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Emplacement mechanisms and structural influences of a younger granite intrusion into older wall rocks - a principal study with application to the Goetemar and Uthammar granites. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar  

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The c. 1.80 Ga old bedrock in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, which is the focus of the site investigation at Oskarshamn, is dominated by intrusive rocks belonging to the c. 1.86-1.65 Ga Transscandinavian Igneous Belt (TIB). However, the site investigation area is situated in between two c. 1.45 Ga old anorogenic granites, the Goetemar granite in the north and the Uthammar granite in the south. This study evaluates the emplacement mechanism of these intrusions and their structural influence on the older bedrock. Field observations and structural measurements indicate that both the Goetemar and the Uthammar granites are discordant and have not imposed any significant ductile deformation on their wall-rocks. The apparent conformity of geological contacts and fabrics in the wall rocks and the southern margin of the Goetemar granite is coincidental and inherited from the pattern of Svecokarelian deformation of the TIB. However, interpretation of regional aeromagnetic data suggests that the granites occur within a broad, NNE-SSW trending linear belt, pointing to deep seated tectonic control on their generation, ascent and emplacement. Thermochronology indicates that the granites were emplaced at depths between 4 and 8 km into brittle wall rocks. The 3-D shape of the Goetemar and Uthammar plutons has been investigated by 2.75D forward modelling of the residual gravity anomalies due to both granites. Both granites are associated with strong residual gravity anomalies of up to -10 mgal. Constraints on the geometry of the plutons at the surface are provided from surface geology maps and several deep boreholes located on or close to the model profiles. A further variable in the gravity modelling is introduced by either allowing the upper contact of the plutons to assume the most suitable orientation to produce the best fit between the modelled and observed gravity ('unconstrained models') or by forcing the near surface orientation of the contacts to be vertical ('constrained models'). The unconstrained model profiles for both plutons are characterized by gently outward dipping upper contacts to depths approx1 km, gently inward dipping lower contacts and a thin, centrally located root extending to depths of 5 to 10 km. However, this geometry is not supported by available boreholes, which do not penetrate the upper contact of the Goetemar pluton as predicted by the models. The constrained models are consistent with borehole data. They characterize the plutons as having vertical contacts in the upper 500 to 1,000 m, a 1,000 to 1,500 m thick mid-level body with outward dipping upper and horizontal and lower contacts, respectively, and broad roots extending to depths of approx4 km. Preliminary observations and gravity modelling results indicate that the Goetemar and Uthammar granites are discordant plutons with geometries most consistent with punched laccoliths, with some modification due to floor subsidence due to root development. Their vertical and lateral dimensions fall in the upper range for laccoliths and lower range for plutons as defined by recent data compilations. Their emplacement required elastic bending and eventual failure of roof rocks that was likely accompanied by reactivation of pre-existing fractures and shear zones and possibly the creation of new brittle fractures. Cooling and crystallization of the granites resulted in thermal resetting of the wall rocks and the establishment of a transient hydrothermal system, now recorded by fracture filling mineral assemblages

Cruden, Alexander R. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Toronto (Canada))

2008-12-15

2

Emplacement mechanisms and structural influences of a younger granite intrusion into older wall rocks - a principal study with application to the Goetemar and Uthammar granites. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The c. 1.80 Ga old bedrock in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, which is the focus of the site investigation at Oskarshamn, is dominated by intrusive rocks belonging to the c. 1.86-1.65 Ga Transscandinavian Igneous Belt (TIB). However, the site investigation area is situated in between two c. 1.45 Ga old anorogenic granites, the Goetemar granite in the north and the Uthammar granite in the south. This study evaluates the emplacement mechanism of these intrusions and their structural influence on the older bedrock. Field observations and structural measurements indicate that both the Goetemar and the Uthammar granites are discordant and have not imposed any significant ductile deformation on their wall-rocks. The apparent conformity of geological contacts and fabrics in the wall rocks and the southern margin of the Goetemar granite is coincidental and inherited from the pattern of Svecokarelian deformation of the TIB. However, interpretation of regional aeromagnetic data suggests that the granites occur within a broad, NNE-SSW trending linear belt, pointing to deep seated tectonic control on their generation, ascent and emplacement. Thermochronology indicates that the granites were emplaced at depths between 4 and 8 km into brittle wall rocks. The 3-D shape of the Goetemar and Uthammar plutons has been investigated by 2.75D forward modelling of the residual gravity anomalies due to both granites. Both granites are associated with strong residual gravity anomalies of up to -10 mgal. Constraints on the geometry of the plutons at the surface are provided from surface geology maps and several deep boreholes located on or close to the model profiles. A further variable in the gravity modelling is introduced by either allowing the upper contact of the plutons to assume the most suitable orientation to produce the best fit between the modelled and observed gravity ('unconstrained models') or by forcing the near surface orientation of the contacts to be vertical ('constrained models'). The unconstrained model profiles for both plutons are characterized by gently outward dipping upper contacts to depths ?1 km, gently inward dipping lower contacts and a thin, centrally located root extending to depths of 5 to 10 km. However, this geometry is not supported by available boreholes, which do not penetrate the upper contact of the Goetemar pluton as predicted by the models. The constrained models are consistent with borehole data. They characterize the plutons as having vertical contacts in the upper 500 to 1,000 m, a 1,000 to 1,500 m thick mid-level body with outward dipping upper and horizontal and lower contacts, respectively, and broad roots extending to depths of ?4 km. Preliminary observations and gravity modelling results indicate that the Goetemar and Uthammar granites are discordant plutons with geometries most consistent with punched laccoliths, with some modification due to floor subsidence due to root development. Their vertical and lateral dimensions fall in the upper range for laccoliths and lower range for plutons as defined by recent data compilations. Their emplacement required elastic bending and eventual failure of roof rocks that was likely accompanied by reactivation of pre-existing fractures and shear zones and possibly the creation of new brittle fractures. Cooling and crystallization of the granites resulted in thermal resetting of the wall rocks and the establishment of a transient hydrothermal system, now recorded by fracture filling mineral assemblages

2008-01-01

3

Contribution to uranium geochemistry in intrusive granites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work aims to define the position of a certain number of French granitic deposits within the field of the geochemistry of granites in general, and of the geochemistry of uranium in particular. The regions concerned are: - 3 French Hercynian ranges, in the Vendee, in Brittany and in the Morvan, - 1 African range, probably precambrian, of the Hoggar. For each range, the petrochemical framework is first of all determined and then the degree of chemical homogeneity of the rocks is evaluated. In the petrochemical groups thus obtained the geochemical behaviour of the uranium is studied. From a point of view of the geochemistry of the granites under investigation, a comparison of the laws of distribution of the major elements in the 4 ranges shows up a convergence of average composition which was not anticipated by geological and petrographic considerations alone. The statistical and geochemical distribution laws of the total uranium as a function of the petrochemical variations are established. A study of the chemical forms of uranium in the rocks has drawn an attention to the qualitative and quantitative importance of the fraction of this uranium soluble in dilute acids. We have therefore reconsidered on the one hand, the laws of distribution of the insoluble uranium, which represents essentially the uranium fixed in crystalline structures (zircon, allanite...), and we have justified on the other hand the interest presented by the soluble uranium: this, although more complex in character, presents a geochemical unity in post magmatic phenomena which makes possible to find a genetic connection between the uraniferous deposits and the intrusive massifs. Finally we have given a plan of the geochemical cycle of uranium, in which we hope to have provided some more accurate data on the igneous phase. (author)

1959-01-01

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Geology, petrology, and geochemistry of a younger granite pluton, central Eastern Desert of Egypt; importance of mixing  

Science.gov (United States)

The Younger Granite pluton that is the main subject of study of this work, is a small epizonal pluton in the central part of the Eastern Desert (C.E.D.) of Egypt. This pluton is a representative example of widespread and abundant shallow intrusions emplaced in northern and northeastern Africa in late Precambrian time. The Younger Granite pluton occupies a central position in the Maetiq Dome, a metamorphic core complex. It was emplaced along foliation planes of the country rocks, mainly gneisses and mylonites. This together with other observations indicate that it is a sill. Samples from the Younger Granite pluton are silica rich (77.2-75.3 wt% SiO2), metaluminous to peraluminous rocks (molar Al2O3/(Na2O + K2O + CaO) = 0.98 - 1.09). Whole rock major element abundances of 21 samples show only small variation in SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O and K2O compared to larger variation for the less abundant major elements such as FeO, TiO2, CaO, MnO and MgO and the trace elements Sc, Cr, Co, Rb, Sr, Zr, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Tb, Yb, Lu, Ta, Th and U.

Sultan, M. I.

5

Characteristics and significance of uranium bearing pan african younger granite in the eastern desert, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surficial uranium mineralization was discovered in four pan african younger granite plutons in the eastern desert of egypt. The present study revealed great similarity between these plutons both in petrography and geochemistry. They are two-feldspar, two-mica peraluminous granites which have been formed by melting of crustal materials and emplaced during the late stage stage of a late proterozoic orogenic cycle. Radiometric and geochemical investigations indicate that these granites are fertile with respect to U and form a potential target for primary uranium deposits. Four models are suggested to explain the source and mechanism of the surficial uranium mineralization in these granites. The most applicable model is the oxidation of U+4 found in minute disseminated uraninite grains and its subsequent mobilization. This is supported by petrographic and autoradiographic studies. The bearings of the present study on further exploration for uranium deposits in granites of the arabian- Nubian shield in general are discussed.

1998-01-01

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U-Pb conventional dating compared to SHRIMP of the Santa Barbara Granite Massif, Younger Granites Suite of Rondonia, Brazil  

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The Santa Barbara Granite Massif is part of the Younger Granites of Rondonia (998 - 974 Ma) and is included in the Rondonia Tin Province (SW Amazonian Craton). It comprises three highly fractionated metaluminous to peraluminous within-plate A-type granite units emplaced in older medium-grade metamorphic rocks. Sn-mineralization is closely associated with the late-stage unit. U-Pb monazite conventional dating of the early-stage Serra do Cicero facies and late-stage Serra Azul facies yielded ages of 993 +- 5 Ma and 989 +- 13 Ma, respectively. Conventional multigrain U-Pb isotope analyses of zircon demonstrate isotopic disturbance (discordance) and the preservation of inherited older zircons of several different ages and thus yielded a 207 Pb/206 Pb weighted-mean age of 978 +- 13 Ma. The textural complexity of the zircon crystals of the Santa Barbara facies association, the variable concentrations of U, Th and Pb, as well as the mixed inheritance of zircon populations are major obstacles to using conventional multigrain U-Pb isotopic analyses. Sm-Nd model ages and epsilonNd(T) values reveal anomalous isotopic data, attesting to the complex isotopic behaviour within these highly fractionated granites. Thus, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon and conventional U-Pb monazite dating methods are the most appropriate to constrain the crystallization age of the Sn-bearing granite systems in the Rondonia Tin Province. (author)

2002-01-01

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Uranium in the Niger-Nigeria younger granite province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In Niger, uranium occurs in upper Palaeozoic and lower Mesozoic continental sedimentary basins west of the Air Mountains, but the source of the uranium had not been identified. Geochemical studies and fission-track observations on alkaline ignimbrites preserved in two Palaeozoic anorogenic centres in Air show that uranium is concentrated in the matrix and on secondary iron-oxide coatings surrounding lithic and crystal fragments. Based on variable Th/U ratios and degree of oxidation, it is concluded that the original ignimbrite field was enriched in uranium, but that a considerable proportion was leached during the weathering of the volcanic pile. Tectonic uplift, anorogenic magmatism, followed by weathering and erosion of the volcanic cover, with sedimentation in nearby continental basins, have all contributed to the development of uranium mineralization in Niger. The petrological and geochemical similarities between the Palaeozoic ring complexes in Niger and the Nigerian Mesozoic ring structures suggest that sedimentary uranium deposits may also be found in Nigeria if the tectonic and sedimentological controls were favourable. Enriched concentrations of uranium have been discovered in the exposed granitic roof zones of the Nigerian subvolcanic centres, with Th/U ratios approaching unity. (author)

1982-01-01

8

Three Paleoproterozoic A-type granite intrusions and associated dykes from Kainuu, East Finland  

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Full Text Available Mafic and felsic intrusive rocks aged 2.5–2.4 Ga have been observed over a large area in eastern and northern Finland, as well as in adjacent northwestern Russia. We describe three granite intrusions and associated dykes from Kainuu, Finland, that belong to this bimodal magmatic event. All these three granites show clear A2-type chemical affinities with high Y/Nb, HREE, Fe/Mg, Ga and Nb. Two of the intrusions, Rasinkylä and Pussisvaara, were dated at 2425±3 and 2427±3 Ma, respectively, using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry utilizing the chemical abrasion method (CA-TIMS). CA-TIMS ages are supported by single-grain age determinations obtained by using Laser Ablation Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-MC-ICPMS). New data on the previously described Rasimäki granite from southern Kainuu is presented, including an age of 2389±5 Ma obtained with LA-MC-ICPMS. The variable magnetite content of the granites is proposed to reflect the differences in the oxidation state of the source, which in our interpretation is the local Archean lower crust. Partial melting and the emplacement of the granites occurred in an extensional environment. Heat for the partial melting was provided by mafic magmas under and intraplating the extended crust.

Perttu Mikkola; Asko Kontinen; Hannu Huhma; Yann Lahaye

2010-01-01

9

Age of the Mulcahy Lake intrusion, northwest Ontario, and implications for the evolution of greenstone-granite terrains  

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Zircon data from a 63 km/sup 2/ layered mafic intrusion in the Wabigoon subprovince, the Mulcahy Lake gabbro, show that the gabbro crystallized at 2733.2(+1.0 - 0.9) Ma. The largely unaltered and unmetamorphosed gabbro intrudes tholeiites of the Crow Lake-Savant Lake greenstone belt which were generated over at least a 10 Ma time span. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd data were obtained for pristine whole rock and mineral separates from the intrusion. The Rb-Sr data show disturbances in the system, particularly in the case of pyroxenes. Samples with low Rb/Sr ratios indicate an initial Sr ratio of 0.7007 for an age of 2733 Ma. The Sm-Nd age is 2744 +- 55 Ma, and an epsilon Nd value of +2.6 +- 1.2 indicates a light rare earth element depleted source. The Sm-Nd data shows less disturbance than the Rb-Sr data. Granitic and mafic intrusives with similar initial ratios occur 80 km to the south in the Quetico subprovince. Primary hornblende was analyzed for /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar. The age obtained is 2703 +- 20 Ma, clearly younger than the zircon age indicating some argon loss.

Morrison, D.A.; Bogard, D.D.; Phinney, W.C. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX (USA). Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center); Davis, D.W. (Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto (Canada)); Wooden, J.L.; Ashwal, L.D. (Lunar and Planetary Inst., Houston, TX (USA)); Maczuga, D.E. (LEMSCO, Houston, TX (USA))

1985-05-01

10

Genesis of Uranium in the younger granites of gabal abu hawis area, central eastern desert of Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The younger granites cropping out in gabal abu hawis area are considered as uraniferous (fertile) granites (the fertile is mainly is mainly attributed to presence of radioactive zircon). Abu hawis granitic pluton is dissected by joints faults of different trends forming two mineralized shear zones in the northern peripheries and southern border. The younger granites hosting uranium mineralizations along the two mineralized shear zones. The uranium minerals include uranophane and carnotite. The altered granites have much lower Th/U ratios (0.03-0.10) than those of the fresh granites (1.69-2.05), indicating strong mobilization of uranium in this pluton by super-heated solutions that resulted from supergence meteoric water as well as U-addition by hypogene fluids. These solutions could pass through the structural network of fractures, joints and fault planes and have leached some of labile uranium from the surrounding rocks and/or the younger granites themselves. Then, changing in the physicochemical conditions of these solutions caused uranium precipitation as uranium minerals filling the cracks in the rock and/or adsorbed on the surface of clay minerals and iron oxides in the two shear zones

2003-01-01

11

Age of Pedra Branca granite (Goias) and possible geotectonic implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rb-Sr geochronologic dating of granites from the Pedra Branca Granite Massif (Nova Roma, Goias) shown an age of 1405 ± 21My. and a questionable initial Sr87/Sr86 ratio of 0,7004 ± 0,006. Rhyolite from the base of the Arai Group is probably of the same age as the granitic intrusion. The 475 ± 19 My. age for the granitic intrusion is evidence of the Brasiliano Cycle imprint in Pedra Branca region. The age attributed to the Pedra Branca Granite is lower than known ages of the Goias tin granites giving rise to new geotectonic interpretations. It is possible that the Pedra Branca Granite represents a low-level intrusion emplaced at the beginning of structuration and deposition of the Arai basin. It may be correlated with granitic intrusions related to a rift stage above mantle hot spots, like the Nigerian tin younger granites. (author)

1986-01-01

12

Discriminations of Younger Granitic Masses at Gabal Qattar Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt, Using Remote Sensing Techniques  

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Gabal Qattar area is located in the north Eastern Desert of Egypt between Latitudes 26 degree 52 and 27 degree 08 N, and Longitudes 33 degree 13 and 33 degree 25 E. The exposed rock units, there, from the oldest to the youngest, are meta volcanics; granodiorites- diorite complex; Hammamat sediments and younger granites. Most of the area is densely traversed by felsic and mafic dykes. The Qattarian younger granites are divided into seven granitic areas according to their spectral characters to facilitate the studying and delineating physical characteristic differences between these areas as well as to throw a light about the best conditions of exploration for radioactive mineralizations. This study is based on brightness Digital Number values (DNs) of the granitic areas, predominant trends and densities of the structural lineaments, shape and type of weathering products. Three areas of these seven younger granite areas form Gabal (G.) Qattar, and designated Gr 1, Gr 3 and Gr 4, where the other granite areas which form the G. Urn Dissi (Gr 2), G. Thelma (Gr 5), G. Abu Samyuk (Gr 6) and G. Ayn AI Ruwayshed (Gr 7). Photo geologically, these seven granite areas show some differences in shape, texture, predominant trends and densities of structural lineaments and ability of weathering. This study shows that the seven granite areas could be gathered into three main groups according to their DNs values of Landsat ETM+ spectral bands especially of band 5, where these three main groups representing different, and mainly coincide with the three granite phases previously delineated according to chronological field relation, petrographic and geochemical studies. The Gr 1 area contains all uranium occurrences from locations I to V. This area is characterized by semi circular shape of NW trend, massive appearance with high relief peaks, and high fracture density, where the N 55 degree E, N 5 degree E, N 45 degree E and N 45 degree W are the predominant trends. Some of the N 55 degree E fractures form shear zone along the contact with Hammamat sediments. This granitic area displays taffoni weathering with highest clay minerals content in its weathered surfaces. It shows the highest brightness value (DN), especially in band 5 reaching about 152, due to the highest felsic minerals and the lowest ferro magnesian minerals contents relative to the other granite areas. Also, the high fractures density of the Gr 1 area acted as good channels for the hydrothermal ascending fluids and the percolating meteoric water, that leached uranium mineralization and redeposited it in the shear zones especially at sites of intersection of the main fractures. These characteristic features of the Gr 1 area may be responsible for the presence of uranium mineralizations

2009-01-01

13

Neoproterozoic granites of the Lajeado intrusive suite, north-center Brazil: A late Ediacaran remelting of a Paleoproterozoic crust  

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In north-central Brazil, a number of granite plutons, which intrude Paleoproterozoic gneiss-granulite terrains of the Goiás Massif, crop out along a thermal axis parallel to the Transbrasiliano Lineament. Single zircon lead evaporation ages from three granitic bodies span between 552 and 545 Ma. Sm-Nd model ages (TDM) vary between 2.1 and 1.7 Ga and negative ?Nd(0.55 Ga) values between -10 and -13 show that Paleoproterozoic crust was involved in the genesis of these granites. These plutons, which form the Lajeado Intrusive Suite are part of an important Ediacaran magmatic event in central-northern of the Tocantins Tectonic Province, composed of metaluminous to slightly peraluminous granites with geochemical characteristics similar to A-type granites, whose crystallization occurred under low water activity during magmatic emplacement. The granitic intrusive bodies are related to a crustal extensional/transtensional tectonic event at the end of the Neoproterozoic. They may have connection with the granitic plutons of similar age (0.56-0.52 Ga) in northwestern Ceará state, on the other side of the Paleozoic Parnaíba Basin in northwest of Borborema Province, along the Transbrasiliano Lineament.

de Sousa Gorayeb, Paulo Sergio; Chaves, César Lisboa; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso; da Silva Lobo, Luciano Ricardo

2013-08-01

14

Petrogenesis And Geochronology Of The Granitic Intrusions Of Gabal Kulyiet And Seiga, South Eastern Desert, Egypt ???? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ????  

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In the South Eastern Desert of Egypt tonalite. granodiorite and granite intruded intermediate to acidic metavolcanics and volcanogenic metasedimentary rocks of Precambrian age. The geological features of these granitic masses were investigated and a geological map (scale 1 : 40 000) was prepared. Th...

Meneisy, M. Y. [???? ???? ?????

15

Gravimetric modeling of the Parguaza granitic intrusion, Guyana Precambrian Shield, southwestern Venezuela using geochronological constraints  

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Full Text Available A combined gravimetric and geochronological interpretation of the Parguaza intrusion in the Guayana shield, southwestern Venezuela, indicates that there is a pattern of inverse cooling within this pluton. Based on a positive correlation between Rb/Sr whole rock apparent ages and residual Bouguer anomaly, density contrasts over the Parguaza intrusion are linked to temperature and crystallization of mineral phases. This hypothesis is supported by density measurements on hand samples and by independent geochemical evidence. A simple 2D gravity model is constrained by surface geology, Rb/Sr apparent ages (whole rock) and residual Bouguer anomalies. Gravimetric modeling implies a model of horsts and grabens that accounts for inverse zoning of the intrusion as a result of geological and age contrasts across the faults.

María I. Jácome; Carlos Izarra; Vincenzo Costanzo-Álvarez; Oscar Mirón-Valdespino

2004-01-01

16

The Eburnean granitic Djebel Drissa ring complex (Eglab shield, Algeria): post-collisional intrusions in a transtentional tectonic setting  

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The Eburnean A-type granitic Djebel Drissa ring complex is part of the 2.08 Ga Aftout magmatic suites that intruded the 2.22-2.09 Ga-old Paleoproterozoic granitoids in the Eglab shield. This post-collisional pluton is composed of unfoliated granitoids disposed in near-concentric zones. The zoning feature is interpreted as intrusions of continuous magmatic pulses, leading to its in situ growing. New field observations and new geophysical data are presented in order to determine the structural context of Djebel Drissa complex emplacement. The magma internal structures were obtained by mapping the magnetic structures (foliation and lineation) from an Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) study. Modeling from together gravimetric and aeromagnetic data yielded its geometry in depth. The combined use of data of these different approaches provides a new and enriched image of the Drissa complex and of its evolution. Indeed, these data point out that the regional deformation controlled the emplacement of this complex. The sub-circular shape of the granitic body and AMS strain pattern are consistent with a transtensional tectonic setting along the NW-SE major Chenachane shear-zone and with an emplacement also controlled by an associated WNW- ESE extension fault. From all these data, a reliable model was inferred for the evolution of this ring complex, which emplacement marked the end of the main Proterozoic history of the Eglab shield.

Merabet, Nacer-Eddine; Mahdjoub, Yamina; Abtout, Abdeslam; Henry, Bernard; Kahoui, Mohamed; Maouche, Said; Lamali, Atmane; Ayache, Mohamed

2013-04-01

17

Structural record of mechanisms of granite intrusion in the Achaean gneisses  

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A model of diapiric formation of granite domes within green-stone areas is based on gravitational re-distribution mechanisms of rocks in the Precambrian continental crust (e.g. McGregor, 1951; Ramberg, 1951; Perchuk, 1989, 1993; Perchuk et al., 1992). In addition, the gravitational re-distribution is the leading mechanism to form Precambrian granulite facies terrains among green-stone belts. It has been proven by data on general geology, tectonics, petrology, geochemistry, isotopic geology, geophysics, and numerical modeling (Perchuk et al., 2001; Gerya et al., 2000, 2002). However the behavior of granite melt within gneisses of similar bulk composition is questionable. If the above mechanisms works well in the case of "granitic gneiss - granite melt", the ascending rocks must have structural features that indicate upward movement, while the adjacent wall rocks must demonstrate structural features of the opposite movement. In metamorphic rocks these features are represented by lineation, drag folds, orientation of fold hinges etc. Apart from "straight gneisses" (Davidson, 1984; Smit & van Reenen, 1997) no direct evidence for the internal dynamics of the formation of high-grade terrains has ever been considered. In this paper we formulate a rule allowing discrimination between cylindrical metamorphogenic and magmatogenic structures and demonstrate a model of their formation. Two types of ring structures are considered as indicators of ascending granulites toward the surface, i.e. cylindrical folds (sheath fold) and granite stocks. Systematic studies of such structures at diverse erosion sections allowing the conclusion on their formation. During exhumation (decompression) of granulite facies terrains the formation of sheath folds are resulted from generation of the granite magma within the same granitogneissic material and subsequent uprising due to difference in densities of contacting materials because all sheath folds con. This is recorded in the contrasting orientation of strong liniation and small folds axes in granulite facies complexes (see a micro model in Fig. 1a). Despite the fact that these structures are located more than hundred kilometers apart, they are characterized by similar orientation of foliation and lineations that are the evidence for their simultaneous formation. This conclusion is well supported by isotopic geochronological data (Boshoff et al., 2006; van Reenen et al., 2007). Numerical modeling (Fig. 1b-d) of this movement strongly supports this mechanism and suggests that the formation of sheath folds as the result of granite magma generation from gneisses of similar bulk composition reminds boiling of viscose liquids. This study was financially supported by NRF SA and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project nos. 06-05-64098 and 08-05-00354, and Russian President's Program for the support of leading scientific schools, grant NSh-1949.2008.5. References. Boshoff, R., Van Reenen, D.D., Smit, C.A. ?t al., 2006. J. Geology, 114, 699. Davidson, A. Journal of Geodynamics. 1984, 1, 433-444. Gerya, T.V., Perchuk, L.L., Van Reenen, D.D. et al. 2000. J. Geodynamics, 30, 17. Gerya T.V., Perchuk L.L., Maresch W.V et al., 2002. Europ. J Mineral., 14, 687-699. Macgregor A.M. Transactions of Geological Society of South Africa. 1951. V. 54. P. 27-71. Perchuk L.L., 1989. In Evolution of Metamorphic Belts. Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Pub. 42, P. 275. Perchuk, L.L., Podladchikov, Yu.Yu., Polyakov, A.N., 1992. J. Metam. Geol., 10, 311. Perchuk L.L., van Reenen D.D., Smit C.A., Boshoff, G. A. Belyanin, Yapaskurt V.O. Petrology, 2008, V. 16, No. 7, ?. 652-678. Ramberg H. Gravity, deformation and the Earth's crust. Academic Press. London-New-York-Toronto-San Francisco. 1981. 296 p. Smit, C.A. & Van Reenen, D.D., 1997. Journal of Geology, 105, 37-57. Van Reenen, D.D., Boshoff, R., Smit, C.A. et al., 2007, Gondwana Research (in press). To observe this Figure please contact the first author llp@geol.msu.ru Figure 1. Fragments of natural (?) and modified numerical (b - d

Perchuk, L. L.; van Reenen, D. D.

2009-04-01

18

Incorporation of Model and Parameter Uncertainty in Predicting Radionuclide Fluxes from the Climax Granite Intrusive, Nevada Test Site  

Science.gov (United States)

The Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit requires the use of numerical models to predict radionuclide flux rates from three subsurface nuclear tests conducted in a fractured rock mass. Modeling flow and transport in the Climax granite intrusive (CGI) is unique; while attributes of rock fractures have been extensively characterized in subsurface tunnel and drift complexes, information on the saturated flow system, including the position of the water table within the CGI, is largely unknown. A modified version of the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model of Belcher et al. (2004) with refined discretization in the area of the CGI is used to provide boundary conditions and a calibration target for a local-scale stochastic continuum fracture flow and transport model. Uncertainty in the Climax DVRFS model is addressed by including five different geologic framework models, each weighted according to expert elicitation. Five ground water recharge models are then applied to each of the five geologic models, resulting in a total of 25 geologic/recharge models. The CGI fracture flow model consists of 3-D discrete fracture networks, randomly distributed according to probability distribution functions for fracture location, orientation, length and permeability. The networks are directly mapped onto a 3-D finite-difference grid and MODFLOW is used to simultaneously solve for fluid flow within the fracture network and rock matrix. Flow model calibration involved matching the geometric mean of total fluid flux through 200 Monte Carlo fracture network realizations to flux computed in the subsection of the Climax DVRFS model representing the area of the local-scale model domain. By maintaining a constant log_10 mean and variance of fracture conductivity, fracture density was altered until the geometric mean of flux from all 200 network realizations is within +/- 5% of the target flux from the regional model. Variability in flux for individual realizations encompasses 2 to 3 orders-of-magnitude. Weights assigned to individual realizations using a generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) technique reflect this contrast in flux values. A random walk particle method will be used to simulate advection, dispersion, and adsorption and diffusion into the rock matrix using the velocity fields from the flow realizations.

Reeves, D. M.; Pohlmann, K. F.; Pohll, G. M.; Chapman, J. B.; Ye, M.

2006-12-01

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Depth Estimation of Digitized Aeromagnetic Data of the Western Part of the Younger Granite Rocks of North Central Nigeria, West Africa  

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Full Text Available The present study is aimed at estimating the depths extents of aeromagnetic anomalies over the younger granite rocks and their associates in the western part of North Central Nigeria. The Younger Granites rocks of North Central Nigeria are characterized by total magnetic intensity values ranging from 32670 to 33070 nanoTesla (nT). Most of the anomalous features trend in the northeast-southwest direction. Medium to higher magnetic intensity values occupy more than three quarter of the area. Third order polynomial trend surface fitting performed by least squares produced positive regional field without preferred direction. Higher regional field values are observed along the southern region and lower ones around the northeast. The surface residual anomaly has values between 32660 and 33061 nT. E-W, NE-SW and NNW-SSE are the main structural directions of the residual anomalies. Individual anomalies suggest discontinuity of the rock units. Residual anomalies of the total magnetic intensity fields fitted with third degree polynomial regional curves along four profiles produced both negative and positive values. Segments of the profiles with little variations are considered magnetic ‘quiet’ environments and those showing considerable variation are ‘noisy’ and indicate magnetic sources in the subsurface. Two and a half dimensional models of the subsurface structures suggest deep seated fault along the profiles that attained maximum depths of 12.0 km each along sections Mag1 and Mag2; 13.0 km along Mag3 and 26.6 km along Mag4. The steepness of the magnetic sources suggest possible relative displacement of the blocks of the rock bodies of these magnitudes. The fault correlate with Romanche fracture zone which, if extrapolated into Nigerian landmass will pass through the area diagonally in a NE-SW striking direction.

S.C. Alkali; S. Gaiya; B. Abba Musa

2012-01-01

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Determination of concentrations and isotopic ratio of uranium in groundwaters drawn from two deep wells drilled in granitic rocks belonging to Itu intrusive suite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the first results obtained in the determination of dissolved uranium concentrations and (234U/238U) activity ratios of groundwaters drawn from two deep wells drilled in granitic rocks belonging to Itu Intrusive Suite, which is located at eastern Sao Paulo State. One of the wells, whose groundwaters have been analyzed, is located in Salto Town, while the other one is located in Itu Town. The groundwater sampling is monthly and begun on September, 2004, in order to investigate possible sazonal variations. The alpha spectrometry technique, associated with isotopic dilution method, has been used for these determinations. The data obtained up to now show that the groundwaters from Salto present uranium concentrations significantly lower ((0.098 ± 0.007) - (0.17 ± 0.01) ng/g) than those from Itu ((0.22 ± 0.02) - (0.31 ± 0.02) ng/g). The 234U and 238U isotopes of the investigated groundwaters from both wells are in radioactive disequilibrium, with (234U/238U) activity ratios systematically higher than unity. Although the groundwaters from Salto well are characterized by low 234U and 238U specific activities they present higher (234U/238U) activity ratios than those from Itu. The observed differences on the behavior of uranium concentrations and (234U/238U) activity ratios in the groundwaters from the two wells are very probably due to the large variety of granitic rocks from Itu Intrusive Suite, which are characterized by distinct uranium abundances. (author)

2005-09-02

 
 
 
 
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El Granito Calasuya: un intrusivo alcalifeldespático postcolisional en el batolito de Sierra Norte-Ambargasta, Córdoba/ The Calasuya Granite: a postcollisional alkalifeldspar intrusive in the Sierra Norte-Ambargasta batholith, Córdoba province  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La zona central del extenso batolito Sierra Norte-Ambargasta, en el bloque más oriental de las Sierras Pampeanas orientales, está representada por granitoides de arco magmático tipo I (granodioritas, monzogranitos, pórfidos dacíticos y riolíticos denominados serie La Isla - Cerro de los Burros), intruidos por cuerpos menores félsicos postcolisionales, químicamente más evolucionados (denominados unidades Puesto de Los Caminos y Cerro Baritina), todos perteneciente (more) s al Neoproterozoico- Cámbrico inferior. Nueva información geológica y geoquímica de la región centro-oriental del mismo batolito permitió identificar un plutón de composición alcalifeldespática, denominado Granito Calasuya, el primero de esta naturaleza en el batolito. Su mineralogía distintiva la constituyen la composición albítica de la plagioclasa magmática (An Abstract in english The central-western portion of the extended Sierra Norte-Ambargasta batholith, in the easternmost block of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas, is largely characterized by pre-collisional I-type magmatic arc granitoids (granodiorites, monzogranites, dacite and rhyolite porphyries named La Isla - Cerro de los Burros series), and by smaller sized postcollisional felsic intrusives of higher evolved chemistry (named Puesto de los Caminos and Cerro Baritina units), all of which crys (more) tallized along the Late Proterozoic -Lower Cambrian time span. New geological and geochemical data from the central and oriental areas of the batholith allowed to identify an intrusive body of alkalifeldspar composition (the Calasuya granite), the first of its type in the batholith. Its distinctive mineralogy is highlighted by the albitic composition of magmatic plagioclase (molar An

Elortegui Palacios, Javier; Lira, Raúl; Poklepovic, Fernanda; Dorais, Michael J.

2008-09-01

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Quartz And Zircon as markers of the magmatic-hydrothermal evolution of the Antônio Vicente Granite, Velho Guilherme Intrusive Suite, Carajás Province  

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Full Text Available the Antônio Vicente Granite, Carajás Province, by scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) images. In the lessevolved rocks, containing amphibole and biotite, well developed anhedral to subhedral, luminescent and intensely fractured crystalsdominate, named Qz1. Hydrothermal fluids that percolated the granite modified the magmatic quartz (Qz1) into Qz2 and Qz3 throughprocesses of alteration, dissolution and recrystallization, with these changes much more evident in the intensely altered syenograniterocks. Qz4 constitute medium-to-coarse grained crystals, usually luminescent and comparatively little fractured. Its occurrence is restrictedto strongly hydrotermalized syenogranite rocks and bodies of greisens, suggesting the beginning of the greisenization process.In the greisens, medium-to-coarse grained euhedral, concentrically zoned quartz crystals dominate, with typical features of hydrothermalorigin (Qz5). Fine crystals of zoned cassiterite (? 100 ?m) are common and fill cavities in the types Qz4 and Qz5. Zircon crystalsdominantly anhedral, corroded, with the highest contents of Hf and the lower Zr/Hf ratios belong to more evolved and hydrothermallyaltered rocks and to associated greisens, both carriers of Sn mineralization. This fact suggests that the geochemical signature of zircon,especially Zr/Hf ratio, can be used for the preliminary assessment of metallogenic potential of tin granites.

Claudio Nery Lamarão; Claudio Nery Lamarão; Claudio Nery Lamarão; Claudio Nery Lamarão

2013-01-01

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Geochemistry of granitic rocks in Indian cratons, a prelude for uranium exploration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peninsular India constitutes Archaean continental nuclei, supercrustals episodic granitic intrusive and effusives, mobile belts and all are welded together by rifts and sutures. The episodic nature of granitic magmatism is well represented with peak ages recorded around 470, 1100, 1800, 2200, 2500, 3100, 3300, 3500 Ma (1) and played a vital role in crustal growth of Peninsular Indian shield similar to the world wide crustal evolution during the Proterozoic times. These cratonic blocks are stabilized and formed basement for Proterozoic basins. This granite related magmatic events include juvenile granites and reactivated gneisses in several parts of the shield areas. These accretions brought metals from mantle and also helped in their remobilization from early formed crustal blocks. Large Ion Lithoplile elements including U, Th and K thus added to the crust, later formed the potential source for QPC, unconformity related uranium deposits. In this paper, geochemical and petrogenetic evolution of granites of Dharwar, Basta, Sighbhum and Bundelkhand cratons of various ages are presented with an emphasis to narrow down the target areas for uranium exploration. The late phase granites of crustal derived with A and S type characters occurring as younger variants in the craton are favourable horizons for uranium exploration. (author)

2009-10-01

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High precision ages from the Torres del Paine Intrusion, Chile  

Science.gov (United States)

The upper crustal bimodal Torres del Paine Intrusion, southern Chile, consists of the lower Paine-Mafic- Complex and the upper Paine-Granite. Geochronologically this bimodal complex is not well studied except for a few existing data from Halpern (1973) and Sanchez (2006). The aim of this study is to supplement the existing data and to constrain the age relations between the major magmatic pulses by applying high precision U-Pb dating on accessory zircons and 40Ar/39Ar-laser-step-heating-ages on biotites from the Torres del Paine Intrusion. The magmatic rocks from mafic complex are fine to medium-grained and vary in composition from quartz- monzonites to granodiorites and gabbros. Coarse-grained olivine gabbros have intruded these rocks in the west. The granitic body is represented by a peraluminous, biotite-orthoclase-granite and a more evolved leucocratic granite in the outer parts towards the host-rock. Field observations suggest a feeder-zone for the granite in the west and that the granite postdates the mafic complex. Two granite samples of the outermost margins in the Northeast and South were analyzed. The zircons were dated by precise isotope-dilution U-Pb techniques of chemically abraded single grains. The data are concordant within the analytical error and define weighted mean 206/238U ages of 12.59 ± 0.03 Ma and 12.58 ± 0.01 Ma for the two samples respectively. A 40Ar/39Ar-age for the second sample yield a date of 12.37 ± 0.11 Ma. Three 40Ar/39Ar -ages of biotites were obtained for rocks belonging to the mafic complex. A hbl-bio- granodiorite from the central part, approximately 150 m below the subhorizontal contact with the granite, gives an age of 12.81 ± 0.11 Ma. A hbl-bio-granodiorite and an olivine-gabbro west of the feeder-zone date at 12.42 ± 0.14 Ma and 12.49 ± 0.11 Ma, respectively. The obtained older age of 12.81 Ma for the granodiorite in the central part is consistent with structural relationships of brittle fracturing of the mafic complex by the granite and we conclude that some parts of the mafic complex were emplaced before the granite. The well defined 206/238U-age for zircons and the slightly younger 40Ar/39Ar -ages for biotites of both rock suites show that emplacement and cooling of the Torres del Paine Intrusion took place in a relatively short time-frame. Halpern, 1973, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 84/7: 2407-2422. Sanchez et.al., 2006. V SSAGI, Punta del Este, April 2006.

Michel, J.; Baumgartner, L.; Cosca, M.; Ovtcharova, M.; Putlitz, B.; Schaltegger, U.

2006-12-01

25

From explosive breccia to unidirectional solidification textures: magmatic evolution of a phosphorus- and fluorine-rich granite system (Podlesí, Krušné hory Mts., Czech Republic)  

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Full Text Available The Podlesí granite stock in western Krušné hory Mts. represents the most highly fractionated part of the late Variscan Nejdek-Eibenstock pluton. Internal fabric of the stock has been studied in several boreholes up to 350 m deep. The stock is composed of two tongue-like bodies of albite-protolithionite-topaz granite (stock granite) coalesced at depth, which were emplaced into Ordovician phyllite and biotite granite of younger intrusive complex (YIC) of the Nejdek pluton. The uppermost part of the intrusion is bordered by a layer of marginal pegmatite (stockscheider) up to 50 cm thick. Explosive breccia was found as an isolated block at the southwest contact of the stock. It is comprised of fragments of phyllite several millimetres to 5 cm in size cemented with fine-grained granitic matrix similar to the stock granite, but very fine-grained. Within the uppermost 100 m, the stock granite is intercalated with several mostly flat-lying dykes of albite-zinnwaldite-topaz granite (dyke granite). Upper and lower contacts of the dykes are sharp, flat, but in detail slightly uneven. The thickest dyke (about 7 m) outcrops in an old quarry. A prominent example of layering with unidirectional solidification textures (UST) was found in the upper part of this major dyke. Individual Q-Afs laminae are separated by comb quartz layers and/or by layers of oriented fan-like zinnwaldite aggregates. A pegmatite-like layer with oriented megacrysts of Kfs up to 6 cm long was encountered in the uppermost part of the dyke. One thin layer of fine-grained quartz with oriented Kfs-megacrysts was found within the stock granite. Post-magmatic processes, particularly greisenisation, developed only to a limited degree. The uppermost flat dyke of the dyke granite was partly greisenised into white quartz-rich (+topaz, Li-mica, wolframite) greisen. Scarce thin, steep stringers of biotite greisen were encountered over the entire outcrop and in drilled parts of the stock granite and surrounding biotite granite.

Breiter K

2002-01-01

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The petrogenesis of a wolframite-bearing greisen in the Vykmanov granite stock, Western Krušné hory pluton (Czech Republic)  

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Full Text Available A wolframite-bearing greisen at Vykmanov, near Ostrov (Czech Republic) occurs at the contact of a small granite stock belonging to the Late Variscan Younger Intrusive Complex (YIC) of the Western Krušné hory/Erzgebirge pluton. The stock emerges as an outcrop of 0.8 × 0.3 km size from a hidden granite body in the eastern continuation of the Nejdek-Eibenstock granite massif. The lens-like greisen body consists mainly of quartz, topaz, protolithionite, and muscovite; it also contains wolframite (ferberite) and native bismuth mineralization. It was formed by replacement of a medium-grained, equigranular, slightly porphyritic Li-F granite of the Karlovy Vary pluton characterized by weak postmagmatic albitization and pervasive muscovitization. The greisen is geologically and compositionally transitional between the Li-rich greisens in albite granites (e.g. with zinnwaldite such as at Krásno) and the Li-poor greisens (e.g. phengite greisens at Gottesberg and P?ebuz) associated with weakly albitized granites of the Younger Intrusive Complex. The Vykmanov greisen formed in a subsolidus stage of granite evolution by progressive alkali loss and fluorine metasomatism, leading to the formation of Li-mica quartz greisen subsequently replaced by topaz-quartz greisen at the granite/crystalline contact. These greisens were affected by late-stage muscovitization and argillitization (sericitization, the formation of clay minerals). The Li-Fe mica composition of the greisens corresponds to protolithionite (lithian siderophyllite) and is similar to the composition of micas in the enclosing granite. The tungsten-bearing greisenization represents a postmagmatic episode in the development of the Krušné hory/Erzgebirge batholith, and is located at the eastern contact of highly evolved YIC granites of the Western Krušné hory pluton. The greisen formed from CO2 -poor hydrothermal solutions, at about 400 °C, which evolved from highly saline brines as evidenced by fluid inclusion studies. The geological situation suggests that the mineralizing fluids were mostly magmatic and were responsible for the tungsten-bismuth specialization of the greisens, whereas meteoric waters participated in mineralization during later stages.

Štemprok M; Pivec E; Langrová A

2005-01-01

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Human intrusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focused on the possible approaches to evaluating the impacts of human intrusion on nuclear waste disposal. Several major issues were reviewed. First, it was noted that human intrusion could be addressed either quantitatively through performance assessments or qualitatively through design requirements. Second, it was decided that it was impossible to construct a complete set of possible future human intrusion scenarios. Third, the question of when the effect of possible human intrusion should be considered, before or after site selection was reviewed. Finally, the time frame over which human intrusion should be considered was discussed

1993-01-01

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Maurim intrusive suite: a calc-alkacic batholite zoned of catarinense shield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The geological survey of the Florianopolis Sheet (SG.22-Z-D-V) identified and characterized a calc-alkacic multi-intrusive and polydiapiric suite that occurs as a granitic batholite roughly concentric in texture and composition. This co-magmatic plutonic sequence is intrusive in the granite-gneissic basement of amphibolite facies, with which it was formerly confounded. The initial magmatic terms, put-in-place at the marginal portions of the batholite, are represented by quartz-diorites and tonalites (Forquilha Tonalites), followed by granodiorites (alto da Varginha Granodiorite), granodiorites to monzonites (Rio das Antas Granite) and completed by an inner portions of porphyritic monzonites (Sao Pedro de Alcantara Granite). The identifications of the compositional zoning that results from the development of the magmatic chamber is based on the examination of 74 rock samples that were analysed for major and minor oxides and trace elements (Ba, F, Li, Mo, Sn, W, Y, Rb, Nb, Zr and Sr). The treatment of these data shows the portions where mantle fractions predominate as well as the others where crustal meltings dominate, what demonstrates an origin by in situ differentiation processes, fractioning and different degrees of magmatic mixing. Geochronologic dating by Rb/Sr, K/Ar and U/Pb methods show isochronic and conventional ages of 600 to 700 m.y. that roughly are in accord with the temporal progress towards the younger felsic phases, putting this suite in the Upper Proterozoic age. The initial Sr sup(87) / Sr sup(86) ratios, around 0.710, point to a crustal origin with variable mantle contribution to these rocks. (author)

1990-11-01

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Magmatic constraints on localization of natural stone deposits in the Vehmaa rapakivi granite batholith, southwestern Finland  

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Full Text Available The 1580–1570 Ma old Vehmaa rapakivi granite batholith was studied with the aim to define the geological constraints for localization of natural stone deposits in the batholith. The batholith comprises four roughly concentric granite intrusions from the margin inwards: pyterlite, coarse-grained porphyritic rapakivi granite and two types of medium-grained porphyritic rapakivi granite. Also porphyry aplite and even-grained rapakivi granite occur. The batholith has intruded as a succession of pulses of subhorizontal sheet-like intrusions conceivably through repeated cauldron subsidence. Natural stone quarries are confined only to certain intrusions within the batholith. We show that the medium-grained porphyritic granite body in the centre of the batholith comprises two almost identical but different intrusions, with only slightly different appearances: the inner (IG) and the outer (OG) granite. The quarries are confined to the outer intrusion which has an appearance more attractive to the market than that of the inner intrusion. The localization of the natural stone deposits in the Vehmaa batholith is a result of the magmatic history of the batholith, producing intrusions of different appearances with different commercial potential.

Olavi Selonen; Carl Ehlers; Hannu Luodes; Fredrik Karell

2011-01-01

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Pórfiro granítico Mojotoro (Salta): ¿Una cúpula intrusiva o un dique en el ciclo pampeano? The Mojotoro granitic porphyry (Salta): An intrusive roaf or a dike in the Pampean Cycle?  

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Full Text Available El pórfiro granítico Mojotoro, constituye la cúpula de un plutón epizonal, emplazado en un área geológica bien conocida, de la Formación Puncoviscana, en las inmediaciones de la ciudad de Salta (24º47´44,9"S - 65º21´35,9"W, 1.304 m s.n.m.). Sin bien se carece de determinaciones geocronológicas, los caracteres geológicos regionales y situación estratigráfica de no alcanzar los niveles del Grupo Mesón, sugieren edades pampeanas, correspondientes a la orogenia tilcárica. Los caracteres petrográficos corresponden a pórfiros graníticos, con fenocristales de feldespato potásico, acompañados por cuarzo, plagioclasa y biotita. Las rocas han sufrido intensa sericitización, caolinización y limonitización. Asimismo muestra esferulitas recristalizadas, inclusiones fluidas y fragmentos de granófiro, que indican emplazamiento somero, con rápido intercrecimiento conjunto de cuarzo en una masa de feldespato alcalino hipersolvus. La susceptibilidad magnética es baja con valores de 0,11 x 10-3 SI, típicos para granitos corticales formados a partir de protolitos metasedimentarios.The Mojotoro porphyritic granite is located close to the city of Salta (24°47´44,9"S - 65°21´35,9"W, 1304 m.a.s.l.), at Cerro Mojotoro in the Eastern Cordillera. The pluton is emplaced in the Puncoviscana Formation (Late Precambrian-Early Cambrian), a lithological unit composed mainly of greenish pelites. The Puncoviscana Formation is covered unconformably by Cambrian quartzites of the Meson Group. Stratigraphic relationships of the granite indicate a Pampean age and emplacement during the Tilcaric orogenic phase. Petrographically it is a porphyritic granite with K-feldspar phenocrysts accompanied by quartz, plagioclase and biotite. The rock is strongly altered by sericitization, kaolinization, and limonitization. Likewise, the granite exhibits recrystalized spherules, fluid inclusions and granophyric fragments, indicative of shallow emplacement, with fast intergrowth of quartz in a mass of K-feldspar hypersolvus. Low magnetic susceptibility, with values of 0.11x10-3 SI, is typical of cortical granite that was formed from a metasedimentary protolith.

A.J. Toselli; R.N. Alonso

2005-01-01

31

Petrographic and mineralogical features of the uraniferous pink granites in the north eastern desert of egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work is concerned with the petrological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of some uranium bearing younger granites in the north eastern desert of egypt particularly Gebel Gattar area. The area around Gebel Gattar comprises the following rock units (starting from the oldest): meta volcanic, diorite-grano-diorite complex- Dokhan volcanics- Hammamat sediments, younger granites and dykes. The most significant structural features are represented by NNE-ENE dominantly trending faults and joints. Petrographicaly, the pink granites are divided into normal and mineralized (uraniferous) granites. Normal granites are classified into three types; a) leucocratic perthitic granite, b) hornblende- biotite perthitic granite and c) two feldspars perthitic granite. Mineralized granites are sheared, deformed, pinkish brown in colour and strongly altered. A remarkable secondary uranium mineralization has been recorded along fault and fracture zones.

1998-01-01

32

Uranium in granites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent research activities of the Canadian Uranium in Granites Study are presented in 18 papers and 3 abstracts. 'Granites' is used as a generic term for granitoids, granitic rocks, and plutonic rocks

1982-01-01

33

The uranium, thorium and molybdenum distribution in selected leucogranites of the Cape-granite-suite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Younger intrusions and hydrothermally altered rocks like alkali granite, alaskite, syenite and episyenite resembling uranium ore deposits in France and the Roessing ore body in SWA/Namibia are found within the Saldanha and Darling batholiths of the south-western Cape Province. Two areas were geologically mapped in detail and surveyed with a portable gamma spectrometer in order to establish the regional variation in U and Th concentration. A quantitative study of alpha particle tracks on autoradiographs of selected thin sections led to the determination of the contributions by various minerals to the U and Th content of each individual rock type. The rocks were also investigated petrologically and geochemically with special attention to secondary alteration processes that could have played a part in causing the distribution pattern of U and Th. Radioelement analyses of 45 mineral separates and 51 whole rock analyses were utilised

1982-01-01

34

Pórfiro granítico Mojotoro (Salta): ¿Una cúpula intrusiva o un dique en el ciclo pampeano?/ The Mojotoro granitic porphyry (Salta): An intrusive roaf or a dike in the Pampean Cycle?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El pórfiro granítico Mojotoro, constituye la cúpula de un plutón epizonal, emplazado en un área geológica bien conocida, de la Formación Puncoviscana, en las inmediaciones de la ciudad de Salta (24º47´44,9"S - 65º21´35,9"W, 1.304 m s.n.m.). Sin bien se carece de determinaciones geocronológicas, los caracteres geológicos regionales y situación estratigráfica de no alcanzar los niveles del Grupo Mesón, sugieren edades pampeanas, correspondientes a la orogeni (more) a tilcárica. Los caracteres petrográficos corresponden a pórfiros graníticos, con fenocristales de feldespato potásico, acompañados por cuarzo, plagioclasa y biotita. Las rocas han sufrido intensa sericitización, caolinización y limonitización. Asimismo muestra esferulitas recristalizadas, inclusiones fluidas y fragmentos de granófiro, que indican emplazamiento somero, con rápido intercrecimiento conjunto de cuarzo en una masa de feldespato alcalino hipersolvus. La susceptibilidad magnética es baja con valores de 0,11 x 10-3 SI, típicos para granitos corticales formados a partir de protolitos metasedimentarios. Abstract in english The Mojotoro porphyritic granite is located close to the city of Salta (24°47´44,9"S - 65°21´35,9"W, 1304 m.a.s.l.), at Cerro Mojotoro in the Eastern Cordillera. The pluton is emplaced in the Puncoviscana Formation (Late Precambrian-Early Cambrian), a lithological unit composed mainly of greenish pelites. The Puncoviscana Formation is covered unconformably by Cambrian quartzites of the Meson Group. Stratigraphic relationships of the granite indicate a Pampean age and (more) emplacement during the Tilcaric orogenic phase. Petrographically it is a porphyritic granite with K-feldspar phenocrysts accompanied by quartz, plagioclase and biotite. The rock is strongly altered by sericitization, kaolinization, and limonitization. Likewise, the granite exhibits recrystalized spherules, fluid inclusions and granophyric fragments, indicative of shallow emplacement, with fast intergrowth of quartz in a mass of K-feldspar hypersolvus. Low magnetic susceptibility, with values of 0.11x10-3 SI, is typical of cortical granite that was formed from a metasedimentary protolith.

Toselli, A.J.; Alonso, R.N.

2005-06-01

35

Gamma-spectrometric surveys in differentiated granites. II: the Joaquim Murtinho Granite in the Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex, Parana, SE Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detailed mapping at the NW corner of the large Neo proterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), Parana state, SE Brazil, redefined the Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG), a late intrusion in CGC with an exposed area of about 10 km2, made up mainly by evolved 'alaskites' (alkali-feldspar leuco granites). This unit is in tectonic contact with the Neoproterozoic-Eocambrian volcano-sedimentary Castro Group, to the W, and is intrusive into other less evolved granitic units of the CGC to the E. Petrographically, JMG shows mainly mesoperthite and quartz, with subordinate amounts of altered micas and some accessory phases, mainly zircon. The equi to inequigranular granites are usually deformed with cataclastic textures, are often brecciated, and may have miarolitic structures. Formation of late albite, sericite, carbonate and hematite was caused by deuteric and hydrothermal alteration. A gamma-ray spectrometric survey at 231 stations which measured total counts (TC), Ueq K%, eU ppm and eTh ppm was used to construct several direct and derived maps. Compared to neighboring units the JMG has significant anomalies, especially in the TC, %K, eTh and eU maps, although the differences are less obvious in some derived maps. These evolved granites are enriched in these three elements. Geochemical behavior of K, Th and U is used to analyse the results observed in maps. Enhanced weathering under a subtropical climate with moderate to high average temperatures and heavy rainfall affects mainly feldspars and biotite, and may also destabilize most U and Th-bearing accessory phases. Th is most likely retained in restite minerals in soils, being relatively immobile, while part of U may migrate as uranyl ion in oxidizing media. K is especially affected by feldspar alteration to K-free clays (mainly kaolinite), and may be completely leached. Gamma-ray spectrometric methods are valid tools to study facies in granitic rocks, especially in those that are enriched in K, Th and U. (author)

2009-01-01

36

The neural representation of intrusive thoughts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on the philosophical notion that language embodies thought we investigated whether a habitual tendency for intrusive thought that younger and older participants report over a period of 100 sessions, spread out over about 6 months, is associated with brain regions related to language production. In favour of this hypothesis, we found that individual differences in habitual intrusive thoughts are correlated with activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, Broca's area) as well as the cingulate cortex (CC) during a two-choice reaction-time task in fMRI. Participants who habitually tended to experience intrusive thoughts showed greater activity during task-free (baseline) compared to task periods in brain regions involved in language production. Task performance was unrelated to individual differences in intrusive thoughts. We conclude that intrusive thoughts may be represented in a language-like format and that individuals reporting a habitually higher tendency for intrusive thoughts may have stronger and more habitual inner speech processes.

Kühn S; Schmiedek F; Brose A; Schott BH; Lindenberger U; Lövden M

2013-08-01

37

2005 dossier: granite; Dossier 2005: granite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - advantage of granitic formations for the geologic disposal; 2 - containers; 3 - design study of a disposal facility in granitic environment; 4 - understanding and modelling of granite; 5 - description of disposal concepts in granitic environment; 6 - long-term and safety aspects; 7 - conclusion. (J.S.)

NONE

2005-07-01

38

Petrogenesis of magmatic albite granites associated to cogenetic A-type granites: Na-rich residual melt extraction from a partially crystallized A-type granite mush  

Science.gov (United States)

The uncommon association of cogenetic and nearly contemporaneous potassic K-feldspar A-type granites and sodic albite granites is observed within the 347 Ma-old bimodal Saint-Jean-du-Doigt (SJDD) intrusion, Brittany, France. A-type granites outcrop as small bodies (< 1 km2) of fine-grained, pinkish to yellowish rock or as meter-thick sills in-between mafic layers. They emplaced early within the thermally "cool" part of the SJDD pluton directly beneath the Precambrian host rock, forming the pluton roof. Albite granites are fine-grained hololeucocratic yellowish rocks emplaced slightly after the A-type granites in the thermally mature part of the pluton. They form meter-thick sills that mingle with adjacent mafic layers and represent ca. 1 vol.% of the outcropping part of the pluton.

Barboni, Mélanie; Bussy, François

2013-09-01

39

Petrography and geochemistry of the topaz-bearing granite stocks in Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi, western margin of the Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi granite stocks at the western margin of the Wiborg rapakivi batholith are multiphase rapakivi granite intrusions in which the most evolved phase is topaz-bearing granite. The Artjärvi stock is composed of porphyritic and even-grained biotite granite and even-grained topaz granite, and the Sääskjärvi stock comprises even-grained biotite granite and porphyritic topazgranite. The granites are metaluminous to peraluminous A-type granites, showing within-plate (WPG) geochemical characteristics. The topaz granites from the Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi stocks are petrographically and geochemically similar to other topaz-bearing rapakivi granites in Finland. The anomalous geochemistry of the topaz granite is essentially magmatic; postmagmatic reactions have only slightly modified its composition. Greisen veins, some of which are mineralized, are widely found associated with the Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi stocks.The most characteristic feature of the Artjärvi granite stock is a stockscheider at the roof contact of the topaz granite. The stockscheider is composed of schlieren layering and pegmatite layers parallel to the contact. The most probable mechanism for the formation of the schlieren layering is velocity-gradient sorting parallel to the flow, which led to accumulation of mafic minerals along the upper contact of the topaz granite. Cooling and contraction of the topaz granite formed fractures parallel to the roof contact and the residual pegmatite magmas were injected along the fractures forming pegmatite layers. Textures like graphic intergrowths, aplitic groundmass and fan-shaped alkali feldspar crystals associated with the Artjärvi porphyritic biotite granite and pegmatite indicatecrystallization from undercooled magma. Miarolitic cavities found in the porphyritic biotite granite and topaz granite indicate at least local volatile saturation.

Sari Lukkari

2002-01-01

40

Shrimp U-Pb age and Sr-Nd isotopes of the Morro do Baú mafic intrusion: implications for the evolution of the Arenópolis volcano-sedimentary sequence, Goiás Magmatic Arc  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Arenópolis volcano-sedimentary sequence is located in the southern part of the Goiás Magmatic Arc and includes a ca. 900 Ma calc-alkaline arc sequence made of volcanic rocks ranging in composition from basalts to rhyolites, metamorphosed under greenschist to amphibolite facies. Small calc-alkaline gabbro to granite sub-volcanic bodies are also recognized. The Morro do Baú intrusion is the largest of these intrusions, and is made of gabbros and diorites. Zircon grains separated from one gabbro sample and analyzed by SHRIMP I yielded the mean 206Pb/238U age of 890 +/- 8 Ma, indicating that the intrusion is roughly coeval or only slightly younger than the Arenópolis volcanics. Contrary to the metavolcanics, which are juvenile, the Nd isotopic composition of the Morro do Baú gabbro indicates strong contamination with archean sialic material (T DM of 2.8 Ga and EpsilonNd(T) of -9.7), represented in the area by an allochthonous sliver of archean/paleoproterozoic gneisses (Ribeirão gneiss) which are the country-rocks for the gabbro/dioritic intrusion. The emplacement age of ca. 890 Ma represents a minimum age limit for the tectonic accretion of the gneiss sliver to the younger rocks of the Arenópolis sequence. The data suggest that this happened early in the evolution of the Goiás Magmatic Arc, between ca. 920 and 890 Ma.

Pimentel Márcio M.; Hollanda Maria Helena B. M.; Armstrong Richard

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Gamma-spectrometric Surveys in Differentiated Granites. II: the Joaquim Murtinho Granite in the Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex, Paraná, SE Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Detailed mapping at the NW corner of the large Neoproterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), Paraná state, SE Brazil, redefined the Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG), a late intrusion in CGC with an exposed area of about 10 km2, made up mainly by evolved“alaskites” (alkali-feldspar leucogranites). This unit is in tectonic contact with the Neoproterozoic- Eocambrian volcano-sedimentaryCastro Group, to the W, and is intrusive into other less evolved granitic units of the CGC to the E. Petrographically, JMG shows mainlymesoperthite and quartz, with subordinate amounts of altered micas and some accessory phases, mainly zircon. The equi to inequigranulargranites are usually deformed with cataclastic textures, are often brecciated, and may have miarolitic structures. Formation of latealbite, sericite, carbonate and hematite was caused by deuteric and hydrothermal alteration. A gamma-ray spectrometric survey at 231stations which measured total counts (TC), Ueq K%, eU ppm and eTh ppm was used to construct several direct and derived maps. Comparedto neighboring units the JMG has signifi cant anomalies, especially in the TC, %K, eTh and eU maps, although the differences areless obvious in some derived maps. These evolved granites are enriched in these three elements. Geochemical behavior of K, Th and Uis used to analyse the results observed in maps. Enhanced weathering under a subtropical climate with moderate to high average temperaturesand heavy rainfall affects mainly feldspars and biotite, and may also destabilize most U and Th-bearing accessory phases. Th is most likely retained in restite minerals in soils, being relatively immobile, while part of U may migrate as uranyl ion in oxidizing media. K is especially affected by feldspar alteration to K-free clays (mainly kaolinite), and may be completely leached. Gamma-ray spectrometricmethods are valid tools to study facies in granitic rocks, especially in those that are enriched in K, Th and U.

Francisco José Fonseca Ferreira; Allan Fruchting; Gilson Burigo Guimarães; Luizemara Soares Alves; Victor Miguel Oliveira Martin; Horstpeter Herberto Gustavo José Ulbrich

2009-01-01

42

2005 dossier: granite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - advantage of granitic formations for the geologic disposal; 2 - containers; 3 - design study of a disposal facility in granitic environment; 4 - understanding and modelling of granite; 5 - description of disposal concepts in granitic environment; 6 - long-term and safety aspects; 7 - conclusion. (J.S.)

2005-01-01

43

Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb geochronological studies on the granite gneiss of Kuilapal, Purulia-Bankura Midnapore district, West Bengal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of younger granite plutons intruding the Singhbhum Mobile Belt (SMB) surrounding the Singhbhum-Orissa Craton, viz. Kuilapal granite on the East, Mayurbhanj granite, Soda granite, Arkasoni granite, Chakradharpur granite gneiss and Tamper kola granite on the west. Of these Kuilapal granite body is the largest. Besides small granite bodies intruding the low-grade meta sediments and meta volcanics which occur north of the Dalma volcanic belt. Petrographic and geochemical characters of the minor granite bodies south of Dalma volcanics are similar to those of Kuilapal granite, which is inferred to have been produced by shallow-level fractional crystallisation of a crustally derived granodiorite melt. Dominance of xenoliths in the Kuilapal granite suggest large-scale assimilation of crustal rocks. The radiometric ages vis-a-vis isotope geochemistry of the various granitoid plutons occurring within the mobile belt were used to constrain the evolutionary history of the SMB supracrustals. The Singhbhum Shear Zone which marks the boundary of the SMB with Singhbhum-Orissa Craton, shows multiple reactivation, the oldest being at ? 3.09Ga. Further phases of granite plutonism and/or shearing and mineralisation have been reported along this shear zone occurred in Palaeo-to Mesoproterozoic periods at ? 2.2, 1.8, 1.6-1.5, 1.4 and 1.0 Ga respectively. The present work pertains to the Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb whole rock geochronological studies on Kuilapal granite, which are intrusive into the metasediments of Singhbhum group in the tectonic setup of north Singhbhum Mobile Belt. Fourteen samples were collected, finely powdered form the homgenised representative which were processed further. The dissolution of the rock carried out in a class-100 clean chemical laboratory, followed by the elemental separation using exchange chromatography. The separated pure fractions of the elements were analysed on VG354 Thermal Ionisation Mass spectrometer for their isotopic ratios. The Rb-Sr data on ten samples define an isochron age of 1792±98 Ma, with an initial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7064±0.0069 (MSWD = 13). The Pb isotopic data on these samples define a Pb-Pb isochron age of 1863 ± 80Ma (MlSWD =11.3) with a model ?1 value of 8.53±0.27. Both the Rb-Sr and the Pb-Pb ages are in agreement within the limits of experimental errors. Since the 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio and model ?1 value are higher than the contemporary mantle sources, the data indicate involvement of enriched crustal sources. This age obtained on Kuilapal granite can be taken as the age of one of those periods of reactivation which occurred during Palaeo-to Mesoproterozoic periods. (author)

2011-01-01

44

Earth's youngest exposed granite and its tectonic implications: the 10-0.8 Ma Kurobegawa Granite  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the quest for Earth's oldest rock is of great importance, identifying the youngest exposed pluton on Earth is also of interest. A pluton is a body of intrusive igneous rock that crystallized from slowly cooling magma at depths of several kilometers beneath the surface of the Earth. Therefore, the youngest exposed pluton represents the most recent tectonic uplift and highest exhumation. The youngest exposed pluton reported to date is the Takidani Granodiorite (~ 1.4 Ma) in the Hida Mountain Range of central Japan. Using LA-ICP-MS and SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating methods, this study demonstrates that the Kurobegawa Granite, also situated in the Hida Mountain Range, is as young as ~ 0.8 Ma. In addition, data indicate multiple intrusion episodes in this pluton since 10 Ma with a ~ 2-million-year period of quiescence; hence, a future intrusion event is likely within 1 million years.

Ito, Hisatoshi; Yamada, Ryuji; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji; Horie, Kenji; Hokada, Tomokazu

2013-01-01

45

Earth's youngest exposed granite and its tectonic implications: the 10-0.8 Ma Kurobegawa Granite.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the quest for Earth's oldest rock is of great importance, identifying the youngest exposed pluton on Earth is also of interest. A pluton is a body of intrusive igneous rock that crystallized from slowly cooling magma at depths of several kilometers beneath the surface of the Earth. Therefore, the youngest exposed pluton represents the most recent tectonic uplift and highest exhumation. The youngest exposed pluton reported to date is the Takidani Granodiorite (~ 1.4 Ma) in the Hida Mountain Range of central Japan. Using LA-ICP-MS and SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating methods, this study demonstrates that the Kurobegawa Granite, also situated in the Hida Mountain Range, is as young as ~ 0.8 Ma. In addition, data indicate multiple intrusion episodes in this pluton since 10 Ma with a ~ 2-million-year period of quiescence; hence, a future intrusion event is likely within 1 million years.

Ito H; Yamada R; Tamura A; Arai S; Horie K; Hokada T

2013-01-01

46

Distribution of uranium in granites and mobility of uranium during low-temperature alteration processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this thesis the distribution of uranium and thorium in the Nigerian Younger granites and the mobility of uranium following the physical and chemical changes brought about by Kaolinisation in S.W. England are studied. (author)

1989-01-01

47

Rare alkalis in heterogeneous granites of the Byelorussian anteclis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The features of lithium, rubidium and cesium distributions in preliminary separated metamorphogenic-metasomatic and ultrametamorphogenic intrusive facies of granites have been considered. In mineralogic and geochemic investigations the samples have been analysed by the flame photometry. From the data obtained the main differences are evident in the lithium, rubidium and cesium content. The lithium content is 2 - 4 times as low as its clark for granites and increases from the metamorphogenic-metasomatic facies to the intrusive one. The rubidium content in biotites increases with the total concentration of metal in rocks k-Feldspars are the main rubidium carriers in granites and the most part of rubidium atoms is connected with them. In this case biotite is a mineral-concentrator. Granites of the Byelorussian anteclis stand out for the low cesium content, 2.3 - 3.3 times as low as its clark for persilic rocks. Mean contents of this element slightly increase from the metamorphogenic-metasomatic series to the intrusive one. The features of rare metal distribution are supposed to be due to the trend of geological development and the conjugated geochemical processes in the crust

1978-01-01

48

Calibrating the Younger Dryas  

Science.gov (United States)

Calibrating the Younger Dryas Contributed by: Thom Davis, Greg Wiles, Roger Brown, David Bary This activity was developed during the Teaching Climate Change from the Geological Record workshop, held in August ...

49

Geology and Rb-Sr geochronology of mineralised and radioactive granites and alaskites, Namibia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The geology and Rb-Sr geochronology of four mineralised and radiometrically anomalous granites and alaskites have been studied in an attempt to establish their characteristic isotopic features. A four-fold classification of the Damaran intrusives from the central belt of the orogen into syn- to post-tectonic Salem-type granites and red granites, and late to post-tectonic leucogranites and alaskites is proposed. Whole-rock Rb-Sr ages are presented for the mineralised Ida Dome alaskite, a mineralised red granite on the farm Otjua 37, and the radioactive Salem granite and leucogranite on Stinkbank 62. The most important isotopic feature which appears to characterise the mineralised granites and alaskites is a high initial Sr-isotope ratio, and this ratio seems to increase with both time and uranium content

1983-01-01

50

Intrusion Detection Systems  

CERN Document Server

In our world of ever-increasing Internet connectivity, there is an on-going threat of intrusion, denial of service attacks, or countless other abuses of computer and network resources. In particular, these threats continue to persist due to the flaws of current commercial intrusion detection systems (IDSs). Intrusion Detection Systems is an edited volume by world class leaders in this field. This edited volume sheds new light on defense alert systems against computer and network intrusions. It also covers integrating intrusion alerts within security policy framework for intrusion response, rel

Pietro, Roberto Di

2008-01-01

51

Petrochemical and Sr-Nd isotope investigations of Cretaceous intrusive rocks and their enclaves in the Togouchi-Yoshiwa district, northwest Hiroshima prefecture, SW Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Petrographic, petrochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data are presented for granitoids and microdioritic enclaves from two Cretaceous stocks (Togouchi granodiorite and Tateiwayama granite porphyry) from the Togouchi-Yoshiwa district, northwest Hiroshima prefecture, SW Japan. The data are used to examine the genetic relationships between the microdioritic enclaves and their granitoid hosts. The granodiorite, granite porphyry and the microdioritic enclaves are all calc-alkaline in nature, and belong to the I-type ilmenite series. The Togouchi graniodiorite has a Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of 85.6±4.7 Ma with an initial Sr isotope ratio (SrI) of 0.70634±0.00012 (2?). The Tateiwayama granite porphyry has a slightly younger Rb-Sr whole isochron age (77.4±3.1 Ma) but similar SrI of 0.70653±0.00015, suggesting that both stocks may have been derived from the same source. Despite diverse whole rock chemistry, the microdioritic enclaves in the respective intrusives have quite similar initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios, suggesting that they formed by fractional crystallization of a single magma, and also that the source of the enclaves in both intrusives had similar geochemical characteristics. In both stocks, however, the enclaves have distinctly lower initial Sr isotope ratios than their respective host rocks, indicating that they were derived from a different source than their hosts. In view of the geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope data, we infer that the enclave magmas were derived from a similar LILE- and LREE-enriched source to that of the Cretaceous basalts and gabbroic-dioritic rocks that are sporadically distributed in SW Japan. Such mafic to intermediate magmas were probably derived from the upper mantle, and transferred both heat and material to the lower crust, thus producing granitic magmas by partial melting. Successive mafic magmas or their differentiates could then have been injected into the granitic magma chamber, trapped and quenched, resulting in the formation of microdioritic enclaves in both granitic stocks. (author)

2003-01-01

52

Mammography in younger women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Breast imaging is not frequently performed in women aged 35 years or younger for several reasons. Approximately half of the radiographic examinations of a breast symptom give normal results because the expected density of the breast in younger women may obscure abnormalities. Results from biopsies performed subsequent to positive mammogram findings confirm the predominance of benign lesions; cancers are rarely observed. After reviewing the main breast diseases that occur in the 20- to 35-year-old age group, we evaluated the accuracy of mammography in diagnosing malignancy, and attempted to summarize guidelines for breast imaging in young women, whose breasts are quite sensitive to radiation. 16 references.

1991-01-01

53

Geochemical geochronology and genesis of granite from Coronel Murta, Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geological, petrographic, geochemical (including rare-earth elements) and geochronological data of the Coronel Murta (Northeast Minas Gerais State) post-tectonic intrusive alkalic granites were summarized in order to discuss their genesis. This paper shows that Coronel Murta granites were generated by anatexis of dominantly metasedimentary rocks, in an ensialic environment, as the late results of an intraplate A-type subduction during the Brazilian Cycle. (author).

1987-11-02

54

The Younger Dryas Event  

Science.gov (United States)

This topic in depth deals with the Younger Dryas event, a short period of extremely cold temperatures interrupting the current interglacial period. It is currently debated whether the Younger Dryas event occurred solely in parts of the North hemisphere or throughout the world.The first website, (1), created by World History, provides a short, concise summary of the Younger Dryas period. Users can find a brief statement about the prevailing theory of the cause of this event. Lund University offers an amazing image of a stratigraphic record illustrating the Late Glacial sequence at the second website (2). Users can view the impressive Younger Dryas sedimentation layer and also see an image of the flower, _Dryas octopetala_, which the event is named after. Next, the Department of Natural Resources for the Province of Nova Scotia supplies images of the geologic landscape of Nova Scotia (3). Students can find descriptions of the Younger Dryas event and other glacial features. The forth website (4 ), produced by Klaus Keller as part of his lecture materials for classes at Penn State, is an online document illustrating the abrupt changes experienced on earth during the Younger Dryas. This website discusses the theorized relationship between the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) and the event. Next, the University of Arizona discusses its research on the environmental changes in mid-North America over the last several millennia (5). Users can learn how the researchers are attempting to create the first high-resolution chronology of the transition from the Late Glacial to the Early Holocene. In the sixth website (6 ), the University of Chicago offers an online article addressing the unknowns in our current understanding of climate change. Users can learn how the abrupt climate changes in the past such as the Younger Dryas are still difficult to model. Next, David J. Graham from the University of Wales addresses the importance of examining the moraine morphology and sedimentology in order to gather more knowledge about the climatic and glacio-dynamic conditions that occurred during the Younger Dryas period (7 ). This online poster provides images, figures, and descriptions of the interpretations of the landform-sediment associations present in the upper Ennerdale. Konrad Hughen from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution summarizes his group's research which illustrates the effects the northern tropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere experienced during the Younger Dryas event (8). In this downloadable document, users can learn about his group's creation of high-resolution records of tropical vegetation change that demonstrate the synchronization between the climate changes in the high latitude North Atlantic region and in the tropical South America during the event. Lastly, the U.S. Global Change Research Program discusses the classification of an abrupt climate change, the rapidity of past climate change according to the paleoclimatic records, the causes of climate change, and its consequences (9). Visitors can learn about the swiftness of the Younger Dryas event and how another occurrence like this may affect our society and the natural world.

55

Heater test 1, Climax Stock granite, Nevada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We conducted a series of in-situ tests in the Climax Stock, an intrusive granite formation at the Nevada Test Site, to validate the concept of housing a nuclear waste repository in granitic crystalline rock. The thermal properties of the granite were measured with resistance heaters and thermocouple frames that had been emplaced in drilled holes in the floor of a drift 420 m below the surface. Data analysis was performed primarily by comparing the measured and calculated temperature histories, varying conductivity and diffusivity in the calculations until reasonable agreement was achieved. The best-fit value for in-situ conductivity was approximately 3.1 W/m x K, and the deduced value for in-situ diffusivity was approximately 1.2 mm2/s. Anisotropic effects in the thermal field were less than 10%. Permeability was determined by sealing off portions of the drilled holes, using inflatable rubber packers and an air-pressurization system. We then compared the resulting decay in pressure with analytic solutions of the pressure loss from a cylindrical source in an infinite isotropic medium, obtaining a permeability of approximately 1 nanodarcy (nD) at about 300C. As the temperature increased, the permeability decreased to about 0.2 nD at about 500C and became too small to measure (

1984-01-01

56

Petrography, Geochemistry and Geochronology of the Patrimônio Santo Antônio and São Domingos Granites (Cunhaporanga Granitic Suite, Paraná, Southeast Brazil)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Patrimônio Santo Antônio and São Domingos Granites are located in the northwest portion of the Itaiacoca Belt,which is part of the Apiaí Terrane (or tectonic domain), a segment of the southern Ribeira Belt, the major tectonic unit of theMantiqueira Province (Southeast Brazil). These granites are related to the Cunhaporanga Granitic Suite and are intrusive intometasedimentary rocks of the Itaiacoca Group. The plutons are represented mainly by porphyritic monzogranites, with rareoccurrences of syenogranites. The porphyritic monzogranites are ferroan to magnesian, high-K, alkali-calcic, and metaluminousto peraluminous. Trace elements patterns of the granites, which have been locally affected by hydrothermal alteration, suggestan association with magmas emplaced in a late- to post-tectonic setting. The geochemical signatures suggest a mantle sourceenriched in incompatible elements remobilized from the oceanic crust during subduction. The geochronological age of thePatrimônio Santo Antônio Granite (589 ± 6 Ma, zircon, U-Pb SHRIMP) indicates that the magmatism associated with theseplutons occurred between the fi nal stages of evolution of the Cunhaporanga Granitic Suite (ca. 650 to 590 Ma) and theemplacement of the post-orogenic and anorogenic plutons of the Apiaí Domain (ca. 590 to 570 Ma).

Sérgio Wilians de Oliveira Rodrigues; Fabrizio Prior Caltabeloti; Vidya Viera de Almeida; Mariane Brumati; Carlos José Archanjo; Maria Helena B.M. Hollanda; Carlos Alejandro Salazar; Dunyi Liu

2011-01-01

57

Note on U-Pb zircon ages from granitic rocks occurring near Prieskapoort, North-West Cape  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Two U-Pb zircon ages from granitic rocks near Prieskapoort are discussed. Evidence is presented suggesting the occurence of two different granitic rock types, hitherto regarded as being of the same age. A minimun age of 2 600 m.y. for the 'Steenkoppie' granite was obtained. Evidence, in the form of restites of Marydale Group rocks, confirms the intrusive character of the second granitic rock type, herein referred to as 'migmatite'. This 'migmatite' yielded an age of 1 170 m.y. It is suggested that the 'migmatite' represents the initial phase of the Namaqualand deformation period

1979-01-01

58

Interpretation of discordant ages of some granitic bodies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioactive mineral ages in some granite bodies obtained by K-Ar, Rb-Sr and fission track methods had specific closure temperature estimates respectively and their thermal histories could be clarified by these methods. Rokko Nunobiki and Mikumo plutons, and Tanakami stock were found to be cooled slowly compared with Kumano acidic body from their radiometric ages. More shallow the intrusion and smaller the body, more rapidly the cooling rates of the formers. The latter began to cool slowly at first as uplift and then progressively quicker as the surface was approached. K-Ar ages for Kurobe granite pluton intruded 50Ma ago were in proportion to square root of the altitude and could be explained by cooling from the upper surface. High temperatures in the tunnel near Sennin Dam along Kurobe River were caused by residual heat of the granite body. (25 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs)

Nishimura, Susumu; Mogi, Toru

1986-04-01

59

Interior intrusion detection systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs

1991-01-01

60

Interior intrusion detection systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dry, B. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

1991-10-01

 
 
 
 
61

Greisen deposits associated to carboniferous post-orogenic granites with mineralization potential, Sierra de Fiambala, Catamarca, Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fiambala range is located in the central south part of the province of Catamarca, Western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina. It is largely conformed by Precambrian metamorphic rocks, a Cambrian granitic intrusive, Ordovician basic and ultra basic rocks and epi zonal Carboniferous granites (Los Ratones, El Salto and Ayacucho Granites). The Carboniferous granites are sub alkaline, weakly peraluminous, high silica (except for the porphyritic facies of Los Ratones granite) and moderately enriched in K. Contents of trace elements and REE indicate that El S alto and Ayacucho granites and the granular facies of Los Ratones granite have characteristics of evolved and differentiated granite associated with hydrothermal systems. The variations of trace elements, particularly Sn, W, U, Rb, Ba, Zr and Sr suggest that they correspond to granites with mineralization potential. Genetically linked to these granites there are Sn, W, U and minor base metals greisen deposits. The hydrothermal process that yield to these deposits involved two main alteration stages, beginning with alkali metasomatism follow by greissenization. According to the isotopic ages the hydrothermal processes postdate about 1 Ma the magmatic activity. The analyses of the granites and the associated greisen deposits confirm that the post orogenic carboniferous magmatism is the major metallogenetic control of the ore deposits from the studied area. This metallogenetic control could be a useful tool in prospecting similar deposits in the rest of the Western Sierras Pampeanas. (Author)

2008-01-01

62

The assessment of human intrusion into underground repositories for radioactive waste Volume 1: Main report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report has been prepared with the primary objective of establishing a methodology for the assessment of human intrusion into deep underground repositories for radioactive wastes. The disposal concepts considered are those studied in the performance assessment studies Pagis and Pacoma, coordinated by the CEC. These comprise four types of host rock, namely: clay, granite, salt and the sub-seabed. Following a review of previous assessments of human intrusion, a list of relevant human activities is derived. This forms the basis for detailed characterization of groundwater abstraction and of exploitation of mineral and other resources. Approaches to assessment of intrusion are reviewed and consideration is given to the estimation of probabilities for specific types of intrusion events. Calculational schemes are derived for specific intrusion events and dosimetric factors are presented. A review is also presented of the capacity for reduction of the risks associated with intrusions. Finally, conclusions from the study are presented

1990-01-01

63

The assessment of human intrusion into underground repositories for radioactive waste Volume 2: Appendices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report has been prepared with the primary objective of establishing a methodology for the assessment of human intrusion into deep underground repositories for radioactive wastes. The disposal concepts considered are those studied in the performance assessment studies Pagis and Pacoma, coordinated by the CEC. These comprise four types of host rock, namely: clay, granite, salt and the sub-seabed. Following a review of previous assessments of human intrusion, a list of relevant human activities is derived. This forms the basis for detailed characterization of groundwater abstraction and of exploitation of mineral and other resources. Approaches to assessment of intrusion are reviewed and consideration is given to the estimation of probabilities for specific types of intrusion events. Calculational schemes are derived for specific intrusion events and dosimetric factors are presented. A review is also presented of the capacity for reduction of the risks associated with intrusions. Finally, conclusions from the study are presented.

1990-01-01

64

Ion Probe U-Pb dating of the Central Sakarya basement: a peri-Gondwana terrane cut by late Lower Carboniferous subduction/collision related granitic magmatism  

Science.gov (United States)

Our aim here is to better understand the age and tectonic history of crystalline basement units in the Sakarya Zone of N Turkey, north of the Neotethyan ?zmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone, utilising field, petrographic and ion probe dating, the latter carried out at the University of Edinburgh. One of the largest basement units, Central Sakarya, is dominated by paragneisses and schists that are best exposed between Bilecik and Sar?cakaya, forming a belt ~15 km wide x 100 km long. Smaller outcrops of this basement are exposed further north, for instance in the Geyve area. High-grade metamorphic basement is unconformably overlain by Lower Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous cover sediments of the Sakarya Zone and is in tectonic contact with the Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic Karakaya Complex to the south. Ion-probe U-Pb dating of 89 detrital zircons, separated from one garnet micaschist sample, range from 551 Ma (Ediacaran) to 2738 Ma (Neoarchean). 85% of the ages are > 90 % concordant. Zircon populations cluster at ~550-750 Ma (28 grains), ~950-1050 Ma (27 grains) and ~2000 Ma (5 grains), with smaller groupings at ~800 Ma and ~1850 Ma. The first, prominent population (Neoproterozoic) reflects derivation from a source area related to a Cadomian-Avalonian magmatic arc, likely to be associated with a Cadomian/NE African terrane rather than Baltica (Baltica is known to be magmatically inactive during this period), or Avalonia/Amazonia (in view of the absence of Mesoproterozoic ages in Avalonian-Amazonian terranes). The early Neoproterozoic ages (0.9-1 Ga) deviate significantly from the known age spectra of Cadomian terranes (i.e. Armorican Terrane Assemblage) and instead suggest derivation from an original part of NE Africa. The detrital zircon age spectrum of Cambrian-Ordovician sandstones deposited at the northern periphery of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (i.e. the Elat sandstone) is notably similar to that of the Sakarya basement. The Central Sakarya terrane may have rifted in the Early Palaeozoic, relatively early compared to other E Mediterranean inferred Minoan terranes (e.g. Menderes, Crete, Bitlis), and then accreted to the Eurasian margin, possibly in during Late Palaeozoic time. The Central Sakarya metamorphic basement is cut by a number of granitic intrusions (collectively termed the Sö?üt Granite or Sar?cakaya Granite), three of which were dated in this study. Pink, alkali feldspar-rich granite (Küplü granite) yielded an age of 324.3 ±1.5 Ma. Grey, blastomylonitic biotite granite (Çalt? granite) is dated at 327.2 ± 1.9 Ma. Another granitic body with biotite and amphibole (Borçak granite) yielded a significantly younger age of 319.5 ± 1.1 Ma. Thus, late Early Carboniferous granitic magmatism in the Central Sakarya terrane could have persisted for ? 8 Ma, possibly related to subduction or collision of a Central Sakarya terrane with the Eurasian margin. This work was supported by Y?ld?z Technical University Research Fund (Project No: 29.13.02.01) and a Royal Society Travel Grant.

Ayda Ustaömer, P.; Ustaömer, Timur; Robertson, Alastair. H. F.

2010-05-01

65

Geochronologic and Sr-isotopic studies of certain units in the Barberton granite-greenstone terrane, Swaziland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Rb-Sr whole rock and mineral isotopic analyses of granitoid units in Swaziland have yielded the following ages: A. Granodiorite Suite - 3 350 plus minus 57 Ma; B. Mponono Intrusive Suite - approximately 2 100 Ma; C. Sphene-bearing Orthogneiss - 2 734 plus minus 266 Ma; D. Ngwempisi Granite - 2 802 plus minus 56 Ma; E. Sinceni Granite - approximately 2 800 Ma; F. Kwetta Granite - 2 520 plus minus 422 Ma; G. Mhlosheni Granite - approximately 2 290 Ma; H. Hlatikulu Granite - approximately 2 420 Ma; I. Nhlangano Gneiss - approximately 2 240 Ma. Of these ages, only those from the Granodiorite Suite, sphene-bearing orthogneiss and Kwetta Granite are defined by whole rock isochrons. The age for the Ngwempisi Granite is a biotite-whole rock age. The other ages are defined by whole rock errorchrons and are believed to reflect times of imperfect Sr isotopic homogenization in magmas or during metamorphism. The ages of the Granodiorite Suite, sphene-bearing orthogneiss and Ngwempisi, Sinceni, Kwetta, Mhlosheni and Hlatikulu granites are believed to reflect times of emplacement. The ages of the Mponono Intrusive Suite and Nhlangano Gneiss are believed to reflect metamorphism. As such, these age data suggest that a major, previously unrecognized, tectonic event (or events) affected the Precambrian rocks in southern Swaziland between about 2 500 Ma and about 2 100 Ma ago. The full significance of this event has yet to be evaluated

1983-01-01

66

Study on Kalimantan uranium province: The assessment on uranium mineralization of metamorphic and granitic rocks at Schwaner mountains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium exploration activities done by CEA-BATAN had discovered uranium occurrences as the radiometric and uranium content anomalies at metamorphic and granite rocks of Schwaner Mountains, Kalimantan. A part of the occurrences on metamorphic rocks at Kalan basin has been evaluated and be developed onto follow-up step of prospecting by construction of some drilling holes and an exploration adit. In order to increase the national uranium resources, it is necessarily to extent the exploration activity to out side or nearby of Kalan basin. The goal of this assessment is to understand the uranium accumulation mechanism at Pinoh metamorphic rocks of Kalan Kalimantan and to delineate areas that uranium may exist. The assessment was based on the aspect of geology, anomaly of radioactivity and uranium contents, tectonics and alterations. Pinoh metamorphic rocks which is influenced by Sukadana granite intrusion are the high potential rocks for the uranium accumulation, because the intrusion contains a relatively high of U, Th, Cu, Zn, Nb, Mn, and W. The potential rock distributions are in between G. Ransa granite intrusion at the east and Kotabaru granite intrusions at the west. The mineralizations are categorized as vein type deposits of granitic association

2002-05-02

67

Contribution to the uranium geochemistry on granites in Ecuador  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work aims to define the position of two of Ecuador granitic deposits within the field of the geochemistry of granites in general and of the geochemistry of uranium in particular. The regions concerned are: The Bonita and ABITAGUA. For each range the petrochemical framework is first of all determined and then the degree of chemical homogeneity of rocks is evaluated. In the petrochemical groups thus obtained the geochemical behaviour of the uranium is studied. From the viewpoint of the geochemistry of the granites under investigation, a comparison of the laws of distribution of the mayor elements in two ranges shows up a covergence of average composition which was not anticipated by geological and petrografic considerations alone. The statistical and geochemical distribution laws of the total uranium as a function of petrochemical variations are established. A study of chemical forms of uranium in the rocks has drawn an attention to the qualitative and quantitative importance of the faction of uranium soluble in delute acids. We have therefore reconsidered on the one hand, the laws of distribution of the insoluble and we have justified on the other hand the interest presented by the soluble post magmatic phenomena which makes possible to find a genetic connection between the uraniferous deposits and the intrusive massifs. Finally we have given tables of analytic composition total of the granites. (Author).

1995-01-01

68

Research on isotope geology. Assessment of heat production potential of granitic rocks and development of geothermal exploration techniques using radioactive/stable isotopes and fission track 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioelements and heat production rates of granitic rocks and stable isotopes of groundwaters were analyzed to investigate the geothermal potential of Wolchulsan granite complex in the southern Yeongam area. Wolchulsan granite complex is composed mainly by Cretaceous pink alkali-feldspar granite and partly Jurassic biotite granite. The main target for the geothermal exploration is the alkali-feldspar granite that is known in general to be favorable geothermal reservoir(e.g., Shap granite in UK). To develop exploration techniques for geothermal anomalies, all geochemical data were compared to those from the Jeonju granite complex. Heat production rates(HPR) of the alkali-feldspar granite is 1.8 - 10.6 {mu}Wm{sup -3}. High radio-thermal anomalies were revealed from the central western and northern parts of the granite body. These are relatively higher than the Caledonian hot dry granites in the UK. The integrated assessment of Wolchulsan granite complex suggests potential of the Cretaceous alkali-feldspar granite as a geothermal targets. Groundwater geochemistry of the Yeongam area reflects simple evaporation process and higher oxidation environment. Stable isotope data of groundwaters are plotted on or close to the Meteoric Water Line(MWL). These isotopic data indicate a significant meteoric water dominance and do not show oxygen isotope fractionation between groundwater and wall rocks. In despite of high HPR values of the Yeongam alkali-feldspar granite, groundwater samples do not show the same geochemical properties as a thermal water in the Jeonju area. This reason can be well explained by the comparison with geological settings of the Jeonju area. The Yeongam alkali-feldspar granite does not possess any adjacent heat source rocks despite its high radio-thermal HPR. While the Jeonju granite batholith has later heat source intrusive and suitable deep fracture system for water circulation with sedimentary cap rocks. (Abstract Truncated)

Shin, Seong Cheon; Chi, Se Jung [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1995-12-01

69

Geochemical investigations on some of the Infra Cambrian Acid intrusive and volcanic rocks in Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geochemical investigations on some of the acid intrusive and volcanic rocks of Iran, which are attributed to the Infra cambrian, have been carried out to reveal their possible genetic relationships. These igneous rocks include: Do ran, Shah-Bolaghi, Sarve-Jahan, NE Ardakan - Yazd (Darbastegoon), south Mahabad, Bornavard (Tak nar), Zarigan, Narigan, Chardormaloo granites, Rizo and De zoo micro granites and volcanic rocks, Ga chin rhyolites (Bandar-Abass), and Ghareh-Dash (east of Sae en-De j). These intrusive s, except south Mahabad granodiorite, belong to the class of the alkali feldspathic granite to granitic rocks. Most of these rocks are hololeucocratic and devoid of ferro magnesian minerals. The volcanic rocks are mainly felsic (Rhyolite and Quartz porphyra) associated with vacillation's rocks. These suites of rocks plot on the chemical diagrams in sub alkaline field. Regarding to variations of Na2O, K2O and Ca O contents, they can further be subdivided into sodi c, potas sic, sodi-potas sic and sodi-calci c subgroups. The normalized values (MORB and chondritic) of their trace elements on the spider diagrams overlap each other indicates that some genetic relations ships exist among samples of white Doran Granite, Shahbolaghi, Sarve-Jahan and some Darbastegoon, in one hand, and Taknar, Narigan Granites, Gachin, Rizoo and Dezoo Rhyolites, on the other hand. The overlap also shows that the mentioned igneous bodies have been originated from continental crust and the samples of each groups, at least belong to a distinct tectonic al regime.

2000-01-01

70

U-Pb ages and Nd isotope characteristics of the lateorogenic, migmatizing microcline granites in southwestern Finland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available U-Pb ages and whole-rock Nd isotope data have been obtained from the Paleoproterozoic lateorogenic migmatizing microcline granites of southwestern Finland. Isotope dilution and ion microprobe U-Pb data on zircons and monazites show that the age spectrum of these granites is at least 1.85-1.82 Ga. Commonly, zircons and monazites record the same ages. The age variation in the Veikkola granite area is of the order of 25 Ma and indicates that this seemingly homogeneous granite consists of two separate intrusions. The zircons of the lateorogenic granites are pervasively altered and conventional U-Pb results are commonly discordant. The ion microprobe studies reveal that the granites contain very few inherited zircons with preserved original U-Pb isotope ratios, with the exception of the Oripää granite. Initial ?Nd values, mostly in the range of ?0.5 to ?1.0, imply a moderate input of older crustal material into most of the lateorogenic granites. A shift from more juvenile to less radiogenic Nd isotope composition is observed from north to south, and the variation pattern of ?Nd values of the lateorogenic granites is thus similar to that of the surrounding synorogenic granitoid rocks.

Matti Kurhila; Matti Vaasjoki; Irmeli Mänttäri; Tapani Rämö; Mikko Nironen

2005-01-01

71

Oil in granite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A reprint of a letter to the editor of the Oil and Gas Journal, February 6, 1995 issue, was presented. The subject of the letter was the discovery of an oil deposit in granite rock near Fort McMurray, Alberta. Explanations of the oil source were put forward with supporting literature. `Hyperthermophiles`, a form of anaerobic microbes which live within the Earth in temperatures of 500 degrees C and pressures of several hundred atmospheres, were suspected to form the source rock. Similar deposits in other locations around the world were claimed to have been reported..

Russell, P.O.

1995-12-31

72

Emplacement time tectonometamorphic history of the sillai patti granite gneiss using fission track dating techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Peshawar Plain Alkaline Igneous Province (PAIP) consist of a group of alkaline rocks. It occurs in the north of Peshawar from Tarbela in the east through Koga-Ambela, Shewa-Shahbazgarhi, Malakand, Sillai Patti, and Warsak up to Loe Shilman in the west. The alkaline rocks mainly consist of granites, syenites, gabbors, ijolites, carbonatities etc. The granitic rocks cover a major part of the Alkaline Province. This paper presents an account of fission track age data on zircon as a paleotemperature indicator, recognition of the emplacement time and tectonic uplift history of the Sillai Patti Granite Gneiss in combination with the other radiometric ages. The field relationships show that the Malakand Granite and Sillai Patti Carbonatites are younger than the Sillai Patti Granite Gneiss. However, our fission track age of the Sillai Patti Granite Gneiss is less than absolute ages of Malakand granite (U - Pb age approx. equal to 270 Ma) and Sillai Patti Carbonatite (K - Ar age approx. equal to 31 -+ 2.00 Ma). Therefore, the fission track age of 24.32 -+ 2.80 Ma on zircon from Sillai Patti Granite Gneiss, based on present work, represents a time of post metamorphic uplift history of the area, when these rocks past through the 210 deg. C isotherm, corresponding to depth of about 6.7 km inside the earth crust from their present position. (authors)

1998-01-01

73

Yeguang granite and uranium metallogeny  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The geological, petrologic and geochemical characteristics of rock body of yeguang granite are discussed with emphasis on clarification of occurrence of uranium in rock body and uranium deposit characteristics related to rock body, based on extensive field observations and laboratory test. View points are presented that granite refers to genetic series of terrestial crust transformation tye and uranium deposit is hot water deposit

1988-01-01

74

Geochemistry of pegmatites associated with the Cape Coast granite complex of southern Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Cape Coast granite complex, which is associated with the metasedimentary basin rocks of Birimian in Ghana are, also referred to as the basin - type granitoids, and forms part of the two major types of Eburan granitoids in Ghana. The Cape Coast granite complex is characterized by various intrusions such as acid intrusion and pegmatites. The pegmatites associated with the Cape Coast granite complex are noted to be related to the margin of the granite batholiths. The mineralogical characteristics of the pegmatites have been documented, but there is little published information on the geochemical characteristics, source and tectonic settings and mode of emplacement of these pegmatites as compared to the Cape Coast granite complex. The objectives of this project were therefore to determine the compositions and geochemistry of the pegmatite and use the data to infer the possible source of these pegmatites. The geochemical data indicates that the pegmatites of the Egyaa, Saltpond and Akim Oda areas consist of a low to high-K, S-type characteristics, with three samples from Saltpond having metaluminous character. Lower values of molar CaO/ (MgO + FeOtot) coupled with higher values of molar Al2O3/ MgO + Fetot) suggest their derivation from partial melting from metabalistic source. The data suggests the rocks so have emplaced in a volcanic arc and ocean ridge geotectonic environment. (au)

2010-01-01

75

Intrusion Detection System: Overview  

CERN Multimedia

Network Intrusion Detection (NID) is the process of identifying network activity that can lead to the compromise of a security policy. In this paper, we will look at four intrusion detection approaches, which include ANN or Artificial Neural Network, SOM, Fuzzy Logic and SVM. ANN is one of the oldest systems that have been used for Intrusion Detection System (IDS), which presents supervised learning methods. However, in this research, we also came across SOM or Self Organizing Map, which is an ANN-based system, but applies unsupervised methods. Another approach is Fuzzy Logic (IDS-based), which also applies unsupervised learning methods. Lastly, we will look at the SVM system or Support Vector Machine for IDS. The goal of this paper is to draw an image for hybrid approaches using these supervised and unsupervised methods.

Alanazi, Hamdan O; Zaidan, B B; Zaidan, A A

2010-01-01

76

Radioelemental characterization of neoproterozoic south Khasi batholith and mylliem granite pluton by portable gamma-ray spectrometry: its implication on uranium exploration in parts of east and west Khasi hills, Meghalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Younger granite activity in the form of South Khasi Batholith (SKB), Kyrdem, Mylliem and Nongpoh plutons occur as intrusive into the basement gneissic complex and Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Shillong group of rocks. Ground portable gamma ray spectrometric survey carried out over the SKB, the Mylliem pluton and the basement gneissic complex. The eTh, eTh/eU and K contours clearly demarcate their lithocontacts. Radiometrically, these plutons are of hyperacidic to alkaline in nature. The magmatic evolution and the differentiated origin of granites are reflected by high concentration of eTh and K. The low Th/K values within the pluton indicate presence of diorite bodies and also suggest K enrichment along the margin of the Mylliem pluton. Higher concentration of radioelements along the margin of Mylliem pluton may be due to the role of hydrothermal phase to transport the radioelements. The high eTh/eU values and uranium favourability index of the SKB may imply possible loss of considerable amount of uranium to become provenance for the nearby uranium districts. (author)

2006-01-01

77

Geology of the Northern part of the Strath Ossian Granite, Scotland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Strath Ossian Granite is made up of granodiorite, dark, variable 'granodiorites' interpreted as mobilised diorite or basic material, appinite and porphyritic granodiorite. Huge rafts of psammitic metasediments occur within the mass and three fracture-zones and numerous dykes, dominantly of porphyrite, cut across it in a north-easterly direction. Granite emplacement may have occurred in stages, early batches being xenolith-rich and later ones xenolith-poor. New batches were intruded centrally, which created strong radial stresses, sufficiently strong to make room for the intrusion by forcing the metasedimentary country rocks downwards and aside. (author).

1982-01-01

78

Artificial weathering of granite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir sulfatación. Se analizan los resultados obtenidos en cada ensayo y se discuten las limitaciones de los mismos para reproducir las patologías desarrolladas en los monumentos así como la influencia que pueden tener en dichas patologías aspectos como las condiciones de humectación y secado, el tipo de disolución salina (mixta-simple) y la influencia de los planos de debilidad de las rocas en el desarrollo de unas u otras formas de alteración.

Rivas Brea, T.; Prieto Lamas, B.; Silva Hermo, B.

2008-01-01

79

Uranium enriched granites in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Granites with uranium contents higher than normal occur in a variety of geological settings in the Swedish Precambrian, and represent a variety of granite types and ages. They may have been generated by (1) the anatexis of continental crust (2) processes occurring at a much greater depth. They commonly show enrichement in F, Sn, W and/or Mo. Only in one case is an important uranium mineralization thought to be directly related to a uranium-enriched granite, while the majority of epigenetic uranium mineralizations with economic potential are related to hydrothermal processes in areas where the bedrock is regionally uranium-enhanced. (Authors)

1980-01-01

80

Potassium Feldspar Megacrysts in Granites: Passive Markers of Magma Dynamics or Products of Textural Coarsening?  

Science.gov (United States)

Megacrysts of potassium feldspar (K-spar) in granitic rocks are commonly interpreted as early-crystallizing phases whose textural relationships record flow, settling, and diapirism within evolving magma chambers. However, experimental studies on granitic magmas show that K-spar does not begin to nucleate until the system is at least 30% crystalline, and that much of the final crystallization history records co-crystallization of K-spar, quartz, and sodic plagioclase. These data require that the megacrysts cannot have reached large sizes until the magma was largely crystallized and incapable of flow. We have made chemical and textural observations of K-spar megacrysts from the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (TIS), California. Cathodoluminescence images show sawtooth oscillatory zoning in K-spars, albite-rich rims on plagioclase, reaction zones at boundaries between plagioclase and K-spar, and almost no perthite. Electron microprobe analyses of the sawtooth zones reveal a sharp outward increase in Ba concentration at each zone boundary. Plagioclase core compositions follow whole-rock compositions, becoming increasingly albitic toward the center of the TIS, but K-spar in all units is highly potassic (Or80-95). A three-feldspar assemblage (An15-35, An1-7, and Or80-95) occurs in several megacrystic samples. Stained rock slabs reveal tentacles of interstitial K-spar radiating from megacryst edges far into the adjacent matrix, and a deficit of smaller K-spar crystals in megacrystic units. K-spar size measurements across the contacts of the TIS from the 10 largest crystals within a 1 m2 area show a steady increase in the average megacryst area from 0.2 to 30 cm2. In contrast, bulk rock K2O and K-spar mode (vol%) are constant across this same transect (at 3.7± 0.5 wt% and 22± 5 vol% respectively). Extreme feldspar compositions, phase equilibria, and textural observations argue for late development of K- spar megacrysts during the prolonged and probably cyclic cooling history of the TIS. Sawtooth Ba zoning in K- spar could thus record thermal pulses. Albite-rich rims on plagioclase (peristerite gap) and extremely potassic K-spar compositions are evidence for prolonged equilibration at subsolidus temperatures (below 500° C). These observations are inconsistent with the interpretations classically taught in many intro geology courses that imply K-spar megacrysts to be early phases that served as passive markers during pluton growth. Rather, they appear to be products of textural coarsening developed during prolonged cooling histories and are younger then the groundmass.

Johnson, B. R.; Glazner, A. F.; Coleman, D. S.

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Microprobe monazite dating and the ages of some granitic and metamorphic rocks from southeastern Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Electron microprobe monazite crystallization ages are presented for selected granite and metamorphic rock samples from the Socorro and Guaxupe Nappes and the Alto Rio grande and Ribeira Belts, southeastern Brazil. Results are consistent with ages close to 625 Myr of the main metamorphic episode in the nappe structures. Anatetic granite magmatic events in these terranes and in the Alto Rio Grande Belt were roughly coeval, most samples sharing ages between 610-625 (± 15) Myr. A crust-derived granite and a granite contact aureole from the Ribeira Belt have ages of 600-608 (± 15) Myr., suggesting that the main granite magmatism in this belt was somewhat younger, probably contemporaneous with the late orogenic phase in the nappe domains. Some regional and granite samples from all these terranes point to possible inheritance or incompletely monazite grains and intra-grain domains giving older ages, up to 690 Myr. The microprobe age results agree very well with independent isotopic data, reinforcing the applicability of the method to highlight an overall picture of main geochronological trends within the continental crust. The high spatial resolution of the probe should play an important role in understanding geochronological patterns of metasedimentary rocks and related migmatites and granites, as these rocks and their minerals often present chemical and isotopic domains related to contrasting geological events, not always recognized by conventional dating schemes. (author)

2000-01-01

82

Radioactivity studies of some granitic masses in south eastern Aswan, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Several granitic masses occur at Aswan area and in various localities in the south eastern desert; Abu-Aggag, El Hudi, and Um Akl localities. These granites belong either to the older grey granites or else to the younger or pink granites and were intruded into a country rock composed mainly of mica and hornblende schists. Field radiometric measurements of these granites gave results ranging from 80 cps to 165 cps. Chemical analysis has shown that uranium ranges from 4 to 32 ppm whereas thorium varies between nil and 32 ppm with Th/U ratios reaching up to 3.83. The field radiometric measurements are in complete coincidence with uranium and thorium analytical data. Investigation of the heavy minerals content separated from these granites revealed the presence of uranophane, uranothorite, beside monazite and zircon. In some localities, the zircon crystals are characterized by rounding of their corners and edges while some of them show overgrowths. This indicates that the corresponding granites are of migmatic origin

1988-01-01

83

Test in situ in granite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes research program on thermal pollution by radioactive wastes in granite. Field tests and bench-scale experiments have allowed to show that heat propagation in fractured medium is submitted to Fourier law. 3 figs.

1990-01-01

84

Interior intrusion alarm systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In meeting the requirements for the safeguarding of special nuclear material and the physical protection of licensed facilities, the licensee is required to design a physical security system that will meet minimum performance requirements. An integral part of any physical security system is the interior intrusion alarm system. The purpose of this report is to provide the potential user of an interior intrusion alarm system with information on the various types, components, and performance capabilities available so that he can design and install the optimum alarm system for his particular environment. In addition, maintenance and testing procedures are discussed and recommended which, if followed, will help the user obtain the optimum results from his system

1978-01-01

85

Perimeter intrusion sensors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To obtain an effective perimeter intrusion detection system requires careful sensor selection, procurement, and installation. The selection process involves a thorough understanding of the unique site features and how these features affect the performance of each type of sensor. It is necessary to develop procurement specifications to establish acceptable sensor performance limits. Careful explanation and inspection of critical installation dimensions is required during on-site construction. The implementation of these activities at a particular site is discussed

1977-01-01

86

Uranium deposits in granitic rocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report is a review of published data bearing on the geology and origin of uranium deposits in granitic, pegmatitic and migmatitic rocks with the aim of assisting in the development of predictive criteria for the search for similar deposits in the U.S. Efforts were concentrated on the so-called ''porphyry'' uranium deposits. Two types of uranium deposits are primarily considered: deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in gneiss terrains, and disseminations of uranium in high-level granites. In Chapter 1 of this report, the general data on the distribution of uranium in igneous and metamorphic rocks are reviewed. Chapter 2 contains some comments on the classification of uranium deposits associated with igneous rocks and a summary of the main features of the geology of uranium deposits in granites. General concepts of the behavior of uranium in granites during crustal evolution are reviewed in Chapter 3. Also included is a discussion of the relationship of uranium mineralization in granites to the general evolution of mobile belts, plus the influence of magmatic and post-magmatic processes on the distribution of uranium in igneous rocks and related ore deposits. Chapter 4 relates the results of experimental studies on the crystallization of granites to some of the geologic features of uranium deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in high-grade metamorphic terrains. Potential or favorable areas for igneous uranium deposits in the U.S.A. are delineated in Chapter 5. Data on the geology of specific uranium deposits in granitic rocks are contained in Appendix 1. A compilation of igneous rock formations containing greater than 10 ppM uranium is included in Appendix 2. Appendix 3 is a report on the results of a visit to the Roessing area. Appendix 4 is a report on a field excursion to eastern Canada

1977-01-01

87

Petrochemical characteristics of Serra do Meio alkaline granite (Campo Alegre de Lourdes - Bahia State)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Serra do Meio granite outcrops near the town of Campo Alegre de Lourdes, north-northeast of Bahia State. The granite is intrusive into micachists, which are correlatives of the Salgueiro-Cachoeirinha Group (Early Proterozoic), during early to the syn-tectonic shear phase. The geological setting also comprises a phosphatic rock-bearing carbonatitic complex and gabbroid complexes with one of the main world resources of Fe-Ti-V. The granite mineralogical composition grades from Aegerine-augite alkali-feldspar granite/syenites to Leuco alcali-feldspar granite. The geochemical analysis shows SiO2-enrichment (67 to 76%), in alkalis (Na2+K2O, 7,5 to 12,5%), Nb (up to 680ppm), Zr (up to 2,390ppm), Y (up to 250ppm) e REE (up to 796ppm). The geochemical behaviour is peculiar to alkaline series, denoting a silica-oversaturated, potassium-rich, magma. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns display a first group with smooth slopes from the La to Lu, and a second one with negative slopes. Negative Eu anomalies are displayed in all the patterns. The first group is HREE-enriched, with low fractionation ratios. Samples with milonytic fabrics and higher fractionation ratios are related to the second group, suggesting the interaction of metassomatic fluids and the alkaline magma. Discriminant diagrams for Nb, Y and Rb, coupled with geophysical data, point to an intrusive granite in an extensional within a plate tectonic setting of attenuated continental crust. (author).

1989-01-01

88

Geochemistry of biotite granites from the Lamas de Olo Pluton, northern Portugal  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ) extensive crustal recycling occurred during the post-thickening extension stage of the Variscan orogeny (~330-290 Ma). After the ductile deformation phase D3 (~320-300 Ma), characterized by the intrusion of large volumes of highly peraluminous granitic magmas, rapid and drastic tectonic changes at about 300 Ma gave rise to the brittle phase of deformation D4 that controlled the emplacement of Fe-K subalkaline granites (296-290 Ma; Dias et al. 1998). The Lamas de Olo Pluton (LOP) is controlled by NE-SW and NW-SE fracture systems, probably related to the Régua-Verin fault zone (Pereira, 1989). The LOP is a medium to coarse-grained, porphyritic biotite granite, accompanied by medium- to fine grained, porphyritic biotite granite (Alto dos Cabeços- AC) and a more leucocratic, fine-grained, slightly porphyritic biotite-muscovite granite (Barragens- BA). The contacts between LO and AC are generally diffuse, whereas those to BA are sharp. In fact, the BA granite can occur in dykes and sills cutting LO and AC. Microgranular enclaves and xenoliths are very rare. The LOP intrudes the Douro Group, presumably of Precambrian to Cambrian age, and two-mica granites from the Vila Real composite massif. The LOP granites consist of quartz, microcline, plagioclase, biotite, zircon, titanite, tourmaline apatite, fluorite, ilmenite, magnetite, and rutile, with muscovite in BA granite and rare allanite in the LO and AC granites. The plagioclase composition is of oligoclase (An12) - andesine (An35) for LO granite, albite (An9) - andesine (An30) for CA granite and albite (An5) - oligoclase (An20) for BA granite. There are decreases in: a) anorthite content from phenocryst to matrix plagioclase; b) Ba content from phenocryst to matrix microcline in all granites. The Fe2+ biotite has a composition similar to that of biotite from calc-alkaline to sub-alkaline rock series. The LO and AC granites are meta- to peraluminous with ASI variable between 1.05 and 1.21, and display isotopic signatures of (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7044-0.7077 and Nd = -2.2 to -1.1. Six samples of LO define a whole rock isochron age of 285±15 Ma with (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7051±0.001 (MSWD = 0.11). Two monazite analyses for the LO granite yield an weighted average 207Pb/235U age of 297.19±0.73 Ma, consistent with the preliminary ID-TIMS U-Pb analyses of two transparent and euhedral prisms of zircon that define a concordia age of 296.37 ±0.52 Ma (MSWD = 0.66). The linear trends of major and trace elements variation diagrams of LO and AC granites and their similar mean values of (87Sr/86Sr)i point, at this stage, to an involvement of mid-crustal sources, probably mixed with asthenospheric material. Therefore, LOP consists of post-D3 biotite granites installed in higher structural crustal levels, testifying the occurrence of a crustal growth episode after the major recycling processes that occurred during the deformation phase D3. We thank Prof. J.F. Santos and Dr. S. Ribeiro and Petrochron project (PTDC/CTE-GIX/112561/2009) for the Rb-Sr isotopic data obtained at LGI of University of Aveiro, Portugal. Dias, G. et al. 1998. Lithos, 45, 349-369. Pereira, E., 1989. Serviços Geológicos de Portugal.

Fernandes, Susana; Gomes, Maria; Teixeira, Rui; Corfu, Fernando

2013-04-01

89

Origin of postcollisional intrusions in NW Anatolia, Turkey: Implications for magma chamber processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Post-collisional magmatic activities of NW Anatolia are represented by a series of granitic intrusions and volcanic successions in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. These plutonic rocks have distinct textures, chemical compositions and Sr-Nd isotope characteristics. They consist of coarse grained, equigranular and/or hypidiomorphic textured granite, gronodiorite, monzogranite, quartz-monzonite, pyroxene-monzonite and leucocratic alkali feldspar granites. These intrusions are composed of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene and biotite. However, leucocratic facies rocks contain tourmaline with minor amount of mafic minerals. Accessory phases are represented by zircon, apatite, monozite, magnetite, sphene and rarely allanite. ASI values of the plutonic rocks vary between 0.7 and 1.24. These intrusive rocks are therefore classified as metaluminous-peraluminous with I-type affinity. K2O contents show that the intrusive rock samples show calc-alkaline, high K-calc-alkaline and shoshonitic character. Initial 87Sr/86Sr(t) (0.69980-0.70835), 143Nd/144Nd(t) (0.51238-0.51247) isotope ratios and negative ?Nd(t) (-4.4 - -2.6) values imply that these intrusive rocks could have been derived from enriched mantle sources. N-MORB normalized spidergrams of NW Anatolian plutonic rocks display enrichments in large ion lithophile elements (LILE), light rare earth elements (LREE) and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE) indicating hydrous melting of a mantle wedge in a subduction zone and/or enrichment of the mantle source with an inherited subduction component from an ancient arc magmatism. Chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Element spidergrams are indicative of the importance of plagioclase and amphibole fractionation. On tectonic discrimination diagrams, all granite samples fall into the volcanic arc granite, syn and post-collisional granite fields. The geochemical data also indicate that a number of magma chamber processes involving magma mixing, fractional crystallization (FC) and assimilation with fractional crystallization (AFC, EC-AFC) might have been operational during the magma chamber evolution. These stocks were dated by using K/Ar method on hornblende, biotite and whole rock samples and U/Pb LA-ICP-MS zircon dating, yielding ages between 20.2±0,9 Ma and 27.89±0,17 Ma (Upper Oligocene - Lower Miocene). The widespread Upper Oligocene - Lower Miocene plutonism in NW Turkey is thought to be linked to crustal thinning resulted from slab roll-back and syn-convergent extensional regime after the collision between the Sakarya Zone and Anatolide-Tauride platform.

Aysal, Nam?k

2013-04-01

90

Acoustic emission intrusion detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

Carver, Donald W. (Knoxville, TN); Whittaker, Jerry W. (Knoxville, TN)

1980-01-01

91

Acoustic emission intrusion detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal

1980-01-01

92

Acoustic emission intrusion detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

Carver, D.W.; Whittaker, J.W.

1980-04-01

93

Network Intrusion Forensic Analysis Using Intrusion Detection System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The need for computer intrusion forensics arises from the alarming increase in the number of computer crimes that are committed annually. After a computer system has been breached and an intrusion has been detected, there is a need for a computer forensics investigation to follow. Computer forensics is used to bring to justice, those responsible for conducting attacks on computer systems throughout the world. Because of this the law must be follow precisely when conducting a forensics investigation. It is not enough to simple know an attacker is responsible for the crime, the forensics investigation must be carried out in a precise manner that will produce evidence that is amicable in a court room. For computer intrusion forensics many methodologies have been designed to be used when conducting an investigation. With the birth of the Internet and networks, the computer intrusion has never been as significant as it is now. There are different preventive measures available, such as access control and authentication, to attempt to prevent intruders. Intrusion detection systems (IDS) are developed to detect an intrusion as it occurs, and to execute countermeasures when detected. Intrusion detection (ID) takes over where preventive security fails. In order to choose the best IDS for a given system, one should be aware of the advantages and disadvantages of the each IDS. This paper views a forensic application within the framework of Intrusion Detection and details the advantages and disadvantages of IDS.

Manish Kumar; Dr. M. Hanumanthappa; Dr. T.V. Suresh Kumar

2011-01-01

94

Data Mining for Intrusion Detection: from Outliers to True Intrusions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data mining for intrusion detection can be divided into several subtopics, among which unsupervised clustering has controversial properties. Unsupervised clustering for intrusion detection aims to i) group behaviors together depending on their similarity and ii) detect groups containing only one (or...

Singh, Goverdhan; Masseglia, Florent; Fiot, Céline; Marascu, Alice; Poncelet, Pascal

95

Vertical zonality of fractionated granite plutons reflected in zircon chemistry: the Cínovec A-type versus the Beauvoir S-type suite  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied vertical changes in the chemical composition of zircon from two contrasting Variscan granite systems. The Beauvoir system (Massif Central, France) composed of three successive intrusions (B1, B2, B3) represents typical peraluminous S-type granite extremely enriched in P, F, Li, Rb, Cs, Be, Sn, Nb, Ta, and poor in Zr, Th, REE and Y. The Cínovec system (Krušné hory Mts/Erzgebirge, Czech Republic/Germany) composed of two successive intrusions (protolithionite granite, zinnwaldite granite) is only slightly peraluminous, P-poor, F, Li, Rb, Cs, U, Th, REE, Y, Sc, Sn, W, Nb, Ta-rich granite, which may be classified as A-type. In both localities, the most fractionated intrusions are located on the top of the system. Samples from borehole GPF-1 (Beauvoir) represent an 800 m long vertical section through the entire granite stock, while CS-1 borehole (Cínovec) reached a depth of 1600 m. Chemical compositions of zircons from both granite systems show distinct vertical zonality, but their shape and elemental speciation is highly contrasting. At Beauvoir, zircon shows a remarkable increase in Hf-content from 2-4 wt. % HfO2 (~0.03 apfu Hf) in the deepest B3-unit to 15-19 wt. % HfO2 (up to 0.18 apfu Hf) in the uppermost B1-unit. The highest contents of F, P, and U were detected in the intermediate unit B2 at a depth of 400-600 m. At Cínovec, Hf shows only moderate enrichment from ca. 2 wt. % HfO2 in the deeper protolithionite granite to 5-10 wt. % HfO2 in the uppermost part of the zinnwaldite granite. High contents of Th (3-8 wt. % ThO2) are entirely bound in the uppermost section of the granite copula to a depth of 200 m, but below this level the contents only sporadically exceed 1 wt. % ThO2. Concentrations of U, Y, HREE, Sc and Bi also reach their highest values in the uppermost parts of the zinnwaldite granite, but their decrease downward is much gentler. Extreme enrichment of outer zones of zircon crystals from some granites with Hf or high contents of Th, U, REE, Y, Nb and of some other elements in zircons from other localities is not considered to be a specific phenomenon characterizing melts of A- or S-type granite, but reflects a high degree of fractionation of systems rich in Na and F.

Breiter, Karel; Škoda, Radek

2012-11-01

96

Release of uranium through cataclastic deformation of Mansehra granite gneiss and its precipitation in the overlying intramontane basin in northern Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Mansehra pluton belongs to a discontinuous belt of two mica granites of the Lesser Himalayas. The Mansehra granite is generally foliated except in the area around Mansehra. Several phases of granitic activity have been reported from the Mansehra Complex. Shams and Rahman have demonstrated that the younger phases tend to be enriched in Na2O. Ashraf extensively studied minor bodies ranging from albitites through aplites to pegmatites and suggested a late stage albitization event. The northern edge of this sheet-like granitic mass has undergone extensive cataclastic deformation, resulting in the formation of shear zones, mylonites and cataclasites. A chemical comparison of crushed granite with granite outside the shear zone suggests little chemical reconstitution in terms of major elements during cataclastic deformation. A huge shear zone in albitized granite gneiss has yielded secondary uranium minerals at water seepages, suggesting a liberation of uranium. Hydrogeochemical surveys of the crushed granite and adjoining areas suggest that uranium from crushed granite was easily leachable in comparison with rocks outside the shear zone. The uranium thus liberated was trapped in a Pleistocene sequence of clays and unsorted fluviatile sand overlying the granite and country rock metamorphics. (author). 17 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

1986-10-03

97

Proposal for classification of the granitic rocks of the Ryoke belt in the Chubu and Kinki districts in view of hydrogen isotope study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The granitic rocks of Ryoke belt in Chubu and Kinki districts are classified into three groups based on the geological situation and the D/H-chemical composition relationship of coexisting biotite and hornblende: 1) gneissose granitic rocks such as Hiji and Tenryukyo type, 2) Inagawa granitic rocks, and 3) discordant granitic rocks such as Shinshiro, Hissori and Kisokoma types. The gneissose granitic rocks are closely associated with Ryoke metamorphic rocks, and constituted the original Ryoke plutono-metamorphic belt together with the metamorphic rocks. After the formation of the Ryoke plutono-metamorphic belt, Nohi ryolite erupted. Then, the Inagawa granitic rocks were intruded. The discordant granitic rocks are younger than the Inagawa granitic rocks. The features in the D/H-chemical composition relationship of respective groups are shown. The Ryoke metamorphic rocks show equilibrium state in the relationship when biotite and hornblende coexist. Muscovite in the metamorphic rocks seems to be also in equilibrium with coexisting biotite in regard to the hydrogen isotopes. The granitic rocks of Naegi type are distinctly different from the Ryoke granitic rocks.

Kuroda, Yoshimasu; Yamada, Tetsuo (Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Science); Fujimoto, Katsuhiko; Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Keiko

1982-06-01

98

Greisen deposits associated to carboniferous post-orogenic granites with mineralization potential, Sierra de Fiambala, Catamarca, Argentina; Depositos de greisen asociados a granitos carboniferos post-orogenicos con potencial mineralizador, Sierra de Fiambala, Catamarca, Argentina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fiambala range is located in the central south part of the province of Catamarca, Western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina. It is largely conformed by Precambrian metamorphic rocks, a Cambrian granitic intrusive, Ordovician basic and ultra basic rocks and epi zonal Carboniferous granites (Los Ratones, El Salto and Ayacucho Granites). The Carboniferous granites are sub alkaline, weakly peraluminous, high silica (except for the porphyritic facies of Los Ratones granite) and moderately enriched in K. Contents of trace elements and REE indicate that El S alto and Ayacucho granites and the granular facies of Los Ratones granite have characteristics of evolved and differentiated granite associated with hydrothermal systems. The variations of trace elements, particularly Sn, W, U, Rb, Ba, Zr and Sr suggest that they correspond to granites with mineralization potential. Genetically linked to these granites there are Sn, W, U and minor base metals greisen deposits. The hydrothermal process that yield to these deposits involved two main alteration stages, beginning with alkali metasomatism follow by greissenization. According to the isotopic ages the hydrothermal processes postdate about 1 Ma the magmatic activity. The analyses of the granites and the associated greisen deposits confirm that the post orogenic carboniferous magmatism is the major metallogenetic control of the ore deposits from the studied area. This metallogenetic control could be a useful tool in prospecting similar deposits in the rest of the Western Sierras Pampeanas. (Author)

Fogliata, A. S.; Rubinstein, N. R.; Avila, J. C.; Baez, M.

2008-07-01

99

Gamma-spectrometric surveys in differentiated granites. II: the Joaquim Murtinho Granite in the Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex, Parana, SE Brazil; Levantamentos gamaespectrometricos em granitos diferenciados. II: O exemplo do Granito Joaquim Murtinho, Complexo Granitico Cunhaporanga, Parana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detailed mapping at the NW corner of the large Neo proterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), Parana state, SE Brazil, redefined the Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG), a late intrusion in CGC with an exposed area of about 10 km{sup 2}, made up mainly by evolved 'alaskites' (alkali-feldspar leuco granites). This unit is in tectonic contact with the Neoproterozoic-Eocambrian volcano-sedimentary Castro Group, to the W, and is intrusive into other less evolved granitic units of the CGC to the E. Petrographically, JMG shows mainly mesoperthite and quartz, with subordinate amounts of altered micas and some accessory phases, mainly zircon. The equi to inequigranular granites are usually deformed with cataclastic textures, are often brecciated, and may have miarolitic structures. Formation of late albite, sericite, carbonate and hematite was caused by deuteric and hydrothermal alteration. A gamma-ray spectrometric survey at 231 stations which measured total counts (TC), Ueq K%, eU ppm and eTh ppm was used to construct several direct and derived maps. Compared to neighboring units the JMG has significant anomalies, especially in the TC, %K, eTh and eU maps, although the differences are less obvious in some derived maps. These evolved granites are enriched in these three elements. Geochemical behavior of K, Th and U is used to analyse the results observed in maps. Enhanced weathering under a subtropical climate with moderate to high average temperatures and heavy rainfall affects mainly feldspars and biotite, and may also destabilize most U and Th-bearing accessory phases. Th is most likely retained in restite minerals in soils, being relatively immobile, while part of U may migrate as uranyl ion in oxidizing media. K is especially affected by feldspar alteration to K-free clays (mainly kaolinite), and may be completely leached. Gamma-ray spectrometric methods are valid tools to study facies in granitic rocks, especially in those that are enriched in K, Th and U. (author)

Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada; Fruchting, Allan [Votorantim Metais, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: allan.fruchting@vmetais.com.br; Guimaraes, Gilson Burigo [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias], e-mail: gburigo@ig.com.br; Alves, Luizemara Soares [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: luizemara@petrobras.com.br; Martin, Victor Miguel Oliveira; Ulbrich, Horstpeter Herberto Gustavo Jose [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], e-mail: vicmartin6@ig.com.br, e-mail: hulbrich@usp.br

2009-07-01

100

Status of LLNL granite projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The status of LLNL Projects dealing with nuclear waste disposal in granitic rocks is reviewed. This review covers work done subsequent to the June 1979 Workshop on Thermomechanical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository and is prepared for the July 1980 Workshop on Thermomechanical-Hydrochemical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository. Topics reviewed include laboratory determination of thermal, mechanical, and transport properties of rocks at conditions simulating a deep geologic repository, and field testing at the Climax granitic stock at the USDOE Nevada Test Site.

Ramspott, L.D.

1980-12-31

 
 
 
 
101

Molybdenite in Pomona Island Granite at Lake Manapouri, Fiordland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A small occurrence of molybdenite (MoS2) mineralisation has been discovered in the weakly A-type Pomona Island Granite on the shorelines of Lake Manapouri in eastern Fiordland. The disseminated appearance of molybdenite and the absence of quartz veins indicates that mineralisation is probably the product of magmatic and/or hydrothermal activity related to pluton crystallisation at c. 157 Ma, and not younger (c.128-116 Ma) shear zone-related mesothermal mineralisation as has been recently described from the Murchison Mountains to the north and Stewart Island to the south. Although apparently not of economic grade, the Pomona Island Granite locality is regionally important because it is the first direct pluton-related Mo-mineralisation event to be recognised in eastern Fiordland. This occurrence adds to the growing number and known styles of base metal occurrences within the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatic arc (Outboard Median Batholith) that formed on or near the New Zealand Gondwana margin. Furthermore, the wide distribution of essentially uninvestigated A-type granites in the Outboard Median Batholith means that there may be further Mo-mineralised localities awaiting discovery. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

2011-01-01

102

MORPHOMETRY OF ZIRCON FROM BETLIAR GRANITE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphometrical analyse has been provided, using the method of [10] , on zircon from granite porphyry at Betliar. The result of this investigation indicate a comagmatic origin of Betliar and other granite bodies in the Gemericum. The source materila for at the granite magma formation originated by hybridization of crust-mantle rocks.

Jakabská Katarína

1997-01-01

103

Intrusion detection sensor testing tools  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intrusion detection sensors must be frequently tested to verify that they are operational, and they must be periodically tested to verify that they are functioning at required performance levels. Concerns involving this testing can include: The significant amount of manpower required, inconsistent results due to variability in methods and personnel, exposure of personnel to hazardous environments, and difficulty in obtaining access to the areas containing some of the intrusion sensors. To address these concerns, the Department of Energy directed Sandia National Labs. to develop intrusion detection sensor testing tools. Over the past two years Sandia has developed several sensor testing tool prototypes. This paper describes the evolution of an exterior intrusion detection sensor tester and automatic data logger, and also describes various interior intrusion detection sensor test fixtures that can be remotely activated to simulate an intruder.

Hayward, D.R.

1994-08-01

104

Rapid deployment intrusion detection system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs

1997-01-01

105

Expansion of the granitic post-orogenic magmatism in the formation of Serrinha (Northeastern Bahia, B R), Sao Francisco craton  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pedra Vermelha Granitic Massif, located at the North area of Serrinha Nucleus, presents a circular shape, being intrusive at the Archaean geoscience-magmatic basement rocks and the Paleoproterozoic volcano sedimentary sequences. The single zircon U-Pb dating yield a crystallization age of 2080 ± 8 Ma. The geological, petrographic al and litogeochemical characteristics of the studied rocks are similar to those of the Morro do Lopes granitic magmatism (2076 ± 6 a 2071 ± 6 Ma), which is located at the South area of this nucleus. These allow us to infer that those post-orogenic alkaline bodies are widespread throughout the Serrinha Nucleus and constitute its last Paleoproterozoic magmatic expression. (author)

2007-06-14

106

Groundwater evolution of the granite area, Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The geochemistry and environmental isotopes of groundwater in the Cretaceous granite of the Yeongcheon area has been investigated. The hydrochemistry of groundwater belongs to the Ca-HCO3 type. The oxygen-18 and deuterium data are clustered along the meteoric water line, indicating that the groundwater is of meteoric water origin. Tritium data show that the groundwaters were mostly recharged before pre-thermonuclear period and have been mixed with younger surface water flowing rapidly along fractured zones. Based on the mass balance and reaction simulation approaches using both the hydrochemistry of groundwater and the secondary mineralogy of fracture-filling materials, the low-temperature hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in the area has been modeled. The results of geochemical simulation show that the concentrations of Ca, Na and HCO3 and pH of waters increase progressively owing to the dissolution of reactive minerals in flow paths. The concentrations of Mg and K first increase with the dissolution of reactant minerals, but later decrease when montmorillonite and illitic material are precipitated respectively. The continuous adding of reactive minerals, i. e. the progressively larger degrees of water/rock interaction, causes the formation of secondary minerals with the following sequence: hematite > gibbsite > kaolinite > montmorillonite > illitic material > microcline. The results of reaction simulation agree well with the observed water chemistry and secondary mineralogy, indicating the successful applicability of this simulation technique to delineate the complex hydrogeochemistry of bedrock groundwaters. (author)

1999-09-03

107

Naturally occurring radionuclides in Malaysian granites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of radium, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in Malaysian granite was analysed using a hyper-pure germanium gamma spectrometer. The results show that Cretaceous granites from southern part of Peninsula has lower radium concentration compared to Triassic granites from the Western Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. The mean concentrations of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in peninsular granites are 0.20 Bq/g and 0.16 Bq/g respectively. Absorbed dose rate from granite was estimated to be 190 nGy/h with a maximum value of 490 nGy/h. (Author)

1999-01-01

108

Granites and granitoids of the southern region - Granite molybdenite system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Economic concentrations of molybdenum are genetically closely associated with acidic and moderately acid granitoids-granites, granodiorites, monzonites and diorites, and are located in two geotectonic settings: subduction-related and rift-related. The aim of this paper is twofold, first succinctly approach the geology, tectonic setting and chemical parameters of the 'granite molybdenite system' as defined by Mutschler and/or alcali granite porphyry bodies emplaced in the North American continent for occasion of a Mesozoic-Fanerozoic extensile event; second to relate the computer-assisted evaluation of 422 major element chemical analysis of granites and granitoids of southern region of Brazil, using chemical fingerprints (SiO2 ? 74. Owt%, Na2O ? 3.6wt%, K2O ? 4.5wt%), and K2O/Na2O ratio > 1.5 developed and testified from North American and Finnish occurrences, may locate molybdenite-bearing granite bodies with high exploration potential. These techniques suggest that some late Precambrian to early Paleozoic granite-rhyolite assemblages inserted at domains of the SG. 22/23 Curitiba/Iguape, SH. 21/22 Uruguaiana/Porto Alegre and SI.22 Lagoa Mirim Sheets, have exploration potential for molybdenum. (author)[pt] Concentracoes economicas de molibdenio sao geneticamente e estreitamente associadas com granitoides-granitos acidos e moderadamente acidos, granodioritos, monzonitos e dioritos, e sao localizadas em dois ambientes geotectonicos: relacionada a subduccao e relacionada a rift. O proposito deste artigo e duplo, primeiro sucintamente comentar, a geologia, ambiente tectonico e parametros quimicos do 'sistema granito molibdenita' como definido por Mutschler e co-autores (1981) reportando os pequenos corpos epizonais de riolito porfiro e/ou alcali granito porfiro alojados no continente Norte Americano por ocasiao de um evento distensional Mesozoico-Fanerozoico; segundo, relatar a avaliacao assistida por computacao de 422 analises quimicas dos elementos maiores de granitos e granitoides da regiao sul do Brasil, usando impressoes digitais quimicas (SiO2 ? 74,0 Wt%, Na2O ? 3,6 Wt%, K2O ? 4,5 Wt% e a razao K O/Na2O > 1,5) desenvolvida e comprovada das ocorrencias Norte Americanas e Finlandeses, pode localizar os corpos de granitos portadores de molibdenita com alto potencial de exploracao. Estas tecnicas sugerem que algumas assembleias de granito-rio-lito do Pre-Cambriano Superior e Paleozoico Inferior inseridas nos dominios das Folhas SG. 22/23 Curitiba/Iguape, SH.21/22 Uruguaiana/Porto Alegre e Si.22 Lagoa Mirim, tem potencial de exploracao para molibdenio. (autor)

1987-11-02

109

Integration of Geologic and Remote Sensing Studies for the Discovery of Uranium Mineralization in Some Granite Plutons, Eastern Desert, Egypt ????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ???  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main objective of this research is to integrate geology with remote sensing techniques to establish common characteristic features leading to the recognition of other uranium mineralizations within the Pan-African younger granites of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The association of aplites, quart...

M. Shalaby; A. Bishta; M. Roz; M. El-Zalaky

110

Geology and geochemistry of the Redrock Granite and anorthosite xenoliths (Proterozoic) in the northern Burro Mountains, Grant County, New Mexico, USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mineral ages from the A-type granites and anorthosite xenoliths in the Redrock area in the northwestern Burro Mountains in southwestern New Mexico cluster around ~1220–1225 Ma and provide yet another example of bimodal igneous activity during this time period in the southwestern United States. The metaluminous to peraluminous, marginally alkaline to subalkaline Redrock Granite exhibits the textural, mineralogical, and geochemical features of A-type granitethat was emplaced at a relatively high crustal level. Field relationships, whole rock and mineral geochemical and isotopic trends suggest that the four phases of the Redrock Granite are genetically related, with the miarolitic biotite/alkali feldspar granite being the youngest phase. Spatial relationships and geochemical data suggest that the anorthosite xenoliths were coeval with the RedrockGranite, which is consistent with the anorthosite being derived from the upper mantle, possibly due to deep mantle upwellings, and the Redrock Granite from the lower crust. The process involved melting in the upper mantle, emplacement of anorthosite in the crust resulting in partial crustal melting and thinning, and, finally, intrusion of shallow silicic plutons, the Redrock Granite. The Redrock Granite and anorthosite were presumably derived from sources characterized by subtle, long-term LREE depletion, with ?Nd (at 1220 Ma) values on theorder of +1 to +2.

Virginia T. McLemore; Nelia Dunbar; Paula J. Kosunen; O. Tapani Rämö; Matt Heizler; Ilmari Haapala

2002-01-01

111

Preliminary report on uranium and thorium content of intrusive rocks in northeastern Washington and northern Idaho  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study delineates favorable areas for uranium resources in northeastern Washington and northern Idaho by identifying granitic rocks with relatively large amounts of uranium and (or) thorium. Results are based on analysis of 344 rock samples. Uranium analyses obtained by gamma-ray spectrometric data correlate closely with fluorometric determinations. On the basis of cumulative frequency distribution curves, more than 8 ppM equivalent uranium and more than 20 ppM equivalent thorium are considered anomalous for granitic rocks in northeastern Washington and northern Idaho. Granitic rocks anomalously high in uranium and (or) thorium are concentrated in two northeast-trending belts. The most prominent, the Midnite-Hall Mountain belt, includes the Midnite and Sherwood uranium mines, and two lesser but productive areas farther north. This belt follows the contact between Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks, which is also the locus of the Kootenai arc fold belt. The second belt of anomalously radioactive granitic rocks is along the Republic graben, a prominent linear structure in an area with no recorded uranium production. Anomalously radioactive granitic rocks are generally massive quartz monzonite, alaskite, or pegmatite, which contain abundant quartz and potash feldspar. They are also characterized by pink potash feldspar, commonly as large phenocrysts, and by the presence of muscovite. Several uranium and thorium minerals have been identified in these rocks. The two belts of anomalously radioactive plutons are considered favorable for uranium resources. Deposits could occur in the intrusive rocks themselves or in favorable environments in adjacent rocks. 13 figs., 2 tables

1977-01-01

112

Intrusion Detection A Machine Learning Approach  

CERN Document Server

This important book introduces the concept of intrusion detection, discusses various approaches for intrusion detection systems (IDS), and presents the architecture and implementation of IDS. It emphasizes on the prediction and learning algorithms for intrusion detection and highlights techniques for intrusion detection of wired computer networks and wireless sensor networks. The performance comparison of various IDS via simulation will also be included.

Tsai, Jeffrey JP

2011-01-01

113

Gas intrusion into SPR caverns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conditions and occurrence of gas in crude oil stored in Strategic Petroleum Reserve, SPR, caverns is characterized in this report. Many caverns in the SPR show that gas has intruded into the oil from the surrounding salt dome. Historical evidence and the analyses presented here suggest that gas will continue to intrude into many SPR caverns in the future. In considering why only some caverns contain gas, it is concluded that the naturally occurring spatial variability in salt permeability can explain the range of gas content measured in SPR caverns. Further, it is not possible to make a one-to-one correlation between specific geologic phenomena and the occurrence of gas in salt caverns. However, gas is concluded to be petrogenic in origin. Consequently, attempts have been made to associate the occurrence of gas with salt inhomogeneities including anomalies and other structural features. Two scenarios for actual gas intrusion into caverns were investigated for consistency with existing information. These scenarios are gas release during leaching and gas permeation through salt. Of these mechanisms, the greater consistency comes from the belief that gas permeates to caverns through the salt. A review of historical operating data for five Bryan Mound caverns loosely supports the hypothesis that higher operating pressures reduce gas intrusion into caverns. This conclusion supports a permeability intrusion mechanism. Further, it provides justification for operating the caverns near maximum operating pressure to minimize gas intrusion. Historical gas intrusion rates and estimates of future gas intrusion are given for all caverns.

Hinkebein, T.E.; Bauer, S.J.; Ehgartner, B.L.; Linn, J.K.; Neal, J.T.; Todd, J.L.; Kuhlman, P.S.; Gniady, C.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Underground Storage Technology Dept.; Giles, H.N. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Strategic Petroleum Reserve

1995-12-01

114

Field characteristics, petrography, and geochronology of the Hohonu Batholith and the adjacent Granite Hill Complex, North Westland, New Zealand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Detailed geological mapping, petrography, geochemistry and geochronological studies in the Hohonu Batholith, North Westland, have identified 10 granitoid plutons emplaced during three intrusive episodes. The earliest episode is represented by a single dated Paleozoic pluton, Summit Granite (new) (381.2 ± 7.3 Ma), which is correlated with a discrete pulse of Mid-Late Devonian plutonism recognised in the Karamea Batholith. The undated Mount Graham Granite (new) is also likely to be Paleozoic, based on chemical and petrographic characteristics. The bulk of the batholith (seven plutons) was emplaced in the mid Cretaceous (114-109 Ma) and comprises two related, yet distinct, geochemical suites, which correlate with the previously defined Rahu Suite. The plutons identified are (from north to south): Pah Point Granite; Jays Creek Granodiorite (new); Uncle Bay Tonalite; Te Kinga Monzogranite; Deutgam Granodiorite; Turiwhate Granodiorite (new); and Arahura Granite (new). Mid-Cretaceous plutonism in the Western Province is considered to be the result of crustal thinning and extension following overthickening during collision of the Early Cretaceous Median Tectonic Zone volcanic arc. Late Cretaceous alkaline activity is represented by the emplacement of the A-type French Creek Granite at 1.7 ± 1.8 Ma, contemporaneous with intrusion of a major swarm of doleritic-lamprophyric dikes - the Hohonu Dike Swarm. These events correlate with the first appearance of oceanic crust in the Tasman Sea. The Granite Hill Complex is a suite of amphibolite facies gneisses occurring as an uplifted wedge between the Alpine Fault nd the Hohonu Batholith. These gneisses are considered to represent an extension of the Fraser Complex to the south. A detailed understanding of their geological affinities and history is yet to be established. (author). 66 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

1997-01-01

115

Contrasting Structures and Deformational History of Syntectonic Granites of Campina Grande and Serra Redonda, Borborema Province, NE Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Campina Grande and Serra Redonda Granites are intrusive along the contact of the Paleoproterozoic basement(Alto Moxotó Domain) with the Tonian gneisses (Alto Pajeú Domain) of the Borborema Province (northeast Brazil). TheCampina Grande Granite (U-Pb age = 581± 2 Ma) shows a concentric oval-shaped structure whereas the Serra RedondaGranite (U-Pb age = 576 ± 3 Ma) has a tabular shape, elongated in the NE-SW direction. The plutons are separated bythe left-lateral Galante transcurrent shear zone. In this study, the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was appliedto 64 outcrops of granites to determine the internal structures of these plutons and to explore the relationship betweenmagmatism and deformation in an orogenic setting. The magnetic fabrics are concordant with the metamorphic structure ofthe host rocks. Strike-slip shear zones controlled the emplacement of the Serra Redonda Granite, as indicated by sigmoidalfoliation, defining shear bands associated with the Galante shear zone. In contrast, the magmatic/magnetic fabric of theCampina Grande granite seems to have been produced by body (ascensional) forces. The pluton displays an inward dipping, concentric planar fabric parallel to the wall rock contact and lineations highly oblique to the foliation trend. The fabric of the Campina Grande pluton is consistent with a magma moving over a ramp dipping to southwest, with the lineation at high angle to the NE-trending flow direction. The contrasting structures of the plutons reflect the episodic nature of orogenic deformation, which was punctuated by the alternation of weak and strong strains, affecting the fabric development of the syntectonic intrusions.

Sérgio Wilians de Oliveira Rodrigues; Carlos José Archanjo

2011-01-01

116

Rb-Sr age of Godhra and related granites, Gujrat, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Rubidium and strontium determinations are reported for Godhra and geographically related granites from central Gujarat. The whole rock data define a Rb-Sr isochron corresponding to a common age of 955 +- 2O m.y. and initial Sr ratio of 0.7130 +- 0.0O1. This age is distinctly older than the age of 735 m.y. reported for the Erinpura suite of rocks from Mount Abu in western Rajasthan and from Idar in nothern Gujarat. There are at least two generations of post-Delhi intrusive rocks in the Gujarat precambrian. Boitites associated with these granites have the same age as the whole-rocks within experimental error indicating the absence of significant metamorphic heating since the time of emplacement. It is significant that rocks of similar age occur in the Rajasthan Precambrian mainly in the axial zone of the Aravalli Mountains. (author)

1979-01-01

117

INTRUSION DETECTION ON CLOUD APPLICATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cloud computing has grown from being a promising business concept to one of the fastestgrowing segments of the IT industry. So, cloud environment always remains vulnerable to attacks. Theframework serves as an excellent platform for making cloud services intrusion tolerant. The feasibility of theframework has been tested by making cloud’s Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Data Storage Serviceintrusion tolerant. The proposed framework has been validated by integratingIntrusion Tolerance via Threshold Cryptography (ITTC) mechanism in the simulated cloud’s IaaS. For this,the data centre authentication key is distributed among the hosts using Shamir Secret Sharing algorithm.Performance of the new simulated service model is measured using various performance metrics such astotal execution time, intrusion detection time, recovery time, number of cloudlets etc. It involves, usingproposed Cloud Intrusion Tolerance framework for securing cloud Data Storage. The correctness of user’sdata is ensured by using erasure-correcting code in the file distribution preparation to provide redundancyparity vectors. Performance analysis using erasure-correcting code for securing data storage is also done. Weare also implementing the different networks such as SHIM (System Health and Intrusion Monitoring) isused as an exemplary host-based IDS to validate our approach, DRCP (Dynamic Registration andConfiguration Protocol) is an auto configuration protocol in mobile AdHoc networks, OLSR (Optimized LinkState Routing) protocol is a proactive, table-driven routing protocol in MANETs.

A. Venkat Reddy; K. Sharath Kumar; V. Hari Prasad?

2013-01-01

118

Isotopic variations in S-type granites: an inheritance from a heterogeneous source?  

Science.gov (United States)

Inherited zircons from S-type granites provide exceptionally good insight into the isotopic heterogeneity of their sources. Zircons from four samples (one granite, two granodiorites, one granodioritic enclave) of Pan-African S-type granite of the Cape Granite Suite (c. 540 Ma) have been the subject of a laser LA-ICP-MS zircon U/Pb study to determine emplacement ages and inheritance. Zircons from three of these samples (2 granodiorites and 1 granodioritic enclave) were also analysed for Hf isotopes by LA-MC-ICP-MS. Ages of inherited cores range from 1,200 to 570 Ma and show Hafnium isotope values (?Hf, t ) for the crystallisation age ( t) of the different cores that range from -14.1 to +9.1. Magmatic zircons and magmatic overgrowth with concordant spot ages between ca. 525 and ca. 555 Ma show a similar range of ?Hf, t , between -8.6 and +1.5, whilst ?Hf values calculated at 540 Ma (?Hf,540) for inherited cores range from -15.2 to +1.7. Thus, our results show that the time evolved ?Hf arrays of the inherited cores overlap closely with the ?Hf range displayed by the magmatic rims at the time of crystallisation of the pluton. These similarities imply a genetic relationship between magmatic and inherited zircons. Within the inherited cores, four main peak ages can be identified. This, coupled with their large Hf isotopic range, emphasises that the source of the granite is highly heterogeneous. The combination of the U/Pb zircon ages ranges and Hf isotope data implies that: (1) The source of S-type granite consists of crustal material recording several regional events between 1,200 and 600 Ma. This material records the recycling of a much older crust derived from depleted mantle between 1.14 and 2.02 Ga. (2) The homogenisation of Hf isotopic variation in the magma acquired through dissolution of the entrained zircon, via mechanical mixing and/or diffusion between within the granite was particularly inefficient. (3) This evidence argues for the assembly of the pluton through many relatively small magma batches that undergo rapid cooling from their intrusion temperature (ca. 850°C) to background magma chamber temperature that is low enough to ensure that much of the magmatic zircon crystallised rapidly (>80% by 700°C). (4) There is no evidence for the addition of mantle-derived material in the genesis of S-type Cape Granite Suite, where the most mafic granodiorites are strongly peraluminous, relatively low in CaO and K2O rich. Interpreted more widely, these findings imply that S-type granites inherit their isotopic characteristic from the source. Source heterogeneity transfers to the granite magma via the genesis of discrete magma batches. The information documented from the S-type CGS zircons has been recorded because the individual batches of magma crystallised the bulk of their magmatic zircon prior to mechanical or diffusional magma homogenisation. This is favoured by zirconium saturation in the magma shortly after emplacement, by partial dissolution of the entrained zircon fraction, as well as by the intrusion of volumetrically subordinate magma batches into a relatively cool pluton. Consequently, evidence recorded within inherited cores will most likely be best preserved in S-type granite plutons intruded at shallow depths. Other studies that have documented similar ?Hf arrays in magmatic zircons have interpreted these to reflect mixing between crustal- and mantle-derived magmas. This study indicates that such arrays may be wholly source inherited, reflecting mixing of a range of crustal materials of different ages and original isotopic signatures.

Villaros, A.; Buick, I. S.; Stevens, G.

2012-02-01

119

Radionuclide migration through fractured granite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclide migration has been studied in natural fractures in granite blocks of up to 30 cm in length. Results are reported for four migration experiments involving synthetic groundwaters containing tritiated water, 95mTc, 75Se, 137Cs, or 60Co-labelled natural colloids, which were injected into the fractures at flow rates of 0.4-0.45 mL/h, giving residence times in the fractures of up to 15 h. Also presented are the results of the post-experiment analyses, including an autoradiograph of one of the fracture surfaces, and the spatial distribution of the sorbed radionuclides determined by ?-scanning and selective chemical extractions

1988-01-01

120

Integration of remote sensing data and ground data as an aid to exploration for granite related mineralization, Salamanca Province, W Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that the major geological features associated with the Los Santos tungsten skarn are: vicinity of the intrusive granite contact: geochemical zoning within the granite; anomalous width of the contact aureole; presence of fault zones; development of limonitic soil; presence of limestone horizons. Digital image processing techniques are applied to recognize and enhance these features in satellite images and airborne geophysical datasets. In satellite images the granites are textually distinct from other terrains, due to a higher degree of variation between adjoining pixels and a higher density of lineaments. Supervised classification of TM-bands 3,4,5 and 7 allows discrimination of granite and regional metamorphic terrain, while contact-metamorphic and limonitic soils are classified better using bands 1,3,4 and 7. Airborne magnetometry discriminates well between granites and sediments. The magnetization of the sedimentary rocks in the contact aureole is reset due to thermal and chemical overprinting. This is visible in the magnetic image. Large faults are detected. Radiometric data allow distinction between granite and sediments and recognition of the geochemical zoning within the granite.

1991-05-02

 
 
 
 
121

AWeakly Intrusive Ambient Soundscape for  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

this paper we present WISP, the concept of an ambientsoundscape in which events and states in the computingand physical environment are reflected in the formof next to non-intrusive audio cues. A WISP is meant toservice a physical space, like a personal office or a commonroom. The listening experience is intended to conveyintuition rather than interruption; each signal should besufficiently non-intrusive to be accepted without disturbingthe focus of the task at hand, while distinctive enough to beseparable from the other cues

Fredrik Kilander; Peter Lnnqvist

122

P-T path fluid evolution in the Gross Spitzkoppe granite stock, Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Gross Spitzkoppe granite stock (GSS) is a zoned 30 km^2 epizonal intrusion that consists of three main granites: 1) medium-grained biotite granite (marginal), 2) a coarse-grained biotite granite, and 3) a central, porphyritic granite. The stock contains pegmatites as banded marginal stockscheiders and isolated pockets composed of large alkali feldspar and quartz, dark mica, interstitial fluorite, and euhedral topaz and beryl crystals. In the porphyritic granite there are local wolframite-bearing greisens and hydrothermal fluorite and topaz-rich veins.Fluid inclusion studies were conducted on: 1) topaz and quartz crystals from the marginal stockscheider; 2) quartz, topaz, fluorite and beryl crystals from isolated pegmatites; 3) topaz from a miarolitic pegmatite; 4) beryl and quartz veins from greisenized porphyritic granite; and 5) fluorite from a late fluorite vein inthe coarse-grained biotite granite. Preliminary data indicate the presence of three compositionally distinct primary and pseudosecondary inclusion types that are of late magmatic-hydrothermal origin.Type 1. Low salinity (0–10 eq. wt% NaCl) H2O (± CO2) inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 550?C. These inclusions are from quartz, topaz and beryl. Inclusions in fluorite from the fluorite vein homogenize at ~170?C and have a salinity of ca. 1–2 eq. wt% NaCl.Type 2. Saline (25–30 eq. wt% NaCl) halite-bearing H2O (± CO2) inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 400?C. These inclusions are from quartz.Type 3. Low salinity (0–3 eq. wt% NaCl) H2O-CO2 inclusions that homogenize to vapor phase in the temperature range of 330 to 550?C. These inclusions are from quartz and topaz.Hydrothermal fluids from greisen minerals are represented by type 1 and type 2 H2O inclusions. They are predominantly of low salinity (~8 eq. wt% NaCl) and homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 500?C. Isochores for contemporaneous type 2 and type 3 inclusions with homogenization temperature range of 330 to 400?C indicate a maximum trapping pressure of about 900 bar for the marginal stockscheider.

Stephen Frindt; Matti Poutiainen

2002-01-01

123

Garnet geochemistry of tungsten-mineralized Xihuashan granites in South China  

Science.gov (United States)

The Xihuashan complex intrusion in South China, which is emplaced at ca. 154 Ma, mainly comprises medium-grained porphyritic biotite granite, medium-grained biotite granite, and fine-grained two-mica granite. Medium-grained biotite and fine-grained two-mica granites are important tungsten-bearing granites and contain an unusual amount of garnet. Garnets from this intrusion are dominated by almandine and spessartine, which constitute 94% to 99% of the total molecular composition of the garnet. These garnets display unusual compositional zoning. The cores of these garnets are rich in heavy rare earth element (HREE), Y, Ca, and contain abundant HREE- and Y-rich mineral inclusions. Their rims are free of mineral inclusions and have low of these elements. Two types of fluorite inclusions exist in garnet: Y fluorite and Y-poor fluorite. Garnet exhibits specific Mn zoning with a relatively Mn-poor core but a relatively Mn-rich rim, thus constituting a specific "spessartine inverse bell-shaped profile" that belongs to typical magmatic garnets. All analyzed garnets have high REE content and exhibit HREE-enriched and LREE-depleted patterns with strong negative Eu anomalies. The incorporation of REE into garnet is in part controlled by its crystal chemistry, with REE3 + following a coupled substitution of the type [Fe2 +,Mn2 +]- 1VIII[REE3 +]+ 1VIII[Si4 +]- 1IV[Z3 +]+ 1IV. The texture and compositional zoning of garnet suggest that garnet growth is largely controlled by the pressure-temperature-composition condition of magmatic evolution, internal crystal-chemical parameters, and kinetics during mineral growth. The garnet core grows in near equilibrium with magmatic melt under a relatively high pressure-temperature (P-T) condition. By contrast, the garnet rim grows rapidly by the coexisting melt-fluid phase and CO2-rich volatile environment under a relatively low P-T condition, which is virtually unfavorable for the incorporation of REE into the magmatic garnet structure. Garnet fingerprints the magmatic-hydrothermal transition during crystallization of these granites.

Yang, Jie-hua; Peng, Jian-tang; Hu, Rui-zhong; Bi, Xian-wu; Zhao, Jun-hong; Fu, Ya-zhou; Shen, Neng-Ping

2013-09-01

124

Saltwater Intrusion into a Flowing Stream.  

Science.gov (United States)

A parametric study of the flow of saline water intrusions which are driven into rivers by tidal fluctuations was accomplished with a mathematical model. Specifically, the saltwater intrusion at the bottom of Bayou Lafourche was studied. Empirical eddy tra...

W. R. Waldrop R. C. Farmer P. A. Bryant

1974-01-01

125

VISUALIZATION TECHNIQUES FOR INTRUSION DETECTION – A SURVEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In traditional intrusion detection system (IDS) environments, little activity has been applied to usingvisual analysis as an aid to intrusion detection. With more information systems being attacked and attacktechniques evolving, the task of detecting intrusions is becoming an increasingly difficult. Efficientinformation visualization is an important element required for urgent detection of intruders.This paper presents a survey on using visualization techniques in intrusion detection system.Finally authors proposed a framework for visualization system for ID.

Ibrahim Elhenawy; Alaa El - Din Riad; Ahmed Hassan; Nancy Awadallah

2011-01-01

126

NAVEGANTE : an intrusive browsing framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

NAVEGANTE is a generic framework to build superior order proxies for intrusive browsing. This framework provides the means for developing tools that behave as proxies, but perform some processing task on the content that is being browsed. Parallel to this content processing, applications can also ru...

Carvalho, Nuno; Almeida, J. J.; Simões, Alberto

127

Intrusion-Aware Alert Validation Algorithm for Cooperative Distributed Intrusion Detection Schemes of Wireless Sensor Networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion cla...

Riaz Ahmed Shaikh; Hassan Jameel; Brian J. d’Auriol; Heejo Lee; Sungyoung Lee; Young-Jae Song

128

Shoshonitic intrusion magmatism in Pajeu-Paraiba belt: the Bom Jardim complex  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Bom Jardim complex is a multi phase intrusion emplaced within the basement of the Pajeu-Paraiba belt, in the Borborema province, N.E., Brazil, during the Pan African (Brasiliano) orogeny, 600 Ma ago. The Bom Jardim complex is primarily composed of monzonites and syenites with subordinated granites. The major and trace elements geochemistry has established a shoshonitic affinity for the monzonite-syenite assemblages, whereas the granites are clearly of a high-K calc-alkaline character. The main geochemical trends determined for the complex are the result of fractionation of mainly amphibole, biotite, alkali feldspar ±clinopyroxene within the developing magmas. The enrichment in transition metal elements, LILE and high LILE/HSFE ratios, coupled with an initial Sr sup(87)/Sr sup(86) ratio of 0.70709 is consistent with a subduction related magma source. (author)

1990-11-01

129

The origin and evolution of low-?18O magma recorded by multi-growth zircons in granite  

Science.gov (United States)

We for the first time reported low-?18O granites within craton in Bengbu uplift, southeast margin of North China Craton. Integrated ion microprobe study of ?18O and U–Pb age on single zircon grains and zircon populations, gives direct evidence for the origin and later magmatic evolution of the low-?18O granites. Three types of zircon domains are recognized: inherited magmatic core (Type I), inherited metamorphic core/mantle (Type II) and overgrown magmatic rim (Type III). Type I zircons were formed in Neoproterozoic, and have the average ?18O values of 5.3±0.6‰ around mantle value. Triassic Type II zircons have extremely low and highly heterogeneous ?18O values ranging from ?9.4‰ to 8.6‰, consistent with the values and variations exhibited by metamorphic zircons from Dabie–Sulu orogen. This feature argues for a Triassic metamorphic origin for the 18O-depletion signature of zircons from ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks in Dabie–Sulu orogen. Jurassic Type III zircons have isotopically homogeneous ?18O values of 3.3±0.5‰. Collectively, zircon populations recorded the ?18O variations from source to low-?18O granite. The primary protolith of Jurassic granites in Bengbu uplift is a Neoproterozoic granitic intrusion in South China Block. Later high-temperature meteoric hydrothermal alteration has lowered the whole-rock ?18O values in various degrees. The low-?18O protolith was then buried to the middle-lower crust by Triassic continental subduction and Jurassic anatexis produced the low-?18O granitic magma. Moreover, ?18O values of Type III zircons are isotopically lighter than previously reported values of magmatic garnets in Jurassic granites, indicating later magmatic evolution of low-?18O magma toward high ?18O values probably as a result of infiltration of high-?18O fluid from wall-rocks.

Wang, Shui-Jiong; Li, Shu-Guang; Liu, Sheng-Ao

2013-07-01

130

Site selection methods for nuclear waste storage in sub-schistic granites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Intrusive granites in schists, where most of the roof is at a depth of several hundred metres can be regarded as favourable sites for storing radioactive waste since the schistic cover has extremely low permeability. This configuration exists in various parts of France. In this paper the authors describe methods which can be applied to the study of such structures, taking a region in the Armorican Massif as a reference example. The geological evidence here showed an extensive zone with a slight gravimetric anomaly around a few granite outcrops dispersed in the schists. This structure gave reason to believe that a shallow granite mass would be found under the schistic cover, and geological and gravimetric surface studies did indeed prove that this supposition was correct. Apart from the slight gravimetric anomaly, the extent of which has been confirmed and the outlines determined, the transformations (contact metamorphism and hydrothermalism) of the enclosing schists are particularly indicative of the presence of granite. The gravimetric model shows that the thickness of the granite is at least 2.3 km and provides an initial representation of the shape and depth of the roof. These results, together with those of the structural analysis, can be used to demarcate a favourable region for investigations at depth which will make it possible: to monitor the geological structures; to define the geotechnical characteristics of the formations; to analyse and model the hydrogeological behaviour, at present known only from surface studies which do not appear to indicate any circulation of water upwards towards the surface

1984-01-01

131

Lower Carboniferous post-orogenic granites in central-eastern Sierra de Velasco, Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina: U-Pb monazite geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes  

Science.gov (United States)

The central-eastern part of the Sierra de Velasco (Sierras Pampeanas, NW Argentina) is formed by the large Huaco (40 × 30 km) and Sanagasta (25 × 15 km) granite massifs and the small La Chinchilla stock (2 × 2 km). The larger granites intrude into Ordovician metagranitoids and crosscut Devonian (?) mylonitic shear zones, whereas the small stock sharply intrudes into the Huaco granite. The two voluminous granites are biotitic-muscovitic and biotitic porphyritic syeno- to monzogranites. They contain small and rounded tonalitic and quartz-dioritic mafic microgranular enclaves. The small stock is an equigranular, zinnwaldite- and fluorite-bearing monzogranite. The studied granites are silica-rich (SiO2 >70%), potassium-rich (K2O >4%), ferroan, alkali-calcic to slightly calk-alkalic, and moderately to weakly peraluminous (A/CNK: 1.06-1.18 Huaco granite, 1.01-1.09 Sanagasta granite, 1.05-1.06 La Chinchilla stock). They have moderate to strong enrichments in several LIL (Li, Rb, Cs) and HFS (Nb, Ta, Y, Th, U) elements, and low Sr, Ba and Eu contents. U-Pb monazite age determinations indicate Lower Carboniferous crystallization ages: 350-358 Ma for the Huaco granite, 352.7 ± 1.4 Ma for the Sanagasta granite and 344.5 ± 1.4 Ma for the La Chinchilla stock. The larger granites have similar ?Nd values between -2.1 and -4.3, whereas the younger stock has higher ?Nd of -0.6 to -1.4, roughly comparable to the values obtained for the Carboniferous San Blas granite (-1.4 to -1.7), located in the north of the sierra. The Huaco and Sanagasta granites have a mainly crustal source, but with some participation of a more primitive, possibly mantle-derived, component. The main crustal component can be attributed to Ordovician peraluminous metagranitoids. The La Chinchilla stock derives from a more primitive source, suggesting an increase with time in the participation of the primitive component during magma genesis. The studied granites were generated during a post-orogenic period in a within-plate setting, possibly as a response to the collapse of the previous Famatinian orogen, extension of the crust and mantle upwelling. They are part of the group of Middle Devonian-Lower Carboniferous granites of the Sierras Pampeanas. The distribution and U-Pb ages of these granites suggests a northward arc-parallel migration of this mainly post-orogenic magmatism with time.

Grosse, Pablo; Söllner, Frank; Báez, Miguel A.; Toselli, Alejandro J.; Rossi, Juana N.; de La Rosa, Jesus D.

2009-07-01

132

Thermal expansion of granite rocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The thermal expansion of rocks is strongly controlled by the thermal expansion of the minerals. The theoretical thermal expansion of the Stripa Granite is gound to be 21 . 10-6 [deg C]-1 at 25 deg C and 38 . 10-6 [deg C]-1 at 400 deg C. The difference in expansion for the rock forming minerals causes micro cracking at heating. The expansion due to micro cracks is found to be of the same order as the mineral expansion. Most of the micro cracks will close at pressures of the order of 10 - 20 MPa. The thermal expansion of a rock mass including the effect of joints is determined in the pilot heater test in the Stripa Mine

1978-01-01

133

Shoulder and elbow arthroplasty in younger patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Joint arthroplasty is common in elderly patients with arthritis. The success of joint arthroplasty in the elderly population has increased the indications for joint arthroplasty in younger patients. The success and increased indications are due to advances in technology and joint arthroplasty design and materials, as well as to bone-conserving approaches that are more applicable to younger patients. Although most joint arthroplasty procedures are for the hip and knee, the upper extremity (shoulder and elbow) is the fastest-growing segment of joint arthroplasty procedures. This article presents innovative approaches to shoulder and elbow arthroplasty that are designed to treat younger patients with arthritis of the shoulder and elbow. PMID:23445859

Packer, Jonathan D; Blaine, Theodore A

2013-02-01

134

Shoulder and elbow arthroplasty in younger patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Joint arthroplasty is common in elderly patients with arthritis. The success of joint arthroplasty in the elderly population has increased the indications for joint arthroplasty in younger patients. The success and increased indications are due to advances in technology and joint arthroplasty design and materials, as well as to bone-conserving approaches that are more applicable to younger patients. Although most joint arthroplasty procedures are for the hip and knee, the upper extremity (shoulder and elbow) is the fastest-growing segment of joint arthroplasty procedures. This article presents innovative approaches to shoulder and elbow arthroplasty that are designed to treat younger patients with arthritis of the shoulder and elbow.

Packer JD; Blaine TA

2013-02-01

135

Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: Pre-Nagssugtoqidian crustal evolution in West Greenland: geology, geochemistry and deformation of supracrustal and granitic rocks north-east of Kangaatsiaq  

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Full Text Available The area north-east of Kangaatsiaq features polyphase grey orthogneisses, supracrustal rocks and Kangaatsiaq granite exposed within a WSW–ENE-trending synform. The supracrustal rocks are comprised of garnet-bearing metapelites, layered amphibolites and layered, likewise grey biotite paragneisses. Their association and geochemical compositions are consistent with a metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary basin (containing both tholeiitic and calc-alkali lavas) and is similar to other Archaean greenstone belts. The Kangaatsiaq granite forms a 15 × 3 km flat, subconcordant body of deformed,pink, porphyritic granite occupying the core of the supracrustal synform, and is demonstrably intrusive into the amphibolites. The granite displays a pronounced linear fabric (L or L > S). Thepost-granite deformation developed under lower amphibolite facies conditions (400 ± 50°C), and is characterised by a regular, NE–SW-trending subhorizontal lineation and an associated irregular foliation, whose poles define a great circle; together they are indicative of highly constrictional strain. The existence of a pre-granite event is attested by early isoclinal folds and a foliation within the amphibolites that is not present in the granite, and by the fact that the granite cuts earlier structures in the supracrustal rocks. This early event, preserved only in quartz-free lithologies, resulted in high-temperature fabrics being developed under upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions.

Moyen, Jean-Francois; Watt, Gordon R.

2006-01-01

136

Geochemistry and petrogenesis of 270 Ma Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide-bearing mafic intrusions in the Huangshan district, Eastern Xinjiang, Northwest China: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the Central Asian orogenic belt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Central Asian orogenic belt (CAOB) is composed of remnants of microcontinents, island arcs and ophiolites. The presence of voluminous Phanerozoic A-type granites suggest that continental growth occurred through addition of juvenile crust, and the presence of mafic-ultramafic intrusions provides ...

Zhou, MF; Lesher, CM; Yang, Z; Li, J; Sun, M

137

Geochemical and Sr-isotopic signatures in the 2.6 B.Y. Lepakshi granite, Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh: implications for its origin and evolution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The predominantly leucocratic 2.6 b.y. old Lepakshi granite (a suite of granite, granodiorite and quartz-monzonite), near Hindupur in the Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh is intrusive into the Archaean schistose rocks and contains xenolithic patches of amphibolite. Compositionally, it is predominantly quartz-monzonitic with granodiorite and granite variants. The relatively low initial 87Sr/86Sr (Sri = 0.7026) of this Lepakshi granite implies its derivation from a juvenile crustal source with very limited crustal residence time, indicating the absence of involvement of any metasedimentary source. The source also appears to have fair amount of mafic component. A volcanic arc type tectonic setting, along with the collision processes and the associated tectonic activity operating in tandem, resulting in an increased P-T regime, granulite facies metamorphism and anatectic melting at mid- to lower crustal levels is suggested for the origin of this granite. The large ion lithophile (LIL) elements removed from the lower crust (due to granulite facies metamorphism and the associated fluid activity) were incorporated in the granites of the Lepakshi type. (author). 45 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

1992-01-01

138

Geochronological constraints on the emplacement history of an anorthosite — rapakivi granite suite: U-Pb zircon and baddeleyite study of the Korosten complex, Ukraine  

Science.gov (United States)

U-Pb zircon/baddeleyite ages obtained for the Korosten anorthosite-rapakivi granite complex, Ukrainian shield, suggest that different magmatic phases were emplaced during a period of ca. 30 million years as a series of distinct igneous episodes. The earliest 1789.1±2.0 Ma anorthosites were followed by 1781.3±3.2 Ma dykes of plagiogranite porphyries. The emplacement of a major rapakivi granite phase took place at 1767.4±2.2 Ma, and was followed by emplacement of layered intrusions of anorthosites, gabbronorites, diabases and ultrabasic rocks between 1761 and 1758 Ma. The minimum duration of magmatism of about 30 million years, the 6 15 million years interval between igneous pulses, and alternation of discrete episodes of basic and felsie magmatism are common features of major anorthositemangerite-charnockite-rapakivi granite complexes. Temporal distribution of igneous activity in the Korosten complex shows that the gabbro-anorthosites and the granites are not comagmatic, although they are possibly cogenetic, and that at least four portions of granitic and basic magmas were generated during a relatively long period of at least 30 million years. The time gap of about 20 25 million years between early basic and later and more voluminous granitic magmatism, characteristic of the Korosten pluton, Wiborg and Salmi batholiths, probably reflects the duration of extensional processes before the generation of large volumes of magma in the lower crust.

Amelin, Yu. V.; Heaman, L. M.; Verchogliad, V. M.; Skobelev, V. M.

1994-05-01

139

Relationships Between Shearing and Granitic Magma Emplacement: the Remígio-Pocinhos Shear Zone in the São José do Campestre Massif, NE Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on mineralogical, geochemical and textural characteristics, a variety of granite types was identified amongstthe intrusions emplaced during the tectonic activity along the Remígio-Pocinhos shear zone in NE Brazil during the lateststages of the Brasiliano orogeny. They include peraluminous granites with I-type mineralogical compositions as well astransitional-to-alkaline geochemical characteristics. These granites contain mafic to intermediate microgranular enclaves.Overall, they are very similar to many other Brasiliano-age plutons in the extreme NE of Brazil. Metaluminous alkalinegranites with aegirine-augite usually contain andradite as a minor phase, and titanite as an important accessory mineral.Several aspects of their trace element geochemistry repeat features of syn to late- tectonic alkaline granites in other parts ofNE Brazil and in the rest of the world. The shear zone has deep roots, and the heat flow during granite genesis was probablyhigh. A variety of lower crustal source rocks was probably involved in the genesis of these granites.

Rielva Solimairy Campelo do Nascimento; Ian McReath; Antônio Carlos Galindo

2010-01-01

140

Geochemical studies of granitic rocks of Kallur area, Manvi Taluk, Raichur district, Karnataka (India).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The geochemical data is much widely used in establishing the overall chemical relation existing between the different rock types with their parentage. A major impetus for this shift comes not only from the need to understand and quantify better the spatial and temporal evolution, with emphasis on the younger greenstone belts (Kallur copper formations), but also from the recognition that such knowledge could form the basis for the sustainable development of our natural resources. In addition, the recurrence of natural hazards has reinforced the need to learn more about the mechanics and to develop predictive modeling with advanced technical tools. This paper is emphasizing on Granodiorites of Kallur area of Manvi Taluk, Raichur District to substantiate the classical approaches of exploration and data gathering through quantitative methods of data processing and interpretation. The trilinear diagram indicates that the granites are rich in Potash and Soda. This clearly indicates that Granites are fairly rich in K2O than Na2O.

Raghavendra NR; Reddy RP; Nijagunappa R

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Mineralogy, chemistry, and age of granitic veins at Nicholson's Point, South Coast, Natal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Undeformed granitic veins exposed at Nicholson's Point, southern Natal, intrude nearly all the foliated rock types between Drakes Beach and Leisure Bay and therefore appear to post-date the major deformation episodes. The veins define an en echelon array and appear to have been emplaced syn-tectonically to post-tectonically. In addition to quartz and feldspar, the veins are characterized by variable ferro magnesian minerals, namely, tourmaline, magnetite, dumortierite, and biotite. A Rb/Sr isotope study yields a date of 960 ± 32 Ma which is within error of the date of the nearby deformed Glenmore Granite. These results imply that much of the deformation history recorded in the southern sector of Natal Structural and Metamorphic Province either occurred within a relatively short period or that the age of the Glenmore Granite is a reset age. The veins represent one of the youngest events recognized in the tectonic and intrusive history of the Natal Structural and Metamorphic Province. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

1992-01-01

142

A study of the existing forms of uranium and its distribution in Chengshan granitic body  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The existing forms of uranium and its distribution in Chengshan granitic body and country rocks have been investigatsed by the methods of fission-track and uranium maceration. Uranium can be divided into two groups, mobile and inert, according to the possibility of the maceration from rocks. Primary uranium exists mainly in two forms, simple oxides and solid solution and crystal structural incorporation. Whether it appears chiefly in the former form or latter one depends on uranium abundance and contents of accessory minerals in whole rock. Uranium enrichment, both in granite and country rocks, is closely associated with Fe. It is noteworthy that secondary Fe oxides absorb more uranium because of primary uranium mobilization. From country rocks (sedimentary rocks) to the intrusive contact zone, as the grain in ground mass increases in size, uranium bearing point sources decrease in number, and the remaining sources become more intense. Uraniumm contents in the country rocks close to the contact zone increase significantly under the influence of postmagmatic hydrothermal solution. Mean while, the ratio of uranium maceration becomes greater from the centre of the granitic body to the contact zone. Contents of mobile uranium increase from early to late in different intrusive stages. The change pattern of the existing forms of uranium is inert uranium, dispersive mobile uramium and concentrated mobile uranium. Only the rock high both in uranium contents and ratio of maceration may produce more mobile uranium. There is a little possibility to leach enough uranium from the rock of the third stage to form deposits. The source of uranium is mainly due to magmatic differentiation

1987-01-01

143

Sorption behavior of Pu on granite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sorption behavior of Pu on granite is studied with batch experiment and 1 mol/L HClO4 is used to dissolve the Pu sopped on granite at ambient temperature. Sorption experiments are performed under atmospheric and anaerobic conditions (in an argon glove box with an oxygen content of less than 5 x 10-6 mol?mol-1). Experimental results show that the sorption ability of Pu on granite is increased with increasing pH value (3.0-10.0) of the aqueous phase, and decreased with increasing carbonate ion concentration (4.0 x 10-3 mol/L-1.0 x 10-1 mol/L) in the aqueous phase. The oxygen concentration of the experimental condition is less influence on the sorption of Pu on granite. The sorption behavior of Pu on granite are irreversible. The sorption isotherms of Pu on granite can be well described by the Freundlich's equation. (authors)

2005-01-01

144

Towards an Effective Intrusion Response Engine Combined with Intrusion Detection in Ad Hoc Networks  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper, we present an effective intrusion response engine combined with intrusion detection in ad hoc networks. The intrusion response engine is composed of a secure communication module, a local and a global response module. Its function is based on an innovative tree-based key agreement protocol while the intrusion detection engine is based on a class of neural networks called eSOM. The proposed intrusion response model and the tree-based protocol, it is based on, are analyzed concerning key secrecy while the intrusion detection engine is evaluated for MANET under different traffic conditions and mobility patterns. The results show a high detection rate for packet dropping attacks.

Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Douligeris, Christos

2008-01-01

145

U-Pb and 39Ar/40Ar data constraining the ages of the source, emplacement and recrystallization/cooling events from late- to post-D3 Variscan granites of the Gouveia area, central Portugal  

Science.gov (United States)

Late Carboniferous U-Pb ages have been measured on igneous zircon from late- and post-D3 Sn-bearing two-mica granites from the Gouveia area in the Central Iberian Zone. Inherited zircon from these granites is mainly of Neoproterozoic age, a small amount is Paleoproterozoic and Cambrian, and none is Mesoproterozoic. The most likely source of the granites is Gondwanan sediments derived from the West African Craton and surrounding Pan-African belts. Rare inherited zircon of Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous age is of similar age to zircon in synorogenic greywackes and conglomerates of the NW Iberian Massif. Ordovician granitic rocks might have contributed to the source. Igneous zircon (310.1 ± 4.3 Ma) from a late-D3 granite is older than coexisting monazite (301.4 ± 2.6 Ma). The monazite (re)crystallized, and is of similar age to zircon from a post-D3 granite (297.3 ± 3.1 Ma) that surrounds this granite. Monazite from post-D3 granites is of similar age (~ 289 Ma), but slightly younger than the zircon from the same granites (297.3 ± 3.1 and 302.6 ± 6.7 Ma). The 39Ar-40Ar age of muscovite from Variscan late- and post-D3 granites of the Gouveia area is the same (~ 286 Ma), showing that the area was heated above ~ 350 °C in the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian. Muscovite from Variscan late-D3 granites suffered Ar loss and muscovite from Variscan post-D3 granites records cooling after emplacement.

Neiva, A. M. R.; Williams, I. S.; Lima, S. M.; Teixeira, R. J. S.

2012-11-01

146

Les Granites des Complexes Annulaires  

Science.gov (United States)

This book, Manual and Methods 4, published by France's BRGM, together with a mouthwatering preface by R. Black promises much for the student of ring complexes. It consists of four distinct chapters, each divided into a number of subsections, with 52 text figures and 9 tables. Although in reality it is based on a doctoral dissertation concerned with the newly discovered ring structures in Corsica, it is spiced with references to past and present research in Nigeria, and observations from French expeditions to the Kerguelen Islands. There are also brief commentaries on the author's observations in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. The text effectively represents a distillation of knowledge concerned with oversaturated alkaline magmatism in continental and oceanic settings. The book has a good bibliography with English-language scientific literature references up to 1980. While aware that ring-complex compositions can be variable, ranging from calc-alkaline to alkaline, the author restricts his writings to granitic and related rocks of the alkaline and peralkaline spectrum.

Bowden, Peter

147

The Maua granitic massif, Central Ribeira Belt, Sao Paulo, Brazil: petrography, geochemistry and U-Pb dating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Maua granitic massif is an elongated body dominated by a porphyritic biotite monzogranite which grades, in its southwestern extremity, to lighter equi granular granite and greisenized (tourmaline)-biotite-muscovite leuco granite. Abundant enclaves can be divided in three types: grey micro granular enclaves, with rounded shapes and igneous textures, are compositionally similar to the enclosing porphyritic granites; dark, rounded, micaceous enclaves have high K/Na, and may correspond to highly assimilated meta sedimentary xenoliths; and angulous gneiss xenoliths seem to be fragments of an unexposed type of country rock. The primitive magmas that formed the massif were Zr, P and LREE-saturated, and became progressively enriched in U, Cs, Y, HREE, F and possibly Ta. Geochemical data show that most of the observed compositional variation can be a reflection of crystal fractionation at the level of emplacement. However, other processes such as magma mixing, contamination and post-magmatic alteration seem to respond for local chemical variations. U-Pb monazite dating point to a crystallization age of 588 {+-} 2 Ma which is ca. 20 myr. younger than those of nearby crust-derived syn-orogenic granites. (author)

Filipov, Marcelo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Minas]. E-mail: filipov@usp.br; Janasi, Valdecir de Assis [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: vajanasi@usp.br

2001-09-01

148

Classification and Importance of Intrusion Detection System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a device or software application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a Management Station. Some systems may attempt to stop an intrusion attempt but this is neither required nor expected of a monitoring system. Due to a growing number of intrusion events and also because the Internet and local networks have become so ubiquitous, organizations are increasingly implementing various systems that monitor IT security breaches. This includes an overview of the classification of intrusion detection systems and introduces the reader to some fundamental concepts of IDS methodology: audit trail analysis and on-the-fly processing as well as anomaly detection and signature detection approaches. This research paper discusses the primary intrusion detection techniques and the classification of intrusion Detection system.

Rajasekaran K; Nirmala K

2012-01-01

149

Wireless Intrusion Detection and Logging System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intrusion detection is the security patrol, and become the eyes and ears of the network, alerting the potential vulnerabilities and intrusion attempts. Monitoring can help to spot problems in the network, as well as identify performance problems, but watching every second of traffic that passes through the network, manually searching for attacks, would be impossible. This is why there is need of specialized network intrusion detection software. This software inspects all network traffic, looking for potential attacks and intrusions. Wireless Intrusion Detection System (WIDS) is wireless network sniffing tool. It is used for securing the WLAN. And it generates the alarms to the administrator as soon as something goes wrong in the WLAN.WIDS attempts to identify computers system, network intrusions and misuse by gathering and analyzing data.WIDS can monitor and analyze user and system activities. It generates the alerts based either on predefined signatures or on anomalies in the traffic.

SURAJ KENDHEY; NITIN KHOBRAGADE; SUMIT RAUT; VIKRANT NAIK

2013-01-01

150

Two contrasting granite types: 25 years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The concept of I- and S-type granites was introduced in 1974 to account for the observation that, apart from the most felsic rocks, the granites in the Lachlan Fold Belt have properties that generally fall into two distinct groups. This has been interpreted to result from derivation by partial melting of two kinds of source rocks, namely sedimentary and older igneous rocks. The original publication on these two granite types is reprinted and reviewed in the light of 25 years of continuing study into these granites. Data on oxygen isotopic compositions of the two granite types were not available in 1974. O'Neil and Chappell (1977) found differences in such composition between the I- and S-type granites of the Berridale Batholith, with the two types having ?18O values less than and greater than 10%o, respectively, relative to SMOW This division is supported by our additional unpublished data on granites from other parts of the Lachlan Fold Belt, but needs to be tested further. Chappell and White (1974) noted that the initial 87Sr/86Sr values for a single S-type pluton are more variable than for I-type plutons, interpreted to reflect the more heterogeneous nature of the source material. That observation has been confirmed by later observations. The heterogeneity of isotopic compositions of S-type plutons is illustrated by the Jillamatong Granodiorite of the Kosciuszko Batholith. For that single unit, the range in 87Sr/86Sr calculated at 430 Ma is from 0.71115 to 0.71541. Copyright (2001) Geological Society of Australia

2001-01-01

151

AGCM experiments on the Younger Dryas climate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Younger Dryas (YD) cooling ((proportional to)12.5-11.5 thousand years before present) signified an interruption of the warming during the transition from the last glacial to the present interglacial. Since the mechanism responsible for this cooling is...

H. Renssen M. Lautenschlager L. Bengtsson U. Schulzweida

1995-01-01

152

Animal intrusion field test plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Protective Barrier and Warning Marker System Development Plan identified tasks that need to be completed in order to design a final protective barrier to implement in-place disposal. This report summarizes the animal intrusion tasks that have been conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company in fiscal year 1989 with respect to small mammals and water infiltration. An animal intrusion lysimeter facility was constructed and installed in fiscal year 1988. Small burrowing mammals common to the Hanford Site environs are introduced over a three to four month period and allowed to burrow. During the course of each test, supplemental precipitation is added to three of the lysimeters with a rainulator at a rate equivalent to a 100-yr storm. Soil moisture samples are taken before and after each test and soil moisture measurements are also taken with a hydroprobe during the test period. Two tests have been completed and a third test is in progress. Preliminary results from the first test indicate that the additional water, which was supplemented by the rainulator to the plots with burrowing animals, is being removed. Data from the second test, which was conducted during the winter, indicate that all the plots gained water. Additional test, scheduled to be conducted over the next few years, should substantiate or verify these preliminary observations, 7 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

Landeen, D.S. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Simmons, M.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-04-01

153

Granite Sludge Reuse in Mortar and Concrete  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The disposal of solid wastes produced in granite industry to the environment without any treatment cause not only economical but also serious environmental problems. In this study Granite Powder (GP) which produced as solid waste from the cutting and polishing of granite rocks was reused as additive to mortar and concrete cement. Incorporation of GP in mortar and concrete in ratios of 10, 20, 30 wt.% improved mortar and concrete compressive strengths and the concrete workability. The experimental results show that GP can be used to replace cement or fine aggregate in concrete which provide not only solve an environmental problem by safe disposal of GP but also reduce the stress on the limited natural resources and the cost of concrete production.

Husam D. Al- Hamaiedeh; Waleed H. Khushefati

2013-01-01

154

What controls chemical variation in granitic magmas?  

Science.gov (United States)

Consideration of the models that have been applied to explain the chemical variations within granitic rock suites shows that most are inadequate to account for the main variations. This stems from a variety of model deficiencies, ranging from physical or energetic inadequacies to incompatibility with the chemical data or internal inconsistency between models based on, for example, isotope or trace-element data and major-element data. We contend that any model that fails any of these tests of internal consistency cannot be considered further. Thus, although we can point to examples in which many of the traditionally accepted mechanisms have played secondary roles in producing variation, there presently remains but one viable choice for the primary mechanism by which most granitic magmas acquire compositions beyond the range defined by the compositions of crustal melts. That primary mechanism is peritectic assemblage entrainment (PAE).We infer that once a partial melt has formed in a crustal protolith it may segregate from its complementary solid residue carrying small crystals of the peritectic phase assemblage formed in the melting reaction, and that the ratios of individual peritectic minerals in the entrained assemblage remains fixed in the ratio decreed by the stoichiometry of the melting reaction. For those elements with low solubilities in granitic melts, PAE (in varying degrees), accompanied by co-entrainment of accessory minerals, is responsible for most of the primary elemental variation in granitic magmas. In contrast, the concentrations of elements with high solubilities in silicic melts reflect the protolith compositions in a simple and direct way. The source is the primary control on granite magma chemistry; it dictates what is available to dissolve in the melt and what will be formed as the entrainable peritectic assemblage. The apparent complexity in granitic rock suites is largely a consequence of these processes in the source. All other mechanisms contribute only as a secondary overlay.

Clemens, J. D.; Stevens, G.

2012-03-01

155

Intrusion Preventing System using Intrusion Detection System Decision Tree Data Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: To distinguish the activities of the network traffic that the intrusion and normal is very difficult and to need much time consuming. An analyst must review all the data that large and wide to find the sequence of intrusion on the network connection. Therefore, it needs a way that can detect network intrusion to reflect the current network traffics. Approach: In this study, a novel method to find intrusion characteristic for IDS using decision tree machine learning of data mining technique was proposed. Method used to generate of rules is classification by ID3 algorithm of decision tree. Results: These rules can determine of intrusion characteristics then to implement in the firewall policy rules as prevention. Conclusion: Combination of IDS and firewall so-called the IPS, so that besides detecting the existence of intrusion also can execute by doing deny of intrusion as prevention.

Syurahbil; Noraziah Ahmad; M. F. Zolkipli; Ahmed N. Abdalla

2009-01-01

156

Intrusion-aware Alert Validation Algorithm for Cooperative Distributed Intrusion Detection Schemes of Wireless Sensor Networks  

CERN Document Server

Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a validation algorithm that addresses this problem. This algorithm utilizes the concept of intrusion-aware reliability that helps to provide adequate reliability at a modest communication cost. In this paper, we also provide a security resiliency analysis of the proposed intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm.

Shaikh, Riaz Ahmed; Auriol, Brian J d; Lee, Heejo; Lee, Sungyoung; Song, Young-Jae; 10.3390/s90805989

2009-01-01

157

Intrusion-Aware Alert Validation Algorithm for Cooperative Distributed Intrusion Detection Schemes of Wireless Sensor Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a validation algorithm that addresses this problem. This algorithm utilizes the concept of intrusion-aware reliability that helps to provide adequate reliability at a modest communication cost. In this paper, we also provide a security resiliency analysis of the proposed intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm.

Riaz Ahmed Shaikh; Hassan Jameel; Brian J. d’Auriol; Heejo Lee; Sungyoung Lee; Young-Jae Song

2009-01-01

158

Intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm for cooperative distributed intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a validation algorithm that addresses this problem. This algorithm utilizes the concept of intrusion-aware reliability that helps to provide adequate reliability at a modest communication cost. In this paper, we also provide a security resiliency analysis of the proposed intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm.

Shaikh RA; Jameel H; d'Auriol BJ; Lee H; Lee S; Song YJ

2009-01-01

159

Intrusion-Aware Alert Validation Algorithm for Cooperative Distributed Intrusion Detection Schemes of Wireless Sensor Networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a validation algorithm that addresses this problem. This algorithm utilizes the concept of intrusion-aware reliability that helps to provide adequate reliability at a modest communication cost. In this paper, we also provide a security resiliency analysis of the proposed intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm.

Shaikh, Riaz Ahmed; Jameel, Hassan; d'Auriol, Brian J.; Lee, Heejo; Lee, Sungyoung; Song, Young-Jae

2009-01-01

160

Intrusive memories and depression in cancer patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Matched samples of depressed and nondepressed cancer patients were interviewed about past life events, particularly experiences of death and illness. They identified and described any spontaneous intrusive visual memories they had experienced in the past week corresponding to these events. About one quarter reported such memories and, as predicted, the majority of intrusive memories concerned illness, injury and death. The mean levels of intrusion and avoidance were equivalent to patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. Consistent with prediction, depressed patients reported significantly more intrusive memories than controls, and described the memories as typically beginning with or being exacerbated by the onset of depression. Greater numbers of intrusive memories were associated with more maladaptive coping, and greater avoidance with deficits in autobiographical memory functioning. PMID:9745798

Brewin, C R; Watson, M; McCarthy, S; Hyman, P; Dayson, D

1998-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Intrusive memories and depression in cancer patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Matched samples of depressed and nondepressed cancer patients were interviewed about past life events, particularly experiences of death and illness. They identified and described any spontaneous intrusive visual memories they had experienced in the past week corresponding to these events. About one quarter reported such memories and, as predicted, the majority of intrusive memories concerned illness, injury and death. The mean levels of intrusion and avoidance were equivalent to patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. Consistent with prediction, depressed patients reported significantly more intrusive memories than controls, and described the memories as typically beginning with or being exacerbated by the onset of depression. Greater numbers of intrusive memories were associated with more maladaptive coping, and greater avoidance with deficits in autobiographical memory functioning.

Brewin CR; Watson M; McCarthy S; Hyman P; Dayson D

1998-12-01

162

The atmosphere during the younger dryas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One of the most dramatic climate change events observed in marine and ice core records is the Younger Dryas, a return to near-glacial conditions that punctuated the last deglaciation. High-resolution, continuous glaciochemical records, newly retrieved from central Greenland, record the chemical composition of the arctic atmosphere at this time. This record shows that both the onset and the termination of the Younger Dryas occurred within 10 to 20 years and that massive, frequent, and short-term (decadal or less) changes in atmospheric composition occurred throughout this event. Changes in atmospheric composition are attributable to changes in the size of the polar atmospheric cell and resultant changes in source regions and to the growth and decay of continental biogenic source regions.

Mayewski PA; Meeker LD; Whitlow S; Twickler MS; Morrison MC; Alley RB; Bloomfield P; Taylor K

1993-07-01

163

The atmosphere during the Younger Dryas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most dramatic climate change events observed in marine and ice core records is the Younger Dryas, a return to near-glacial conditions that punctuated the last deglaciation. High-resolution, continuous glaciochemical records, newly retrieved from central Greenland, record the chemical composition of the arctic atmosphere at this time. This record shows that both the onset and the termination of the Younger Dryas occurred within 10 to 20 years and that massive, frequent, and short-term (decadal or less) changes in atmospheric composition occurred throughout this event. Changes in atmospheric composition are attributable to changes in the size of the polar atmospheric cell and resultant changes in source regions and to the growth and decay of continental biogenic source regions. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Mayewski, P.A.; Meeker, L.D.; Whitlow, S.; Twickler, M.S.; Morrison, M.C. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham (United States)); Alley, R.B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)); Bloomfield, P. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States)); Taylor, K. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (United States))

1993-07-09

164

Data Access by Data Intrusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mining is a source for the data base as it requires several elements and techniques for the retrieval operations. Some techniques and their corresponding technologies have an important role in the database which is required in large amounts for data access. The primary method is to retrieve the relevant data and the secondary is retrieval of the matched data. Generally the data ware houses is much more than an information technology project for the companies embracing the concept of mass customization. The Armed data warehouses filled with quality information but one has to use mass customization techniques and scientific testing methods to expand the customer based from one million to 10 million in 10 year’s period. The mass customization is ultimate use of data ware housing and the mining techniques which are making the integral part of the business process. Just like the arms, a data ware house and data mining increases the strength with the active use. With every new test and new product valuable information is added and at the same time information is retrieved, modified which allows the analysts to learn from the successes and the failures of the past. The paper is mainly concerned with retrieval operation by enforcing these failures and successful operation in the form of data intrusion. The data intrusion helps in recognizing the data in the form of mass storage and can be retrieved the relevant data. It is simple and one of the techniques which can cope up with the business market.

SarathChand P.V; VenuMadhav K; Mahendra Arya Bhanu; Rajalakshmi Selvaraj; Laxmaiah.M

2011-01-01

165

Shrimp U-Pb age and Sr-Nd isotopes of the Morro do Baú mafic intrusion: implications for the evolution of the Arenópolis volcano-sedimentary sequence, Goiás Magmatic Arc  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Arenópolis volcano-sedimentary sequence is located in the southern part of the Goiás Magmatic Arc and includes a ca. 900 Ma calc-alkaline arc sequence made of volcanic rocks ranging in composition from basalts to rhyolites, metamorphosed under greenschist to amphibolite facies. Small calc-alkaline gabbro to granite sub-volcanic bodies are also recognized. The Morro do Baú intrusion is the largest of these intrusions, and is made of gabbros and diorites. Zircon grains separated from one gabbro sample and analyzed by SHRIMP I yielded the mean 206Pb/238U age of 890 +/- 8 Ma, indicating that the intrusion is roughly coeval or only slightly younger than the Arenópolis volcanics. Contrary to the metavolcanics, which are juvenile, the Nd isotopic composition of the Morro do Baú gabbro indicates strong contamination with archean sialic material (T DM of 2.8 Ga and EpsilonNd(T) of -9.7), represented in the area by an allochthonous sliver of archean/paleoproterozoic gneisses (Ribeirão gneiss) which are the country-rocks for the gabbro/dioritic intrusion. The emplacement age of ca. 890 Ma represents a minimum age limit for the tectonic accretion of the gneiss sliver to the younger rocks of the Arenópolis sequence. The data suggest that this happened early in the evolution of the Goiás Magmatic Arc, between ca. 920 and 890 Ma.A seqüência vulcano-sedimentar de Arenópolis, localizada na porção sul do Arco Magmárico de Goiás, inclui uma associação de rochas vulcânicas calci-alcalinas de arco com ca. 900 Ma de idade, constituída de rochas variando em composição entre basaltos e riolitos, metamorfisados em fácies xisto verde a anfibolito. Pequenos corpos sub-vulcânicos de gabros a granitos calci-alcalinos são também reconhecidos. A intrusão do Morro do Baú é a maior dessas intrusões, compreendendo dioritos e gabros. Cristais de zircão separados de uma amostra de gabro e analisados no SHRIMP I indicaram a idade 206Pb/238U média de 890 +/- 8 Ma, mostrando que a intrusão é grosseiramente contemporânea, ou talvez um pouco mais jovem que as rochas vulcânicas. Ao contrário das rochas metavulcânicas, que são juvenis, a composição isotópica de Nd do gabro do Morro do Baú indica forte contaminação com material siálico arqueano (T DM de 2.8 Ga e EpsilonNd(T) igual a -9.7), representado na área por uma pequena fatia tectônica de rocha gnáissica arqueana/paleoproterozóica (gnaisse Ribeirão), e que representa a rocha encaixante da intrusão gabro-diorítica. A idade de cristalização de ca. 890 Ma representa, portanto, um limite mínimo para a acresção tectônica do gnaisse Ribeirão às rochas mais jovens da seqüência de Arenópolis. Os dados sugerem que esse evento foi precoce na evolução da seqüência vulcano-sedimentar de Arenópolis, provavelmente entre ca. 920 e 890 Ma.

Márcio M. Pimentel; Maria Helena B. M. Hollanda; Richard Armstrong

2003-01-01

166

Shrimp U-Pb age and Sr-Nd isotopes of the Morro do Baú mafic intrusion: implications for the evolution of the Arenópolis volcano-sedimentary sequence, Goiás Magmatic Arc  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A seqüência vulcano-sedimentar de Arenópolis, localizada na porção sul do Arco Magmárico de Goiás, inclui uma associação de rochas vulcânicas calci-alcalinas de arco com ca. 900 Ma de idade, constituída de rochas variando em composição entre basaltos e riolitos, metamorfisados em fácies xisto verde a anfibolito. Pequenos corpos sub-vulcânicos de gabros a granitos calci-alcalinos são também reconhecidos. A intrusão do Morro do Baú é a maior dessas intru (more) sões, compreendendo dioritos e gabros. Cristais de zircão separados de uma amostra de gabro e analisados no SHRIMP I indicaram a idade 206Pb/238U média de 890 +/- 8 Ma, mostrando que a intrusão é grosseiramente contemporânea, ou talvez um pouco mais jovem que as rochas vulcânicas. Ao contrário das rochas metavulcânicas, que são juvenis, a composição isotópica de Nd do gabro do Morro do Baú indica forte contaminação com material siálico arqueano (T DM de 2.8 Ga e EpsilonNd(T) igual a -9.7), representado na área por uma pequena fatia tectônica de rocha gnáissica arqueana/paleoproterozóica (gnaisse Ribeirão), e que representa a rocha encaixante da intrusão gabro-diorítica. A idade de cristalização de ca. 890 Ma representa, portanto, um limite mínimo para a acresção tectônica do gnaisse Ribeirão às rochas mais jovens da seqüência de Arenópolis. Os dados sugerem que esse evento foi precoce na evolução da seqüência vulcano-sedimentar de Arenópolis, provavelmente entre ca. 920 e 890 Ma. Abstract in english The Arenópolis volcano-sedimentary sequence is located in the southern part of the Goiás Magmatic Arc and includes a ca. 900 Ma calc-alkaline arc sequence made of volcanic rocks ranging in composition from basalts to rhyolites, metamorphosed under greenschist to amphibolite facies. Small calc-alkaline gabbro to granite sub-volcanic bodies are also recognized. The Morro do Baú intrusion is the largest of these intrusions, and is made of gabbros and diorites. Zircon grai (more) ns separated from one gabbro sample and analyzed by SHRIMP I yielded the mean 206Pb/238U age of 890 +/- 8 Ma, indicating that the intrusion is roughly coeval or only slightly younger than the Arenópolis volcanics. Contrary to the metavolcanics, which are juvenile, the Nd isotopic composition of the Morro do Baú gabbro indicates strong contamination with archean sialic material (T DM of 2.8 Ga and EpsilonNd(T) of -9.7), represented in the area by an allochthonous sliver of archean/paleoproterozoic gneisses (Ribeirão gneiss) which are the country-rocks for the gabbro/dioritic intrusion. The emplacement age of ca. 890 Ma represents a minimum age limit for the tectonic accretion of the gneiss sliver to the younger rocks of the Arenópolis sequence. The data suggest that this happened early in the evolution of the Goiás Magmatic Arc, between ca. 920 and 890 Ma.

Pimentel, Márcio M.; Hollanda, Maria Helena B. M.; Armstrong, Richard

2003-09-01

167

The SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating and its geological significance on the volcanic-intrusive rocks in broken crater of Xunwu, Jiangxi province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Xunwu broken crater located in the transition zone of Wuyi rise belt and Nanling tectonic belt, controlled by the NE direction Huichang-Xunwu fault belt and the EW direction Sannan-Xunwu fault belt,and developed a volcanic-intrusive rocks that made up of porphyroclastic lava and granite-porphyry. The zircon U-Pb dating with a higher accuracy yields the following results: the age of pyroclastic rocks in the volcanic-intrusive rocks in broken crater is (96.7±1.1) Ma and the age of granite-porphyry is (97.3±0.9) Ma. According to the geological chronology,the boundary between the Early Cretaceous and the Late Cretaceous is (99.6±0.9)Ma, the geological age of the volcanic-intrusive rocks of Xunwu broken crater is early Late Cretaceous. Age determinations of the volcanic-intrusive rocks provide the age evidence for Xunwu broken crater which belong to Yousheng formation. (authors)

2011-01-01

168

The distribution of radioelements in Archaean granites of the Kaapvaal Craton, with implications for the source of uranium in the Witwatersrand Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Approximately 500 samples from the Archaean granitic basement of the southern Kaapvaal Craton have been analysed for U and Th. When viewed in conjunction with geological relationships, the radioelement distribution patterns in the Archaean basement provide contraints regarding the origin of uranium in the Witwatersrand Basin. Granites in the Barberton region are sub-divided into three magmatic cycles, the earliest cycle comprising tonalite-trondjemite gneisses, the intermediate cycle comprising laterally extensive K-rich batholiths and the final stage consisting of discrete intrusive granitic plutons. Uranium and thorium contents vary as a function of age and rock type, and increase progressively from the first cycle through to the third cycle. Certain of the late granite plutons may be S-type in origin, have relatively low Th/U ratios, high U contents, and are characterized by accessory minerals dominated by monazite-like phases. The late granite plutons with the highest radioelement contents appear to have formed circa 2,8 Ga ago, an age which coincides with granulite facies metamorphism and uranium-thorium depletion in the lower crust, as recorded in the Vredefort crustal profile. Uranium has been leached from portions of the regolith profile, but also concentrated into leucoxene-rich zones derived from the breakdown of pre-existing titanium-bearing phases. The widespread development of an uraniferous leucoxene protore in weathered source rocks of the Witwatersrand Basin has relevance to the genesis of authigenic U-Ti phases (brannerite) in the reefs themselves. The study of radioelement distribution in Archaean granites adjacent to the Witwatersrand Basin provides a framework within which considerations regarding the origin of the uranium deposits in the basin can be viewed. The secular evolution of the Archaean granitic basement, hydrothermal processes, and palaeoweathering all played a role in the formation of the Witwatersrand deposits. 22 figs., 5 tabs., 51 refs

1990-01-01

169

Identification of Granite Varieties from Colour Spectrum Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The granite processing sector of the northwest of Spain handles many varieties of granite with specific technical and aesthetic properties that command different prices in the natural stone market. Hence, correct granite identification and classification from the outset of processing to the end-product stage optimizes the management and control of stocks of granite slabs and tiles and facilitates the operation of traceability systems. We describe a methodology for automatically identifying granite varieties by processing spectral information captured by a spectrophotometer at various stages of processing using functional machine learning techniques.

María Araújo; Javier Martínez; Celestino Ordóñez; José Antonio Vilán

2010-01-01

170

A Novel Approach for Intrusion Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research in the field of computer and network science demands for tools and methodology to test their security effectively. Intrusion Detection System is used to perform the same with a fact that an intruder's behavior will be noticeably different from that of a legitimate user and would exploit security vulnerabilities. Proposed here is a novel intrusion detection approach with the application of Generalized Regression Neural Network and the MIT's KDD Cup 99 dataset. The result clearly demonstrates an efficient way for intrusion feature selection and detection and promises a good scope for further research.

Vikram Chopra; Sunil Saini; Amit Kumar Choudhary

2011-01-01

171

Effect of Bacillus subtilis on Granite Weathering: A Laboratory Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed a comparative experiment to investigate how the ubiquitous soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis weathers granite and which granite-forming minerals weather more rapidly via biological processes. Batch type experiments (granite specimen in a 500 ml solution including NaCl, glucose, yeast extract and bacteria Bacillus subtilis at 27°E C) were carried out for 30 days. Granite surfaces were observed by SEM before and after the experiment. Bacillus subtilis had a strong influence on granite weathering by forming pits. There were 2.4 times as many pits and micropores were 2.3 times wider in granite exposed to Bacillus subtilis when compared with bacteria-free samples. Bacillus subtilis appear to preferentially select an optimum place to adhere to the mineral and dissolve essential elements from the mineral to live. Plagioclase was more vulnerable to bacterial weathering than biotite among the granite composing minerals.

Song, W.; Ogawa, N.; Oguchi, C. T.; Hatta, T.; Matsukura, Y.

2006-12-01

172

Geochronological (Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd) studies on intrusive gabbro and dolerite dykes from parts of Northern and Central Indian cratons: implications for the age of onset of sedimentation in Bijawar and Chattisgarh basins and uranium mineralisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Dargawan gabbros intrusive into the Moli Subgroup of Bijawar Group, yielded Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of 1967 ± 140 Ma. Based on the oldest age from overlying Lower Vindhyan (1.6 Ga) and the underlying youngest basement ages (2.2 Ga), the time range of Bijawar sedimentation may be assigned as 2.1-1.6 Ga (Paleoproterozoic). Sm-Nd Model ages (TDM), obtained, for Dargawan gabbros, is c. 2876-3145 Ma. High initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70451 (higher than the contemporary mantle) and negative ?Ndi (at 1.9 Ga) value of -1.5 to - 4.5, indicate assimilation of Archaean lower crustal component by the enriched mantle source magma at the time of gabbroic intrusion. The dolerite, from Damdama area, which is intrusive into the basement and overlying sediments of Chandrapur Group in the central Indian craton, yielded Rb-Sr internal isochron age of 1641 ± 120 Ma. The high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7098 and ?Ndi value of -3.5 to -3.7 (at 1.6 Ga) is due to contamination of the mantle source magma with the overlying sediments. These dolerites have younger Sm-Nd Model ages (TDM) than Dargawan gabbros as c. 2462-2675 Ma, which is similar to the age of the Sambalpur granite, from which probably sediments to this part of Chattisgarh basin are derived. Hence mixing of sediments with the Damdama dyke during its emplacement, gives rise to high initial 87Sr/86Sr and low initial 143Nd/144 ratios for these dykes. The c. 1600 Ma age indicates minimum age of onset of the sedimentation in the Chandrapur Group of Chattisgarh basin. Both the above mafic intrusions might have taken place in an intracratonic rift related (anorogenic) tectonic setting. This study is the first reliable age report on the onset of sedimentation in the Chandrapur Group. The total minimum time span of Chandrapur and Raipur Group may be 1.6 Ga to 1.0 Ga (Mesoproterozoic). The unconformably underlying Shingora Group of rocks of Chattisgarh Supergroup thus indicates Paleoproterozoic age (older than 1.6 Ga). Most part of the recently classified Chattisgarh Supergroup and Bijawar-Vindhyan sequence are of Mesoproterozoic-Paleoproterozoic age and not of Neoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic age as considered earlier. Petrographic study of basic dykes from Damdama area (eastern margin of Chattisgarh Supergroup) indicated presence of primary uranium mineral brannerite associated with goethite. This is the evidence of mafic intrusive providing geotherm and helping in scavenging the uranium from the surrounding and later alterations causing remobilisation and reconcentration of pre-existing uranium in host rocks as well as in mafic dyke itself otherwise mafic rocks are poor source of uranium and can not have primary uranium minerals initially. It can be concluded that mafic dykes have role in uranium mineralisation although indirectly. (author)

2012-01-01

173

Granite suites and supersuites of eastern Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Separate granite plutons in southeastern Australia can commonly be grouped into suites on the basis of shared similarities in field, petrographic and compositional data. Granites in different plutons of the same suite share common properties or exhibit a sequence of such features Rocks of the same suite are co genetic, but the details of their genesis need not be known or agreed on, to group granite units in such a way. These rocks are co genetic in the sense that they shared a similar petrogenesis and were derived from source materials of essentially the same composition, whereas differences between suites reflect analogous differences in their source rocks. The term suite is lithologic or lithodemic in a stratigraphic sense and is closely analogous to the lithostratigraphic term group As such, the plutons within a suite need not be of the same age, and age is not a factor in recognising a suite. However, the fact that the petrogenesis of the components of a suite resulted in such similar products means that their ages are likely to be similar Granite plutons that share many similar features, but which also show distinct differences and which may be assigned to more than one suite, may be grouped into supersuites. The allocation of granites to suites is fundamental to understanding their petrogenesis. Suites vary in the complexity of their compositional variation. Simple suites show variations in element abundances that are highly correlated and the dispersion of composition within such suites is considered to result from varying degrees of fractionation of entrained restite from a melt. Intricate suites vary in composition in more complex ways and their variation is considered to be a consequence of processes such as fractional crystallisation. Any mineralisation is generally associated with intricate suites, and the occurrence of mineralisation and its precise character is generally specific to particular suites. If isotopic compositional dispersion within a granite suite is observed, a process of magma mixing or mingling is commonly invoked. A particular case where isotopic dispersion would occur is that when a mantle-derived component partly melts and then mingles with a crustal magma (Barbarin 1991); the more felsic rocks would be isotopically more evolved than the mafic ones. Granite derived from heterogeneous source rocks, particularly granites formed from relatively low degrees of partial melting from metasedimentary rocks, might be expected to reflect that lack of isotopic uniformity in their source compositions. For example, Chappell et al. (1999) noted that the initial 87Sr/86Sr values for 10 granites sampled from various parts of the Jillamatong pluton show a range of 0.0039, approximately 50-fold that of analytical uncertainty. For this very mafic unit of the S-type Bullenbalong Suite, there is no systematic variation of strontium isotopic composition with SiO2, although samples of more felsic members of the Bullenbalong Suite and Supersuite show a systematic decrease in initial 87Sr/86Sr with increase in SiO2. This observation indicates that variation in initial isotope ratios is here source related, and not magma-mingling related. Copyright (2001) Geological Society of Australia

2001-01-01

174

A younger age for the universe  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The age of the universe in the Big Bang model can be calculated from three parameters: Hubble's constant, h; the mass density of the universe, Omegam; and the cosmological constant, OmegaLambda. Recent observations of the cosmic microwave background and six other cosmological measurements reduce the uncertainty in these three parameters, yielding an age for the universe of 13.4 +/- 1.6 billion years, which is a billion years younger than other recent age estimates. A different standard Big Bang model, which includes cold dark matter with a cosmological constant, provides a consistent and absolutely time-calibrated evolutionary sequence for the universe.

Lineweaver CH

1999-05-01

175

PALEOCLIMATE: The Younger Dryas: Cold, Cold Everywhere?  

Science.gov (United States)

The transition from the last ice age to the current warm period was interupted by a ~1000-year return to glacial conditions. Most of the evidence for this Younger Dryas (YD) event comes from in and around the North Atlantic, and the geographical extent of the event remains uncertain. In his Perspective, Rodbell reviews the evidence for and against a YD event in the Southern Hemisphere and highlights the study by Bennett et al., who have found no evidence for a YD event in four lake records from southern Chile. PMID:17734111

Rodbell, D T

2000-10-13

176

PALEOCLIMATE: The Younger Dryas: Cold, Cold Everywhere?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The transition from the last ice age to the current warm period was interupted by a ~1000-year return to glacial conditions. Most of the evidence for this Younger Dryas (YD) event comes from in and around the North Atlantic, and the geographical extent of the event remains uncertain. In his Perspective, Rodbell reviews the evidence for and against a YD event in the Southern Hemisphere and highlights the study by Bennett et al., who have found no evidence for a YD event in four lake records from southern Chile.

Rodbell DT

2000-10-01

177

STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ANOMALY INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze an anomaly based intrusion detection system (IDS) for outlier detection in hardware profile using statistical techniques: Chi-square distribution, Gaussian mixture distribution and Principal component analysis. Anomaly detection based methods can detect new intrusions but they suffer from false alarms. Host based Intrusion Detection Systems (HIDSs) use anomaly detection to identify malicious attacks i.e. intrusion. The features are shown by large set of dimensions and the system becomes extremely slow during processing this huge amount of data (especially, host based). We show the comparative results using three different approaches: Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Chi-square distribution and cluster with Gaussian mixture distribution. We get good results using these techniques.

Hari Om; Tanmoy Hazra

2012-01-01

178

A phased approach to network intrusion detection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the design and development of a prototype intrusion detection system for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Integrated Computing Network (ICN). The development of this system is based on three basic assumptions: (1) that statistical analysis of computer system and user activates may be used to characterize normal system and user behavior, and that given the resulting statistical profiles, behavior which deviates beyond certain bounds can be detected, (2) that expert system techniques can be applied to security auditing and intrusion detection, and (3) that successful intrusion detection may take place while monitoring a limited set of network activities. The Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) design intent was to duplicate and improve the audit record review activities which had previously been undertaken by security personnel, to replace the manual review of audit logs with a near realtime expert system.

Jackson, K.A.; DuBois, D.H.; Stallings, C.A.

1991-01-01

179

An introduction to gravity currents and intrusions  

CERN Multimedia

Gravity currents and intrusions are the ubiquitous phenomena where a fluid of one density flows horizontally into a fluid of a different density. This title provides a systematic introduction to the study, interpretation, and prediction of gravity current flows.

Ungarish, Marius

2009-01-01

180

Prevention and analysis of hacker's intrusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author analyzes the behavior characteristics and relevant technologies about the hacker's intrusion, and gives some corresponding solutions pertinently. To the recent events about hackers, the author gives detailed introduction and puts forward the relevant advice and valuable consideration

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Rb-Sr geochronology and petrogenesis of granitoids from the Chhotanagpur granite gneiss complex of Raikera-Kunkuri region, Central India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Precambrian Chhotanagpur granite gneiss complex (CGGC) terrain covers more than 80,000 sq km area, and is dominated by granitoid gneisses and migmatites. Recent geochronological data indicate that the CGGC terrain has witnessed five tectonomagmatic thermal events at: (i) 2.5-2.4 Ga, (ii) 2.2-2.0 Ga (iii)1.6-1.4 Ga (iv) 1.2-1.0 Ga and (v) 0.9-0.8 Ga. Of these, the third and the fourth events are widespread. The whole-rock Rb-Sr isotopic analysis of twenty granite samples from the CGGC of Raikera-Kunkuri region, Jashpur district, Chhattisgarh, Central India yields two distinct isochrons. The eleven samples of grey granites define an isochron age of 1005±51 Ma with moderate initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7047±0.0065, which corresponds to the fourth tectonomagmatic event. On the other hand, the nine samples of pink granites indicate younger isochron age of 815±47 Ma with a higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7539±0.0066 that matches with the fifth phase of the thermal event. The data suggest emplacement of large bodies of grey granite at ?1005 Ma that evolved possibly from precursors of tonalitic-granodioritic composition. Furthermore, the younger age (? 815 Ma) suggests the age of metasomatism, involving isotopic resetting, that resulted in genesis of pink granite bodies of limited areal extent. By analogy, the age of metasomatism (?815 Ma) may also be taken to represent the age of Y-mineralisation in the Raikera-Kunkuri region of the CGGC terrain. (author)

2009-01-01

182

Dissolution of tonalitic enclaves in ascending hydrous granitic magmas: An experimental study  

Science.gov (United States)

Dissolution of natural mafic magmatic enclaves in a hydrous leucogranitic synthetic melt has been tested experimentally. Results suggest that the mechanism of enclave dissolution is a potential hybridization process in granitic systems. Experiments performed in decompression, simulating ascending magmas, show interesting results: from 10 kbar to 4 kbar, for a given temperature, enhanced dissolution of the tonalitic enclave into the melt has been observed, compared with experiments at constant pressure. Furthermore, the composition of the melt changed to higher CaO, FeO and MgO contents. Dissolution textures on relict crystals from the tonalitic enclave were monitored. These results have implications for the generation of peraluminous monzogranites and granodiorites and an example for the Cabeza de Araya (Cáceres, Spain) from the “serie mixta” of the Iberian Massif is given. The tonalitic enclaves that are partially dissolved may be early or coeval intrusions into the granite magma or even into the source migmatitic area. Many mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic features of monzogranites (e.g.: reverse zoning in plagioclase, low Sr isotopic ratios) are accounted for by this mechanism of enclave dissolution during ascent and emplacement.

García-Moreno, O.; Castro, A.; Corretgé, L. G.; El-Hmidi, H.

2006-07-01

183

Meltwater routing and the Younger Dryas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Younger Dryas--the last major cold episode on Earth--is generally considered to have been triggered by a meltwater flood into the North Atlantic. The prevailing hypothesis, proposed by Broecker et al. [1989 Nature 341:318-321] more than two decades ago, suggests that an abrupt rerouting of Lake Agassiz overflow through the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Valley inhibited deep water formation in the subpolar North Atlantic and weakened the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). More recently, Tarasov and Peltier [2005 Nature 435:662-665] showed that meltwater could have discharged into the Arctic Ocean via the Mackenzie Valley ~4,000 km northwest of the St. Lawrence outlet. Here we use a sophisticated, high-resolution, ocean sea-ice model to study the delivery of meltwater from the two drainage outlets to the deep water formation regions in the North Atlantic. Unlike the hypothesis of Broecker et al., freshwater from the St. Lawrence Valley advects into the subtropical gyre ~3,000 km south of the North Atlantic deep water formation regions and weakens the AMOC by 30%. We conclude that meltwater discharge from the Arctic, rather than the St. Lawrence Valley, was more likely to have triggered the Younger Dryas cooling. PMID:23129657

Condron, Alan; Winsor, Peter

2012-11-05

184

Cluster based Intrusion Detection System for Manets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Manets are the ad hoc networks that are build on demand or instantly when some mobile nodes come in the mobility range of each other and decide to cooperate for data transfer and communication. Therefore there is no defined topology for Manets. They communicate in dynamic topology which continuously changes as nodes are not stable. Due to this lack of infrastructure and distributed nature they are more vulnerable for attacks and provide a good scope to malicious users to become part of the network. To prevent the security of mobile ad hoc networks many security measures are designed such as encryption algorithms, firewalls etc. But still there is some scope of malicious actions. So, Intrusion detection systems are proposed to detect any intruder in the network and its malicious activities. Cluster based intrusion detection system is also designed to restrict the intruders activities in clusters of mobile nodes. In clusters each node run some intrusion detection code to detect local as well as global intrusion. In this paper we have taken insight of intrusion detection systems and different attacks on Manet security. Then we proposed how overhead involved in cluster based intrusion detection system can be reduced.

Nisha Dang; Pooja Mittal

2012-01-01

185

A system for distributed intrusion detection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study of providing security in computer networks is a rapidly growing area of interest because the network is the medium over which most attacks or intrusions on computer systems are launched. One approach to solving this problem is the intrusion-detection concept, whose basic premise is that not only abandoning the existing and huge infrastructure of possibly-insecure computer and network systems is impossible, but also replacing them by totally-secure systems may not be feasible or cost effective. Previous work on intrusion-detection systems were performed on stand-alone hosts and on a broadcast local area network (LAN) environment. The focus of our present research is to extend our network intrusion-detection concept from the LAN environment to arbitarily wider areas with the network topology being arbitrary as well. The generalized distributed environment is heterogeneous, i.e., the network nodes can be hosts or servers from different vendors, or some of them could be LAN managers, like our previous work, a network security monitor (NSM), as well. The proposed architecture for this distributed intrusion-detection system consists of the following components: a host manager in each host; a LAN manager for monitoring each LAN in the system; and a central manager which is placed at a single secure location and which receives reports from various host and LAN managers to process these reports, correlate them, and detect intrusions. 11 refs., 2 figs.

Snapp, S.R.; Brentano, J.; Dias, G.V.; Goan, T.L.; Heberlein, L.T.; Ho, Che-Lin; Levitt, K.N.; Mukherjee, B. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Div. of Computer Science); Grance, T. (Air Force Cryptologic Support Center, San Antonio, TX (USA)); Mansur, D.L.; Pon, K.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Smaha, S.E. (Haystack Labs., Inc., Austin, TX (USA))

1991-01-01

186

Diffusion of fission fragment nuclides in granite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The diffusion behavior of 125I, 75Se, 134Cs and 85,89Sr (simulating 129I, 79Se, 137Cs and 90Sr, respectively) in granite was studied with a specially designed diffusion cell. The sorption dynamic curves for 134Cs and 85,89Sr were measured. The correspond diffusion equations were solved analytically and numerically. The calculated and experimentally observed data were compared and discussed. (author)

2004-01-01

187

Diffusion of fission fragment nuclides in granite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The diffusion behavior of {sup 125}I, {sup 75}Sc, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 85,89}Sr (simulating {sup 129}I, {sup 79}Sc, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, respectively) in granite was studied with a specially designed diffusion cell. The sorption dynamic curves for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 85,89}Sr were measured. The corresponding diffusion equations were solved analytically and numerically. The calculated and experimentally observed data were compared and discussed. (orig.)

Wen Ruiyan [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Technical Physics; Gao Hongcheng [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Technical Physics; Wang Xiangyun [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Technical Physics; Liu Yuanfang [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Technical Physics

1997-08-01

188

Sr and Nd isotopic characteristics of 1.77-1.58 Ga rift-related granites and volcanics of the Goias tin province, Central Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Supracrustal rocks of the Arai Group, together with coeval A-type granites represent a ca. 1.77-1.58 Ga old continental rift in Brazil. Two granite families are identified: the older (1.77 Ga) group forms small undeformed plutons, and the younger granites (ca. 1.58 Ga) constitute larger, deformed plutons. Sr-Nd isotopic data for these rocks indicate that the magmatism is mostly produced of re-melting of Paleoproterozoic sialic crust. Initial Sr ratios for both granite families are ca 0.276 and 0.720. Most TDM model ages are between 2.58 and 1.80 Ga. ?Nd (T) values are between +3.6 and -11.9. Arai volcanics are bimodal, with basalts and dacites/rhyolites interlayered with continental sediments. The felsic volcanics show Nd isotopic characteristics which are very similar to the granites, and are also interpreted as reworking of Paleoproterozoic crust. Detrital sediments of the Arai Group revealed TDM model ages between 2.4 and 2.16 Ga., indicating that they are the product of erosion of Paleoproterozoic crust. The data indicate that the Arai rift system was established on crust that had just become stable after the Paleoproterozoic orogeny. (author)

2001-01-01

189

The Phalaborwa Syenite Intrusions along the West-Central Boundary of the Kruger National Park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The geology of the Phalaborwa Complex is described and emphasis placed on the distribution of the large number of syenite intrusions. The petrography of the different textural types of syenites is discussed and it is shown that porphyritic, granular, gneissic and hypidiomorphic syenites are present. The petrography shows that the deformation textures, which are present in some of the syenites, may have formed during the emplacement of syenitic magmas which contained a high concentration of crystals. The geochemistry of the syenites is discussed and it is shown that they were not derived from an alkali basaltic magma through fractional crystallisation, but that they may rather represent alkali basaltic magmas which were contaminated by granitic material. The mode of emplacement of the Phalaborwa Complex is discussed and the relationship between the pyroxenites is explained.

C. Frick

1986-01-01

190

Novel Approach for Hybrid Intrusion Detection System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This Paper titled “Novel Approach for Intrusion Detection System” is an intrusion detection system (IDS) proposed by analyzing the principle of the intrusion detection system based on host and network. Basically this paper is to develop host based cum network based intrusion detection system for Microsoft Windows XP environment. Proposed concept that had used in this was applying intrusion detection rule matching technique on the Security Log File and Event Log File in Microsoft Windows XP for the Host based IDS module. The intrusion had identified when there was finding of attacks that is creating with these two file in Microsoft Windows XP. In Network based IDS module DOS, U2R, Rejected (RST) attacks are finding during packet capturing in network. Moreover, the security and performance of the proposed IDS is also estimated. The proposed IDS approve the effectiveness of the proposed method, and it shows advantages of host based as well as network based security. The proposed model of hybrid IDSs offers several advantages over alternative systems. First of all it provided higher security, it supported high availability and scalability, and most important thing it produced good results in terms of normal and abnormal behaviors of arrived packet. The proposed model includes integration of individual components to produced batter results. It supports to a system/network administrator the privileges for finding the intrusions which is reliable, secure and fast. The proposed model of hybrid IDS implemented in short time and at a low cost. It also provides a best user interface.

Ravi Kishore Sharma, Mr. Gajendra Singh Chandel

2012-01-01

191

Geological characteristics and the ore-forming process of the hydrothermal uranium ore deposit in Nanling granites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Granites extensively distributed in the Nanling region are of various ages, namely Caledonian, Hercynian and Yenshanian. The Yenshanian granites (197-115 x 10/sup 6/ years old) enriched in uranium show pronounced degree of differentiation, and their uranium content gradually increases from the older ones to the younger, until finally in the latest fine-grained binary granite the uranium content is six times higher than that in normal granite. Uranium mineralization is controlled by the late Neocathaysian fractional structures, and most of the industrial ore bodies exist in NNW shear-tensile fault zones. The enrichment of uranium is controlled by the fault zones. The central part of the mineral zones consists of pitchblende-bearing hematitized and silicified rocks, hematitized and silicified cataclastic rocks, post-ore forming banded fluorite-quartz veins and siliceous breccia, with alteration zones principally sericitized on both sides. Most of the ore bodies are veins in which the principal uranium mineral is pitchblende, the principal associated metallic minerals are hematite and pyrite, while the principal gangue minerals are quartz and fluorite. The source of uranium is genetically associated with the magmatic activity of the Yenshanian granite. As a result of differentiation and evolution, uranium was enriched in the magma of late stage and brought into the hydrothermal solution together with the volatiles. In the form of uranic-silicate complex, uranium was transported in the hydrothermal solution and travelled upward along the fault zones. With the change of U/sup 6 +/ into U/sup 4 +/, pitchblende was precipitated. The formation of pitchblende-quartz hydrothermal deposit was accompanied by hematitization, pyritization, sericitization, and intense silicification.

Qin, M.; Liu, S.

1980-05-01

192

A Distributed Network Intrusion Detection System with Active Surveillance Agent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A distributed network intrusion detection system (IDS) called SA-NIDS is proposed based on the network-based intrusion detection architecture. It includes three basic components, Local Intrusion Detection Monitor (LIDM), Global Intrusion Detection Controller (GIDC), and Surveillance Agent (SA). Basically, the LIDM is used to do packets capturing, packets de-multiplexing, local intrusion detection and intrusion inferring. The GIDC is installed in administration center for communicating and managing LIDMs, it can also do the intrusion detection and intrusion inferring. The SA contains several optional functions for information gathering. After an attack behavior is discovered, the SA may be used to launch some kinds of information gathering to the attacker, so that the proposed SA-NIDS has the active surveillance ability. For the intrusion inferring, the pattern matching and the statistical approach are applied in SA-NIDS. The experimental results can satisfy the needs of network information safety.    

Bin Zeng; Lu Yao; Rui Wang

2013-01-01

193

Note on bengkunat massive granites, Sidomulyo, Kotaagung-Lampung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bengkunat granites instrusion in the old andesite formation of Sidomulyo area, affected hydrothermal alteration such as propilitization on the andesite and low grade metamorphosed on the microdiorite rocks. The hydrothermal alteration process is indicated by the existence of minerals: calcites, chlorites, uralites, epidotes and quartz vein containing sulphide minerals. The quartz vein contained ore minerals formed by hydrothermal solution filled the tension crack caused by vertical force related to bengkunat granites instrusion. Granite dykes are found in the contact zone between granites and andesites and microdiorites. Along the contact zones the radioactivity of the rocks is relatively high. It could happen because of the presence of apatite and zirkon minerals in the rocks.

Soeprapto (Oadan Tenaga Atom Nasional, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pusat Eksplorasi dan Pengolahan Bahan Nuklir)

1982-04-01

194

Diffusion experiment of a radionuclide in granitic rock cores  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An effective diffusion coefficient of neptunium-237 which is one of hazardous long-lived radionuclide including high level radioactive waste was determined by using 40 mm diameter and 5 mm thick disks under an aerobic condition. An alpha autoradiography was performed for cross sections of a 20 mm thick granite disk to study the penetrated neptunium into granite. The effective diffusion coefficient of neptunium diffused through a water saturated granite was about 2.5 x 10-13 m2/sec. The autoradiograph of solid state track detectors clearly showed that biotite constituting granite has storage pores and keep diffusing species in it. (author)

1990-01-01

195

Portuguese granites associated with Sn-W and Au mineralizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In northern and central Portugal, there are different tin-bearing granites. Most of them are of S-type, others have mixed characteristics of I-type and S-type granites and a few are of I-type. Tin-tungsten deposits are commonly associated with Hercynian tin-bearing S-type granites. Some quartz veins with wolframite are associated with an I-type granite, which has a low Sn content. In suites of tin-bearing S-type granitic rocks, Sn content increases as a function of the degree of fractional crystallization. Greisenizations of two-mica S-type granites associated with tin-tungsten mineralizations are accompanied by an increase in SiO2, H2O+, Sn, W, Nb, Ta, Rb, Zn, and Pb and decrease in MgO, Na2O, V, Sc,Zr, and Sr. The granite associated with the Jales gold deposit is of S-type and strongly differentiated like the tin-bearing S-type granites, but it has a very low Sn content. During fractional crystallization, Si, Rb, Sn, Pb, Au, As, Sb, and S increase. During increasing degree of hydrothermal alteration of this granite at the gold-quartz vein walls, there are progressive increases in K2O, H2O+, Sn, Cs, Cu, Pb, Au, Sb, As, and S.

Ana M.R. Neiva

2002-01-01

196

Category-Based Intrusion Detection Using PCA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Existing Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) examine all the network features to detect intrusion or misuse patterns. In feature-based intrusion detection, some selected features may found to be redundant, useless or less important than the rest. This paper proposes a category-based selection of effective parameters for intrusion detection using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). In this paper, 32 basic features from TCP/IP header, and 116 derived features from TCP dump are selected in a network traffic dataset. Attacks are categorized in four groups, Denial of Service (DoS), Remote to User attack (R2L), Remote to User attack (U2R) and Probing attack. TCP dump from DARPA 1998 dataset is used in the experiments as the selected dataset. PCA method is used to determine an optimal feature set to make the detection process faster. Experimental results show that feature reduction can improve detection rate for the category-based detection approach while maintaining the detection accuracy within an acceptable range. In this paper KNN classification method is used for the classification of the attacks. Experimental results show that feature reduction will significantly speed up the train and the testing periods for identification of the intrusion attempts.

Gholam Reza Zargar; Tania Baghaie

2012-01-01

197

Intrusion problematic during water supply systems’ operation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intrusion through leaks occurrence is a phenomenon when external fluid comes into water pipe systems. This phenomenon can cause contamination problems in drinking pipe systems. Hence, this paper focuses on the entry of external fluids across small leaks during normal operation conditions. This situation is especially important in elevated points of the pipe profile. Pressure variations can origin water volume losses and intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes. This work focuses in obtaining up the physical representation on a specific case intrusion in a pipe water system. The combination of two factors is required to generate this kind of intrusion in a water supply system: on one hand the existence of at least a leak in the system; on the other hand, a pressure variation could occur during the operation of the system due to consumption variation, pump start-up or shutdown. The potential of intrusion during a dynamic or transient event is here analyzed. To obtain this objective an experimental case study of pressure transient scenario is analyzed with a small leak located nearby the transient source.

Jesus Mora-Rodriguez, P. Amparo López-Jimenez, Helena M. Ramos

2011-01-01

198

NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION AND PREVENTION ATTACKS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intrusion detection is an important technology in business sector as well as an active area of research. It is an important tool for information security. A Network Intrusion Detection System is used to monitor networks for attacks or intrusions and report these intrusions to the administrator in order to take evasive action. Today computers are part of networked; distributed systems that may span multiple buildings sometimes located thousands of miles apart. The network of such a system is a pathway for communication between the computers in the distributed system. The network is also a pathway for intrusion. This system is designed to detect and combat some common attacks on network systems. It follows the signature based IDs methodology for ascertaining attacks. A signature based IDS will monitor packets on the network and compare them against a database of signatures or attributes from known malicious threats. In this system the attack log displays the list of attacks to the administrator for evasive action. This system works as an alert device in the event of attacks directed towards an entire network.

Harpreet kaur

2012-01-01

199

NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM USING FUZZY LOGIC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IDS which are increasingly a key part of system defense are used to identify abnormal activities in a computer system. In general, the traditional intrusion detection relies on the extensive knowledge of security experts, in particular, on their familiarity with the computer system to be protected. To reduce this dependence, variousdata-mining and machine learning techniques have been used in the literature. In the proposed system, we have designed fuzzy logic-based system for effectively identifying the intrusion activities within a network. The proposed fuzzy logic-based system can be able to detect an intrusion behavior of the networks since the rule base contains a better set of rules. Here, we have used automated strategy for generation of fuzzy rules, which are obtained from the definite rules using frequent items. The experiments and evaluations of the proposed intrusion detection system are performed with the KDD Cup 99 intrusion detection dataset. The experimentalresults clearly show that the proposed system achieved higher precision in identifying whether the records are normal or attack one.

R. Shanmugavadivu; Dr.N.Nagarajan

2011-01-01

200

Geology and U-Pb geochronology of the Banabuiu granite, Northeastern Ceara, Brazil; Geologia y geocronologia U-Pb del granito de Banabuiu, Noreste de Ceara, Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Banabuiu massif crops out in the Central Ceara Domain (DCC) of the Borborema Province (NE Brasil), as an N-S elongate granite intrusion, concordant with the regional structures. It was emplaced into basement rocks of Paleoproterozoic age, extensively transformed into gneisses and migmatites during the Brasilian orogeny ({approx}600 Ma). Using U-Pb zircon dating, the crystallization age of the Banabuiu syn-kinematic two-mica granite was estimated at 578.6 {+-} 6.5 Ma. The granite is strongly peraluminous (A/CNK 1,098 - 1,134) and shows a typical S-type geochemical signature. The {epsilon}Nd{sub 5}80 values are strongly negative ({epsilon}Nd{sub 5}80 = -19 a - 23) and partially overlap with those of the Paleoproterozoic gneissmigmatite complex ({epsilon}Nd{sub 5}80 = -12 to -26), suggesting that the parental magmas of the Banabuiu granite could have been produced by partial melting of similar crustal materials. (Author) 21 refs.

Lima, M. N.; Nogueira Neto, J. A.; Azevedo, M. R.; Valle Aguado,

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Analysis of the Younger Dryas Impact Layer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have uncovered a thin layer of magnetic grains and microspherules, carbon spherules, and glass-like carbon at nine sites across North America, a site in Belgium, and throughout the rims of 16 Carolina Bays. It is consistent with the ejecta layer from an impact event and has been dated to 12.9 ka BP coinciding with the onset of Younger Dryas (YD) cooling and widespread megafaunal extinctions in North America. At many locations the impact layer is directly below a black mat marking the sudden disappearance of the megafauna and Clovis people. The distribution pattern of the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) ejecta layer is consistent with an impact near the Great Lakes that deposited terrestrial-like ejecta near the impact site and unusual, titanium-rich projectile-like ejecta further away. High water content associated with the ejecta, up to 28 at. percent hydrogen (H), suggests the impact occurred over the Laurentide Ice Sheet. YDB microspherules and magnetic grains are highly enriched in TiO{sub 2}. Magnetic grains from several sites are enriched in iridium (Ir), up to 117 ppb. The TiO{sub 2}/FeO, K/Th, TiO{sub 2}/Zr, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FeO+MgO, CaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, REE/ chondrite, FeO/MnO ratios and SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni, Co, U, Th and other trace element abundances are inconsistent with all terrestrial and extraterrestrial (ET) sources except for KREEP, a lunar igneous rock rich in potassium (K), rare-earth elements (REE), phosphorus (P), and other incompatible elements including U and Th. Normal Fe, Ti, and {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U isotopic abundances were found in the magnetic grains, but {sup 234}U was enriched over equilibrium values by 50 percent in Murray Springs and by 130 percent in Belgium. 40K abundance is enriched by up to 100 percent in YDB sediments and Clovis chert artifacts. Highly vesicular carbon spherules containing nanodiamonds, glass-like carbon, charcoal and soot found in large quantities in the YDB layer are consistent with an impact followed by intense burning. Four holes in the Great Lakes, some deeper than Death Valley, are proposed as possible craters produced by the airburst breakup of a loosely aggregated projectile.

Firestone, Richard B.; West, Allen; Revay, Zsolt; Hagstrum, Jonathon T,; Belgya, Thomas; Hee, Shane S. Que; Smith, Alan R.

2010-02-27

202

An overview to Software Architecture in Intrusion Detection System  

CERN Multimedia

Network intrusion detection systems provide proactive defense against security threats by detecting and blocking attack-related traffic. This task can be highly complex, and therefore, software based network intrusion detection systems have difficulty in handling high speed links. This paper reviews of many type of software architecture in intrusion detection systems and describes the design and implementation of a high-performance network intrusion detection system that combines the use of software-based network intrusion detection sensors and a network processor board. The network processor acts as a customized load balancing splitter that cooperates with a set of modified content-based network intrusion detection sensors in processing network traffic.

Bahrami, Mehdi

2012-01-01

203

Applying Fast String Matching to Intrusion Detection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of signature-based network intrusion detection tools is dominated by the string matching of packets against many signatures. In this paper we study how the popular intrusion detecton system Snort can be best optimized to utilize different string matching algorithms. We analyze the performance of Snort's current string matching algorithm, Boyer-Moore, and several alternate algorithms. We show that no single algorithm is fastest in the context of a real Snort rule set. Instead, we develop a hybrid system that utilizes three different search algorithms, including one new algorithm presented in this paper. The result is a system that matches many common packets 5 times faster with an average speedup of 50%. While the context of our analysis is intrusion detection, other problem domains such as virus scanning, firewalls, and layer seven switches benefit from our work.

Fisk, M. E. (Mike E. ); Varghese G. (George)

2001-01-01

204

An Architecture of Hybrid Intrusion Detection System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is renowned and widely-deployed security tool to detect attacks and malicious activities in information system. It is an essential element of any contemporary information system. There are mainly two techniques for intrusion detection: i) signature-based (misuse) detection and ii) anomaly-based detection technique. Both the techniques have their advantages and disadvantages. This paper presents research from an ongoing study on the use of features of both the intrusion detection techniques to design a novel and efficient hybrid IDS. An architecture and implementation details of our hybrid IDS are presented. Furthermore, unique characteristics of our hybrid IDS are described. This paper concludes with future research directions and challenges in IDS.

Kanubhai K Patel; Bharat V Buddhadev

2012-01-01

205

Detecting intrusions through attack signature analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intrusion detection has generally been based on defining normal user behavior through profiles and rule-based systems and on identifying significant deviations from such behavior as anomalous. An alternative, or a supplementary, strategy for detecting intrusions is based on attack signature analysis, whose objective is to define and recognize events or sequences of events as attack-type behavior. Such event sequences, which may constitute part of a larger attack, may be employed to exploit certain system flaws or known vulnerabilities. This paper concentrates on attack signature analysis in general, and on a preliminary version of the signature analysis module of the distributed intrusion detection system (DIDS) in particular. A signature representation is developed, a number of attack scenarios and their corresponding signatures are outlined, and mechanisms to detect the signatures are discussed.

Snapp, S.R. [Haystack Labs., Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Mukherjee, B.; Levitt, K.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1991-10-11

206

Age and origin of coeval TTG, I- and S-type granites in the Famatinian belt of NW Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Located on the Palaeozoic Pacific margin of Gondwana, at the opposite extreme to the Lachlan Fold Belt, the Sierras Pampeanas of central and NW Argentina also constitute a large granitic province displaying the coeval concurrence of I and S-type magmas. The Famatinian magmatic belt consists mostly of granitoids emplaced in Early Ordovician times, after Cambrian accretion of the Pampean terrane and before the Late Ordovician/Silurian accretion of the Precordillera terrane. New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages, isotope and geochemical data are used to interpret the petrogenesis of this belt. Three types of granitoid are recognized in the Famatinian belt, based on lithology and geochemical data. These are (a) a minor trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite (TTG) group, which occurs only in the Pampean foreland, (b) a metaluminous I-type gabbromonzogranite suite, and (c) S-type granites, which occur both as small cordieritic intrusions associated with l-type granodiorites and as large batholithic masses. Twelve new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages establish the contemporaneity of all three types in Early Ordovician times (mainly 470-490 Ma ago). Sr- and Nd-isotopic data suggest that, apart from some TTG plutons with asthenospheric characteristics, the remaining magmas were derived from a Proterozoic crust-lithospheric mantle section (Nd model ages of 1500-1700 Ma). Granulite xenoliths in Cretaceous alkalic rocks that have been described by other authors may represent samples of this source region. Trace element modelling suggests that the TTG and I-type gabbros originated by variable melting of a lithospheric gabbroid source at 10-12 kbar and ca. 5 kbar, respectively. The voluminous intermediate and acidic I-types, which show a trend to slightly more evolved isotopic signatures than the inferred source, probably represent hybridization of the most primitive magmas with lower and middle crustal melts. The highly peraluminous S-type granites have similar isotopic and inherited zircon patterns to Cambrian supracrustal metasedimentary rocks deposited in the Pampean cycle, and were derived from them by local anatexis. Other major components of the S-type batholiths, including porphyritic biotite granites, probably involved melting of deeper crust and mixing with the l-type magmas, leading to an isotopic and geochemical continuum. This model is similar to others that have been advanced for the I- and S-type granites of the Lachlan Fold Belt of Australia and the Hercynian granites of Spain, but we argue that in the Famatinian belt at least no juvenile mantle source was involved. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

1999-01-01

207

Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily activities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis (HD) and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering sociodemographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was carried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were analyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 + - 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%), 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear families. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 + - 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%), work (70%) finance (55%), diet (50%) sexual life (38%) and psychological status (25%). Illness had not intruded in areas of relationship with spouse (67%), friends (76%), family (79%), social (40%) and religious functions (72%). Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02). (author)

2009-01-01

208

Data Visualization Technique Framework for Intrusion detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Network attacks have become the fundamental threat to today's largely interconnected computer system. Intrusion detection system (IDS) is indispensable to defend the system in the face of increasing vulnerabilities. While a number of information visualization software frameworks exist, creating new visualizations, especially those that involve novel visualization metaphors, interaction techniques, data analysis strategies, and specialized rendering algorithms, is still often a difficult process. To facilitate the creation of novel visualizations this paper presents a new framework that is designed with using data visualization technique for analysis and visualizes snort result data for user. The framework suggests PHP and CSS as data visualization technique and snort as intrusion detection system (IDS).

Alaa El - Din Riad; Ibrahim Elhenawy; Ahmed Hassan; Nancy Awadallah

2011-01-01

209

Adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) software routines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) was developed to collect information from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique digital data-compression, storage, and formatting system; it also incorporates a capability for video selection and recording for assessment of the sensors monitored by the system. The system is software reprogrammable to numerous configurations that may be used for the collection of environmental, bilevel, analog, and video data. This report describes the software routines that control the different AIDS data-collection modes, the diagnostic programs to test the operating hardware, and the data format. Sample data printouts are also included

1980-01-01

210

Computationally Efficient Neural Network Intrusion Security Awareness  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An enhanced version of an algorithm to provide anomaly based intrusion detection alerts for cyber security state awareness is detailed. A unique aspect is the training of an error back-propagation neural network with intrusion detection rule features to provide a recognition basis. Network packet details are subsequently provided to the trained network to produce a classification. This leverages rule knowledge sets to produce classifications for anomaly based systems. Several test cases executed on ICMP protocol revealed a 60% identification rate of true positives. This rate matched the previous work, but 70% less memory was used and the run time was reduced to less than 1 second from 37 seconds.

Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

2009-08-01

211

Thermoluminescence of the mineral components in granite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermoluminescence (TL) of the minerals in Climax Stock (Nevada, USA) granite has been studied. The principal mineral constituents are plagioclase, quartz, potassium feldspar and biotite. Pyrite, sphene apatite and zircon occur at one percent or less. All exhibit TL except biotite. The TL kinetics were determined for plagioclase, quartz, potassium feldspar and pyrite. Plagioclase and potassium feldspar exhibit second order and pyrite first orker kinetics. Natural TL of quartz follows second order and artificial TL first order kinetics. However, in these four minerals unrealistic kinetic parameters are often obtained; thus more general kinetics, e.g. interactive kinetics, may apply. 8 figures.

Schwartzman, R.G.; Kierstead, J.A.; Levy, P.W.

1982-01-01

212

The intrusive complexof the Island of Giglio: geomagnetic characteristics of plutonic facies with low susceptibility contrast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two main plutonic facies characterize the intrusive complex of the Island of Giglio, and the trend of their contact at depth has been modelled using a 2D½ analysis based on a detailed geomagnetic survey in order to verify the geological hypothesis of the subsurface geometry of this contact. The magnetic anomaly connected with the discontinuity is quite low, due to the small difference between the magnetic susceptibilities of the two granitic facies. Development of this model of inversion of the magnetic field, which is in good agreement with the geological interpretation, was made possible by: 1) accurate control of the geomagnetic time variations and consequent temporal reduction, 2) a very low level of the artificial magnetic noise, 3) high density of the magnetic survey, 4) detailed knowledge of the mapped geologic contact between facies and of their petrologic characteristics, and 5) direct local measurements of the magnetic susceptibilities of the key lithologies. The model shows the trends of the geological contact, as projected in three E-W sections, that dips eastward in the range between 210 and 540, supporting the geologic hypothesis that the Pietrabona facies represents an external shell of the shallowly emplaced Giglio monzogranite intrusion.

O. Faggioni; D. Westerman; F. Innocenti; N. Beverini; C. Carmisciano; R. Cavallini; A. Dini

1998-01-01

213

Geophysical Mapping of Saltwater Intrusion in Everglades National Park.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mapping of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers has traditionally relied upon observation wells and collection of water samples. This approach may miss important hydrologic features related to saltwater intrusion in areas where access is difficult ...

D. V. Fitterman M. Deszcz-Pan

2002-01-01

214

A Novel Datamining Based Approach for Remote Intrusion Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, as information systems are more open to the Internet,attacks and intrusions are also increasing rapidly so the importance of secure networks is also vital. New intelligent Intrusion Detection Systems which are based on sophisticated algorithms are in demand.Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is an important detection used as a countermeasure to preserve data integrity and system availability from attacks. It is a combination of software and hardware that attempts to perform intrusion detection.In data mining based intrusion detection system, we should make use of particular domain knowledge in relation to intrusion detection in order to efficiently extract relative rules from large amounts of records.This paper proposes boosting method for intrusion detection and it is possible to detect the intrusions in all the Systems, without installing the Software in client System (like client-server) via Web service (Apache tomcat) by using the ip address of the client system.

Renu Deepti.S, Loshma.G

2012-01-01

215

Crack Damage in Granite: Physical and Mechanical Consequences  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate the effects of pervasive crack damage on the rupture processes of a fine-grained granite, under triaxial stress, in wet (H20) and dry (argon gas) saturated conditions, at room temperature. Eight samples of La Peyratte granite (a granodiorite with an average grain size of 800 microns) were cored with an initial porosity of

Wang, X.-q.; Schubnel, A.; Fortin, J.; Gueguen, Y.; Ge, H.-k.

2012-04-01

216

The Serra do Carambei Granite - PR and the uraniferous anomalism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Serra do Carambei Granite forms a pluton relatively homogeneous, covering about 33 km2, cropping out as an elongate retangular body trending NE-SW, being emplaced in the Cunhaporanga Granitoid Complex. Its characteristics indicates a kind of hololeucocratic granite, equigranular, medium to coarse-grained, consisting predominantly of microperthitic alkali-feldspar, quartz and a small amount of biotite (less than 1%), thus being classified as an alaskite. Chemical data allows a classification in the group of granite with high contents of silica (74-76% Wt. SiO2), dominantly alkaline chemism and hypersolvus character, derived from a parental magma under saturated in water with distinguished features of granitoids from the magnetite series and types I and A granites. The pluton shows important chemical variations due to weathering processes. However detailed chemical studies reveal the presence of anomalous concentrations of trace elements such as U, Sn, Nb, Y, Zr, the Serra do Carambei Granite lacks economically important mineralizations because of the absence of well-developed tardi/pos-magmatic processes that could concentrate them. The SW side of the granite is cut by leucocratic rhyolite dykes that show some radiometric anomalies. These rocks, which are highly diferentiated, were emplaced contemporaneously to the Serra do Carambei Granite. Although petrographic and chronological similarities are found between the uraniferous alaskite of Roessing (Namibia) and the Serra do Carambei Granite anyhow it was not possible to establish any lateral continuity with the uranifeous Pan-African Province. (Author)

1986-01-01

217

AGCM experiments on the Younger Dryas climate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Younger Dryas (YD) cooling ({proportional_to}12.5-11.5 thousand years before present) signified an interruption of the warming during the transition from the last glacial to the present interglacial. Since the mechanism responsible for this cooling is still uncertain, a numerical simulation of the YD climate has been undertaken to obtain some additional insight into this event. Three experiments with the ECHAM3 atmospheric general circulation model at T42 resolution were carried out to study the YD climate. In a first experiment only the North Atlantic surface conditions were altered according to geological evidence. In a second and third experiment additional boundary conditions were altered, as ice-sheets were introduced in North America and Scandinavia and the insolation and CO{sub 2} concentration were changed. The third simulation was identical to the second, except for an additional North Pacific cooling. The experimental outcomes were compared with that of a control simulation of present climate. The main deviations in the results were found around the North Atlantic Ocean. In the YD experiments the mean annual temperature was a few degrees lower over the continents, although the difference was larger in the vicinity of newly defined ice-sheets. An intensified atmospheric circulation was simulated. Deviations from the control climate were compared with climate reconstructions based on geological evidence. The reconstructed cooling in Europe during YD was larger than in the simulations, especially during the northern hemisphere (NH) winter. During the NH summer the reconstructions showed a large temperature gradient going inland which was consistent with the experiments. Improvements in the N-Atlantic sea surface conditions were proposed, since they were the most important factor controlling deviations. (orig.)

Renssen, H. [Netherlands Centre for Geo-Ecological Research (ICG), Utrecht (Netherlands)]|[Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Dept. of Physical Geography; Lautenschlager, M. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany); Bengtsson, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Schulzweida, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

1995-09-01

218

Reply to N. C. Higgins' comment on origin of alkali-feldspar granites: An example from the Poimena Granite, northeastern Tasmania, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper acts as a rebuttal to comments made by other scientists regarding the origin of the Poimena Granite as discussed in an earlier paper by these authors. The Lottah Granite and the enclosing Poimena Granite of northeastern Tasmania represent one of the best documented and most intensely Li-F-rich alkali-feldspar granite and its much more voluminous biotite granite host. The issue under debate is which of the two most generally supported models for the origin of Li-F-Sn granites-magmatic or metasomatic-hydrothermal-best explains the data obtained from the Lottah and Poimena Granites It is not the authors intent to imply that alkali-feldspar granites cannot be generated from granites similar to the Poimena Granite by fractional crystallization: the St. Austell Granite is an excellent example of such a relationship. Nor do the authors intend to imply that metasomatic and hydrothermal processes have not operated at all in the Lottah Granite. They seek rather to demonstrate that magmatic processes alone are capable of generating alkali-feldspar granites enriched in Sn, Li, Rb, F etc. and that such granites need not be genetically linked to spatially associated normal granites. Some of the arguments and data are subsequently presented in this paper.

MacKenzie, D.E.; Sun, S.S.; Black, L.P. (Bureau of Mineral Resources, Canberra (Australia))

1990-08-01

219

The 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue. Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue is to inform the French authorities, associations and population about the project of construction of an underground laboratory for the study of the disposal of high level and long-life radioactive wastes in a granitic environment. The aim of the dialogue was not to select a site but to collect the public reactions and advices about such a project. However, such a dialogue has partially failed because of a misunderstanding of the population about the aims of the mission. However, the mission has collected many point of views and questions which are developed in this report. The first and second chapters recall the process of the mission and its progress, while a third chapter stresses on the questions asked by the public and which concern the fear of nuclear wastes and the incompatibility between the disposal of wastes and the socio-economical development of the region concerned. Thanks to the lessons drawn from this experience, the mission has formulated some recommendations (chapter 4) concerning the need for a better information of the population about any topic in relation with the radioactive wastes. Some complementary information is provided in appendixes. (J.S.)

2000-01-01

220

Uranium in the Carnmenellis granite, Cornwall, England  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Samples from a 30 meter core from the Rosemanowas quarry in the Carnmenellis granite in Cornwall, England were analyzed by induced fission track detection, delayed neutron detection, backscattered electron imaging in a SEM, and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry. Uranium occurs mainly in: (1) primary accessory minerals; (2) alteration and replacement phases, and (3) microcrack-sealing phases. Zircon, monazite, and apatite are common uraniferous primary accessory minerals. Uraniferous alteration phases include hematite, rutile and pyrolusite. Hematite is a common uraniferous replacement phase. Most sealed microcracks contain uranium. Hematite and pyrolusite are ubiquitous uraniferous crack-sealing phases. Autunite and churchite are occasional uraniferous crack-sealing phases. Whole rock uranium concentrations are extremely variable. High uranium contents result from high percentages of uraniferous primary accessory phases and/or rutile. Hydrothermal activity, such as hematization, can result in depleted whole rock uranium concentrations. Results of this study indicate that uranium and light rare earth elements have been mobilized and redistributed in this section of the Carnmenellis granite by postmagmatic processes. 28 refs., 13 figs. 2 tabs

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

In-situ experiments in granite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In-stitu experiments in granite were started in 1983 as a three-year plan of research and development of the experimental techniques to aime at development of a site assessment methodology and to provide the data for the safety assessment of the disposal of radioactive waste. At the test site of granite, an experimental room was excavated for exclusive use and heater test, migration test and corrosion test were performed. The heater test showed good agreement between measured and calculated temperatures in the rock where no fracture was found, however, in fractured zone it showed that the heat transfer by the ground water could not be disregarded. Rock deformation and permiability change were found near the heater in the fractured zone. Nuclide transport along the fracture is much faster than the transport in the rock matrix, besides dispersion in the rock matrix has very important role from the migration test. Corrosion test used sensitized specimens showed that some samples have susceptibilities to stress corrosion cracking after 12 months. (author)

1986-01-01

222

Lower Granite Pool and Turbine Survival Study, 1987.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Survival of yearling spring chinook salmon was estimated as they traversed Lower Granite Reservoir and passed through a turbine at Lower Granite Dam. Fish were PIT tagged at Rapid River Hatchery and transported to release sites near Asotin, Washington, and at Lower Granite Dam. Recovery ratios of treatment and control groups were used to estimate survival. Estimates were based on tags intercepted at both Lower Granite and Little Goose dams. Turbine survival was estimated to be 83.1% (95% CI = 74.1 to 92.2%). A qualified estimate of survival from Asotin to Lower Granite Dam for a single release group was calculated as 71.9%. Uncertainties associated with satisfying certain key mark and recapture statistical assumptions are examined. As a result of these uncertainties, an alternate study design and analytical procedure are recommended for future investigations. 14 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Giorgi, Albert E.; Stuehrenberg, Lowell

1988-06-01

223

Plane shock wave studies of Westerly granite and Nugget sandstone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plane shock wave experiments were performed by using a light-gas gun on dry and water-saturated Westerly granite and dry Nugget sandstone. Changes in the slopes of the shock velocity versus particle velocity curves at 2 to 3 GPa and 1 to 2 GPa for dry granite and for dry sandstone, respectively, are attributed to the onset of pore collapse. However, there is little apparent loss of shear strength in either dry rock over the stress range of the experiments (i.e., 9.3 GPa in Westerly granite and 9.2 GPa in Nugget sandstone). Agreement between the shock wave data and quasistatic, uniaxial strain data for the dry rock implies the absence of rate-dependence in uniaxial strain. The shock data on saturated granite agree well with those for dry granite, thus suggesting there was no loss in shear strength as a result of pore pressure buildup.

Larson, D.B.; Anderson, G.D.

1980-12-01

224

Wave Induced Saline Intrusion in Sea Outfalls  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the influence of wave increases the tendency of saline intrusion in multi-riser sea outfalls. The flow field in the diffusor under such unsteady and inhomogeneous circumstances is in general very complex, but when sufficient wave energy is dissipate...

Larsen, Torben; Burrows, Richard

225

Smart sensor systems for outdoor intrusion detection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A major improvement in outdoor perimeter security system probability of detection (PD) and reduction in false alarm rate (FAR) and nuisance alarm rate (NAR) may be obtained by analyzing the indications immediately preceding an event which might be interpreted as an intrusion. Existing systems go into alarm after crossing a threshold. Very slow changes, which accumulate until the threshold is reached, may be assessed falsely as an intrusion. A hierarchial program has begun at Stellar to develop a modular, expandable Smart Sensor system which may be interfaced to most types of sensor and alarm reporting systems. A major upgrade to the SSI Test Site is in progress so that intrusions may be simulated in a controlled and repeatable manner. A test platform is being constructed which will operate in conduction with a mobile instrumentation center with CCTVB, lighting control, weather and data monitoring and remote control of the test platform and intrusion simulators. Additional testing was contracted with an independent test facility to assess the effects of severe winter weather conditions.

1988-01-01

226

Evolutionary Design of Intrusion Detection Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intrusion detection is the process of monitoring the events occurring in a computer system or network and analyzing them for signs of intrusions, defined as attempts to compromise the confidentiality, integrity, availability, or to bypass the security mechanisms of a computer or network. This paper proposes the development of an Intrusion Detection Program (IDP) which could detect known attack patterns. An IDP does not eliminate the use of any preventive mechanism but it works as the last defensive mechanism in securing the system. Three variants of genetic programming techniques namely Linear Genetic Programming (LGP), Multi-Expression Programming (MEP) and Gene Expression Programming (GEP) were evaluated to design IDP. Several indices are used for comparisons and a detailed analysis of MEP technique is provided. Empirical results reveal that genetic programming technique could play a major role in develop- ing IDP, which are light weight and accurate when compared to some of the conventional intrusion detection systems based on machine learning paradigms.

Ajith Abraham; Crina Grosan; Carlos Martin-Vide

2007-01-01

227

Structural, Petrographic and Geochemical Characteristics of Mafic Dikes Intrusive in Metasedimentary Rocks of the Crixás Greenstone Belt, Goiás  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mafic dikes and stocks are a common feature in the Archean terrain of Goiás, Central Brazil, where they occur asswarms of 2.3 - 2.5 Ga within the granite-gneiss complexes (2.8 e 2.7 Ga), as well as intrusions related to the komatiite andbasalt flows of the greenstone belts lower stratigraphic units, but were unknown within the upper metasedimentary units.Detailed study of core sections from several drill-sites in the area of the Crixás greenstone belt gold deposits showed thatdike intrusion occurred after the main Paleoproterozoic deformation and metamorphism of the metasedimentary units,and literature data indicate that the magmatic zircons from the dikes yielded an age of 2,170 ± 17 Ma. Petrographic andgeochemical data show that they have the composition of epicratonic high-Ti diabases, which are similar to the largecontinental flood basalts of the Paraná Basin. The age of the intrusions may be correlated with the short time-interval of theRhyacian (2.20 to 2.17 Ga), during which successive localized episodes of mantle plume volcanism occurred on the Earth.

Hardy Jost; Jayme Estevão Scandolara

2010-01-01

228

Inclusões fluidas crepitadas, fluidos hipersalinos e aquo-carbônicos em quartzo associado a rochas micáceas no Granito Xinguara - Terreno Granito-Greenstone de Rio Maria, PA Decrepitated fluid inclusions, aqueous-carbonic and hypersaline fluids in quartz associated to micaceous rocks in the Xinguara Granite - Rio Maria Granite - Greenstone terrain, Pará, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As rochas micáceas encontradas no Granito Xinguara, terreno Granito-Greenstone de Rio Maria, Pará, são compostas por muscovita e clorita com níveis de quartzo intercalados, que formam uma xistosidade bem desenvolvida. Essa xistosidade é cortada por veios de quartzo. Ambas as gerações de quartzo apresentam os mesmos tipos de inclusões fluidas em halos ou trilhas secundárias de composições variadas entre aquosas, aquo-carbônicas e saturadas em torno de grandes inclusões primárias crepitadas ou em trilhas transgranulares secundárias. A grande variação de temperaturas de homogeneização, a alta salinidade, as evidências de estrangulamento e a existência das inclusões crepitadas permitem supor forte influência de alterações pós-formacionais e reequilíbrio relacionados à intrusão do granito. Essas rochas foliadas são, portanto, enclaves metassedimentares afetados por fluidos graníticos hipersalinos aquo-carbônicos.The micaceous rocks occurring in the Xinguara Granite, Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone terrain, Pará State, Brazil, are composed of muscovite and chlorite with quartz levels intercalated forming a well developed schistosity. This schistosity is cut by quartz veins. Both quartz generations show the same aqueous, aqueous-carbonic and halite-bearing fluid inclusions either in secondary inclusions halos and trails surrounding decrepitated primary fluid inclusions or in transgranular secondary trails. A wide variation of homogenization temperatures, high salinity, necking down and the decrepitated inclusions existence indicates strong influence of post-formational alteration and reequilibration linked to the granite intrusion. These foliated rocks are metasedimentary enclaves affected by late hypersaline aqueous-carbonic granitic fluids.

Marcelo Leopoldo Weber; Luiz Henrique Ronchi; Fernando Jacques Althoff; Albano Antônio da Silva Leite; Roberto Dall'Agnol; Kazuo Fuzikawa

2008-01-01

229

Radon exhalation from granites used in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 50 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were taken using a radon gas analyzer. These materials included sand, aggregate, cement, gypsum, hydrated lime, ceramics and granite. It was found that the granite samples were the main source of radon emanations. A total of 32 local and imported granite samples were tested. It was found that the radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from not detectable to 10.6 Bq m-2 h-1 with an average of 1.3 Bq m-2 h-1. The linear correlation coefficient between emanated radon and radium content was 0.92. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 2.0 cm thick granite samples varied from not detectable to 0.068 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1) with an average of 0.030 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1). The average radon emanation of the granite samples was found to be 21% of the total radium concentration. Therefore, granite can be a source of indoor radon as well as external gamma-radiation from the uranium decay series.

al-Jarallah M

2001-01-01

230

Expected repository environments in granite: thermal environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report was prepared for the Reference Repository Conditions - Interface Working Group and will be used to formulate a standardized description of repository conditions for use by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. A baseline repository in granite is defined and three waste types are considered: unreprocessed spent fuel, commercial high-level waste, and defense high-level waste. Three different scales of repository environment are described - the very-near field (near the waste canister), the near field (the room and pillar), and the far field (the entire repository and surroundings). Information was compiled from the literature and, in addition, a number of calculations were performed. The major emphasis is on describing the thermal environment although the ground-water flow and chemical and radiation environments are also described. 61 figures, 24 tables

1984-01-01

231

Alkaline lixiviation of uranium in granitic pegmatite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work described herein concerns the determination of the experimental optimum conditions for the alkaline lixiviation of uranium based on the following parameters: time, pH, temperature, density and grane size. The samples were obtained from the Supamo complex, near the Currupia river in the Piar District of the Bolivar State in Venezuela. They have a granitic composition and graphitic texture. The uranium was found in them as a secondary oxidized mineral of green-yellow colour localized in fractures fissures, intergranular spaces and also in the mica as. Secondary uranitite. The lixiviation process was carried out using Na2CO3/NaHCO3 buffer solution and for 100 gr. samples the best values for an efficient process were found by using 170 mesh grane size and 500 ml of pH buffer at 700C for a 24 hour time period. (author).

1980-01-01

232

Diffusion data in granite. Recommended values  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Diffusion data for radionuclide transport in the porous matrix of rock are proposed for Swedish rock and ground waters, for performance assessment. Suggested data are based on an experimental diffusion study, where tritiated water was used as noninteracting diffusing species in stationary diffusion experiments in Aespoe fine grained granite and diorite. These data, for tritiated water, were used as reference in our study. For other species the effective diffusivities could be predicted from knowledge of the relative behaviour of these species to that of tritiated water. The behaviour is influenced by the difference in free water diffusivity and sometimes the existence of anion exclusion of surface diffusion. Apparent diffusivities are also calculated using sorption data, in addition to the effective diffusivities. Data are proposed for high saline and low saline ground water conditions

1997-01-01

233

Mechanical response of jointed granite during shaft sinking at the Canadian Underground Research Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the geoscience research within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is constructing an underground research laboratory (URL) in a previously undisturbed portion of a granitic intrusive, the Lac du Bonnet batholith, approximately 100 km northeast of Winnipeg, Manitoba. The overall geotechnical objectives of the URL are to assess and improve our ability to interpret and predict the geological, geophysical, geochemical, geomechanical and hydrogeological conditions of large bodies of plutonic rock, as well as to assess the accuracy of mathematical models used to predict the near-field mechanical and hydrogeological responses of the rock mass to excavation and thermal loading. Construction will be completed in July, 1986. Large-scale testing will commence soon afterwards and will last until the facility is decommissioned in the year 2000. A rectangular access shaft, 255 m deep x 2.8 m x 4.8 m, was sunk during the period May 1984 to March 1985. Rock displacements and stress changes were monitored as the excavation face (bottom) of the shaft advanced. The major objectives of this monitoring were (a) to evaluate and improve the ability of numerical models in predicting the mechanical response of the rock mass, (b) to back-calculate the rock-mass deformation modulus as a function of depth, (c) to assess the influence of natural fractures on the mechanical response of the granitic rock mass, and (d) to evaluate the quality of the geomechanical instrumentation, to determine instrumentation needs for future field experiments. Analysis of the data from this monitoring will aid the design and modelling of further experiments in the URL. In this paper, the rock displacements measured by an array of extensometers at 15 m below ground surface are presented and compared with predictions by a three-dimensional elastic continuum finite-element model.

1985-01-01

234

Oxygen isotope use in the metallogenetic study of the Pedra Preta W mine, Musa Granite, Para State, Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pedra Preta wolframite deposit constitutes the main reserve of the Amazonian region, Brazil. Recent metallogenetic studies realized in the mine, allowed to identify four hydrothermal events related to the precocious, late and final vein formation. The first are of the metamorphic origin and basically composed of quartz, topaz and sulfide; the late veins are related to the Musa granite intrusion and are composed of quartz, topaz, fluorite, micas, sulfides and oxides (principally wolframite); the final veins are essentially constituted by quartz. The paper determines the characteristics isotopic signatures of different minerals found in the Pedra Preta deposit. Fourteen samples were analysed, and the fluid isotopic composition were determined through the ?18 O measurement in quartz, micas and wolframite

1996-06-02

235

A Comprehensive Study in Data Mining Frameworks for Intrusion Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intrusions are the activities that violate the security policy of system. Intrusion Detection is the process used to identify intrusions. Network security is to be considered as a major issue in recent years, since the computer network keeps on expanding every day. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a system for detecting intrusions and reporting to the authority or to the network administration. Data mining techniques have been successfully applied in many fields like Network Management, Education, Science, Business, Manufacturing, Process control, and Fraud Detection. Data Mining for IDS is the technique which can be used mainly to identify unknown attacks and to raise alarms when security violations are detected. The purpose of this survey paper is to describe the methods/ techniques which are being used for Intrusion Detection based on Data mining concepts and the designed frame works for the same. We are also going to review the related works for intrusion detection.

R.Venkatesan, R. Ganesan, A. Arul Lawrence Selvakumar

2012-01-01

236

A Survey on Intrusion Detection using Data Mining Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intrusions are the activities that violate the security policy of system. Intrusion Detection is the process used to identify intrusions. Network security is to be considered as a major issue in recent years, since the computer network keeps on extending dramatically. Information Systems and Networks are subject to electronic attacks and the possibilities of intrusion are very high.  An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a system for detecting intrusions and reporting to the authority or to the network administration.  Data mining techniques have been successfully applied in many fields like Network Management, Education, Biology, Marketing, Manufacturing, Process control, and Fraud Detection.  Data Mining for IDS is the technique which can be used mainly to identify unknown attacks and to raise alarms when security violations are detected.  The purpose of this survey paper is to describe the methods/ techniques which are being used for Intrusion Detection based on Data mining concepts.  

R. Venkatesan

2012-01-01

237

Petrogenesis of Tin-bearing Granites from Ervedosa, Northern Portugal: The Importance of Magmatic Processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three Hercynian highly peraluminous tin-bearing granites define a sequence ranging from muscovite-biotite granite to muscovite granite. Tin-bearing quartz veins are genetically related to this sequence. Variation diagrams of most major and trace elements of granites, biotite and muscovite show fract...

Gomes, M. E. P.; Neiva, A. M. R.

238

NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM USING REDUCED DIMENSIONALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is the science of detection of malicious activity on a computer network and the basic driver for network security. It is defined as a process of monitoring the events occurring in a computer system or network and analyzing them to differentiate between normal activities of the system and behaviors that can be classified as suspicious or intrusive. In this paper identifying the network attacks and comparing the performance of the algorithms is performed respectively. The Dimension Reduction focuses on using information obtained KDD Cup 99 data set for the selection of attributes to identify the type of attacks. The dimensionality reduction is performed on 41 attributes to 14 and 7 attributes based on Best First Search method and then apply the two classifying Algorithms ID3 and J48.

M. Revathi,; T.Ramesh

2011-01-01

239

A simplified approach to true molar intrusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthodontic management of anterior open bites is a demanding task for orthodontists. Molar intrusion as a primary means of open bite correction entails the need for appropriate anchorage. Orthodontic mini implants can provide the required mechanical support. The suggested procedure aims to reduce the risk of complications such as root damage or soft tissue irritations while minimizing overall complexity. Methods Three female patients aged 14, 18 and 19 years who decided against a surgical correction were treated with a device consisting of mini implants in the palatal slope, a palatal bar and intrusion cantilevers. Results In all three patients, an open bite reduction of more than a millimeter occurred within four months. An anterior overbite of 2 mm or more could be established within 6 to 9 months. Conclusions The method presented in this article enables the practitioner to use mini implants in an easily accessible insertion site. A lab-side procedure is optional but not required.

Flieger Stefanie; Ziebura Thomas; Kleinheinz Johannes; Wiechmann Dirk

2012-01-01

240

A Survey on VANET Intrusion Detection Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, the security issues on Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have become one of the primary concerns. The VANET is inherently very vulnerable to attacks than wired network because it is characterized by high mobility, shared wireless medium and the absence of centralized security services offered by dedicated equipment such as firewalls and authentication servers. Attackcountermeasures such as digital signature and encryption, can be used as the first line of defense for reducing the possibilities of attacks. However, these techniques have limited prevention in general, and they are designed for a set of known attacks. They are unlikely to avoid most recent attacks that are designed to circumvent existing security measures. For this reason, there is a need of second technique to “detect and notify” these newer attacks, i.e. “intrusion detection”. This article aims to present and classifycurrent techniques of Intrusion Detection System (IDS) aware VANETs.

Mohammed ERRITALI; Bouabid El Ouahidi

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

A Review on Network Intrusion Detection System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Internet and computer networks are exposed to an increasing number of security threats. For new types of attacks are emerging constantly, developing flexibility and adaptability safety-oriented approaches is a serious problem. In this context, the anomal based network Intrusion detection techniques are valuable technology to protect the target systems and networks against malicious activities. However, despite a number of these methods described in the literature in recent years, security tools comprising detecting anomalies function is only beginning to emerge, and several important issues remain to be solved. This paper begins with the review of the best-known anomaly-based intrusion detection techniques. Then the available platforms, systems development and research projects are presented. Finally, the main issues are addressed for large deployments, anomaly based detectors disruption, with special emphasis on the evaluation questions.

Preeti Yadav , Divakar Singh

2013-01-01

242

Multilayer Statistical Intrusion Detection in Wireless Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rapid proliferation of mobile applications and services has introduced new vulnerabilities that do not exist in fixed wired networks. Traditional security mechanisms, such as access control and encryption, turn out to be inefficient in modern wireless networks. Given the shortcomings of the protection mechanisms, an important research focuses in intrusion detection systems (IDSs). This paper proposes a multilayer statistical intrusion detection framework for wireless networks. The architecture is adequate to wireless networks because the underlying detection models rely on radio parameters and traffic models. Accurate correlation between radio and traffic anomalies allows enhancing the efficiency of the IDS. A radio signal fingerprinting technique based on the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT) is developed. Moreover, a geometric clustering algorithm is presented. Depending on the characteristics of the fingerprinting technique, the clustering algorithm permits to control the false positive and false negative rates. Finally, simulation experiments have been carried out to validate the proposed IDS.

Mohamed Hamdi; Amel Meddeb-Makhlouf; Noureddine Boudriga

2008-01-01

243

Modernized Intrusion Detection Using Enhanced Apriori Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Communication networks are essential and it will create many crucial issues today. Nowadays, we consider that the firewalls are the first line of defense but that policies cannot meet the particular requirements of needed process to achieve security.Most of the research has been done in this area but we are lagging to achieve security needs. Already many models such as ADAM, DHP, LERAD and ENTROPHY are proposed to resolve security problems but we need an efficient model to detect new typesof various intrusions within the entire network. In this paper, we proposed to design a modernized intrusion detection system which consist of two methods such as anomaly and misuse detection. Both are integrated and also used to detect novel attacks. Our system proposed to discover temporal pattern of attacker behaviors, which is profiled using an algorithm EAA (Enhanced Apriori Algorithm). This is experimented with a simple interface to display the behaviors of attacks effectively.

Lalli; Palanisamy

2013-01-01

244

Data Reduction in Intrusion Alert Correlation  

CERN Document Server

Network intrusion detection sensors are usually built around low level models of network traffic. This means that their output is of a similarly low level and as a consequence, is difficult to analyze. Intrusion alert correlation is the task of automating some of this analysis by grouping related alerts together. Attack graphs provide an intuitive model for such analysis. Unfortunately alert flooding attacks can still cause a loss of service on sensors, and when performing attack graph correlation, there can be a large number of extraneous alerts included in the output graph. This obscures the fine structure of genuine attacks and makes them more difficult for human operators to discern. This paper explores modified correlation algorithms which attempt to minimize the impact of this attack.

Gianni, Tedesco

2008-01-01

245

A simplified approach to true molar intrusion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Orthodontic management of anterior open bites is a demanding task for orthodontists. Molar intrusion as a primary means of open bite correction entails the need for appropriate anchorage. Orthodontic mini implants can provide the required mechanical support. The suggested procedure aims to reduce the risk of complications such as root damage or soft tissue irritations while minimizing overall complexity. METHODS: Three female patients aged 14, 18 and 19 years who decided against a surgical correction were treated with a device consisting of mini implants in the palatal slope, a palatal bar and intrusion cantilevers. RESULTS: In all three patients, an open bite reduction of more than a millimeter occurred within four months. An anterior overbite of 2 mm or more could be established within 6 to 9 months. CONCLUSIONS: The method presented in this article enables the practitioner to use mini implants in an easily accessible insertion site. A lab-side procedure is optional but not required.

Flieger S; Ziebura T; Kleinheinz J; Wiechmann D

2012-01-01

246

2005 dossier: granite. Tome: phenomenological evolution of the geologic disposal; Dossier 2005: Granite. Tome evolution phenomenologique du stockage geologique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the phenomenological aspects of the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes (HLLL) in granite formations. Content: 1 - introduction: ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formation; 2 - the granitic environment: geologic history, French granites; 3 - HLLL wastes and disposal design concepts; 4 - identification, characterization and modeling of a granitic site: approach, geologic modeling, hydrologic and hydro-geochemical modeling, geomechanical and thermal modeling, long-term geologic evolution of a site; 5 - phenomenological evolution of a disposal: main aspects of the evolution of a repository with time, disposal infrastructures, B-type wastes disposal area, C-type wastes disposal area; spent fuels disposal area, radionuclides transfer and retention in the granitic environment; 6 - conclusions: available knowledge, methods and tools for the understanding and modeling of the phenomenological evolution of a granitic disposal site. (J.S.)

NONE

2005-07-01

247

Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each.

Hart, George W. (Natick, MA); Kern, Jr., Edward C. (Lincoln, MA); Schweppe, Fred C. (Carlisle, MA)

1989-08-15

248

Testing Of Network Intrusion Detection System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Network based intrusion detection system use the models of attacks to identify intrusive behavior ability of systems to detect attacks by quality of models which are called signatures. Some attacks exploits in different ways. For this reason we use testing tools that able to detect goodness of signatures. This technique describes test and evaluate misuse detection models in the case of network-based intrusion detection systems. we use Mutant Exploits are working against vulnerability applications. This mutant exploit is based on mechanism to generate large no. of exploit by applying mutant operators. The results of the systems in detecting these variations pro-vide a quantitative basis for the evaluation of the quality of the corresponding detection model. but here we are going to find defects of this testing and is this test will provide 100% security for this system (or) not. and also which technique gives much security among these techniques fuzzy logic, neural networks, hybrid fuzzy and neural networks, naïve bayes, genetic algorithms and data mining.

B.S.Chaitanya Vamsee Pavan; M.Nalini Sri; Jagadeep Vegunta

2011-01-01

249

Mineral lake layered intrusion, NW Wisconsin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geochemical data from the Keweenawan Mineral Lake layered intrusion indicate the layering could have formed largely from a single magma pulse. The intrusion almost totally lacks fine rhythmic layering and cyclic layering indicative of multiple magma pulses and characteristic of most layered intrusions. Comparison of REE data from the basal chill zone with an estimated bulk REE comparison derived from a mass balance calculation of component layers indicates that a chill zone magma carrying roughly 35% suspended plagioclase crystals could have formed the layered complex. The basal chill zone is relatively high in FeO/sub t/ (13% to 17%) and represents an evolved magma relative to some other basic Keweenawan rocks. The chill zone and all Mineral Lake layers, except the ferrodiorite, fall on a single Rb-Sr isochron yielding an age of 1049 +/- 22 Ma and an initial ratio of 0.70404 +/- 0.00075. Electron microprobe analysis of ilmenite-magnetite pairs in various layers shows post-crystallization oxidation with decreasing temperature that falls approximately along an extrapolation of the measured trend from Makaopuhi lava lake (Sato and Wright, 1966). Temperatures for the more highly oxidized phases range from 520 to 610/sup 0/C, corresponding to log fO/sub 2/ values of approximately -24 to -20. One oxide pair from the Sr anomalous ferrodiorite layer yields a temperature of 1035 +/- 25/sup 0/C and log fO/sub 2/ of 9.2 +/- 0.2.

Seifert, K.E.; Peterman, Z.E.; Windom, K.E.

1985-01-01

250

Efficient Mining and Detection of Sequential Intrusion Patterns for Network Intrusion Detection Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, pervasive computing infrastructures have greatly improved the interaction between human and system. As we put more reliance on these computing infrastructures, we also face threats of network intrusion and/or any new forms of undesirable IT-based activities. Hence, network security has become an extremely important issue, which is closely connected with homeland security, business transactions, and people's daily life. Accurate and efficient intrusion detection technologies are required to safeguard the network systems and the critical information transmitted in the network systems. In this chapter, a novel network intrusion detection framework for mining and detecting sequential intrusion patterns is proposed. The proposed framework consists of a Collateral Representative Subspace Projection Modeling (C-RSPM) component for supervised classification, and an inter-transactional association rule mining method based on Layer Divided Modeling (LDM) for temporal pattern analysis. Experiments on the KDD99 data set and the traffic data set generated by a private LAN testbed show promising results with high detection rates, low processing time, and low false alarm rates in mining and detecting sequential intrusion detections.

Shyu, Mei-Ling; Huang, Zifang; Luo, Hongli

251

The Aero geophysical Project Se rra do Mar Sul in the region of the Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex, Parana, Southern Brazil: analysis of the gamma-ray spectrometric survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyses spectrometric data of the Aero geophysical Project Serra do Mar Sul (APSMS) in the Meso to Neo proterozoic basement of eastern Parana state, southern Brazil. Three main lithostratigraphic units are found, elongated N30-40E. The easternmost is the Tres Corregos Granitic Complex (TCGC), constituted by calc-alkaline granites and their mega-enclaves. The central unit is the low-grade metamorphic Itaiacoca Group. The western strip is occupied by the mostly calc-alkaline Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), also with large enclaves. Further west, the molassic volcano-sedimentary Eopaleozoic Castro Group, deposited in a graben, overlies un conformably the CGC. The Devonian sandstone Furnas Formation, to the west, is the main unit of the Parana Basin in this region. The Cretaceous Banhadao alkaline massif (8 km2) intrudes the TCGC. The heavily weathered central-northern area of the CGC is in part covered by the alluvial deposits of the Iapo drainage basin. Data were corrected with a cosine directional filter (degree 6), and presented as cps (counts per second). U and K give answers that may be spurious, not always correlated with the geology. Most CGC intrusions present rather high Th-U, lower total (TC) and very low K counts, as opposed to the values found in the TCGC. High TC are found in some of the more evolved plutons within the CGC (e.g., the A-type Serra do Carambei Granite). The TCGC granites can be divided into two radiometric domains, one adjacent to the Itaiacoca belt and another to the E-SE (visible in TC and K counts), corresponding to the Sao Sebastiao Granite. The mega-enclaves show lower counts in all channels than the surrounding granites. The Itaiacoca belt is marked in TC and U-Th maps by low to medium counts. The Castro Group shows a complex pattern controlled by lithology. The Furnas sediments show low to medium responses (TC map). The Iapo river deposits stand out clearly by very low counts (TC, U, Th) against the C GC rocks. (author)

2001-01-01

252

Temperature dependence of uniaxial compressive strength of Hnilec granite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paper presents the results of the temperature dependence of uniaxial compressive strength of Hnilec Granite. The measurements of the uniaxial compressive strength were carried out at five different temperatures.

Laba? Milan

1997-01-01

253

Note on bengkunat massive granites, Sidomulyo, Kotaagung-Lampung  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bengkunat granites instrusion in the old andesite formation of Sidomulyo area, affected hydrothermal alteration such as propilitization on the andesite and low grade metamorphosed on the microdiorite rocks. The hydrothermal alteration process is indicated by the existence of minerals: calcites, chlorites, uralites, epidotes and quartz vein containing sulphide minerals. The quartz vein contained ore minerals formed by hydrothermal solution filled the tension crack caused by vertical force related to bengkunat granites instrusion. Granite dykes are found in the contact zone between granites and andesites and microdiorites. Along the contact zones the radioactivity of the rocks relatively high. It could be happen because of the presence of apatite and zirkon minerals in the rocks. (author)

1982-01-01

254

Natural radioactivity levels in granite regions of Karnataka State  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and natural radiation levels have been measured at granite regions of Karnataka State, India using HPGe detector and scintillometer. In granite region 232Th activity is high compared to 226Ra. The data shows that the activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and ambient ?-radiation level were found to be high in comparison to global and Indian average. (author)

2010-01-01

255

Discussion on the new field of uranium prospecting in granite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author analyses the occurrence characteristics and formation conditions for uranium deposits within calderas and brecciated complexes of some granites in China and foreign countries. It is suggested that attention should be paid to look for the brecciated complex-type uranium deposit in the superimposed volcanic activity centre of granite area in the future, which should be regarded as the target for active investigation and new field of uranium prospecting.

1992-01-01

256

Infiltration Characteristics of Granitic Residual Soil of Various Weathering Grades  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents the result of a field study on the infiltration characteristics of cut a slope in granitic residual soil of various weathering grades. Granitic residual soil of weathering grade IV is found to have the highest infiltration rate. Water infiltration is found to increase from grade VI to IV and decrease from grade IV to grade III. Water infiltration is found to increase with the increase in soil porosity and void ratio.

Faisal H. Ali; Bujang B.K. Huat; T. H. Low

2005-01-01

257

Natural radioactivity of granite rocks in Wadi Qena  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Compressed powdered granite samples brought from G. El Missikat and G. El Garra with different ages were analyzed by low-level {gamma}-spectrometry. The contents of U, Th and K were determined and the dependence on age was tested. U/Th and U/K ratios for young and old granite samples were evaluated. Results were discussed and compared with other experiments. (author).

Saied, M.H.; Abbady, A.; El-Kamel, A.H.; El-Arabi, A. [Assiut Univ., Qena (Egypt). Physics Dept.

1994-07-01

258

Activity concentrations and dose rates from decorative granite countertops.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The gamma radiation emitted from a variety of commercial decorative granites available for use in U.S. homes has been measured with portable survey meters as well as an NaI(Th) gamma spectrometer. The (40)K, U-nat, and (232)Th activity concentrations were determined using a full-spectrum analysis. The dose rates that would result from two different arrangements of decorative granite slabs as countertops were explored in simulations involving an adult anthropomorphic phantom.

Llope WJ

2011-06-01

259

Intrusive emplacement and thermal history of the Geysers Plutonic Complex, northern California: New insights from in-situ U-Pb zircon dating  

Science.gov (United States)

The Geysers Plutonic Complex (GPC) is a unique example of a Quaternary intrusion that is exposed at shallow subsurface levels (>0.7 km depth). It spatially overlaps with a major surface heat-flow anomaly that is associated with one of the world's largest geothermal fields, known as The Geysers. Based on drill hole penetration, the GPC appears as an elongated northwest-trending keel shaped body which has an areal extent of ~50 km2. It has been petrographically subdivided into microgranite porphyry, granite and granodiorite and compositional similarities of these subunits linked them to the extrusive rhyolites and dacites from the Cobb Mountain volcanic field (CMVF) that overly the GPC at its eastern margin, but little is known about the relative timing of the intrusive and related volcanic activities. Age determination of the GPC requires in-situ techniques due to xenocrystic contamination of drill cuttings that are generally the only available materials from the GPC. Meaningful ages reported in the literature are limited to four samples from the GPC granite unit that range from 1.13 to 1.25 Ma (238U/206Pb ages uncorrected for initial 230Th deficit). Here we present U-Pb zircon ages for an extended sample set that covers all subunits of the GPC and the CMVF. These ages provide new constraints on the onset and duration of intrusive emplacement of and eruptive tapping from a shallow magma body. Apparent 238U/206Pb ages (1.52 - 1.74 Ma, 1? uncertainty typically Alder Creek rhyolite: 1.24 +/- 0.04 Ma; Cobb Mountain rhyodacite: 1.24 +/- 0.04 Ma; Cobb Valley rhyodacite: 1.20 +/- 0.05 Ma) closely overlap with the age range of the granite and the granodiorite samples. Initial 230Th deficit in zircon results in radiogenic 206Pb contents that are on average by 5-10 % too low, and therefore an average +0.10 m.y. age correction is required. After applying this correction, we obtain an average zircon crystallization age for the CMVF that is about 0.20 m.y. older than the eruption ages implied by Ar-Ar sanidine ages (1.15 +/- 0.01 to 1.01 +/- 0.06 Ma). The eruption ages, however, are similar to the corrected zircon crystallization ages of the youngest GPC unit, the biotite-orthopyroxene-hornblende granite. The data indicate a complex intrusive history of the GPC and a time span of at least 0.8 m.y. for its formation. Volcanic activity is temporally and spatially linked to the last intrusive phase but the erupted magmas appear to consist of remobilized older materials of previous intrusions. Intrusive activity within the main body of the GPC ceased at ~1.0 Ma which suggests that the GPC at its presently known extent is unlikely to be the heat source for the present-day heat-flow anomaly at the Geysers steam field.

Schmitt, A. K.; Grove, M.; Harrison, M.; Hulen, J.; Walters, M.

2001-12-01

260

The uranium behaviour during rock-water interaction in the granites from the Itu complex (Sao Paulo, Brazil): a laboratory study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the process of uranium leaching due to the rock-water interaction in the granitic rocks from Itu Complex (Sao Paulo, Brazil), an experimental arrangement was developed and built. About 2.5kg of crushed rock fragments from Cabreuva and Indaiatuba Intrusions were maintained at room temperature within a glass flask filled with circulating water. The percolating water was removed periodically (from 10 to 30 days) for uranium analysis and then replaced by an equal volume of fresh water. Alpha spectrometry was used to determine the activity concentrations of 234U and 238U, and 234U/238U activity ratios, of the waters as well as of the granites. The results for both samples showed that most of the uranium is leached in the first days after the contact between rock and water. The 234U/238U activity ratios were significantly greater than unity, indicating radioactive disequilibrium between those isotopes, probably due to alpha recoil. Although the uranium activity concentrations in the water samples diminished with the increasing of time, it was not observed considerable variations of the 234U/238U activity ratios. It was also noticed that, the amount of leached uranium as well as the 234U/238U activity ratios are characteristics of each sample submitted to leaching, reflecting the differences of the granite facies mineralogy.(author)

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Paleo-redox boundaries in fractured granite  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

At the Earth's surface, Fe(II) often oxidises and forms insoluble Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides, whose particle size and structure depend on solution composition and temperature during formation and afterwards. Bacterial processes and exposure to reducing environments reduces them again, releasing dissolved iron to the groundwater. During such cycling, the Fe isotopes fractionate to an extent that is expected to depend on temperature. In this study, we report on the use of Fe-oxides as paleoredox indicators, using their structure, morphology and Fe-composition as a clue for formation conditions. In samples taken from similar to 120 m drill cores in granite from SE Sweden, X-ray amorphous, superparamagnetic, nanometre-sized Fe-oxides are confined to fractures of the upper,-,50 m, whereas well-crystalline Fe-oxides, with particle sizes typical for soils, occur down to similar to 110 m. We also identified hematite with a particle size of 100 nm, similar to hematite of hydrothermal origin. The Fe isotope composition ofthe fine-grained Fe-oxides (-1 parts per thousand granite. The absence of natural, low-temperature Fe-oxides from deeper drill cores suggests that oxygenated waters do not readily penetrate beyond about 100 m and suggests that radioactive waste repositories located at a depth of similar to 500 m should be well-protected from oxygenated waters.

Dideriksen, K.; Christiansen, B. C.

2010-01-01

262

Fibromyalgia Might Be Harder on Younger Patients, Study Finds  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fibromyalgia Might Be Harder on Younger Patients, Study Finds ... Preidt Saturday, October 26, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Page Fibromyalgia SATURDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Young and middle- ...

263

[Segmented arch technique and incisor intrusion for deep overbite correction].  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanisms which will be selected for the correction of deep overbite depend exclusively on the choice of the clinician for: 1. Gennine anterior teeth intrusion. 2. Eruption of posterior teeth. 3. Combination of anterior intrusion and posterior extrusion. Principles of incisor intrusion have been presented as well as the use of intrusive springs in the segmented arch technique. Six principles must be considered in incisor intrusion: 1) the use of forces of optimal magnitude and constancy, 2) the use of a single point contact in the anterior region, 3) selection of the point of force application with respect to the center of resistance of the anterior segment, 4) selective intrusion based on anterior tooth geometry, 5) control over the reactive units and 6) inhibition of eruption of the posterior teeth and avoidance of undesirable eruptive mechanics. PMID:2486320

Toutountzakis, N; Mavreas, D

1989-12-01

264

[Segmented arch technique and incisor intrusion for deep overbite correction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mechanisms which will be selected for the correction of deep overbite depend exclusively on the choice of the clinician for: 1. Gennine anterior teeth intrusion. 2. Eruption of posterior teeth. 3. Combination of anterior intrusion and posterior extrusion. Principles of incisor intrusion have been presented as well as the use of intrusive springs in the segmented arch technique. Six principles must be considered in incisor intrusion: 1) the use of forces of optimal magnitude and constancy, 2) the use of a single point contact in the anterior region, 3) selection of the point of force application with respect to the center of resistance of the anterior segment, 4) selective intrusion based on anterior tooth geometry, 5) control over the reactive units and 6) inhibition of eruption of the posterior teeth and avoidance of undesirable eruptive mechanics.

Toutountzakis N; Mavreas D

1989-12-01

265

Multilayer Intrusion Detection System In Web Application Based Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Web based services having a data transfer from different layer. Web services separate layer for the data transfer and the process is difficult in the service. Service transferring data is having intrusion from the user interaction in web based services to detect the intrusion in alert basis and detect the intrusion in both online and offline. In offline alert data previously having attack basis it can be rectified. The online alert system data having the intrusion collect the intrusion in buffer and compare with recent alert system is called multilayer intrusion detection system. The alert results detect the error in web based document data using IDS system. From this analyze performance of the web based services. Finally intruded data will be detected.

Narmadha.S; Deepak Lakshmi Narashima

2013-01-01

266

On the origins of ageism among older and younger adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Ageism is apparent in many social structures and contexts and in diverse forms over the life cycle. This review discusses the development and consequences of ageism toward elderly people by others of any age, according to the Terror Management Theory (TMT) and the Social Identity Theory (SIT). METHOD: A systematic search of the literature was carried out on the social and psychological origins of ageism in younger and older adults. RESULTS: Studies on the reasons for ageism among older adults point to attitudes that older adults have toward their own age group, while studies on ageism in young adults explain it as an unconscious defensive strategy which younger adults use against death anxiety. In other words, TMT can serve as a suitable framework for ageism in younger adults, and SIT appears to explain ageism in older adults. CONCLUSIONS: A dissociation of the linkage between death and old age in younger adults can be achieved by changing the concepts of death and old age. For older adults, it is recommended to improve self-worth by encouraging social contacts in which older adults contribute to younger adults, weaken the effects of age stereotypes in TV programs, and prepare middle-aged adults for living healthy lives as older adults. However, these conclusions should be regarded with caution, because several key areas (age related cues, activated cognitive processes, impact of death awareness on ageism) need to be investigated in order to validate this understanding of the origins of ageism among younger and older adults.

Bodner E

2009-12-01

267

Pilot heater test in the Stripa granite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the Stripa mine, situated in the central part of Sweden, a pilot heater test has been carried out at 348-m level. The type of rock is a granite with a rather high frequency of fractures. A central main heater with a length of 3 m, a diameter of 30 cm and a total power of 6 kW was placed at the bottom of a 10-m-deep borehole. At different radial distances, varying from 0.85 m up to 2.95 m from the heater, stress and temperature changes were monitored. Additional measurements of movements along major fractures on the surface and changes of water inflow in boreholes were carried out. The measured temperature distribution compares fairly well with the predicted. A maximum temperature of 333.90C was measured. The thermal conductivity of the rock mass has been calculated to lambda = 4.8 W/m0C. The thermally induced stresses in the rock mass do not correspond well with the predicted values. Results of measurements in boreholes of the in situ modulus are found to be about half of the laboratory determinations. Displacements of major fractures on the floor of the test drift are very small

1978-01-01

268

Hydraulic fracturing in granite under geothermal conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

The experimental hydraulic fracturing of granite under geothermal conditions produces tensile fracture at rapid fluid injection rates and shear fracture at slow injection rates and elevated differential stress levels. A sudden burst of acoustic emission activity accompanies tensile fracture formation whereas the acoustic emission rate increases exponentially prior to shear fracture. Temperature does not significantly affect the failure mechanism, and the experimental results have not demonstrated the occurrence of thermal fracturing. A critical result of these experiments is that fluid injection at intermediate rates and elevated differential stress levels increases permeability by more than an order of magnitude without producing macroscopic fractures, and low-level acoustic emission activity occurs simultaneously near the borehole and propagates outward into the specimen with time. Permeability measurements conducted at atmospheric pressure both before and after these experiments show that increased permeability is produced by permanent structural changes in the rock. Although results of this study have not demonstrated the occurrence of thermal fracturing, they suggest that fluid injection at certain rates in situ may markedly increase local permeability. This could prove critical to increasing the efficiency of heat exchange for geothermal energy extraction from hot dry rock. ?? 1980.

Solberg, P.; Lockner, D.; Byerlee, J. D.

1980-01-01

269

Mortality experience of Vermont granite workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparison was made between the chief cause of death among 969 deceased white male granite workers in Vermont and the causes of death among other individuals not in that occupation. Tuberculosis deaths were ten times the number predicted, based on the U.S. white male experience. Of the 65 tuberculosis deaths, 48 were silicotuberculosis and 16 were pulmonary tuberculosis. A notable increase was found for deaths due to all respiratory diseases, with 28 deaths due to silicosis. Excluding deaths due to silicosis and tuberculosis left a small excess of emphysema-related deaths. For 25 men in the respiratory disease category whose cause of death was not listed as silicosis, ten had evidence of silicosis in their x-ray records suggesting some misdiagnoses may have occurred. An excess of lung cancer deaths was noted among sawyers and polishers, suggesting possible effects of abrasive exposures. No tuberculosis deaths were noted in men who started work in the post dust control period, after 1950. There was an excess of suicide deaths before 1970.

Davis, L.K.; Wegman, D.H.; Monson, R.R.; Froines, J.

1982-01-01

270

Heat transfer studies in salt and granite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented of a scoping study on the feasibility of using a multi-layer terminal repository design in both salt and granite formations to store either high-level waste or spent fuel. Calculations have been made to determine temperature profiles within the repository and to provide an estimate of the thermal uplift that can be expected. Near-field models developed to compare temperature profiles in the regions close to the waste canisters indicated that maximum thermal gradients and maximum temperature increases could be significantly reduced by changing from a single to a multi-layer repository design. For both high-level waste and for spent fuel, the maximum temperature increase in the multi-level repositories was reduced to approximately 60 percent of the temperature increase predicted for the single-level repositories at the same areal loading. After the near-field models had verified that maximum thermal gradients and temperature increases could be reduced by using a multilevel repository design, a series of far-field models was developed. The far-field models used to provide qualitative comparisons of the maximum thermal uplift indicate that the thermal uplift is roughly proportional to the energy supplied to the formation. Changing from a single- to a multi-layer repository but keeping the areal loading constant results in increased thermal uplifts

1978-01-01

271

Uranium occurrences in the Granite Zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the work and results of the South Greenland Exploration Programme (Sydex) during the 1984 field season in the Granite Zone, and discusses the results and conclusions that can be drawn from them. It also contains a structural analysis of the Ivigtut-Julianehaab region, which will help in future exploration by indicating the likely directions of uraniferous faults and fractures. It also includes suggestions for future work with both exploration and scientific aspects. The project was carried out by the Geological Survey Greenland (GGU) in co-operation with Risoe National Laboratory. It was financed by the Danish Ministry of Energy. The structural analysis was carried out using previous geological maps, our own field observations and an analysis of lineament frequencies taken from aerial photographs and satellite images. Major lineaments in the region are due to E-W sinistral wrench faults and NE-SW normal faults. Analysis of the minor lineaments showed that the region could be divided into three blocks which have each reacted differently to the same regional stress field which was active throughout the Gardar period. A northern block which has been influenced by an older system of faults in the Archaean gneiss, a central block dominated by a graben, and a southern block where there is a change to a less intensively faulted area. 2 maps, 27 refs. (EG)

1986-01-01

272

A comparison of fracture styles in two granite bodies of the Superior Province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantitative comparison is made between fracture styles in two late Archean instrusions of the Superior Province - the Lac du Bonnet Batholith (LDBB) and Eye-Dashwa Pluton (EDP). These instrusions have a similar geological setting, similar mineral and chemical composition, and similar physical properties but vary markedly in volume (LDBB = 9060 km3; EDP = 122 km3). The fracture style of the LDBB consists of mainly low-angle thrust faults within otherwise poorly fractured granite. Subvertical fractures are restricted to within 200 m of surface or zones encompassing the thrust faults. The mineral assemblage chlorite - iron oxide - carbonate is widespread in fractures. In contrast, fractures of the EDP are closely spaced, variably oriented, pervasive to depth, and dominated by subvertical transcurrent faults. Epidote is an abundant fracture-filling material. Most fractures formed in response to Early Proterozoic compression under low-greenschist conditions in the LDBB and upper-greenschist conditions in the EDP. Fractures in both intrusions were subsequently rejuvenated (clay - iron oxide filling materials) without appreciable modification to fracture styles. The presence of a strong planar fabric at one site, variation in the intensity of Early Proterozoic tectonism, and prolonged plastic deformation in the large LDBB are cited as possible causes for the observed variation in fracture styles

1986-05-09

273

Improve Intrusion Detection for Decision Tree with Stratified Sampling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper aims to improve accuracy of intrusion detection for decision tree algorithm. A number of techniques available for intrusion detection. In this paper we have supervised learning with preprocessing step for intrusion detection. The database is generated i using the stratified sampling techniques and the classification algorithm is applied on the samples. The accuracy of proposed model is compared with existing results in order to verify the validity and accuracy of the proposed model.

Devendra kailashiya Kanak Saxena

2011-01-01

274

Restite and the compositions of S-type granites  

Science.gov (United States)

S-type granites, particularly those emplaced in the upper crust, are generally considered to be the mobilized products of fluid-absent partial melting of metasediments. Entrainment of variable proportions of source material into the magmas has been proposed as one of the major mechanisms controlling geochemical variations in such rocks. We examined the major-element compositions of melts produced in 17 studies of fluid-absent partial melting of aluminous metasediments, at T = 750 1000 ºC and P = 0.3 1.0 GPa. Despite the differences in starting compositions and experimental conditions, the melt compositions are strikingly similar; all are peraluminous leucogranites. The melt compositions were compared with those of 769 Australian S-type granitic rocks, and 211 S-types from the Cape Granite Suite of South Africa, including both volcanic and plutonic rocks. In mol-proportion ternary projections from SiO2 and H2O, plots of A (Al2O3) vs FM (FeO + MgO) vs CNK (CaO + Na2O + K2O) reveal a poor correlation between the natural granite compositions and those of the experimental melts. Only about one third of granites plot within the field defined by the experimental melts. Also, about half the experimental melts plot in a field apparently occupied by no natural granitic rocks. Typically, experimental glasses (even those generated at temperatures of 950 to 1000 °C, and derived from natural, close-to-average metasedimentary compositions) are more leucocratic and aluminous than natural granites. These granite compositions can readily be modelled as mixtures of the experimental melt compositions plus orthopyroxene and garnet or cordierite. If the databases are not skewed towards cumulate compositions, these features suggest that many natural granitic rocks represent mixtures of melts and solid peritectic reaction products (restites). The scant evidence for restitic phases in the petrography of the rocks suggests that these phases dissolve during magma ascent, and react with the melt to form magmatic biotite. It appears that typical metasedimentary melts could resorb/react > 15wt% Grt + Opx before becoming essentially Kfs-free tonalites. Other possibilities are that many granitic rocks are indeed cumulates, or that the S-type melts were hybridized with more mafic magmas. These three possibilities are explored further in this presentation.

Stevens, G.; Clemens, J. D.

2003-04-01

275

Petrochemistry of the Reduced, Ilmenite-Series Granitoid Intrusion Related to the Hired Gold-Tin Prospect (Basiran), Eastern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Doing research, two suites of Oligocene-Miocene granitoids, one relatively oxidized (magnetite-series) and the other relatively reduced (ilmenite-series), were identified at Hired, Eastern Iran. Since Au-Sn mineralization is associated only with the relatively reduced ilmenite-series suite. It became interested to study the petrochemistry and petrophysics of these intrusive rocks. The magnetic susceptibility of the magnetite-series granitoids is greater than 300 x10-5 SI. This suite includes meta-aluminous, medium-K to high-K series gabbros to diorites containing magnetite, hornblende and biotite. The magnetic susceptibility of the ilmenite-series granitoids are less than 60 x10-5 SI. This suite includes meta-aluminous, high-K to shoshonitic diorites to granites, containing, biotite, muscovite and tourmaline. Both the ilmenite and magnetite series suites are strongly enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs = K, Th, Rb, Ba) and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSE = Nb, Sr, Ti, Hf). Chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Element (REE) plots indicate strong enrichments of light relative to heavy REE, with (La/Yb)N between 7-24. Ilmenite suite granitoids have pronounced negative europium anomalies. Stockwork mineralization is found within and nearby the relatively reduced ilmenite-series granites. Based on their mineral assemblages (arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, tourmaline, pyrite, gold and quartz), the ore-bearing fluids that generated these stockwork veins was also reduced. This and the spatial relationship of mineralization with the ilmenite suite granitoids, indicates that the ore fluids originated from reduced granitoid magmas. Hired Au-Sn deposit is a reduced-intrusion related gold system.

M.H. Karimpour; C.R. Stern; A. Malekzadeh Shafaroudi; M.R. Hidarian; A. Mazaheri

2009-01-01

276

ENSEMBLE DESIGN FOR INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intrusion Detection problem is one of the most promising research issues of Information Security. The problem provides excellent opportunities in terms of providing host and network security.Intrusion detection is divided into two categories with respect to the type of detection. Misuse detection and Anomaly detection. Intrusion detection is done using rule based, Statistical, and Soft computing techniques. The rule based measures provides better results but the extensibility of the approach is still a question. The statistical measures are lagging in identifying the new types of attacks. Soft Computing Techniques offers good results since learning is done using the training, and during testing the new pattern of attacks was also recognized appreciably. This paper aims at detecting Intruders using both Misuse and Anomaly detection by applying Ensemble of soft Computing Techniques. Neural networks,Support Vector Machines and Naïve Bayes Classifiers are trained and tested individually and the classification rates for different classes are observed. Then threshold values are set for all the classes. Based on this threshold value the ensemble approach produces result for various classes. The standard kddcup’99 dataset is used in this research for Misuse detection. Shonlau dataset of truncated UNIXcommands is used for Anomaly detection. The detection rate and false alarm rates are notified.Multilayer Perceptrons, Naïve Bayes classifiers and Support vector machines with three kernel functionsare used for detecting intruders. The Precision, Recall and F- Measure for all the techniques are calculated. The cost of the techniques is estimated using the cost measures. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves are drawn for all the techniques. The results show that Support Vector Machines and Ensemble approach provides better detection rate of 99% than the other algorithms.

T. Subbulakshmi; A. Ramamoorthi; S. Mercy Shalinie

2009-01-01

277

Performance Analysis of Intrusion Detection in MANET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Mobile Adhoc Network is a collection of autonomous nodes or terminals which communicate with each other by forming a multihop radio network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration such as a base station. The Adhoc Network provides lack of secure boundaries. At present, the security issues on Mobile Adhoc Network have become one of the primary concerns. The MANET is more vulnerable to attacks as compared to wired networks due to distributed nature and lacks of infrastructure. Those vulnerabilities are nature of the MANET structure that cannot be removed easily. As a result, attacks with malicious intent have been and will be devised to exploit those vulnerabilities and to cripple the MANET Operation. Attacks prevention techniques such as a authentication and encryption, can be used as medium of defense for decreasing the possibilities of attacks. These techniques have a limitation on the effects of prevention techniques in practice and they are designed for a set of known attacks. They are unlikely to prevent newer attacks that are designed for circumventing the existing security measures. For this purpose, there exist a need of mechanism that “detect and response” these type of newer attacks i.e. “Intrusion and Detection”. Intrusion detection provide audit and monitoring capabilities that offer the local security to a node and help to perceive the specific trust level of other node. In addition to this ontology is a proven tool for this type of analysis. In this paper, specific ontology has been modeled which aims to explore and to classify current technique of Intrusion Detection System (IDS) aware MANET. To support these ideas, a discussion regarding attacks, IDS architecture and IDS in MANET are presented inclusively and then the comparison among several researches achievement will be evaluated based on these parameters.

Rohit Sharma; SAMRIDHI SHARMA

2011-01-01

278

Volume of summer subsurface intrusions into Onslow Bay, North Carolina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Onslow Bay, North Carolina is a continental shelf area bounded alongshore by extensive shoals and offshore by the Gulf Stream. Motions of the Gulf Stream often cause the intrusion of deeper, cold Gulf Stream water into the bay, especially during summer. Observations in 1975 and 1976 gave a range of intrusion volumes from 11 to 36%, averaging 20% (84 km/sup 3/) of the bay volume. The minimum and maximum lifetimes for these intrusions were 14 and 60 days. The intrusions moved through the bay from south to north.

Atkinson, L.P. (Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, Savannah, GA); Singer, J.J.; Pietrafesa, L.J.

1980-01-01

279

Role of double diffusion in a Gulf Stream frontal intrusion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Double diffusive convection is possible where large vertical gradients in temperature and salinity tend to compensate in density. Frontal intrusions have these gradients and can provide the possibility for a salt finger interface at one boundary and a diffusive interface at the other. But large vertical gradients of velocity are present at the boundaries of intrusions, which cause mechanical stirring and turbulent mixing as well. In the exceptionally active intrusions at the Gulf Stream Front near 38 /sup 0/N 69 /sup 0/W, a convective process resulting from incomplete mechanical mixing was observed photographically on both intrusive boundaries.

Williams, A.J. III

1981-03-20

280

Intrusive memories in depression: an index of schema activation?  

Science.gov (United States)

A sample of 31 male and female depressed patients was interviewed to investigate spontaneous, intrusive memories of immediate and past life events. Previous findings that depressed patients experience high frequency intrusive memories were confirmed, as was an association between intrusive memories of childhood abuse and severity of depression. Patients reported intrusive memories for a variety of other events, particularly involving illness and death. Limited support was obtained for the hypotheses that the course of depression would be related to the activation of negative memories, and that immediate life events would trigger the activation of memories of similar events from the past. PMID:8931173

Brewin, C R; Hunter, E; Carroll, F; Tata, P

1996-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

Intrusive memories in depression: an index of schema activation?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A sample of 31 male and female depressed patients was interviewed to investigate spontaneous, intrusive memories of immediate and past life events. Previous findings that depressed patients experience high frequency intrusive memories were confirmed, as was an association between intrusive memories of childhood abuse and severity of depression. Patients reported intrusive memories for a variety of other events, particularly involving illness and death. Limited support was obtained for the hypotheses that the course of depression would be related to the activation of negative memories, and that immediate life events would trigger the activation of memories of similar events from the past.

Brewin CR; Hunter E; Carroll F; Tata P

1996-11-01

282

Geophysical characterization from Itu intrusive suite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The integrated use of geophysical, geological, geochemical, petrographical and remote sensing data resulted in a substantial increase in the knowledge of the Itu Intrusive Suite. The main geophysical method was gamma-ray spectrometry together with fluorimetry and autoradiography. Three methods were used for calculation of laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry data. For U, the regression method was the best one. For K and Th, equations system and absolute calibration presented the best results. Surface gamma-ray spectrometry allowed comparison with laboratory data and permitted important contribution to the study of environmental radiation. (author)

1989-01-01

283

Forensic Analysis of Windows Registry Against Intrusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Windows Registry forensics is an important branch of computer and network forensics. Windows Registry is often considered as the heart of Windows Operating Systems because it contains allof the configuration setting of specific users, groups, hardware, software, and networks. Therefore, Windows Registry can be viewed as a gold mine of forensic evidences which could be used in courts. This paper introduces the basics of Windows Registry, describes its structure and its keys and subkeys thathave forensic values. This paper also discusses how the Windows Registry forensic keys can be applied in intrusion detection.

Haoyang Xie; Keyu Jiang; Xiaohong Yuan

2012-01-01

284

The 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue. Report; Mission collegiale de concertation Granite. Rapport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue is to inform the French authorities, associations and population about the project of construction of an underground laboratory for the study of the disposal of high level and long-life radioactive wastes in a granitic environment. The aim of the dialogue was not to select a site but to collect the public reactions and advices about such a project. However, such a dialogue has partially failed because of a misunderstanding of the population about the aims of the mission. However, the mission has collected many point of views and questions which are developed in this report. The first and second chapters recall the process of the mission and its progress, while a third chapter stresses on the questions asked by the public and which concern the fear of nuclear wastes and the incompatibility between the disposal of wastes and the socio-economical development of the region concerned. Thanks to the lessons drawn from this experience, the mission has formulated some recommendations (chapter 4) concerning the need for a better information of the population about any topic in relation with the radioactive wastes. Some complementary information is provided in appendixes. (J.S.)

Boisson, P.; Huet, Ph.; Mingasson, J

2000-06-01

285

Patherns in the rare earth elements of the Serra do Carambei granite (Parana) and the others associated ignous rocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The rare earth elements (REE) distribution patters in igneous rocks of the Serra do Carambei Granite area (Parana) were a very important tool to elucidate the genetic processes and the cogenetic relationships between these rocks. The porphyroid facies of the Cunhaporanga Granitoid Complex has a REE distribution pattern characterized by decreasing concentrations in direction to the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and the smooth Eu negative anomalie, compatible with amphibole fractionation during the magma ascent and the incipient plagioclase fractionation. The REE pattern of the Serra do Carambei Granite is characterized by the strong Eu negative anomalie, by the light rare earth element (LREE) depletion and by the HREE increase. This shape of the REE patterns is frequently observed in Sn-W granites, according to French authors. However in the igneous rocks of the Serra do Carambei Granite area this is not true. ''Rhyolite'' dytes intrusives in the Serra do Carambei Granite exhibit REE pattern similar to the wall rock, indicating then the same genetic processes. The Castro Group rhyolites have REE patterns with decreasing concentrations in direction to the HREE and smooth Eu negative anomalie. The REE distribution patterns is against the consanguinity between the ''rhyolites'' intruded in the Serra do Carambei Granite and the rhyolites of the Castro Group and also between these rhyolites and the above mentioned Granite. (author)[pt] Espectros de elementos terras-raras (ETR) em rochas igneas da regiao do Granito Serra do Carambei (Parana) forneceram subsidios quanto a seus processos de formacao, filiacao magmatica e cogeneticidade. A assinatura em ETR da faceis porfiroide dominante do Complexo Granitico Cunhaporanga, homogeneamente decrescente em direcao as terras raras pesadas (TRP) e com suave anomalia negativa em Eu, e compativel com o fracionamento de anfibolio durante a ascensao do magma e com o fracionamento incipiente de plagioclasio. O espectro exibido pelo Granito Serra do Carambei, marcado por acentuado pico negativo em Eu, deplecao em terras raras leves (TRL), aumento em TRP e consequente horizontalidade na curva de distribuicao em ETR, seria, na concepcao de autores franceses, indicativa de rochas graniticas mineralizadas em Sn e W. No granito em consideracao tal hipotese nao e valida, vez que, apesar de conter valores anomalos em Sn, o Serra do Carambei e esteril, nao exibindo transformacoes tardi/pos-magmaticas geradoras de mineralizacoes em Sn ou W. ''Riolitos'' intrusivos no Granito Serra do Carambei exibem espectro enriquecido em TR, semelhante ao de sua encaixante, indicando cogeneticidade entre ambos. Riolitos cambro-ordovicianos do Grupo Castro mostram assinaturas em ETR com padrao decrescente no sentido das TRP e discreta anomalia negativa em Eu. Assinaturas dispares depoem contrariamente a consanguinidade entre os ''riolitos'' intrusivos no Granito Serra do Carambei e os riolitos do Grupo Castro, bem como entre estes riolitos e aquele granito. (author)

1986-01-01

286

The Petrogenesis of the S-Type Cape Granite Suite, South Africa: Enlightenment From Xenocrysts and Initial Melt Compositions  

Science.gov (United States)

Panafrican S-type granites from the Cape Granite suite (CGS) intrude the low grade metasediments of the Malmesbury supergroup. They are strongly peraluminous (1 < A/CNK < 2), K-rich granites with total FeO + MgO values ranging between 0.8 and 9 wt%. Strongly peraluminous granites are typically interpreted to be the result of incongruent, granulite facies partial melting of aluminous metasediments, and the Peninsular and Darling plutons contain generations of cordierite and garnet that appear to confirm this. Experimental melts compositions from a variety of sources and PT conditions (750 to 1000 oC and 0.3 to 1.0 GPa) have been compared with 212 CGS analyses. While all the experimental melts are strinkingly similar and correspond to peraluminous leucogranites, only one third of the CGS samples plot in the experimental field. In addition, about half the experimental melts plot in a field that coincides with no natural granite compositions. Typically, experimental glasses are more leucocratic and aluminous than the natural granites. The major element compositions of most of the natural granites can be successfully modelled as mixtures of the experimental glass compositions and up to 15 wt% cordierite and/or garnet, common phases produced in equilibrium with the melts in the incongruent melting experiments. This appears to be a more effective mechanism for accounting for compositional variation within the CGS than any combination of AFC processes, which all require a balancing population of contaminant material of composition unknown either in the CGS magmas or in the surrounding country rocks. Garnet from the CGS is generally Fe-rich (10 < Mg/# < 25) with narrow (20-30 m) rims that are Mn and Fe-enriched. Their major element and REE core to rim zonation patterns are flat, The garnet crystals are very strongly enriched in HREE and display strong negative Eu anomalies. HREE concentrations are several times higher than would be predicted from REE concentrations of the bulk rock and accepted garnet-melt partition coefficients. Collectively, these features suggest that the garnet crystals did not crystalise from the magmas that formed these plutons, but rather, equilibrated under granulite facies metamorphic conditions. Similarly, these plutons both contain two generations of cordierite, one of which forms large and euhedral crystals that are interpreted to have crystallized from the magmas; the other one consists in Mg-richer cordierites that occur as rounded aggregates containing inclusions of hercynitic spinel and relatively Mg-rich biotite. The hercynite-cordierite association is well know from medium- to low-pressure anatectic terrains, and it is proposed that these mineral aggregates are also inherited from the source zone of the magmas. Both garnet and cordierite are rimmed by biotite, and appear to not have been in equilibrium with the magma at the site of intrusion. REE modelling illustrates that the xenocrystic garnets documented in this study are not the source of Fe and Mg enrichment in the magmas, as this would have produced substantially higher HREE bulk compositions than exist. A combination of these garnet crystals and cordierite, or peritectic garnet produced in the melting reactions and thus, of different trace element composition allow the CGS major element and REE compositions to be modelled as mixtures of the experimental melts and this very specific version of restite.

Stevens, G.; Scheepers, R.; Moyen, J.

2004-05-01

287

Thermomechanical studies in granite at Stripa, Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Media other than rock salt are being considered for the deep, geologic disposal of nuclear wastes. The disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a deep, underground repository will subject the rock to a thermal pulse that will induce displacements, strains, and stresses in the rock. Thermomechanical experiments, with electrical heaters simulating the thermal output of waste canisters, were carried out in granite at a depth of 340 m below surface adjacent to a defunct iron ore mine at Stripa, Sweden. Changes in temperature, displacement, and stress in the rock around these heaters were measured, and the measurements were compared with predictions calculated from the theory of linear thermoelasticity. Measured temperature changes agreed well with predictions, but measured displacements and stresses were consistently less than those predicted with constant values for the coefficient of thermal expansion and elastic properties of the rock. A laboratory test program to measure these coefficients over ranges of stress and temperature representing those in the field experiment has been initiated. Test specimens were taken from cores recovered from the instrumentation holes in the Stripa experiments. Preliminary results from laboratory tests on specimens free of joints indicate that the values of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio increase from about 60 to 80 MPa and from 0.15 to 0.22, respectively, as the confining stress is increased from 2 to 55 MPa; these values decrease with increasing temperature, more so at 2 MPa than at 55 MPa. The linear coefficient of thermal expansion at a confining stress of 30 MPa increases from about 10 x 10-6/0C at 400C to about 14 x 10-6/0C. The magnitudes of these changes are not sufficient to resolve the disparity between measured and predicted results. Perhaps the properties of test specimens containing joints will show greater variations in the values of the thermomechanical coefficients with temperature and pressure

1981-01-01

288

Social support from health care providers is associated with reduced illness intrusiveness in hemodialysis patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) disrupts patients' life styles, interests and activities negatively affecting their quality of life. Social support has been previously associated with favorable health outcomes. However, no study has examined the association of social support from health care providers with perceived health and ESRD intrusiveness on patients' lives. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 1,238 Italian hemodialysis patients. The Self-Rated Health (SRH) and the Illness Intrusiveness Rating Scale (IIRS) assessed disease burden. 10 items assessed social support from health care providers (SS-HC). The nursing staff of each center provided patients' clinical information. Linear regression was used to assess correlates of SRH and IIRS. Mediational analysis was used to assess direct and indirect associations of SS-HC with SRH through IIRS. RESULTS: Higher SS-HC was associated with smaller IIRS and higher SRH. Further correlates of better SRH were younger age, no post-dialysis hypotension, no diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, better sleep quality, and smaller burden of oral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that social support might reduce illness burden and improve patients' perceived health. Further research should assess the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of structured support programs for dialysis patients.

Neri L; Brancaccio D; Rocca Rey LA; Rossa F; Martini A; Andreucci VE

2011-02-01

289

Identifying Network Intrusions using One Dimensional distance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Firewalls and other simple boundary devices lack some degree of intelligence when it comes to observing, recognizing, and identifying attack signatures that may be present in the traffic they monitor and the log files they collect. Without sounding critical of such other systems’ capabilities, this deficiency explains the need for an intrusion detection systems,IDS helping to maintain proper network security. The simplest way to define an IDS is to describe it as a specialized tool that knows how to read and interpret the contents of log files from routers, firewalls, servers, and other network devices.To provide the effective result for detecting intrusions, this process introduces a new approach by clustering and classification technique. In this process, two distances are measured and summed. The first one is depended on the distance between each data sample and its cluster centre, and the second distance is between the data and its nearest neighbour in the same cluster. Then, this new and one-dimensional distance based feature is used to represent each data

Greeshma K

2013-01-01

290

A Bayesian Networks in Intrusion Detection Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) have been widely used to overcome security threats in computer networks. Anomaly-based approaches have the advantage of being able to detect previously unknown attacks, but they suffer from the difficulty of building robust models of acceptable behaviour which may result in a large number of false alarms caused by incorrect classification of events in current systems. We propose a new approach of an anomaly Intrusion detection system (IDS). It consists of building a reference behaviour model and the use of a Bayesian classification procedure associated to unsupervised learning algorithm to evaluate the deviation between current and reference behaviour. Continuous re-estimation of model parameters allows for real time operation. The use of recursive Log-likelihood and entropy estimation as a measure for monitoring model degradation related with behavior changes and the associated model update show that the accuracy of the event classification process is significantly improved using our proposed approach for reducing the missing-alarm.

M. Mehdi; S. Zair; A. Anou; M. Bensebti

2007-01-01

291

From Intrusion Detection to Self Protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modern computer systems have become so complex and interdependent that the traditional model of system defense, utilizing layers and including an intrusion detection system that provides alerts to a human who responds to them, is becoming unfeasible. Effective human-guided real-time responses are no longer a reasonable expectation for large scale systems--this is particularly troublesome because a failure to respond correctly and rapidly can have disastrous consequences. In an ideal world, our systems would automatically detect and respond to threats of all kinds, including but not limited to automated attacks, human-guided attacks, and the constant onslaught of unsolicited email (spam). Traditionally, these threats have been dealt with by separate communities--the anti-virus community, the intrusion-detection/firewall community, and the anti-spam community. Today however, we see an increasing need for integrating different technologies toward achieving a common goal. In this special issue, we surveyed the research community with the intent of identifying novel, multidisciplinary and integrated approaches to system defense that contribute towards development of true self-protecting and self-healing systems. The result is reflected in the articles we selected.

Frincke, Deb; Wespi, Andreas; Zamboni, Diego

2007-04-11

292

Improving Intrusion Detection Using Genetic Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is one of the key security components in today’s networking environment. A great deal of attention has been recently paid to anomaly detection to accomplish intrusion detection. However, a major problem with this approach is maximizing detection rate and accuracy, as well as minimizing false alarm i.e., inability to correctly discover particular types of attacks. To overcome this problem, a genetic algorithm approach is proposed. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is most frequently employed as a robust technology based on machine learning for designing IDS. GAs are search algorithms which are based on the principles of natural selection and genetics. GA functions on a number of possible solutions using the principle of survival of the fittest with the aim to generate better approximations to solve a particular problem GA is facing. The validity of this approach is verified using Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining Cup 1999 (KDD Cup ’99) dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the existing techniques, with the detection rate of attack and false alarm rates of 95.7265 and 4.2735, respectively.

V. Moraveji Hashemi; Z. Muda; W. Yassin

2013-01-01

293

Hybrid Model For Intrusion Detection System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractThe rapid growth of the computers that are interconnected, the crime rate has also increased and the ways to mitigate those crimes has become the important problem now. In the entire globe, organizations, higher learning institutions and governments are completely dependent on the computer networks which play a major role in their daily operations. Hence the necessity for protecting those networked systems has also increased. In the proposed system, we have designed fuzzy logic-based system for effectively identifying the intrusion activities within a network. Currently available intrusion detection systems focus mainly on determining uncharacteristic system events in distributed networks using signature based approach. Due to its limitation of finding novel attacks, we propose a hybrid model based on improved fuzzy and data mining techniques, which can detect both misuse and anomaly attacks. Our aim is to reduce the amount of data retained for processing i.e., attribute selection process and also to improve the detection rate of the existing IDS using data mining technique. We then use improved Kuok fuzzy data mining algorithm, which in turn a modified version of APRIORI algorithm, for implementing fuzzy rules, which allows us to construct if-then rules that reflect common ways of describing security attacks. We applied fuzzy inference engine using mamdani inference mechanism with three variable inputs for faster decision making

Chapke Prajkta P.; Raut A. B.

2012-01-01

294

A hot spring in granite of the Western Tianshan, China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The western Tianshan range is a major Cenozoic orogenic belt in central Asia exposing predominantly Paleozoic rocks including granite. Ongoing deformation is reflected by very rugged topography with peaks over 7000 m high. Active tectonic deformation is tied to an E-W trending fracture and fault system that sections the mountain chain into geologically diverse blocks that extend parallel to the orogen. In the Muzhaerte valley upwelling hot water follows such a fault system in the Muza granite. About 20 L min-1 Na-SO4-Cl water with a temperature of 55 deg. C having a total mineralization of about 1 g L-1 discharge from the hot spring. The water is used in a local spa that is frequented by the people of the upper Ili river area. Its waters are used for balneological purposes and the spa serves as a therapeutic institution. The major element composition of the hot water is dominated by Na and by SO4 and Cl, Ca is a minor component. Dissolved silica (1.04 mmol L-1) corresponds to a quartz-saturation temperature of 116 deg. C and a corresponding depth of the source of the water of about 4600 m. This temperature is consistent with Na/K and Na/Li geothermometry. The water is saturated with respect to fluorite and contains 7.5 mg L-1 F- as a consequence of the low Ca-concentration. The water is undersaturated with respect to the primary minerals of the reservoir granite at reservoir temperature causing continued irreversible dissolution of granite. The waters are oversaturated with respect to Ca-zeolite minerals (such as stilbite and mesolite), and it is expected that zeolites precipitate in the fracture pore space and in alteration zones replacing primary granite. The stable isotope composition of O and H supports a meteoric origin of the water. The Cl/Br mass ratio of 1500 suggests that the salinity results from halite dissolution. Salts leached from powders of Muza granite show the same Cl/Br signature as the hot spring water. Sodium chloride is stored in fluid and solid inclusions in the granite, which have been introduced to quartz by ductile shearing and faulting related to ongoing orogenesis. The hot water remobilizes the salt that is continuously liberated by the tectonic deformation. Water-granite interaction contributes a thenardite-component (Na2SO4) to the major element composition by albite dissolution in H2SO4. The water-rock interaction along faults and fractures transforms and alters Muza granite to a low-temperature epigranite

2009-01-01

295

Uranium distribution in Brazilian granitic rocks. Identification of uranium provinces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research characterized and described uranium enriched granitoids in Brazil. They occur in a variety of tectonic environments and are represented by a variety granite types of distinct ages. It may be deduced that in general they have been generated by partial melting process of continental crust. However, some of them, those with tonality composition, indicate a contribution from mantle derived materials, thus suggesting primary uranium enrichment from the upper mantle. Through this study, the identification and characterization of uranium enriched granite or uranium provinces in Brazil can be made. This may also help identify areas with potential for uranium mineralization although it has been note that uranium mineralization in Brazil are not related to the uranium enrichment process. In general the U-anomalous granitoids are composed of granites with alkaline composition and granite ''sensu strictu'' which comprise mainly of syenites, quartz-syenites and biotite-hornblende granites, with ages between 1,800 - 1,300 M.a. The U-anomalous belongings to this period present high Sr initial ratios values, above 0.706, and high Rb contents. Most of the U-enriched granitoids occur within ancient cratonic areas, or within Early to Mid-Proterozoic mobile belts, but after their cratonization. Generally, these granitoids are related to the border zones of the mobile belts or deep crustal discontinuity. Refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs

1993-01-01

296

Study on distribution coefficient for cesium between granite and water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of safety evaluation of geological disposal, distribution coefficient, Kd has been measured in the laboratory. The Kd for Cs between solution and granite which is one of the candidates of igneous rocks for repository, has been measured by typical batch method. The weight of Cs adsorbed on the unit weight of granite is constant in the case that the concentration of Cs in solution is constant. There is no dependancy of the weight of Cs adsorbed on the unit weight of granite on the surface gross area of granite at equilibrium condition. Consequently it appears that the Kd, which is calculated from the weight of Cs adsorbed on granite, is constant in the case that the concentration of Cs in solution is constant. The value of Kd at equilibrium condition varies from 20(ml/g) to 1(ml/g) in the range of high Cs concentration solution. On the other hand in the range of low Cs concentration, it seems that the value of Kd is almost constant, independently of the Cs concentrations. (author)

1981-01-01

297

The relationship between contextual processing, intrusive imagery and hallucination proneness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: This study tested the hypothesis that hallucinations exist on a continuum with intrusive imagery and that contextual processing underlies this relationship. The study hypothesised that weak contextual (allocentric) processing would correlate with intrusive images that are vivid, sensory and po...

Glazer, DA

298

Intrusive rock distribution in northern Tohoku estimated from aeromagnetic anomaly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analysis is made of magnetic data and gravity data in the Hakkoda area. The intrusive rock-shaped magnetic bodies determined from a magnetic map corrected for topography is found to correspond to the intrusive rocks acting as the source for the Hakkoda lava and to the intrusive rocks that have close relations with the formation of the Okiura caldera and the Towada caldera. If these intrusive rock-shaped magnetic bodies can be assumed to be made of intrusive rocks, the most useful heat sources would be those intrusive rocks which are considered to have supplied the Tamoyachi-dake lava, Ko-dake lava, Oh-take lava, Iou-dake lava and Akakura-dake lava, and the second most useful would be the intrusive rocks in the Okiura caldera. This agrees well with the current distribution of hot springs. The gravity basement map around the Towada caldera shows that there exist deep gravity basement zones along the caldera rim. The distribution of intrusive rock-shaped magnetic bodies along the rims of the Okiura and Towada calderas agrees with that of deep gravity basement zones. In comparison, gravity basement is relatively shallow in areas around Mt. Hakkoda. (17 figs, 7 tabs, 21 refs)

Okubo, Yasukuni; Takakura, Shinichi

1986-10-01

299

Unconscious thought reduces intrusion development: a replication and extension.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intrusive images after a traumatic event, a hallmark feature of post-traumatic stress disorder, are suggested to develop because the trauma memory is disorganized and not integrated into autobiographical memory. Unconscious Thought Theory predicts that information can be conceptually organized after a period of unconscious thought (UT), more so than after conscious thought (CT). We aimed to test the hypothesis that UT decreases intrusions and increases conceptual organization in memory. METHODS: Participants were shown a stressful film and were required to perform an UT task, a CT task, or a distraction task. Intrusions of the film, intrusion qualities, and sequence memory were measured afterwards. RESULTS: We confirmed our hypothesis that UT (versus CT or mere distraction) leads to fewer intrusions, thereby replicating earlier research. Contrary to prediction, we found no difference between the conditions on sequence memory. In addition, conscious thought appeared to increase intrusion nowness and arousal. LIMITATIONS: The analogue design and healthy participant sample prevent from generalizing results to other populations. Intrusion frequency and qualities were assessed immediately after the film thereby prohibiting us from drawing conclusions about any long-term effects. CONCLUSIONS: Engaging in unconscious thought after a stressful film can reduce intrusion frequency. This has potential implications for clinical interventions to prevent initial stress symptoms. The underlying mechanism remains unclear for now and provides an avenue for future research.

Krans J; Janecko D; Bos MW

2013-06-01

300

The Younger Dryas age of the Salpausselkä moraines in Finland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The late-glacial Younger Dryas Stadial, as defined over seventy years ago in Denmark, was compared with the withdrawal of the Scandinavian ice sheet and correlated in Finland in 1951 with the formation of the Salpausselkä moraines. Since then a great number of studies of Younger Dryas has eventually led to its definition in the Event Stratigraphy for the North Atlantic region, based on the oxygen isotope stratigraphy in the Greenland ice-core NGRIP. The age of the Younger Dryas / Preboreal boundary, the beginning of the Holocene, is in this stratigraphy dated at 11 653 yr. BP, an age close to the age deter-mined for the drainage of the Baltic Ice Lake and the beginning of the rapid retreat of the ice margin from Salpausselkä II in Finland and the corresponding Billingen moraine in Sweden. This leads to the conclusion that the Salpausselkä moraines Ss I and Ss II were formed during Younger Dryas, according to the revised varve chronology between c. 12 260 and c. 11 600 yr. BP. The third Salpausselkä, Ss III, was according to this dating formed in early Holocene. After the 1950s, when the Salpausselkä moraines were dated as having been formed during the Younger Dryas Stadial, the ages of the boundaries of Younger Dryas changed as a result of revisions of the time scales of varved clays and the use of radiocarbon ages and their calibrations. As a result of these changes the age of the two main Salpausselkä moraines, Ss I and Ss II, is older than assumed 60 years ago on the basis of the varve chronology.

Joakim Donner

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

An Independent Evaluation of the Younger Dryas Extraterrestrial Impact Hypothesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on elevated concentrations of a set of impact markers at the onset of the Younger Dryas stadial from sedimentary contexts across North America, Firestone, Kennett, West, and others have argued that 12.9 ka, the Earth experienced an impact by an extraterrestrial body, an event that had devastating ecological consequences for humans, plants, and animals in the New World. In this paper, we report the results of an independent analysis of magnetic minerals and microspherules from seven sites of similar age including two previously examined by Firestone et al. We were unable to reproduce any results of the Firestone et al. study and find no support for Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact.

Surovell, T. A.; Holliday, V. T.

2009-12-01

302

A possible younger dryas record in southeastern alaska.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A stratigraphic record of climatic cooling equal in timing and severity to the Younger Dryas event of the North Atlantic region has been obtained from lacustrine sediments in the Glacier Bay area of southeastern Alaska. Fossil pollen show that a late Wisconsin pine parkland was replaced about 10,800 years ago by shrub- and herb-dominated tundra, which lasted until about 9,800 years ago. This vegetational change is matched by geochemical evidence for loss of organic matter from catchment soils and increased mineral erosion. If this event represents the Younger Dryas, then an explanation for a hemisphere-wide propagation of a North Atlantic climatic perturbation must be sought.

Engstrom DR; Hansen BC; Wright HE Jr

1990-12-01

303

A possible Younger Dryas record in southeastern Alaska  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A stratigraphic record of climatic cooling equal in timing and severity to the Younger Dryas event of the North Atlantic region has been obtained form lacustrine sediments in the Glacier Bay area of southeastern Alaska. Fossil pollen show that a late Wisconsin pine parkland was replaced about 10,800 years ago by shrub- and herb-dominated tundra, which lasted until about 9,800 years ago. This vegetational change is matched by geochemical evidence for loss of organic matter from catchment soils and increased mineral erosion. If this event represents the Younger Dryas, then an explanation for a hemisphere-wide propagation of a North Atlantic climatic perturbation must be sought.

Engstrom, D.R.; Hansen, B.C.S.; Wright, H.E. Jr. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States))

1990-12-07

304

Understanding death and grief for children three and younger.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the average toddler's cognitive skills may be limited, children three and younger have emotional responses to the death of someone they have known. Theories and research indicate that children's individual characteristics, their developmental stage including cognitive level, and their environmental and familial experiences must be considered to understand their grief. Myriad misconceptions and euphemisms can complicate and exacerbate children's grief. The authors address the possibilities for age-appropriate, theory-based interventions by clinicians and parents to effectively assist children three and younger in their grief work.

Norris-Shortle C; Young PA; Williams MA

1993-11-01

305

Network Security using Linux Intrusion Detection System / IJORCS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Attacks on the nation’s computer infrastructures are becoming an increasingly serious problem. Firewalls provide a certain amount of security, but can be fooled at times by attacks like IP spoofing and the so called authorized users. So an intelligent system that can detect attacks and intrusions is required. The tool GRANT (Global Real-time Analysis of Network Traffic) being a Linux based Intrusion Detection System(LIDs), takes the advantage of the security of a Linux box and secures the other nodes in the perimeter of the network. It is capable of detecting intrusions and probes as and when they occur and capable of responding to “already” successful attacks, thus causing minimal or no damage to the entire network. For better performance, this Linux Intrusion Detection System should be part of a defense in depth strategy such as Firewall and Intrusion Prevention.

Arul Anitha

2011-01-01

306

Various Approaches for Detecting Attacks in Intrusion Detection System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rapid development of computer networks and more importantly internet has created many security problems such as ever growing new intrusions on computer network systems. To secure this systemstrong intrusion detection system has to be build. An intrusion detection system monitors all inbound and outbound network activity and identifies suspicious activities that attempting to break and violate security of system. In this paper we have taken review of various approaches of Intrusion detection which includes SVM(Support Vector Machine) system, SOM (Self Organising maps), MLP (Multi-Layer Perceptron).For detecting intrusions this approaches goes through three phases pre-processing in which raw data is converted into machine readable form then training of data is performed and in the last measure the performance on testing data.

Purva Adlakha; Prof. Priti Subramanium

2013-01-01

307

Laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured Climax granite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents our laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured granite cores. To simulate natural conditions, our laboratory studies used naturally fractured cores and natural ground water from the Climax Granite Stock at the Nevada Test Site. For comparison, additional tests used artificially fractured granite cores or distilled water. Relative to the flow of tritiated water, 85Sr and /sup 95m/Tc showed little or no retardation, whereas 137Cs was retarded. After the transport runs the cores retained varying amounts of the injected radionuclides along the fracture. Autoradiography revealed some correlation between sorption and the fracture fill material. Strontium and cesium retention increased when the change was made from natural ground water to distilled water. Artificial fractures retained less 137Cs than most natural fractures. Estimated fracture apertures from 18 to 60 ?m and hydraulic conductivities from 1.7 to 26 x 10-3 m/s were calculated from the core measurements.

1982-01-01

308

The Polumir granite: Addititional data on its origin  

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Full Text Available The Polumir granite is exposed on several localities due to erosion, and its chemical and mineral composition is presented in this paper. It is built of K-feldspar, plagioclase, myrmekite, metasomatic albite, biotite, muscovite and quartz, while apatite, magnetite, monazite, allanite and zircon are present as accessory minerals. According to its chemical and mineral composition and rock chemistry (trace and REE elements) the Polumir granite is leucocratic, sin-collisional, with S-type characteristics. It crystallized at temperature of about 650°C and under pressure of 2-4 kbar. Results of isotope analyses (K-Ar method on biotites) indicate that the Polumir granite was formed during the Miocene (14-19 Ma) and it has undergone subsequent weak remobilization afterwards.

Vukov Milenko S.; Milovanovi? Dragan

2002-01-01

309

Assessing exposure to granite countertops--Part 1: Radiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Humans are continuously exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Known sources include radon, soil, cosmic rays, medical treatment, food, and building products such as gypsum board and concrete. Little information exists about radiation emissions and associated doses from natural stone finish materials such as granite countertops in homes. To address this knowledge gap, gross radioactivity, gamma ray activity, and dose rate were determined for slabs of granite marketed for use as countertops. Annual effective radiation doses were estimated from measured dose rates and human activity patterns while accounting for the geometry of granite countertops in a model kitchen. Gross radioactivity, gamma activity, and dose rate varied significantly among and within slabs of granite with ranges for median levels at the slab surface of ND to 3000 cpm, ND to 98,000 cpm, and ND to 1.5E-4 mSv/h, respectively. The maximum activity concentrations of the (40)K, (232)Th, and (226)Ra series were 2715, 231, and 450 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated annual radiation dose from spending 4 h/day in a hypothetical kitchen ranged from 0.005 to 0.18 mSv/a depending on the type of granite. In summary, our results show that the types of granite characterized in this study contain varying levels of radioactive isotopes and that their observed emissions are consistent with those reported in the scientific literature. We also conclude from our analyses that these emissions are likely to be a minor source of external radiation dose when used as countertop material within the home and present a negligible risk to human health. PMID:19707248

Myatt, Theodore A; Allen, Joseph G; Minegishi, Taeko; McCarthy, William B; Stewart, James H; Macintosh, David L; McCarthy, John F

2009-08-26

310

Assessing exposure to granite countertops--Part 1: Radiation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Humans are continuously exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Known sources include radon, soil, cosmic rays, medical treatment, food, and building products such as gypsum board and concrete. Little information exists about radiation emissions and associated doses from natural stone finish materials such as granite countertops in homes. To address this knowledge gap, gross radioactivity, gamma ray activity, and dose rate were determined for slabs of granite marketed for use as countertops. Annual effective radiation doses were estimated from measured dose rates and human activity patterns while accounting for the geometry of granite countertops in a model kitchen. Gross radioactivity, gamma activity, and dose rate varied significantly among and within slabs of granite with ranges for median levels at the slab surface of ND to 3000 cpm, ND to 98,000 cpm, and ND to 1.5E-4 mSv/h, respectively. The maximum activity concentrations of the (40)K, (232)Th, and (226)Ra series were 2715, 231, and 450 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated annual radiation dose from spending 4 h/day in a hypothetical kitchen ranged from 0.005 to 0.18 mSv/a depending on the type of granite. In summary, our results show that the types of granite characterized in this study contain varying levels of radioactive isotopes and that their observed emissions are consistent with those reported in the scientific literature. We also conclude from our analyses that these emissions are likely to be a minor source of external radiation dose when used as countertop material within the home and present a negligible risk to human health.

Myatt TA; Allen JG; Minegishi T; McCarthy WB; Stewart JH; Macintosh DL; McCarthy JF

2010-05-01

311

Characterization of granites by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Two granite complexes in Egypt, a sodic type and an aluminous type are characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Mössbauer spectra (MS) of the sodic granite show a major doublet of ferric (Fe3+) iron that is attributable to octahedral coordination (M1) sites plus/minus a tetrahedron Fe3+ doublet plus/minus a doublet of ferrous (Fe2+) iron on the M1 sites plus/ minus another Fe2+ (M1) doublet and a sextet of Fe3+. The sextet is attributed to ?-Fe2O3 (hematite) and the other Fe components are due to NaCaFeSi2O6 (aegirine-augite) plus/minus minor contributions from (Ca2(Mg, Fe)5(Si, Al)8O22(OH)2 (magnesium-hornblende). Changes in the quadrupole splitting and width line of Fe2+ ions are likely composition-related. The MS of the aluminous-type granite, on the other hand, shows evidence only of single doublets containing Fe2+ or Fe3+ in the octahedral M1 sites, with parameters that remain almost constant. This consistency implies that the existing minerals - K(Mg, Fe2+)3 (Al, Fe3+)Si3O10(OH, F)2 (biotite), (Mg, Fe)6(Si, Al)4O10(OH)8 (clinochlore), (Na, K)Ca2(Fe, Mg)5(Al, Si)8O22(OH)2 (ferrohornblende and magnesiohornblende) - have similar iron positions. The intensity of iron oxidized (Fe3+/?Fe) for the sodic granite is 79.1 to 100% and for the aluminous granite, 28.4 to 38.2%. The observed Fe3+/?Fe differences between the two granites are source-related and consistent with distributions of other redox-sensitive elements.

Hassan, Kamaledin M.

2009-01-01

312

The rio Crespo intrusive suite: Geological U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic evidence for a major 1.43 Ga arc-related magmatism in the Rondonia state, SW Amazonian craton, Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] On the basis of geological, petrological, U-Pb, and Sm-Nd geochronological data the basement rocks in the central-eastern part of Rondonia tin province (SW Amazonian Craton) are included into five lithological associations: (1) tonalitic gneiss (1.75 Ga), (2) enderbitic granulite (1.73 Ga), (3) paragneiss, (4) granitic and charnockitic augen-gneisses (1.57-1.53 Ga) and (5) fine-grained granitic gneiss and charnockitic granulite (1.43 Ga) (Payolla et al., subm.). The fine-grained granitic gneiss and charnockitic granulite association embraces the minor areal expression within the study area. However these rocks are widespread further south and west, and provide the first evidence of arc-related magmatism referred to the Rondonian-San Ignacio time, in Rondonia state (Payolla et al., subm.). In this paper, new data on the geology, geochemistry and an additional U-Pb zircon age, obtained from a sample of charnockite granulite, will be presented. Also a formal designation, 'Rio Crespo Intrusive Suite', for the fine-grained granitic gneiss and charnockite granulite association is herein proposed (au)

2001-01-01

313

Geochemistry, age and origin of some porphyry intrusions in the Onverwacht group, Barberton greenstone belt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Field investigations in the vicinity of the Msauli Mine have shown that a number of porphyry stocks occurring in this area are intrusive into the pre-folded metavolcanic formations of the upper Onverwacht Group. The age of one of these porphyry stocks has been determined by means of Rb-Sr whole rock isotopic analyses and yielded an age of 2 766 Ma with an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0,0705 9. Geochemically, the Msauli porphyries are classified as granitic to granodioritic in composition and thus differ from many other porphyries in the Barberton greenstone belt. Trace element modelling, using K, Rb, Sr and Ba, was undertaken in an attempt to distinguish between two potential source rocks, namely, tonalite/trondhjemite or amphibolite (tholeiite basalt). None of the calculations, however, resulted in a model magma similar to the porphyry rock. Instead indications are that mechanical mixing of the two potential source rocks resulted in a magma whose composition approaches that of the porphyries. The latter process, therefore, is favoured by the authors for the petrogenesis of the Msauli porphyries. The trace element modelling further suggests that the porphyries were formed by between 0 and 30 per cent fractional crystallization. This process is reflected in the existence of isolated phenocrysts within a fine-grained matrix

1984-01-01

314

Experimental investigation of ?-ray attenuation coefficients for granites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Radiation shielding properties of granites have been investigated. ? This is done by measuring linear attenuation coefficients. ? Measurement was performed using 137Cs and 60Co sources. - Abstract: The linear attenuation coefficients of ?-rays for some granite samples have been measured at 662, 1773 and 1332 keV. The ?-rays have been obtained from 137Cs and 60Co sources respectively and the measurement have been performed using a gamma spectrometer which contains 3” × 3” NaI(Tl) detector connected to 16384 channel Multi-Channel-Analyser (MCA).

2012-01-01

315

Source and redox controls on metallogenic variations in intrusion-related ore systems, Tombstone-Tungsten Belt, Yukon Territory, Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tombstone, Mayo and Tungsten plutonic suites of granitic intrusions, collectively termed the Tombstone-Tungsten Belt, form three geographically, mineralogically, geochemically and metallogenically distinct plutonic suites. The granites (sensu lato) intruded the ancient North American continental margin of the northern Canadian Cordillera as part of a single magmatic episode in the mid-Cretaceous (96-90 Ma). The Tombstone Suite is alkalic, variably fractionated, slightly oxidised, contains magnetite and titanite, and has primary, but no xenocrystic, zircon. The Mayo Suite is sub-alkalic, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, fractionated, but with early felsic and late mafic phases, moderately reduced with titanite dominant, and has xenocrystic zircon. The Tungsten Suite is peraluminous, entirely felsic, more highly fractionated, reduced with ilmenite dominant, and has abundant xenocrystic zircon. Each suite has a distinctive petrogenesis. The Tombstone Suite was derived from an enriched, previously depleted lithospheric mantle, the Tungsten Suite is from the continental crust including, but not dominated by, carbonaceous pelitic rocks, and the Mayo Suite is from a similar sedimentary crustal source, but is mixed with a distinct mafic component from an enriched mantle source. Each suite has a distinctive metallogeny that is related to the source and redox characteristics of the magma. The Tombstone Suite has a Au-Cu-Bi association that is characteristic of most oxidised and alkalic magmas, but also has associated, and enigmatic, U-Th-F mineralisation. The reduced Tungsten Suite intrusions are characterised by world-class tungsten skarn deposits with less significant Cu, Zn, Sn and Mo anomalies. The Mayo Suite intrusions are characteristically gold-enriched, with associated As, Bi, Te and W associations. All suites also have associated, but distal and lower temperature Ag-Pb- and Sb-rich mineral occurrences. Although processes such as fractionation, volatile enrichment and phase separation are ultimately required to produce economic concentrations of ore elements from crystallising magmas, the nature of the source materials and their redox state play an important role in determining which elements are effectively concentrated by magmatic processes.

Hart, C. J. R.; Mair, J. L.; Goldfarb, R. J.; Groves, D. I.

2004-01-01

316

Ultrasonic intrusion alarm for radiation areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A potential hazard to personnel exists at all cobalt 60 teletherapy installatons and irradiators where such items are assumed to be guarded by interlocks. Independent radiation area monitors that flash for example are useful additions to such facilities but may soon lose their impact on personnel who become desensitized to them because of their constant presence. A possible remedy to this problem is discussed in this paper. A commercially available, inexpensive ultrasonic burglar alarm was installed in the maze of the author's teletherapy room. The alarm's remote switch is connected in series to a conventional, commercially available radiation area monitor's external indicator. When this monitor exceeds its alarm set point, the intrusion alarm is then armed and any movement in the maze area produces a 85-dB audible alarm.

Steidley, K.D.

1983-09-01

317

Stress, intrusive imagery, and chronic distress  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses the nature of stress in the context of problems with its definition and sources of confusion regarding its usefulness and specificity. Stress can be defined as a negative emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological, and behavioral changes that are directed toward adaptation either by manipulating the situation to alter the stressor or by accommodating its effects. Chronic stress is more complex than most definitions suggest and is clearly not limited to situations in which stressors persist for long periods of time. Responses may habituate before a stressor disappears or may persist long beyond the physical presence of the stressor. This latter case, in which chronic stress and associated biobehavioral changes outlast their original cause, is considered in light of research at Three Mile Island and among Vietnam veterans. The role of intrusive images of the stressor or uncontrollable thoughts about it in maintaining stress is explored.

Baum, A. (Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-01-01

318

Database Intrusion Detection using Weighted Sequence Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data mining is widely used to identify interesting, potentially useful and understandable patterns from a large data repository. With many organizations focusing on web-based on-line transactions, the threat of security violations has also increased. Since a database stores valuable information of an application, its security has started getting attention. An intrusion detection system (IDS) is used to detect potential violations in database security. In every database, some of the attributes are considered more sensitive to malicious modifications compared to others. We propose an algorithm for finding dependencies among important data items in a relational database management system. Any transaction that does not follow these dependency rules are identified as malicious. We show that this algorithm can detect modification of sensitive attributes quite accurately. We also suggest an extension to the Entity- Relationship (E-R) model to syntactically capture the sensitivity levels of the attributes.

Abhinav Srivastava; Shamik Sural; A.K. Majumdar

2006-01-01

319

Intrusion Detection Based On Clustering Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The traditional Intrusion detection systems have been used long time ago, namely Anomaly-Based detection and Signature-based detection but have many drawbacks that limit their performance. Consequently the main goal of this paper is to use data mining techniques including classification using clustering methods to overpass these defects. This classification will be done by using k-means algorithm. Therefore we have improved k-means to overcome its limits specially the cluster’s number initialization. The experiment results of the work done on KDD’99 dataset shows the performance of the improved k-means in detecting new attacks with more than 90% for Dos and R2L also more than 60% for probe and U2R.

Nadya El MOUSSAID; Ahmed TOUMANARI; Maryam ELAZHARI

2013-01-01

320

Strategic Alert Throttling for Intrusion Detection Systems  

CERN Multimedia

Network intrusion detection systems are themselves becoming targets of attackers. Alert flood attacks may be used to conceal malicious activity by hiding it among a deluge of false alerts sent by the attacker. Although these types of attacks are very hard to stop completely, our aim is to present techniques that improve alert throughput and capacity to such an extent that the resources required to successfully mount the attack become prohibitive. The key idea presented is to combine a token bucket filter with a realtime correlation algorithm. The proposed algorithm throttles alert output from the IDS when an attack is detected. The attack graph used in the correlation algorithm is used to make sure that alerts crucial to forming strategies are not discarded by throttling.

Gianni, Tedesco

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Standardized Parameterization of Intrusion Detection Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Efficiency of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) depends on their configuration and coverage of services. The coverage depends on used IDS. In the case of usage in multiple systems, operations might become complex because IDS configurations are still vendor-specific. This paper shows aspects and frame conditions for a multi-vendor IDS implementation under one central administration and notification entity. Subsequent it will be briefly discussed, why current management protocols are not adequate to manage IDS. A short paragraph describes the parameterization methodology to separate baseline configuration and parameterization for individual integrations. Separation of baseline configuration and parameterization for an individual integration is illustrated on basis of Snort. Analog to the Intrusion Detection Message Exchange Format a parameterization format for standardized parameterization was designed. Based on this designed green field approach the format structure was evaluated. Usability and functionality of this approach was demonstrated by integration in the network based IDS Snort, the host based IDS Samhain and OSSec under one parameterization web front-end. This approach provides administrators one consistently administration front-end for all implemented and operated IDS. One central administration entity manages the complete IDS solution independent from IDS vendors. Updates and parameter modifications could be done from this central point. The security level is improved, because there are no longer constraints to allow connections from analyzers to the Internet or the central operations LAN for notifications or to update it. Managers are independent from the rest of the IDS. IDS of different vendors and different analyzing levels could be managed with one administration interface.

Björn-C. Bösch

2012-01-01

322

A Novel Cell Reckoning Intrusion against TOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available TOR (The onion router) is a low latency anonymous communication system for enabling online anonymity. TOR directs Internet traffic through a free, worldwide volunteer network consisting of more than three thousand relaysto conceal a user's location or usage from anyone conducting network surveillance or traffic analysis. Tor aims to conceal its users' identities and their network activity from surveillance and traffic analysis by separating identification and routing. It is an implementation of onion routing, which encrypts and then randomly bounces communications through a network of relays run by volunteers around the globe. Because the internet address of the sender and the recipient are not both in clear text at any hop along the way, anyone eavesdropping at any point along the communication channel cannot directly identify both ends. Furthermore, to the recipient it appears that the last Tor node (the exit node) is the originator of the communication rather than the sender. Because of this TOR communication system, if an intruder is going to make any unauthenticated changes to system then it is not possible to track him back. In this paper we proposed a solution for this problem by using ‘Cell-Reckoning-Intrusion –Against TOR’. By the no of experiment on TOR we found that the size of IP packets in the Tor network can be very dynamic because a cell is an application concept and the IP layer may repack cells. In this attack, the attacker can embed a secret signal into the variation of cell counter of the target traffic. The embedded signal will be carried along with the target traffic and arrive at the malicious entry onion router. Then, an accomplice of the attacker at the malicious entry onion router will detect the embedded signal based on the received cells and confirm the communication relationship among users. We have implemented this intrusion against Tor, and our experimental data validate is highly effective and efficient.

Ujjaneni Siva Lalitha1 , Prof.S.V.Achutha Rao

2013-01-01

323

Rb-Sr-age of Central Kazakhstan granites and estimation of reliability of paleofloristic dating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Age characteristics of the Kaldyrma granites (Central Kazakhstan) are studied by means of Rb-Sr-isochronous technique. Comparison of granite isotopic and geologopaleontological dating is conducted. The presented isochrones provide on an average for 301±2 millions of years. The conducted Rb-Sr-investigation of these granites allows to refer them to the upper Carboniferous period and to consider them as reference one. Time of multiphase granite formation may be evaluated as 3-4 millions of years.

1989-01-01

324

Younger adults with severe physical disabilities in the Capital Region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Spring, 1994 the Gerontology Research Centre at Simon Fraser University was commissioned to undertake a project that would provide the Health Planning Division of the Capital Regional District of British Columbia (CRD) with information that would facilitate strategic planning for younger adults w...

Gutman, Gloria M.; Anderson, K.; Killam, J.

325

An independent evaluation of the Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact hypothesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on elevated concentrations of a set of “impact markers” at the onset of the Younger Dryas stadial from sedimentary contexts across North America, Firestone, Kennett, West, and others have argued that 12.9 ka the Earth experienced an impact by an extraterrestrial body, an event that had devasta...

Surovell, Todd A.; Holliday, Vance T.; Gingerich, Joseph A. M.; Ketron, Caroline; Haynes, C. Vance; Hilman, Ilene

326

Reward-Enhanced Memory in Younger and Older Adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objectives.We investigated how the anticipation of remote monetary reward modulates intentional episodic memory formation in younger and older adults. On the basis of prior findings of preserved reward-cognition interactions in aging, we predicted that reward anticipation would be associated with enhanced memory in both younger and older adults. On the basis of previous demonstrations of a time-dependent effect of reward anticipation on memory, we expected the memory enhancement to increase with study-test delay.Method.In Experiment 1, younger and older participants encoded a series of picture stimuli associated with high- or low-reward values. At test (24-hr postencoding), recognition hits resulted in either high or low monetary rewards, whereas false alarms were penalized to discourage guessing. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1, but the study-test delay was manipulated within subjects (immediate vs 24hr). RESULTS: In Experiment 1, younger and older adults showed enhanced recognition for high-reward pictures compared with low-reward pictures. Experiment 2 replicated this finding and additionally showed that the effect did not extend to immediate recognition.Discussion.The current findings provide support for a time-dependent mechanism of reward-based memory enhancement. They also suggest that aging leaves intact the positive influence of reward anticipation on intentional long-term memory formation.

Spaniol J; Schain C; Bowen HJ

2013-05-01

327

From granite to highly evolved pegmatite: A case study of the Pinilla de Fermoselle granite-pegmatite system (Zamora, Spain)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pinilla de Fermoselle pegmatite is a cap-like body with an asymmetrical vertical zoning, from a granitic facies at the bottom to the upper contact with the metamorphic country-rocks. The granite grades imperceptibly into the pegmatite, which includes three main zones with different degrees of enrichment in Li + F + B (± P, Rb, Cs, Be, Sn). The essential minerals are quartz, feldspar, Al-micas from the muscovite-lepidolite series, Fe-micas (biotite and zinnwaldite), tourmaline (schorl-elbaite-rossmanite) and Fe-Mn phosphates. Apatite, beryl, cassiterite and cookeite are the most significant accessory minerals.The trace elements Li, Be and Sr show similar trends in feldspar, micas and tourmaline, with an increase in the Li and Be contents and a decrease in Sr from the granite to the most evolved pegmatitic zone. Similar trends are shown by Rb, Cs and Ba for micas and K-feldspar, Rb and Cs increasing gradually from the granite to most evolved pegmatitic zones, simultaneously to the decrease of Ba. In tourmaline Nb and Ta contents increase upwards whereas Zn contents decrease in the same way. The Mn contents increase until intermediate degrees of evolution, and decrease again in the pinkish elbaite.Combined field, petrographic and geochemical data are consistent with a fractional crystallization model from a granitic melt, with a clear petrogenetic relationship between the underlying peraluminous granite and the pegmatite body. K-feldspar and, particularly, micas and tourmaline appear as good geochemical monitors using trace elements such as Li, Rb, Be, Sr and Ba, which offer intriguing insights into the petrogenesis of pegmatites.

Roda-Robles, E.; Pesquera, A.; Gil-Crespo, P.; Torres-Ruiz, J.

2012-11-01

328

Granites of Zoz area, Baroda district, Gujarat and its economic significance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The granites around Zoz represent a differentiated, calc-alkaline, subaluminous, A-type granite with higher uranium content. The A-type affinity points to the possibility of encountering Sn, Mo, Bi, Nb, Ta and F mineralization in the area. The low Th/U ratio also favours vein type U-deposits within granites or in adjacent metasediments. (author)

1998-01-01

329

On Younger Stakeholders and Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In modern democratic countries, information sharing and effective and open communication concerning dismantling and decommissioning of of nuclear facilities as well as the management of nuclear waste are essential for the task to build the confidence required for any further development of nuclear energy. At the same time, it is often perceived that all decision making processes about nuclear energy policies are probably increasingly influenced by public opinion. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role in this regard to provide unbiased information on any health and safety related issues. In order to meet this need, it is necessary for Authorities and others to understand the values and opinions of the citizens, and especially the younger ones. They hold the key to the future at the same time as their perspective on these issues is the least understood. The need of greater public participation in decision making is becoming increasingly recognised the scientific as well as the political community. Many activities are carried out in order to stimulate to higher levels of public involvement in decision making in this active research area. Younger citizens is a stakeholder group that is often excluded in decision- making processes. The existence of large gaps between the involvement of older and younger stakeholders in decision making processes needs to be addressed, since such imbalances might otherwise lead to unequal opportunities between generations and limit the future consumption level of the coming generations. Another demanding task for the present generation is to assure that appropriate financial resources are injected into the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund. It will thereby be possible for coming generations to undertake efficient measures in the decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. To undertake such measures in line with the environmental and health codex is essential. An appropriate balance in this regard must be based on a proper understanding of the values and value functions of younger citizens. Such information must thus be an integral part of the knowledge base to be used when plans and processes are being developed for dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other older nuclear facilities. In the present project, empirical data have been collected and compiled in a survey of the values of younger citizens with regard to decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. The survey constitutes a stratified sample from three towns in Poland. They are Lublin, Olsztyn and Gdansk. A total of 780 students in the age group 14-19 years participated in the Survey. The results are compared to those from a similar study in the County of Kalmar in Sweden in the year 2006. The results include some major lesson learned. These may be summarised as follows: - Younger citizens tend to base their values regarding decommissioning on safety, and environmental aspects. Aspects like future economic growth and technological processes are less influential on the values. - Younger citizens tend to express a lack of information and debate as a basis of their value functions. Likewise, they tend to express interest in the topic and are open to become more included in the processes. - Younger citizens have suggestions on how more information can be made accessible to the general public. - Younger citizens need to be better included in the stakeholder process. This can be achieved by allowances from the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund to support groups of younger citizens to follow the Swedish process of research, development and demonstration of a concept for the management of spent nuclear fuel. Less than fully accessible information campaigns about nuclear power and associated nuclear waste may result in differences in confidence levels between different groups of stakeholders. By finding out more about the values of different stakeholders it will be possible for the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority as well as for Society as a whole to enhance the possibility t o de

Tyszkiewicz, Bogumila; Labor, Bea

2009-08-15

330

On Younger Stakeholders and Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In modern democratic countries, information sharing and effective and open communication concerning dismantling and decommissioning of of nuclear facilities as well as the management of nuclear waste are essential for the task to build the confidence required for any further development of nuclear energy. At the same time, it is often perceived that all decision making processes about nuclear energy policies are probably increasingly influenced by public opinion. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role in this regard to provide unbiased information on any health and safety related issues. In order to meet this need, it is necessary for Authorities and others to understand the values and opinions of the citizens, and especially the younger ones. They hold the key to the future at the same time as their perspective on these issues is the least understood. The need of greater public participation in decision making is becoming increasingly recognised the scientific as well as the political community. Many activities are carried out in order to stimulate to higher levels of public involvement in decision making in this active research area. Younger citizens is a stakeholder group that is often excluded in decision- making processes. The existence of large gaps between the involvement of older and younger stakeholders in decision making processes needs to be addressed, since such imbalances might otherwise lead to unequal opportunities between generations and limit the future consumption level of the coming generations. Another demanding task for the present generation is to assure that appropriate financial resources are injected into the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund. It will thereby be possible for coming generations to undertake efficient measures in the decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. To undertake such measures in line with the environmental and health codex is essential. An appropriate balance in this regard must be based on a proper understanding of the values and value functions of younger citizens. Such information must thus be an integral part of the knowledge base to be used when plans and processes are being developed for dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other older nuclear facilities. In the present project, empirical data have been collected and compiled in a survey of the values of younger citizens with regard to decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. The survey constitutes a stratified sample from three towns in Poland. They are Lublin, Olsztyn and Gdansk. A total of 780 students in the age group 14-19 years participated in the Survey. The results are compared to those from a similar study in the County of Kalmar in Sweden in the year 2006. The results include some major lesson learned. These may be summarised as follows: - Younger citizens tend to base their values regarding decommissioning on safety, and environmental aspects. Aspects like future economic growth and technological processes are less influential on the values. - Younger citizens tend to express a lack of information and debate as a basis of their value functions. Likewise, they tend to express interest in the topic and are open to become more included in the processes. - Younger citizens have suggestions on how more information can be made accessible to the general public. - Younger citizens need to be better included in the stakeholder process. This can be achieved by allowances from the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund to support groups of younger citizens to follow the Swedish process of research, development and demonstration of a concept for the management of spent nuclear fuel. Less than fully accessible information campaigns about nuclear power and associated nuclear waste may result in differences in confidence levels between different groups of stakeholders. By finding out more about the values of different stakeholders it will be possible for the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority as well as for Society as a whole to enhance the possibil

2009-01-01

331

Clinical Analysis of Lung Cancer Patients Younger Than 30 Years  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and objective It is common recognized that young patients of lung cancer have poor prognosis due to relatively higher malignancy and more invasive growth. In the past most studies on young patients of lung cancer selected patients younger than 40 or 45 years old, and there were few clinical materials for younger patients under 30 years. This study retrospectively described the the disease history, stage, treatment and pathology features of lung cancer patients younger than 30 years and aimed to provide references for these patients. Methods Those patients younger than 30 years, once admitted in the General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army for lung cancer from 1993 to date, were sought in medical record system, and 53 patients were found in total. In this group, there were 34 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and 19 small cell lung cacer (SCLC) patients. The male/female ratio was 1.5:1. In the NSCLC patients, there were 27 adenocarcinomas, 6 squamous carcinomas and 1 adenosquamous carcinoma, with no large cell carcinoma involved. In these patients, 12 patients received operations while 38 patients got chemo- and/or radiotherapy and 3 quited any treatment. Results There was no death in hospital, however, in the 12 patients who got operation, only 8 patients got complete resection while 4 patients got palliative resection. Conclusion Lung cancer patients younger than 30 years had a high fraction of adenocarcinoma and small cell type pathologically and most of them were in late stage when presenting with symptoms in hospital and would have a dismal prognosis. The routine health examination and early diagnosis should be emphasized to improve the prognosis of these patients.

Guangjie HOU; Lianbin ZHANG; Xiangyang CHU; Jiyun WANG

2011-01-01

332

Diagnosis of coeliac disease in children younger than 2 years.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIM: To diagnose coeliac disease (CD) in children younger than 2 years, the old ESPGHAN criteria based on 3 small bowel biopsies were recommended until recently. The aim of the present study was to investigate the applicability of only 1 small intestinal biopsy plus positive serology for the diagnosis of CD in children younger than 2 years. METHODS: A prospective cohort study included 81 patients younger than 2 years with symptoms suggestive of CD, who all completed the diagnostic procedure based on 3 small bowel biopsies. According to the finding of the third biopsy, patients were divided into group A-CD confirmed (N = 44), and group B-CD not confirmed, after the gluten challenge (N = 37). RESULTS: At the time of the first biopsy, total villous atrophy (Marsh IIIc) was found more often in group A than in group B (77% vs 27%, P < 0.01). Also, all of the studied antibodies were more frequently positive in group A than in group B (P < 0.01 for all of the tested antibodies). Positive anti-endomysial antibodies and Marsh IIIc finding were the best discriminators between the group A and the group B and considerably contributed to the prediction of CD. CONCLUSIONS: The second and the third biopsies (before and after the gluten challenge) may also be avoided when diagnosing CD in children younger than 2 years provided that the child, at the time of presentation, has positive anti-endomysial antibodies and Marsh IIIc on the small bowel biopsy. A gluten challenge should be still considered in all other children younger than 2 years.

Mišak Z; Hojsak I; Jadrešin O; Kekez AJ; Abdovi? S; Kola?ek S

2013-02-01

333

Glacier retreat in New Zealand during the Younger Dryas stadial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Millennial-scale cold reversals in the high latitudes of both hemispheres interrupted the last transition from full glacial to interglacial climate conditions. The presence of the Younger Dryas stadial (approximately 12.9 to approximately 11.7?kyr ago) is established throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere, but the global timing, nature and extent of the event are not well established. Evidence in mid to low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, in particular, has remained perplexing. The debate has in part focused on the behaviour of mountain glaciers in New Zealand, where previous research has found equivocal evidence for the precise timing of increased or reduced ice extent. The interhemispheric behaviour of the climate system during the Younger Dryas thus remains an open question, fundamentally limiting our ability to formulate realistic models of global climate dynamics for this time period. Here we show that New Zealand's glaciers retreated after approximately 13?kyr bp, at the onset of the Younger Dryas, and in general over the subsequent approximately 1.5-kyr period. Our evidence is based on detailed landform mapping, a high-precision (10)Be chronology and reconstruction of former ice extents and snow lines from well-preserved cirque moraines. Our late-glacial glacier chronology matches climatic trends in Antarctica, Southern Ocean behaviour and variations in atmospheric CO(2). The evidence points to a distinct warming of the southern mid-latitude atmosphere during the Younger Dryas and a close coupling between New Zealand's cryosphere and southern high-latitude climate. These findings support the hypothesis that extensive winter sea ice and curtailed meridional ocean overturning in the North Atlantic led to a strong interhemispheric thermal gradient during late-glacial times, in turn leading to increased upwelling and CO(2) release from the Southern Ocean, thereby triggering Southern Hemisphere warming during the northern Younger Dryas. PMID:20829791

Kaplan, Michael R; Schaefer, Joerg M; Denton, George H; Barrell, David J A; Chinn, Trevor J H; Putnam, Aaron E; Andersen, Bjørn G; Finkel, Robert C; Schwartz, Roseanne; Doughty, Alice M

2010-09-01

334

Glacier retreat in New Zealand during the Younger Dryas stadial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Millennial-scale cold reversals in the high latitudes of both hemispheres interrupted the last transition from full glacial to interglacial climate conditions. The presence of the Younger Dryas stadial (approximately 12.9 to approximately 11.7?kyr ago) is established throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere, but the global timing, nature and extent of the event are not well established. Evidence in mid to low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, in particular, has remained perplexing. The debate has in part focused on the behaviour of mountain glaciers in New Zealand, where previous research has found equivocal evidence for the precise timing of increased or reduced ice extent. The interhemispheric behaviour of the climate system during the Younger Dryas thus remains an open question, fundamentally limiting our ability to formulate realistic models of global climate dynamics for this time period. Here we show that New Zealand's glaciers retreated after approximately 13?kyr bp, at the onset of the Younger Dryas, and in general over the subsequent approximately 1.5-kyr period. Our evidence is based on detailed landform mapping, a high-precision (10)Be chronology and reconstruction of former ice extents and snow lines from well-preserved cirque moraines. Our late-glacial glacier chronology matches climatic trends in Antarctica, Southern Ocean behaviour and variations in atmospheric CO(2). The evidence points to a distinct warming of the southern mid-latitude atmosphere during the Younger Dryas and a close coupling between New Zealand's cryosphere and southern high-latitude climate. These findings support the hypothesis that extensive winter sea ice and curtailed meridional ocean overturning in the North Atlantic led to a strong interhemispheric thermal gradient during late-glacial times, in turn leading to increased upwelling and CO(2) release from the Southern Ocean, thereby triggering Southern Hemisphere warming during the northern Younger Dryas.

Kaplan MR; Schaefer JM; Denton GH; Barrell DJ; Chinn TJ; Putnam AE; Andersen BG; Finkel RC; Schwartz R; Doughty AM

2010-09-01

335

A review of seawater intrusion and its management in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

Extended periods of below-average rainfall combined with a rising population density in the Australian coastal margin have led to higher stresses on coastal water resources, and the risk of seawater intrusion has increased. Despite reports of seawater intrusion in the majority of states and evidence that some Australian coastal aquifers are seriously depleted, comprehensive seawater intrusion investigations have only been completed for coastal systems in Queensland and to a lesser degree in Western Australia and South Australia. The degree of assessment appears to be linked to the perceived economic value of the groundwater resource. The most detailed studies include those of the Pioneer Valley and Burnett basins in Queensland, for which conceptual and mathematical models have been developed at the regional scale, and have been used to underpin trigger-level management approaches to protect against further seawater intrusion. Historical responses to seawater intrusion include the establishment of artificial recharge schemes; the most prominent being that of the Lower Burdekin aquifers in Queensland. Recommendations for future solutions include enhanced fit-for-purpose seawater intrusion monitoring, continuing research into investigation methods, and improved knowledge-sharing through education programs and the development of national guidelines for seawater intrusion assessment and management.

Werner, Adrian D.

2010-02-01

336

Inclusões fluidas crepitadas, fluidos hipersalinos e aquo-carbônicos em quartzo associado a rochas micáceas no Granito Xinguara - Terreno Granito-Greenstone de Rio Maria, PA/ Decrepitated fluid inclusions, aqueous-carbonic and hypersaline fluids in quartz associated to micaceous rocks in the Xinguara Granite - Rio Maria Granite - Greenstone terrain, Pará, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As rochas micáceas encontradas no Granito Xinguara, terreno Granito-Greenstone de Rio Maria, Pará, são compostas por muscovita e clorita com níveis de quartzo intercalados, que formam uma xistosidade bem desenvolvida. Essa xistosidade é cortada por veios de quartzo. Ambas as gerações de quartzo apresentam os mesmos tipos de inclusões fluidas em halos ou trilhas secundárias de composições variadas entre aquosas, aquo-carbônicas e saturadas em torno de grandes i (more) nclusões primárias crepitadas ou em trilhas transgranulares secundárias. A grande variação de temperaturas de homogeneização, a alta salinidade, as evidências de estrangulamento e a existência das inclusões crepitadas permitem supor forte influência de alterações pós-formacionais e reequilíbrio relacionados à intrusão do granito. Essas rochas foliadas são, portanto, enclaves metassedimentares afetados por fluidos graníticos hipersalinos aquo-carbônicos. Abstract in english The micaceous rocks occurring in the Xinguara Granite, Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone terrain, Pará State, Brazil, are composed of muscovite and chlorite with quartz levels intercalated forming a well developed schistosity. This schistosity is cut by quartz veins. Both quartz generations show the same aqueous, aqueous-carbonic and halite-bearing fluid inclusions either in secondary inclusions halos and trails surrounding decrepitated primary fluid inclusions or in transgra (more) nular secondary trails. A wide variation of homogenization temperatures, high salinity, necking down and the decrepitated inclusions existence indicates strong influence of post-formational alteration and reequilibration linked to the granite intrusion. These foliated rocks are metasedimentary enclaves affected by late hypersaline aqueous-carbonic granitic fluids.

Weber, Marcelo Leopoldo; Ronchi, Luiz Henrique; Althoff, Fernando Jacques; Leite, Albano Antônio da Silva; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Fuzikawa, Kazuo

2008-03-01

337

The Polumir granite: Addititional data on its origin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Polumir granite is exposed on several localities due to erosion, and its chemical and mineral composition is presented in this paper. It is built of K-feldspar, plagioclase, myrmekite, metasomatic albite, biotite, muscovite and quartz, while apatite, magnetite, monazite, allanite and zircon are ...

Vukov Milenko S.; Milovanovi? Dragan

338

Extraction of Th and U from Swiss granites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extraction, at the laboratory level, of U and Th from Swiss granites is discussed. The Mittagfluh, Bergell and Rotondo granites and the Giuv syenite offered a wide range of U and Th concentrations; 7.7 to 20.0 ppm U and 25.5 to 67.0 ppm Th. U and Th were determined in the leach solutions by the fission track method and by spectrophotometry, respectively. Samples containing less than 0.3 ?g U and 4 ?g Th, could be measured with an accuracy of 10% for U and 5% for Th. Leach tests were performed during which the following parameters were varied: granite-type, grain size, acid-type, acid concentration, temperature and time. There were very great leaching differences between the granites studied. Temperature was the most important parameter. Sharp differences in extraction occurred between 200C, 500C and 800C. At 800C, more than 85% U and Th were extracted. The extraction curve (percent extracted as a function of time) of aliquots sampled after 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours showed a plateau after 8 hours. The half life of the reaction was between one and two hours. As a general rule, Th was better extracted than U. (Auth.).

1980-01-01

339

Ancient Granite Gneiss in the Black Hills, South Dakota.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Granite gneiss, with an age of approximately 2.5 billion years, in the Black Hills, South Dakota, provides a link between ancient rocks in western Wyoming and Montana and in eastern North and South Dakota and Minnesota. The discovery suggests that early Precambrian rocks covered an extensive area in northcentral United States and were not restricted to several small nuclei.

Zartman RE; Norton JJ; Stern TW

1964-07-01

340

Ancient Granite Gneiss in the Black Hills, South Dakota.  

Science.gov (United States)

Granite gneiss, with an age of approximately 2.5 billion years, in the Black Hills, South Dakota, provides a link between ancient rocks in western Wyoming and Montana and in eastern North and South Dakota and Minnesota. The discovery suggests that early Precambrian rocks covered an extensive area in northcentral United States and were not restricted to several small nuclei. PMID:17759093

Zartman, R E; Norton, J J; Stern, T W

1964-07-31

 
 
 
 
341

Appraisal of cognitive intrusions and response style: replication and extension.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a replication and extension of an earlier study of cognitive intrusions, appraisal and response strategies (Freeston, Ladouceur, Thibodeau & Gagnon, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 29, 585-597, 1991a), cognitive intrusions were studied among 534 outpatients and escorts recruited in waiting rooms of two large urban hospitals. Appraisals of high probability and low disapproval were associated with greater use of continued attention strategies whereas appraisals of low probability and high disapproval were associated with greater use of escape/avoidance strategies. These results support the distinction between the ego-dystonic nature of obsessional intrusive thoughts and ego-syntonic concerns about subjectively probable events found in worry.

Freeston MH; Ladouceur R

1993-02-01

342

Network Intrusion Detection Based on PSO-SVM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to improve network intrusion detection precision, this paper proposed a network intrusion detection model based on simultaneous selecting features and parameters of support vector machine (SVM) by particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Firstly, the features and parameters of SVM are coded to particle, and then the PSO is used to find the  optimal features and SVM parameters by collaboration among particles, lastly, the performance of the model was tested by KDD Cup 99 data. Compared with other network models, the proposed model has reduced input features for SVM and has significantly improved the detection precision of network intrusion.

Changsheng Xiang; Yong Xiao; Peixin Qu; Xilong Qu

2013-01-01

343

Novel hybrid intrusion detection system for clustered wireless sensor network  

CERN Multimedia

Wireless sensor network (WSN) is regularly deployed in unattended and hostile environments. The WSN is vulnerable to security threats and susceptible to physical capture. Thus, it is necessary to use effective mechanisms to protect the network. It is widely known, that the intrusion detection is one of the most efficient security mechanisms to protect the network against malicious attacks or unauthorized access. In this paper, we propose a hybrid intrusion detection system for clustered WSN. Our intrusion framework uses a combination between the Anomaly Detection based on support vector machine (SVM) and the Misuse Detection. Experiments results show that most of routing attacks can be detected with low false alarm.

Sedjelmaci, Hichem

2011-01-01

344

User's guide to the repository intrusion risk evaluation code INTRUDE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The report, commissioned by the Department of the Environment as part of its radioactive waste management research programme, constitutes the user's guide to the repository intrusion risk evaluation code INTRUDE. It provides an explanation of the mathematical basis of the code, the database used and the operation of the code. INTRUDE is designed to facilitate the estimation of individual risks arising from the possibility of intrusion into shallow land burial facilities for radioactive wastes. It considers a comprehensive inventory of up to 65 long-lived radionuclides and produces risk estimates for up to 20 modes of intrusion and up to 50 times of evaluation. (author)

1986-01-01

345

Novel Hybrid Intrusion Detection System For Clustered Wireless Sensor Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN) is regularly deployed in unattended and hostile environments. The WSN isvulnerable to security threats and susceptible to physical capture. Thus, it is necessary to use effective mechanisms to protect the network. It is widely known, that the intrusion detection is one of the mostefficient security mechanisms to protect the network against malicious attacks or unauthorized access. In this paper, we propose a hybrid intrusion detection system for clustered WSN. Our intrusion framework uses a combination between the Anomaly Detection based on support vector machine (SVM) and the Misuse Detection. Experiments results show that most of routing attacks can be detected with low falsealarm.

Hichem Sedjelmaci; Mohamed Feham

2011-01-01

346

Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1990 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mvkiss smolts during the 1990 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake River and the Clearwater River. Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was similar to 1987 and 1988, drought years, but considerably less than 1989, a near normal flow year. Trapping effort was the same during the four years. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was similar to 1988 and 1989. Wild steelhead trout catch was greater than in any previous year. Chinook salmon catch at the Clearwater River trap was slightly less than in 1987 or 1988 and considerably higher than in 1989. Hatchery steelhead trout trap catch was 3 to 26 times greater than in previous years. Wild steelhead trout trap catch was 2 to 11 times greater than in previous years. Fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River trap were recovered at the three dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, and McNary dams). Cumulative recovery at the three dams for fish marked at the Snake River trap was 64.4% for chinook salmon, 83.1% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 79.0% for wild steelhead trout. Cumulative recovery at the three dams for fish PIT-tagged at the Clearwater River trap was 54.6% for chinook salmon, 77.6% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 70.4% for wild steelhead trout. Travel time (days) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, was affected by discharge. Statistical analysis showed that a two-fold increase in discharge increased migration rate by 2.2 times for PIT-tagged chinook salmon released from the Snake River trap and 1.8 times for chinook salmon released from the Clearwater River trap. A two-fold increase in discharge increased migration rate by 3.1 times for PIT-tagged hatchery steelhead trout released from the Snake River trap. Not enough data were available to provide a migration rate discharge relations for hatchery steelhead trout released from the Clearwater River trap. A two-fold increase in discharge increased migration rate by 2.0 times for PIT-tagged wild steelhead trout released from the Snake River trap and by 2.2 times for PIT-tagged wild steelhead trout released from the Clearwater River trap.

Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, V. Lance

1991-05-01

347

Archaean granitic sources for the detrital mineral assemblage in Witwatersrand conglomerates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A granite-greenstone terrain has been proposed as a model source area for the Witwatersrand detritus. Recent investigations into the heavy mineral content of some Archaean granites along the north-western margin of the Witwatersrand Basin revealed the presence of small amounts of gold particles in a number of granite exposures. Larger amounts of pyrite in granites are usually accompanied by nodules of carbonaceous matter. These nodules are often intergrown with sulphide minerals and contain small inclusions of thorianite or uraninite and rare earth minerals. Data is given on the energy dispersive spectra of uraninite inclusions in carbon nodules from an Archaean granite and the Ventersdorp Contact Reef

1984-01-01

348

ASTEROIDAL GRANITE-LIKE MAGMATISM 4.53 GYR AGO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Constraining the timescales for the evolution of planetary bodies in our solar system is essential for a complete understanding of planet-forming processes. However, frequent collisions between planetesimals in the early solar system obscured and destroyed much of the primitive features of the old, first-generation planetary bodies. The presence of differentiated, achondritic clasts in brecciated chondrites and of chondritic fragments in achondritic breccias clearly witness multiple processes such as metamorphism, magmatism, fragmentation, mixing, and reaccretion. Here, we report the results of ion microprobe Pb-Pb dating of a granite-like fragment found in a meteorite, the LL3-6 ordinary chondrite regolith breccia Adzhi-Bogdo. Eight spot analyses of two phosphate grains and other co-genetic phases of the granitoid give a Pb-Pb isochron age of 4.48 ± 0.12 billion years (95% confidence) and a model age of 4.53 ± 0.03 billion years (1?), respectively. These ages represent the crystallization age of a parental granite-like magma that is significantly older than those of terrestrial (4.00-4.40 Gyr) and lunar granites (3.88-4.32 Gyr) indicating that the clast in Adzhi-Bogdo is the oldest known granitoid in the solar system. This is the first evidence that granite-like formation is not only a common process on Earth, but also occurred on primitive asteroids in the early solar system 4.53 Gyr ago. Thus, the discovery of granite magmatism recorded in a brecciated meteorite provides an innovative idea within the framework of scenarios for the formation and evolution of planetary bodies and possibly exoplanetary bodies.

2009-07-10

349

New geochronologic data on some granitic phases of the Chhotanagpur granite gneiss complex in the north-western Purulia district, West Bengal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Belamu-Nawahatu sector (860O'-860O5'E and 23025'-23030'N) of the northwestern Purulia dist., West Bengal, belongs to a part of the Precambria n Chhotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex in Eastern India. Different phases of granitic activity have been recognised in relation with tectonism. K-Ar dating of the two granitic phases has been reported. The porphyritic biotite granitoid gives the age of its biotite as 870 ± 40 Ma and the muscovite of the alkali feldspar-rich leucogranitoid gives the age of 810±40 Ma. A still older anatectic phase (composite gneiss) of granite is also evident. (author). 14 refs

1987-01-01

350

Older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger adolescents as sexual partners.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger sexual partners was investigated through three measures of self-reported hypothetical likelihood of having sex with preadolescents and younger adolescents (LSA), using a school-based cluster sample of 710 Norwegian 18- to 19-year-olds attending nonvocational high schools in Oslo. Some likelihood of having sex with a preadolescent (less than 12 years of age) was reported by 5.9% of the males. The 19.1% of the males who indicated some likelihood of having sex with a 13- to 14-year old, compared to those who did not, reported more high-frequency drinking, more alcohol-related problems, earlier sexual initiation, more conduct problems, and poorer psychosocial adjustment. This subgroup also reported more high-frequency use of pornography, having more friends with an interest in child pornography and violent pornography, and greater use of coercion to obtain sexual favors.

Hegna K; Mossige S; Wichstrøm L

2004-01-01

351

Older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger adolescents as sexual partners.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger sexual partners was investigated through three measures of self-reported hypothetical likelihood of having sex with preadolescents and younger adolescents (LSA), using a school-based cluster sample of 710 Norwegian 18- to 19-year-olds attending nonvocational high schools in Oslo. Some likelihood of having sex with a preadolescent (less than 12 years of age) was reported by 5.9% of the males. The 19.1% of the males who indicated some likelihood of having sex with a 13- to 14-year old, compared to those who did not, reported more high-frequency drinking, more alcohol-related problems, earlier sexual initiation, more conduct problems, and poorer psychosocial adjustment. This subgroup also reported more high-frequency use of pornography, having more friends with an interest in child pornography and violent pornography, and greater use of coercion to obtain sexual favors. PMID:15727404

Hegna, Kristinn; Mossige, Svein; Wichstrøm, Lars

2004-01-01

352

The experience of younger adults following myocardial infarction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of the experience of younger people (< 55 years) during their first year following a myocardial infarction. We analyzed 17 interviews using a phenomenological-hermeneutic method. The core theme and central phenomenon was the everyday fight to redress the balance in life, which encompassed an existential, physical, and emotional battle to regain a foothold in daily life. The aftermath of a life-threatening event involved a process of transition while at the same time creating a new meaning in life. Lack of energy and its impact on the complex interplay of midlife combined with unreasonable demands from employers and health care professionals seemed to color the experience of the informants. The knowledge gained in this study can constitute a valuable contribution to overall quality assurance in nursing care and the development of nursing interventions for the cardiac rehabilitation of younger patients.

Andersson EK; Borglin G; Willman A

2013-06-01

353

An independent evaluation of the Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact hypothesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on elevated concentrations of a set of "impact markers" at the onset of the Younger Dryas stadial from sedimentary contexts across North America, Firestone, Kennett, West, and others have argued that 12.9 ka the Earth experienced an impact by an extraterrestrial body, an event that had devastating ecological consequences for humans, plants, and animals in the New World [Firestone RB, et al. (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:16016-16021]. Herein, we report the results of an independent analysis of magnetic minerals and microspherules from seven sites of similar age, including two examined by Firestone et al. We were unable to reproduce any results of the Firestone et al. study and find no support for Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact.

Surovell TA; Holliday VT; Gingerich JA; Ketron C; Haynes CV Jr; Hilman I; Wagner DP; Johnson E; Claeys P

2009-10-01

354

Younger Dryas interval and outflow from the Laurentide ice sheet  

Science.gov (United States)

A boxmodel of the Great Lakes is used to estimate meltwater flow into the North Atlantic between 8000 and 14,000 calendar years B.P. Controls on the model include the oxygen isotopic composition of meltwaters and lake waters as measured in the shells of ostracodes. Outflow rates are highest when oxygen isotopic values of the lake waters are most negative, denoting a maximum glacial meltwater component. Flow rates reach maximum values before the onset of the Younger Dryas and after it ends. These maxima appear to be correlative with the major meltwater pulses MWP 1A and 1B. Although the resumption of North Atlantic Deep Water formation may be tied to the reduction in ice sheet melting, neither the onset nor the end of the Younger Dryas, as recorded in the Greenland Ice Sheet Project (GISP2) records, appear tied to maxima in meltwater outflow from the Laurentide ice sheet. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

Moore, Jr. , T. C.; Walker, J. C. G.; Rea, D. K.; Lewis, C. F. M.; Shane, L. C. K.; Smith, A. J.

2000-01-01

355

An independent evaluation of the Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact hypothesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on elevated concentrations of a set of "impact markers" at the onset of the Younger Dryas stadial from sedimentary contexts across North America, Firestone, Kennett, West, and others have argued that 12.9 ka the Earth experienced an impact by an extraterrestrial body, an event that had devastating ecological consequences for humans, plants, and animals in the New World [Firestone RB, et al. (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:16016-16021]. Herein, we report the results of an independent analysis of magnetic minerals and microspherules from seven sites of similar age, including two examined by Firestone et al. We were unable to reproduce any results of the Firestone et al. study and find no support for Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact. PMID:19822748

Surovell, Todd A; Holliday, Vance T; Gingerich, Joseph A M; Ketron, Caroline; Haynes, C Vance; Hilman, Ilene; Wagner, Daniel P; Johnson, Eileen; Claeys, Philippe

2009-10-12

356

Petrochemistry and Geotectonic Setting of Granitic Rocks in Aderan Area, S.W. Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aderan area, southwestern Nigeria is underlain by metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks which have been intruded by granitic rocks of probable Pan-African (ca. 600 Ma) age. Four types of granitic rocks have been identified in the area, including granitic gneisses, medium-grained granite, porphyritic granite and granodiorite. Geochemical analysis show that the rocks are largely calc-alkaline. The granodiorite is less siliceous and more calcic, and also contains less Ba, Nb and Rb, and more Sr, Ce and La than the granites. Tectonically, the rocks classify as volcanic arc and syn-collisional and possibly late-to- post-collisional granitic rocks with respect to the Pan-African orogeny. Chemical characteristics indicate that these rocks were derived from partial melting of mafic to semi-pelitic (metasedimentary) crustal rocks under conditions of intermediate oxygen fugacity and activities of H2O.

C. T. Okonkwo; I. O. Folorunso

2012-01-01

357

Field Investigation of Saltwater Intrusion Cumberland Sound, Georgia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A field investigation of saltwater intrusion into the shallow aquifers of Cumberland Island, the southernmost barrier island on the coast of Georgia, was conducted. the study focused on the Pliocene-Miocene confined aquifer. The aquifer is principally com...

J. B. Mack

1994-01-01

358

Research of Model Scale Seawater Intrusion using Geoelectric Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A depth experience and knowledge are needed in analyzing the prediction of seawater intrusion. We report here a physical modelling for monitoring the model scale of seawater intrusion. The model used in this research is glass basin consists of two parts; soil and seawater. The intrusion of seawater into soil in the glass basin is modelled. The results of 2-D inversion by using software Res2DInv32 showed that the monitoring of seawater intrusion, in soil model scale, can be detected by using Schlumberger configuration resistivity method. The watering process of freshwater into soil caused the electric resistivity value decreased. This phenomenon can be seen from the transition of the resistivity pseudo section before and after the watering process using different cummulative volume of freshwater in different soil. After being intruded by the seawater, the measured soil resistivity is 2.22 ?m – 5.69 ?m which means that the soil had been intruded.

Supriyadi Supriyadi; Agus Yulianto; Andi Haryanto

2011-01-01

359

An Isolation Intrusion Detection System for Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 0 2 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively monitor environmental conditions, such as battlefield data and personal health information, and some environment limited resources. To avoid malicious damage is important while information is transmitted in wireless network. Thus, Wireless Intrusion Detection Systems are crucial to safe operation in wireless sensor networks. Wireless networks are subject to very different types of attacks compare to wired networks. In this paper, we propose an isolation table to detect intrusion by hierarchical wireless sensor networks and to estimate the effect of intrusion detection. The primary experiment proves that isolation table intrusion detection can prevent attacks effectively.

Rung-Ching Chen; Chia-Fen Hsieh; Yung-Fa Huang

2010-01-01

360

Combining Naive Bayes and Decision Tree for Adaptive Intrusion Detection  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper, a new learning algorithm for adaptive network intrusion detection using naive Bayesian classifier and decision tree is presented, which performs balance detections and keeps false positives at acceptable level for different types of network attacks, and eliminates redundant attributes as well as contradictory examples from training data that make the detection model complex. The proposed algorithm also addresses some difficulties of data mining such as handling continuous attribute, dealing with missing attribute values, and reducing noise in training data. Due to the large volumes of security audit data as well as the complex and dynamic properties of intrusion behaviours, several data miningbased intrusion detection techniques have been applied to network-based traffic data and host-based data in the last decades. However, there remain various issues needed to be examined towards current intrusion detection systems (IDS). We tested the performance of our proposed algorithm with existing learn...

Farid, Dewan Md; Rahman, Mohammad Zahidur; 10.5121/ijnsa.2010.2202

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Statistical Quality Control Approaches to Network Intrusion Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the study of network intrusion, much attention has been drawn to on-time detection of intrusion to safeguard public and private interest and to capture the law-breakers. Even though various methods have been found in literature, some situations warrant us to determine intrusions of network in real-time to prevent further undue harm to the computer network as and when they occur. This approach helps detect the intrusion and has a greater potential to apprehend the law-breaker. The purpose of this article is to formulate a method to this effect that is based on the statistical quality control techniques widely used in the manufacturing and production processes.

Rohitha Goonatilake; Rafic Bachnak; Susantha Herath

2011-01-01

362

Intrusion resistant underground structure (IRUS) - safety assessment and licensing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper describes the safety goals, human exposure scenarios and critical groups, the syvac-nsure performance assessment code, groundwater pathway safety results, and inadvertent human intrusion of the IRUS. 2 tabs

1997-01-01

363

Hybrid Approach for Intrusion Detection Using Conditional Random Fields  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intrusion detection is the process of monitoring the events occurring in a computer system or network and analyzing them for signs of possible incidents, which are violations or imminent threats of violation of computer security policies, acceptable use policies, or standard security practices. Incidents have many causes, such as malware (e.g., worms, spyware), attackers gaining unauthorized access to systems from the Internet, and authorized users of systems who misuse their privileges or attempt to gain additional privileges for which they are not authorized. Intrusion detection faces a number of challenges; an intrusion detection system must reliably detect malicious activities in a network and must perform efficiently to cope with the large amount of network traffic. In this paper, we address these two issues of Accuracy and Efficiency using Conditional Random Fields for hybrid intrusion detection system.

Sandip Ashok Shivarkar; Mininath Raosaheb Bendr

2011-01-01

364

User's Guide to the Repository Intrusion Risk Evaluation Code INTRUDE.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report, commissioned by the Department of the Environment as part of its radioactive waste management research programme, constitutes the user's guide to the repository intrusion risk evaluation code INTRUDE. It provides an explanation of the mathemat...

D. J. Nancarrow M. C. Thorne

1986-01-01

365

Intrusion resistant underground structure (IRUS) - safety assessment and licensing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the safety goals, human exposure scenarios and critical groups, the syvac-nsure performance assessment code, groundwater pathway safety results, and inadvertent human intrusion of the IRUS. 2 tabs.

Lange, B. A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

1997-12-31

366

Intrusion Detection Scheme based on IPSO-RBF  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to overcome the separately selection advantages of traditional feature and RBF neural network parameter, increase accuracy rate of network’s intrusion detection, there came up with a research on neural network intrusion detection of improved particle swarm optimization. According to optimize the feature selection of network and RBF neural network parameter, established a neural network intrusion detection model of IPSO-RBF, made convergence and disturbance variation analysis on improving optimized particle swarm optimization, finally made a experimental simulation to this detection model, the result showed: compared with traditional models, the neural network intrusion detection of improved particle swarm optimization was faster and has a higher accuracy rate as well as efficiency.

Wen-Tie WU; Min LI; Bo LIU

2013-01-01

367

Online Intrusion Alert Based on Aggregation and Correlation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional intrusion detection systems (IDSs) focus on low-level attacks or anomalies, and raise alerts independently, though there may be logical connections between them. In situations where there are intensive attacks, not only will actual alerts be mixed with false alerts, but the amount of alerts will also become unmanageable. As a result, it is difficult for human users or intrusion response systems to understand the alerts and take appropriate actions. There are several approaches for intrusion detection but none of them is fully satisfactory. They generally generate too many false positives and the alerts are too elementary and not enough accurate to be directly managed by a security administrator. This paper describes an aggregation and correlation algorithm used in the design and implementation of intrusion detection.

Kunchakarra Anusha1; K.V.D.Sagar2

2012-01-01

368

Radar, geologic, airborne gamma ray and Landsat TM digital data integration for geological mapping of the Estrela granite complex (Para State)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is focused on the geotectonic context of the Carajas Mineral Province, Amazon Craton, which represents the most important Brazilian Mineral Province and hosts iron, cooper, gold, manganese and nickel deposits. At the end of Archean age, during the techno-metamorphic evolution, moderated alkaline granitoids were generated, such as, Estrela Granite Complex (EGC). This work has used digital integration products with the purpose of study the granite suite, its host rock, and the surrounded area. The digital integrated data were gamma-ray and geological data with satellite images (SAR-SAREX e TM-Landsat). The geophysics data, originally in 32 bits and grid format, were interpolated and converted to 8 bits images. The geological data (facies map) was digitalized and converted to a raster format. The remote sensing images were geometrically corrected to guarantee an accuracy on the geological mapping. On the data processing phase, SAR images were digital integrated with gamma-ray data, TM-Landsat image and the raster facies map. The IHS transformation was used as the technique to integrate the multi-source data. On the photogeological interpretation, SAR data were extremely important to permit the extraction of the main tectonic lineaments which occur on the following directions: +/- N45W, +/- N70W, +/- NS, +/- N20E, +/- N45E e +/- N75E. This procedure was done both in analogic and automatic form, being the automatic process more useful to complement information in the extracting process. Among the digital products generated, SAR/GAMA products (uranium, thorium and total count) were the ones that give the most important contribution. The interpretation of the SAR/GAMA's products added to the field campaign have allowed to map the limits of units that occur in the region and four facies of the Estrela Granite Complex were detected. The origin of the granite suite might be related to a magmatic differentiation or to distinct intrusion pulses. The use of the digital integrated products has showed to be extremely useful for basic geological mapping, especially to aid field campaign and the selection of key areas for detailed verification. As a final result, this research has allowed to propose obtained a geologic map of the Estrela Granite Complex area. (author)

2002-01-01

369

Stress modulates reinforcement learning in younger and older adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Animal research and human neuroimaging studies indicate that stress increases dopamine levels in brain regions involved in reward processing, and stress also appears to increase the attractiveness of addictive drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that stress increases reward salience, leading to more effective learning about positive than negative outcomes in a probabilistic selection task. Changes to dopamine pathways with age raise the question of whether stress effects on incentive-based learning differ by age. Thus, the present study also examined whether effects of stress on reinforcement learning differed for younger (age 18-34) and older participants (age 65-85). Cold pressor stress was administered to half of the participants in each age group, and salivary cortisol levels were used to confirm biophysiological response to cold stress. After the manipulation, participants completed a probabilistic learning task involving positive and negative feedback. In both younger and older adults, stress enhanced learning about cues that predicted positive outcomes. In addition, during the initial learning phase, stress diminished sensitivity to recent feedback across age groups. These results indicate that stress affects reinforcement learning in both younger and older adults and suggests that stress exerts different effects on specific components of reinforcement learning depending on their neural underpinnings.

Lighthall NR; Gorlick MA; Schoeke A; Frank MJ; Mather M

2013-03-01

370

Colorectal cancer in younger patients - a single centre analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Debate surrounds the nature of colorectal cancers in younger patients and whether they are more likely to present with aggressive disease. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to examine whether a relationship exists between age and variables such as family history, mucinous tumours, metastases and final pathology. 41 patients under the age of 45 were diagnosed and operated for colorectal cancer between September 1998 and December 2010 in our centre. Nineteen patients were under the mean age of 35 years. There was no correlation between younger patients and metastatic disease (r= -0.129, p=0.440) or family history (r= -0.258, p=0.123). There was no correlation between age and Dukes staging (r= -0.052, p=0.756), tumour stage (r= -0.110, p=0.516), nodal status (r= -0.053, p=0.751), mucinous tumours (r=0.104, p=0.569) and cell differentiation (r= 0.046, p=0.787). Overall mortality was 26% and of those who survived 10% have metastatic disease. Median survival was 26 months after surgery. Younger patients under 45 appear to be a homogenous group in relation to colorectal tumour characteristics. Further longitudinal studies to examine the differences between this group and older people are needed.

Khalifa K; Siddiqui MR; Mohamed S; Swift I

2013-01-01

371

Deglutition and respiratory patterns during sleep in younger adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSION: Deglutition was infrequent and displayed unique patterns during sleep in healthy younger adults. OBJECTIVES: The deglutition, electroencephalographic arousal, and respiratory phase patterns during sleep in younger adults were investigated. METHODS: Ten younger adults were examined via time-matched recordings of polysomnography and surface electromyography. RESULTS: During sleep, swallowing was infrequent and absent for long periods. The mean number of swallows per hour during the total sleep time was 2.4 ± 1.0. The mean longest deglutition-free period was 68.8 ± 24.8 min. Most deglutition occurred in association with spontaneous electroencephalographic arousal. Deglutition was related to the sleep stage. The mean number of swallows per hour was 11.2 ± 8.1 during stage 1 sleep, 1.9 ± 1.0 during stage 2 sleep, 0.5 ± 1.5 during stage 3 sleep, and 0.2 ± 0.5 during stage 4 sleep. The deeper the sleep stage, the lower the mean deglutition frequency. The mean number of swallows per hour was 1.9 ± 1.7 during rapid eye movement sleep. The deeper the sleep stage, the lower the mean arousal frequency and the lower the mean ratio of arousal with deglutition to arousal. Approximately 60% of swallows were followed by arrested breathing and approximately 25% by expiration.

Sato K; Umeno H; Chitose S; Nakashima T

2011-02-01

372

Arctic freshwater forcing of the Younger Dryas cold reversal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The last deglaciation was abruptly interrupted by a millennial-scale reversal to glacial conditions, the Younger Dryas cold event. This cold interval has been connected to a decrease in the rate of North Atlantic Deep Water formation and to a resulting weakening of the meridional overturning circulation owing to surface water freshening. In contrast, an earlier input of fresh water (meltwater pulse 1a), whose origin is disputed, apparently did not lead to a reduction of the meridional overturning circulation. Here we analyse an ensemble of simulations of the drainage chronology of the North American ice sheet in order to identify the geographical release points of freshwater forcing during deglaciation. According to the simulations with our calibrated glacial systems model, the North American ice sheet contributed about half the fresh water of meltwater pulse 1a. During the onset of the Younger Dryas, we find that the largest combined meltwater/iceberg discharge was directed into the Arctic Ocean. Given that the only drainage outlet from the Arctic Ocean was via the Fram Strait into the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian seas, where North Atlantic Deep Water is formed today, we hypothesize that it was this Arctic freshwater flux that triggered the Younger Dryas cold reversal. PMID:15931219

Tarasov, Lev; Peltier, W R

2005-06-01

373

Arctic freshwater forcing of the Younger Dryas cold reversal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The last deglaciation was abruptly interrupted by a millennial-scale reversal to glacial conditions, the Younger Dryas cold event. This cold interval has been connected to a decrease in the rate of North Atlantic Deep Water formation and to a resulting weakening of the meridional overturning circulation owing to surface water freshening. In contrast, an earlier input of fresh water (meltwater pulse 1a), whose origin is disputed, apparently did not lead to a reduction of the meridional overturning circulation. Here we analyse an ensemble of simulations of the drainage chronology of the North American ice sheet in order to identify the geographical release points of freshwater forcing during deglaciation. According to the simulations with our calibrated glacial systems model, the North American ice sheet contributed about half the fresh water of meltwater pulse 1a. During the onset of the Younger Dryas, we find that the largest combined meltwater/iceberg discharge was directed into the Arctic Ocean. Given that the only drainage outlet from the Arctic Ocean was via the Fram Strait into the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian seas, where North Atlantic Deep Water is formed today, we hypothesize that it was this Arctic freshwater flux that triggered the Younger Dryas cold reversal.

Tarasov L; Peltier WR

2005-06-01

374

Differences in Active Commuting Among Younger and Older Adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The demonstrated health benefits of active commuting (AC) and low participation rates among older adults (OAs) indicates a need to examine the social-ecological correlates of AC by age category. An online survey of employed US adults examined AC participation, individual, employment-related, community and environmental variables. Participants were dichotomized by age (younger: 18-49 years; n=638, 64% and older: 50+ years; n=359, 36%). Logistic regression analyses examined differences in AC correlates by age. OAs were less likely to be active commuters (13.4%) than younger adults (27.9%) (p<0.001) For OAs, analyses yielded a Nagelkerke R2=0.76 with perceived behavioral control, behavioral beliefs, household cars and walking distance as predictors. Analyses for younger adults resulted in a Nagelkerke R2=0.79 with perceived behavioral control, coworker normative beliefs, parking problems at work, greater employer and community support for AC and bad weather as predictors. Findings suggest age should be considered when examining and targeting AC behaviors.

Bopp M; Derananian C; Campbell ME

2013-05-01

375

Younger women's perceptions of coping with breast cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between coping strategies and better quality of life after breast cancer. Because younger women consistently show greater psychological morbidity than older women after breast cancer diagnosis, there is great interest in the coping strategies of younger women. The present cross-sectional study used quantitative and qualitative methods to examine coping strategies used by 201 women who were aged 50 years or younger at diagnosis and were 6 months to 3.5 years postdiagnosis. Quantitative results from a modified version of the Ways of Coping scale revealed that the most frequently used coping strategies were positive cognitive restructuring, wishful thinking, and making changes. Qualitative analyses based on open-ended questioning of how women best coped with different stressful aspects of their diagnosis showed that women reported finding different strategies useful depending on the stressor. For example, social support was helpful in dealing with anger or depression, whereas positive cognitive restructuring was more helpful for concerns about the future. Analyses also confirmed that most coping strategies cited in commonly administered coping scales were used frequently by these women. However, several coping strategies not generally measured were also deemed valuable, including engaging in physical activity, using medications, and resting. These findings suggest that clinicians should identify patients' particular stressors and help with coping techniques targeting particular concerns.

Manuel JC; Burwell SR; Crawford SL; Lawrence RH; Farmer DF; Hege A; Phillips K; Avis NE

2007-03-01

376

Authentication, Access Control, and Intrusion Detection  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An important requirement of any information management system is to protect information a gainst improper disclosure or modification (known as confidentiality and integrity respectively). Three mutually supportive technologies are used to achieve this goal. Authentication, access control and audit together provide the foundation for information and system security as follows. Authentication establishes the identity of one party to another. Most commonly authentication establishes the identity of a user to some part of the system typically by means of a password. More generally, authentication can be computer-to-computer or process-to-process and mutual in both directions. Access control determines what one party will allow another to do with respect to resources and objects mediated by the former. Access control usually requires authentication as a prerequisite. The audit process gathers data about activity in the system and analyzes it to discover security violations or diagnose their cause. Analysis can occur off-line after the fact or it can occur on-line more or less in real time. In the latter case the process is usually called intrusion detection. This chapter discusses the scope and characteristics of these security controls.

Ravi S. Sandhu

377

Modelling saline intrusion for repository performance assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] UK Nirex Ltd are currently considering the possibility of disposal of radioactive waste by burial in deep underground repositories. The natural pathway for radionuclides from such a repository to return to Man's immediate environment (the biosphere) is via groundwater. Thus analyses of the groundwater flow in the neighbourhood of a possible repository, and consequent radionuclide transport form an important part of a performance assessment for a repository. Some of the areas in the UK that might be considered as possible locations for a repository are near the coast. If a repository is located in a coastal region seawater may intrude into the groundwater flow system. As seawater is denser than fresh water buoyancy forces acting on the intruding saline water may have significant effects on the groundwater flow system, and consequently on the time for radionuclides to return to the biosphere. Further, the chemistry of the repository near-field may be strongly influenced by the salinity of the groundwater. It is therefore important for Nirex to have a capability for reliably modelling saline intrusion to an appropriate degree of accuracy in order to make performance assessments for a repository in a coastal region. This report describes work undertaken in the Nirex Research programme to provide such a capability. (author)

1989-01-01

378

Salinity intrusion modeling for Sungai Selangor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Salinity intrusion into estuary of the Sungai Selangor has been carried out on a hydrodynamic numerical modeling to access the parameter that governed the amount of salt in the river. Issues such as water pollution and extraction of water from Sungai Selangor system has been said to be the cause of fading fireflies. The berembang trees on the river bank that become the fireflies habitat need some amount of salt for proper growth. Living at the lower reaches of Sungai Selangor, the fireflies are affected not only by the activities in their vicinity, but by activities in the entire river basin. Rapid economic development in the basin and the strong demand for the water resources puts pressure on the ecosystem. This research has been carried out to investigate the effect of water extraction along Sungai Selangor towards altering the amount of salt content in the river. The hydrodynamic modeling with regards to the salt content is expected to support long term assessment that may affect the berembang trees as a result of changes in the flow from upstream because of the water abstraction activity for domestic water supply. (Author)

2006-01-01

379

A review of vapor intrusion models.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A complete vapor intrusion (VI) model, describing vapor entry of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) into buildings located on contaminated sites, generally consists of two main parts: one part describing vapor transport in the soil and the other describing its entry into the building. Modeling the soil vapor transport part involves either analytically or numerically solving the equations of vapor advection and diffusion in the subsurface. Contaminant biodegradation must often also be included in this simulation, and can increase the difficulty of obtaining a solution, especially when explicitly considering coupled oxygen transport and consumption. The models of contaminant building entry pathway are often coupled to calculations of indoor air contaminant concentration, and both are influenced by building construction and operational features. The description of entry pathway involves consideration of building foundation characteristics, while calculation of indoor air contaminant levels requires characterization of building enclosed space and air exchange within this. This review summarizes existing VI models, and discusses the limits of current screening tools commonly used in this field.

Yao Y; Shen R; Penn