice decisions in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).We manipulated the reproductive performance of breeding pairs and measured females' preferences for their mate and the neighbouring male first following pair formation and then seven weeks later when all females had laid eggs and the young were independent. Although all females reduced their preference for their mate after a breeding failure, the decrease was significant only when the neighbouring pair had reproduced successfully. Furthermore, there was no evidence that females biased the sex ratio of their offspring according to their mate's attractiveness. On the other hand, after reproduction, both successful and unsuccessful females increased their preferences for males who had produced a larger proportion of sons. Despite the fact that other mechanisms may have also contributed to our findings, we suggest that females changed their mate preferences based on the proportion of sons produced by successful males, because offspring sex ratio reflects the male's testosterone level at the moment of fertilization and hence is an indicator of his immune condition. PMID:22216351

Drullion, Dominique; Dubois, Frédérique

2011-01-01

232

Mercury Reduces Avian Reproductive Success and Imposes Selection: An Experimental Study with Adult- or Lifetime-Exposure in Zebra Finch  

Science.gov (United States)

Mercury is a global pollutant that biomagnifies in food webs, placing wildlife at risk of reduced reproductive fitness and survival. Songbirds are the most diverse branch of the avian evolutionary tree; many are suffering persistent and serious population declines and we know that songbirds are frequently exposed to mercury pollution. Our objective was to determine the effects of environmentally relevant doses of mercury on reproductive success of songbirds exposed throughout their lives or only as adults. The two modes of exposure simulated philopatric species versus dispersive species, and are particularly relevant because of the heightened mercury-sensitivity of developing nervous systems. We performed a dosing study with dietary methylmercury in a model songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), at doses from 0.3 – 2.4 parts per million. Birds were exposed to mercury either as adults only or throughout their lives. All doses of mercury reduced reproductive success, with the lowest dose reducing the number of independent offspring produced in one year by 16% and the highest dose, representing approximately half the lethal dose for this species, causing a 50% reduction. While mercury did not affect clutch size or survivorship, it had the most consistent effect on the proportion of chicks that fledged from the nest, regardless of mode of exposure. Among birds exposed as adults, mercury caused a steep increase in the latency to re-nest after loss of a clutch. Birds exposed for their entire lifetimes, which were necessarily the offspring of dosed parents, had up to 50% lower reproductive success than adult-exposed birds at low doses of methylmercury, but increased reproductive success at high doses, suggesting selection for mercury tolerance at the highest level of exposure. Our results indicate that mercury levels in prey items at contaminated sites pose a significant threat to populations of songbirds through reduced reproductive success.

Varian-Ramos, Claire W.; Swaddle, John P.; Cristol, Daniel A.

2014-01-01

233

Inhibition of the thioredoxin system in the brain and liver of zebra-seabreams exposed to waterborne methylmercury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mercury compounds were recently found to interact in vitro with the thioredoxin system, inhibiting both Thioredoxin (Trx) and Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). In order to evaluate if Trx and TrxR are affected in vivo by methylmercury (MeHg), we exposed juvenile zebra-seabreams to different concentrations of this toxicant in water for 28 days followed by a 14-day depuration period. Methylmercury accumulated to a larger extent in the kidney and liver of fishes, but decreased significantly during the depuration. During the exposure, MeHg percentage in the liver reached levels above 90% of total mercury (HgT) decreasing to 60% of HgT by the end of the depuration period. In the kidney, MeHg accounted for 50-70% of HgT. In the brain and muscle, mercury accumulated throughout the exposure with all mercury being MeHg. The total mercury kept increasing in these organs during the depuration period. However, in the brain, this increase in HgT was accompanied by a decrease in the MeHg percentage (? 10%). In the liver, both Trx and TrxR activities were significantly reduced (TrxR - 40%; Trx - 70%) by the end of the exposure, but recovered to control levels (100%) during the depuration. In the brain, both enzymes where inhibited during the depuration period (TrxR - 75%; Trx - 70%) when some production of inorganic mercury was detected. Activity of glutathione reductase showed increased levels when TrxR activity was low, suggesting complementarity between both systems. These results indicate that in vivo the thioredoxin system is a toxicological target for MeHg with TrxR being particularly affected.

2011-03-01

234

Effects of increasing temperatures on population dynamics of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha: implications from an individual-based model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas, 1771) have had unprecedented success in colonizing European and North American waters under strongly differing temperature regimes. Thus, the mussel is an excellent model of a species which is able to cope with increasing water temperatures expected under global change. We study three principle scenarios for successful survival of the mussel under rising temperatures: (1) no adaptation to future thermal conditions is needed, existing performance is great enough; (2) a shift (adaptation) towards higher temperatures is required; or (3) a broadening of the range of tolerated temperatures (adaptation) is needed. We developed a stochastic individual-based model which describes the demographic growth of D. polymorpha to determine which of the alternative scenarios might enable future survival. It is a day-degree model which is determined by ambient water temperature. Daily temperatures are generated based on long-term data of the River Rhine. Predictions under temperature conditions as recently observed for this river that are made for the phenology of reproduction, the age distribution and the shell length distribution conform with field observations. Our simulations show that temporal patterns in the life cycle of the mussel will be altered under rising temperatures. In all scenarios spawning started earlier in the year and the total reproductive output of a population was dominated by the events later in the spawning period. For maximum temperatures between 20 and 26 degrees C no thermal adaptation of the mussel is required. No extinctions and stable age distributions over generations were observed in scenario 2 for all maximum temperatures studied. In contrast, no population with a fixed range of tolerated temperatures survived in scenario 3 with high maximum temperatures (28, 30, 32 degrees C). Age distributions showed an excess of 0+ individuals which resulted in an extinction of the population for several thermal ranges investigated. PMID:17096169

Griebeler, Eva Maria; Seitz, Alfred

2007-03-01

235

Distribution of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 in auditory and song control brain regions in the adult zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).  

Science.gov (United States)

The songbird brain has a system of interconnected nuclei that are specialized for singing and song learning. Wada et al. (2004; J. Comp. Neurol. 476:44-64) found a unique distribution of the mRNAs for glutamate receptor subunits in the song control brain areas of songbirds. In conjunction with data from electrophysiological studies, these finding indicate a role for the glutamatergic neurons and circuits in the song system. This study examines vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) mRNA and protein expression in the zebra finch brain, particularly in auditory areas and song nuclei. In situ hybridization assays for VGLUT2 mRNA revealed high levels of expression in the ascending auditory nuclei (magnocellular, angular, and laminar nuclei; dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus; ovoidal nucleus), high or moderate levels of expression in the telencephalic auditory areas (cudomedial mesopallium, field L, caudomedial nidopallium), and expression in the song nuclei (HVC, lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium, robust nucleus of the arcopallium), where levels of expression were greater than in the surrounding brain subdivisions. Area X did not show expression of VGLUT2 mRNA. Nuclei in the descending motor pathway (dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular complex, retroambigual nucleus, tracheosyringeal motor nucleus of the hypoglossal nerve) expressed VGLUT2 mRNA. The target nuclei of VGLUT2 mRNA-expressing nuclei showed immunoreactivity for VGLUT2 as well as hybridization signals for the mRNA of glutamate receptor subunits. The present findings demonstrate the origins and targets of glutamatergic neurons and indicate a central role for glutamatergic circuits in the auditory and song systems in songbirds. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:2129-2151, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24327515

Karim, Mohammad Rabiul; Saito, Shouichiro; Atoji, Yasuro

2014-06-15

236

Carotenoid accumulation in the tissues of zebra finches: predictors of integumentary pigmentation and implications for carotenoid allocation strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carotenoid pigments produce the bright yellow to red ornamental colors of many animals, especially birds, and must ultimately be derived from the diet. However, they are also valuable for many physiological functions (e.g., antioxidants, immunostimulants, photoprotection, visual tuning, yolk nourishment to embryos), and as a result they are present in numerous internal body tissues (e.g., liver, adipose tissue, retina) whose carotenoid types and amounts are rarely studied in the context of color acquisition. Because male and female animals typically place different priorities on fitness-enhancing activities (e.g., gametic investment in females, sexual attraction in males), carotenoid allocation may track such investment patterns in the two sexes, and we can test for such sex-specific priorities of carotenoids by assessing body-tissue distributions of these pigments. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to identify and quantify carotenoid pigments from the plasma, liver, adipose tissue, and retina as well as the beak and legs of male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a species in which males display sexually attractive, red, carotenoid-based beak coloration and females also display some (albeit a less rich orange) beak color. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the predictors of carotenoid-based leg coloration-another potentially important visual signal-in this species. The same suite of dietary (e.g., lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin) and metabolically derived (e.g., dehydrolutein, anhydrolutein) yellow and orange carotenoids was present in plasma, liver, and adipose tissue of both sexes. Retina contained two different metabolites (astaxanthin and galloxanthin) that serve specific functions in association with unique photoreceptor types in the eye. Beaks were enriched with four red ketocarotenoid derivatives in both sexes (alpha-doradexanthin, adonirubin, astaxanthin, and canthaxanthin), while the carotenoid profile of legs was similar to that of plasma/liver/adipose tissue but with the additional presence of canthaxanthin. Sex differences in beak coloration were attributable to different concentrations of all four red ketocarotenoids. Males also had more colorful legs than did females, and this color difference was due to the increased presence of canthaxanthin in males. Males had higher carotenoid concentrations in plasma and retina than did females, but females had higher carotenoid concentrations in liver and adipose tissue than did males. These patterns are consistent with the apparently different life-history strategies employed for carotenoids by adult males and females, with females prioritizing future access to carotenoids (in tissue stores for egg production) and males prioritizing current access (in circulation, for maintaining bright color and/or health). PMID:19929687

McGraw, Kevin J; Toomey, Matthew B

2010-01-01

237

A newly discovered superoantero-orbital sinus connecting to the interaural canal may play a role in zebra finch hearing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The middle ears of birds are acoustically connected through an air-filled pathway, the interaural canal (IAC), which allows sound to propagate internally from one ear to the other and considerably enhance the cues for directional hearing. The enhancement of the directional cues depends on the amplitude gain and time delay through IAC. Theoretically, different combinations of frequency dependent gains and delays produce very different directionalities of the ears but it is still uncertain how gain and delay can be shaped by evolution. We have discovered that a large forehead sinus superoanterior to the orbits (superoantero-orbital sinus, SAOS) connects to the IAC via a tube inferomedial to the orbits (IMT). SAOS has a very complex shape with connections through an arc over the eye to the bullae of each ear and also to two smaller lateral sinuses in front of each eye. The contribution of this structure to auditory sensitivity has not been studied previously. We hypothesized that the extra air volume could form a resonator influencing the gain and delay of IAC. We tested the hypothesis by measuring sound transmission through IAC of zebra finches before and after filling the SAOS with a silicone impression medium. Six out of seven individuals showed an effect of filling the SAOS or the IMT on directionality and overall auditory sensitivity. The SAOS therefore does seem to have an effect on gain and delay in the interaural canal as well as on auditory sensitivity. The effect, however, was complex and either significantly changed the gain by up to 10 dB in the frequency range below about 2-3 kHz and/or in a narrow band around 4-6 kHz. Although we verified the fillings by post-experimental dissection, it was difficult to determine exactly to what degree the different components were filled. Thus differential filling and/or blockage of the complex system may be the reason for complexity of the results. Future experiments aim for better control of the cavity filling.

Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

238

Testing of five methods for the control of zebra mussels in cooling circuits of power plants located on the Moselle river  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Once a year, Zebra mussels are manually removed from the walls of basins and galleries. Five treatments have been tested at Cattenom power plants, as alternative or complementary ones: (1) thermal shocks, difficult to perform with existing coolant circuits ; (2) chlorination, which requires massive doses that environment cannot take (usable for small volumes of non-renewed water) ; (3) chlorine dioxide, which would imply high cost and compliance with strict safety rules ; (4) potassium chloride, that has the same indication as chloride ; (5) an organic compound called Mexel 432 , which has booth low cost and good efficiency. Mexel 432 appears the best solution ; its degradation and long-term effects should set up complementary tests. (D.L.). 10 refs., 8 figs.

Khalanski, M.

1993-12-01

239

Initiation of aluminum wire array on the 1-MA ZEBRA accelerator and its effect on ablation dynamics and x-ray yield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of current prepulse on the initiation of Al wire arrays, ablation dynamics and x-ray production was investigated on the 1-MA ZEBRA accelerator (University of Nevada, Reno). It is shown that increasing the number of wires lowers the temperature of the wire cores at the time of breakdown. Al arrays with cold wire cores demonstrate long and inhomogeneous ablation, and a less intense, wider x-ray pulse. Shortening the current prepulse by a flashover switch causes an increased wire-core temperature, symmetrization and synchronization of the wires' ablation, and improvement of the amplitude and shape of the x-ray pulse. Application of a vacuum flashover switch can be important for shortening the current prepulse on the upcoming 28-MA ZR-accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories to optimize the x-ray production and shot-to-shot reproducibility from wire-array Z pinches

2007-11-01

240

On the origin of zebra textures in Mississippi Valley-Type Pb-Zn Deposits with a special emphasis on the San Vicente Mine, Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

Alternating dark and white bands are common features of ore hosting dolostones which are generally termed zebra textures. Worldwide these structures occur in ore deposits of the Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT). This type of deposit frequently develops in hydrothermal systems located in the flanks of foreland basins. In most MVT ore deposits it is possible to distinguish between different stages which occur during the formation of the zebra textures and the precipitation of the ore-minerals (mostly Sphalerite and Galena). As the dark and white bands consist nearly completely of dolomite, despite the colour, the only clearly recognisable difference is the grain size. Today there are several theories which try to explain the formation of this kind of structure, for example by dissolution-precipitation (FONTBONTé et al., 1993) or by displacive vein growth (MERINO et al., 2006). Based on these theories and additional analytical findings, we want to develop a numerical model to study the banding and mineralisation. This model should include all processes from dolomitization, to the development of the zebra textures and finally the precipitation of Sphalerite and Galena. Using optical microscope and SEM, we found, that there are also differences in the shapes of the grain boundaries of the fine grained dark (lobate) and coarse grained white bands (polygonal). Furthermore, there is a large number of second-phase particles, namely apatite, iron oxides and organic matter, present in the dark bands. Often these particles are lined up at the grain boundaries. These insights lead to the hypothesis that the grain growth in the dark bands is influenced by obstacles that reduce the growth rate and therefore lead to a bifurcation of this rate in the system. For the modelling the microdynamic simulation software ELLE is used to perform a 2D-simulation at the scale of a thin section. This simulation uses a boundary-model coupled with a lattice-particle-code (BONS et al. 2001). The grain boundaries move according to a rate law based on dissolution-precipitation processes as a function of differences in surface energy. Layered distributions of particle densities are initially set as a background. With this simple simulation of grain growth influenced by particle distributions we show, that this process is able to develop structural patterns that are very similar to those present in the natural samples from the San Vicente Mine in Peru. References BONS P D, KOEHN D, and JESSELL W (2008) Microdynamic Simulation. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg FONTBONTé L (1993) Self-organization fabrics in carbonate-hosted ore deposits: the example of diagenetic crystallization rhythmites (DCRs), In: Current research in geology applied to ore deposits. Proceedings of the Second Biennial SGA Meeting, Granada, Spain, p. 11 -14 MERINO E, CANALS A, and FLECHTER R C (2006) Genesis of self-organized zebra textures in burial dolomites: Displacive veins, induced stress, and dolomitization. Geologica Acta, Vol. 4 No. 3, p. 383-393

Kelka, Ulrich; Koehn, Daniel

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

The combined effect of lead exposure and high or low dietary calcium on health and immunocompetence in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The widespread contamination by lead and the acidification of the environment ask for a better understanding of the effects of the interaction between lead and calcium on various aspects of health, including disease defense, in wildlife. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic exposure to sublethal levels of lead, combined with high or low dietary calcium, on health and several components of immunity in male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Thirty individuals of each sex were randomly assigned to three groups: a control group, a group exposed to lead with an additional calcium source (i.e. grit) and a group exposed to lead without access to an extra calcium source. Lead was administered as lead acetate via the drinking water (20 ppm) for 38 consecutive days. Exposure to lead increased significantly the concentrations of lead in kidney and bone in individuals of the experimental groups. Furthermore, the lack of a calcium supplement significantly enhanced the uptake of lead. Lead did not affect health indices such as hematocrit, spleen mass and body mass, nor the adrenal stress response. Cell-mediated immune responsiveness, assessed by a delayed-type hypersensitivity response to phytohaemagglutinin, was also not affected by lead exposure. On the other hand, lead exposure did significantly suppress the secondary humoral immune response towards sheep red blood cells in females, but only when the additional calcium source was not available. This effect was not found in males, suggesting sexual differences in susceptibility of humoral immunity to lead treatment in zebra finches. - Male and female finches may respond to lead differently

2005-03-01

242

Genomic organization and molecular phylogenies of the beta (? keratin multigene family in the chicken (Gallus gallus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata: implications for feather evolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidermal appendages of reptiles and birds are constructed of beta (? keratins. The molecular phylogeny of these keratins is important to understanding the evolutionary origin of these appendages, especially feathers. Knowing that the crocodilian ?-keratin genes are closely related to those of birds, the published genomes of the chicken and zebra finch provide an opportunity not only to compare the genomic organization of their ?-keratins, but to study their molecular evolution in archosaurians. Results The subfamilies (claw, feather, feather-like, and scale of ?-keratin genes are clustered in the same 5' to 3' order on microchromosome 25 in chicken and zebra finch, although the number of claw and feather genes differs between the species. Molecular phylogenies show that the monophyletic scale genes are the basal group within birds and that the monophyletic avian claw genes form the basal group to all feather and feather-like genes. Both species have a number of feather clades on microchromosome 27 that form monophyletic groups. An additional monophyletic cluster of feather genes exist on macrochromosome 2 for each species. Expression sequence tag analysis for the chicken demonstrates that all feather ?-keratin clades are expressed. Conclusions Similarity in the overall genomic organization of ?-keratins in Galliformes and Passeriformes suggests similar organization in all Neognathae birds, and perhaps in the ancestral lineages leading to modern birds, such as the paravian Anchiornis huxleyi. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that evolution of archosaurian epidermal appendages in the lineage leading to birds was accompanied by duplication and divergence of an ancestral ?-keratin gene cluster. As morphological diversification of epidermal appendages occurred and the ?-keratin multigene family expanded, novel ?-keratin genes were selected for novel functions within appendages such as feathers.

Sawyer Roger H

2010-05-01

243

miR-9 and miR-140-5p target FoxP2 and are regulated as a function of the social context of singing behavior in zebra finches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mutations in the FOXP2 gene cause speech and language impairments, accompanied by structural and functional abnormalities in brain regions underlying speech-related sensory-motor processing, including the striatum and cerebellum. The sequence and expression patterns of FOXP2 are highly conserved among higher vertebrates. In the zebra finch brain, FoxP2 is expressed in Area X, a striatal nucleus required for vocal learning, and reduced FoxP2 expression impairs dendritic development and vocal learning. The FoxP2 gene encodes a transcription factor that controls the expression of many downstream genes. However, how FOXP2 gene expression is regulated is not clearly understood. miRNAs regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by targeting the 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs, leading to translational suppression or mRNA degradation. In this study, we identified miR-9 and miR-140-5p as potential regulators of the FoxP2 gene. We show that both miR-9 and miR-140-5p target specific sequences in the FoxP2 3'-UTR and downregulate FoxP2 protein and mRNA expression in vitro. We also show that the expression of miR-9 and miR-140-5p in Area X of the zebra finch brain is regulated during song development in juvenile zebra finches. We further show that in adult zebra finches the expression of miR-9 and miR-140-5p in Area X is regulated as a function of the social context of song behavior in males singing undirected songs. Our findings reveal a post-transcriptional mechanism that regulates FoxP2 expression and suggest that social vocal behavior can influence the basal ganglia circuit controlling vocal learning via a miRNA-FoxP2 gene regulatory network. PMID:24133256

Shi, Zhimin; Luo, Guanzheng; Fu, Lijuan; Fang, Zhide; Wang, XiuJie; Li, XiaoChing

2013-10-16

244

Radiochemical techniques used to measure the cross sections leading to the production of 242Cm and 244Cm in 241Am and 243Am samples irradiated in the ZEBRA reactor at Winfrith  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The integral production cross sections of 242Cm and 244Cm from irradiated samples of 241Am and 243Am have been measured, using the sensitive radiochemical techniques of alpha counting and alpha spectroscopy. The ion exchange procedures used to separate the curium produced in americium samples, following irradiation in the simulated P.F.R. and C.F.R. type neutron energy spectra available in the ZEBRA reactor, are described. The measured production cross sections are compared with theoretical predictions. (author)

1980-10-03

245

Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Stimulates Expression of the Epstein-Barr Virus BZLF1 Immediate-Early Gene Product ZEBRA by an Indirect Mechanism Which Requires the MAPK Kinase Pathway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Disruption of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency is mediated by ZEBRA, the protein product of the immediate-early EBV gene, BZLF1. In vitro, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a potent activator of protein kinase C (PKC), induces reactivation of EBV. However, the physiological stimuli responsible for the disruption of viral latency are not well characterized. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) has also been shown to trigger the reactivation of EBV in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines; ho...

Fahmi, Hassan; Cochet, Chantal; Hmama, Zakariae; Opolon, Paule; Joab, Irene

2000-01-01

246

Towards a validation of a cellular biomarker suite in native and transplanted zebra mussels: A 2-year integrative field study of seasonal and pollution-induced variations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two of the questions raised in the validation process of biomarkers are their relevance in the identification and discrimination of environmental perturbations, and the influence of seasonal factors on these biological endpoints. Determining the advantages and restrictions associated with the use of native or transplanted animals and comparing their responses is also needed. To obtain this information, a 2-year integrative field study was conducted in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant in northeastern France. A station was located in the reservoir receiving the cooling waters of the plant, and two other sites were studied 2 km upstream and 5 km downstream from the reservoir's discharge in the Moselle river. Elevated temperatures, copper contamination and a 1.4-fold-concentration factor of dissolved salts affected water quality of the reservoir. Native and transplanted zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were collected monthly and their digestive glands were processed for histochemical determinations of the lysosomal and peroxisomal systems and of the lipofuscin and neutral lipid contents. The responses were quantified using automated image analysis and stereology. Apart from neutral lipid contents, there were no systematic seasonal patterns in mussel populations or from 1 year to another. Principal Component Analyses showed a general higher discrimination potential of biological responses in transplanted organisms compared to native ones. They also pointed out the relationships between the cellular and physiological markers and abiotic factors. The present multiple biomarker integrative approach in transplanted D. polymorpha brings promising elements in their validation process as relevant biomonitoring tools

2007-03-30

247

Evidence for cholinergic participation in the control of bird song; acetylcholinesterase distribution and muscarinic receptor autoradiography in the zebra finch brain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brain regions thought to be involved in the control of song in the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), were examined histochemically using the Karnovsky and Roots direct-coloring method for the detection of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the autoradiographic method for the localization of muscarinic cholinergic receptors following injection of tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate (3H QNB). All presently identified vocal control nuclei in both males and females contain AChE. These nuclei include Area X, magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (MAN), nucleus interface (NIF), caudal nucleus of the hyperstriatum ventrale (HVc), intercollicular nucleus (ICo), nucleus uva, robust nucleus of the archistriatum (RA), and tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve nucleus (nXIIts). All nuclei except Area X contain mostly AChE-synthesizing cell bodies. All of these nuclei contain some AChE in the neuropil, with particularly intense staining in Area X, the surrounding LPO, and the dorsomedial portion of ICo. In agreement with this description are very high concentrations of 3H QNB in both Area X and the dorsomedial ICo. HVc also appears specifically labeled. Evidence from these two histological technique suggests that efferent projections of most vocal control area may utilize acetylcholine, and that several of the vocal control nuclei may themselves receive muscarinic cholinergic projection. In Area X, there are sex differences of AChE neuropil staining. This evidence suggesting that sexually dimorphic projections to or within Area X are cholinergic or cholinoceptive.

Ryan, S.M.; Arnold, A.P.

1981-10-20

248

Sexual imprinting leads to lateralized and non-lateralized expression of the immediate early gene zenk in the zebra finch brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual imprinting is an early learning process by which young birds acquire the features of a potential sexual partner. The physiological basis of this learning process is an irreversible reduction of spine densities in two forebrain areas, the lateral neo- and hyperstriatum (LNH) and the medial neo- and hyperstriatum (MNH). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immediate early gene zenk, which has been shown frequently to play a role in plastic processes in the song system of zebra finches, may also be involved in the structural changes observed in these areas. The first exposure to a female after an isolation period enhances zenk expression in a variety of brain areas including LNH, MNH, and optic tectum. In contrast to earlier results, it was only the neostriatal part of LNH which showed an enhancement on first courtship, while exposure to a nestbox enhanced the label within the entire LNH area. Unexpectedly, the IEG expression was clearly lateralized in some layers of the optic tectum. Because lateralization occurred independent of the experimental condition, our study adds to recent results which also support the idea of a lateralized organization of the avian visual system. PMID:14684255

Lieshoff, Carsten; Grosse-Ophoff, Jürgen; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

2004-01-01

249

Analysis of Radiation from Implosions of Stainless Steel Wire Arrays on Zebra and Comparison with Laser Plasma Experiments on Leopard at UNR*.  

Science.gov (United States)

The implosions of Stainless Steel (SS) Wire Arrays are extensively studied at SNL and also have applications in astrophysics. The analysis of radiation from low-number-wire SS Single and Nested Cylindrical, and Planar Wire Array experiments on the 1 MA Zebra is presented. The major focus is on x-ray imaging and spectra, total radiation yields, and fast, filtered x-ray detector data. The results of Leopard laser experiments with a flat 25 ?m Fe target in the nanosecond (ns) and 350 femtosecond (fs) pulse regimes are discussed and compared with Z-pinch data. This comparison focuses mainly on L-shell Fe radiation and provides an excellent benchmark to the Z-pinch results. Good agreement with laser data is demonstrated in the ns regime, but a substantial difference is observed for the fs pulse. * This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Coop. Agreements DE-FC52-06NA27588, 27586, and 27616. SNL is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Co., for the U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Shrestha, I.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Weller, M. E.; Osborne, G. C.; Williamson, K. M.; Stafford, A.; Keim, S. F.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Esaulov, A. A.; Wiewior, P.; Legalloudec, N.; Paudel, Y.; Coverdale, C. A.; Chuvatin, A. S.

2011-11-01

250

First Analysis of Radiative Properties of Moderate-atomic-number Planar Wire Arrays on Zebra at UNR at Higher Current of 1.7 MA*  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of implosions of Cu and Ag planar wire array (PWA) loads recently performed at the enhanced 1.7 MA Zebra generator at UNR is presented. Experiments were performed with a Load Current Multiplier with a 1cm anode-cathode gap (twice shorter than in a standard 1 MA mode). A full diagnostic set included more than ten different beam-lines with the major focus on time-gated and time-integrated x-ray imaging and spectra, total radiation yields, and fast, filtered x-ray detector data. In particular, the experimental results for a double PWA load consisting of twelve 10?m Cu wires in each row (total mass M ˜ 175 ?g) and a much heavier single PWA load consisting of ten 30?m Ag wires (M ˜ 750 ?g) were analyzed using a set of theoretical codes. The effects of both a decreased a-c gap and an increased current on radiative properties of these loads are discussed. * This work was supported by NNSA/DOE Coop. Agr. DE-FC52-06NA27588, 27586, and 27616. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Co., a LMC, for the US DOE under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Astanovitskiy, A.; Legalloudec, B.; Presura, R.; Shrestha, I.; Williamson, K. M.; Shlyaptseva, V.; Weller, M. E.; Ouart, N. D.; Keim, S. F.; Osborne, G. C.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.

2010-11-01

251

First analysis of radiative properties of moderate-atomic-number planar wire arrays on Zebra at UNR at higher current of 1.7 MA.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analysis of implosions of Cu and Ag planar wire array (PWA) loads recently performed at the enhanced 1.7 MA Zebra generator at UNR is presented. Experiments were performed with a Load Current Multiplier with a 1cm anode-cathode gap (twice shorter than in a standard 1 MA mode). A full diagnostic set included more than ten different beam-lines with the major focus on time-gated and time-integrated x-ray imaging and spectra, total radiation yields, and fast, filtered x-ray detector data. In particular, the experimental results for a double PWA load consisting of twelve 10 {micro}m Cu wires in each row (total mass M {approx} 175 {micro}g) and a much heavier single PWA load consisting of ten 30 {micro}m Ag wires (M {approx} 750 {micro}g) were analyzed using a set of theoretical codes. The effects of both a decreased a-c gap and an increased current on radiative properties of these loads are discussed.

Keim, S. F. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Chuvatin, Alexander S. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France); Osborne, Glenn C. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Esaulov, Andrey A. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Presura, R. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Shrestha, I. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Shlyaptseva, V. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Coverdale, Christine Anne; Williamson, K. M. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Ouart, Nicholas D. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Astanovitsky, A. L. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Weller, M. E. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Safronova, Alla S. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); LeGalloudec, B. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV)

2010-11-01

252

Experiments and Numerical Simulation on a New Hohlraum Configuration with Planar Wire Array Sources at the 1.7 MA Zebra Generator  

Science.gov (United States)

In new hohlraum configuration, multiple mm-size planar wire array (PWA) sources surround a central cavity [B. Jones et al., PRL, v.104 (2010)]. This might provide a hotter hohlraum for ICF than the prior double-ended scheme with cylindrical arrays. The current redistribution in two magnetically decoupled compact Z-pinches (0.75-0.82 MA each) was demonstrated at 1.7 MA UNR Zebra generator. Yield measurements from two cages with PWA sources show that such plasma dissipates the magnetic energy at stagnation as a resistor. For the first time, strong EUV radiation, that time-correlated with sub-keV source bursts, was registered from central cavity. The experimental cavity radiation temperature of 37-45 eV correlates well with 39 eV from VisRaD code (PRISM Co.) simulation. First results of new configuration optimization are reported. The possible applications for 30-60 MA ICF experiments are discussed. This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Coop. Agr. DE-FC52-06NA27586, 06NA27588, and in part by DE-FC52-06NA27616. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Kantsyrev, V. L.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Rudakov, L. I.; Safronova, A. S.; Esaulov, A. A.; Shrestha, I.; Osborne, G. C.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Weller, M. E.; Keim, S. F.; Stafford, A.; Jones, B.; Vesey, R. A.

2012-10-01

253

Evidence for cholinergic participation in the control of bird song; acetylcholinesterase distribution and muscarinic receptor autoradiography in the zebra finch brain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brain regions thought to be involved in the control of song in the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), were examined histochemically using the Karnovsky and Roots direct-coloring method for the detection of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the autoradiographic method for the localization of muscarinic cholinergic receptors following injection of tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate (3H QNB). All presently identified vocal control nuclei in both males and females contain AChE. These nuclei include Area X, magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (MAN), nucleus interface (NIF), caudal nucleus of the hyperstriatum ventrale (HVc), intercollicular nucleus (ICo), nucleus uva, robust nucleus of the archistriatum (RA), and tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve nucleus (nXIIts). All nuclei except Area X contain mostly AChE-synthesizing cell bodies. All of these nuclei contain some AChE in the neuropil, with particularly intense staining in Area X, the surrounding LPO, and the dorsomedial portion of ICo. In agreement with this description are very high concentrations of 3H QNB in both Area X and the dorsomedial ICo. HVc also appears specifically labeled. Evidence from these two histological technique suggests that efferent projections of most vocal control area may utilize acetylcholine, and that several of the vocal control nuclei may themselves receive muscarinic cholinergic projection. In Area X, there are sex differences of AChE neuropil staining. This evidence suggesting that sexually dimorphic projections to or within Area X are cholinergic or cholinoceptive

1981-10-20

254

Influence of body size on Cu bioaccumulation in zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha exposed to different sources of particle-associated Cu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • Mussels exposed to algal/sediment-Cu have different size-related Cu accumulation. • Size-related Cu accumulation in mussels could be more dependant on algal-Cu uptake. • Importance of algal/sediment-Cu to Cu bioaccumulation varies with mussel body size. • Cu sources (algae and sediments) should be considered in “mussel watch” programs. • Cu stable isotope offers many advantages in Cu bioaccumulation studies. -- Abstract: Size of organisms is critical in controlling metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation, while mechanisms of size-related metal bioaccumulation are not fully understood. To investigate the influences of different sources of particle-associated Cu on body size-related Cu bioavailability and bioaccumulation, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) of different sizes were exposed to stable Cu isotope ({sup 65}Cu) spiked algae (Chlorella vulgaris) or sediments in the laboratory and the Cu tissue concentration-size relationships were compared with that in unexposed mussels. Copper tissue concentrations decreased with mussel size (tissue or shell dry weight) in both unexposed and algal-exposed mussels with similar decreasing patterns, but were independent of size in sediment-exposed mussels. Furthermore, the relative contribution of Cu uptake from algae (65–91%) to Cu bioaccumulation is always higher than that from sediments (9–35%), possibly due to the higher bioavailability of algal-Cu. Therefore, the size-related ingestion of algae could be more important in influencing the size-related variations in Cu bioaccumulation. However, the relative contribution of sediment-Cu to Cu bioaccumulation increased with body size and thus sediment ingestion may also affect the size-related Cu variations in larger mussels (tissue weight >7.5 mg). This study highlights the importance of considering exposure pathways in normalization of metal concentration variation when using bivalves as biomonitors.

Zhong, Huan, E-mail: huanzhong1982@hotmail.com [Environmental and Resource Studies Program, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada); Nanjing University, School of Environment, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Kraemer, Lisa; Evans, Douglas [Environmental and Resource Studies Program, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)

2013-10-15

255

A review of new wire arrays with open and closed magnetic configurations at the 1.6 MA Zebra generator for radiative properties and opacity effects  

Science.gov (United States)

The studies emphasize investigation of plasma formation, implosion, and radiation features as a function of two load configurations: compact multi-planar and cylindrical wire arrays. Experiments with different Z-pinch loads were performed on 1.6 MA, 100 ns, Zebra generator at University of Nevada, Reno. The multi-planar wire arrays (PWAs) were studied in open and closed configurations with Al, Cu, brass, Mo and W wires. In the open magnetic configurations (single, double, triple PWAs) magnetic fields are present inside the arrays from the beginning of discharge, while in closed configurations (prism-like PWA) the global magnetic field is excluded inside before plasma flow occurs. The new prism-like PWA allows high flexibility in control of implosion dynamics and precursor formation. The spectral modeling, magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) and wire ablation dynamic model (WADM) codes were used to describe the plasma evolution and plasma parameters. Experimentally observed electron temperature and density in multiple bright spots reached 1.4 keV and 5 × 10 21 cm -3, respectively. Two types of bright spots were observed. With peak currents up to 1.3 MA opacity effects became more pronounced and led to a limiting of the X-ray yields from compact cylindrical arrays. Despite different magnetic energy to plasma coupling mechanisms early in the implosion a comparison of compact double PWA and cylindrical WA results indicates that during the stagnation stage the same plasma heating mechanism may occur. The double PWA was found to be the best radiator tested at University scale 1 MA generator. It is characterized by a combination of larger yield and power, mm-scale size, and provides the possibility of radiation pulse shaping. Further, the newer configuration, the double PWA with skewed wires, was tested and showed the possibility of a more effective X-ray generation.

Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Esaulov, A. A.; Williamson, K. M.; Shrestha, I.; Yilmaz, F.; Osborne, G. C.; Weller, M. E.; Ouart, N. D.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Rudakov, L. I.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Velikovich, A. L.

2009-09-01

256

Circulating breeding and pre-breeding prolactin and LH are not associated with clutch size in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Clutch size is a fundamental predictor of avian fitness, widely-studied from evolutionary and ecological perspectives, but surprisingly little is known about the physiological mechanisms regulating clutch size variation. The only formal mechanistic hypothesis for avian clutch-size determination predicts an anti-gonadal effect of circulating prolactin (PRL) via the inhibition of luteinizing hormone (LH), and has become widely-accepted despite little experimental support. Here we investigated the relationship between pre-breeding and breeding plasma PRL and LH and clutch-size in captive-breeding female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Using a repeated-measures design, we followed individual females from pre-breeding, through multiple breeding attempts, and attempted to decrease PRL using the D2-receptor agonist, bromocriptine. Clutch size was independent of variation in pre-breeding PRL or LH, although pre-breeding LH was negatively correlated with the time between pairing and the onset of laying. Clutch size was independent of variation in plasma PRL on all days of egg-laying. Bromocriptine treatment had no effect on plasma PRL, but in this breeding attempt clutch size was also independent of plasma PRL. Finally, we found no evidence for an inverse relationship between plasma PRL and LH levels, as predicted if PRL had inhibitory effects via LH. Thus, our data fail to provide any support for the involvement of circulating PRL in clutch size determination. These findings suggest that alternative models for hormonal control of avian clutch size need to be considered, perhaps involving downstream regulation of plasma PRL at the level of the ovary, or other hormones that have not been considered to date. PMID:24768674

Ryan, Calen P; Dawson, Alistair; Sharp, Peter J; Meddle, Simone L; Williams, Tony D

2014-06-01

257

Influence of body size on Cu bioaccumulation in zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha exposed to different sources of particle-associated Cu  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Mussels exposed to algal/sediment-Cu have different size-related Cu accumulation. • Size-related Cu accumulation in mussels could be more dependant on algal-Cu uptake. • Importance of algal/sediment-Cu to Cu bioaccumulation varies with mussel body size. • Cu sources (algae and sediments) should be considered in “mussel watch” programs. • Cu stable isotope offers many advantages in Cu bioaccumulation studies. -- Abstract: Size of organisms is critical in controlling metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation, while mechanisms of size-related metal bioaccumulation are not fully understood. To investigate the influences of different sources of particle-associated Cu on body size-related Cu bioavailability and bioaccumulation, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) of different sizes were exposed to stable Cu isotope (65Cu) spiked algae (Chlorella vulgaris) or sediments in the laboratory and the Cu tissue concentration-size relationships were compared with that in unexposed mussels. Copper tissue concentrations decreased with mussel size (tissue or shell dry weight) in both unexposed and algal-exposed mussels with similar decreasing patterns, but were independent of size in sediment-exposed mussels. Furthermore, the relative contribution of Cu uptake from algae (65–91%) to Cu bioaccumulation is always higher than that from sediments (9–35%), possibly due to the higher bioavailability of algal-Cu. Therefore, the size-related ingestion of algae could be more important in influencing the size-related variations in Cu bioaccumulation. However, the relative contribution of sediment-Cu to Cu bioaccumulation increased with body size and thus sediment ingestion may also affect the size-related Cu variations in larger mussels (tissue weight >7.5 mg). This study highlights the importance of considering exposure pathways in normalization of metal concentration variation when using bivalves as biomonitors

2013-10-15

258

Molecular and Physiological Properties Associated with Zebra Complex Disease in Potatoes and Its Relation with Candidatus Liberibacter Contents in Psyllid Vectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Zebra complex (ZC) disease on potatoes is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLs), an ?-proteobacterium that resides in the plant phloem and is transmitted by the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc). The name ZC originates from the brown striping in fried chips of infected tubers, but the whole plants also exhibit a variety of morphological features and symptoms for which the physiological or molecular basis are not understood. We determined that compared to healthy plants, stems of ZC-plants accumulate starch and more than three-fold total protein, including gene expression regulatory factors (e.g. cyclophilin) and tuber storage proteins (e.g., patatins), indicating that ZC-affected stems are reprogrammed to exhibit tuber-like physiological properties. Furthermore, the total phenolic content in ZC potato stems was elevated two-fold, and amounts of polyphenol oxidase enzyme were also high, both serving to explain the ZC-hallmark rapid brown discoloration of air-exposed damaged tissue. Newly developed quantitative and/or conventional PCR demonstrated that the percentage of psyllids in laboratory colonies containing detectable levels of CLs and its titer could fluctuate over time with effects on colony prolificacy, but presumed reproduction-associated primary endosymbiont levels remained stable. Potato plants exposed in the laboratory to psyllid populations with relatively low-CLs content survived while exposure of plants to high-CLs psyllids rapidly culminated in a lethal collapse. In conclusion, we identified plant physiological biomarkers associated with the presence of ZC and/or CLs in the vegetative potato plant tissue and determined that the titer of CLs in the psyllid population directly affects the rate of disease development in plants.

Alvarado, Veria Y.; Odokonyero, Denis; Duncan, Olivia; Mirkov, T. Erik; Scholthof, Herman B.

2012-01-01

259

Comparison of acute toxicity of process chemicals used in the oil refinery industry, tested with the diatom Chaetoceros gracilis, the flagellate Isochrysis galbana, and the zebra fish, Brachydanio rerio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemicals under the trade names Nalco 537-DA, Nalco 625, Nalco 7607, Nalco 5165, Ivamin, and technical monoethanolamine are used extensively in the oil refinery industry. Aquatic toxicity tests were conducted using zebra fish fry (Brachydanio rerio) and the unicellular algae Isochrysis galbana (a flagellate) and Chaetoceros gracilis (a diatom). Inhibition of cell division, chlorophyll content, and 14CO2 uptake in the algae were sensitive end points. The effective concentrations (EC50s) of growth inhibition were 0.1 mg/L (Ivamin; I. galbana), 0.8 mg/L (Nalco 7607; I. galbana), 6 mg/L (Nalco 625; I. galbana), 10 mg/L (Nalco 5165; C. gracilis), and 15 mg/L (Nalco 537-DA; C. gracilis). The lethal concentrations (LC50s) (96 h) toward zebra fish fry was 1 mg/L for Nalco 7607, 6.5 mg/L for Nalco 537-DA, 7.1 mg/L for Nalco 625, and 20 mg/L for Ivamin 803. Monoethanolamine had an LC50 higher than 5,000 mg/L. Nalco 5165 was not tested on fish fry. The heartbeat frequency of fish embryos was reduced by 2.5 mg/L Nalco 537-DA, but this was an insensitive end point for the other chemicals

1996-07-01

260

Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The rich fossil record of equids has made them a model for evolutionary processes. Here we present a 1.12-times coverage draft genome from a horse bone recovered from permafrost dated to approximately 560-780 thousand years before present (kyr bp). Our data represent the oldest full genome sequence determined so far by almost an order of magnitude. For comparison, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene horse (43 kyr bp), and modern genomes of five domestic horse breeds (Equus ferus caballus), a Przewalski's horse (E. f. przewalskii) and a donkey (E. asinus). Our analyses suggest that the Equus lineage giving rise to all contemporary horses, zebras and donkeys originated 4.0-4.5 million years before present (Myr bp), twice the conventionally accepted time to the most recent common ancestor of the genus Equus. We also find that horse population size fluctuated multiple times over the past 2 Myr, particularly during periods of severe climatic changes. We estimate that the Przewalski's and domestic horse populations diverged 38-72 kyr bp, and find no evidence of recent admixture between the domestic horse breeds and the Przewalski's horse investigated. This supports the contention that Przewalski's horses represent the last surviving wild horse population. We find similar levels of genetic variation among Przewalski's and domestic populations, indicating that the former are genetically viable and worthy of conservation efforts. We also find evidence for continuous selection on the immune system and olfaction throughout horse evolution. Finally, we identify 29 genomic regions among horse breeds that deviate from neutrality and show low levels of genetic variation compared to the Przewalski's horse. Such regions could correspond to loci selected early during domestication.

Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Ginolhac, Aurélien

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The rich fossil record of equids has made them a model for evolutionary processes. Here we present a 1.12-times coverage draft genome from a horse bone recovered from permafrost dated to approximately 560-780 thousand years before present (kyr bp). Our data represent the oldest full genome sequence determined so far by almost an order of magnitude. For comparison, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene horse (43â??kyr bp), and modern genomes of five domestic horse breeds (Equus ferus caballus), a Przewalski's horse (E. f. przewalskii) and a donkey (E. asinus). Our analyses suggest that the Equus lineage giving rise to all contemporary horses, zebras and donkeys originated 4.0-4.5â??million years before present (Myr bp), twice the conventionally accepted time to the most recent common ancestor of the genus Equus. We also find that horse population size fluctuated multiple times over the past 2â??Myr, particularly during periods of severe climatic changes. We estimate that the Przewalski's and domestic horse populations diverged 38-72â??kyr bp, and find no evidence of recent admixture between the domestic horse breeds and the Przewalski's horse investigated. This supports the contention that Przewalski's horses represent the last surviving wild horse population. We find similar levels of genetic variation among Przewalski's and domestic populations, indicating that the former are genetically viable and worthy of conservation efforts. We also find evidence for continuous selection on the immune system and olfaction throughout horse evolution. Finally, we identify 29 genomic regions among horse breeds that deviate from neutrality and show low levels of genetic variation compared to the Przewalski's horse. Such regions could correspond to loci selected early during domestication.

Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Ginolhac, Aurélien

2013-01-01

262

Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rich fossil record of equids has made them a model for evolutionary processes. Here we present a 1.12-times coverage draft genome from a horse bone recovered from permafrost dated to approximately 560-780 thousand years before present (kyr BP). Our data represent the oldest full genome sequence determined so far by almost an order of magnitude. For comparison, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene horse (43?kyr BP), and modern genomes of five domestic horse breeds (Equus ferus caballus), a Przewalski's horse (E. f. przewalskii) and a donkey (E. asinus). Our analyses suggest that the Equus lineage giving rise to all contemporary horses, zebras and donkeys originated 4.0-4.5?million years before present (Myr BP), twice the conventionally accepted time to the most recent common ancestor of the genus Equus. We also find that horse population size fluctuated multiple times over the past 2?Myr, particularly during periods of severe climatic changes. We estimate that the Przewalski's and domestic horse populations diverged 38-72?kyr BP, and find no evidence of recent admixture between the domestic horse breeds and the Przewalski's horse investigated. This supports the contention that Przewalski's horses represent the last surviving wild horse population. We find similar levels of genetic variation among Przewalski's and domestic populations, indicating that the former are genetically viable and worthy of conservation efforts. We also find evidence for continuous selection on the immune system and olfaction throughout horse evolution. Finally, we identify 29 genomic regions among horse breeds that deviate from neutrality and show low levels of genetic variation compared to the Przewalski's horse. Such regions could correspond to loci selected early during domestication. PMID:23803765

Orlando, Ludovic; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Zhang, Guojie; Froese, Duane; Albrechtsen, Anders; Stiller, Mathias; Schubert, Mikkel; Cappellini, Enrico; Petersen, Bent; Moltke, Ida; Johnson, Philip L F; Fumagalli, Matteo; Vilstrup, Julia T; Raghavan, Maanasa; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Vogt, Josef; Szklarczyk, Damian; Kelstrup, Christian D; Vinther, Jakob; Dolocan, Andrei; Stenderup, Jesper; Velazquez, Amhed M V; Cahill, James; Rasmussen, Morten; Wang, Xiaoli; Min, Jiumeng; Zazula, Grant D; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Mortensen, Cecilie; Magnussen, Kim; Thompson, John F; Weinstock, Jacobo; Gregersen, Kristian; Røed, Knut H; Eisenmann, Véra; Rubin, Carl J; Miller, Donald C; Antczak, Douglas F; Bertelsen, Mads F; Brunak, Søren; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Ryder, Oliver; Andersson, Leif; Mundy, John; Krogh, Anders; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Kjær, Kurt; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Olsen, Jesper V; Hofreiter, Michael; Nielsen, Rasmus; Shapiro, Beth; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

2013-07-01

263

Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-coated thermo-responsive nanoparticles for controlled delivery of sulfonated Zn-phthalocyanine in Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro and zebra fish in vivo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} - SiO{sub 2} - CdTe multifunctional nanoparticles with photoluminescent (PL), thermosensitive and magnetic properties, were investigated as carriers to deliver water-soluble, fluorescent sulfonated Zn-phthalocyanine (ZnPcS), a photosensitizing drug for photodynamic therapy of cancer, in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in vitro and zebra fish in vivo. PNIPAM is a well-known thermo-responsive polymer with a volume phase transition temperature. This property allows it to be swollen in water at temperatures lower than 32-34 deg. C to take up ZnPcS and shrunken to expel the drug at higher temperatures. Since the PL band of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as indicators for the nanoparticles is at 585 nm and the emission band of ZnPcS is at 680 nm, it is possible to study the temperature-dependent release of ZnPcS from the nanoparticles by fluorescence measurements. ZnPcS was embedded in the PNIPAM of the nanoparticles at 25 deg. C in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution and released at 37 deg. C, measured with a spectrophotometer. When CHO cells had been incubated with the ZnPcS-loaded nanoparticles at 27 deg. C, a similar intracellular localization pattern of CdTe QDs and ZnPcS was seen by multichannel measurements in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), but a diffuse pattern of only ZnPcS fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm of the cells at 37 deg. C, indicating a release of ZnPcS from the nanoparticles. Similar results were also found in the intestinal tract of zebra fish in vivo after intake of the nanoparticles. Since the nanoparticles contain magnetic (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) material, the nanoparticles could also be manipulated to change their location in the intestinal tract of the zebra fish with an external magnetic field gradient of 300 G mm{sup -1}. The results presented suggest that such multifunctional nanoparticles may have combined potential for temperature-dependent drug delivery, QD photodetection and magnetic manipulation in diagnosis and therapy of diseases.

He Jia [Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory) and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen Jiyao [Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory) and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Pu [Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory) and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Peinan [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Photonic Materials and Devices, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Guo Jia [Department of Macromolecular Science and Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Yang Wuli [Department of Macromolecular Science and Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Changchun [Department of Macromolecular Science and Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Peng Qian [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Photonic Materials and Devices, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

2007-10-17

264

Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-coated thermo-responsive nanoparticles for controlled delivery of sulfonated Zn-phthalocyanine in Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro and zebra fish in vivo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)-coated Fe3O4 - SiO2 - CdTe multifunctional nanoparticles with photoluminescent (PL), thermosensitive and magnetic properties, were investigated as carriers to deliver water-soluble, fluorescent sulfonated Zn-phthalocyanine (ZnPcS), a photosensitizing drug for photodynamic therapy of cancer, in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in vitro and zebra fish in vivo. PNIPAM is a well-known thermo-responsive polymer with a volume phase transition temperature. This property allows it to be swollen in water at temperatures lower than 32-34 deg. C to take up ZnPcS and shrunken to expel the drug at higher temperatures. Since the PL band of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as indicators for the nanoparticles is at 585 nm and the emission band of ZnPcS is at 680 nm, it is possible to study the temperature-dependent release of ZnPcS from the nanoparticles by fluorescence measurements. ZnPcS was embedded in the PNIPAM of the nanoparticles at 25 deg. C in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution and released at 37 deg. C, measured with a spectrophotometer. When CHO cells had been incubated with the ZnPcS-loaded nanoparticles at 27 deg. C, a similar intracellular localization pattern of CdTe QDs and ZnPcS was seen by multichannel measurements in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), but a diffuse pattern of only ZnPcS fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm of the cells at 37 deg. C, indicating a release of ZnPcS from the nanoparticles. Similar results were also found in the intestinal tract of zebra fish in vivo after intake of the nanoparticles. Since the nanoparticles contain magnetic (Fe3O4) material, the nanoparticles could also be manipulated to change their location in the intestinal tract of the zebra fish with an external magnetic field gradient of 300 G mm-1. The results presented suggest that such multifunctional nanoparticles may have combined potential for temperature-dependent drug delivery, QD photodetection and magnetic manipulation in diagnosis and therapy of diseases

2007-10-17

265

Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-coated thermo-responsive nanoparticles for controlled delivery of sulfonated Zn-phthalocyanine in Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro and zebra fish in vivo  

Science.gov (United States)

Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)-coated Fe3O4@SiO2@CdTe multifunctional nanoparticles with photoluminescent (PL), thermosensitive and magnetic properties, were investigated as carriers to deliver water-soluble, fluorescent sulfonated Zn-phthalocyanine (ZnPcS), a photosensitizing drug for photodynamic therapy of cancer, in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in vitro and zebra fish in vivo. PNIPAM is a well-known thermo-responsive polymer with a volume phase transition temperature. This property allows it to be swollen in water at temperatures lower than 32-34 °C to take up ZnPcS and shrunken to expel the drug at higher temperatures. Since the PL band of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as indicators for the nanoparticles is at 585 nm and the emission band of ZnPcS is at 680 nm, it is possible to study the temperature-dependent release of ZnPcS from the nanoparticles by fluorescence measurements. ZnPcS was embedded in the PNIPAM of the nanoparticles at 25 °C in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution and released at 37 °C, measured with a spectrophotometer. When CHO cells had been incubated with the ZnPcS-loaded nanoparticles at 27 °C, a similar intracellular localization pattern of CdTe QDs and ZnPcS was seen by multichannel measurements in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), but a diffuse pattern of only ZnPcS fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm of the cells at 37 °C, indicating a release of ZnPcS from the nanoparticles. Similar results were also found in the intestinal tract of zebra fish in vivo after intake of the nanoparticles. Since the nanoparticles contain magnetic (Fe3O4) material, the nanoparticles could also be manipulated to change their location in the intestinal tract of the zebra fish with an external magnetic field gradient of 300 G mm-1. The results presented suggest that such multifunctional nanoparticles may have combined potential for temperature-dependent drug delivery, QD photodetection and magnetic manipulation in diagnosis and therapy of diseases.

He, Jia; Chen, Ji-Yao; Wang, Pu; Wang, Pei-Nan; Guo, Jia; Yang, Wu-Li; Wang, Chang-Chun; Peng, Qian

2007-10-01

266

ZebraMusselLeaflet.indd  

...buy a second hand boat have it cleaned. Guidelines for boat hull cleaning, painting and antifouling are available from Environment and Heritage Service – John McCartney, Calvert House, 23 Castle Place...

267

Macrorhabdus ornithogaster in ostrich, rhea, canary, zebra finch, free range chicken, turkey, guinea-fowl, columbina pigeon, toucan, chuckar partridge and experimental infection in chicken, japanese quail and mice Macrorhabdus ornithogaster em avestruzes, ema, canário, mandarim, galinha, peru, galinha da Angola, pombo doméstico, rolinha, tucano, perdiz de chuckar e infecção experimental em galinha, codorna e camundongo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since 2000, Macrorhabdus ornithogaster "megabacteriosis" has been diagnosed in the avian diseases laboratory in a diversity of avian species and varied spectrum of disease. The disease in some species (chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls) was clinically characterized by emaciation, prostration, loss of appetite, cachexia and death, with a typically chronic course. A more acute disease was observed in finches (canary-Serinus and zebra-Taeniopygia) and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). The lar...

Martins, N. R. S.; Horta, A. C.; Siqueira, A. M.; Lopes, S. Q.; Resende, J. S.; Jorge, M. A.; Assis, R. A.; Martins, N. E.; Fernandes, A. A.; Barrios, P. R.; Costa, T. J. R.; Guimara?es, L. M. C.

2006-01-01

268

ZEBRA: a project for studying Concorde`s contrail in the winter polar stratosphere; ZEBRE: un projet d`etude de la trainee de Concorde dans la stratosphere polaire hivernale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cause of the fast ozone destruction in the polar winter and spring stratosphere is now clearly identified. It requires three components to be present simultaneously. High chlorine and bromine concentrations know, to result from the emission of CFCs; sunlight without which the ozone depletion reactions cannot take place; polar stratospheric clouds or PSCs which occurrence depends on the temperature and the water vapour concentration in the atmosphere. A large fleet of SSTs in the winter polar stratosphere could in a significant increase of the water vapour mixing ratio and thus in an increase of the frequency of PSCs and the amplitude of ozone destruction. For quantifying the terms of the risk, an experiment, Zebre, was submitted to the French Committee Avion-Ozone, which consists to fly a Concorde off the Norwegian coast in winter 1994-95 in order to draw a zebra with its contrail. These will be then observed by a large variety of instruments,including ground-based and airborne lidars, deployed in the Arctic in the frame of the european campaign SESAME dedicated to the study of the winter polar stratosphere. (author)

Pommereau, J.P. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Verrieres-le-Buisson (France)

1994-12-31

269

Interspecific effects of 4A-DNT (4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene) and RDX (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in Japanese quail, Northern bobwhite, and Zebra finch.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess the toxicological effects of two munition compounds, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4A-DNT) and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), on three different bird species: two common toxicological model species-the Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and the Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica), and a representative passerine-the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Bobwhite were exposed to 4A-DNT at 0, 8, 15, 30, 60, or 150 mg/kg body weight (bw) d by oral gavage for seven days; because the high dose of 4A-DNT was lethal to bobwhite, the maximum dose was changed to 100 mg/kg bw d for Japanese quail and finches to ensure tissue could be used for future toxicogenomic work. RDX was similarly administered at 0, 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, or 12 mg/kg bw d. Blood was drawn prior to euthanasia for blood cellularity and chemistry analyses. Finches were clearly least affected by 4A-DNT as evidenced by a lack of observable effects. Bobwhite appeared to be the most sensitive species to 4A-DNT as observed through changes in blood cellularity and plasma chemistry effects. Bobwhite appeared to be more sensitive to RDX than Japanese Quail due to increased effects on measures of plasma chemistries. Finches exhibited the greatest sensitivity to RDX through increased mortality and seizure activity. This study suggests that sensitivity among species is chemical-specific and provides data that could be used to refine current avian sensitivity models used in ecological risk assessments. PMID:23161369

Quinn, Michael J; Hanna, Terry L; Shiflett, Alicia A; McFarland, Craig A; Cook, Michelle E; Johnson, Mark S; Gust, Kurt A; Perkins, Edward J

2013-03-01

270

77 FR 17494 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit  

Science.gov (United States)

...Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana) Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) Leopard (Panthera pardus) Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) Galapagos tortoise (Chelonoidis nigra) Radiated tortoise (Astrochelys...

2012-03-26

271

Induction of heat shock proteins (hsp70) in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) following exposure to platinum group metals (platinum, palladium and rhodium): Comparison with lead and cadmium exposures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An increasing number of papers concentrate on the availability and uptake of platinum group elements (PGE) by different organisms. These metals are discharged into the environment from different anthropogenic sources, such as automobile catalytic converters, hospitals and other medical institutions. As the effects of these precious metals on organisms remain unclear, the induction of heat shock proteins (hsp70) in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) following exposure to soluble salts of platinum, palladium and rhodium was compared with the hsp70 induction in mussels following exposure to cadmium and lead. Mussels were sampled weekly during a period of 10 weeks and analyzed for their metal concentration and their hsp70 level. Highest metal uptake was found for Cd, followed by Pt, Pb and Pd. Rh demonstrated the lowest uptake rate. A clear time-dependent increase of hsp70 levels occurred in all exposed mussels. Concentrations of hsp70 started to rise between days 18 and 25, except for the Pt-exposed group, where the initial increase was between days 25 and 32. All groups reached maximal hsp70 concentrations at day 39. Subsequently, hsp70 levels decreased to initial levels for the remaining exposure period. Threshold metal levels for the hsp70 induction varied among the metals and increased in the order: Rh < Pd {<=} Pb < Pt < Cd. Highest hsp70 values were found for mussels exposed to Pd, with a 25-fold higher level than in the controls, followed by Pt- and Rh-exposed mussels, which showed a 19-fold increase. The hsp70 levels of the mussels exposed to Cd and Pb were much lower, showing 6- and 12-fold higher values than the control, respectively. The clear induction of hsp70 due to exposure to Pt, Pd and Rh gives evidence for strong cellular effects of these metals, especially, when compared with lead and cadmium. Among the metals tested, Pd seems to have the highest potential as inducer for hsp70 production due to its low threshold level in combination with the strongest effect.

Singer, Christoph [Zoologisches Institut I-Oekologie, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Geb. 07.01, Kornblumenstrasse 13, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Zimmermann, Sonja [Zoologisches Institut I-Oekologie, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Geb. 07.01, Kornblumenstrasse 13, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sures, Bernd [Zoologisches Institut I-Oekologie, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Geb. 07.01, Kornblumenstrasse 13, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: dc11@rz.uni-karlsruhe.de

2005-10-05

272

Induction of heat shock proteins (hsp70) in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) following exposure to platinum group metals (platinum, palladium and rhodium): Comparison with lead and cadmium exposures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An increasing number of papers concentrate on the availability and uptake of platinum group elements (PGE) by different organisms. These metals are discharged into the environment from different anthropogenic sources, such as automobile catalytic converters, hospitals and other medical institutions. As the effects of these precious metals on organisms remain unclear, the induction of heat shock proteins (hsp70) in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) following exposure to soluble salts of platinum, palladium and rhodium was compared with the hsp70 induction in mussels following exposure to cadmium and lead. Mussels were sampled weekly during a period of 10 weeks and analyzed for their metal concentration and their hsp70 level. Highest metal uptake was found for Cd, followed by Pt, Pb and Pd. Rh demonstrated the lowest uptake rate. A clear time-dependent increase of hsp70 levels occurred in all exposed mussels. Concentrations of hsp70 started to rise between days 18 and 25, except for the Pt-exposed group, where the initial increase was between days 25 and 32. All groups reached maximal hsp70 concentrations at day 39. Subsequently, hsp70 levels decreased to initial levels for the remaining exposure period. Threshold metal levels for the hsp70 induction varied among the metals and increased in the order: Rh < Pd ? Pb < Pt < Cd. Highest hsp70 values were found for mussels exposed to Pd, with a 25-fold higher level than in the controls, followed by Pt- and Rh-exposed mussels, which showed a 19-fold increase. The hsp70 levels of the mussels exposed to Cd and Pb were much lower, showing 6- and 12-fold higher values than the control, respectively. The clear induction of hsp70 due to exposure to Pt, Pd and Rh gives evidence for strong cellular effects of these metals, especially, when compared with lead and cadmium. Among the metals tested, Pd seems to have the highest potential as inducer for hsp70 production due to its low threshold level in combination with the strongest effect

2005-10-05

273

Macrorhabdus ornithogaster in ostrich, rhea, canary, zebra finch, free range chicken, turkey, guinea-fowl, columbina pigeon, toucan, chuckar partridge and experimental infection in chicken, japanese quail and mice Macrorhabdus ornithogaster em avestruzes, ema, canário, mandarim, galinha, peru, galinha da Angola, pombo doméstico, rolinha, tucano, perdiz de chuckar e infecção experimental em galinha, codorna e camundongo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 2000, Macrorhabdus ornithogaster "megabacteriosis" has been diagnosed in the avian diseases laboratory in a diversity of avian species and varied spectrum of disease. The disease in some species (chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls was clinically characterized by emaciation, prostration, loss of appetite, cachexia and death, with a typically chronic course. A more acute disease was observed in finches (canary-Serinus and zebra-Taeniopygia and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus. The large rod shaped organism, visible from 100 times magnification, with and without staining, could be detected in sick and also in reasonably normal individuals of some species, such as chickens, turkeys, quails and pigeons. In rheas (Rhea americana, ostriches (Struthio camelus, canaries, zebra-finches, guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris and budgerigars. The disease was severe, causing to up to 100% mortality. The infection could be detected in some species along with other infectious or disease problems, such as endoparasites (helminths, coccidia and ectoparasitism (order Mallophaga or/and order Acarina. The cultivation of M. ornithogaster was successfully achieved in solid and liquid media, originated from chickens (four isolates, guinea fowl (1 isolate, chuckar partridge (1 isolate and canary (1 isolate. A very interesting finding at microscopy was motility of M. ornithogaster, as detected both in cultures obtained on agar for pathogenic fungi and passaged into thioglycolate broth, as well as on samples observed in wet preparations from in vivo. Differences in colony aspects were noted among the isolates. Experimental infections were attempted in chicken and japanese quail, using a chicken isolate, allowing the detection of the organism in the proventriculus and liver in apparently normal birds. One chicken isolate was injected intraperitoneally in Balb/c mice and resulted in 100% mortality.Desde 2000, diversos casos de infecção e doença por Macrorhabdus ornithogaster (megabacteria foram diagnosticados no Setor de Doenças das Aves (Escola de Veterinária da UFMG. A doença clínica foi caracterizada por emagrecimento, prostração, perda do apetite, caquexia e morte, em curso crônico, embora com forma mais aguda em canários e periquitos. O microrganismo grande, em forma de bastão, visível a partir de 100 aumentos sem e com coloração, pode também ser detectado em aves de aspecto clínico normal, principalmente galinhas, perus, codornas e pombos. Em emas (Rhea, avestruzes (Struthio camelus, canários, mandarins, galinhas da Angola (Numida meleagris e periquitos Australianos (Melopsittacus undulatus, a severidade da doença foi sempre maior, ocasionando até 100% de mortalidade em alguns plantéis. Na maioria das espécies a doença foi detectada em aves com endo e/ou ectoparasitismo. O cultivo de M. ornithogaster foi obtido em meio sólido (ágar para fungos patogênicos e subcultivado em meio líquido (thioglicolato, do proventriculo de galinha, galinha da Angola, perdiz de chuckar e canário. O resultado mais surpreendente na microscopia de M. ornithogaster foi a presença de motilidade, detectada tanto de cultivos in vitro quanto de preparações úmidas de in vivo. Diferenças nos aspectos das colônias foram notadas entre os isolados. Infecções experimentais em galinha (SPF e codorna japonesa permitiram a detecção do organismo nos proventrículos das aves de aspecto normal. Nas codornas, à necropsia notaram-se hemorragias hepáticas. A infecção experimental em camundongos via intraperitoneal resultou em 100% de mortalidade, também com lesões hepáticas. Aspectos do cultivo, a importância da doença, as espécies de aves susceptíveis e seu papel na epidemiologia são discutidos.

N.R.S. Martins

2006-06-01

274

77 FR 68809 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit  

Science.gov (United States)

...registration under 50 CFR 17.21(g) for the leopard (Panthera pardus) to enhance their propagation or survival. This...Saguinus oedipus) Lar gibbon (Hylobates lar) Leopard (Panthera pardus) Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi) Asian Wild...

2012-11-16

275

78 FR 44961 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit  

Science.gov (United States)

...sphinx) Lar gibbon (Hylobates lar) Siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) Leopard (Panthera pardus) Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) South American tapir (Tapirus terrestris) Scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx...

2013-07-25

276

Chronic fatigue syndrome: identifying zebras amongst the horses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract There are currently no investigative tools or physical signs that can confirm or refute the presence of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. As a result, clinicians must decide how long to keep looking for alternative explanations for fatigue before settling on a diagnosis of CFS. Too little investigation risks serious or easily treatable causes of fatigue being overlooked, whilst too many increases the risk of iatrogenic harm and reduces the opportunity for early focused treatment. A paper by Jones et al published this month in BMC Medicine may help clinicians in deciding how to undertake such investigations. Their results suggest that if clinicians look for common psychiatric and medical conditions in those complaining of prolonged fatigue, the rate of detection will be higher than previously estimated. The most common co-morbid condition identified was depression, suggesting a simple mental state examination remains the most productive single investigation in any new person presenting with unexplained fatigue. Currently, most diagnostic criteria advice CFS should not be diagnosed when an active medical or psychiatric condition which may explain the fatigue is identified. We discuss a number of recent prospective studies that have provided valuable insights into the aetiology of chronic fatigue and describe a model for understanding chronic fatigue which may be equally relevant regardless of whether or not an apparent medical cause for fatigue can be identified. See the associated research paper by Jones et al: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/7/57

Wessely Simon

2009-10-01

277

On the ontogeny of species recognition in zebra finches  

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In hoofdstuk 2 worden de argumenten gegeven waaruit zou blijken dat zebravinkmannetjes een niet-geleerde voorkeur voor kenmerken van hun eigen soort hebben. Deze argumentatie gaat uit van de vooronderstelling dat ouders van de eigen soort en japanse meeuwen een gelijkwaardige rol spelen in het inprentingsproces. ... Zie: Samenvatting

Cate, Carel Jacob Ten

1984-01-01

278

Further bird records from the Bontebokand Mountain Zebra National Parks  

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Full Text Available

The avifauna of this Park is well-known. Shortly after the Park was relocated to Swellendam in 1960, a preliminary list of the birds of the Park was published (Winterbottom 1962a. This was soon followed by a comprehensive check list (Winterbottom 1967a and a report on bird densities in the Coastal Renosterbosveld of the Park (Winterbottom 1968a. Six further bird species, five of which have been reported in The Ostrich, are documented here, increasing to 150 the total number of species recorded in the Park. The numbers denote those used in Roberts birds of South Africa (McLachlan and Liversidge 1970 and the nomenclature follows the Check list of the birds of South Africa (S.A.O.S. List Committee 1969.

B.L. Penzhorn

1977-08-01

279

ORAL ESTROGEN MASCULINIZES FEMALE ZEBRA FINCH SONG SYSTEM. (R825294)  

Science.gov (United States)

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

280

Localization of alkali-labile sites in donkey (Equus asinus) and stallion (Equus caballus) spermatozoa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of constitutive alkali-labile sites (ALS) has been investigated using a protocol of DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization and comet assay in spermatozoa of donkey (Equus asinus) and stallion (Equus caballus). These results were compared with those obtained using a similar experimental approach using somatic cells. The relative abundance of ALS was of the order of four times more in spermatozoa than in somatic cells. Alkali-labile sites showed a tendency to cluster localized at the equatorial-distal regions of the sperm. The amount of hybridized signal in the ALS in the sperm of donkey (Equus asinus) was 1.3 times greater than in stallion (Equus caballus), and the length of the comet tail obtained in donkey sperm was 1.6 times longer than that observed in stallion (P sperm is not a randomized event and a different pattern of ALS distribution occurs for each species. These results suggest that ALS represents a species-specific issue related to chromatin organization in sperm and somatic cells in mammalian species, and they might diverge even with very short phylogenetic distances. PMID:24182740

Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; López-Fernández, Carmen; Fernández, José Luis; Crespo, Francisco; Gosálvez, Jaime

2014-01-15

 
 
 
 
281

Características morfológicas do funículo espermático do burro (Equus asinus x Equus caballus) / Morphological aspects of the spermatic cord in mules (Equus asinus x Equus caballus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudando 15 pares de funículos espermáticos de burros (Equus asinus x Equus caballus), observamos em 5 pares que seus componentes acham-se envolvidos por delgada cápsula de tecido conjuntivo denso, revestido por mesotélio. Sob esta cápsula e em estreita relação com ela encontra-se espessa camada de [...] musculatura lisa (músculo cremáster interno) que acompanha também o mesoducto deferente. A cápsula funicular e o músculo cremáster interno aparecem em alguns pontos levemente pregueados. Os componentes vásculo-nervosos estão envolvidos por tecido conjuntivo frouxo integrado predominantemente por fibras colágenas. A artéria testicular no funículo mostra trajeto sinuoso, túnica interna constituída por endotélio acompanhado de delicada camada de tecido conjuntivo e lâmina elástica limitante interna. Sua espessa túnica média é composta por fibras musculares lisas sustentadas por rede de fibras reticulares, e a túnica externa, por tecido conjuntivo que se confunde com o tecido conjuntivo intervascular. As veias testiculares aparecem em grande número, possuem túnica média formada por fibras elásticas e reticulares, com poucas fibras musculares e são desprovidas de válvulas, envolvem as artérias testiculares formando os plexos pampiniformes. O modelo do segmento da artéria testicular obtido com Neoprene látex 450 em 20 preparações, correspondentes a 10 pares de funículos espermáticos, apresentaram, respectivamente como comprimentos médio, máximo e mínimo, 58,2 cm, 81,0 cm e 44,0 cm à direita e 66,3 cm, 96,0 cm e 51,0 cm à esquerda. Abstract in english In a morphologic study of 15 spermatic cord pairs of male mules (Equus asinus x Equus caballus), histology showed in 5 pairs that its components are involved in a thin capsule of a dense connective tissue, covered by a mesothelium. Underneath the capsule, in a close relation, we identified the inter [...] nal cremaster muscle. This muscle goes with mesoductus. The funicular capsule and muscular tissue form a few small plicae. The funicular vessels (testicular artery and veins) are wrapped up in loose conjunctive tissue prevailing collagen fibers. The funicular part of the testicular artery is convoluted. It shows a thick tunica média vasorum supported by a net of reticular fibers; tunica intima vasorum is build up endothelium, thin connective tissue and a well defined internal elastic layer; tunica externa vasorum with the connective tissue becoming part of intervascular connective tissue. The testicular veins constituted a very elaborated close-meshed pampiniform plexus in which contortions of the artery are embedded. These veins have a medial tunic formed by elastic and reticular fibers, with a few muscular fibers without valves. The part of testicular artery model obtained with Neoprene latex 450 in 20 preparations, corresponding to 10 pairs of spermatic cords, have mean, maximum, and minimum lengths, respectively, of 58,2 cm, 81 cm, and 44 cm to the right side and 66,5 cm, 96 cm, and 51 cm to the left side.

Roberto Pimenta de Pádua, FOZ FILHO; Antônio, FERNANDES FILHO; Vicente, BORELLI.

282

Infecção natural de Equus caballus por Leishmania sp - São Paulo, Brasil (Breve comunicação científica Natural infection of Equus caballus by Leishmania sp in São Paulo, Brazil, (Short communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E assinalado, pela primeira vez, o encontro de um cavalo (Equus caballus infeclado por Leishmania sp, no Estado de São Paulo.In São Paulo State a horse (Equus caballus was found infected with Leishmania sp, for the first time.

Elizaide Luzia de Alvarenga Yoshida

1988-04-01

283

Differentiation of Meat Samples from Domestic Horses (Equus caballus) and Asiatic Wild Asses (Equus hemionus) Using a Species-Specific Restriction Site in the Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent studies suggest that Asiatic wild asses (Equus hemionus) are being increasingly poached in a commercial fashion. Part of the meat is believed to reach the meat markets in the capital Ulaanbaatar. To test this hypothesis, we collected 500 meat samples between February and May 2006. To differentiate between domestic horse (Equus caballus) and wild ass meat, we developed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We amplified and ...

Kuehn, Ralph; Kaczensky, Petra; Lkhagvasuren, Davaa; Pietsch, Stephanie; Walzer, Chris

2006-01-01

284

Esteatosis en un burro (Equus asinus). Primer reporte en Colombia / Steatosis in donkey (Equus asinus). First report in Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describe un caso de esteatosis en un burro (Equus asinus), castrado, de 15 años de edad, procedente del municipio de San Antero (Córdoba, Colombia), al cual se le detectó ligamento nucal engrosado, duro y doloroso, dando la impresión de un doble cuello y edemas subcutáneos indurados en pared cost [...] al, abdominal y pectoral. También presentó masas duras en la unión de músculos semimembranoso y semitendinoso. Por todo lo anterior, mostró dificultad para realizar movimientos coordinados del cuello, nuca y de traslado. Estos hallazgos obedecen principalmente a una deficiencia de selenio y vitamina E, sirviendo como parámetro diagnóstico para la identificación de esta enfermedad en equinos, por lo cual se determinó la actividad eritrocitica de la enzima glutatión peroxidada (GSH-Px), arrojando resultados muy bajos. Este cuadro es también conocido en equinos como enfermedad de la grasa amarilla o esteatitis, que produce degeneración del tejido adiposo, siendo reemplazado por tejido conectivo con depósitos de calcio. Puede estar asociada a miodegeneración nutricional o distrófica (enfermedad del músculo blanco). Es el primer reporte de esta enfermedad en burros (Equus asinus) que se hace en Colombia. Abstract in english A case of steatosis in a, 15 years old gelding donkey (Equus asinus), from the town of San Antero (Cordoba, Colombia) is described. the donkey, showed a hard and painful thickened nuchal ligament, giving the impression of a double neck tumors. It was also found an edema in the indurated subcutaneous [...] chest wall, abdomen and chest. It was also found hard lumps in the union of semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles, which produced difficulty in the movility of the neck and coordinated translation. It is well known that this findings are due to a deficiency of selenium and vitamin E, giving them as diagnostic parameters for the presentation of this disease in horses, so we determined the enzyme activity of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), yielding results very low. This condition is also known as yellow fat disease or steatitis in horses and produces degeneration of adipose tissue which is replaced by connective tissue and calcium deposits and may be associated with nutritional or dystrophic miodegeneration (white muscle disease). As far as we know this is the first report of steatosis in donkeys (Equus asinus) in Colombia.

José, Cardona; Lázaro, Reza G.

285

Song-selective auditory circuits in the vocal control system of the zebra finch.  

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Birdsong is a learned behavior controlled by a distinct set of brain nuclei. The song nuclei known as area X, the medial nucleus of the dorsolateral thalamus (DLM), and the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (L-MAN) form a pathway that plays an important but unknown role in song learning. One function served by this circuit might be auditory feedback, which is critical to normal song development. We used single unit recordings to demonstrate that all three of these nucl...

Doupe, A. J.; Konishi, M.

1991-01-01

286

Aromatase is pre-synaptic and sexually dimorphic in the adult zebra finch brain  

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Oestrogens organize and activate circuits within the vertebrate central nervous system. Oestrogen synthesis occurs via the expression of aromatase, a P450 enzyme detected in microsomes and more recently in pre-synaptic boutons. Synaptic aromatase has only been described in brain regions that express aromatase in many subcellular compartments, so its function remains poorly understood. To more thoroughly study the role of oestrogen synthesis at synaptic terminals, we examined the ultrastructur...

Peterson, R. Scott; Yarram, Lakshmi; Schlinger, Barney A.; Saldanha, Colin J.

2005-01-01

287

17?-ESTRADIOL LEVELS IN MALE ZEBRA FINCH BRAIN: COMBINING PALKOVITS PUNCH AND AN ULTRASENSITIVE RADIOIMMUNOASSAY  

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Local aromatization of testosterone into 17?-estradiol (E2) is often required for the physiological and behavioral actions of testosterone. In most vertebrates, aromatase is expressed in a few discrete brain regions. While many studies have measured brain aromatase mRNA or activity, very few studies have measured brain E2 levels, particularly in discrete brain regions, because of technical challenges. Here, we used the Palkovits punch technique to isolate 13 discrete brain nuclei from adult ...

Charlier, Thierry D.; Po, Kelvin W. L.; Newman, Amy E. M.; Shah, Amit H.; Saldanha, Colin J.; Soma, Kiran K.

2010-01-01

288

Audience Effect Alters Male Mating Preferences in Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata)  

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The social environment of animals strongly influences the mating preferences of both the choosing and the observing individuals. Notably, there is recent evidence that polygamous males decrease their selectivity when being observed by competitors in order to direct their rivals’ attention away from their true interest and, consequently, reduce sperm competition risk. Yet, other mechanisms, whose importance remains unexplored, could induce similar effects. In monogamous species with mutual c...

Dubois, Fre?de?rique; Belzile, Alexandra

2012-01-01

289

An Experimental Test of Condition-Dependent Male and Female Mate Choice in Zebra Finches  

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In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choic...

Holveck, Marie-jeanne; Geberzahn, Nicole; Riebel, Katharina

2011-01-01

290

An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches  

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In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choic...

Holveck, Marie-jeanne; Geberzahn, Nicole; Riebel, Katharina

2011-01-01

291

Dopaminergic Modulation of Reproductive Behavior and Activity in Male Zebra Finches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We previously demonstrated that hormone treatments which stimulate female-directed singing increased levels and turnover of dopamine (DA) in brain areas controlling the motor patterning of song. To help determine how DA affects singing, we quantified the effects of treating adult male finches with the D1/D2 receptor antagonist cis-flupenthixol. Adult males were given subcutaneous silastic implants of androgen, in case drug treatment interfered with androgen secretion. One week later, they wer...

Rauceo, Sharon; Harding, Cheryl F.; Maldonado, Alexandra; Gaysinkaya, Lina; Tulloch, Ingrid; Rodriguez, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

292

A re-assessment of the avifauna of the Mountain Zebra National Park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on all published records, together with the original data for the southern African bird atlas, the current Birds in Reserves Project and our records on field trips, 257 bird species have been reliably recorded from MZNP. We have assessed the current status of all species, in relation to the recent expansion of the park and other changes which may be a consequence of management practices. No birds of national conservation concern are breeding residents in the park, and some species are periodic or irregular visitors. Nevertheless, the park is important for the conservation of representatives of the Karoo avifauna, and the diversity of birdlife present should be highlighted to attract visitors with a special interest in birding.

P.E. Hilley

2005-06-01

293

Fos Responses of Dopamine Neurons to Sociosexual Stimuli in Male Zebra Finches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dopamine (DA) is produced in numerous brain areas and influences a wide variety of social behaviors, but very few data are available to establish the socially-relevant response properties of most DA populations, which comprise eight cell groups numbered A8-A15. Anatomically, these DA populations are evolutionarily conserved, and all have been identified in both birds and mammals. We now report the Fos responses of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir; putatively dopaminergic) neurons in...

Bharati, Ila S.; Goodson, James L.

2006-01-01

294

Tallinnas Narva mnt. 7 asuva kohviku Zebra sisekujundus / Tiiu Truus, Tiiu Prisko, Mati Veermets...[jt.  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

põhiplaan, 11 värv. vaadet; fotod: Kalle Veesaar; laes olevate dekoratiivsete lippude graafiline kujundus on Tiiu Priskolt ja Mati Veermetsalt, tualettruumi looduskivist valamu ja põrandavaasi autor on Kaido Kivi

2006-01-01

295

A Social Relations Model for the Colonial Behavior of the Zebra Finch  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A social relations model was developed for 5 years of behavioral recordings from a captive colony of Zebrafinches (Taeniopygia guttata). A quantitative ethogram was applied, using one-zero focal animal sampling on an ethologically comprehensive checklist of 52 behavioral items (Figueredo, Petrinovich, & Ross, 1992). Of the 9 ethological factors previously identified, only 4 of the 6 social factors (Social Proximity, Social Contact, Social Submission, and Social Aggression) were used. Major re...

Aurelio José Figueredo; Sally Gayle Olderbak; Vanya Alessandra Moreno

2010-01-01

296

A Social Relations Model for the Colonial Behavior of the Zebra Finch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A social relations model was developed for 5 years of behavioral recordings from a captive colony of Zebrafinches (Taeniopygia guttata. A quantitative ethogram was applied, using one-zero focal animal sampling on an ethologically comprehensive checklist of 52 behavioral items (Figueredo, Petrinovich, & Ross, 1992. Of the 9 ethological factors previously identified, only 4 of the 6 social factors (Social Proximity, Social Contact, Social Submission, and Social Aggression were used. Major results were as follows: (1 Individual finches showed systematically different response dispositions that were stable over a 5-year period as both subjects and objects of behavior; (2 Interactions between finches differed systematically by the sexes of both the subjects and the objects of behavior; (3 Behavioral interactions between finches and their mates differed systematically according to the subjects' sex, but also differed systematically from those with other members of the objects' sex; (4 Behavioral interactions between finches and their relatives differed systematically between different discrete categories of relatives, but did not vary as a systematic function of either graded genetic relatedness or familiarity due to common rearing; and (5 Behavioral interactions between finches and their relatives showed an overall bias towards preferential interactions with male relatives.

Vanya Alessandra Moreno

2010-01-01

297

Zebra-borne equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection in non-African captive mammals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) was detected in an Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), which was euthanized because of severe neurological disease. Encephalitis was suspected and EHV-1 DNA was detected in brain, lung, and spleen tissues. The viral IR6 protein was detected in lung tissues by Western blot analysis. Phylogenetic analyses of EHV-1 sequences amplified from various tissues was nearly identical to one recently described that resulted in both non-fatal and fatal encephalitis in polar bears. This represents transmission of EHV-1 to a species that is not naturally sympatric with the natural host of the virus and broadens the host range to Asian non-equid perissodactyls. PMID:24440374

Abdelgawad, Azza; Azab, Walid; Damiani, Armando M; Baumgartner, Katrin; Will, Hermann; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Alex D

2014-02-21

298

When the zebra loses its stripes: Semantic priming in early Alzheimer's disease and semantic dementia.  

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Patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) or semantic dementia (SD) both exhibit deficits on explicit tasks of semantic memory. Semantic priming (SP) paradigms provide a very pure and precise implicit measurement of semantic memory impairment, and a previous study of AD (Giffard et al., 2002) using one such paradigm revealed that AD patients in the initial stages of semantic deterioration presented an abnormally large priming effect (hyperpriming) in a category-coordinate condition, c...

Laisney, Mickae?l; Giffard, Be?ne?dicte; Belliard, Serge; La Sayette, Vincent; Desgranges, Be?atrice; Eustache, Francis

2011-01-01

299

Improved cycling behavior of ZEBRA battery operated at intermediate temperature of 175°C  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Operation of the sodium-nickel chloride battery at temperatures below 200°C reduces cell degradation and improves cyclability. One of the main technical issues with operating this battery at intermediate temperatures such as 175°C is the poor wettability of molten sodium on ?”-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE), which causes reduced active area and limits charging. In order to overcome the poor wettability of molten sodium on BASE at 175°C, a Pt grid was applied on the anode side of the BASE using a screen printing technique. Cells with their active area increased by metallized BASEs exhibited deeper charging and stable cycling behavior.

Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

2014-01-01

300

Species Shout-Outs From Abdul to Zebra: Encouraging Nonmajors to Communicate in the Biology Classroom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this learning activity, a simple verbal prompt was employed as a nonthreatening and engaging discussion starter for non-Biology majors in a biology class at a community college. By calling out the name of their favorite species, then relating new content to this organism, these “Species Shout-Outs” fostered enthusiasm among students by promoting engagement and creating relevance, all of which are important to improving higher education. This activity combined the elements of academic and social interaction, as well as active learning, which have been shown to be necessary to foster student retention through college.

Christina P. Colon

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

SOCIAL AFFILIATION RELATES TO TYROSINE HYDROXYLASE IMMUNOLABELING IN MALE AND FEMALE ZEBRA FINCHES (TAENIOPYGIA GUTTATA)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine are implicated in affiliative behaviors, yet few studies have addressed the extent to which affiliative behaviors within distinct social settings rely upon similar or distinct catecholaminergic mechanisms. To explore the role of catecholamines in affiliative behavior within distinct long-term social contexts, we examined the density of the catecholamine synthetic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in brain regions within both the mesolimbic dopamin...

Alger, Sarah Jane; Juang, Charity; Riters, Lauren V.

2011-01-01

302

Song discrimination learning in zebra finches induces highly divergent responses to novel songs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Perceptual biases can shape the evolution of signal form. Understanding the origin and direction of such biases is therefore crucial for understanding signal evolution. Many animals learn about species-specific signals. Discrimination learning using simple stimuli varying in one dimension (e.g. amplitude, wavelength) can result in perceptual biases with preferences for specific novel stimuli, depending on the stimulus dimensions. We examine how this translates to discrimination learning invol...

Verzijden, Machteld N.; Etman, Eric; Heijningen, Caroline; Linden, Marianne; Ten Cate, Carel

2007-01-01

303

Toxico-kinetic, chemical and radiological toxicity of uranium on zebra fish (Danio rerio)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis explores the toxico-kinetic and toxicological aspects of uranium in fish. Uranium, appears to be highly bio accumulated and bio concentrated in fish. It spreads all through the whole organism. Nevertheless, its distribution is heterogeneous (gills and liver being the main sites of accumulation).From a toxicological point of view, we notice perturbations of the antioxidant system (inhibitions of hepatic Sod, Cat and G Px activities; depletion of total GSH) and of the cholinergic system (inhibition/over-activation of brain AChE). Genotoxic effects also appear in red blood cells, hepatocytes and gonad cells. The kinetics of these biochemical perturbations depend on the radiological activity of uranium, responses appearing earlier with increasing delivered activity. Histological effects (differing in types depending on delivered radiological activity) are also observed (in gills and muscles). (author)

2007-01-01

304

Measurement and analysis of reaction rates in radial breeder regions of Zebra assembly 13  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Foil activation techniques have been used to study the major contributions to the power output from the radial breeder region of an operating mock-up of the Prototype Fast Reactor. Three breeder configurations have been investigated; a clean uranium-oxide breeder, an irradiated uranium-oxide breeder, and a uranium-carbide breeder. Predictions of the power distributions have been made using FGL5 data with both diffusion and transport theory models. It has been shown that the standard diffusion theory treatment may lead to errors of about 10% in breeder power relative to that in the core but that significant improvements are obtained by the use of transport theory. (author)

1980-01-01

305

Ontogeny of Adaptive Antibody Response to a Model Antigen in Captive Altricial Zebra Finches  

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Based on studies from the poultry literature, all birds are hypothesized to require at least 4 weeks to develop circulating mature B-cell lineages that express functionally different immunoglobulin specificities. However, many altricial passerines fledge at adult size less than four weeks after the start of embryonic development, and therefore may experience a period of susceptibility during the nestling and post-fledging periods. We present the first study, to our knowledge, to detail the ag...

2012-01-01

306

Genesis of self-organized zebra textures in burial dolomites: Displacive veins, induced stress, and dolomitization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dolomite veins making up rhythmites common in burial dolomites are not cement infillings of supposed cavities, as in the prevailing view, but are instead displacive veins, veins that pushed aside the host dolostone as they grew. Evidence that the veins are displacive includes a) small transform-fault-like displacements that could not have taken place if the veins were passive cements, and b) stylolites in host rock that formed as the veins grew in order to compensate for the volume added ...

Merino, Enrique; Canals I Sabate?, A?ngels; Fletcher, R. C.

2006-01-01

307

Genesis of self-organized zebra textures in burial dolomites : displacive veins, induced stress, and dolomitization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dolomite veins making up rhythmites common in burial dolomites are not cement infillings of supposed cavities, as in the prevailing view, but are instead displacive veins, veins that pushed aside the host dolostone as they grew. Evidence that the veins are displacive includes a) small transform-fault-like displacements that could not have taken place if the veins were passive cements, and b) stylolites in host rock that formed as the veins grew in order to compensate for the volume added ...

Merino, E.

2006-01-01

308

Copper ion treatment for zebra mussel mitigation in house service water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oak Creek Power Plant is a four unit, coal-fired plant totaling 1 140 MW. The plant has a once-through circulating water system with a common forebay, from which it draws both main condenser circulating and house service water. System design prohibits thermal treatment strategies and obtaining environmental permitting for mollusicidal treatments is difficult at best. Initial treatment strategies revolved around chlorination, using sodium hypochlorite, which proved to be marginally successful, or chlorine dioxide, which raised safety concerns. This paper discusses plant design, treatment history, environmental permitting issues, design and installation of a copper ion generator, problems encountered and solutions, operating and maintenance requirements, and results to date of copper ion technology at the Energies' Oak Creek Power Plant. (orig.)

Babinec, J. [We Energies, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

2003-09-01

309

De novo establishment of wild-type song culture in the zebra finch  

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What sort of culture would evolve in an island colony of naive founders? This question cannot be studied experimentally in humans. We performed the analogous experiment using socially learned birdsong. Culture is typically viewed as consisting of traits inherited epigenetically, via social learning. However, cultural diversity has species-typical constraints1, presumably of genetic origin. A celebrated, if contentious, example is whether a universal grammar constrains syntactic diversity in h...

Feher, Olga; Wang, Haibin; Saar, Sigal; Mitra, Partha P.; Tchernichovski, Ofer

2009-01-01

310

Esteatosis en un burro (Equus asinus. Primer reporte en Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se describe un caso de esteatosis en un burro (Equus asinus, castrado, de 15 años de edad, procedente del municipio de San Antero (Córdoba, Colombia, al cual se le detectó ligamento nucal engrosado, duro y doloroso, dando la impresión de un doble cuello y edemas subcutáneos indurados en pared costal, abdominal y pectoral. Tambiénpresentó masas duras en la unión de músculos semimembranoso y semitendinoso. Por todo lo anterior, mostró dificultad para realizar movimientos coordinados del cuello, nuca y de traslado. Estos hallazgos obedecen principalmente a una deficiencia de selenio y vitamina E, sirviendo como parámetro diagnóstico para la identificación de esta enfermedad en equinos, por lo cual se determinó la actividad eritrocitica de la enzima glutatión peroxidada (GSH-Px, arrojando resultados muy bajos. Este cuadro es también conocido en equinos como enfermedad de la grasa amarilla o esteatitis, que produce degeneración del tejido adiposo, siendo reemplazado por tejido conectivo con depósitos de calcio. Puede estar asociada a miodegeneración nutricional o distrófica (enfermedad del músculo blanco. Es el primer reporte de esta enfermedad en burros(Equus asinus que se hace en Colombia.

José Cardona Á.

2011-12-01

311

Uncoupling of Satellite DNA and Centromeric Function in the Genus Equus  

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In a previous study, we showed that centromere repositioning, that is the shift along the chromosome of the centromeric function without DNA sequence rearrangement, has occurred frequently during the evolution of the genus Equus. In this work, the analysis of the chromosomal distribution of satellite tandem repeats in Equus caballus, E. asinus, E. grevyi, and E. burchelli highlighted two atypical features: 1) several centromeres, including the previously described evolutionary new centromeres...

2010-01-01

312

Pleistocene horses (genus Equus in the central Balkans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review of the fossil horses of the genus Equus from the central Balkans, a mountainous area comprising Serbia and Montenegro, is presented in this paper. The time period covered by the finds is from the late Early to and including the Late Pleistocene, but the record is not complete: the dated finds are Late Pleistocene in age, while Early and Middle Pleistocene are poorly represented. The horses found resemble those from neighbouring countries from the same time period, probably showing the importance of river valleys as migration routes. The Morava River valley runs in a roughly south-to-north direction, connecting, via the Danube and Tisa River valleys the Hungarian Pannonian Plain in the north with northern Greece in the south, via the Vardar River valley in Macedonia. In Pleistocene, large mammals, including horses, probably used this route for dispersal.

Forsten Ann

2003-01-01

313

Horses (Equus caballus) discriminate body odour cues from conspecifics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge about social recognition and memory in animals can help us to determine appropriate management and husbandry techniques. In this study, we used a habituation-discrimination procedure to investigate the ability of horses (Equus caballus) to distinguish between the body odour samples of unfamiliar conspecifics. To pick up body odour, we rubbed material on the coat of horses and presented these unknown body odours to 16 different conspecifics of the same sex and similar age. The test consisted of two successive two-min presentations of a sample from one individual (e.g. individual 'A') and a simultaneous presentation of samples from individual 'A' and a novel individual (e.g. individual 'B') during a final third presentation. The results showed that horses, regardless of sex, decreased the time they spent investigating conspecific body odour across the initial two presentations-demonstrating habituation. In the final presentation, the results demonstrated successful discrimination of the previously experienced odour because horses investigated the novel olfactory sample ('B') significantly more than the pre-exposed sample ('A'). Taken together, these findings suggest, for the first time, that horses are able to discriminate two stimuli derived from body odours of unfamiliar conspecifics over short period of time. PMID:24305997

Péron, F; Ward, R; Burman, O

2014-07-01

314

Population viability analysis on domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this study, we performed a population viability analysis on 3 domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus) of Danish origin, namely, the Frederiksborg, the Knabstrupper, and the Jutland breeds. Because of their small population sizes, these breeds are considered endangered. The Vortex software simulation package was used for the population viability analysis. First, we investigated the future viability of these breeds based on present demographic and environmental parameters. Second, a sensitivity analysis revealed the most important variables for the viability of these breeds. Third, we examined management scenarios in which one of the studbooks was closed. According to the Vortex analysis, 2 of the breeds (Knabstrupper and Jutland) will persist for the next 200 yr, whereas the smaller breed (Frederiksborg) could become extinct within 40 yr. The sensitivity analyses indicated that the variables concerning reproduction of the mares had the greatest impact, with the number of mares actively breeding being the most influential on the population forecasts. The results suggest that closing the Knabstrupper studbooks can be done only if increasing the number of mares actively breeding counteracts the loss of genetic variation attributable to such a management strategy. It is recommended, based on these results, that the number of Frederiksborg and Knabstrupper mares actively breeding must be increased to approximately 30% in the 2 breeds that are presently using only 13%, while leaving the third (Frederiksborg ) at its present 30% level. Monitoring of the breeds in the future, however, may be exploited to adjust the breeding strategies. We suggest that the large amount of data required by Vortex makes it very useful for analyzing domestic animals because of the comprehensive data material often available. The results of this analysis accord with other studies on the Prezwalski horse, indicating robustness in the parameter sensitivity for horses.

Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Bach, Lars

2009-01-01

315

Sequencing and expression analysis of hepcidin mRNA in donkey (Equus asinus) liver Sequenciamento e expressão do RNA mensageiro da hepcidina no fígado de jumentos (Equus asinus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hypoferremia that is observed during systemic inflammatory processes is mediated by hepcidin, which is a peptide that is mainly synthesized in the livers of several mammalian species. Hepcidin plays a key role in iron metabolism and in the innate immune system. It's up-regulation is particularly useful during acute inflammation, and it restricts the iron availability that is necessary for the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, the hepcidin mRNA of Equus asinus has been ch...

Oliveira-filho, Jose? P.; Marques, Jessica A.; Cunha, Paulo Henrique J.; Medeiros, Gildenor X.; Franklin Riet-Correa; Machado, Va?nia Maria V.; Borges, Alexandre S.

2012-01-01

316

9 CFR 75.4 - Interstate movement of equine infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMUNICABLE DISEASES IN HORSES, ASSES, PONIES, MULES, AND ZEBRAS Equine Infectious... Reactor. Any horse, ass, mule, pony or zebra which is subjected to an official...infectious anemia to other horses, asses, ponies, mules, or zebras, and will...

2009-01-01

317

Spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta prey on new-born elephant calves in  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta are known to be opportunists and to have a varied diet including mammals, reptiles and birds. Prey most often hunted are medium sized ungulates but spotted hyaenas will on occasion take larger species such as giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and zebra Equus burchellii. They are also known to hunt whichever species are most abundant and will vary their prey seasonally. In this study...

Julia Salnicki; Marion Teichmann; Wilson, V. J.; Murindagomo, F.

2001-01-01

318

Large herbivores that strive mightily but eat and drink as friends  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grazing in patches of Cynodon dactylon and of Sporobolus spicatus by four large herbivores, and the interaction between these sedentary herbivores was studied in Lake Manyara National Park, northern Tanzania. The herbivores were the African buffalo, Syncerus caffer; the African elephan, Loxodonta africana; the Burchell's zebra, Equus burchelli; and the wildebeest, Connochaetus taurinus. Four different hypotheses of the interactions between the herbivores were tested, viz., increased predator ...

Boer, W. F.; Prins, H. H. T.

1990-01-01

319

Spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta prey on new-born elephant calves in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta are known to be opportunists and to have a varied diet including mammals, reptiles and birds. Prey most often hunted are medium sized ungulates but spotted hyaenas will on occasion take larger species such as giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and zebra Equus burchellii. They are also known to hunt whichever species are most abundant and will vary their prey seasonally. In this study...

Julia Salnicki; Marion Teichmann; Wilson, V. J.; Murindagomo, F.

2001-01-01

320

AcEST: BP919928  

Full Text Available YMU001_000130_G07 468 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000130_G07. BP919928 CL2066C protein 2 OS=Mus m... 30 6.4 sp|A2PYL6|HXK2_HORSE Hexokinase -2 OS=Equus caballus GN=HK2 PE=2 ... 30 6.4 sp|A2PY L7|HXK2_EQUZE Hexokinase -2 OS=Equus zebra GN=HK2 PE=2 SV=1 30 6.4 sp|A2PYL8

 
 
 
 
321

Mapping Equus kiang (Tibetan Wild Ass) Habitat in Surkhang, Upper Mustang, Nepal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper describes land cover classification and habitat mapping for the Tibetan wild ass (Equus kiang), also commonly known as kiang, in the Surkhang VDC, Upper Mustang, Nepal. Remote sensing techniques were applied for this classification, employing an ASTER satellite image from October 2002. The whole region was classified into 6 land cover types, relevant to the application of habitat mapping for the kiang. The classes are: grassland, shrubland, bare land, water bodies, snow cove...

2004-01-01

322

Neighbours' Breeding Success and the Sex Ratio of Their Offspring Affect the Mate Preferences of Female Zebra Finches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several hypotheses on divorce predict that monogamous pairs should split up more frequently after a breeding failure. Yet, deviations from the expected pattern “success-stay, failure-leave” have been reported in several species. One possible explanation for these deviations would be that individuals do not use only their own breeding performance (i.e., private information) but also that of others (i.e., public information) to decide whether or not to divorce. To test this hypothesis, we i...

Drullion, Dominique; Dubois, Fre?de?rique

2011-01-01

323

CYTO-GENOTOXIC EFFECTS OF SOME PHARMACEUTICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) ON THE FRESHWATER BIVALVE ZEBRA MUSSEL (DREISSENA POLYMORPHA)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are an emerging class of environmental pollutants that are extensively and increasingly being used in human and veterinary medicine. Due to their continuous production, consumption and often abuse, many studies have shown worldwide measurable concentrations of about 100 of these drugs in the aquatic environment in the high ng L-1 to low µg L-1 range. Among these, antimicrobial, antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ar...

Parolini, Marco

2010-01-01

324

TECHNOLOGICAL VALUE OF SPRING WHEAT OF ZEBRA CULTIVAR AS RELATED TO THE WAY OF NITROGEN AND MAGNESIUM APPLICATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A significant increase in grain yield was observed following soil fertilization with nitrogen up to the level of 90 kg·ha-1, independently of foliar fertilization. Among the examined variants of foliar fertilization on average, the significantly highest grain yield was obtained in the objects in which nitrogen and magnesium were administered in parallel. Within the entire range of nitrogen doses administered to soil, a moderately significant increase was noted in total protein content, to the level of 90 kg N·ha-1 a moderately increased content of wet gluten, sedimentation ratio and bread volume were recorded and following application of 60 kg N·ha-1 an increase in water absorbability of flour was observed. Independently of the soil fertilization with nitrogen, the most favourable of the studied variants of foliar fertilization for principal parameters of baking value proved to be a parallel application of nitrogen and magnesium or administration of nitrogen only.

M RALCEWICZ

2010-02-01

325

Short communication. Evaluation of presumptive caudal fin blastema cells as candidate donors in intra species zebra fish (Danio rerio) chimaeras  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The blastema is a regenerative tissue with remarkable pluripotency. The aim of this work done on zebrafish (Danio rerio) was to define technical procedures required for obtaining and integrating blastema cells into embryos at the mid blastula transition stage (MBT) and the effect on survival, as well as the capacity to produce pigmented chimaeras. Wild type blastema cells were injected into gold type MBT embryos (E). Wild MBT blastomere cells were also injected into gold type MBT embryos as a control (C{sub 1}). A second control group, C{sub 2}, was not subjected to any manipulation. Survival was evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 h after performing the chimaerism, and the rate of adult chimaeras evaluated. The results showed significant differences in embryo survival between the E and C{sub 1} groups in embryo survival at 24 and 48 h postchimaerism (24 h: E-83.49% vs C{sub 1}-54.8%, p < 0.05; 48 h: E-98.83% vs C{sub 1}-85.13%, p < 0.05). There was no significant difference, at any time, between E and C{sub 2}. The results at 72 h for E and the controls (E-89.41%; C{sub 1}-84.12% and C{sub 2}-92.55%) indicate that insertion of blastema cells does not have a negative effect on embryo development. The results in adults (E: 0 chimaeras from 7 specimens; C{sub 1}: 5 chimaeras from 17 specimens) suggest that the dedifferentiation grade of the blastema cells may not be enough to generate germ-line chimaeras, but their condition of potentially dedifferentiating cells may be an advantage when using them as donor nuclei in somatic cloning by nuclear transplant. Additional key words: biodiversity, chimaerism, embryo, zebrafish. (Author) 19 refs.

Perez-Camps, M.; Francisco Simao, M.; Cardona Costa, J.; Garcia-Ximenez, F.

2008-07-01

326

Odour-based natal nest recognition in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), a colony-breeding songbird  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Passerine birds have an extensive repertoire of olfactory receptor genes. However, the circumstances in which passerine birds use olfactory signals are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate whether olfactory cues play a role in natal nest recognition in fledged juvenile passerines. The natal nest provides fledglings with a safe place for sleeping and parental food provisioning. There is a particular demand in colony-breeding birds for fledglings to be able to identify the...

2011-01-01

327

Stable isotopes and heavy metal distribution in Dreissena polymorpha (Zebra Mussels) from western basin of Lake Erie, Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dreissena polymorpha is an exotic freshwater bivalve species which was introduced into the Great Lakes system in the fall of 1985 through the release of ballast water from European freighters. Utilizing individual growth rings of the shells, the stable isotope distribution ({delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 13}C) was determined for the life history of selected samples which were collected from the western basin of Lake Erie. These bivalves deposit their shell in near equilibrium with the ambient water and thus reflect any annual variation of the system in the isotopic records held within their shells. Observed values for {delta}{sup 18}O range from -6.64 to -9.46 permille with an average value of -7.69 permille PDB, while carbon values ranged from -0.80 to -4.67 permille with an average value of -1.76 permille PDB. Dreissena polymorpha shells incorporate metals into their shells during growth. Individual shell growth increments were analyzed for Pb, Fe, Mg, Mn, Cd, Cu, and V concentrations. The shells show increased uptake of certain metals during periods of isotopic enrichment which correspond with warmer water temperatures. Since metals are incorporated into the shells, the organism may be useful as a biomonitor of metal pollution within aquatic environments. (orig.)

Al-Aasm, I.S.; Clarke, J.D.; Fryer, B.J. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences

1998-02-01

328

Knockdown of FABP3 Impairs Cardiac Development in Zebra?sh through the Retinoic Acid Signaling Pathway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP3) is a member of the intracellular lipid-binding protein family, and is primarily expressed in cardiac muscle tissue. Previously, we found that FABP3 is highly expressed in patients with ventricular-septal defects and is often used as a plasma biomarker in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, and may play a significant role in the development of these defects in humans. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of FABP3 in the embryonic developmen...

Xuejie Wang; Lijuan Zhou; Jin Jin; Yang Yang; Guixian Song; Yahui Shen; Hailang Liu; Ming Liu; Chunmei Shi; Lingmei Qian

2013-01-01

329

Uptake and elimination of [9-14C]phenanthrene in the turkey wing mussel (Arca zebra)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Turkey wing mussels of both sexes were collected from Harrington Sound, Bermuda and dosed after a week-long acclimation period with [9-14C]phenanthrene (714 MBq/mmol). They were transferred into 8 liters of seawater containing 8 ?g of labelled phenanthrene. Results show that the accumulation of labelled phenanthrene in the turkey wing mussel was very low compared to that found in other species. In the hepatopancreas, the uptake of phenanthrene based on the water concentration was only 4% of the corresponding value found in the calico clam (Macrocallista maculata) inhabiting the same area. In comparison, the uptake of phenanthrene in a temperate mollusc such as the horse mussel (Modiola modiolus) was also considerably higher than in the turkey wing (approx. 4 times). It therefore seems likely that these are due to species variations rather than environmental variations between subtropical and temperate areas

1983-01-01

330

DSP-4, a noradrenergic neurotoxin, produces sex-specific effects on pairing and courtship behavior in zebra finches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Norepinephrine (NE) is involved in a variety of behaviors across vertebrate species. In songbirds, NE is involved in singing and auditory perception, fundamental components of pair formation. Mechanisms of pairing remain poorly understood in avian species. NE is likely involved given its role in vocal communication and perception. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DSP-4 treatments (a noradrenergic neurotoxin that decreases NE) decreases singing in males, song perception in females and pairing in both sexes using a naturalistic paradigm. Females were tested for preferences of either control or DSP-4 males in a two-choice paradigm using live males. Both sexes were then tested for courtship and pair formation in aviaries. In the two-choice paradigm, control females showed a significant preference for control males over DSP-4 males, whereas DSP-4 females showed no such preference. In the aviary tests, DSP-4 males engaged in less courtship behavior, showed decreased pairing behaviors and increased pair latencies compared to control males. In females, DSP-4 treatments did not alter courtship or pairing behavior. Lower neural densities of noradrenergic fibers in song, auditory, and affiliative regions were observed in DSP-4 animals of both sexes. Furthermore, DBH-ir densities in these regions explained variations in courtship and pairing behaviors, as well as pairing status. Our results extend previous findings to naturalistic contexts, provide evidence that DBH-ir densities in specific regions correlate with pairing-related behaviors, and inform us of sex differences in the role of NE in pairing. PMID:23747610

Vahaba, Daniel M; Lacey, William H; Tomaszycki, Michelle L

2013-09-01

331

Sometimes when you hear hoof beats, it could be a zebra: consider the diagnosis of Fabry disease  

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Abstract Background Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder that results from a deficiency of the enzyme ?-galactosidase A. Fabry disease is present in 4–5% of men with unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy or cryptogenic stroke. As enzyme replacement therapy is now more widely available, it is important to recognise the signs and symptoms of the disease and establish the diagnosis so that early treatment can be started before irreversible organ damage o...

Burton James O; Dormer John P; Binns Helen E; Pickering Warren P

2012-01-01

332

Activation Changes in Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) Brain Areas Evoked by Alterations of the Earth Magnetic Field  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many animals are able to perceive the earth magnetic field and to use it for orientation and navigation within the environment. The mechanisms underlying the perception and processing of magnetic field information within the brain have been thoroughly studied, especially in birds, but are still obscure. Three hypotheses are currently discussed, dealing with ferromagnetic particles in the beak of birds, with the same sort of particles within the lagena organs, or describing magnetically influe...

Keary, Nina; Bischof, Hans-joachim

2012-01-01

333

Research and Development (R&D) Series 06/25 - Management of the Impacts of Zebra Mussels in ...  

...habitat, food w ebs and available resources. The reduction in available zooplankton resources may increase competitive interactions and has the potential to impact on recruitment and grow th of zooplanktivorous...

334

Sequencing and expression analysis of hepcidin mRNA in donkey (Equus asinus liver Sequenciamento e expressão do RNA mensageiro da hepcidina no fígado de jumentos (Equus asinus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hypoferremia that is observed during systemic inflammatory processes is mediated by hepcidin, which is a peptide that is mainly synthesized in the livers of several mammalian species. Hepcidin plays a key role in iron metabolism and in the innate immune system. It's up-regulation is particularly useful during acute inflammation, and it restricts the iron availability that is necessary for the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, the hepcidin mRNA of Equus asinus has been characterized, and the expression of donkey hepcidin in the liver has been determined. The donkey hepcidin sequence has an open reading frame (ORF of 261 nucleotides, and the deduced corresponding protein sequence has 86 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of donkey hepcidin was most homologous to Equus caballus (98%. The mature donkey hepcidin sequence (25 amino acids was 100% homologous to the equine mature hepcidin and has eight conserved cysteine residues that are found in all of the investigated hepcidin sequences. The expression profile of donkey hepcidin in the liver was high and was similar to the reference gene expression. The donkey hepcidin sequence was deposited in GenBankTM (HQ902884 and may be useful for additional studies on iron metabolism and the inflammatory process in this species.A hipoferremia observada durante os processos inflamatórios sistêmicos é mediada pela hepcidina, um peptídeo que é sintetizado predominantemente no fígado de mamíferos. A hepcidina desempenha um papel chave no metabolismo do ferro e no sistema imune. O aumento da expressão da hepcidina é particularmente útil durante a inflamação aguda, pois restringe a disponibilidade de ferro, necessária para o crescimento de microorganismos patogênicos. Neste estudo, o RNA mensageiro da hepcidina asinina foi caracterizado e sua expressão foi determinada em fígado de jumentos (Equus asinus. A sequência da hepcidina asinina tem uma janela de leitura de 261 nucleotídeos e a proteína correspondente é formada por 86 aminoácidos. A sequência de aminoácidos da hepcidina asinina foi mais homóloga à sequência da hepcidina equina (98%. A hepcidina madura (25 aminoácidos foi 100% idêntica à hepcidina madura equina e possuía as oito cisteínas conservadas nas demais sequências de hepcidinas analisadas. O perfil de expressão da hepcidina no fígado de jumentos saudáveis foi alto e similar ao perfil de expressão do gene de referência. A sequência da hepcidina asinina foi depositada no GenBankTM (HQ902884 e será útil para o desenvolvimento de estudos adicionais sobre o metabolismo de ferro e inflamação nesta espécie.

José P. Oliveira-Filho

2012-10-01

335

Sequencing and expression analysis of hepcidin mRNA in donkey (Equus asinus) liver / Sequenciamento e expressão do RNA mensageiro da hepcidina no fígado de jumentos (Equus asinus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A hipoferremia observada durante os processos inflamatórios sistêmicos é mediada pela hepcidina, um peptídeo que é sintetizado predominantemente no fígado de mamíferos. A hepcidina desempenha um papel chave no metabolismo do ferro e no sistema imune. O aumento da expressão da hepcidina é particularm [...] ente útil durante a inflamação aguda, pois restringe a disponibilidade de ferro, necessária para o crescimento de microorganismos patogênicos. Neste estudo, o RNA mensageiro da hepcidina asinina foi caracterizado e sua expressão foi determinada em fígado de jumentos (Equus asinus). A sequência da hepcidina asinina tem uma janela de leitura de 261 nucleotídeos e a proteína correspondente é formada por 86 aminoácidos. A sequência de aminoácidos da hepcidina asinina foi mais homóloga à sequência da hepcidina equina (98%). A hepcidina madura (25 aminoácidos) foi 100% idêntica à hepcidina madura equina e possuía as oito cisteínas conservadas nas demais sequências de hepcidinas analisadas. O perfil de expressão da hepcidina no fígado de jumentos saudáveis foi alto e similar ao perfil de expressão do gene de referência. A sequência da hepcidina asinina foi depositada no GenBankTM (HQ902884) e será útil para o desenvolvimento de estudos adicionais sobre o metabolismo de ferro e inflamação nesta espécie. Abstract in english The hypoferremia that is observed during systemic inflammatory processes is mediated by hepcidin, which is a peptide that is mainly synthesized in the livers of several mammalian species. Hepcidin plays a key role in iron metabolism and in the innate immune system. It's up-regulation is particularly [...] useful during acute inflammation, and it restricts the iron availability that is necessary for the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, the hepcidin mRNA of Equus asinus has been characterized, and the expression of donkey hepcidin in the liver has been determined. The donkey hepcidin sequence has an open reading frame (ORF) of 261 nucleotides, and the deduced corresponding protein sequence has 86 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of donkey hepcidin was most homologous to Equus caballus (98%). The mature donkey hepcidin sequence (25 amino acids) was 100% homologous to the equine mature hepcidin and has eight conserved cysteine residues that are found in all of the investigated hepcidin sequences. The expression profile of donkey hepcidin in the liver was high and was similar to the reference gene expression. The donkey hepcidin sequence was deposited in GenBankTM (HQ902884) and may be useful for additional studies on iron metabolism and the inflammatory process in this species.

Oliveira-Filho, José P.; Marques, Jessica A.; Cunha, Paulo Henrique J.; Medeiros, Gildenor X.; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Machado, Vânia Maria V.; Borges, Alexandre S..

336

Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse  

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The rich fossil record of equids has made them a model for evolutionary processes(1). Here we present a 1.12-times coverage draft genome from a horse bone recovered from permafrost dated to approximately 560-780 thousand years before present (kyr BP)(2,3). Our data represent the oldest full genome sequence determined so far by almost an order of magnitude. For comparison, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene horse (43 kyr BP), and modern genomes of five domestic horse breeds (Equus f...

Orlando, Ludovic; Ginolhac, Aurelien; Zhang, Guojie; Froese, Duane; Albrechtsen, Anders; Stiller, Mathias; Schubert, Mikkel; Cappellini, Enrico; Petersen, Bent; Moltke, Ida; Johnson, Philip L. F.; Fumagalli, Matteo; Vilstrup, Julia T.; Raghavan, Maanasa; Korneliussen, Thorfinn

2013-01-01

337

Applying tribology to teeth of hoofed mammals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mammals inhabit all types of environments and have evolved chewing systems capable of processing a huge variety of structurally diverse food components. Surface textures of cheek teeth should thus reflect the mechanisms of wear as well as the functional traits involved. We employed surface textures parameters from ISO/DIS 25178 and scale-sensitive fractal analysis (SSFA) to quantify dental wear in herbivorous mammals at the level of an individual wear enamel facet. We evaluated cheek dentitions of two grazing ungulates: the Blue Wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and the Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi). Both inhabit the east African grassland savanna habitat, but they belong to fundamentally different taxonomic units. We tested the hypothesis that the foregut fermenting wildebeest and the hindgut fermenting zebra show functional traits in their dentitions that relate to their specific mode of food-composition processing and digestion. In general, surface texture parameters from SSFA as well as ISO/DIS 25178 indicated that individual enamel ridges acting as crushing blades and individual wear facets of upper cheek teeth are significantly different in surface textures in the zebra when compared with the wildebeest. We interpreted the complexity and anisotropy signals to be clearly related to the brittle, dry grass component in the diet of the zebra, unlike the wildebeest, which ingests a more heterogeneous diet including fresh grass and herbs. Thus, SSFA and ISO parameters allow distinctions within the subtle dietary strategies that evolved in herbivorous ungulates with fundamentally different systematic affinities but which exploit a similar dietary niche. PMID:20949615

Schulz, Ellen; Calandra, Ivan; Kaiser, Thomas M

2010-01-01

338

Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Infection in a captive-bred kiang (Equus kiang).  

Science.gov (United States)

Equids are considered highly resistant to mycobacterial infections and clinical cases have been described in domestic horses only. Mycobacterium bovis is the most common species reported, although a single report exists of disease due to definitively diagnosed infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis in two domestic horses. This is the first report of a mycobacterial infection in a kiang (Equus kiang), or indeed any wild equid. The animal had chronic loss of condition and serum biochemical changes suggestive of liver disease and chronic infection. Further investigation showed a chronic granulomatous enteritis, lymphadenitis and hepatitis with focal granulomatous pneumonia due to systemic infection with M. avium subsp. hominissuis. The distribution and severity of the lesions suggested that the route of infection was alimentary. PMID:21906752

Dagleish, M P; Stevenson, K; Foster, G; McLuckie, J; Sellar, M; Harley, J; Evans, J; Brownlow, A

2012-05-01

339

Ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Neospora spp. em jumentos (Equus asinus) no estado de Sucre - Colômbia / Occurrence of anti-Neospora spp. Antibodies in donkeys (Equus asinus) in the state of Sucre - Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A neosporose tem grande importância em bovinos, e sua patogênese neste hospedeiro, em termos gerais, está esclarecida, porém, em equídeos é pobremente conhecida. Na Colômbia ainda não foram reportados anticorpos Anti-Neospora spp. em equídeos, sendo assim objetivou-se no presente estudo avaliar a oc [...] orrência do parasito em jumentos (Equus asinus) de fazendas que apresentavam risco da doença nestes animais. Foram utilizados 56 animais no estado de Sucre (Colômbia), escolhidos aleatoriamente dentro das fazendas selecionadas. Utilizou-se um peptídeo recombinante originado de Neospora caninum (NcGRA1) para o diagnóstico por Dot-ELISA, e o soro foi diluído em 1:200. Este estudo reporta, pela primeira vez no estado de Sucre e na Colômbia, a presença de anticorpos anti-Neospora spp. na espécie Equus asinus, com uma ocorrência de 19,7% (11/56) dos animais amostrados. Abstract in english The neosporosis has great importance in cattle, and its pathogenesis in this host has been generally clarified, however, in horses, neosporosis is poorly known, and in Colombia anti-Neospora spp antibodies have not been reported. Therefore, the main objective in the present study was to evaluate the [...] occurrence of this parasite in donkeys (Equus asinus) from farms that presented a risk of disease in these animals, as well as no health plan for them. Were used 56 animals randomly chosen inside selected farms in the state of Sucre (Colombia). A recombinant peptide originated from Neospora caninum (NcGRA1) was used for the diagnosis with Dot-ELISA and serum was diluted 1:200. This study is the first to report the presence of anti-Neospora spp. in donkeys (Equus asinus) in the state of Sucre, and in Colombia. The occurrence was in 19.7% of the animals sampled (11/56).

R.D., Blanco; J.H., Patarroyo; M.I., Vargas; J.A., Cardona; L.S., Araújo; V.E., Gomez.

340

Perceived Conflicts Between Pastoralism and Conservation of the Kiang Equus kiang in the Ladakh Trans-Himalaya, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An emerging conflict with Trans-Himalayan pastoral communities in Ladakh’s Changthang Plateau threatens the conservation prospects of the kiang (Equus kiang) in India. It is locally believed that Changthang’s rangelands are overstocked with kiang, resulting in forage competition with livestock. Here, we provide a review and preliminary data on the causes of this conflict. Erosion of people’s tolerance of the kiang can be attributed to factors such as the loss of traditional pastures dur...

Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Wangchuk, Rinchen; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Wieren, Sipke E.; Mishra, Charudutt

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Perceived conflicts between pastoralism and conservation of the Kiang Equus kiang in the Ladakh Trans-Himalaya, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An emerging conflict with Trans-Himalayan pastoral communities in Ladakh¿s Changthang Plateau threatens the conservation prospects of the kiang (Equus kiang) in India. It is locally believed that Changthang¿s rangelands are overstocked with kiang, resulting in forage competition with livestock. Here, we provide a review and preliminary data on the causes of this conflict. Erosion of people¿s tolerance of the kiang can be attributed to factors such as the loss of traditional pastures during...

Bhatnagar, Y. V.; Wangchuk, R.; Prins, H. H. T.; Wieren, S. E.; Mishra, C.

2006-01-01

342

Perceived Conflicts Between Pastoralism and Conservation of the Kiang Equus kiang in the Ladakh Trans-Himalaya, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An emerging conflict with Trans-Himalayan pastoral communities in Ladakh¿s Changthang Plateau threatens the conservation prospects of the kiang (Equus kiang) in India. It is locally believed that Changthang¿s rangelands are overstocked with kiang, resulting in forage competition with livestock. Here, we provide a review and preliminary data on the causes of this conflict. Erosion of people¿s tolerance of the kiang can be attributed to factors such as the loss of traditional pastures during...

Bhatnagar, Y. V.; Wangchuk, R.; Prins, H. H. T.; Wieren, S. E.; Mishra, C.

2006-01-01

343

Molecular and serological detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in donkeys (Equus asinus) in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Piroplasmosis in donkeys has been recognized as a serious problem of major economic importance, since the affected animals manifest loss of appetite and decreased working capacity. The present work is aimed at detecting infection or exposure of donkeys in São Paulo, Brazil to Theileria (T.) equi and Babesia (B.) caballi using molecular and serological approaches. EDTA-blood and serum samples were collected from 88 donkeys (Equus asinus). From 88 sampled donkeys, 65 (73.86%; 95% confidence interval, PI=63.41, 82.65) and 82 (93.2%; 95% confidence interval, PI=85.75, 97.46) animals showed IgG antibodies to T. equi (by ELISA) and B. caballi (by IFAT), respectively. Twenty-eight (31.81%; 95% confidence interval, PI=22.3, 42.61) and 18 (20.45%; 95% confidence interval, PI=12.6, 30.39) donkeys were positive to T. equi and B. caballi nested PCR assays, respectively. The results indicated that T. equi and B. caballi are prevalent among donkeys in Brazil. PMID:22186194

Machado, R Z; Toledo, C Z P; Teixeira, M C A; André, M R; Freschi, C R; Sampaio, P H

2012-05-25

344

Holocene extinction dynamics of Equus hydruntinus, a late-surviving European megafaunal mammal  

Science.gov (United States)

The European wild ass (Equus hydruntinus) is a globally extinct Eurasian equid. This species was widespread in Europe and southwest Asia during the Late Pleistocene, but its distribution became restricted to southern Europe and adjacent geographic regions in the Holocene. Previous research on E. hydruntinus has focused predominantly on its taxonomy and Late Pleistocene distribution. However, its Holocene distribution and extinction remain poorly understood, despite the fact that the European wild ass represents one of Europe's very few globally extinct Holocene megafaunal mammal species. We summarise all available Holocene zooarchaeological spatio-temporal occurrence data for the species, and analyse patterns of its distribution and extinction using point pattern analysis (kernel density estimation and Clark Evans index) and optimal linear estimation. We demonstrate that the geographic range of E. hydruntinus became highly fragmented into discrete subpopulations during the Holocene, which were associated with separate regions of open habitat and which became progressively extinct between the Neolithic and Iron Age. These data challenge previous suggestions of the late survival of E. hydruntinus into the medieval period in Spain, and instead suggest that postglacial climate-driven vegetational changes were a primary factor responsible for extinction of the species, driving isolation of small remnant subpopulations that may have been increasingly vulnerable to human exploitation. This study contributes to a more nuanced understanding of Late Quaternary species extinctions in Eurasia, suggesting that they were temporally staggered and distinct in their respective extinction trajectories.

Crees, Jennifer J.; Turvey, Samuel T.

2014-05-01

345

Interspersed repeats in the horse (Equus caballus); spatial correlations highlight conserved chromosomal domains.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interspersed repeat content of mammalian genomes has been best characterized in human, mouse and cow. In this study, we carried out de novo identification of repeated elements in the equine genome and identified previously unknown elements present at low copy number. The equine genome contains typical eutherian mammal repeats, but also has a significant number of hybrid repeats in addition to clade-specific Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINE). Equus caballus clade specific LINE 1 (L1) repeats can be classified into approximately five subfamilies, three of which have undergone significant expansion. There are 1115 full-length copies of these equine L1, but of the 103 presumptive active copies, 93 fall within a single subfamily, indicating a rapid recent expansion of this subfamily. We also analysed both interspersed and simple sequence repeats (SSR) genome-wide, finding that some repeat classes are spatially correlated with each other as well as with G+C content and gene density. Based on these spatial correlations, we have confirmed that recently-described ancestral vs. clade-specific genome territories can be defined by their repeat content. The clade-specific Short Interspersed Nuclear Element correlations were scattered over the genome and appear to have been extensively remodelled. In contrast, territories enriched for ancestral repeats tended to be contiguous domains. To determine if the latter territories were evolutionarily conserved, we compared these results with a similar analysis of the human genome, and observed similar ancestral repeat enriched domains. These results indicate that ancestral, evolutionarily conserved mammalian genome territories can be identified on the basis of repeat content alone. Interspersed repeats of different ages appear to be analogous to geologic strata, allowing identification of ancient vs. newly remodelled regions of mammalian genomes. PMID:21070282

Adelson, D L; Raison, J M; Garber, M; Edgar, R C

2010-12-01

346

Groundwater-flow parameter estimation and quality modeling of the Equus Beds aquifer in Kansas, U.S.A.  

Science.gov (United States)

The salinity problems created in the Burrton area as a result of poor oil-field brine disposal practices of the past continue to be a major concern to the area depending on the Equus Beds aquifer for water, including the City of Wichita, Kansas. In this paper, an attempt is made to predict where and how fast the brine plume will move in this area, and what the average chloride concentrations in different parts of the aquifer are. In order to make such predictions, it was necessary to get a calibrated model of the groundwater-flow velocity field. Multiple regression analysis is used for parameter estimation of the steady-state groundwater-flow equation applied in the most critical area of the Equus Beds aquifer. Results of such an analysis produced a correlation coefficient of 0.992 between calculated and observed values of hydraulic head. A chloride transport modeling effort is then carried out despite some serious data deficiencies, the significance of which are evaluated through sensitivity analysis. Thus, starting with the quasi steady-state conditions of the early 1940's, it was possible to match the present chloride distribution satisfactorily. Chloride concentration predictions made for the year 2000 indicate that the quality of the Wichita well-field waters will not generally deteriorate from their present condition by that time. ?? 1984.

Sophocleous, M. A.

1984-01-01

347

Severe Streptococcus infection in spotted hyenas in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a population of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) monitored between 1996 and 2005 in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania, 16 individuals from five of eight social groups displayed clinical signs of an infection, including severe unilateral swelling of the head followed by abscess formation at the mandibular angle, respiratory distress, mild ataxia, and lethargy. Two (12.5%) of these 16 individuals died within days of developing signs. Clinical signs in hyenas were first noted in 2001, and most cases occurred between September 2002 and February 2003, suggesting an outbreak of infection during this period. Histopathological examination of internal organs from one hyena that died with signs revealed morphological changes consistent with severe bacterial infection. Phenotypic examination and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of the causative agent of infection revealed a Lancefield group C Streptococcus with a high level of homology to S. equi subsp. ruminatorum, a subspecies of S. equi recently described in domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goats (Capra hircus) with mastitis in Spain. Strains similar to this bacterium were also isolated from two hyenas without obvious clinical signs, suggesting that hyenas may be 'carriers' of this bacterium, and from a sympatric Burchell's zebra (Equus burchelli), a herbivore species often consumed by hyenas. To our knowledge this is the first report of a Streptococcus infection in these two wildlife species. The high genetic similarity between the hyena and zebra isolates indicates that inter-specific transmission may occur, possibly when hyenas consume infected zebra carcasses. PMID:16460891

Höner, Oliver P; Wachter, Bettina; Speck, Stephanie; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Ludwig, Arne; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Wohlsein, Peter; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Hofer, Heribert; East, Marion L

2006-06-15

348

Metabolic programming of zebra fish, Danio rerio, uncovered; physiological performance as explained by Dynamic Energy Budget theory and life cycle consequences of uranium induced perturbations.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L'objectif de ces travaux de thèse était de caractériser la toxicité de l'uranium sur le métabolisme du poisson zèbre, Danio rerio. Puisque les effets de l'uranium se traduisent par des modifications de la performance du métabolisme, la question suivante se pose: que savons-nous du métabolisme du poisson zèbre témoin? Très peu de chose. En effet, nos connaissances à ce sujet sont assez limitées en dépit d'un grand nombre de travaux sur le développement de ce poisson. C'est pour...

2012-01-01

349

When the zebra loses its stripes but is still in the savannah: Results from a semantic priming paradigm in semantic dementia.  

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: Studies using semantic priming paradigms to measure the integrity of the features underlying concepts in semantic dementia (SD) reported differential impairment, in that functional features appeared to be more robust to brain damage than other features, such as perceptual ones. However, these prior studies were single case reports and the inclusion of too many heterogeneous features under the "functional features" heading casts doubts on their apparent preservation. To verify the robustness...

Merck, Catherine; Jonin, Pierre-yves; Laisney, Mickae?l; Vichard, He?le?ne; Belliard, Serge

2013-01-01

350

Young and intense: FoxP2 immunoreactivity in Area X varies with age, song stereotypy, and singing in male zebra finches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

FOXP2 is a transcription factor functionally relevant for learned vocalizations in humans and songbirds. In songbirds, FoxP2 mRNA expression in the medium spiny neurons of the basal ganglia song nucleus Area X is developmentally regulated and varies with singing conditions in different social contexts. How individual neurons in Area X change FoxP2 expression across development and in social contexts is not known, however. Here we address this critical gap in our understanding of FoxP2 as a li...

Thompson, Christopher K.; Schwabe, Fabian; Schoof, Alexander; Mendoza, Ezequiel; Gampe, Jutta; Rochefort, Christelle; Scharff, Constance

2013-01-01

351

New retinoid X receptor subtypes in zebra fish (Danio rerio) differentially modulate transcription and do not bind 9-cis retinoic acid.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Retinoid X receptors (RXRs), along with retinoic acid (RA) receptors (RARs), mediate the effects of RA on gene expression. Three subtypes of RXRs (alpha, beta, and gamma) which bind to and are activated by the 9-cis stereoisomer of RA have been characterized. They activate gene transcription by binding to specific sites on DNA as homodimers or as heterodimers with RARs and other related nuclear receptors, including the vitamin D receptor, thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), and peroxisome prolif...

Jones, B. B.; Ohno, C. K.; Allenby, G.; Boffa, M. B.; Levin, A. A.; Grippo, J. F.; Petkovich, M.

1995-01-01

352

Young and intense: FoxP2 immunoreactivity in Area X varies with age, song stereotypy, and singing in male zebra finches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FOXP2 is a transcription factor functionally relevant for learned vocalizations in humans and songbirds. In songbirds, FoxP2 mRNA expression in the medium spiny neurons of the basal ganglia song nucleus Area X is developmentally regulated and varies with singing conditions in different social contexts. How individual neurons in Area X change FoxP2 expression across development and in social contexts is not known, however. Here we address this critical gap in our understanding of FoxP2 as a link between neuronal networks and behavior. We used a statistically unbiased analysis of FoxP2-immunoreactivity (IR on a neuron-by-neuron basis and found a bimodal distribution of FoxP2-IR neurons in Area X: weakly-stained and intensely-stained. The density of intensely-stained FoxP2-IR neurons was 10 times higher in juveniles than in adults, exponentially decreased with age, and was negatively correlated with adult song stability. Three-week old neurons labeled with BrdU were more than five times as likely to be intensely-stained than weakly-stained. The density of FoxP2-IR putative migratory neurons with fusiform-shaped nuclei substantially decreased as birds aged. The density of intensely-stained FoxP2-IR neurons was not affected by singing whereas the density of weakly-stained FoxP2-IR neurons was. Together, these data indicate that young Area X medium spiny neurons express FoxP2 at high levels and decrease expression as they become integrated into existing neural circuits. Once integrated, levels of FoxP2 expression correlate with singing behavior. Together, these findings raise the possibility that FoxP2 levels may orchestrate song learning and song stereotypy in adults by a common mechanism.

ChristopherKirkThompson

2013-02-01

353

Adult neuron addition to the zebra finch song motor pathway correlates with the rate and extent of recovery from botox-induced paralysis of the vocal muscles  

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In adult songbirds, neurons are continually incorporated into the telencephalic nucleus HVC, a pre-motor region necessary for the production of learned vocalizations. Previous studies have demonstrated that neuron addition to HVC is highest when song is most variable: in juveniles during song learning, in seasonally singing adults during peaks in plasticity that precede the production of new song components, or during seasonal re-establishment of a previously learned song. These findings sugg...

Pytte, Carolyn; Yu, Yi-lo; Wildstein, Sara; George, Shanu; Kirn, John

2011-01-01

354

Testing of five methods for the control of zebra mussels in cooling circuits of power plants located on the Moselle river  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bioassays have been conducted on site at the Cattenom nuclear power plant located on the Moselle River (in northeast France) to control mussels in auxiliary plant circuits. During the course of a two-year program, five methods were tested: - thermal treatment (33 deg to 40 deg C), - high dosage chlorination (> 50 ppm), - low dosage chlorine dioxide, - potassium salt (KCI > 100 ppm), - one organic compound (Mexel 432). This note presents a comparison of the treatments shown to be most effective, on the basis of technical feasibility, cost and environmental acceptability. (author). 8 figs., 10 refs., 3 tabs

1993-01-01

355

Taxonomía y hábito alimentario de Equus conversidens (Perissodactyla, Equidae) del Pleistoceno Tardío (Rancholabreano) de Hidalgo, centro de México / Taxonomy and dietary behavior of Equus conversidens (Perissodactyla, Equidae) from the late Pleistocene (Rancholabream) of Hidalgo, central Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El estudio comparado de material craneal y dental perteneciente a équidos, recuperado de sedimentos pleistocénicos innominados de origen fluvio-lacustre ubicados en la parte suroriental de Hidalgo, permitió caracterizar y asignar la muestra disponible a Equus conversidens. Este registro aporta evide [...] ncia adicional acerca de la amplia distribución que tuvo esta especie a lo largo del territorio nacional y del subcontinente Norteamericano en conjunto durante los últimos dos millones de años. Por otra parte, la interpretación del hábito alimentario mediante la implementación del método de mesodesgaste, reveló que el patrón de desgaste observado en los elementos dentales considerados en el análisis, caracterizado por una combinación de relieve oclusal bajo y cúspides romas, es estrechamente cercano al que distingue a la especie pacedora reciente Bison bison. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la población de équidos hidalguense tuvo una dieta conformada predominantemente por recursos abrasivos con un alto contenido de sílice y/o fitolitos (pastos, polvo y/o arena). El comportamiento alimentario propuesto evidencia la presencia de zonas de vegetación abierta en lo que ahora es parte del centro de México durante la segunda mitad del Pleistoceno; aunado a esto, las formas herbívoras asociadas al registro de équidos sugieren que, además de áreas donde posiblemente predominaron los pastos y otras herbáceas, también existieron zonas más arboladas, lo cual es indicativo de un hábitat heterogéneo. Abstract in english A comparative study of equid cranial and dental material, recovered from unnamed fluvio-lacustrine deposits of late Pleistocene age that crop out in southeastern Hidalgo, allowed to assign the fossil sample to Equus conversidens. The record gives additional evidence on the widespread distribution of [...] this species throughout the North American subcontinent during the last two million years. On the other hand, we evaluated the dietary behavior of this Equus population from Hidalgo by the extended mesowear analysis method. The observed mesowear pattern is comparable to that of the recent grazer species Bison bison. These species display a particular combination of low occlusal relief and blunt cusps. This suggests that the horse population from Hidalgo was a grass feeder that incoporated abrasive food items into its diet (grass and/or extrinsic grit). The results provide evidence for the existence of local grazing habitats in central Mexico during the late Pleistocene; furthermore, the associated herbivore fauna indicates wooded areas as well, thus suggesting a heterogeneous habitat.

Víctor M., Bravo-Cuevas; Eduardo, Jiménez-Hidalgo; Jaime, Priego-Vargas.

356

Improved sperm cryosurvival in diluents containing amides versus glycerol in the Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii).  

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Two studies were conducted to understand sperm cryosensitivity in an endangered equid, the Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalski), while testing the cryoprotectant ability of formamides. The first assessed the toxicity of permeating cryoprotectants (glycerol, methylformamide [MF] and dimethylformamide [DMF]) to Przewalski's horse spermatozoa during liquid storage at 4°C. The second examined the comparative influence of three diluents (with or without formamides) on cryosurvival of sperm from the Przewalski's versus domestic horse. When Przewalski's horse spermatozoa were incubated at 4°C in INRA 96 with differing concentrations of glycerol, MF or DMF or a combination of these amides, cells tolerated all but the highest concentration (10% v/v) of MF alone or in combination with DMF, both of which decreased (P0.05) between the Przewalski's (67%, 84%, respectively) and domestic (66%, 76%) horse donors. Sperm from both species were diluted in lactose-EDTA-glycerol (EQ), Botu-Crio (BOTU; a proprietary product containing glycerol and MF) or SM (INRA 96 plus 2% [v/v] egg yolk and 2.5% [v/v] MF and DMF) and then frozen over liquid nitrogen vapor. After thawing, the highest values recovered for total and progressive sperm motility, acrosomal integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential were 42.4%, 21.8%, 88.7% and 25.4CN (CN=mean JC-1 fluorescence intensity/cell on a channel number scale), respectively, in the Przewalski's and 49.3%, 24.6%, 88.9% and 25.8CN, respectively, in the domestic horse. Although sperm progressive motility and acrosome integrity did not differ (P>0.05) among treatments across species, mitochondrial membrane potential was higher (P<0.05) in both species using EQ compared to BOTU or SM media. Additionally, Przewalski's stallion sperm expressed higher (P<0.05) post-thaw total motility in BOTU and SM compared to EQ, whereas there were no differences among freezing diluents in the domestic horse. In summary, Przewalski's stallion sperm benefit from exposure to either MF or DMF as an alternative cryoprotectant to glycerol. Overt sperm quality appears similar between the Przewalski's and domestic horse, although the total motility of cells from the former appears more sensitive to certain freezing diluents. Nonetheless, post-thaw motility and acrosomal integrity values for Przewalski's horse spermatozoa mimic findings in the domestic horse in the presence of INRA 96 supplemented with 2% (v/v) egg yolk and a combined 2.5% concentration of MF and DMF. PMID:24508651

Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Johnson, Aime; Guthrie, H David; Songsasen, Nucharin; Padilla, Luis R; Wolfe, Barbara A; da Silva, Marco Coutinho; Alvarenga, Marco A; Wildt, David E

2014-04-01

357

Injection-Site Reactions in Wild Horses (Equus caballus) Receiving an Immunocontraceptive Vaccine  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Bureau of Land Management are conducting research on the efficacy of the immunocontraceptive agent porcine zona pellucida (PZP) in reducing fertility of wild horses (Equus caballus). As an antigen, PZP stimulates antibody production when injected into many mammalian species. These antibodies bind to the external surface of the ovum, preventing fertilization. By itself, PZP is only weakly immunogenic and is therefore delivered with an adjuvant, most commonly one of the Freund adjuvants, designed to further stimulate antibody production. Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) in particular is known to be very effective, but may also be associated with undesirable side effects such as formation of abscesses at injection sites. Such reactions may be exacerbated when accompanied by the additional trauma of a remotely delivered dart. Because horses in our three study herds were individually identifiable by color markings and harem association, we were able to monitor mares for injection-site reactions (abscesses, nodules, swelling, and stiffness) following inoculation with PZP. In 100 injections delivered by hand we observed a single nodule, two instances of swelling, and no other reactions. In two herds that received remotely delivered (dart) injections, the frequency of reactions was about 1 and 6 percent for abscesses, 25 percent for nodules (both herds), 11 and 33 percent for swelling, and 1 and 12 percent for stiffness. Abscesses were too infrequent to allow meaningful analysis of the relation to covariates, but for the other types of reactions we used logistic regression to examine the relation of occurrence to the delivery method (rifle or CO2-powered blowgun), adjuvant (FCA, Freund's modified adjuvant, and Freund's incomplete adjuvant), dart trauma (normal or abnormal), and age of mare. Abnormal dart trauma included cases where the dart hit bone or the needle broke off. We found strong evidence (odds ratio = 5.023, P = 0.001) for a higher probability of occurrence of swelling when darts were delivered by blowgun. We found some evidence (odds ratio = 8.729, P = 0.07) that abnormal dart trauma led to a higher frequency of nodule formation. Nodules were the most common reactions observed and often persisted for a year or more, but in our observations they did not appear to change any animal's range of movement or locomotor patterns and in most cases did not appear to differ in magnitude from naturally occurring injuries or scars. We were unable to perform histological examinations of these nodules, but they may be similar to granulomas reported by other investigators following administration of Freund's adjuvant.

Roelle, James E.; Ransom, Jason I.

2009-01-01

358

First evidence of Equus asinus L. in the Chalcolithic disputes the Phoenicians as the first to introduce donkeys into the Iberian Peninsula  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Two equid species have been documented in the Pleistocene of the Iberian Peninsula, the horse Equus caballus, and the Eurasian hemione Equus hydruntinus. While the former survived the Holoceneâ??Pleistocene until now, the timing for the extinction of the latter is unclear. Scarce, fragmented archaeological remains assess the presence of small equids living in the Holocene of Iberia. Those could possibly correspond to the Eurasian hemione although unambiguous morphological identification is often not possible. With the find of an equid tooth from Leceia, a Chalcolithic fortified site in Portugal, and using both morphological and mitochondrial genome analyses, we demonstrate for the first time the presence of a new equid species in Holocene Iberia, namely a donkey (Equus asinus). Radiocarbon dating of the tooth to Cal 2340â??2130, and 2080â??2060 BC with 95% probability, demonstrates that donkeys were present in Iberia well before the arrival of Phoenicians in the first quarter of the first millennium BC (900â??750 years BC), which were considered so far as the first who introduced donkeys in the region.

Cardoso, João L.; Vilstrup, Julia T

2013-01-01

359

Effect of exercise training, selenium and vitamin E on some free radical scavengers in horses (Equus caballus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical exercise increases both tissue needs for oxygen and cellular respiration and causes an overproduction of free radicals. When free radical generation exceeds the cell's antioxidant capacity tissue-damage develops due to oxidative stress. Therefore, it appears important to increase the scavenger ability of the tissues. Controlled training and dietary supplements may provide ways of doing this. As a model, we used 3-year-old racehorses (Equus caballus) which underwent a series of different physical exercise trials before and after 70 days of daily training and dietary supplements (vitamin E and selenium). The above treatments were able to increase both red blood cell resistance to the peroxidative stress induced in vitro and the glutathione peroxidase activity in lymphocytes. Moreover, they were also able to decrease malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the plasma as well as vitamin E consumption and the mobilisation of low molecular weight antioxidants (total peroxyl-radical trapping) following the physical exercise trials. The results obtained indicated that the training and diet supplements we used were able to significantly increase horse antioxidant defences in both the extracellular fluids and blood cells of our horses, thus decreasing peroxidative phenomena following physical exercise. PMID:10425718

Avellini, L; Chiaradia, E; Gaiti, A

1999-06-01

360

Seasonal adjustment of energy budget in a large wild mammal, the Przewalski horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) I. Energy intake.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large ruminants respond to changing plant phenology during winter by decreasing voluntary food intake, increasing gut passage time and utilizing body fat reserves. It is uncertain, however, how other large mammals with a non-ruminant digestive physiology cope with winter forage conditions. Therefore, we investigated seasonality of energy intake in a large herbivorous wild mammal, the Przewalski horse (Equus ferus przewalskii). Throughout all seasons we used the n-alkane method to measure daily dry matter intake (DMI), diet composition and digestion, and determined an index of gut passage time in horses living under close to natural conditions. DMI correlated positively with its content of crude protein and nitrogen-free extract. Independent of these effects, DMI further varied seasonally with a peak in autumn and a nadir in late winter. Fluctuations of DMI corresponded to the annual change in body condition, which decreased during winter while energy reserves were depleted, and increased during the fattening period. Gut passage time varied in the course of the year and was longer during winter when the diet was high in crude fibre. Nevertheless, changes in gut passage time occurred rather independently of changes in forage composition and DMI, suggesting endogenous control for timely adaption of the digestive strategy to meet predictable changes in forage quality. PMID:17079725

Kuntz, Regina; Kubalek, Christina; Ruf, Thomas; Tataruch, Frieda; Arnold, Walter

2006-11-01

 
 
 
 
361

Asinibacterium lactis gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Chitinophagaceae, isolated from donkey (Equus asinus) milk.  

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A novel bacterial strain, designated LCJ02(T), was isolated on R2A agar from donkey (Equus asinus) milk powder and subjected to a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. Strain LCJ02(T) showed a Gram-negative reaction, was non-motile, non-spore-forming and possessed rod-shaped cells and yellow-pigmented colonies. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel isolate formed a cluster with several uncultured bacterial clones and with cultured members of the genera Hydrotalea, Sediminibacterium and Lacibacter (family Chitinophagaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes). The gene sequence similarities with respect to the type strains of recognized species from the above genera and other phylogenetic neighbours ranged from 89.3 to 92.9%. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 49.2 mol%, the only isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and the major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0), iso-C(17:0) 3-OH, iso-C(15:1) G and summed feature 3 (C(16:1)?7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH). The major polar lipids of strain LCJ02(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminophospholipids, one unidentified aminolipid and five unidentified lipids. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed phenotypic differentiation of strain LCJ02(T) from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. On the basis of the evidence of this polyphasic study, isolate LCJ02(T) represents a novel genus and species in the family Chitinophagaceae for which the name Asinibacterium lactis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LCJ02(T) (?=KCCM 90108(T)?=JCM 18484(T)). PMID:23435252

Lee, Dong-Geol; Park, Ji-Min; Kang, Heecheol; Hong, So-Young; Lee, Kyung Real; Chang, Hung-Bae; Trujillo, Martha E

2013-09-01

362

Perceived Conflicts Between Pastoralism and Conservation of the Kiang Equus kiang in the Ladakh Trans-Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

An emerging conflict with Trans-Himalayan pastoral communities in Ladakh’s Changthang Plateau threatens the conservation prospects of the kiang (Equus kiang) in India. It is locally believed that Changthang’s rangelands are overstocked with kiang, resulting in forage competition with livestock. Here, we provide a review and preliminary data on the causes of this conflict. Erosion of people’s tolerance of the kiang can be attributed to factors such as the loss of traditional pastures during an Indo-Chinese war fought in 1962, immigration of refugees from Tibet, doubling of the livestock population in about 20 years, and increasing commercialization of cashmere (pashmina) production. The perception of kiang overstocking appears misplaced, because our range-wide density estimate of 0.24 kiang km?2 (± 0.44, 95% CL) is comparable to kiang densities reported from Tibet. A catastrophic decline during the war and subsequent recovery of the kiang population apparently led to the overstocking perception in Ladakh. In the Hanle Valley, an important area for the kiang, its density was higher (0.56 km?2) although even here, we estimated the total forage consumed by kiang to be only 3–4% compared to 96–97% consumed by the large livestock population (78 km?2). Our analysis nevertheless suggests that at a localized scale, some herders do face serious forage competition from kiang in key areas such as moist sedge meadows, and thus management strategies also need to be devised at this scale. In-depth socioeconomic surveys are needed to understand the full extent of the conflicts, and herder-centered participatory resolution needs to be facilitated to ensure that a sustainable solution for livelihoods and kiang conservation is achieved.

Wangchuk, Rinchen; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Van Wieren, Sipke E.; Mishra, Charudutt

2006-01-01

363

Seropositivity of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) and isolation of T. gondii from farm cats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Donkeys (Equus asinus) are used as both companion and working animals throughout the world and in some countries, their meat and milk are used for human consumption. Here we report the first serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in donkeys in the United States. Serum samples from 373 donkeys from eight farms in five states were tested for T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Twenty-four of 373 (6.4%) of donkeys were seropositive, with MAT titers ranging from 25 to ? 200. All seropositive donkeys were Miniature breed. Seropositivity prevalence was 7.0% in female donkeys (20/282) and 4.1% in male donkeys (4/91). No donkeys less than 24 months of age (129) were seropositive, suggesting postnatal transmission of infection. Domestic cats were present on six of the eight farms. Three cats from one farm had MAT titers of 200. Viable T. gondii was isolated from the hearts of two cats, but not from brain tissues. Genotyping of isolate DNA extracted from culture-derived tachyzoites using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, L358 and Apico loci) revealed that both isolates were clonal Type II (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1). This is the first serological survey for T. gondii in donkeys in the United States, and suggests that donkey milk and meat should be considered as a potential source for human infection. The role of barn cats in the transmission of T. gondii to donkeys on farms warrents further investigation. PMID:24140163

Dubey, J P; Ness, S L; Kwok, O C H; Choudhary, S; Mittel, L D; Divers, T J

2014-01-17

364

Perceived conflicts between pastoralism and conservation of the kiang Equus kiang in the Ladakh Trans-Himalaya, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

An emerging conflict with Trans-Himalayan pastoral communities in Ladakh's Changthang Plateau threatens the conservation prospects of the kiang (Equus kiang) in India. It is locally believed that Changthang's rangelands are overstocked with kiang, resulting in forage competition with livestock. Here, we provide a review and preliminary data on the causes of this conflict. Erosion of people's tolerance of the kiang can be attributed to factors such as the loss of traditional pastures during an Indo-Chinese war fought in 1962, immigration of refugees from Tibet, doubling of the livestock population in about 20 years, and increasing commercialization of cashmere (pashmina) production. The perception of kiang overstocking appears misplaced, because our range-wide density estimate of 0.24 kiang km(-2) (+/- 0.44, 95% CL) is comparable to kiang densities reported from Tibet. A catastrophic decline during the war and subsequent recovery of the kiang population apparently led to the overstocking perception in Ladakh. In the Hanle Valley, an important area for the kiang, its density was higher (0.56 km(-2)) although even here, we estimated the total forage consumed by kiang to be only 3-4% compared to 96-97% consumed by the large livestock population (78 km(-2)). Our analysis nevertheless suggests that at a localized scale, some herders do face serious forage competition from kiang in key areas such as moist sedge meadows, and thus management strategies also need to be devised at this scale. In-depth socioeconomic surveys are needed to understand the full extent of the conflicts, and herder-centered participatory resolution needs to be facilitated to ensure that a sustainable solution for livelihoods and kiang conservation is achieved. PMID:16955231

Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Wangchuk, Rinchen; Prins, Herbert H T; Van Wieren, Sipke E; Mishra, Charudutt

2006-12-01

365

Seasonal adjustment of energy budget in a large wild mammal, the Przewalski horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) II. Energy expenditure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many large mammals show pronounced seasonal fluctuations of metabolic rate (MR). It has been argued, based on studies in ruminants, that this variation merely results from different levels of locomotor activity (LA), and heat increment of feeding (HI). However, a recent study in red deer (Cervus elaphus) identified a previously unknown mechanism in ungulates--nocturnal hypometabolism--that contributed significantly to reduced energy expenditure, mainly during late winter. The relative contribution of these different mechanisms to seasonal adjustments of MR is still unknown, however. Therefore, in the study presented here we quantified for the first time the independent contribution of thermoregulation, LA and HI to heart rate (f(H)) as a measure of MR in a free-roaming large ungulate, the Przewalski horse or Takhi (Equus ferus przewalskii Poljakow). f(H) varied periodically throughout the year with a twofold increase from a mean of 44 beats min(-1) during December and January to a spring peak of 89 beats min(-1) at the beginning of May. LA increased from 23% per day during December and January to a mean level of 53% per day during May, and declined again thereafter. Daily mean subcutaneous body temperature (T(s)) declined continuously during winter and reached a nadir at the beginning of April (annual range was 5.8 degrees C), well after the annual low of air temperature and LA. Lower T(s) during winter contributed considerably to the reduction in f(H). In addition to thermoregulation, f(H) was affected by reproduction, LA, HI and unexplained seasonal variation, presumably reflecting to some degree changes in organ mass. The observed phase relations of seasonal changes indicate that energy expenditure was not a consequence of energy uptake but is under endogenous control, preparing the organism well in advance of seasonal energetic demands. PMID:17079726

Arnold, Walter; Ruf, Thomas; Kuntz, Regina

2006-11-01

366

Antibodies to Neospora caninum in wild animals from Kenya, East Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum was examined in six wild Artiodactyla species, and in five wild Carnivora species from Kenya. Blood sera (104 wild ungulates from Marula Estates (MEs), and 31 wild carnivores from Masai-Mara reserve and from other wildlife areas in northern and Southern Kenya), were screened using a Neospora agglutination test (NAT), with a twofold dilution (1:40-1:320 titres). Presence of NAT antibodies to N. caninun is reported here for the first time in zebra (Equus burchelli), eland (Taurotragus oryx), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Thompson gazelle (Gazella thompsoni), impala (Aepyceros melampus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) and in free-ranging cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). At 1:80 dilution, prevalence was 61.5% in eland, 58.5% in zebra, 19.2% in Thompson gazelle, 33.3% in warthog, 50% in African buffalo, 30% in lion (Panthera leo), 20% in cheetah, and 33.3% in spotted hyena. Antibodies up to 1:320 titre were detected in eland (38.4%), zebra (19.5%), Thompson gazelle (3.8%) and lion (5%). Amongst herbivores, sero-prevalence was significantly (PPanthera pardus) and one serval (Felis serval). Our results indicates a steady presence of N. caninum in wild mammals from Kenya. The hypothesis of a sylvatic cycle of N. caninum could be suggested, but more data are needed to verify the hypothesis, as to evaluate the role of N. caninum infection on the dynamics of wild animals population in the study area. PMID:14651874

Ferroglio, E; Wambwa, E; Castiello, M; Trisciuoglio, A; Prouteau, A; Pradere, E; Ndungu, S; De Meneghi, D

2003-12-01

367

Utilization of Polyclonal Antibodies Produced in local horses (Equus caballus AS A resource for development OF ELISA Conjugate to Detect Hepatitis B Virus (HBV Surface AntigenS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to utilize the antibody produced using Indonesia local horses (Equus caballus to make the conjugate of ELISA kit for detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV surface antigen (HBsAg. The polyclonal antibodies were isolated and purified from local horses immunized repeatedly using isolated and purified HBsAg from Indonesia. The antibodies were conjugated with horseradish peroxidase by a modified method of Nakane and Kawaoi. The conjugate activities were performed using the principle of ELISA test conducted by the researchers as well as by independent laboratory. Commercial conjugate for HBsAg ELISA was used as a comparison study. The results of this study indicated that the antibody produced from local horses can be used to make conjugates that were comparable to commercial HBsAg ELISA kit

E. Yulianti

2012-06-01

368

A useful marking method for free living mammals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A paint-spraying device was employed for marking wild African mammals without capture. This relatively inexpensive marking technique, which had originally been used for the marking of American desert bighorn sheep at drinking places, was also successfully applied in the marking of impala, Aepyceros melampus, blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, Burchell's zebra, Equus burchellii antiquorum aud the African elephant, Loxodonta africana. The apparatus used differs in some respects from that originally described by Hanson (1964. It was also used for the marking of animals from a mobile unit and away from fixed drinking places. This paper is based on a part of a thesis, submitted to the University of Pretoria in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of D.Sc. (Wildlife Management.

E. Young

1971-05-01

369

Spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta prey on new-born elephant calves in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta are known to be opportunists and to have a varied diet including mammals, reptiles and birds. Prey most often hunted are medium sized ungulates but spotted hyaenas will on occasion take larger species such as giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and zebra Equus burchellii. They are also known to hunt whichever species are most abundant and will vary their prey seasonally. In this study spotted hyaenas were observed to take an unusual prey species in the form of elephant calves (Loxodonta africana. On a number of occasions hyaenas were observed feeding on or killing newborn and very young elephant calves. These observations were made whilst the authors were conducting research on spotted hyaena ecology in the woodlands of Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe and were made during the dry season between September and November 1999.

Julia Salnicki

2001-08-01

370

Nuclear Translocation and Regulation of Intranuclear Distribution of Cytoplasmic Poly(A)-Binding Protein Are Distinct Processes Mediated by Two Epstein Barr Virus Proteins  

Science.gov (United States)

Many viruses target cytoplasmic polyA binding protein (PABPC) to effect widespread inhibition of host gene expression, a process termed viral host-shutoff (vhs). During lytic replication of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) we observed that PABPC was efficiently translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Translocated PABPC was diffusely distributed but was excluded from viral replication compartments. Vhs during EBV infection is regulated by the viral alkaline nuclease, BGLF5. Transfection of BGLF5 alone into BGLF5-KO cells or uninfected 293 cells promoted translocation of PAPBC that was distributed in clumps in the nucleus. ZEBRA, a viral bZIP protein, performs essential functions in the lytic program of EBV, including activation or repression of downstream viral genes. ZEBRA is also an essential replication protein that binds to viral oriLyt and interacts with other viral replication proteins. We report that ZEBRA also functions as a regulator of vhs. ZEBRA translocated PABPC to the nucleus, controlled the intranuclear distribution of PABPC, and caused global shutoff of host gene expression. Transfection of ZEBRA alone into 293 cells caused nuclear translocation of PABPC in the majority of cells in which ZEBRA was expressed. Co-transfection of ZEBRA with BGLF5 into BGLF5-KO cells or uninfected 293 cells rescued the diffuse intranuclear pattern of PABPC seen during lytic replication. ZEBRA mutants defective for DNA-binding were capable of regulating the intranuclear distribution of PABPC, and caused PABPC to co-localize with ZEBRA. One ZEBRA mutant, Z(S186E), was deficient in translocation yet was capable of altering the intranuclear distribution of PABPC. Therefore ZEBRA-mediated nuclear translocation of PABPC and regulation of intranuclear PABPC distribution are distinct events. Using a click chemistry-based assay for new protein synthesis, we show that ZEBRA and BGLF5 each function as viral host shutoff factors.

Park, Richard; El-Guindy, Ayman; Heston, Lee; Lin, Su-Fang; Yu, Kuan-Ping; Nagy, Mate; Borah, Sumit; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Steitz, Joan; Miller, George

2014-01-01

371

Simulation of groundwater flow, effects of artificial recharge, and storage volume changes in the Equus Beds aquifer near the city of Wichita, Kansas well field, 1935–2008  

Science.gov (United States)

The Equus Beds aquifer is a primary water-supply source for Wichita, Kansas and the surrounding area because of shallow depth to water, large saturated thickness, and generally good water quality. Substantial water-level declines in the Equus Beds aquifer have resulted from pumping groundwater for agricultural and municipal needs, as well as periodic drought conditions. In March 2006, the city of Wichita began construction of the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery project to store and later recover groundwater, and to form a hydraulic barrier to the known chloride-brine plume near Burrton, Kansas. In October 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Wichita, began a study to determine groundwater flow in the area of the Wichita well field, and chloride transport from the Arkansas River and Burrton oilfield to the Wichita well field. Groundwater flow was simulated for the Equus Beds aquifer using the three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater-flow model MODFLOW-2000. The model simulates steady-state and transient conditions. The groundwater-flow model was calibrated by adjusting model input data and model geometry until model results matched field observations within an acceptable level of accuracy. The root mean square (RMS) error for water-level observations for the steady-state calibration simulation is 9.82 feet. The ratio of the RMS error to the total head loss in the model area is 0.049 and the mean error for water-level observations is 3.86 feet. The difference between flow into the model and flow out of the model across all model boundaries is -0.08 percent of total flow for the steady-state calibration. The RMS error for water-level observations for the transient calibration simulation is 2.48 feet, the ratio of the RMS error to the total head loss in the model area is 0.0124, and the mean error for water-level observations is 0.03 feet. The RMS error calculated for observed and simulated base flow gains or losses for the Arkansas River for the transient simulation is 7,916,564 cubic feet per day (91.6 cubic feet per second) and the RMS error divided by (/) the total range in streamflow (7,916,564/37,461,669 cubic feet per day) is 22 percent. The RMS error calculated for observed and simulated streamflow gains or losses for the Little Arkansas River for the transient simulation is 5,610,089 cubic feet per day(64.9 cubic feet per second) and the RMS error divided by the total range in streamflow (5,612,918/41,791,091 cubic feet per day) is 13 percent. The mean error between observed and simulated base flow gains or losses was 29,999 cubic feet per day (0.34 cubic feet per second) for the Arkansas River and -1,369,250 cubic feet per day (-15.8 cubic feet per second) for the Little Arkansas River. Cumulative streamflow gain and loss observations are similar to the cumulative simulated equivalents. Average percent mass balance difference for individual stress periods ranged from -0.46 to 0.51 percent. The cumulative mass balance for the transient calibration was 0.01 percent. Composite scaled sensitivities indicate the simulations are most sensitive to parameters with a large areal distribution. For the steady-state calibration, these parameters include recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and vertical conductance. For the transient simulation, these parameters include evapotranspiration, recharge, and hydraulic conductivity. The ability of the calibrated model to account for the additional groundwater recharged to the Equus Beds aquifer as part of the Aquifer Storage and Recovery project was assessed by using the U.S. Geological Survey subregional water budget program ZONEBUDGET and comparing those results to metered recharge for 2007 and 2008 and previous estimates of artificial recharge. The change in storage between simulations is the volume of water that estimates the recharge credit for the aquifer storage and recovery system. The estimated increase in storage of 1,607 acre-ft in the basin storage area compared to metered recharge of 1,796 acre-ft indicates some loss of metered re

Kelly, Brian P.; Pickett, Linda L.; Hansen, Cristi V.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

2013-01-01

372

Võrguäri Eestis kiratseb / Indrek Kald  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Autor otsib põhjusi, miks tänavuse Interneti-kaupluste edetabeli koostamiseks saatis oma äritulemused vaid viis võrgukauplust. Zebra Infosüsteemide tegevjuhi Peeter Tamme arvamus e-äri kiratsemise põhjuste kohta

Kald, Indrek, 1974-

2004-01-01

373

Knizhnaja polka / Sergei Pavluhhin  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Pjatikonetshnaja zvezda : sbornik / sost. Viktor Jerofejev. Moskva : Zebra E ; EKSMO, 2003 ; Konotopski, Mõkola. Odin na ldine : zapiski bõvshego farmazonshtshika : dokumentalnoje povestvovanije. Moskva : Algoritm, 2002

Pavluhhin, Sergei, 1950-

2003-01-01

374

Sarcoide equino fibroblástico periocular en un burro (Eqqus asinus) / Periocular fibroblastic sarcoid in a donkey (Equus asinus ) / Sarcóide equino fibroblástico periocular em um burro (Eqqus asinus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este estudo pretende descrever e discutir os signos clínicos, as lesões macro e microscópicas, a epidemiologia e o método diagnostico num caso de Sarcoide Fibroblastico Periocular num jumento (Eqqus asinus), no departamento de Córdoba, no noroeste da Colômbia. Ao abordar o caso clínico, observaram-s [...] e múltiplas massas nodulares na parte superior e inferior das pálpebras e no ângulo ocular medial do lado esquerdo, com uma discreta ulceração e levantamento difuso da pele caracterizado por uma aparência tumoral, granulomatosa, de consistência firme e fibrosa. Os encontros histopatológicos demonstraram hiperplasia epidérmica, hiperqueratose, projeções epiteliais longas em direção à derme e orientação perpendicular dos fibroblastos em relação à membrana basal. O diagnostico fundamentou-se nas características clínicas, epidemiológicas e nos encontros histopatológicos. Abstract in spanish En el presente estudio se describen y discuten los signos clínicos, lesiones macro y microscópicas, epidemiología y el método diagnóstico de un caso de Sarcoide Fibroblastico Periocular en burros (Equus asinus) en el departamento de Córdoba (Colombia). El animal presentó múltiples masas nodulares en [...] la parte superior e inferior de los párpados y el ángulo ocular medial del lado izquierdo, con discreta ulceración y levantamiento difuso de la piel, caracterizadas por una apariencia tumoral, granulomatosa, de consistencia firme y fibrosa. Los hallazgos histopatológicos mostraron hiperplasia epidérmica, hiperqueratosis, largas proyecciones epiteliales en dirección a la dermis y orientación perpendicular de los fibroblastos en relación a la membrana basal. El diagnóstico se fundamentó en las características clínicas, epidemiológicas, y en los hallazgos histopatológicos. Abstract in english In the present study we describe and discuss the clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions, epidemiology, and diagnosis of a periocular fibroblastic sarcoid case in a donkey (Equus asinus) in Cordoba province (Colombia). The animal presented multiple nodular masses in the upper and lower eyelids [...] and the medial angle of the left eye, with slight ulceration and diffuse skin lifting, characterized by tumor-like appearance, granulomatous, firm, and fibrous. Histopathological findings included epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, long epithelial projections toward the dermis, and perpendicular orientation of fibroblasts relative to the basal membrane. The diagnosis was based on the clinical, epidemiological, and pathological findings.

Cardona Álvarez, José; Vargas Viloria, Marlene; Perdomo Ayola, Sandra.

375

Testing of five methods for the control of zebra mussels in cooling circuits of power plants located on the Moselle river; Experimentation de cinq methodes contre le developpement des moules zebrees dans les circuits de centrales thermiques sur la Moselle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioassays have been conducted on site at the Cattenom nuclear power plant located on the Moselle River (in northeast France) to control mussels in auxiliary plant circuits. During the course of a two-year program, five methods were tested: - thermal treatment (33 deg to 40 deg C), - high dosage chlorination (> 50 ppm), - low dosage chlorine dioxide, - potassium salt (KCI > 100 ppm), - one organic compound (Mexel 432). This note presents a comparison of the treatments shown to be most effective, on the basis of technical feasibility, cost and environmental acceptability. (author). 8 figs., 10 refs., 3 tabs.

Khalanski, M.

1993-10-01

376

Toxico-kinetic, chemical and radiological toxicity of uranium on zebra fish (Danio rerio); Toxicocinetique, toxicite chimique et radiologique de l'uranium chez le poisson zebre (Danio rerio)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis explores the toxico-kinetic and toxicological aspects of uranium in fish. Uranium, appears to be highly bio accumulated and bio concentrated in fish. It spreads all through the whole organism. Nevertheless, its distribution is heterogeneous (gills and liver being the main sites of accumulation).From a toxicological point of view, we notice perturbations of the antioxidant system (inhibitions of hepatic Sod, Cat and G Px activities; depletion of total GSH) and of the cholinergic system (inhibition/over-activation of brain AChE). Genotoxic effects also appear in red blood cells, hepatocytes and gonad cells. The kinetics of these biochemical perturbations depend on the radiological activity of uranium, responses appearing earlier with increasing delivered activity. Histological effects (differing in types depending on delivered radiological activity) are also observed (in gills and muscles). (author)

Barillet, S

2007-06-15

377

Descripción y significado biostratigráfico y climático del Equus e Hippopotamus. en el yacimiento de Venta Micena (Granada.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presence of Hippopotamus antiquus and Equus stenonis granatensis nov. ssp. indicates for the Venta Micena locality an approximate age near the Lower-Middle Pleistocene boundary and very near that of the Sainzelles bed, dated 1.3 m. y. Ecologicaly this period representa, during the Pleistocene, one of the ages in whi.ch the lacustrine surface had the largest extension in the Baza basin (Guadix-Baza Depression.

La presencia de Hippopotamus antiquus y de E. stenonis granatensis nov. ssp. indican para la localidad de Venta Micena una edad próxima al límite Pleistoceno inferior-medio y muy próxima a la del yacimiento de Sainzelles datado con 1.3 m. a. Ecológicamente este período significa durante el Pleistoceno una de las épocas de mayor extensión de la superficie lacustre en la Subcuenca de Baza (Depresión de Guadix-Baza.

Alberdi, M. T.

1985-08-01

378

The symbiotic intestinal ciliates and the evolution of their hosts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of sophisticated differentiations of the gastro-intestinal tract enabled herbivorous mammals to digest dietary cellulose and hemicellulose with the aid of a complex anaerobic microbiota. Distinctive symbiotic ciliates, which are unique to this habitat, are the largest representatives of this microbial community. Analyses of a total of 484 different 18S rRNA genes show that extremely complex, but related ciliate communities can occur in the rumen of cattle, sheep, goats and red deer (301 sequences). The communities in the hindgut of equids (Equus caballus, Equus quagga), and elephants (Elephas maximus, Loxodonta africanus; 162 sequences), which are clearly distinct from the ruminant ciliate biota, exhibit a much higher diversity than anticipated on the basis of their morphology. All these ciliates from the gastro-intestinal tract constitute a monophyletic group, which consists of two major taxa, i.e. Vestibuliferida and Entodiniomorphida. The ciliates from the evolutionarily older hindgut fermenters exhibit a clustering that is specific for higher taxa of their hosts, as extant species of horse and zebra on the one hand, and Africa and Indian elephant on the other hand, share related ciliates. The evolutionary younger ruminants altogether share the various entodiniomorphs and the vestibuliferids from ruminants. PMID:24703617

Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; van der Staay, Georg W M; Michalowski, Tadeusz; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Pristas, Peter; Javorský, Peter; Kišidayová, Svetlana; Varadyova, Zora; McEwan, Neil R; Newbold, C Jamie; van Alen, Theo; de Graaf, Rob; Schmid, Markus; Huynen, Martijn A; Hackstein, Johannes H P

2014-04-01

379

Medaka EST Database: MF01FSA021B05  

Full Text Available MF01FSA021B05 CLSTF05590 CLSTR05068 pir|JC7706|JC7706 beta crystallin B1 protein - zebra fish - r|JC7706|JC7706 beta crystallin B1 protein - zebra fish Expression - Link to UniGene MF01FSA021B05 5' sequ

380

Medaka EST Database: MF01FSA038B04  

Full Text Available MF01FSA038B04 CLSTF05590 CLSTR05068 pir|JC7706|JC7706 beta crystallin B1 protein - zebra fish - r|JC7706|JC7706 beta crystallin B1 protein - zebra fish Expression - Link to UniGene MF01FSA038B04 5' sequ

 
 
 
 
381

Medaka EST Database: MF01FSA017J18  

Full Text Available MF01FSA017J18 CLSTF05590 CLSTR05068 pir|JC7706|JC7706 beta crystallin B1 protein - zebra fish - r|JC7706|JC7706 beta crystallin B1 protein - zebra fish Expression - Link to UniGene MF01FSA017J18 5' sequ

382

Medaka EST Database: MF01FSA033I20  

Full Text Available MF01FSA033I20 CLSTF06276 CLSTR05496 pir|JC5603|JC5603 ES1 protein - zebra fish - MF01FSA033I20 M 6 Top blastx pir|JC5603|JC5603 ES1 protein - zebra fish Expression - Link to UniGene MF01FSA033I20 5' sequ

383

Medaka EST Database: MF01FSA014M13  

Full Text Available MF01FSA014M13 CLSTF05533 CLSTR05021 pir|JC7706|JC7706 beta crystallin B1 protein - zebra fish - r|JC7706|JC7706 beta crystallin B1 protein - zebra fish Expression - Link to UniGene MF01FSA014M13 5' sequ

384

Medaka EST Database: MF01FSA039P21  

Full Text Available MF01FSA039P21 CLSTF05518 CLSTR05011 pir|JC7706|JC7706 beta crystallin B1 protein - zebra fish - r|JC7706|JC7706 beta crystallin B1 protein - zebra fish Expression - Link to UniGene MF01FSA039P21 5' sequ

385

Medaka EST Database: MF01FSA036B22  

Full Text Available MF01FSA036B22 CLSTF05590 CLSTR05068 pir|JC7706|JC7706 beta crystallin B1 protein -