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Sample records for younger granite intrusion

  1. Emplacement mechanisms and structural influences of a younger granite intrusion into older wall rocks - a principal study with application to the Goetemar and Uthammar granites. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Cruden, Alexander R. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Toronto (Canada))

    2008-12-15

    The c. 1.80 Ga old bedrock in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, which is the focus of the site investigation at Oskarshamn, is dominated by intrusive rocks belonging to the c. 1.86-1.65 Ga Transscandinavian Igneous Belt (TIB). However, the site investigation area is situated in between two c. 1.45 Ga old anorogenic granites, the Goetemar granite in the north and the Uthammar granite in the south. This study evaluates the emplacement mechanism of these intrusions and their structural influence on the older bedrock. Field observations and structural measurements indicate that both the Goetemar and the Uthammar granites are discordant and have not imposed any significant ductile deformation on their wall-rocks. The apparent conformity of geological contacts and fabrics in the wall rocks and the southern margin of the Goetemar granite is coincidental and inherited from the pattern of Svecokarelian deformation of the TIB. However, interpretation of regional aeromagnetic data suggests that the granites occur within a broad, NNE-SSW trending linear belt, pointing to deep seated tectonic control on their generation, ascent and emplacement. Thermochronology indicates that the granites were emplaced at depths between 4 and 8 km into brittle wall rocks. The 3-D shape of the Goetemar and Uthammar plutons has been investigated by 2.75D forward modelling of the residual gravity anomalies due to both granites. Both granites are associated with strong residual gravity anomalies of up to -10 mgal. Constraints on the geometry of the plutons at the surface are provided from surface geology maps and several deep boreholes located on or close to the model profiles. A further variable in the gravity modelling is introduced by either allowing the upper contact of the plutons to assume the most suitable orientation to produce the best fit between the modelled and observed gravity ('unconstrained models') or by forcing the near surface orientation of the contacts to be vertical ('constrained models'). The unconstrained model profiles for both plutons are characterized by gently outward dipping upper contacts to depths approx1 km, gently inward dipping lower contacts and a thin, centrally located root extending to depths of 5 to 10 km. However, this geometry is not supported by available boreholes, which do not penetrate the upper contact of the Goetemar pluton as predicted by the models. The constrained models are consistent with borehole data. They characterize the plutons as having vertical contacts in the upper 500 to 1,000 m, a 1,000 to 1,500 m thick mid-level body with outward dipping upper and horizontal and lower contacts, respectively, and broad roots extending to depths of approx4 km. Preliminary observations and gravity modelling results indicate that the Goetemar and Uthammar granites are discordant plutons with geometries most consistent with punched laccoliths, with some modification due to floor subsidence due to root development. Their vertical and lateral dimensions fall in the upper range for laccoliths and lower range for plutons as defined by recent data compilations. Their emplacement required elastic bending and eventual failure of roof rocks that was likely accompanied by reactivation of pre-existing fractures and shear zones and possibly the creation of new brittle fractures. Cooling and crystallization of the granites resulted in thermal resetting of the wall rocks and the establishment of a transient hydrothermal system, now recorded by fracture filling mineral assemblages

  2. Emplacement mechanisms and structural influences of a younger granite intrusion into older wall rocks - a principal study with application to the Goetemar and Uthammar granites. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    The c. 1.80 Ga old bedrock in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, which is the focus of the site investigation at Oskarshamn, is dominated by intrusive rocks belonging to the c. 1.86-1.65 Ga Transscandinavian Igneous Belt (TIB). However, the site investigation area is situated in between two c. 1.45 Ga old anorogenic granites, the Goetemar granite in the north and the Uthammar granite in the south. This study evaluates the emplacement mechanism of these intrusions and their structural influence on the older bedrock. Field observations and structural measurements indicate that both the Goetemar and the Uthammar granites are discordant and have not imposed any significant ductile deformation on their wall-rocks. The apparent conformity of geological contacts and fabrics in the wall rocks and the southern margin of the Goetemar granite is coincidental and inherited from the pattern of Svecokarelian deformation of the TIB. However, interpretation of regional aeromagnetic data suggests that the granites occur within a broad, NNE-SSW trending linear belt, pointing to deep seated tectonic control on their generation, ascent and emplacement. Thermochronology indicates that the granites were emplaced at depths between 4 and 8 km into brittle wall rocks. The 3-D shape of the Goetemar and Uthammar plutons has been investigated by 2.75D forward modelling of the residual gravity anomalies due to both granites. Both granites are associated with strong residual gravity anomalies of up to -10 mgal. Constraints on the geometry of the plutons at the surface are provided from surface geology maps and several deep boreholes located on or close to the model profiles. A further variable in the gravity modelling is introduced by either allowing the upper contact of the plutons to assume the most suitable orientation to produce the best fit between the modelled and observed gravity ('unconstrained models') or by forcing the near surface orientation of the contacts to be vertical ('constrained models'). The unconstrained model profiles for both plutons are characterized by gently outward dipping upper contacts to depths ∼1 km, gently inward dipping lower contacts and a thin, centrally located root extending to depths of 5 to 10 km. However, this geometry is not supported by available boreholes, which do not penetrate the upper contact of the Goetemar pluton as predicted by the models. The constrained models are consistent with borehole data. They characterize the plutons as having vertical contacts in the upper 500 to 1,000 m, a 1,000 to 1,500 m thick mid-level body with outward dipping upper and horizontal and lower contacts, respectively, and broad roots extending to depths of ∼4 km. Preliminary observations and gravity modelling results indicate that the Goetemar and Uthammar granites are discordant plutons with geometries most consistent with punched laccoliths, with some modification due to floor subsidence due to root development. Their vertical and lateral dimensions fall in the upper range for laccoliths and lower range for plutons as defined by recent data compilations. Their emplacement required elastic bending and eventual failure of roof rocks that was likely accompanied by reactivation of pre-existing fractures and shear zones and possibly the creation of new brittle fractures. Cooling and crystallization of the granites resulted in thermal resetting of the wall rocks and the establishment of a transient hydrothermal system, now recorded by fracture filling mineral assemblages

  3. Petrology and Radioactivity of Gabal Al-Aglab younger granite, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    This study deals with petrology and radioactivity of Gabal Al-Aglab younger granite, central Eastern desert, Egypt. Geologically the area consists of ophiolotic Melange and younger granite. The study reveals that the younger granite are post orogenic granites, characterized by high differential index, which in turn represents the latest stage of the successive younger granite intrusions. Microscopically, Gabal Al- Aglab younger granites is holocrystalline, medium to coarse grained, characterized by the predominance of perthite over plagioclase, quartz and biotite. Zircon, apatite, titanite, allanite, and opaque minerals are the accessory and secondary minerals. The pegmatites occur as lenticular and circular pockets at the periphery of the younger granites. Geochemically, the younger granites show mainly peraluminous to metaluminous character and originated from subalkaline magma in within plate tectonic setting (crustal thickness > 30 km) at water vapour pressure varying from 0.5 to 3 kb with crystallization temperature between 670° to 800° C. Field survey together with the complied total count aeroradiometric map reveal that the pegmatites of Gabal Al- Aglab younger granite is significantly highly radioactive compared to the surrounding rocks. The uranium content varies between 3 to 12 ppm with an average of 7.1 ppm and thorium from 11 to 35 ppm with an average of 20 ppm and an average ratio (Th/U) 2.8.The pegmatites show higher U contents relative to their hosted younger granites as identified by microscopic investigation, scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by XRD.

  4. Contribution to uranium geochemistry in intrusive granites

    This work aims to define the position of a certain number of French granitic deposits within the field of the geochemistry of granites in general, and of the geochemistry of uranium in particular. The regions concerned are: - 3 French Hercynian ranges, in the Vendee, in Brittany and in the Morvan, - 1 African range, probably precambrian, of the Hoggar. For each range, the petrochemical framework is first of all determined and then the degree of chemical homogeneity of the rocks is evaluated. In the petrochemical groups thus obtained the geochemical behaviour of the uranium is studied. From a point of view of the geochemistry of the granites under investigation, a comparison of the laws of distribution of the major elements in the 4 ranges shows up a convergence of average composition which was not anticipated by geological and petrographic considerations alone. The statistical and geochemical distribution laws of the total uranium as a function of the petrochemical variations are established. A study of the chemical forms of uranium in the rocks has drawn an attention to the qualitative and quantitative importance of the fraction of this uranium soluble in dilute acids. We have therefore reconsidered on the one hand, the laws of distribution of the insoluble uranium, which represents essentially the uranium fixed in crystalline structures (zircon, allanite...), and we have justified on the other hand the interest presented by the soluble uranium: this, although more complex in character, presents a geochemical unity in post magmatic phenomena which makes possible to find a genetic connection between the uraniferous deposits and the intrusive massifs. Finally we have given a plan of the geochemical cycle of uranium, in which we hope to have provided some more accurate data on the igneous phase. (author)

  5. Geochemical Characteristics of Some peraluminous Younger Granite Masses, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Sixteen representative samples of younger granites from Gabal El Mueilha, Gabal Harhagite and GabalQash Amir in the central and south Eastern Desert of Egypt were analyzed for major, trace and rare earth elements. Petrographical and geochemical studies revealed that, Gabal Harhagite is monzogranite, while Gabal El Mueilha and Gabal Qash Amir are syeno- to alkali feldspar granites. They are classified as 1-type peraluminous granite (A/CNK=1.46-1.67), P-poor (P2O5 < 0.07 wt %) and Na2O-rich (≤ 7.08 wt%) exhibiting differences in their REE contents. Gabal Qash Amir and Gabal El Mueilha are within- plate granite whereas Gabal Harhagite is volcanic arc granite. Peraluminous granite are good source for the uranium, rare metals (Nb-Ta, Be, W) and rare earths (La,Lu, Nd, Dy ,Y) mineralizations are examined for Gabal El Mueilha, Gabal Harhagite and Gabal Qash Amir younger granites. These granites show rare metal contents (Nb = 81, Yb = 20, U = 14, Ta = 25 ppm) and in some rare earth elements (La = 12, Lu = 3, Y = 102, Nd = 17, Dy = 12 ppm). Chondrite-normalized REE diagram shows that Gabal El Mueilha granite samples display strong HREE enrichment relative to LREE which show flat pattern with moderate to strong negative Eu andmalies. On the otherhand Gabal Harhagite and Gabal Qash Amir granite show high enrichment in LREE compared with HREE which desplay slightly falling slope with strong to low negative Eu anomalies. Field radiometric measurements revealed that the radioactivity level up to 34 ppm (eU). at Gabal El Mueilha granite , at Gabal Harhagite granite reach up to 9.5 ppm (eU), while at Gabal Qash Amir granite reach up to 47 ppm (eU).This type of granites assumed to be a specific type for tin and tungestin mineralizations

  6. Distress and Recurrence of Intrusive Thoughts in Younger and Older Adults

    Magee, Joshua C; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study incorporated a lifespan perspective into existing theories of intrusive thoughts to examine age-related differences in the difficulty controlling intrusive thoughts, the distress following intrusive thought recurrences, and the meanings assigned to these recurrences. Younger (N = 51) and older (N = 49) community adults were randomly assigned to suppress (i.e., keep out of mind) or monitor an intrusive thought. Participants rated their positive and negative affect throughout ...

  7. Characteristics and significance of uranium bearing pan african younger granite in the eastern desert, Egypt

    Surficial uranium mineralization was discovered in four pan african younger granite plutons in the eastern desert of egypt. The present study revealed great similarity between these plutons both in petrography and geochemistry. They are two-feldspar, two-mica peraluminous granites which have been formed by melting of crustal materials and emplaced during the late stage stage of a late proterozoic orogenic cycle. Radiometric and geochemical investigations indicate that these granites are fertile with respect to U and form a potential target for primary uranium deposits. Four models are suggested to explain the source and mechanism of the surficial uranium mineralization in these granites. The most applicable model is the oxidation of U+4 found in minute disseminated uraninite grains and its subsequent mobilization. This is supported by petrographic and autoradiographic studies. The bearings of the present study on further exploration for uranium deposits in granites of the arabian- Nubian shield in general are discussed

  8. Magma distribution and crustal extension in the Nigerian younger granite province: evidence from the wase area

    Turner, D. C.

    In the Wase area, situated E of the main belt of Jurassic (Younger Granite) ring complexes in Nigeria, the following sequence of events associated with Younger Granite magmatism took place: (1) Emplacement of minor syenite-granite central complexes and local felsite and microgranite dyke swarms; (2) dextral movement on the ENE-trending Dengi shear zone; (3) emplacement of an extensive swarm of mafic dykes. The S-shaped distribution pattern of ring complexes in the Nigerian Younger Granite province resembles a N-S spreading ridge truncated by ENE-trending transform faults. In the Wase area, the Dengi shear zone can be interpreted as an eastward continuation of the southern transform fault, developed in response to crustal extension in the N-S 'ridge' sector—the ring complex belt. The later mafic dyke swarm is correlated with a widespread Jurassic thermal event, known from basement rejuvenation ages W of the ring complex belt, and providing evidence for a much wider development of magma than is indicated by the closely grouped ring complexes.

  9. Petrogenesis And Geochronology Of The Granitic Intrusions Of Gabal Kulyiet And Seiga, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Meneisy, M. Y. [محمد يسري منيسي; El Alfy, Z. S.; El Kalioubi, B. A.

    1986-01-01

    In the South Eastern Desert of Egypt tonalite. granodiorite and granite intruded intermediate to acidic metavolcanics and volcanogenic metasedimentary rocks of Precambrian age. The geological features of these granitic masses were investigated and a geological map (scale 1 : 40 000) was prepared. They have been classified into two groups: tonalite and granodiorite (syn to late-tectonic), and biotite and Muscovite granites (younger granitoids). The two groups appear to be genetically related o...

  10. Granite provenance and intrusion in arcs: Evidence from diverse zircon types in Big Bear Lake Intrusive Suite, USA

    Barth, A. P.; Wooden, J. L.; Mueller, P. A.; Economos, R. C.

    2016-03-01

    Textural, geochemical and hafnium isotopic data from diverse zircon domains allow discrimination between source and emplacement-level processes in the formation of a large-volume calc-alkalic intrusion. The Big Bear Lake Intrusive Suite is composed of satellite plutons and a main intrusive mass zoned from mafic granodiorites at its margins to central biotite ± muscovite granites, and is estimated to be 7-10 km thick and have a volume of 3500-5100 km3. Zircons in the main intrusive mass and in the satellite plutons are composed of one or more of four domain types: (a) Archean to Proterozoic premagmatic domains and (b) Mesozoic premagmatic domains, both occurring as cores, which are overgrown by (c) luminescent early magmatic domains with low U + Th and relatively high estimated crystallization temperatures and (d) high U + Th main phase magmatic domains. U-Pb zircon geochronology indicates the main intrusive mass was emplaced 78-77 Ma, preceded by satellite plutons intruded 85-81 Ma. Zircon hafnium isotope ratios span 54 epsilon units, recording age and compositional diversity in magma sources and magma batches. We propose a model for assembly of the intrusive suite involving mixing between lithospheric mantle-derived magma and a hybrid lower crustal source, followed by incremental emplacement of magmas in the upper crust at ~ 0.003-0.005 km3 my- 1. This flux rate was sufficiently rapid to generate a large volume of mobile magma that underwent differentiation by limited and imperfect fractional crystallization to form the granodioritic margins and central granites. The estimated flux rate is several times higher than that estimated for other Cretaceous, incrementally emplaced intrusive suites in the California arc, indicating that both source-level and emplacement-level processes played roles in forming these intrusions.

  11. Aeroradiometric and photogeologic characterizations Of the younger granites in the north eastern desert, Egypt and implications for mineral deposits

    Abdel Maksoud, M. A.; Meguid, Ahmed A. Abdel; Abuzied, Hassan T.; Rakaiby, Magid L.; Bishta, Adel Z.

    1995-01-01

    Photogeologic studies of the younger granites in the North Eastern Desert of Egypt using both aerial photographs and satellite images revealed the separation of three successive phases of younger granites with different photogeological radiometrical and gcologiical characteristics. The first phase plutons (YG1) are charactlerizcd by brown colour, dark tone, fine surface texture, low relief with gentle slopes, elongated ridges, large size (3 km3), and high density -dendritic to parallcd-dra...

  12. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of the Granite Harbour Intrusives, Wilson Terrane, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    The oxygen and strontium isotope compositions of the Cambro-Ordovician granitoids cropping out in the Wilson Terrane (Granite Harbour Intrusives-GHI) constrain the petrological evolution of the magmatism in Antarctica, related to the Ross Orogeny. The measured δ18OWR values of three intrusives define three different compositional groups: the metaluminous rocks (MAG), with δ18OWR ranging from 6.9 (olivine gabbro) to 11.4 %o (monzogranite); the unaltered peraluminous granites (PAG), having δ18OWR values ranging from 10.6 to 13.2 %o, and the foliated peraluminous leucogranites (SKG), characterized by δ18OWR values above 14 %o. The analysis of equilibrium mineral assemblages indicates that the high δ18OWR values are magmatic and unaffected by low-temperature processes. A few peraluminous granites sampled in the vicinity of Cenozoic intrusions show anomalously low δ18OWR, due to meteoric-hydrothermal alteration. The isotopic data indicate that the coeval and spatially related metaluminous mafic and felsic intrusives forming the GHI were not comagmatic: the mafic and intermediate rocks were likely derived from lower crustal contamination of a pristine basaltic magma; their δ18OWR values were also increased during emplacement, due to the interaction with the adjacent 18O-rich hydrous felsic magmas (mixing). Oxygen isotope data indicate that the crustal sources producing the granite harbor intrusives were not homogeneous: the felsic metaluminous intrusives were produced by partial melting of fertile rock with possible igneous origin, whereas partial melting of a metapelitic source rock is claimed for the genesis of the peraluminous granites. (author)

  13. Three Paleoproterozoic A-type granite intrusions and associated dykes from Kainuu, East Finland

    Hannu Huhma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mafic and felsic intrusive rocks aged 2.52.4 Ga have been observed over a large area in eastern and northern Finland, as well as in adjacent northwestern Russia. We describe three granite intrusions and associated dykes from Kainuu, Finland, that belong to this bimodal magmatic event. All these three granites show clear A2-type chemical affinities with high Y/Nb, HREE, Fe/Mg, Ga and Nb. Two of the intrusions, Rasinkyl and Pussisvaara, were dated at 24253 and 24273 Ma, respectively, using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry utilizing the chemical abrasion method (CA-TIMS. CA-TIMS ages are supported by single-grain age determinations obtained by using Laser Ablation Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-MC-ICPMS. New data on the previously described Rasimki granite from southern Kainuu is presented, including an age of 23895 Ma obtained with LA-MC-ICPMS. The variable magnetite content of the granites is proposed to reflect the differences in the oxidation state of the source, which in our interpretation is the local Archean lower crust. Partial melting and the emplacement of the granites occurred in an extensional environment. Heat for the partial melting was provided by mafic magmas under and intraplating the extended crust.

  14. Genesis of Uranium in the younger granites of gabal abu hawis area, central eastern desert of Egypt

    The younger granites cropping out in gabal abu hawis area are considered as uraniferous (fertile) granites (the fertile is mainly is mainly attributed to presence of radioactive zircon). Abu hawis granitic pluton is dissected by joints faults of different trends forming two mineralized shear zones in the northern peripheries and southern border. The younger granites hosting uranium mineralizations along the two mineralized shear zones. The uranium minerals include uranophane and carnotite. The altered granites have much lower Th/U ratios (0.03-0.10) than those of the fresh granites (1.69-2.05), indicating strong mobilization of uranium in this pluton by super-heated solutions that resulted from supergence meteoric water as well as U-addition by hypogene fluids. These solutions could pass through the structural network of fractures, joints and fault planes and have leached some of labile uranium from the surrounding rocks and/or the younger granites themselves. Then, changing in the physicochemical conditions of these solutions caused uranium precipitation as uranium minerals filling the cracks in the rock and/or adsorbed on the surface of clay minerals and iron oxides in the two shear zones

  15. Evaluation of the radiological consequences of a human intrusion in a granite formation

    The methodology used in France for the evaluation of the radiological consequences associated to a nuclear waste repository in a deep geological formation is the deterministic one. This means that, in addition to the calculations in connection with the ''normal'' scenario, a limited number of ''altered'' scenarios, representing the different families of plausible scenarios and corresponding to the most important consequences resulting from there families, have to be taken into account. Among them, the human intrusion scenario is an important one. In a study performed inside the CEC PAGIS project and also for a french expert group (Goguel group) which carried out a methodologic work for the national site selection procedure, results concerning the quantification of the radiological consequences of a human intrusion have been obtained without attempting at the evaluation of its probability. The intrusion time ranged from 1 000 to 100 000 years and different contamination scenarios were taken into account. It was assumed that the intrusion led to the creation of a 100 cubic meters edge cubic cavity in the immediate vicinity to the repository. Using the description of the Auriat site realized for PAGIS, the calculation was performed in three steps: - calculation of the evolution of the repository until the intrusion time, - computation of the supposed instantaneous new flow distribution after the intrusion, - computation of the dose rate, using the mean volumic activity in the cavity walls and the outgoing flow rate. Three exposure scenarios were considered: - a worker in the mine exposed to by external irradiation and contaminated by inhalation of radioactive materials, -an animal drinking in the vicinity during the mining operation, - gardening after the closure of the mine. With the exception of the worker scenario (the dose rate may reach 10-2 Sv/year, which is comparable with the normal exposure in a granite mine), the other dose rates were found to be quite low

  16. The spatial variation of initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Toki granite, Central Japan. Implications for the intrusion and cooling processes of a granitic pluton

    The spatial variation in initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (SrI) in the Toki granite, Central Japan, shows heterogeneity ranging from 0.708942 to 0.710069, which provides information on the intrusion and cooling processes of plutons. The Toki granite has three mineralogy-based rock facies: muscovite-biotite granite (MBG), hornblende-biotite granite (HBG) and biotite granite (BG). Large SrI values were found to be distributed at the western margin (west MBG) and the lithologically central region (central BG), while small SrI values were found at the northeast margin (northeast MBG). Regions with high and low Sr concentrations were also found in the Toki granite. In the Sr-rich samples, SrI (0.708942-0.709789) increases with 100/Sr (0.7-1.5). This geochemical trend extends towards the country sedimentary rocks of the Mino Terrane, which can be interpreted to result from assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) between the original granitic magma and the Mino sedimentary rocks. The SrI values in the Sr-rich regions show a correlation with the Alumina Saturation Index (ASI). In particular, the west MBG, with large SrI values, is classified as a peraluminous granitoid with large ASI, suggesting that the western margin of the pluton was strongly affected by assimilation during the intrusion process. The Sr-poor samples are present both in the central BG, with large SrI values, and in the northeast MBG, with small SrI values. The Sr-poor samples have small ASI and large differentiation indices, indicating that the central BG and the northeast MBG were generated either by different AFC process with different amounts of contaminants or by the intrusion and fractionation of different source magma with different SrI values. Overall, the geochemical spatial variations found in the Toki granite can be explained by various degrees of assimilation and fractional crystallization in the magma chamber and/or multi-stage intrusions with different degrees of crystallization of plural source magmas with different SrI values. Previous petrographical and thermochronological studies revealed that the Toki granite effectively cooled from the wall at the western margin in the cooling stage at temperatures below 500°C. Larger SrI and ASI values found in this study corresponded to the western margins where the earlier and more rapid cooling took place, indicating that the Toki granite was preferentially cooled from the peraluminous marginal regions where the assimilation of country rock was the most extensive. (author)

  17. Age of Pedra Branca granite (Goias) and possible geotectonic implications

    Rb-Sr geochronologic dating of granites from the Pedra Branca Granite Massif (Nova Roma, Goias) shown an age of 1405 ± 21My. and a questionable initial Sr87/Sr86 ratio of 0,7004 ± 0,006. Rhyolite from the base of the Arai Group is probably of the same age as the granitic intrusion. The 475 ± 19 My. age for the granitic intrusion is evidence of the Brasiliano Cycle imprint in Pedra Branca region. The age attributed to the Pedra Branca Granite is lower than known ages of the Goias tin granites giving rise to new geotectonic interpretations. It is possible that the Pedra Branca Granite represents a low-level intrusion emplaced at the beginning of structuration and deposition of the Arai basin. It may be correlated with granitic intrusions related to a rift stage above mantle hot spots, like the Nigerian tin younger granites. (author)

  18. Contribution to uranium geochemistry in intrusive granites; Contribution a la geochimie de l'uranium dans les granites intrusifs

    Coulomb, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-01-15

    This work aims to define the position of a certain number of French granitic deposits within the field of the geochemistry of granites in general, and of the geochemistry of uranium in particular. The regions concerned are: - 3 French Hercynian ranges, in the Vendee, in Brittany and in the Morvan, - 1 African range, probably precambrian, of the Hoggar. For each range, the petrochemical framework is first of all determined and then the degree of chemical homogeneity of the rocks is evaluated. In the petrochemical groups thus obtained the geochemical behaviour of the uranium is studied. From a point of view of the geochemistry of the granites under investigation, a comparison of the laws of distribution of the major elements in the 4 ranges shows up a convergence of average composition which was not anticipated by geological and petrographic considerations alone. The statistical and geochemical distribution laws of the total uranium as a function of the petrochemical variations are established. A study of the chemical forms of uranium in the rocks has drawn an attention to the qualitative and quantitative importance of the fraction of this uranium soluble in dilute acids. We have therefore reconsidered on the one hand, the laws of distribution of the insoluble uranium, which represents essentially the uranium fixed in crystalline structures (zircon, allanite...), and we have justified on the other hand the interest presented by the soluble uranium: this, although more complex in character, presents a geochemical unity in post magmatic phenomena which makes possible to find a genetic connection between the uraniferous deposits and the intrusive massifs. Finally we have given a plan of the geochemical cycle of uranium, in which we hope to have provided some more accurate data on the igneous phase. (author) [French] Le but du travail presente est de situer sur le plan de la geochimie des granites en general, sur le plan de la geochimie de l'uranium en particulier, un certain nombre de massifs granitiques francais: - 3 massifs hercyniens francais, en Vendee, en Bretagne et dans le Morvan, - 1 massif africain, probablement precambrien, du Hoggar. Dans chaque massif, nous determinons en premier lieu le cadre petrochimique et evaluons le degre d'homogeneite chimique des roches. Dans les familles petrochimiques ainsi determinees, nous etudions le comportement geochimique de l'uranium. Du point de vue de la geochimie des granites etudies, le comparaison des lois de repartition des elements majeurs fait apparaitre dans les 4 massifs une convergence de composition moyenne que ne laissaient pas prevoir la geologie et la petrographie. Nous etablissons les lois de repartition statistiques et geographiques de l'uranium total en fonction des variations petrochimiques. L'etude des formes de l'uranium a l'interieur des roches a attire notre attention sur l'importance qualitative et quantitative de la fraction de cet uranium soluble dans les acides dilues. Nous reprenons donc, d'un cote les lois de repartition de l'uranium insoluble qui represente pratiquement l'uranium inclus dans les structures cristallines (zircon, allanite...) et justifions d'un autre cote l'interet presente par l'uranium soluble qui, malgre un caractere plus complexe, permet par son unite geochimique dans les phenomenes postmagmatiques, de trouver une liaison genetique entre les gisements uraniferes et les massifs intrusifs. Nous presentons enfin, un schema du cycle geochimique de l'uranium dans lequel nous esperons avoir pu apporter quelques precisions sur la phase ignee. (auteur)

  19. Preliminary Nd isotopic data for the Anicuns-Itaberai sequence, associated orthogeneisses, and granite intrusions, Goias, Brazil

    The Anicuns-Itaberai supracrustals are exposed along a ca. 90 km long N-S belt in the central-western part of Goias. Based on field and structural characteristics, previous studies have compared it to Archaean greenstone belt associations, (Barbosa 1987, Nunes 1990). Recent work by Pimentel et al. (1996, 2000a, b) have challenged this model and suggested a much younger age for these rocks. Granitoids exposed in the vicinities of Turvania and Choupana have TDM model ages between 0.94 and 1.13 Ga and yielded a Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron of 863±97 Ma with εND(T) of ca. +4 (Pimentel et al. 2000a). Metavolcanic rocks exposed to the southeast of the Anicuns-Itaberai sequence, in the vicinities of Pontalina, have also yielded a Neoproterozoic Sm-Nd isochron age (830±9 Ma) and εND(T) of +3.1 (Pimentel et al. 2000b). These rocks, therefore, are part of the Neoproterozoic Goias Magmatic Arc, raising the question wether the neighbouring Anicuns Sequence is also part of the juvenile arc. In this paper we present the first Sm-Nd isotopic data for supracrustal rocks of the northern part of the Anicuns-Itaberai Sequence as well as for associated regional gneisses, and intrusive granites and diorites (au)

  20. Assessment of the radiological consequences of human intrusion into repositories located in granite

    The method used in France to assess the radiological impact of waste repositories in granite consists in making a deterministic analysis of the normal evolution scenario (base case scenario) and a limited number of altered evolution scenarios which, for each series of plausible scenarios, are those with the greatest potential impact. In view of the importance of the human intrusion scanario, and following a request from the working party on site selection criteria chaired by Professor Goguel, a study has been made of this scenario under the CEC PAGIS project. A description of the Auriat site drawn up under the PAGIS project was used as a basis for analyzing the radiological consequences of an intrusion (after periods ranging from 1 000 to 100 000 years subsequent to closure of the repository) assumed to result in the creation of a cavern equivalent to a cube measuring 100 m along each side. Three different scenarios were considered (mine worker, stock rearing, gardening). Except for the mine worker scenario, which produced exposure rates of up to 10 millisieverts/year, a figure that is in fact comparable to the dose to which workers in conventional mines are exposed, the calculated dose equivalents were relatively low

  1. Accessory mineralization of rocks from Late Cretaceous intrusive series with LiF granites in the Far East

    Alekseev, V. I.; Marin, Yu. B.

    2015-12-01

    Accessory mineralization of the Late Cretaceous intrusive series in the Far East was investigated on the basis of published data and the author's original evidence. The composition of accessory minerals from leucogranite, monzonitoid rocks, and Li-F granites has been established. The trend in the evolution of Late Cretaceous granitoids is characterized by an increase in the mineral-forming role of iron and rare elements. Diverse accessory minerals and their typomorphic assemblages have been identified for Li-F granites and ongonites. The regional specificity of accessory mineralization in rare-metal granites consists in the leading role of the minerals W, Ta, Nb, Bi, Y, REE, and As. The uniformity of mineral species and mineral assemblages and the typomorphism and evolution of accessory minerals are inherent to the Far East belt of Li-F granites.

  2. Granite intrusion in a metamorphic core complex: The example of the Mykonos laccolith (Cyclades, Greece)

    Denle, Y.; Lecomte, E.; Jolivet, L.; Lacombe, O.; Labrousse, L.; Huet, B.; Le Pourhiet, L.

    2011-03-01

    The Aegean domain is a well-suited place to study the formation of metamorphic core complex (MCC) and to investigate the role of syn-tectonic granites on their development. In the northern Cyclades, the Mykonos-Delos-Rhenia MCC is characterized by the intrusion of a kilometer-scale Late Miocene pluton of I-type granitoids within a migmatitic gneiss dome. New combined AMS (anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility) and microstructural studies on the Mykonos granitoids together with recently published thermochronological data allow us to use the granitoids as strain markers. The Mykonos granitoids form a laccolith-like intrusion with a N70E long axis. The laccolith is strongly asymmetric with an outlying root zone to the SW and a major body mainly developed to the NE. The laccolith construction is due to successive pulses of more or less differentiated magma that intruded the Cycladic Blueschist Unit. The attitude of stretching markers suggests an important (about 60) vertical-axis local rotation phenomenon in the cycladic upper crust during the exhumation of the Mykonos MCC. Structural data suggest a four-stage evolution of the Mykonos MCC: (i) a first stage characterized by flat shearing toward the N-NE and by the formation of a domal structure in migmatitic paragneisses with multi-scale generation of folds with axes either perpendicular or parallel to the regional stretching, as a result of the interplay between regional N20E-directed extension and EW shortening; (ii) a second stage marked by the emplacement of the Mykonos laccolith at 13.5 0.3 Ma at the top of the migmatitic paragneisses; (iii) the third stage corresponding to the development of protomylonitic foliations and lineations in the whole laccolith in high to medium temperature conditions; and (iv) the late stage marked by an acceleration of the exhumation of the Mykonos MCC. This exhumation was accommodated by important rotations of upper crustal blocks. During the end of the exhumation processes, around 10 Ma, deformation localized at the top of the laccolith in semi-ductile conditions and then in brittle conditions in the major detachment plane. Our study shows that the Cycladic plutonism event had no role on the initiation of the MCC. However, the geometry of the Mykonos intrusion supports that the magmas are "sucked" into the direction of regional extension and that the intrusion of magmas has caused an acceleration of the last stages of the MCC development. This acceleration was marked by a very fast exhumation of the laccolith after its emplacement.

  3. Structural evidence for the relationship between thrusts, extensional faults and granite intrusions in the Variscan belt of Galicia (Spain)

    Aranguren, Aitor; Tubía, JoséM

    1992-11-01

    New structural and petrofabric data are presented from the Hombreiro pluton, a synkinematically emplaced granite located in the northern part of the Variscan belt of Spain. This pluton shows the imprint of two plastic deformations: the first is related to the motion of the Mondoñedo Nappe, with a top-to-the-east shear sense, and the later one to the Vivero Fault, an extensional shear zone with a top-to-the-west motion. These deformations initiated at high temperatures, close to the granite solidus as shown by the preservation of ⋎c⋎-slip fabrics in quartz. This fact indicates that extensional faulting was activated soon after the thrusting of the Mondoñedo Nappe during which the Hombreiro Granite was emplaced. We propose that the position of the Vivero Fault was controlled by a crustal instability induced by the intrusion of a number of plutons that delineate the footwall block of this fault.

  4. Geochemical Characteristics and Chemical Electron Microprobe U-Pb-Th Dating of Pitchblende Mineralization from Gabal Gattar Younger Granite, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Hassan A. A. Shahin

    2014-01-01

    Pitchblende mineralization was studied in the younger granite samples collected from Gabal Gattar, north Eastern Desert, Egypt using electron scanning microscope (ESM) and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA). This study revealed that this pitchblende contains significant Zr content reaching up to (66.80% ZrO2), which suggests that volcanic rocks were probably the source of such a deposit. High level emplaced high-K Calc-alkaline plutons as Qattar granite may have bee...

  5. Numerical Simulations of the Incremental Intrusion of Granitic Magma into Continental Crust

    Cao, W.; Kaus, B. J.; Paterson, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    We have employed the visco-elasto-plastic Finite-Element & Marker-in-cell code, MILAMIN_VEP, to carry out a 2D modeling study of the incremental intrusion of granitic magma into continental crust. Algorithms of multiple pulses of magma and pseudo-diking are implemented into the code. New magma of an initial circular shape is regularly replenished at "magma source" regions at sub-crustal depths. Pseudo-dikes of rectangular shapes are added at location where the maximum differential stress along the melt-solid interface is greater than an assigned tensile strength of the surrounding solid host rock. Preliminary results show that when diking and multiple pulses of magma are included, later pulses of magma rise higher and faster and even reach the Earth's surface in some cases by taking advantage of the pre-heated low-viscosity pathways created by earlier dikes and pulses of magma. Host rocks display bedding rotation, and downward flow at two sides of a growing magma chamber but show discordantly truncation when magma ascend through the weak channels made by dikes. The effect of the thermal structure of the crust was tested as well. In a cold crust, "diking" is critical in breaking the high-viscosity crust, guiding the direction of magma rising, and facilitating later magma pulses to form chambers. In a warmer crust, magma rises in the form of diapirs, after which dikes take over in transporting later pulses of magma to the surface. The simulations also suggest that a magma chamber incrementally constructed by multiple magma bathes is a very dynamic environment featuring intra-chamber convection and recycling previous batches of magma. In simulations without diking and multiple pulses, magma is unable to reach the shallow crust. Instead, it is stuck in the middle crust, as the viscosity of the upper crust is too large to permit rapid motion, and at the same time magma-induced stresses are insufficient to deform the upper crust in a plastic manner. Intra-crustal convection in the middle and lower crust occurs regardless of the flow flaws and geothermal gradients employed. Simulations with only one of the algorithms also fail to bring magma to the shallow crust. The simulations suggest that multiple pulses and diking might be two important factors aiding the rise of granitic magma to the uppermost crust. These results have implications for the magmatic evolution of arcs such as the Mesozoic Sierra Nevada arc. They may help us to understand the processes such as the ascent of magma, incremental growth of a large magma chamber, and host rock deformation accompanying with magma ascent and emplacement.

  6. Petrography and major element geochemistry of the younger granites of Sindhudurg district, Maharashtra, India and their bearing on the associated radioactive pegmatites

    The Precambrian metasediments exposed in the Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra are intruded at numerous places by the younger granites and associated pegmatites. The pegmatites are radioactive at a number of places and have analysed 3O8 and 2. The granites are two-mica bearing peraluminous with fairly uniform composition and relatively high uranium (11-21 ppm) content, post-orogenic and appears to have formed by crustal anatexis at a minimal temperature of 685 deg at a relatively PH2O of 5 kb (assumed). The initial granitic melt formed was rich in uranium and its subsequent crystallisation and differentiation resulted in the concentration of U and Th and rare metals of Nb, Ta in the residual and subsequent pegmatitic fluids, manifested mineralogically as uraninite and columbite in pegmatite associated with these granites. (author)

  7. Interactions between extensional shear zones and syn-tectonic granitic intrusions: the example of Ikaria Island (Cyclades, Greece)

    Laurent, Valentin; Beaudoin, Alexandre; Jolivet, Laurent; Arbaret, Laurent; Augier, Romain; Rabillard, Aurelien

    2014-05-01

    The Aegean domain is an ideal place to investigate the development of Metamorphic Core Complex (MCC) and to study the role of syn-tectonic granites on their development. MCCs of the Aegean domain are dynamically associated with a few major detachments, especially the North Cycladic Detachment System (NCDS) and the West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS), which have accommodated a large part of the crustal thinning during the Oligocene and Miocene. The NCDS extends toward the East within the Simav Detachment that has exhumed the northern high-temperature part of the Menderes massif. The transition between the NCDS and the Simav Detachments is located above a major tear in the Aegean slab whose effects on lithospheric deformation are far from understood. The Aegean granitoids were emplaced during the Middle Miocene within a zone of high-temperature during the episode of slab tearing and recorded increments of extensional tectonics within this complex zone. Ikaria Island (Cyclades, Greece) is a metamorphic dome intruded by three Miocene granitoid plutons (one I-type intrusion, two S-type ones) including the largest pluton of the Aegean domain. However, geometry, structures and kinematics are still debated with several recent yet conflicting studies. We have reconsidered the geology of Ikaria to settle the geological and structural context of these plutons. The intrusion depth of the Raches granite has been estimated at 10-15 km by the Al-in-hornblende barometer. Our field study has led to the identification of two major structures: the Gialiskari and Kalamos detachments, which we interpret as belonging to the NCDS. A study of deformation in the granites has highlighted a continuum during cooling that can be described in three stages: i) magmatic deformation, ii) high-temperature ductile deformation from late magmatic stage until complete crystallization of the granite, iii) low-temperature brittle deformation. Throughout this evolution, the same top-to-the-NE shearing deformation was active below the Gialiskari and Kalamos detachments with a progressive localization of strain. A scenario of this deformation continuum below the Gialiskari-Kalamos detachments through the ductile-brittle transition is proposed. The granites were emplaced while the exhumation of the Ikaria high-temperature metamorphic dome was already underway. We conclude that the crustal-scale detachment has controlled the localization of the intrusion and not the opposite.

  8. Characteristics of pegmatoidal granite exposed near Bayalan, Ajmer district, Rajasthan

    Nilanjan Dasgupta; Taritwan Pal; Joydeep Sen; Tamoghno Ghosh

    2011-08-01

    The study involves the characterization of pegmatoidal granite, southeast of Beawar, Ajmer district, Rajasthan. Earlier researchers had described this granite as part of the BGC, basement to the Bhim Group of the Delhi Super Group rocks. However, the present study indicates that it is younger than the rocks of Bhim Group of South Delhi Fold Belt, into which it is intrusive. The intrusion is structurally controlled and the outcrop pattern is phacolithic. The granite had intruded post-D2 deformation of the Delhi orogeny along the axial planes of D2 folds. The intrusion has also resulted in the formation of a contact aureole about the calc gneisses.

  9. Spatial association of Neoproterozoic continental arc I-type and post-collision A-type granitoids in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: The Wadi Al-Baroud Older and Younger Granites, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    El-Bialy, Mohammed Zaky; Omar, Mohamed M.

    2015-03-01

    The Neoproterozoic basement of Wadi Al-Baroud area located at the northern Eastern Desert (ED) of Egypt, at the northernmost segment of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), is comprised of two different granite suites. A large batholith ascribed to the Older Granite suite, extends across the boundary between the northern and central ED, and is intruded by two isolated plutons of the Younger Granite suite. The Older Granite suite includes gray-colored, massive to gneissose, granodiorites to tonalites typically containing microgranular mafic enclaves. These are calc-alkaline, magensian, metaluminous I-type granitoids, with high Sr contents, and depleted in Rb, Nb, Y and REE. The Younger Granite suite plutons are pink to red, biotite and two-mica monzogranites. These are peraluminous A-type granites exhibiting a high-K calc-alkaline nature, and varying between ferroan and magnesian type granites. The A-type granites of the Younger Granite suite are enriched in Ga, Y, HFSE and REE elements, and depleted in the LILE elements Ba, Sr and Rb and transition metals Cr, Ni, Co, Sc and V. Magmatic saturation temperatures indicate early crystallization of apatite at high temperature in the metaluminous I-type Older Granite suite, while in the peraluminous A-type Younger Granites its crystallization occurs later after separation of zircon and monazite. The plutons of the Younger Granite suite were generated during the post-collisional stage of the northern ANS, following collision between the juvenile ANS crust and the pre-Neoproterozoic continental blocks of west Gondwana. The emplacement of the Older Granite suite took place earlier, within a normally mature continental arc prior to the collision. These pre-collision granitoids evolved through assimilation-fractional crystallization processes from mantle-derived parental magmas, which have interacted with crustal materials during ascent and storage. The post-collisional Younger Granite suite seems to have been derived by high degree, partial melting of metasedimentary sources, particularly psammitic and pelitic metasediments.

  10. Contact metamorphism, partial melting and fluid flow in the granitic footwall of the South Kawishiwi Intrusion, Duluth Complex, USA

    Benko, Z.; Mogessie, A.; Molnar, F.; Severson, M.; Hauck, S.; Lechler, P.; Arehart, G.

    2012-04-01

    The footwall of the South Kawishiwi Intrusion (SKI) a part of the Mesoproterozoic (1.1 Ga) Duluth Complex consists of Archean granite-gneiss, diorite, granodiorite (Giant Range Batholith), thin condensed sequences of Paleoproterozoic shale (Virginia Fm.), as well as banded iron formation (Biwabik Iron Fm). Detailed (re)logging and petrographic analysis of granitic footwall rocks in the NM-57 drillhole from the Dunka Pit area has been performed to understand metamorphic processes, partial melting, deformation and geochemical characteristics of de-volatilization or influx of fluids. In the studied drillhole the footwall consists of foliated metagranite that is intersected by mafic (dioritic) dykes of older age than the SKI. In the proximal contact zones, in the mafic dykes, the orthopyroxene+clinopyroxene+plagioclase+quartz+Fe-Ti-oxide+hornblendebiotite porphyroblasts embedded in a plagioclase+K-feldspar+orthopyroxene+apatite matrix indicate pyroxene-hornfels facies conditions. Migmatitization is revealed by the euhedral crystal faces of plagioclase and pyroxene against anhedral quartz crystals in the in-situ leucosome and by the presence of abundant in-source plagioclasebiotite leucosome veinlets. Amphibole in the melanosome of mafic dykes was formed with breakdown of biotite and implies addition of H2O to the system during partial melting. Towards the deeper zones, the partially melted metatexite-granite can be characterized by K-feldspar+plagioclase+quartz+ortho/clinopyroxene+biotite+Fe-Ti-oxide+apatite mineral assemblage. The felsic veins with either pegmatitic or aplititic textures display sharp contact both to the granite and the mafic veins. They are characterized by K-feldspar+quartzplagioclasemuscovite mineral assemblage. Sporadic occurrence of muscovite suggest local fluid saturated conditions. Emplacement of gabbroic rocks of the SKI generated intense shear in some zones of the granitic footwall resulting in formation of biotite-rich mylonites with lepidoblastic texture. High modal content of syn-tectonic biotite in these shear zones indicate involvement of large amount of fluids during deformation. Apatite is an omnipresent accessory mineral in all rock types, with up to 1-3% modal proportion. Crystal habit is columnar or rarely needle-like. XCl/XF and XOH/XF ratios of apatite were compared with depth in the drillhole and in relation to the host rock type. Apatite in the metagranite and in the mafic dyke is fluorine-rich (XFgranite?1,27-1,63; XFmafic dyke?1,51-1,83) and their XCl/XFgranite?0,083 to 0,051 and XCl/XFmafic dyke?0,051 to 0,044 ratios decrease towards the distal parts of the contact. Apatite in biotite-rich mylonite, as well as in the porphyroblasts of mafic dykes, is extremely depleted in chlorine- and hydroxyl-anions (XCl/XFmylonite?0,02 and XOH/XFmylonite?0,14), whereas apatite in felsic dykes and in the in-source leucosome are enriched in hydroxyl and chlorine relative to fluorine (XCl/XFfelsic vein?0,21 and XOH/XFfelsic vein?0,37). These variations suggest release of chlorine enriched fluids from the partially melted contact zones and movement and enrichments of these fluids in migration channels of partial melts. It has been for a long time accepted that fluids emerging from the metamorphosed Virginia Formation played an essential role in the formation of the Cu-Ni sulphide and PGE mineralization at the bottom of the gabbroic intrusions in the northwestern marginal zones of the Duluth Complex. Our study proves that the granitic footwall was also an important source of fluids and melts. We acknowledge the Austrian Science Found (FWF P23157-N21) to A. Mogessie for the financial support.

  11. Geochronology and petrogenesis of Miocene granitic intrusions related to the Zhibula Cu skarn deposit in the Gangdese belt, southern Tibet

    Xu, Jing; Zheng, You-ye; Sun, Xiang; Shen, Ya-hui

    2016-04-01

    The Zhibula Cu skarn deposit (19.5 Mt ore @ 1.64%), near the Qulong porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, is located in the Gangdese porphyry copper belt in southern Tibet. The deposit is a typical metasomatic skarn that is related to the interaction of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids and calcareous host rocks. Stratiform skarn orebodies are mainly distributed in the contact between tuff and marble in the lower part of the Jurassic Yeba Formation. Endoskarn zonations for an outward trend are observed in the granodiorite, which grade from a fresh granodiorite to a weakly chlorite-altered granodiorite, a green diopside-bearing granodiorite, and a dark red-brown garnet-bearing granodiorite. The Zhibula granodiorite and monzogranite have similar secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb ages of 16.9 ± 0.3 Ma and 17.0 ± 0.2 Ma, respectively. They exhibit different fractional crystallization from granodiorite (SiO2 = 64.8-69.3 wt.%) to monzogranite (SiO2 = 72.3-76.8 wt.%). Both the granodiorite and monzogranite are characterized by high Al2O3 (12.6-16.7 wt.%) and K2O (1.5-5.5 wt.%) contents, high Sr/Y (35-151) and La/Yb (19-48) ratios, and variable MgO (0.16-3.91) and Mg# (31-61) values. They display features of enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs, e.g., Rb, Ba, Sr, and K), depletion in high field strength elements (HFSEs, e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti, and P), and moderate negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.58-0.98). They show restricted in situ zircon Hf isotopic compositions (+6.7 to +8.8; only one sample is +4.5) and consistent δ18O values (+6.0‰ to +6.6‰). The geochemical data indicated that the Miocene Zhibula granitic intrusions formed by the magma that were characterized by high Sr/Y ratios and were derived from the partial melting of the thickened juvenile lower crust, which may have been metasomatized by the slab melts during subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust and were induced by the convective removal of the thickened lithosphere. In addition, the Zhibula Cu skarn deposit and the Qulong Cu-Mo deposit form a significant porphyry-skarn ore system.

  12. Incorporation of Model and Parameter Uncertainty in Predicting Radionuclide Fluxes from the Climax Granite Intrusive, Nevada Test Site

    Reeves, D. M.; Pohlmann, K. F.; Pohll, G. M.; Chapman, J. B.; Ye, M.

    2006-12-01

    The Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit requires the use of numerical models to predict radionuclide flux rates from three subsurface nuclear tests conducted in a fractured rock mass. Modeling flow and transport in the Climax granite intrusive (CGI) is unique; while attributes of rock fractures have been extensively characterized in subsurface tunnel and drift complexes, information on the saturated flow system, including the position of the water table within the CGI, is largely unknown. A modified version of the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model of Belcher et al. (2004) with refined discretization in the area of the CGI is used to provide boundary conditions and a calibration target for a local-scale stochastic continuum fracture flow and transport model. Uncertainty in the Climax DVRFS model is addressed by including five different geologic framework models, each weighted according to expert elicitation. Five ground water recharge models are then applied to each of the five geologic models, resulting in a total of 25 geologic/recharge models. The CGI fracture flow model consists of 3-D discrete fracture networks, randomly distributed according to probability distribution functions for fracture location, orientation, length and permeability. The networks are directly mapped onto a 3-D finite-difference grid and MODFLOW is used to simultaneously solve for fluid flow within the fracture network and rock matrix. Flow model calibration involved matching the geometric mean of total fluid flux through 200 Monte Carlo fracture network realizations to flux computed in the subsection of the Climax DVRFS model representing the area of the local-scale model domain. By maintaining a constant log_10 mean and variance of fracture conductivity, fracture density was altered until the geometric mean of flux from all 200 network realizations is within +/- 5% of the target flux from the regional model. Variability in flux for individual realizations encompasses 2 to 3 orders-of-magnitude. Weights assigned to individual realizations using a generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) technique reflect this contrast in flux values. A random walk particle method will be used to simulate advection, dispersion, and adsorption and diffusion into the rock matrix using the velocity fields from the flow realizations.

  13. Crustal differentiation due to partial melting of granitic rocks in an active continental margin, the Ryoke Belt, Southwest Japan

    Akasaki, Eri; Owada, Masaaki; Kamei, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    The continental margin of Pacific Asia is dominated by the voluminous Cretaceous to Paleogene granitic rocks. The Ryoke granitoids that occur in the Ryoke Belt in the Southwest Japan Arc are divided into the older and younger granites. The high-K Kibe Granite represents the younger granitic intrusion and is exposed in the Yanai area in the western part of Ryoke Belt. The Kibe Granite is associated with the coeval Himurodake Quartz Diorite and their intrusive age is 91 Ma. However, the Gamano-Obatake Granodiorite, the older granite, intruded the host Ryoke gneisses at 95 Ma. The Gamano-Obatake Granodiorite is characterized by the localized development of migmatitic structure attributed to the intrusion of the Himurodake Quartz Diorite into the granodiorite. Leucocratic pools and patches occur in the granodiorite in the vicinity of the quartz diorite. The Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of the Gamano-Obatake Granodiorite corrected to 91 Ma are plotted within those of the Kibe Granite. Geochemical modeling suggests that partial melting took place in the Gamano-Obatake Granodiorite and resulted in the formation of the Kibe Granite magma. The Himurodake Quartz Diorite is believed to be a heat source for this event. This can be considered as an essential process for the formation of the evolved younger Ryoke granite and for the crustal differentiation in the active continental margin.

  14. Advective heat transfer and fabric development in a shallow crustal intrusive granite – the case of Proterozoic Vellaturu granite, south India

    Dilip Saha; Sukanya Chakraborti

    2007-10-01

    Syntectonic plutons emplaced in shallow crust often contain intermediate-to low-temperature deformation microstructures but lack a high-temperature, subsolidus deformation fabric,although the relict magmatic fabric is preserved. The Proterozoic Vellaturu granite emplaced at the eastern margin of the northern Nallamalai fold belt,south India during the late phase of regional deformation has a common occurrence of intermediate-to low-temperature deformation fabric, superimposed over magmatic fabric with an internally complex pattern. But high-T subsolidus deformation microstructure and fabric are absent in this pluton.The main crystal plastic deformation and fluid enhanced reaction softening was concentrated along the margin of the granite body. Resulting granite mylonites show Y-maximum c axis fabric in completely recrystallized quartz ribbons,dynamic recrystallization of perthites,and myrmekite indicative of fabric development under intermediate temperature (∼500-400° C). The weakly-deformed interior shows myrmekite,feldspar microfracturing and limited bulging recrystallization of quartz.The abundance of prism subgrain boundaries is indicative of continuing deformation through low-temperature(∼300° C).The relative rates of cooling in fluenced by advective heat transfer and deformation of the pluton seem to control the overall subsolidus fabric development.The rapid advective heat transfer from the interior in the early stages of subsolidus cooling was followed by slow cooling through intermediate temperature window as a well-developed phyllosilicate rich mylonitic skin around the granite body slowed down conductive heat loss.Low-T crystal plastic deformation of quartz was effected at a late stage of cooling and deformation of the shallow crustal granite body emplaced within the greenschist facies Nallamalai rocks.

  15. First report of early Triassic A-type granite and syenite intrusions from Taimyr: product of the northern Eurasian superplume?

    Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Pease, Victoria L.; Vernikovskaya, Antonina E.; Romanov, Andrey P.; Gee, David G.; Travin, Alexey V.

    2003-01-01

    Ion-microprobe U-Th-Pb analyses of zircon from three high-level syenite-granite stocks in the western part of the Taimyr fold-and-thrust belt have yielded early Triassic ages of 249-241 Ma. Those syenite-granite bodies intrude unmetamorphosed late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic terrigenous and volcanic supracrustal rocks, including the early Triassic Siberian traps. 40Ar- 39Ar isotopic ages of 245-233 Ma correlate well with the ion-microprobe data and define the time of closure for the K-Ar isotopic system. Limited geochemical data for the early Triassic syenite-granite plutons show that they have metaluminous compositions, high potassium, high REE and high LIL concentrations, and 87Sr/ 86Sr and ?Nd ratios intermediate between crust and mantle, suggesting a hybrid mantle-crustal origin. We tentatively suggest that they formed in an anorogenic setting as a result of the Permo-Triassic Euroasian superplume.

  16. Implications of Late Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages of granitic intrusions cutting ophiolitic and volcanogenic rocks for the assembly of the Tauride allochthon in SE Anatolia (Helete area, Kahramanmaraş Region, SE Turkey)

    Nurlu, Nusret; Parlak, Osman; Robertson, Alastair; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    An assemblage of NE-SW-trending, imbricate thrust slices (c. 26 km E-W long × 6.3 km N-S) of granitic rocks, basic-felsic volcanogenic rocks (Helete volcanics), ophiolitic rocks (Meydan ophiolite) and melange (Meydan melange) is exposed near the Tauride thrust front in SE Anatolia. The volcanogenic rocks were previously assumed to be Eocene because of associated Nummulitic limestones. However, ion probe U-Pb dating of zircons extracted from the intrusive granitic rocks yielded ages of 92.9 ± 2.2-83.1 ± 1.5 Ma (Cenomanian-Campanian). The Helete volcanic unit and the overlying Meydan ophiolitic rocks both are intruded by granitic rocks of similar age and composition. Structurally underlying ophiolite-related melange includes similar-aged, but fragmented granitic intrusions. Major, trace element and rare earth element analyses coupled with electron microprobe analysis of the granitic rocks show that they are metaluminus to peraluminus and calc-alkaline in composition. A magmatic arc setting is inferred from a combination of tectonomagmatic discrimination, ocean ridge granite-normalized multi-element patterns and biotite geochemistry. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data further suggest that the granitoid rocks were derived from variably mixed mantle and crustal sources. Granitic rocks cutting the intrusive rocks are inferred to have crystallized at ~5-16 km depth. The volcanogenic rocks and granitic rocks originated in a supra-subduction zone setting that was widely developed throughout SE Anatolia. Initial tectonic assembly took place during the Late Cretaceous probably related to northward subduction and accretion beneath the Tauride continent (Keban and Malatya platforms). Initial tectonic assembly was followed by exhumation and then transgression by shelf-depth Nummulitic limestones during Mid-Eocene, as documented in several key outcrops. Final emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin took place during the Early Miocene.

  17. Interactions between extensional shear zones and syn-tectonic granitic intrusions: the example of Ikaria Island (Cyclades, Greece)

    Laurent, Valentin; Beaudoin, Alexandre; Jolivet, Laurent; Arbaret, Laurent; Augier, Romain; Rabillard, Aurélien

    2014-01-01

    The Aegean domain is an ideal place to investigate the development of Metamorphic Core Complex (MCC) and to study the role of syn-tectonic granites on their development. MCCs of the Aegean domain are dynamically associated with a few major detachments, especially the North Cycladic Detachment System (NCDS) and the West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS), which have accommodated a large part of the crustal thinning during the Oligocene and Miocene. The NCDS extends toward the East within the Si...

  18. Contrasting fluid/rock interaction between the Notch Peak granitic intrusion and argillites and limestones in western Utah: evidence from stable isotopes and phase assemblages

    Nabelek, P.I.; Labotka, T.C.; O'Neil, J.R.; Papike, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Jurassic Notch Peak granitic stock, western Utah, discordantly intrudes Cambrian interbedded pure limestones and calcareous argillites. Contact metamorphosed argillite and limestone samples, collected along traverses away from the intrusion, were analyzed for ??18O, ??13C, and ??D. The ??13C and ??18O values for the limestones remain constant at about 0.5 (PDB) and 20 (SMOW), respectively, with increasing metamorphic grade. The whole rock ??18O values of the argillites systematically decrease from 19 to as low as 8.1, and the ??13C values of the carbonate fraction from 0.5 to -11.8. The change in ??13C values can be explained by Rayleigh decarbonation during calcsilicate reactions, where calculated {Mathematical expression} is about 4.5 permil for the high-grade samples and less for medium and low-grade samples suggesting a range in temperatures at which most decarbonation occurred. However, the amount of CO2 released was not anough to decrease the whole rock ??18O to the values observed in the argillites. The low ??18O values close to the intrusion suggest interaction with magmatic water that had a ??18O value of 8.5. The extreme lowering of ??13C by fractional devolatilization and the lowering of ??18O in argillites close to the intrusion indicates oxgen-equivalent fluid/rock ratios in excess of 1.0 and X(CO2)F of the fluid less than 0.2. Mineral assemblages in conjunction with the isotopic data indicate a strong influence of water infiltration on the reaction relations in the argillites and separate fluid and thermal fronts moving thru the argillites. The different stable isotope relations in limestones and argillites attest to the importance of decarbonation in the enhancement of permeability. The flow of fluids was confined to the argillite beds (argillite aquifers) whereas the limestones prevented vertical fluid flow and convective cooling of the stock. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Occurrence of ? 1Ga Jambugoda granite in Aravali Craton, a tectonic significance

    The granites and gneisses of southern parts of Aravali Mountain Belt (AMB), NW India, are referred to as Godhra Granite and Gneiss and have an intrusive relationship with the surrounding metasedimentary rocks, which belong to the Lunavada Group in the north and Champaner Group in the south (Fig.1). These two groups comprise the younger part of the Aravali Supergroup. Two granite varieties, coarse and fine, are commonly observed and occupy an area of about 5000 km2. The coarse-grained granite is grayish and porphyritic in nature. It consists phenocrysts of feldspar and quartz, and abundant biotite. Fine grained granite is commonly found to occur in association with coarse grained granite; at places, the former is seen to have an intrusive relationship with the latter. Available age data information is scant, and is mainly based on Rb-Sr wholerock methods. In spite of these limitations, the available data indicate that the granitoids might comprise two or more age groupings. Published Rb-Sr ages for various plutons include Mt. Abu granite 735 15 Ma , Godhra granite 955 20 Ma, Sendra granite 966 250 Ma, and Ambaji granite ?1228 Ma. Godhra granite assumes importance due to its proximity to the Son-Narmada North Fault (SnF) and is believed to have formed during the growth of the Indian shield in Mesoproterozoic times. Further ?1 Ga granites play a vital role in global tectonics therefore an attempt has been made to decipher various episodes of granitic evolutionary events in these parts of the subcontinent

  20. Rb-Sr ages of intrusive plutonic rocks from the Stora Le-Marstrand belt in Orust, SW Sweden

    Rb-Sr whole-rock isochrons are reported for the Haelleviksstrand amphibolite (1432 +- 92 Ma) and the Assmunderoed-Myckleby augen granite (1379 +- 46 Ma) which intrude the Stora Le-Marstrand migmatite belt of Orust, SW Sweden. These ages provide a younger limit for the age of the main migmatisation and an older limit for the emplacement of minor silicic and mafic intrusions and subsequent regional metamorphism and deformation. They overlap with published ages from granitic intrusions in the adjacent Amal belt and provide the basis for a correlation between the two belts. (Auth.)

  1. Genetic relationship between L granite body and 3701 uranium deposit

    The ore deposit occurs in carbonate rocks situated in the exocontact zone (0 - 120 m) with the L granite body. The mineralization is hosted by argillaceous limestone of the middle Devonian Yingtang Formation. The ore bodies are in lenticular or stratifed form. The ores are fine vein-type and disseminated type. Four stages of mineralization in the deposit are recognized. Industrial mineral is pitchblende which occurs as micro-impregnation and micro-vein in the calcite, and fills or replaces its associated minerals. Gangue minerals are chiefly calcite, pyrite, galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and tennantite etc. The host rocks of the ore-veins show weak hydrothermal alterations with plane and linear distribution. The L granite body with an area of 238 km2 is a single-stage intrusive batholith which mainly consists of coarse-medium grained biotite granites. Because the urnium mineralization age (65.0 - 30.7 Ma) is much younger than that of the L granite (318 -202 Ma), it may be considered that the deposit is genetically not related to activity of the L granitic magma. However, the granitic rocks may play an important role in the formation of the 3701 uranium deposit in following hands: providing a large number of uranium and lead; providing minor amounts of surfur, carbon and trace elements; forming impermeable basement to promote the accumulation of uranium-bearing solution; providing an additional heat source for heating ore-bearing solution and its convective circulation

  2. Timing, petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the Late Paleozoic gabbro-granodiorite-granite intrusions in the Shalazhashan of northern Alxa: Constraints on the southernmost boundary of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Shi, Xingjun; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Castro, Antonio; Xiao, XuChang; Tong, Ying; Zhang, Jianjun; Guo, Lei; Yang, Qidi

    2014-11-01

    The Late Paleozoic tectonic setting and location of the southernmost boundary of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) with respect to the Alxa Block or Alxa-North China Craton (ANCC) are debated. This paper presents new geochronological, petrological, geochemical and zircon Hf isotopic data of the Late Paleozoic intrusions from the Shalazhashan in northern Alxa and discusses the tectonic setting and boundary between the CAOB and ANCC. Using zircon U-Pb dating, intrusions can be broadly grouped as Late Carboniferous granodiorites (~ 301 Ma), Middle Permian gabbros (~ 264 Ma) and granites (~ 266 Ma) and Late Permian granodiorites, monzogranites and quartz monzodiorites (254-250 Ma). The Late Carboniferous granodiorites are slightly peraluminous and calcic. The remarkably high zircon Hf isotopes (εHf(t) = + 6-+ 10) and characteristics of high silica adakites suggest that these granodiorites were mainly derived from "hot" basaltic slab-melts of the subducted oceanic crust. The Middle Permian gabbros exhibited typical cumulate textures and were derived from the partial melting of depleted mantle. The Middle Permian granites are slightly peraluminous with high-K calc-alkaline and low εHf(t) values from - 0.9 to + 2.9. These granites were most likely derived from juvenile materials mixed with old crustal materials. The Late Permian granodiorites, monzogranites and quartz monzodiorites are characterized as metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, with variable Peacock alkali-lime index values from calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic. These rocks were mainly derived from juvenile crustal materials, as evidenced by their high εHf(t) values (+ 3.3 to + 8.9). The juvenile sources of the above intrusions in the Shalazhashan are similar to those of the granitoids from the CAOB but distinct from the granitoids within the Alxa Block. These findings suggest that the Shalazhashan Zone belongs to the CAOB rather than the Alxa Block and that its boundary with the Alxa block can be regarded as the southernmost boundary of the CAOB. The recognition of Late Carboniferous typical adakite magmatism in the region provides evidence for the subduction of the oceanic crust of the CAOB. The Middle-Late Permian magmatisms (266-250 Ma) display a bimodal association with high-K calc-alkaline features and are interpreted as forming in a post-collision setting. These studies, by interaction of regional geology, provide new constraints on the tectonic evolution of the southern CAOB during the Late Paleozoic and the location of the southernmost margin of the CAOB.

  3. Geology, Petrology and Uranium Distribution in Granitic Masses of Wads Faliq El-Sahl and Faliq El-Waar, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Faliq El-Sahl and Faliq El-Waar granitic plutons are located in the north Eastern Desert. The field studies clarified that the younger granites are related to successive magmatic intrusions forming two main granitic masses and pegmatite within both granites. Petrographically, the main rock types of each of the two masses are monzogranites and syenogranites. Pegmatites could be classified into mineralized pegmatites within the syenogranites and non-mineralized pegmatites which are distributed within the monzogranites. The main fault trends cutting through the study area in decreasing order of predominance are NNW- SSE, NW-SE, NE-SW and NNE-SSW. The younger granites are dissected by four major sets of joints, in decreasing order of abundance striking NW-SE, NE-SW, NNW-SSE and ENE-WSW. Geochemically, the studied granites originate from peraluminous subalkaline magma considered as post orogenic within plate granites, intruded in a crust of thickness between 22 km and 30 km; with Rb/Sr ratios range from 0.1 to 1.0 during crystallization of monzogranites but Rb/Sr ratios range from 1.0 to 10.0 during crystallization of syenogranites. The geochemical ratios of the studied younger granites show similarity to a great extent suggesting that these granites represent outcrops of one batholith and originate by magmatic differentiation of the same magma. The syenogranites could be considered as uraniferous granites (U 19-14 ppm, Th 31 -26 ppm) originated from highly fractionated U-rich magma. In monzogranites uranium exist only in zircon, sphene and apatite. Uranium essentially concentrated during the magmatic stage in apatite and zircon. Both meteoric water and hydrothermal solutions allowed to liberate U+6 and to be redepositing along micro fractures supported by increasing uranium content in the secondary hematite and fluorite. Pegmatites show higher U-contents relative to both granite types with presence of uranophane mineral within the syenogranites

  4. Quartz And Zircon as markers of the magmatic-hydrothermal evolution of the Antnio Vicente Granite, Velho Guilherme Intrusive Suite, Carajs Province

    Claudio Nery Lamaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available the Antnio Vicente Granite, Carajs Province, by scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL images. In the lessevolved rocks, containing amphibole and biotite, well developed anhedral to subhedral, luminescent and intensely fractured crystalsdominate, named Qz1. Hydrothermal fluids that percolated the granite modified the magmatic quartz (Qz1 into Qz2 and Qz3 throughprocesses of alteration, dissolution and recrystallization, with these changes much more evident in the intensely altered syenograniterocks. Qz4 constitute medium-to-coarse grained crystals, usually luminescent and comparatively little fractured. Its occurrence is restrictedto strongly hydrotermalized syenogranite rocks and bodies of greisens, suggesting the beginning of the greisenization process.In the greisens, medium-to-coarse grained euhedral, concentrically zoned quartz crystals dominate, with typical features of hydrothermalorigin (Qz5. Fine crystals of zoned cassiterite (? 100 ?m are common and fill cavities in the types Qz4 and Qz5. Zircon crystalsdominantly anhedral, corroded, with the highest contents of Hf and the lower Zr/Hf ratios belong to more evolved and hydrothermallyaltered rocks and to associated greisens, both carriers of Sn mineralization. This fact suggests that the geochemical signature of zircon,especially Zr/Hf ratio, can be used for the preliminary assessment of metallogenic potential of tin granites.

  5. The Encantada Granite: registration of a peraluminous intrusion in the Rondonian Province - San Ignacio, in SW Amazonic Craton, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Brena Verginassi do Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Encantada Granite occurs on the extreme southwest of the state of Mato Grosso, SW of the Amazonian Craton, near the border of Brasil/Bolívia. It corresponds to an body oriented to NNW direction that intruded metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. It consists of leucogranites with monzo- to sienogranitic composition, marked by prominent schistosity. It is characterized by equigranular to porphyritic inequigranular texture, and composed of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, muscovite and biotite with garnet, zircon, allanite and opaque minerals. Chlorite and epidote are the most common secondary minerals. The geochemical study allows the classification of the magmatism as having acid character, sub-alkaline, high-potassium-calc-alkaline to shoshonitic type. These rocks have alumina index saturation higher than 1, with normative corundum, and thus classified as peraluminous granite. Due to the reflection of the excess of aluminium, they have various aluminous phases, mainly muscovite, biotite and garnet; presents typical pattern of calc-alkaline rocks rich in potassium with enrichment of light ETRs over the heavy ones. The collected data allows to consider that the Encantada Granite rocks were generated from the partial melting of crustal rocks of pelitic composition.

  6. Granites petrology, structure, geological setting, and metallogeny

    Nédélec, Anne; Bowden, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Granites are emblematic rocks developed from a magma that crystallized in the Earth’s crust. They ultimately outcrop at the surface worldwide. This book, translated and updated from the original French edition Pétrologie des Granites (2011) is a modern presentation of granitic rocks from magma genesis to their crystallization at a higher level into the crust. Segregation from the source, magma ascent and shapes of granitic intrusions are also discussed, as well as the eventual formation of hybrid rocks by mingling/mixing processes and the thermomechanical aspects in country rocks around granite plutons. Modern techniques for structural studies of granites are detailed extensively. Granites are considered in their geological spatial and temporal frame, in relation with plate tectonics and Earth history from the Archaean eon. A chapter on granite metallogeny explains how elements of economic interest are concentrated during magma crystallization, and examples of Sn, Cu, F and U ore deposits are presented. Mi...

  7. Source-inherited compositional diversity in granite batholiths: The geochemical message of Late Paleozoic intrusive magmatism in central Calabria (southern Italy)

    Fiannacca, Patrizia; Cirrincione, Rosolino; Bonanno, Fiorenza; Carciotto, Manuele Mario

    2015-11-01

    The Serre Batholith, in central Calabria, is a Late Paleozoic granitoid complex that makes up the middle portion, ca. 13 km thick, of a continuous and nearly complete section of the continental crust. The batholith displays a large compositional variety, with granitoid rocks ranging with continuity from quartz diorite to syenogranite, a distinct group of leucotonalites also occur. The granitoids are on the whole magnesian and calcic to calc-alkalic, with only some of the more evolved rocks showing a ferroan calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic composition. Quartz diorites and tonalites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, while granodiorites and granites are weakly to strongly peraluminous, with two-mica porphyritic types being the only population with a genuine strongly peraluminous character. Fe*-number, MALI and ASI features highlight a strong affinity of the Serre Batholith rocks with Cordilleran granitoids, inherited from the compositions of the source rocks rather than reflecting the real tectonic environment of the magmas. Major trace element and existing Sr-Nd data are consistent with an origin of the Serre Batholith from the assembling of several batches of magmas with specific original compositions derived by fluid-absent melting of different crustal sources. Quartz diorites and tonalites originated from a metabasaltic magma source, whereas metagraywackes with various mafic and pelitic contents appear the most likely sources of weakly peraluminous granodiorites and strongly peraluminous granodiorites and granites. Biotite ± amphibole granodiorites could also have been derived from mafic-intermediate metaigneous sources. Two-mica porphyritic leucogranites are the only rock types representing pure crustal melts, resulting from melting of mafic pelitic sources. The other granitoid compositions are too silica-poor and MgO + FeOt rich to represent pure melts, so they need to include other components, such as solid restitic/peritectic material entrained from the magma source. Mantle-derived magmas do not appear to have played a role in the geochemical diversity of the Serre Batholith granitoids; their inherited arc signature resulted from partial melting of crustal material of magmatic arc derivation, such as magnesian igneous rocks and sediments derived from their rapid erosion. This study suggests that post-collisional granitoid magmatism is likely not to be associated with the direct generation of new continental crust; all the granitoid rock types appear to represent recycled and reworked crustal material.

  8. Geochronology of the Schurwedraai Alkali Granite and associated nepheline syenite and implications for the origin of the Vredefort structure

    New Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb whole-rock and mineral age determinations indicate ages close to 2,2 Ga for the Schurwedraai Alkali Granite and associated nepheline syenite from the northwestern part of the collar around the Vredefort dome. The 2,2 Ga age is consistent with existing age data from another intrusion in the rim of the Vredefort structure and represents a significant upward revision of the age previously accepted for the Schurwedraai Granite. As such it removes the important constraint imposed by the synchronicity of the alkali magmatism and the Vredefort event on meteorite impact theories for the origin of the Vredefort structure. The younger overprint at approximately 2050 Ma can be interpreted to reflect either the age of the Vredefort event and associated deformation/alteration of the alkali intrusives or a thermal overprint related to the emplacement of the Bushveld Complex at this time. 48 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  9. El Granito Calasuya: un intrusivo alcalifeldespático postcolisional en el batolito de Sierra Norte-Ambargasta, Córdoba The Calasuya Granite: a postcollisional alkalifeldspar intrusive in the Sierra Norte-Ambargasta batholith, Córdoba province

    Javier Elortegui Palacios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La zona central del extenso batolito Sierra Norte-Ambargasta, en el bloque más oriental de las Sierras Pampeanas orientales, está representada por granitoides de arco magmático tipo I (granodioritas, monzogranitos, pórfidos dacíticos y riolíticos denominados serie La Isla - Cerro de los Burros, intruidos por cuerpos menores félsicos postcolisionales, químicamente más evolucionados (denominados unidades Puesto de Los Caminos y Cerro Baritina, todos pertenecientes al Neoproterozoico- Cámbrico inferior. Nueva información geológica y geoquímica de la región centro-oriental del mismo batolito permitió identificar un plutón de composición alcalifeldespática, denominado Granito Calasuya, el primero de esta naturaleza en el batolito. Su mineralogía distintiva la constituyen la composición albítica de la plagioclasa magmática (An The central-western portion of the extended Sierra Norte-Ambargasta batholith, in the easternmost block of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas, is largely characterized by pre-collisional I-type magmatic arc granitoids (granodiorites, monzogranites, dacite and rhyolite porphyries named La Isla - Cerro de los Burros series, and by smaller sized postcollisional felsic intrusives of higher evolved chemistry (named Puesto de los Caminos and Cerro Baritina units, all of which crystallized along the Late Proterozoic -Lower Cambrian time span. New geological and geochemical data from the central and oriental areas of the batholith allowed to identify an intrusive body of alkalifeldspar composition (the Calasuya granite, the first of its type in the batholith. Its distinctive mineralogy is highlighted by the albitic composition of magmatic plagioclase (molar An < 6 %, the high #Fe (0.97 of accessory biotite, the presence of accessory late magmatic fluorite, and the conspicuous postmagmatic albitization process. Its highly fractionated nature is shown by high SiO2 and low CaO, MgO, TiO2, MnO and Fe2O3(t contents, also evidenced by Rb, Y and Th enrichment, and Sr, Ba and Zr depletion. The total REE content is low, showing asymmetric spider-type diagrams with predominance of LREE over HREE; positive Ce/Ce* anomalies as well as deep negative Eu/Eu* are also remarkable characteristics of this pluton. The Zr+Nb+Ce+Y versus Ga/Al ratio unequivocally displays its I-type highly fractionated signature. According to some field and geochemical patterns, the Calasuya granite gathers similarities with granites of the Puesto de los Caminos unit, which groups highly evolved postcollisional epizonal granitoids. Notwithstanding, despite these evidences, REE patterns and its accessory mineralogy reveal more affinity with the Cerro Baritina unit which is represented by Lower Cambrian syenogranitic aplites, interpreted together with other highly evolved granitoids as indicators of the Pampean orogeny closure.

  10. Syn- and post-tectonic granite plutonism in the Sausar Fold Belt, central India: Age constraints and tectonic implications

    Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Das, Kaushik; Hayasaka, Yasutaka; Sarkar, Arindam

    2015-08-01

    Sausar Fold Belt (SFB) in central India forms the southern part of the Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ) - a crustal scale Proterozoic mobile belt dissecting the Indian craton, whose tectonothermal history and age is important for understanding the Proterozoic crustal history of the Indian craton. SFB comprises a gneissic basement (TBG: Tirodi Biotite Gneiss) overlain by a supracrustal sequence of quartzite-pelite-carbonate (SSG: Sausar Group). SSG and TBG are deformed and metamorphosed in greenschist to amphibolite facies. Two phases of granite intrusion are observed in the SSG - a syntectonic foliated granite and a post-tectonic massive granite, with clear structural relationship with the host rocks. Monazite chemical dating (U-Th-total Pb) of the foliated and massive granites yield Neoproterozoic (ca. 945-928 Ma) ages that contradict many earlier geochronological interpretations. Foliated granites and the immediately adjacent TBG show monazite grains with ca. 945 Ma mean age, interpreted as the timing of D2 deformation and amphibolite facies metamorphism of SSG. The post tectonic granites intruded these rocks around 928 Ma, and were largely undeformed. A terminal thermal overprint is found in some monazite grain rims at ca. 785 Ma age. The younger Sausar tectonothermal events have overprinted the adjacent high-grade granulites of Ramakona-Katangi Granulite (RKG) belt, and should not be considered as parts of the same tectonothermal event representing different depth sections only.

  11. Petrochemistry and Rb-Sr isotopic study of bandal granites, district Kulu, Himachal Pradesh

    Bandal granites which form the subject matter of the present study occur as a concordant body of batholithic size and cover an area of about 500 sq. km. consider these granites to be the result of granitization of arkose and pelitie rocks. Whereas treats them as intrusive into the Banjar Formation, recognized two components i.e. foliated and non-foliated which made the Bandal pluton the latter is intrusive into the former. This gave an isochron age of 1220100 Ma for the foliated granite. This paper presents the results of a petrochemical and Rb-Sr isotopic studies of these granites with a view to understand their petrogenesis

  12. Granites of Gable El-Dob Area and Associated Pegmatites, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geochemistry And Spectrometry

    The late Pan-African El-Dob granites in the Egyptian Central Eastern Desert are small and circular bodies from older and younger granites. The older granitoids are represented by granodiorites and tonalites and they are intruded by the younger gabbros and younger granites with sharp contacts. The younger granites are represented by alkali feldspar granites cropping out in the central part of the studied area forming Gable El-Dob. The older and younger granites are cut by pegmatite and quartz veins. El-Dob granites are peraluminous and I-type granites. The older granites belong to volcanic arc granites (VAG), while the younger granites belong to within plate granites (WPG). Pegmatite veins possess high contents of important elements as Zn, Y and Cu. The El-Dob granites have relatively high uranium and thorium contents. The average equivalent uranium is 19.2 ppm for the older granites and 32.5 ppm for the younger granites, the average eTh is 55.4 ppm with the average eTh/ eU = 3.1 for the older granites and the average eTh is 86 ppm with the average eTh/ eU = 2.8 for the younger granites. These radiometric measurements are higher than the Clark values, i. e uraniferous granites. In pegmatites, the average eU content is 32.5 ppm and the average of eTh content is 86 ppm. Most of the radioactive anomalies are associated with the pegmatites

  13. Maurim intrusive suite: a calc-alkacic batholite zoned of catarinense shield

    The geological survey of the Florianopolis Sheet (SG.22-Z-D-V) identified and characterized a calc-alkacic multi-intrusive and polydiapiric suite that occurs as a granitic batholite roughly concentric in texture and composition. This co-magmatic plutonic sequence is intrusive in the granite-gneissic basement of amphibolite facies, with which it was formerly confounded. The initial magmatic terms, put-in-place at the marginal portions of the batholite, are represented by quartz-diorites and tonalites (Forquilha Tonalites), followed by granodiorites (alto da Varginha Granodiorite), granodiorites to monzonites (Rio das Antas Granite) and completed by an inner portions of porphyritic monzonites (Sao Pedro de Alcantara Granite). The identifications of the compositional zoning that results from the development of the magmatic chamber is based on the examination of 74 rock samples that were analysed for major and minor oxides and trace elements (Ba, F, Li, Mo, Sn, W, Y, Rb, Nb, Zr and Sr). The treatment of these data shows the portions where mantle fractions predominate as well as the others where crustal meltings dominate, what demonstrates an origin by in situ differentiation processes, fractioning and different degrees of magmatic mixing. Geochronologic dating by Rb/Sr, K/Ar and U/Pb methods show isochronic and conventional ages of 600 to 700 m.y. that roughly are in accord with the temporal progress towards the younger felsic phases, putting this suite in the Upper Proterozoic age. The initial Sr sup(87) / Sr sup(86) ratios, around 0.710, point to a crustal origin with variable mantle contribution to these rocks. (author)

  14. Uranium in granites

    Recent research activities of the Canadian Uranium in Granites Study are presented in 18 papers and 3 abstracts. 'Granites' is used as a generic term for granitoids, granitic rocks, and plutonic rocks

  15. Petrographic and mineralogical features of the uraniferous pink granites in the north eastern desert of egypt

    The present work is concerned with the petrological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of some uranium bearing younger granites in the north eastern desert of egypt particularly Gebel Gattar area. The area around Gebel Gattar comprises the following rock units (starting from the oldest): meta volcanic, diorite-grano-diorite complex- Dokhan volcanics- Hammamat sediments, younger granites and dykes. The most significant structural features are represented by NNE-ENE dominantly trending faults and joints. Petrographicaly, the pink granites are divided into normal and mineralized (uraniferous) granites. Normal granites are classified into three types; a) leucocratic perthitic granite, b) hornblende- biotite perthitic granite and c) two feldspars perthitic granite. Mineralized granites are sheared, deformed, pinkish brown in colour and strongly altered. A remarkable secondary uranium mineralization has been recorded along fault and fracture zones

  16. Pórfiro granítico Mojotoro (Salta: ¿Una cúpula intrusiva o un dique en el ciclo pampeano? The Mojotoro granitic porphyry (Salta: An intrusive roaf or a dike in the Pampean Cycle?

    A.J. Toselli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El pórfiro granítico Mojotoro, constituye la cúpula de un plutón epizonal, emplazado en un área geológica bien conocida, de la Formación Puncoviscana, en las inmediaciones de la ciudad de Salta (24º47´44,9"S - 65º21´35,9"W, 1.304 m s.n.m.. Sin bien se carece de determinaciones geocronológicas, los caracteres geológicos regionales y situación estratigráfica de no alcanzar los niveles del Grupo Mesón, sugieren edades pampeanas, correspondientes a la orogenia tilcárica. Los caracteres petrográficos corresponden a pórfiros graníticos, con fenocristales de feldespato potásico, acompañados por cuarzo, plagioclasa y biotita. Las rocas han sufrido intensa sericitización, caolinización y limonitización. Asimismo muestra esferulitas recristalizadas, inclusiones fluidas y fragmentos de granófiro, que indican emplazamiento somero, con rápido intercrecimiento conjunto de cuarzo en una masa de feldespato alcalino hipersolvus. La susceptibilidad magnética es baja con valores de 0,11 x 10-3 SI, típicos para granitos corticales formados a partir de protolitos metasedimentarios.The Mojotoro porphyritic granite is located close to the city of Salta (24°47´44,9"S - 65°21´35,9"W, 1304 m.a.s.l., at Cerro Mojotoro in the Eastern Cordillera. The pluton is emplaced in the Puncoviscana Formation (Late Precambrian-Early Cambrian, a lithological unit composed mainly of greenish pelites. The Puncoviscana Formation is covered unconformably by Cambrian quartzites of the Meson Group. Stratigraphic relationships of the granite indicate a Pampean age and emplacement during the Tilcaric orogenic phase. Petrographically it is a porphyritic granite with K-feldspar phenocrysts accompanied by quartz, plagioclase and biotite. The rock is strongly altered by sericitization, kaolinization, and limonitization. Likewise, the granite exhibits recrystalized spherules, fluid inclusions and granophyric fragments, indicative of shallow emplacement, with fast intergrowth of quartz in a mass of K-feldspar hypersolvus. Low magnetic susceptibility, with values of 0.11x10-3 SI, is typical of cortical granite that was formed from a metasedimentary protolith.

  17. Magmatic constraints on localization of natural stone deposits in the Vehmaa rapakivi granite batholith, southwestern Finland

    Olavi Selonen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The 1580–1570 Ma old Vehmaa rapakivi granite batholith was studied with the aim to define the geological constraints for localization of natural stone deposits in the batholith. The batholith comprises four roughly concentric granite intrusions from the margin inwards: pyterlite, coarse-grained porphyritic rapakivi granite and two types of medium-grained porphyritic rapakivi granite. Also porphyry aplite and even-grained rapakivi granite occur. The batholith has intruded as a succession of pulses of subhorizontal sheet-like intrusions conceivably through repeated cauldron subsidence. Natural stone quarries are confined only to certain intrusions within the batholith. We show that the medium-grained porphyritic granite body in the centre of the batholith comprises two almost identical but different intrusions, with only slightly different appearances: the inner (IG and the outer (OG granite. The quarries are confined to the outer intrusion which has an appearance more attractive to the market than that of the inner intrusion. The localization of the natural stone deposits in the Vehmaa batholith is a result of the magmatic history of the batholith, producing intrusions of different appearances with different commercial potential.

  18. 2005 dossier: granite; Dossier 2005: granite

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - advantage of granitic formations for the geologic disposal; 2 - containers; 3 - design study of a disposal facility in granitic environment; 4 - understanding and modelling of granite; 5 - description of disposal concepts in granitic environment; 6 - long-term and safety aspects; 7 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  19. Tourmaline occurrences within the Penamacor-Monsanto granitic pluton and host-rocks (Central Portugal) : genetic implications of crystal-chemical and isotopic features

    Costa, Isabel Ribeiro da; Mouro, C.; Rcio, C.; Guimares, Fernanda M. G.; Antunes, I. M.; Ramos, Joo Farinha; Barriga, Fernando; Palmer, Martin R.; Milton, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Tourmalinization associated with peraluminous granitic intrusions in metapelitic host-rocks has been widely recorded in the Iberian Peninsula, given the importance of tourmaline as a tracer of granite magma evolution and potential indicator of Sn-W mineralizations. In the Penamacor-Monsanto granite pluton (Central Eastern Portugal, Central Iberian Zone), tourmaline occurs: (1) as accessory phase in two-mica granitic rocks, muscovite-granites and aplites, (2) in quartz (mica)-tour...

  20. Geochronology of granitic rocks from the Ruangwa region, southern Tanzania - Links with NE Mozambique and beyond

    Thomas, Robert J.; Bushi, Alphonce M.; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Jacobs, Joachim

    2014-12-01

    New U-Pb zircon LA-ICP-MS data are presented for 4 granitoid bodies which intrude high grade gneisses of the previously unmapped Ruangwa region in southern Tanzania. The study area forms part of the late Neoproterozoic East African Orogen (EAO). The oldest unit, a coarse-grained migmatitic granitic orthogneiss gave an early Neoproterozoic (Tonian) crystallization age of 899 ± 9/16 Ma, which is similar to, but significantly younger than, Stenian-Tonian basement ages in areas relatively nearby. Crust of this age may extend as far north as the major Phanerozoic Selous Basin, north of which Archaean protolith ages predominate (the "Western Granulites"), except for the juvenile Neoproterozoic "Eastern Granulites", which are not represented in the study area. To the south, the Tonian crust of the study area provides a tentative link with the Marrupa Complex in NE Mozambique. A granite pluton, dated at 650 ± 5/11 Ma is broadly coeval with the main Pan-African tectono-thermal event in the East African Orogen that is recorded across Tanzania north of the Selous Basin. Zircons in this granite contain inherited cores at ca. 770 Ma. This age is within the range of dates obtained from south and west of the study area from juvenile granitoid orthogneisses which might be related to a widespread, but poorly understood, early phase of Gondwana assembly along an Andean-type margin. South of the study area, in NE Mozambique, the latest orogenic events occurred at ca. 550 Ma, and are sometimes attributed to the Ediacaran-aged "Kuunga Orogeny". While metamorphic dates of this age have been recorded from the EAO north of the Selous Basin, magmatic rocks of this event have not been recognized in Tanzania. The two youngest granitoids of the present study are thus the first 500-600 Ma igneous rocks reported from the region. A weakly deformed very coarse-grained granite pluton was dated at 591 ± 4/10 Ma, while a very late, cross-cutting, undeformed granite dyke gave an intrusive age of 549 ± 4/9 Ma. The granitoids ages presented in this study contain elements that are characteristic of the northern, Tanzania-Kenya, segment of the East African Orogen and of the southern, Mozambique, segment. The Tonian orthogneiss sample is typical of (but somewhat younger than) the Marrupa Complex of NE Mozambique. No zircon inheritance was recorded in the sample, typical of the juvenile Marrupa Complex. On the other hand, the ca. 650 Ma granite pluton has an age that is typical of the northern segment of the orogen; this is the first recorded granite of that age intruded into the Tonian-dominated crust of southern Tanzania or NE Mozambique. The two younger granites have provided dates that are typical of the southern segment of the orogen, and that of the Kuunga Orogen. The study area thus appears to represent an area of transitional crust straddling two complex and contrasting segments of the East African Orogen, with elements of both segments present and evidence for a ca. 770 Ma event which appears to be quite widespread and may relate to the early phases of Gondwana amalgamation in southern East Africa.

  1. Petrography and geochemistry of the topaz-bearing granite stocks in Artjrvi and Sskjrvi, western margin of the Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith

    Sari Lukkari

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Artjrvi and Sskjrvi granite stocks at the western margin of the Wiborg rapakivi batholith are multiphase rapakivi granite intrusions in which the most evolved phase is topaz-bearing granite. The Artjrvi stock is composed of porphyritic and even-grained biotite granite and even-grained topaz granite, and the Sskjrvi stock comprises even-grained biotite granite and porphyritic topazgranite. The granites are metaluminous to peraluminous A-type granites, showing within-plate (WPG geochemical characteristics. The topaz granites from the Artjrvi and Sskjrvi stocks are petrographically and geochemically similar to other topaz-bearing rapakivi granites in Finland. The anomalous geochemistry of the topaz granite is essentially magmatic; postmagmatic reactions have only slightly modified its composition. Greisen veins, some of which are mineralized, are widely found associated with the Artjrvi and Sskjrvi stocks.The most characteristic feature of the Artjrvi granite stock is a stockscheider at the roof contact of the topaz granite. The stockscheider is composed of schlieren layering and pegmatite layers parallel to the contact. The most probable mechanism for the formation of the schlieren layering is velocity-gradient sorting parallel to the flow, which led to accumulation of mafic minerals along the upper contact of the topaz granite. Cooling and contraction of the topaz granite formed fractures parallel to the roof contact and the residual pegmatite magmas were injected along the fractures forming pegmatite layers. Textures like graphic intergrowths, aplitic groundmass and fan-shaped alkali feldspar crystals associated with the Artjrvi porphyritic biotite granite and pegmatite indicatecrystallization from undercooled magma. Miarolitic cavities found in the porphyritic biotite granite and topaz granite indicate at least local volatile saturation.

  2. A-type granite and the Red Sea opening

    Coleman, R.G.; DeBari, S.; Peterman, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Miocene-Oligocene A-type granite intrudes the eastern side of the Red Sea margin within the zone of extension from Jiddah, Saudi Arabia south to Yemen. The intrusions developed in the early stages of continental extension as Arabia began to move slowly away from Africa (around 30-20 Ma). Within the narrow zone of extension silicic magmas formed dikes, sills, small plutons and extrusive equivalents. In the Jabal Tirf area of Saudi Arabia these rocks occur in an elongate zone consisting of late Precambrian basement to the east, which is gradually invaded by mafic dikes. The number of dikes increases westward until an igneous complex is produced parallel to the present Red Sea axis. The Jabal Tirf igneous complex consists of diabase and rhyolite-granophyre sills (20-24 Ma). Although these are intrusine intrusive rocks their textures indicate shallow depths of intrusion (granite invaded thick (1500 m) volcanic series, at various levels and times. Erosion within the uplifted margin of Yemen suggests that the maximum depth of intrusion was less than 1-2 km. Granophyric intrusions (20-30 Ma) within mafic dike swarms similar to the Jabal Tirf complex are present along the western edge of the Yemen volcanic plateau, marking a north-south zone of continental extension. The alkali granites of Yemen consist primarily of perthitic feldspar and quartz with some minor alkali amphiboles and acmite. These granites represent water-poor, hypersolvus magmas generated from parent alkali basalt magmas. The granophyric, two-feldspar granites associated with the mafic dike swarms and layered gabbros formed by fractional crystallization from tholeiitic basalt parent developed in the early stages of extension. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of these rocks and their bulk chemistry indicate that production of peralkaline and metaluminous granitic magmas involved both fractio??nation and partial melting as they ascended through the late Precambrian crust of the Arabian plate. ?? 1992.

  3. 2005 dossier: granite

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - advantage of granitic formations for the geologic disposal; 2 - containers; 3 - design study of a disposal facility in granitic environment; 4 - understanding and modelling of granite; 5 - description of disposal concepts in granitic environment; 6 - long-term and safety aspects; 7 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  4. Rapakivi granites and other postorogenic rocks in Finland: their age and the lead isotopic composition of certain associated galena mineralizations

    The ages of the postorogenic rocks of southern Finland have been investigated by utilizing the U-Pb method on zircons. There exists one group of postorgenic intrusions in the Aaland Islands with ages ranging from 1840 to 1800 Ma. The rapakivi granites are younger, the Wiborg massif being 1700-1650, the Aaland massif 1670, the Vehmaa massif 1590 and the Laitila massif 1570 Ma old. In the cases of the Wiborg, Aaland and Laitila massives, younger intrusive phases of 1640 Ma, 1620 Ma and 1540 Ma, respectively, have been met with. The porphyry dikes are in every case of the same age as the main parts of the massifs. Anorthosites spatially associated with the Laitila and Wiborg massifs register a temporal relationship as well. Within the Wiborg massif there seem to have occurred three major magmatic phases: at 1700-1660 Ma, at 1650 Ma and at 1640 Ma. The results of the U-Pb determinations suggest that zircons formed from residual magmatic solutions are liable to produce unusually discordant age patterns. This property is attributed to an abnormally high initial lead content, which may have resulted in an initial distortion of the zircon lattice. The Pb-Pb determinations made from galena occurrences in the rapakivi massifs suggest that they are generated by their host rock. The results also suggest that the radiogeneity of the leads contained in the vein deposits increases as the temperature and the pressure prevailing during ore formation decrease. (author)

  5. Rb-Sr, K-Ar and fission track ages for granites from Penang Island, West Malaysia: an interpretation model for Rb-Sr whole-rock and for actual and experimental mica data

    Kwan, T. S.; Krähenbühl, R.; Jager, E.

    1992-09-01

    Penang Island represents the northwestern extension of the western magmatic belt of Peninsular Malaysia. Thirty-one samples of highly evolved biotite-and biotite-muscovite granites were used in an integrated study to unravel the complex magmatic, tectonic and cooling histories of these rocks. Highly distorted Rb-Sr whole-rock age patterns are evident. These are attributed to the partial post-magmatic Sr homogenization within the granite batholith which led to the rotation of isochrons towards younger ages and higher (87/86)Sr intercepts. The recognition of this mechanism allowed the establishment of a new Rb-Sr interpretation model. The intrusion ages of the granites can be extrapolated based on the evolutionary trend of the initial (87/86)Sr. Including the data of Bignell and Snelling, three episodes of granite emplacement at 307±8 Ma, 251±7 Ma and 211±2 Ma are suggested for Penang and the NW Main Range. The late-Triassic intrusive induced a hydrothermal conductive convection system which affected all the granites. It is considered to be responsible for the Rb-Sr whole-rock age distortion, the Rb-Sr and K-Ar biotite age resetting and the textural and mineralogical changes in the granites. The duration of the hydrothermal convections, deduced from the Rb-Sr whole rock ages, is about 6 Ma and 20 Ma in the northern and southern parts of Penang respectively. Fast regional cooling to 350±50°C within a time span of 1 3 Ma is recognized for the late-Triassic Feringgi intrusive from the mica ages, followed by a generally slow cooling rate of about 1°C/Ma. Fission track ages, in addition, indicate blockwise uplift along the N-S and NW-SE tending faults, thus resulting in the exposure of deeper crustal levels in southern and eastern Penang. A change in the tensional regime since Oligocene/Miocene, accompanied by a southwest tilting of the island, is indicated by the fission track apatite ages. Variable sometimes younger K-Ar, respectively Rb-Sr biotite ages mainly depend on the degree of hydrothermal overprint at different crustal levels. An increase of the reaction surface by grain size reduction influences Rb-Sr and K-Ar mica ages in similar ways, as has been demonstrated by experimental data.

  6. Metallogenic aspects of Itu intrusive suite

    The integrated use of geological, geochemical, geophysical and remote sensing data is providing interesting new information on the metallogenic characteristics of the Itu Intrusive Suite. During World War II, up to 1959, a wolframite deposit was mined near the border of the northernmost body (Itupeva Granite). This deposit is formed by greisen veins associated with cassiterite and topaz, clearly linked with later phases of magmatic differentiation. Generally those veins are related to hydrothermal alteration of the granites and the above mentioned shear zone. U, Th and K determinations by field and laboratory gammaspectrometry were used for regional distribution analysis of those elements and its ratios and calculation of radioactivity heat production. In this aspects, the Itupeva Granite is the hottest and presents several anomalies in the Th/U ratio, indicative of late or post magmatic oxidation processes. (author)

  7. Uranium rich granite and uranium productive granite in south China

    The paper briefly introduces the differences between uranium rich granite and uranium productive granite in the 5 provinces of South China, and discusses their main characteristics in 4 aspects, the uranium productive granite is highly developed in fracture, very strong in alteration, often occurred as two-mica granite and regularly developed with intermediate-basic and acid dikes. The above characteristics distinguish the uranium productive granite from the uranium rich granite. (authors)

  8. Earth's youngest exposed granite and its tectonic implications: the 10-0.8 Ma Kurobegawa Granite.

    Ito, Hisatoshi; Yamada, Ryuji; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji; Horie, Kenji; Hokada, Tomokazu

    2013-01-01

    Although the quest for Earth's oldest rock is of great importance, identifying the youngest exposed pluton on Earth is also of interest. A pluton is a body of intrusive igneous rock that crystallized from slowly cooling magma at depths of several kilometers beneath the surface of the Earth. Therefore, the youngest exposed pluton represents the most recent tectonic uplift and highest exhumation. The youngest exposed pluton reported to date is the Takidani Granodiorite (~ 1.4 Ma) in the Hida Mountain Range of central Japan. Using LA-ICP-MS and SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating methods, this study demonstrates that the Kurobegawa Granite, also situated in the Hida Mountain Range, is as young as ~ 0.8 Ma. In addition, data indicate multiple intrusion episodes in this pluton since 10 Ma with a ~ 2-million-year period of quiescence; hence, a future intrusion event is likely within 1 million years. PMID:23419636

  9. Hydrothermal alteration of Hercynian granites, its significance to the evolution of geothermal systems in granitic rocks

    Marques, Jose M.; Matias, Maria J.; Basto, Maria J.; Aires-Barros, Luis A. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Carreira, Paula M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional n 10, 2686 - 953 Sacavem (Portugal); Goff, Fraser E. [Earth and Planetary Sciences Department, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    We discuss geochemical and isotopic ({sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) data recording the hydrothermal alteration of northern Portuguese Hercynian granites by Na-HCO{sub 3}-CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters. Whole-rock samples from drill cores of Vilarelho da Raia granite have {delta}{sup 18}O values in the +11.47 to +10.10 permille range. The lower values correspond to highly fractured granite samples displaying vein and pervasive alteration. In the pervasive alteration stage, which probably results from a convective hydrothermal system set up by the intrusion of the granites, the metamorphic waters are in equilibrium with hydrous minerals. In contrast, the vein alteration of these granitic rocks was caused by water of meteoric origin. The oxygen ratios between water (W) and rock (R), the so-called W/R ratios, obtained for the open system (where the heated water is lost from the system by escape to the surface) range between 0.05 and 0.11, suggesting that the recrystallization of the veins was influenced by a small flux of meteoric water. Stable isotope analyses performed on the cores show that the vein alteration stage relates to post-emplacement tectonic stresses acting on the granite, probably of late Hercynian age. Our results are consistent with the existence of two separate alteration events (pervasive and vein) caused by hydrothermal waters of different isotopic characteristics. The studies presented in this paper should be viewed as a natural analogue that uses the alteration features observed in a fossil geothermal system at Vilarelho da Raia to assess possible water-rock reactions presently occurring at depth in granitic rocks of the nearby Chaves area. (author)

  10. Tectonic imprints within a granite exposed near Srinagar, Rajasthan, India

    Trishit Ruj; Nilanjan Dasgupta

    2014-08-01

    Partial melting in the middle to lower crustal level produces melts of granitic composition during orogeny. Thrusts play a vital role in their exhumation after consolidation of these granitic melts. In this paper we focus on one such granite along the eastern margin of the Delhi Fold Belt (DFB) rocks near Srinagar, Rajasthan, India. This is the first report of granite within the area and holds a key stratigraphic position in the entire rock package. The said granite is found to be intrusive to the DFB metasediments as well as their basement popularly known as the Banded Gneissic Complex (BGC). We disentangle the deformation fabrics seen within the granite and associated DFB metasediments, suggesting that subsequent to emplacement and consolidation, the granite has co-folded along with the country rocks. Three deformational events could be identified within the DFB metasediments namely, D1D, D2D and D3D. The peak metamorphism was achieved in the D1D event. The granite magma is generated and emplaced late syn-kinematic to D1D and thereafter is deformed by D2D and D3D producing D1G and D2G structural fabrics. These compressive deformations resulted in the collapse of the basin; the combined package of DFB rocks and the granite was thrusted eastwards over the basement rocks. The tectonic transport direction during thrusting is suggested eastwards from our structural analysis. Transverse faults developed perpendicular to the length of the granite have led to partitioning of the strain thereby showing a heterogeneity in the development of fabric within it.

  11. The GRANIT spectrometer; Le spectrometre GRANIT

    Baessler, St. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Beau, M.; Kreuz, M.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V. [ILL, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, Grenoble, F-3804(France); Kurlov, V.N. [ISSP, 2 Institutskaia, Chernogolovka, RU-142432 (Russian Federation); Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Vezzu, F. [LPSC/IN2P3-UJF-INPG, 53 rue des Martyrs, Grenoble, F-38026 (France); Voronin, A.Y. [Lebedev Institute, 53 Leninskii pr., Moscow, RU-119991 (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-15

    The existence of quantum states of matter in a gravitational field was demonstrated recently in the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, in a series of experiments with ultra cold neutrons (UCN). UCN in low quantum states is an excellent probe for fundamental physics, in particular for constraining extra short-range forces; as well as a tool in quantum optics and surface physics. The GRANIT is a follow-up project based on a second-generation spectrometer with ultra-high energy resolution, permanently installed in ILL. It will become operational in 2011. The spectrometer consists of several neutron-optics elements and UCN detectors installed on a massive granite table in an aluminium vacuum chamber with a volume of about 1.5 m{sup 3}. 3 types of detectors will be used at the first stage of the GRANIT experiment: {sup 3}He gaseous proportional counters with extremely low background, position-sensitive nuclear-track UCN detectors will be used to study the spatial distribution in quantum states, and real-time position-sensitive detectors with a resolution of a few hundred microns to measure velocity distributions of neutrons in quantum states. The key elements of the GRANIT spectrometer is a set of mirrors to shape/analyze neutron spectra and to store neutrons in quantum states

  12. Zircon U-Pb age and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope geochemistry of the Panzhihua A-type syenitic intrusion in the Emeishan large igneous province, southwest China and implications for growth of juvenile crust

    Zhong, Hong; Zhu, Wei-Guang; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Xie, Lie-Wen; He, De-Feng; Liu, Feng; Chu, Zhu-Yin

    2009-06-01

    The late Permian Panzhihua syenitic stock in the Pan-Xi area, SW China, showing the typical association of mantle-derived mafic and alkaline rocks along with silicic units, is genetically related to the upwelling Emeishan plume head. This syenitic intrusion consists mainly of metaluminous syenite, metaluminous to peralkaline quartz syenite with subordinate syenite porphyry and alkali-feldspar granite. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon analysis reveal that the Panzhihua syenitic pluton was emplaced at 253.1 ± 1.9 Ma, and is slightly younger than the crystallization age of the spatially associated gabbroic intrusion. These syenitic and granitic rocks have a distinctive A-type chemistry characterized by elevated high-field-strength elements (HFSE) contents and high Ga/Al ratios (3.95 to 6.79). Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios of the syenitic and granitic rocks, gabbros and syenodiorites are similar to those typical of oceanic island basalt (OIB). These granitoids all have relatively low initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (0.7037-0.7058), positive ɛNd( t) values (+ 2.4 to + 3.5). The magmatic zircons from the syenites exhibit positive ɛHf( t) values between 5.9 and 10.4, which correspond to single-stage depleted mantle Hf model ages ( TDM1) of 494 to 671 Ma. In contrast, the magmatic zircons from the syenite porphyries are characterized by positive ɛHf( t) values of 11.4 to 12.9 with younger TDM1 model ages of 382 to 449 Ma than those of the syenites. The positive ɛNd( t) and ɛHf( t) values of the Panzhihua syenitic intrusion indicate a significant contribution of plume-derived basaltic underplating to magma genesis. The similarity of the Nd isotopic compositions of the syenitic and granitic rocks, gabbros and syenodiorites suggests that their parental magmas were derived from a common reservoir. We propose that the Panzhihua syenitic intrusion was predominantly generated by the emplacement of two distinct syenitic melts from differentiation of newly underplated, mildly alkaline basaltic magmas ponded at depth, with incorporation of little Neoproterozoic lower crustal melts, and subsequent fractional crystallization of individual melts. It is therefore demonstrated that the growth of juvenile crust through mantle-derived underplating during the late Permian was significant in the inner zone of the Emeishan large igneous province.

  13. Petrology and geochemistry of the Los Cuartos granite, Tafi del Valle, Tucuman, northwest of Argentina: its integration to the regional magmatic layout

    Los Cuartos Granite crops out on the western flank of the Cumbres Calchaquies, east of Tafi del Valle, Tucuman Province, Argentina. It has a granitic to granodioritic composition, of two micas, being biotite dominant. The granite is medium grained and inequigranular, with rare K-feldspar megacrysts. It contains host-rock xenoliths with different degrees of assimilation. The granite intrusion produced contact metamorphism in the surrounding basement, with development of andalucite porphyroblasts and poikiloblastic biotite. The granite is calk-alkaline and peraluminous, and is K- and P-rich and Ca- and Napoor compared to other granitoids of the region. The pluton shows late-tectonic features with regard to the regional deformation. The granite possibly intruded during the Ordovician (Famatinian Cycle) and its emplacement was structurally controlled by the Tafi Megafracture. Los Cuartos Granite and other intrusive bodies of the region share similar petrographical, geochemical, structural and geochronological characteristics. (Author).

  14. Orthodontic intrusion : Conventional and mini-implant assisted intrusion mechanics

    Anup Belludi

    2012-01-01

    intrusion has revolutionized orthodontic anchorage and biomechanics by making anchorage perfectly stable. This article addresses various conventional clinical intrusion mechanics and especially intrusion using mini-implants that have proven effective over the years for intrusion of maxillary anteriors.

  15. Geochemical characteristics of the Cadalso-Casillas de Flores Complex (Sierra de Gata). A late Hercynian peraluminous high phosphorus granite

    Hassan Mohamud, A.; Pérez del Villar, L.; Pellicer Bautista, María José

    1997-01-01

    The Cadalso-Casillas de Flores granitic complex is a peraluminous, phosphorus rich, late-hercynian epizonal granite. It is composed of six major units representing two different intrusions, where four of the units belong to the first intrusion. Concentrations of MgO, AI2Oy CaO, TiO}, Fe203t, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, REE and Th decrease with the evolution in the units of the first intrusion. Nevertheless, in the second, there is no observable evolutionary trend and only Rb, Nb and LREE dearly increase f...

  16. Chemical characteristics of zircon from A-type granites and comparison to zircon of S-type granites

    Breiter, Karel; Lamarão, Claudio Nery; Borges, Régis Munhoz Krás; Dall'Agnol, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    The trace element content in zircons from A-type granites and rhyolites was investigated by using back-scattered electron images and electron microprobe analyses. The studied Proterozoic (Wiborg batholith, Finland and Pará, Amazonas and Goiás states, Brazil) and Variscan (Krušné Hory/Erzgebirge, Czech Republic and Germany) plutons cover a wide range of rocks, from large rapakivi-textured geochemically primitive plutons to small intrusions of F-, Li-, Sn-, Nb-, Ta-, and U-enriched rare-metal granites. While zircon is one of the first crystallized minerals in less fractionated metaluminous and peraluminous granites, it is a late-crystallized phase in peralkaline granites and in evolved granites that may crystallize during the whole process of magma solidification. The early crystals are included in mica, quartz, and feldspar; the late grains are included in fluorite or cryolite or are interstitial. The zircon in hornblende-biotite and biotite granites from the non-mineralized plutons is poor in minor and trace elements; the zircon in moderately fractionated granite varieties is slightly enriched in Hf, Th, U, Y, and HREEs; whereas the zircon in highly fractionated ore-bearing granites may be strongly enriched in Hf (up to 10 wt.% HfO2), Th (up to 10 wt.% ThO2), U (up to 10 wt.% UO2), Y (up to 12 wt.% Y2O3), Sc (up to 3 wt.% Sc2O3), Nb (up to 5 wt.% Nb2O5), Ta (up to 1 wt.% Ta2O5), W (up to 3 wt.% WO3), F (up to 2.5 wt.% F), P (up to 11 wt.% P2O5), and As (up to 1 wt.% As2O5). Metamictized zircons may also be enriched in Bi, Ca, Fe, and Al. The increase in the Hf content coupled with the decrease in the Zr/Hf value in zircon is one of the most reliable indicators of granitic magma evolution. In the zircon of A-type granites, the Zr/Hf value decreases from 41-67 (porphyritic granite) to 16-19 (equigranular granite) in the Kymi stock, Finland, and from 49-52 (biotite granite) to 18-36 (leucogranite) in the Pedra Branca pluton, Brazil. In the in situ strongly fractionated Cínovec cupola (Erzgebirge), the Zr/Hf value decreases from 33-51 in the protolithionite granite at a depth of 1255 m to 7.5-25 in the zinnwaldite granite at a depth of 40 m. At the scale of individual crystals, the Zr/Hf value decreases from 86 to 68 from the cores to the rims of the zircons from the Teplice rhyolite and from 64 to 33 in the zircons from the biotite granite at Krupka, Erzgebirge. The contents of Hf and U in zircon are dependent mainly on the degree of granite fractionation and the nature and volume of the volatile phases and are independent of the A- or S-character of the parental melt. The zircon Zr/Hf ratios 55 and 25 are proposed to approximately distinguish common, moderately evolved and highly evolved granites. Zircons from the moderately and highly evolved granites of A- and S-type can be discriminated on the basis of their HREE content and the U/Th ratios. Nb, Ta, and W are present in zircon from the highly evolved granites from all studied areas, while high As, Bi, and Sc contents are typical only for the Erzgebirge.

  17. Geochemical geochronology and genesis of granite from Coronel Murta, Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Geological, petrographic, geochemical (including rare-earth elements) and geochronological data of the Coronel Murta (Northeast Minas Gerais State) post-tectonic intrusive alkalic granites were summarized in order to discuss their genesis. This paper shows that Coronel Murta granites were generated by anatexis of dominantly metasedimentary rocks, in an ensialic environment, as the late results of an intraplate A-type subduction during the Brazilian Cycle. (author)

  18. Geochronology and thermobarometry of the granitoid rocks within the Vaasa granite-migmatite complex, western Finland

    Kurhila, Matti; Kotilainen, Anna; Tiljander, Mia; Hltt, Pentti; Korja, Annakaisa

    2015-04-01

    The Vaasa granite-migmatite dome in west-central Finland has been formed in the Svecofennian orogeny, after the main collisional stage at ~1.9 Ga. The structure consists of a granite-migmatite core surrounded by metasedimentary rocks with outward decreasing metamorphic grade. The core comprises anatectic garnet-bearing granites, diatexites, pyroxene granites, and minor intrusive granodiorites. Geochemically, all of the rocks are peraluminous and magnesian. The Vaasa granites have close to average upper crustal compositions, and they show signs of titanite and plagioclase fractionation. The heavy REEs vary strongly according to garnet retention. Zircon U-Pb ages for these rock types indicate crystallization at 1875 Ma for the diatexites and garnet-bearing granites and at 1870 Ma for the pyroxene granites. Melt-forming temperatures are estimated by zircon and monazite saturation temperatures, and by Al/Ti ratios. No clear difference in the melting temperatures of the various rock types could be detected. However, while the monazite and zircon saturation temperatures point to temperatures around 800 C, the Al-Ti thermometer gives consistently about 100 C degrees higher results. Given the anatectic and felsic nature of the rocks, the lower temperature estimates seem more probable. Crystallization temperatures and pressures were calculated with the help of mineral chemical analyses. Garnet-biotite-plagioclase-quartz thermobarometry, and Al-in-hornblende barometry indicate pressures of 5.5-6 kbars for the diatexites, the pyroxene granites and an intrusive granodiorite. Significantly lower pressures of 2-4 kbars are recorded for the garnet-bearing granites. The garnet-biotite thermometer implies crystallization temperatures between 650 - 700 C for the pyroxene granites and the diatexites, and upto 600 C for the garnet-bearing granites. These results are markedly lower than those indicated by the whole-rock saturation temperatures of the same rocks. This may suggest that the melting has been non-saturated or that the post-crystallization leaching has affected the mineral compositions.

  19. Research on metallogenic specialization and metallogenic prognosis of granite in Nanling region: a case study of hydrothermal uranium deposit and hydrothermal tungsten-tin deposit

    According to the principles of remote sensing information model and stepwise discriminant analysis, the metallogenic specialization discrimnant model of the intrusions rich in uranium and tungsten-tin was established, based on the data of 339 granite samples which consist of 99 granite samples rich in uranium, 89 granite samples rich in tungsten-tin and 151 granite under estimation in Nanling region. F test results showed that this model was applicable and highly significant for the intrusion estimation. The model was used to judge the uranium bearing or tungsten-tin bearing potential of the under estimated intrusions, and supplied a evidence for the further estimation of metallogenic intrusions. The built model has objectivity and operability, implements the quantitative evaluation for metallogenic specialization, and should play an important role on metallogenic specialization researches. (authors)

  20. Heater test 1, Climax Stock granite, Nevada

    We conducted a series of in-situ tests in the Climax Stock, an intrusive granite formation at the Nevada Test Site, to validate the concept of housing a nuclear waste repository in granitic crystalline rock. The thermal properties of the granite were measured with resistance heaters and thermocouple frames that had been emplaced in drilled holes in the floor of a drift 420 m below the surface. Data analysis was performed primarily by comparing the measured and calculated temperature histories, varying conductivity and diffusivity in the calculations until reasonable agreement was achieved. The best-fit value for in-situ conductivity was approximately 3.1 W/m x K, and the deduced value for in-situ diffusivity was approximately 1.2 mm2/s. Anisotropic effects in the thermal field were less than 10%. Permeability was determined by sealing off portions of the drilled holes, using inflatable rubber packers and an air-pressurization system. We then compared the resulting decay in pressure with analytic solutions of the pressure loss from a cylindrical source in an infinite isotropic medium, obtaining a permeability of approximately 1 nanodarcy (nD) at about 300C. As the temperature increased, the permeability decreased to about 0.2 nD at about 500C and became too small to measure (<0.02 nD) at higher temperatures. These tests provided new data on the in-situ properties of a granite typical of the Basin and Range province and significantly advanced our understanding of and ability to perform in-situ thermal and permeability measurements. This knowledge will be of considerable value for future spent-fuel tests

  1. Tectono-magmatic evolution of the younger Gardar southern rift, South Greenland

    Brian G.J. Upton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The 1300–1140 Ma Gardar period in South Greenland involved continental rifting, sedimentation and alkaline magmatism. The latest magmatism was located along two parallel rift zones, Isortoq–Nunarsuit in the north and the Tuttutooq–Ilimmaasaq–Narsarsuaq zone in the south addressed here. The intrusive rocks crystallised at a depth of <4 km and are essentially undisturbed by later events. Magmatism in the southern zone began with the emplacement of two giant, ≤800 m wide dykes and involved intrusion of transitional olivine basaltic, high Al/Ca magmas crystallising to troctolitic gabbros. These relatively reduced magmas evolved through marked iron enrichment to alkaline salic differentiates. In the Older giant dyke complex, undersaturated augite syenites grade into sodalite foyaite. The larger, c. 1163 Ma Younger giant dyke complex (YGDC mainly consists of structureless troctolite with localised developments of layered cumulates. A layered pluton (Klokkenis considered to be coeval and presumably comagmatic with the YGDC. At the unconformitybetween the Ketilidian basement and Gardar rift deposits, the YGDC expanded into a gabbroic lopolith. Its magma may represent a sample from a great, underplated mafic magma reservoir, parental to all the salic alkaline rocks in the southern rift. The bulk of these are silica undersaturated; oversaturated differentiates are probably products of combined fractional crystallisation and crustalassimilation.A major dyke swarm 1–15 km broad was intruded during declining crustal extension, with decreasing dyke widths and increasing differentiation over time. Intersection of the dyke swarm and E–W-trending sinistral faults controlled the emplacement of at least three central complexes (Narssaq, South Qôroq and early Igdlerfigssalik. Three post-extensional complexes (Tugtutôq,Ilímaussaq and late Igdlerfigssalik along the former rift mark the end of magmatism at c. 1140 Ma. The latter two complexes have oblate plans reflecting ductile, fault-related strain. The Tugtutôqcomplex comprises quartz syenites and alkali granites. The Ilímaussaq complex mainly consists of nepheline syenite crystallised from highly reduced, Fe-rich phonolitic peralkaline (agpaitic magma,and resulted in rocks with very high incompatible element concentrations.Abundant anorthositic xenoliths in the mafic and intermediate intrusions point to a large anorthosite protolith at depth which is considered of critical importance in the petrogenesis of the salicrocks. Small intrusions of aillikite and carbonatite may represent remobilised mantle metasomites. The petrological similarity between Older and Younger Gardar suites implies strong lithospheric control of their petrogenesis. The parental magmas are inferred to have been derived from restitic Ketilidian lithospheric mantle, metasomatised by melts from subducting Ketilidian oceanic crust and by small-scale melt fractions associated with Gardar rifting.There are numerous analogies between the southern Gardar rift and the Palaeogene East Africanrift.

  2. Interior intrusion detection systems

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs

  3. The GRANIT spectrometer

    The existence of quantum states of matter in a gravitational field was demonstrated recently in the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, in a series of experiments with ultra cold neutrons (UCN). UCN in low quantum states is an excellent probe for fundamental physics, in particular for constraining extra short-range forces; as well as a tool in quantum optics and surface physics. The GRANIT is a follow-up project based on a second-generation spectrometer with ultra-high energy resolution, permanently installed in ILL. It will become operational in 2011. The spectrometer consists of several neutron-optics elements and UCN detectors installed on a massive granite table in an aluminium vacuum chamber with a volume of about 1.5 m3. 3 types of detectors will be used at the first stage of the GRANIT experiment: 3He gaseous proportional counters with extremely low background, position-sensitive nuclear-track UCN detectors will be used to study the spatial distribution in quantum states, and real-time position-sensitive detectors with a resolution of a few hundred microns to measure velocity distributions of neutrons in quantum states. The key elements of the GRANIT spectrometer is a set of mirrors to shape/analyze neutron spectra and to store neutrons in quantum states

  4. Intrusion detection sensors

    Intrusion detection sensors are an integral part of most physical security systems. Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Safeguards and Security, Sandia Laboratories has conducted a survey of available intrusion detection sensors and has tested a number of different sensors. An overview of these sensors is provided. This overview includes (1) the operating principles of each type of sensor, (2) unique sensor characteristics, (3) desired sensor improvements which must be considered in planning an intrusion detection system, and (4) the site characteristics which affect the performance of both exterior and interior sensors. Techniques which have been developed to evaluate various intrusion detection sensors are also discussed

  5. Greisen deposits associated to carboniferous post-orogenic granites with mineralization potential, Sierra de Fiambala, Catamarca, Argentina

    The Fiambala range is located in the central south part of the province of Catamarca, Western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina. It is largely conformed by Precambrian metamorphic rocks, a Cambrian granitic intrusive, Ordovician basic and ultra basic rocks and epi zonal Carboniferous granites (Los Ratones, El Salto and Ayacucho Granites). The Carboniferous granites are sub alkaline, weakly peraluminous, high silica (except for the porphyritic facies of Los Ratones granite) and moderately enriched in K. Contents of trace elements and REE indicate that El S alto and Ayacucho granites and the granular facies of Los Ratones granite have characteristics of evolved and differentiated granite associated with hydrothermal systems. The variations of trace elements, particularly Sn, W, U, Rb, Ba, Zr and Sr suggest that they correspond to granites with mineralization potential. Genetically linked to these granites there are Sn, W, U and minor base metals greisen deposits. The hydrothermal process that yield to these deposits involved two main alteration stages, beginning with alkali metasomatism follow by greissenization. According to the isotopic ages the hydrothermal processes postdate about 1 Ma the magmatic activity. The analyses of the granites and the associated greisen deposits confirm that the post orogenic carboniferous magmatism is the major metallogenetic control of the ore deposits from the studied area. This metallogenetic control could be a useful tool in prospecting similar deposits in the rest of the Western Sierras Pampeanas. (Author)

  6. Late-magmatic to hydrothermal processes in the Ilímaussaq intrusion, South Greenland

    Graser, Gesa

    2008-01-01

    The 1.16 Ga old, persodic Ilímaussaq intrusion in South Greenland solidified at a depth of about 3 to 4 km, between the granitic basement and the sandstones and pillow-bearing basalts of the Eriksfjord Formation. The intrusion consists of alkali granite, syenites, and agpaitic nepheline syenites, which are cut by late-magmatic veins. This thesis deals with late-magmatic to hydrothermal processes in the Ilímaussaq complex and focuses on the fluid phase. The late-stage fluids are of major inter...

  7. The assessment of human intrusion into underground repositories for radioactive waste Volume 1: Main report

    This report has been prepared with the primary objective of establishing a methodology for the assessment of human intrusion into deep underground repositories for radioactive wastes. The disposal concepts considered are those studied in the performance assessment studies Pagis and Pacoma, coordinated by the CEC. These comprise four types of host rock, namely: clay, granite, salt and the sub-seabed. Following a review of previous assessments of human intrusion, a list of relevant human activities is derived. This forms the basis for detailed characterization of groundwater abstraction and of exploitation of mineral and other resources. Approaches to assessment of intrusion are reviewed and consideration is given to the estimation of probabilities for specific types of intrusion events. Calculational schemes are derived for specific intrusion events and dosimetric factors are presented. A review is also presented of the capacity for reduction of the risks associated with intrusions. Finally, conclusions from the study are presented

  8. The assessment of human intrusion into underground repositories for radioactive waste Volume 2: Appendices

    This report has been prepared with the primary objective of establishing a methodology for the assessment of human intrusion into deep underground repositories for radioactive wastes. The disposal concepts considered are those studied in the performance assessment studies Pagis and Pacoma, coordinated by the CEC. These comprise four types of host rock, namely: clay, granite, salt and the sub-seabed. Following a review of previous assessments of human intrusion, a list of relevant human activities is derived. This forms the basis for detailed characterization of groundwater abstraction and of exploitation of mineral and other resources. Approaches to assessment of intrusion are reviewed and consideration is given to the estimation of probabilities for specific types of intrusion events. Calculational schemes are derived for specific intrusion events and dosimetric factors are presented. A review is also presented of the capacity for reduction of the risks associated with intrusions. Finally, conclusions from the study are presented

  9. Caracterizacin geoqumica del granito El Durazno, extremo norte de la sierra de Velasco, La Rioja / Geochemical characterization of El Durazno granite, Northern Sierrra de Velasco, La Rioja

    Miguel A, Bez; Ana S, Fogliata; Steffen, Hagemann; Fernando G, Sardi.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El rea de estudio se ubica en el norte de la sierra de Velasco, en la provincia de La Rioja. Est compuesta principalmente por rocas granticas que cristalizaron durante dos eventos magmticos principales en el Ordovcico y el Carbonfero. Los granitos ms antiguos presentan diferentes grados de de [...] formacin y los ms jvenes no estn deformados. Los granitos datados como carbonferos hasta el presente en este sector son Asha y San Blas. Este ltimo presenta una zona central ms evolucionada qumicamente, asociado a mineralizaciones de Sn. El granito El Durazno aflora al sureste del granito San Blas, no est deformado e intruye al ortogneis Antinaco, compuesto por rocas deformadas del Ordovcico. Es un granito postorognico, peraluminoso y fuertemente diferenciado, con contenidos de Na2O>K2O. Presenta altos contenidos en Rb, Li, W, Cs, Nb y Ta y bajos en Ba, Sr, Y, Zr y Ce. El ndice de caracterizacin geoqumica (GCI) para granitos asociados a mineralizaciones de W da valores positivos mayores que 4. Las tierras raras presentan contenidos totales bajos, entre 5,3 y 15,3 ppm, anomala negativa de Eu y efecto tetrada convexo. En el borde norte del granito El Durazno existen vetas de cuarzo con wolframita y hematita distribuidas irregularmente que intruyen al ortogneis Antinaco. Tienen rumbo aproximado N-S y una corrida irregular. La ausencia de deformacin, relaciones de campo y caractersticas geoqumicas indican que el granito El Durazno es un intrusivo muy diferenciado asociado a mineralizacin de W y de posible edad carbonfera. Abstract in english The studied area is located in the north of the sierra de Velasco, La Rioja province. It is mainly composed of granitic rocks that crystallized during two main magmatic events in the Ordovician and Carboniferous. The older granites have different types of deformation whereas the younger granites are [...] not deformed. Two Carboniferous granites have been dated in this area: Asha and San Blas. The latter has a chemically evolved central zone related to Sn mineralization. The El Durazno undeformed granite outcrops southeast of the San Blas granite, and intrudes into the deformed Ordovician Antinaco orthogneiss. It is a postorogenic, peraluminous and strongly differentiated granite, with contents of Na2O>K2O. It has high values of Rb, Li, W, Cs, Nb and Ta, and low values of Ba, Sr, Y, Zr and Ce. The geochemical characterization index (GCI) for W-bearing differentiated granites is positive with values greater than 4. The REE show low total contents, between 5,3 and 15,3 ppm, negative Eu anomalies and a convex tetrad effect. At the northern border of the El Durazno granite, quartz veins with irregularly distributed wolframite and hematite cross-cut the Antinaco orthogneiss. The veins have irregular north-south strike. The absence of deformation, field relations and geochemical characteristics indicate that the El Durazno granite is a highly differentiated intrusive associated with W mineralization and of possible Carboniferous age.

  10. Fabric transpositions in granite plutons - an insight from non-scaled analogue modelling

    Kratinová, Zuzana; Machek, Matěj; Kusbach, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 1 (2010), s. 267-277. ISSN 0016-7622 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300120702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : analogue modelling * magmatic fabrics * granite intrusions * rheology * AMS Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.396, year: 2010

  11. The Fanos granite: structure, emplacement and geodynamic significance (Eastern Axios/Vardar Zone, Northern Greece)

    Michail, Maria; Kilias, Adamantios; Koroneos, Antonios; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Pipera, Kyriaki

    2014-05-01

    The Fanos granite occurs in the Peonia Subzone of the Eastern Axios-Vardar Zone in Northern Greece. It is a Late Jurassic (1581 Ma), N-S trending granite, intruding the Mesozoic back-arc Geuvgeuli ophiolitic complex (Peonia Subzone). It is composed of three main rock types namely aplitic granite, granite and microgranite evolved by fractional crystallization. At the eastern contact of the Fanos granite with the host ophiolitic rocks the initial intrusion character of the granitic bodies is well preserved. On the other hand, the western contact is overprinted by a few meters thick, westward-vergent semiductile thrust zone, probably of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous age. For the better understanding of the geotectonic evolution of the broader area, the Fanos granite is compared with the Mid-Late Jurassic Kastaneri volcano-sedimentary formation allocated on the eastern part of the Paikon Massif, on which the Guevgeuli ophiolites were obducted. In our study we address three major topics: a) the origin of the Fanos granite, b) the geochemical correlation between Fanos granite and Kastaneri formation and c) the relationship of the granite with the remnants of an oceanic island-arc or an active continental margin geotectonic setting situated in the Neotethys (=Axios/Vardar ocean). The collected rock samples are granites, aplitic granites, microgranites, rhyolites, quartz diorites, migmatites and amphibolites. These samples were analysed by X-ray fluorence for major and trace elements. The granite shows peraluminous characteristics, high-K calc-alkaline affinities and I-type features. The Sr initial isotopic ratios of the granite range between 0.70519 and 0.70559, while the Nd initial isotopic ratios range between 0.51236 and 0.51239, reflecting EM-I (Enriched Mantle-I) component. The trace element patterns along with the isotopic composition of the rocks indicate absence of continental crustal material contamination. Moreover, the geochemical data imply a common origin between the Fanos granite and the Kastaneri formation. Taking into account our structural and geochemical data along with the existing isotopic and geotectonic data of the broader Axios/Vardar Zone, we suggest that the studied granitic rocks were formed during an intraoceanic-subduction within the Neotethys ocean, approximately at the same time with the amphibolite sole formation, rather than during the evolution of an active continental margin. In the Late Jurassic, a general westward ophiolite obduction on the Pelagonian continental margin, resulted to the thrusting of the Fanos granite together with the obducted ophiolites.

  12. The Sao Jose do Rio Pardo mangeritic-granitic suite, south eastern Brazil

    In the Sao Jose do Rio Pardo region, Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais States, occur some intrusive, folded tabular bodies of mangerites associated with hornblende granitoids. The country rocks correspond to a complex association of gneisses and migmatites, locally with granulite facies assemblages. Both the magnerites and hornblende granitoids present a tectonic foliation with mineral flattening and stretching. Petrographically the mangeritic rocks are mainly dark green quartz mangerites with mesoperthite, plagioclase, quartz, hypersthene, clinopyroxene and variable amounts of hornblende, with zircon as conspicuous acessory. The pink hornblende granitoids are mainly granite s.s. exhibiting higher quartz and amphibole contents and lacking pyroxenes. Hololeucocratic alkali feldspar granites are locally associated to the hornblende granites. The textures of the mangerites and granites almost always show an important metamorphic overprinting, with relictic mesoperthite and pyroxene crystal into a granoblastic matrix. The magneritic-granitic suite is characterized by relatively high Fe/(Fe + Mg), K and HFS elements and low Ca contents, being comparable to typical anorogenic magneritic-granitic suites from Svcandinavia and North America. The Rb/Sr data indicate a Late Proterozoic metamorphic isotopic rehomogenization (930 Ma, Ro = 0.706). Geological evidence suggest that the intrusive age could be Middle Proterozoic, wich is reinforced by another Rb-Sr value of about 1300 Ma. (author)

  13. Geochemistry and Geochronology U-Pb SHRIMP of granites from Peixoto de Azevedo: Alta Floresta Gold Province; Geoquimica e geocronologia U-Pb (SHRIMP) de granitos da regiao de Peixoto de Azevedo: Provincia Aurifera Alta Floresta, MT

    Silva, Fernanda Rodrigues da; Barros, Marcia Aparecida Sant' Ana; Pierosan, Ronaldo; Pinho, Francisco Edigio Cavalcante; Tavares, Carla; Rocha, Jhonattan, E-mail: geologia.fernanda@gmail.com, E-mail: mapabarros@yahoo.com, E-mail: ronaldo.pierosan@gmail.com.br, E-mail: aguapei@yahoo.com, E-mail: carlageologia@hotmail.com, E-mail: geologojrocha@live.com [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Rocha, Mara Luiza Barros Pita; Vasconcelos, Bruno Rodrigo; Dezula, Samantha Evelyn Max, E-mail: marapita1@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: brunovasc@gmail.com, E-mail: samanthadezula@gmail.com [Universidade de Brasilia (UNB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geologia

    2014-09-15

    The analysis of petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data of granites in the Peixoto de Azevedo region, Mato Grosso, Brazil, in the eastern portion of the Alta Floresta Gold Province, led to the recognition of two granitic bodies bounded by regional major faults and shear zones. In the northwestern portion a body with featured as biotite granodiorite, coarse-grained, with porphyritic to inequigranular texture, metaluminous to peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline and magnesium character. In the southeastern portion of the area, a biotite monzogranite coarse-grained, with equigranular to porphyritic texture, slightly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline and dominantly of ferrous character. U- Pb dating (SHRIMP) showed that the biotite monzogranite has an age of 1869 ± 10 Ma, similar to the Matupa Intrusive Suite, while the biotite granodiorite has an age of 1781 ± 10 Ma, that is the age expected to Peixoto Granite. Both units show patterns of rare earth elements with enrichment of light over heavy and negative Eu anomaly (La{sub N}/Yb{sub N} » 7.6 to 17.31 and ratios Eu/EU{sup ⁎} between 0.46 – 0.72 for biotite monzogranite and La{sub N}/Yb{sub N} » 7.13 to 29.09 with ratios Eu/Eu{sup ⁎} between 0.25 - 0.40 for the biotite granodiorite). Trace elements pattern for both present negative anomalies of Ba, P, Ti and Nb indicating an evolution from mineral fractionation and subduction related sources. In this paper, it is suggested that the monzogranite Matupa was developed in mature arc tectonic environment. For the Peixoto Granite, two hypotheses are suggested: (a) it was developed in younger magmatic arc environment associated with the Colider Magmatism or (b) it was generated in extensional tectonic environment during the Columbia Super continent break up. (author)

  14. The rapakivi granite plutons of Bodom and Obbnäs, southern Finland: petrography and geochemistry

    Kosunen, P.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Obbnäs and Bodom granite plutons of southernmost Finland show the typical petrographic and geochemical features of the Proterozoic rapakivi granites in Finland and elsewhere: they cut sharply across the 1900 Ma Svecofennian metamorphic bedrock and have the geochemical characteristics of subalkaline A-type granites. The Bodom pluton is composed of porphyritic granites (hornblende-, hornblende-biotite-, and biotite-bearing varieties and an even-grained granite that probably represent two separate intrusive phases. This lithologic variation does not occur in the Obbnäs pluton, which is almost entirely composed of porphyritic hornblende-biotite granite that gradually becomes more mafic to the southwest. Three types of hybrid granitoids resulting from magma mingling and mixing occur on the southwestern tip of the Obbnäs peninsula. The Bodom granites are syenogranites, whereas the composition of the Obbnäs granite varies from syeno- to monzogranite. The main silicates of both the Bodom and Obbnäs granites are quartz, microcline, plagioclase (An1541, biotite (siderophyllite, and generally also amphibole (ferropargasite or hastingsite. Plagioclase-mantled alkali feldspar megacrysts are absent or rare. The accessory minerals are fluorite, allanite, zircon, apatite, and iron-titanium oxides; the Obbnäs granite also contains titanite. The Bodom and Obbnäs granites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, with average A/CNK of 1.00 and 1.05, respectively, have high Fe/Mg (average FeOtot/[FeOtot+MgO] is 0.94 for the Bodom and 0.87 for the Obbnäs granites, and high Ga/Al (3.78 to 5.22 in Bodom and 2.46 to 4.18 in Obbnäs. The REE contents are high with LREE-enriched chondrite-normalized patterns and moderate (Obbnäs to relatively strong (Bodom negative Eu-anomalies. The Obbnäs granite is enriched in CaO, TiO2, MgO, and FeO, and depleted in SiO2 and K2O compared to the Bodom granites. Also, there are differences in the Ba, Rb, and Sr contents of the two plutons (Ba and Sr higher, Rb lower in Obbnäs that cannot easily be traced to single parental granite magma. These features, together with the presence of titanite in the Obbnäs pluton, suggest different sources for the granites of the two plutons: a potassium feldspar-rich source for Bodom and potassium feldspar-poor for Obbnäs.

  15. The GRANIT spectrometer

    Baessler, Stefan; Beau, Mathieu; Kreuz, Michael; Kurlov, Vladimir N.; Nesvizhevsky, Valery V.; Pignol, Guillaume; Protasov, Konstantin V.; Vezzu, Francis; Voronin, Aleksey Yu.

    2011-10-01

    The existence of quantum states of matter in a gravitational field was demonstrated recently in the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, in a series of experiments with ultra cold neutrons (UCN). UCN in low quantum states is an excellent probe for fundamental physics, in particular for constraining extra short-range forces; as well as a tool in quantum optics and surface physics. The GRANIT is a follow-up project based on a second-generation spectrometer with ultra-high energy resolution, permanently installed in ILL. It has been constructed in framework of an ANR grant; and will become operational in 2011.

  16. The GRANIT spectrometer

    Baessler, Stefan [ORNL; Beau, M [ Inst Max Von Laue Paul Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble 9, France; Kreuz, Michael [ Inst Max Von Laue Paul Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble 9, France; Nesvizhevsky, V. [ Inst Max Von Laue Paul Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble 9, France; Kurlov, V [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Ac. Sci., Chernogolovka, Moscow, Russi; Pignol, G [LPSC IN2P3 UJF INPG, R-38026 Grenoble, France; Protasov, K. [LPSC IN2P3 UJF INPG, R-38026 Grenoble, France; Vezzu, Francis [LPSC IN2P3 UJF INPG, R-38026 Grenoble, France; Voronin, Vladimir [Institute of Metal Physics, Russia

    2011-01-01

    The existence of quantum states of matter in a gravitational field was demonstrated recently in the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, in a series of experiments with ultra cold neutrons (UCN). UCN in low quantum states is an excellent probe for fundamental physics, in particular for constraining extra short-range forces; as well as a tool in quantum optics and surface physics. The GRANIT is a follow-up project based on a second-generation spectrometer with ultra-high energy resolution, permanently installed in ILL. It has been constructed in framework of an ANR grant; and will become operational in 2011.

  17. Study on Kalimantan uranium province: The assessment on uranium mineralization of metamorphic and granitic rocks at Schwaner mountains

    Uranium exploration activities done by CEA-BATAN had discovered uranium occurrences as the radiometric and uranium content anomalies at metamorphic and granite rocks of Schwaner Mountains, Kalimantan. A part of the occurrences on metamorphic rocks at Kalan basin has been evaluated and be developed onto follow-up step of prospecting by construction of some drilling holes and an exploration adit. In order to increase the national uranium resources, it is necessarily to extent the exploration activity to out side or nearby of Kalan basin. The goal of this assessment is to understand the uranium accumulation mechanism at Pinoh metamorphic rocks of Kalan Kalimantan and to delineate areas that uranium may exist. The assessment was based on the aspect of geology, anomaly of radioactivity and uranium contents, tectonics and alterations. Pinoh metamorphic rocks which is influenced by Sukadana granite intrusion are the high potential rocks for the uranium accumulation, because the intrusion contains a relatively high of U, Th, Cu, Zn, Nb, Mn, and W. The potential rock distributions are in between G. Ransa granite intrusion at the east and Kotabaru granite intrusions at the west. The mineralizations are categorized as vein type deposits of granitic association

  18. Isotopic age determinations in Bergslagen, Sweden. 3. The Hyttsjoe suite of gabbro-diorites and tonalite-granites, Filipstad area

    Oen, I.S. (Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Geologisch Inst.); Wiklander, U. (Sveriges Geologiska Undersoekning, Uppsala)

    1982-09-01

    Rb-Sr whole-rock isotope analyses of five granite and two diorite samples of the Hyttsjoe Suite of intrusions in the Filipstad region, Central Sweden, yield an isochron age of 1841 +- 55 Ma with an initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio of 0.70217 +- 0.00098. This age is regarded as the emplacement age of the Hyttsjoe Suite of gabbros-diorites-tonalites-granites, which thus represents an intrusive subdivision of the 1.9-1.8 Ga Bergslagen Supracrustal Series.

  19. Rb-Sr and K-Ar geochronology and petrogenesis of the Aji Granite in the eastern Sanuki district, Ryoke Belt, southwest Japan

    The Rb-Sr and K-Ar geochronological study was made for the Aji Granite in the eastern Sanuki district, one of the fine-grained granites in the Ryoke Belt. This granite is divided into hornblende-free and hornblende-bearing facies. The former gives a Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron age of 82.9±8.0 Ma with SrI of 0.70773±0.00007 which is interpreted as the intrusive age of the Aji Granite and therefore the final plutonism in the eastern Sanuki district. Biotites separated from six samples give K-Ar biotite ages between 80.4 Ma and 79.4 Ma. K-Ar hornblende age is of 83.5 Ma. These age data suggest rapid cooling after the emplacement of the granite. The initial Sr and Nd ratios of the Aji Granite fall within the range of the Ryoke granitoids. They are close to those of the Fine-grained in the Awaji Island, but differ from those of the Busetsu, Kadoshima and Otagiri Granites in the Chubu district. The Aji Granite and Fine-grained Granite in the Awaji Island have I-type granite chemical characteristics, whereas other fine-grained granites in the Ryoke Belt have S-type characteristics. This suggests varying source characteristics for the fine-grained granitic magmas in the Ryoke Belt. (author)

  20. U–Pb geochronology of the Eocene Kærven intrusive complex, East Greenland

    Þórarinsson, Sigurjón Böðvar; Holm, Paul Martin; Tappe, Sebatstian; Heaman, Larry M.; Prægel, Niels-Ole

    2016-01-01

    Syenite and includes early tholeiitic gabbros and a series of cross-cutting alkaline intrusions ranging from monzonite to alkali granite. The alkaline intrusions cut the gabbros, and are cut by the outer nordmarkite zone of the Kangerlussuaq Syenite. This study presents the first U–Pb zircon ages from the...... alkaline units of the Kærven Complex. Fourteen multi-grain zircon fractions have been analysed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Absolute age differences could not be resolved between the different units, suggesting a relatively rapid succession of intrusions between c. 53.5 and 53.3 Ma. Our...

  1. Contribution to the uranium geochemistry on granites in Ecuador

    This work aims to define the position of two of Ecuador granitic deposits within the field of the geochemistry of granites in general and of the geochemistry of uranium in particular. The regions concerned are: The Bonita and ABITAGUA. For each range the petrochemical framework is first of all determined and then the degree of chemical homogeneity of rocks is evaluated. In the petrochemical groups thus obtained the geochemical behaviour of the uranium is studied. From the viewpoint of the geochemistry of the granites under investigation, a comparison of the laws of distribution of the mayor elements in two ranges shows up a covergence of average composition which was not anticipated by geological and petrografic considerations alone. The statistical and geochemical distribution laws of the total uranium as a function of petrochemical variations are established. A study of chemical forms of uranium in the rocks has drawn an attention to the qualitative and quantitative importance of the faction of uranium soluble in delute acids. We have therefore reconsidered on the one hand, the laws of distribution of the insoluble and we have justified on the other hand the interest presented by the soluble post magmatic phenomena which makes possible to find a genetic connection between the uraniferous deposits and the intrusive massifs. Finally we have given tables of analytic composition total of the granites. (Author)

  2. Yeguang granite and uranium metallogeny

    The geological, petrologic and geochemical characteristics of rock body of yeguang granite are discussed with emphasis on clarification of occurrence of uranium in rock body and uranium deposit characteristics related to rock body, based on extensive field observations and laboratory test. View points are presented that granite refers to genetic series of terrestial crust transformation tye and uranium deposit is hot water deposit

  3. Emplacement time tectonometamorphic history of the sillai patti granite gneiss using fission track dating techniques

    The Peshawar Plain Alkaline Igneous Province (PAIP) consist of a group of alkaline rocks. It occurs in the north of Peshawar from Tarbela in the east through Koga-Ambela, Shewa-Shahbazgarhi, Malakand, Sillai Patti, and Warsak up to Loe Shilman in the west. The alkaline rocks mainly consist of granites, syenites, gabbors, ijolites, carbonatities etc. The granitic rocks cover a major part of the Alkaline Province. This paper presents an account of fission track age data on zircon as a paleotemperature indicator, recognition of the emplacement time and tectonic uplift history of the Sillai Patti Granite Gneiss in combination with the other radiometric ages. The field relationships show that the Malakand Granite and Sillai Patti Carbonatites are younger than the Sillai Patti Granite Gneiss. However, our fission track age of the Sillai Patti Granite Gneiss is less than absolute ages of Malakand granite (U - Pb age approx. equal to 270 Ma) and Sillai Patti Carbonatite (K - Ar age approx. equal to 31 -+ 2.00 Ma). Therefore, the fission track age of 24.32 -+ 2.80 Ma on zircon from Sillai Patti Granite Gneiss, based on present work, represents a time of post metamorphic uplift history of the area, when these rocks past through the 210 deg. C isotherm, corresponding to depth of about 6.7 km inside the earth crust from their present position. (authors)

  4. Radioactive elements behaviour in multiphase intrusive series and petrological significance of radiogeochemical data

    The behaviour of radioactive elements (RE) during formation of multiphase intrusive series of various ages, types and alkalinity nature, placed in different structural formation zones of West Uzbekistan is discussed (on the basis of 230 quantitative determinations). It is established that maximum RE concentrations in the intrusive series considered are U=3-5, Th=11-17 g/t and correspond to granodiorites, adamellites, granites and granosienites. The typical behaviour for U and Th is the growth of their concentrations in the direction from gabbro- to granodiorites (granosienites) and granites, and then decrease to leucocrat granites (alkaline, biotite or bimica ones). The evolution of magmatic systems occurred not along the line of differentiation of melts, but along the line of their ''washing'' with fluid mainly at the level of magma generation and on their way to upper horizons of Earth crust. High concentrations (several times more than a clark) must occur in cases of additional RE introduction

  5. Rare metal-bearing and barren granites, Eastern Desert of Egypt: geochemical characterization and metallogenetic aspects

    Mohamed, F. H.

    1993-11-01

    Three "younger granite" plutons from the Eastern Desert of Egypt are studied: petrographic and geochemical characteristics of the barren pink granites at Wadi Sikait and Wadi Nugrus are similar, of alkaline, mildly peraluminous nature and are enriched in LIL-elements and LREE with moderate negative Eu anomalies. In contrast, the Sn-Ta-W-bearing albite granite of Abu Dabbab is alkaline, peraluminous muscovite granite; its chemical specialization is manifested by the pronounced enrichment in Ta, Sn, W, F, Rb and Li coupled with marked depletion in Ca, Ti, Mg, Sr and Ba. Elemental ratios (e.g., K/Rb, Rb/Sr, Ba/Rb) discriminate the albite granite and the pink granites into "mineralized and barren granites", respectively. The albite granite is derived from Na-rich magma of within-plate characteristics. Fluorine was an important complexing anion during magmatic evolution history. The albite granite is emplaced at shallow depth (granites might have a crustal and/or LIL-element enriched mantle sources, in which the subduction-related fingerprints are partly obliterated. For both types, reactivation of regional structures played a significant role in magma generation. Acid metasomatism is mainly manifested by the development of thin greisen veins along fracture systems in the albite granite. The chemistry of greisenization using mass balance approach reveals that the process is accompanied by dramatic increase in SiO 2, Fe 2O 3, MnO, F, Sn and Li as well as significant loss in Na 2O, K 2O, Ba, Nb and Zn. The process causes a significant increase in volume (30%). Changes in chemical components are consistent with the observed mineralogical changes. Microprobe results reveal that the wolframite crystals are typically huebnerite with Fe-rich cores and Mn-rich rims. Compositional variations in wolframite crystals are attributed to the physicochemical conditions (pH, T, etc.) and chemistry of the ore-bearing fluids.

  6. Geological characteristics of granite type uranium deposits in middle of Inner Mongolia in comparison with south China

    Granites extensively distributed in middle of Inner Mongolia and South China, namely Caledonian, Hercynian and Yanshanian. Some of the intrusive are composed of granites which belong to different ages. Some of the uranium deposits were found inside the granite bodies or in sedimentary rocks and meta sedimentary rocks along the exocontact zone. Granite rock was comparing in middle Inner Mongolia and South China, including Uranium ore-forming geological conditions. ore-forming process and Ore-controlling factors. Think the Uranium ore-forming geological conditions is similar; ore-forming process is mainly for low-mid temperature hot liquid; Uranium ore bodies (uranium mineralization) was controlled by fracture. Explain granite type uranium mineralization potential is tremendous in middle of Inner Mongolia. (author)

  7. Geochemical investigations on some of the Infra Cambrian Acid intrusive and volcanic rocks in Iran

    Geochemical investigations on some of the acid intrusive and volcanic rocks of Iran, which are attributed to the Infra cambrian, have been carried out to reveal their possible genetic relationships. These igneous rocks include: Do ran, Shah-Bolaghi, Sarve-Jahan, NE Ardakan - Yazd (Darbastegoon), south Mahabad, Bornavard (Tak nar), Zarigan, Narigan, Chardormaloo granites, Rizo and De zoo micro granites and volcanic rocks, Ga chin rhyolites (Bandar-Abass), and Ghareh-Dash (east of Sae en-De j). These intrusive s, except south Mahabad granodiorite, belong to the class of the alkali feldspathic granite to granitic rocks. Most of these rocks are hololeucocratic and devoid of ferro magnesian minerals. The volcanic rocks are mainly felsic (Rhyolite and Quartz porphyra) associated with vacillation's rocks. These suites of rocks plot on the chemical diagrams in sub alkaline field. Regarding to variations of Na2O, K2O and Ca O contents, they can further be subdivided into sodi c, potas sic, sodi-potas sic and sodi-calci c subgroups. The normalized values (MORB and chondritic) of their trace elements on the spider diagrams overlap each other indicates that some genetic relations ships exist among samples of white Doran Granite, Shahbolaghi, Sarve-Jahan and some Darbastegoon, in one hand, and Taknar, Narigan Granites, Gachin, Rizoo and Dezoo Rhyolites, on the other hand. The overlap also shows that the mentioned igneous bodies have been originated from continental crust and the samples of each groups, at least belong to a distinct tectonic al regime

  8. The U-fertility criteria applied to the El Sela granite, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    El Sela area is located in the southern Eastern Desert of Egypt, between Latitudes 22 deg. 13' and 22. deg 19' N and Longitudes 36 deg. 11' and 36 deg. 15' E, about 30 km south west of Abu Ramad City. It occupies about 73.5 km2. For a long time the granite massifs have been considered as resulting from the diapiric emplacement of large magma bodies. Recent studies increasingly show that most granite plutons in fact results from successive accretion of multiple injections of highly variable sizes, not always co-genetic and with highly variable metallogenic potential. Such a conception has very important consequences in exploration because the mineralization may be genetically related only to specific magma intrusion within the large granite complex as shown in Kab Amiri granite central Eastern Desert of Egypt for episyenites and in the Saint Sylvestre granite in the French Massif Central for vein type uranium mineralization. Therefore, detailed mapping and characterization of the different granite phases is decisive to define the most fertile parts of granite plutons for the occurrence of mineralization on which the exploration has to be focused. Such a concept is particularly applicable in the granite plutons of the Eastern Desert of Egypt where outcropping conditions are excellent. The fertility of a granitic pluton is mostly related to the extent of the overlap between the magmatic uranium enrichment, hydrothermal reworking through open fracture system and the existence of a suitable reservoir for the leached metals and followed eventually by a supergene enrichment phase. The northern part of El Sela granite complex was identified as the most fertile part where many granite intrusions are crosscut by long and wide shear zones associated with a series of alteration processes. The studied example is the ENE-WSW shear zone located in the northern part of El Sela granite pluton. The uranium mineralizations are the result of a succession of reactions between the rocks or minerals and the fluids. Hence, we have carried out detailed geologic and tectonic mapping coupled with laboratory mineralogical and geochemical studies. Field observations has shown that Gabal El Sela granites are highly weathered, cavernous and exposed as low to moderately separated hills which forms the remnants of a circular shaped granite pluton composed of at least two main different granite intrusions. The detailed geological and tectonic studies have shown that El Sela area was affected by at least nine successive tectonic events. These events are reflected by the high fracture intensity and consequently the intense weathering of the granite. It was proposed that the complex magmatic and tectonic history of the northern part of the El Sela granitic complex is highly fertile and represent a promising target for the occurrence of uranium ore deposits which are must be tested by a drilling program to complete the geophysical subsurface studies

  9. Oceanic thermohaline intrusions: observations

    Ruddick, B.; Richards, K.

    2003-03-01

    Intrusions are commonly observed in the upper, deep and coastal oceans, and are closely linked to lateral fluxes of heat, salt and momentum. This is a review of observations of intrusions and the results of comparisons of properties such as scale, slopes, microstructure activity, and fluxes with theoretical models. A summary of estimates of lateral heat fluxes indicates a wide range of lateral diffusivities. We conclude by noting that our present knowledge is insufficient to predict the structure, length-scales and lateral fluxes of thermohaline intrusions with confidence, and list a number of unresolved questions. Suggestions are made for compilation of existing data into a database for exploratory analysis and testing of theoretical hypotheses. An outline is given of a potential collaborative field experiment using CTD, fluorescent dye, and microstructure observations.

  10. U-Pb ages and Nd isotope characteristics of the lateorogenic, migmatizing microcline granites in southwestern Finland

    Matti Kurhila

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available U-Pb ages and whole-rock Nd isotope data have been obtained from the Paleoproterozoic lateorogenic migmatizing microcline granites of southwestern Finland. Isotope dilution and ion microprobe U-Pb data on zircons and monazites show that the age spectrum of these granites is at least 1.85-1.82 Ga. Commonly, zircons and monazites record the same ages. The age variation in the Veikkola granite area is of the order of 25 Ma and indicates that this seemingly homogeneous granite consists of two separate intrusions. The zircons of the lateorogenic granites are pervasively altered and conventional U-Pb results are commonly discordant. The ion microprobe studies reveal that the granites contain very few inherited zircons with preserved original U-Pb isotope ratios, with the exception of the Orip granite. Initial ?Nd values, mostly in the range of ?0.5 to ?1.0, imply a moderate input of older crustal material into most of the lateorogenic granites. A shift from more juvenile to less radiogenic Nd isotope composition is observed from north to south, and the variation pattern of ?Nd values of the lateorogenic granites is thus similar to that of the surrounding synorogenic granitoid rocks.

  11. Climax granite test results

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-01-15

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) program, is carrying out in situ rock mechanics testing in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This summary addresses only those field data taken to date that address thermomechanical modeling for a hard-rock repository. The results to be discussed include thermal measurements in a heater test that was conducted from October 1977 through July 1978, and stress and displacement measurements made during and after excavation of the canister storage drift for the Spent Fuel Test (SFT) in the Climax granite. Associated laboratory and field measurements are summarized. The rock temperature for a given applied heat load at a point in time and space can be adequately modeled with simple analytic calculations involving superposition and integration of numerous point source solutions. The input, for locations beyond about a meter from the source, can be a constant thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The value of thermal conductivity required to match the field data is as much as 25% different from laboratory-measured values. Therefore, unless we come to understand the mechanisms for this difference, a simple in situ test will be required to obtain a value for final repository design. Some sensitivity calculations have shown that the temperature field is about ten times more sensitive to conductivity than to diffusivity under the test conditions. The orthogonal array was designed to detect anisotropy. After considering all error sources, anisotropic efforts in the thermal field were less than 5 to 10%.

  12. Climax granite test results

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) program, is carrying out in situ rock mechanics testing in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This summary addresses only those field data taken to date that address thermomechanical modeling for a hard-rock repository. The results to be discussed include thermal measurements in a heater test that was conducted from October 1977 through July 1978, and stress and displacement measurements made during and after excavation of the canister storage drift for the Spent Fuel Test (SFT) in the Climax granite. Associated laboratory and field measurements are summarized. The rock temperature for a given applied heat load at a point in time and space can be adequately modeled with simple analytic calculations involving superposition and integration of numerous point source solutions. The input, for locations beyond about a meter from the source, can be a constant thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The value of thermal conductivity required to match the field data is as much as 25% different from laboratory-measured values. Therefore, unless we come to understand the mechanisms for this difference, a simple in situ test will be required to obtain a value for final repository design. Some sensitivity calculations have shown that the temperature field is about ten times more sensitive to conductivity than to diffusivity under the test conditions.The orthogonal array was designed to detect anisotropy. After considering all error sources, anisotropic efforts in the thermal field were less than 5 to 10%

  13. The Swedish Bohus granite - a stone with a fascinating history

    Schouenborg, Björn; Eliasson, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    One of the most well-known and well spread Swedish stone types used as building stones is the Bonus granite. It outcrops in an area north of Gothenburgh (SW Sweden), along the coastline, approximately 35 km wide and 85 km long. The granite continues into Norway as the Iddefjord granite. The Bohus granite is one of Sweden's youngest granites. Isotopic dating shows that the magma cooled at about 920 M years ago and thus marking the end of the Sveconorwegian orogoney. It is a composite granite massif area with several granitic intrusions but with rather homogeneous mineralogy. However, colour and texture varies quite a lot and the colour ranges from red to reddish grey although some pure grey varieties occur sparsely. The grain size ranges from medium grained to coarse grained and even with some porphyric parts. Quarrying in an industrial scale started 1842. The merchant A C Kullgren opened the first quarry and produced stones for the construction of the 86 km long Trollhättan channel connecting lake Vänern and the Atlantic ocean in the SW Sweden The stone was used for constructing harbors and wharves along the channel. Several quarries opened in the late 1800 around 1870 - 1890 and the export increased steadily with deliveries to Germany, Denmark, Holland, England and even to South America. The stone industries in Bohuslän (Bohus county), at its peak in 1929, engaged around 7 000 employees. During the depression in 1930 almost all of them became unemployed. However, as a curiosity, production and export continued to Germany for construction of Germania, the future World capital city ("Welthauptstadt Germania"), planned by Adolf Hitler and Albert Speer. About 500 stone workers were kept employed for this project during the late thirties. Today several varieties are still produced: Evja/Ävja, Tossene, Brastad, Näsinge, Broberg, Nolby, Allemarken and Skarstad. However, the number of stone workers is far from that of the early 1900. The Swedish production is mainly blocks but also paving products like sets, slabs and kerb stones are still manufactured in Sweden. Blocks are generally further processed in other countries like Italy and China to reach the European market as semi-finished products like slabs or finished products for any kind of application. The granite is very durable and suitable for all types of natural stone products.

  14. Geochronology of Triassic-Jurassic granitoids in the southern frames of Mongol-Okhotsk fold belt and the principles of early mesozoic granitic formation in the Central and East Asia

    Results of U-Pb and U-Pb-Th-isotope dating of zircon from biotite and leucocratic granites in the southern frames of the Mongol-Okhotsk fold belt are presented. The similar estimates of the above mentioned granite ages (208±9 and 190±3 mln. years), the granites being referred traditionally to different intrusive complexes, permit defining essentially the scale of the early mesozoic magmatism manifestations in the Central and East Asia

  15. U-Pb zircon geochronology of intrusive and basement rocks in the Jacurici Valley region, Sao Francisco Craton, BA, Brazil

    The Jacurici Complex, located in the NE of the Sao Francisco Craton, is constituted by several Cr-mineralized mafic-ultramafic N-S bodies, possible fragments of a single sill disrupted during deformation. Some works suggest it is intruded on the Serrinha Block while others consider it in the Salvador-Curaca Belt. The basement on this region is informally divided into paragneisses and orthogneisses; the latter is supposed to be younger considering it is less deformed. Petrography revealed that some of the paragneisses are alkali-feldspar granite strongly milonitized. The orthogneisses occur at the north and consist, at least in part, of monzogranites with heterogeneous deformation, locally of low temperature. U-Pb zircon dating were performed for five representative samples. Just three provided good concordia ages. A mafic rock produced a 2102 ± 5 Ma age and it is petrographically similar to the metanorites described in the Jacurici Complex, being interpreted as the record of the first pulses of the mafic magmatism. A monzogranite yielded a 2995 ± 15 Ma age, older than expected, related to the Serrinha Block. The alkali-feldspar granite yielded a 2081 ± 3 Ma age. The Itiuba Syenite and the pegmatites that crosscut the Jacurici Complex have similar ages. Considering the lack of information about the supracrustal sequence that hosts the intrusive alkaline and mafic-ultramafic rocks at the Ipueira and the Medrado areas, it is possible that part of the terrain belongs to the Salvador-Curaca Belt. We suggest that the Jacurici Complex could be intruded after the tectonic amalgamation between the Serrinha Block and the older part of the Salvador-Curaca Belt and, therefore, could be hosted by both terrains. (author)

  16. Uranium enriched granites in Sweden

    Granites with uranium contents higher than normal occur in a variety of geological settings in the Swedish Precambrian, and represent a variety of granite types and ages. They may have been generated by (1) the anatexis of continental crust (2) processes occurring at a much greater depth. They commonly show enrichement in F, Sn, W and/or Mo. Only in one case is an important uranium mineralization thought to be directly related to a uranium-enriched granite, while the majority of epigenetic uranium mineralizations with economic potential are related to hydrothermal processes in areas where the bedrock is regionally uranium-enhanced. (Authors)

  17. Li in minerals from the Ilimaussaq alkaline intrusion, South Greenland

    Li was analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis and Cerenkov counting in 120 mineral samples (30 species) from the Ilimaussaq alkaline intrusion, South Greenland. More than 0.23 wt.% Li (0.5 wt.% Li2O) is found in polylitionite, meptunite, riebeckite, Na-cookeite, ephesite, arfvedsonite, gerasimovskite and astrophyllite. Arfvedsonite (200-2500 ppm Li) carreis the bulk of Li in most of the highly alkaline rocks. Li-Mg and Li-F relations indicate that the distribution of Li is controlled by the structure of minerals, their absolute contents of Mg and F and the fractionation stage within the intrusion. Li is probably linked with F in the fluid state and this linkage continues into crystallising phases where Li occupies sites which also accommodate Mg. Li/Mg and LI/F ratios of Ilimaussaq rocks and minerals are higher than in equivalent materials from the Lovozero intrusion (Kola, Russia). The Li-Mg-Fe2+ geochemical association at Ilimaussaq (Fe2+>>Mg) and Lovozero (Fe2+mG) contrasts with the commercially important Li-rich but Mg-Fe2+-poor association found in certain granite pegmatites and greisenised granites. (au) (43 refs.)

  18. Scanning Seismic Intrusion Detector

    Lee, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Scanning seismic intrusion detector employs array of automatically or manually scanned sensors to determine approximate location of intruder. Automatic-scanning feature enables one operator to tend system of many sensors. Typical sensors used with new system are moving-coil seismic pickups. Detector finds uses in industrial security systems.

  19. Granites and granitoids of the southern region - Granite molybdenite system

    Economic concentrations of molybdenum are genetically closely associated with acidic and moderately acid granitoids-granites, granodiorites, monzonites and diorites, and are located in two geotectonic settings: subduction-related and rift-related. The aim of this paper is twofold, first succinctly approach the geology, tectonic setting and chemical parameters of the 'granite molybdenite system' as defined by Mutschler and/or alcali granite porphyry bodies emplaced in the North American continent for occasion of a Mesozoic-Fanerozoic extensile event; second to relate the computer-assisted evaluation of 422 major element chemical analysis of granites and granitoids of southern region of Brazil, using chemical fingerprints (SiO2 ≥ 74. Owt%, Na2O ≤ 3.6wt%, K2O ≥ 4.5wt%), and K2O/Na2O ratio > 1.5 developed and testified from North American and Finnish occurrences, may locate molybdenite-bearing granite bodies with high exploration potential. These techniques suggest that some late Precambrian to early Paleozoic granite-rhyolite assemblages inserted at domains of the SG. 22/23 Curitiba/Iguape, SH. 21/22 Uruguaiana/Porto Alegre and SI.22 Lagoa Mirim Sheets, have exploration potential for molybdenum. (author)

  20. The Torres del Paine intrusion as a model for a shallow magma chamber

    Baumgartner, Lukas; Bodner, Robert; Leuthold, Julien; Muntener, Othmar; Putlitz, Benita; Vennemann, Torsten

    2014-05-01

    The shallow magmatic Torres del Paine Intrusive Complex (TPIC) belongs to a series of sub-volcanic and plutonic igneous bodies in Southern Chile and Argentina. This trench-parallel belt is located in a transitional position between the Patagonia Batholith in the West, and the alkaline Cenozoic plateau lavas in the East. While volumetrically small amounts of magmatism started around 28 my ago in the Torres del Paine area, and a second period occurred between 17-16 Ma, it peaked with the TPIC 12.59-12.43 Ma ago. The spectacular cliffs of the Torres del Paine National park provide a unique opportunity to study the evolution of a very shallow magma chamber and the interaction with its host rocks. Intrusion depth can be estimated based on contact metamorphic assemblages and granite solidus thermobarometry to 750±250 bars, corresponding to an intrusion depth of ca. 3km, ca. 500m above the base of the intrusion. Hornblende thermobarometry in mafic rocks agrees well with these estimates (Leuthold et al., 2014). The TPIC is composed of a granitic laccolith emplaced over 90ka (Michel et al., 2008) in 3 major, several 100m thick sheets, forming an overall thickness of nearly 2 km. Contacts are sharp between sheets, with the oldest sheet on the top and the youngest on the bottom (Michel et al., 2008). The granitic laccolith is under-plated by a ca. 400m thick mafic laccolith, built up over ca. 50ka (Leuthold et al. 2012), constructed from the bottom up. Granitic and mafic sheets are themselves composed of multiple metric to decametric pulses, mostly with ductile contacts between them, resulting in outcrop patterns resembling braided stream sediments. The contact of the TPIC with the Cretaceous flysch sediments document intrusion mechanism. Pre-existing sub-horizontal fold axes are rotated in the roof of the TPIC, clearly demonstrating ballooning of the roof; no ballooning was observed in the footwall of the intrusion. Extension during ballooning of the roof is indicated by dykes emanating from the roof of the intrusion into the host rocks. The dykes are perpendicular to the contact, radially shooting into the country rocks. Since the oldest granite is found in the roof, it is also permeated by dykes of successive intrusions. Contact metamorphism can be used to constrain the granite intrusion temperature to ca. 1000°C. Intrusion occurred in multiple pulses along the granite-host rock contact, in rapid succession, before significant cooling occurred in the aureole. Hydration of the biotite and feldspar of the immature sediments in the outer aureole contributed significantly to the overall thermal signature of the host-rock-TPIC system. In contrast, stable isotopes do not document significant fluid circulation. Leuthold, J., Müntener, O., Baumgartner, L., Putlitz, B., Ovtcharova, M., Schaltegger, U. (2012) Time resolved construction of a granitic to mafic laccolith (Torres del Paine, Patagonia). Earth Plan Sci Lett. 325. 85-92 Leuthold J., Müntener O., Baumgartner L.P., Putlitz B., (2014) Recycling of mafic crystal mush, transport and emplacement in the Torres del Paine mafic complex (Patagonia). J. Petrology; accepted pending revision Michel, J., Baumgartner, L.P. Putlitz, B., Ovtcharova, M., Schaltegger, U. (2008) Incremental growth of a shallow crustal laccolith over 80 kyrs: the Torres del Paine Granite, Patagonia. Geology vol. 36, 459-462

  1. Intrusion detection: systems and models

    Sherif, J. S.; Dearmond, T. G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper puts forward a review of state of the art and state of the applicability of intrusion detection systems, and models. The paper also presents a classfication of literature pertaining to intrusion detection.

  2. Artificial weathering of granite

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir sulfatación. Se analizan los resultados obtenidos en cada ensayo y se discuten las limitaciones de los mismos para reproducir las patologías desarrolladas en los monumentos así como la influencia que pueden tener en dichas patologías aspectos como las condiciones de humectación y secado, el tipo de disolución salina (mixta-simple y la influencia de los planos de debilidad de las rocas en el desarrollo de unas u otras formas de alteración.

  3. Geology of the Northern part of the Strath Ossian Granite, Scotland

    The Strath Ossian Granite is made up of granodiorite, dark, variable 'granodiorites' interpreted as mobilised diorite or basic material, appinite and porphyritic granodiorite. Huge rafts of psammitic metasediments occur within the mass and three fracture-zones and numerous dykes, dominantly of porphyrite, cut across it in a north-easterly direction. Granite emplacement may have occurred in stages, early batches being xenolith-rich and later ones xenolith-poor. New batches were intruded centrally, which created strong radial stresses, sufficiently strong to make room for the intrusion by forcing the metasedimentary country rocks downwards and aside. (author)

  4. Petrology and geochemistry of the Los Cuartos granite, Tafi del Valle, Tucuman, northwest of Argentina: its integration to the regional magmatic layout; Petrologia y geoquimica del granito Los Cuartos, Tafi del Valle, Tucuman, noroeste de Argentina: integracion al esquema magmatico regional

    Lopez, J.P.; Bellos, L.I.

    2010-07-01

    Los Cuartos Granite crops out on the western flank of the Cumbres Calchaquies, east of Tafi del Valle, Tucuman Province, Argentina. It has a granitic to granodioritic composition, of two micas, being biotite dominant. The granite is medium grained and inequigranular, with rare K-feldspar megacrysts. It contains host-rock xenoliths with different degrees of assimilation. The granite intrusion produced contact metamorphism in the surrounding basement, with development of andalucite porphyroblasts and poikiloblastic biotite. The granite is calk-alkaline and peraluminous, and is K- and P-rich and Ca- and Napoor compared to other granitoids of the region. The pluton shows late-tectonic features with regard to the regional deformation. The granite possibly intruded during the Ordovician (Famatinian Cycle) and its emplacement was structurally controlled by the Tafi Megafracture. Los Cuartos Granite and other intrusive bodies of the region share similar petrographical, geochemical, structural and geochronological characteristics. (Author).

  5. Comparison of Proterozoic and Phanerozoic rift-related basaltic-granitic magmatism

    Haapala, Ilmari; Rämö, O. Tapani; Frindt, Stephen

    2005-03-01

    This paper compares the 1.67-1.47 Ga rapakivi granites of Finland and vicinity to the 1.70-1.68 Ga rapakivi granites of the Beijing area in China, the anorogenic ˜130 Ma granites of western Namibia, and the 20-15 Ma granites of the Colorado River extensional corridor in the Basin and Range Province of southern Nevada. In Finland and China, the tectonic setting was incipient, aborted rifting of Paleoproterozoic or Archean continental crust, in Namibia it was continental rifting and mantle plume activity that led to the opening of southern Atlantic at ˜130 Ma. The 20-15 Ma granites of southern Nevada were related to rifting that followed the Triassic-Paleogene subduction of the Farallon plate beneath the southwestern United States. In all cases, extension-related magmatism was bimodal and accompanied by swarms of diabase and rhyolite-quartz latite dikes. Rapakivi texture with plagioclase-mantled alkali feldspar megacrysts occurs in varying amounts in the granites, and the latest intrusive phases are commonly topaz-bearing granites or rhyolites that may host tin, tungsten, and beryllium mineralization. The granites are typically ferroan alkali-calcic metaluminous to slightly peraluminous rocks with A-type and within-plate geochemical and mineralogical characteristics. Isotope studies (Nd, Sr) suggest dominant crustal sources for the granites. The preferred genetic model is magmatic underplating involving dehydration melting of intermediate-felsic deep crust. Juvenile mafic magma was incorporated either via magma mingling and mixing, or by remelting of newly hybridized lower crust. In Namibia, partial melting of subcontinental lithospheric mantle was caused by the Tristan mantle plume, in the other cases the origin of the mantle magmatism is controversial. For the Fennoscandian suites, extensive long-time mantle upwelling associated with periodic, migrating melting of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, governed by heat flow and deep crustal structures, is suggested.

  6. Microprobe monazite dating and the ages of some granitic and metamorphic rocks from southeastern Brazil

    Electron microprobe monazite crystallization ages are presented for selected granite and metamorphic rock samples from the Socorro and Guaxupe Nappes and the Alto Rio grande and Ribeira Belts, southeastern Brazil. Results are consistent with ages close to 625 Myr of the main metamorphic episode in the nappe structures. Anatetic granite magmatic events in these terranes and in the Alto Rio Grande Belt were roughly coeval, most samples sharing ages between 610-625 (± 15) Myr. A crust-derived granite and a granite contact aureole from the Ribeira Belt have ages of 600-608 (± 15) Myr., suggesting that the main granite magmatism in this belt was somewhat younger, probably contemporaneous with the late orogenic phase in the nappe domains. Some regional and granite samples from all these terranes point to possible inheritance or incompletely monazite grains and intra-grain domains giving older ages, up to 690 Myr. The microprobe age results agree very well with independent isotopic data, reinforcing the applicability of the method to highlight an overall picture of main geochronological trends within the continental crust. The high spatial resolution of the probe should play an important role in understanding geochronological patterns of metasedimentary rocks and related migmatites and granites, as these rocks and their minerals often present chemical and isotopic domains related to contrasting geological events, not always recognized by conventional dating schemes. (author)

  7. WLAN Intrusion Detection System

    Ms. Sushama Shirke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This is an implementation of the Wireless LAN Intrusion Detection System (WIDS using clock-skews as a fingerprinting property as suggested by Jana-Kasera [1]. Our objective is to detect the presence of a fake access point (AP in a Wireless LAN (WLAN. Use of clock -skew enables us to effectively detect Medium Access Control (MAC Address spoofing. The principle used in this project is that clock s k e w s remain consistent over time for the same AP but vary significantly across AP’s. We have also tried to exploreprobable points of failure and implemented algorithms to overcome these problems. Advantage of this implementation is that fake AP can be detected very quickly as WLAN Intrusion Detection System needs only 100 -200 packets in most cases.

  8. Interior intrusion alarm systems

    In meeting the requirements for the safeguarding of special nuclear material and the physical protection of licensed facilities, the licensee is required to design a physical security system that will meet minimum performance requirements. An integral part of any physical security system is the interior intrusion alarm system. The purpose of this report is to provide the potential user of an interior intrusion alarm system with information on the various types, components, and performance capabilities available so that he can design and install the optimum alarm system for his particular environment. In addition, maintenance and testing procedures are discussed and recommended which, if followed, will help the user obtain the optimum results from his system

  9. Intrusion detecting device

    An intrusion detecting device comprises a grid of tubes spaced apart by a distance d sufficient to impede an intruding body. Each tube contains a radioactive luminescent source which transmits radiation that is confined to a narrow beam by a series of aligned apertured masks. A detector receives the radiation and provides an input to an AND-gate connected to alarm circuitry. The radiation is diverted from the detector if the respective tube is deformed or deflected hence providing a signal to indicate an intrusion. The tubes may form part of a device for preventing an intruder from gaining access to a security zone. Alternatively, the tubes may be flexible to enable the passage of, e.g. fish to be counted. An alternative embodiment employs intercommunicating tubes with mirrors for guiding radiation from a common source to a common radiation detector. (author)

  10. Operational Network Intrusion Detection

    Dreger, Holger

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to examine dependencies and tradeoffs between the resource usage (CPU and memory) and the analysis capabilities of Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS). We base our work on the experience of running NIDS in large network environments (among them the Münchener Wissenschaftsnetz (MWN)). These show that resource management is vital for running NIDS in high volume networks. To reduce the resource consumption of NIDS is often only possible by reducing the NIDS' ana...

  11. Perimeter intrusion sensors

    To obtain an effective perimeter intrusion detection system requires careful sensor selection, procurement, and installation. The selection process involves a thorough understanding of the unique site features and how these features affect the performance of each type of sensor. It is necessary to develop procurement specifications to establish acceptable sensor performance limits. Careful explanation and inspection of critical installation dimensions is required during on-site construction. The implementation of these activities at a particular site is discussed

  12. Intrusion detection system elements

    This report highlights elements required for an intrusion detection system and discusses problems which can be encountered in attempting to make the elements effective. Topics discussed include: sensors, both for exterior detection and interior detection; alarm assessment systems, with the discussion focused on video assessment; and alarm reporting systems, including alarm communication systems and dislay/console considerations. Guidance on careful planning and design of a new or to-be-improved system is presented

  13. Uraniferous granite in central Texas

    The Precambrian Oatman Creek granite exposed in Gillespie County, central Texas, contains 5 to 10 times more uranium than that of an average granite. Samples of this granite, collected from outcrops and quarry openings, were studied by petrographic, delayed neutron counting, fission track, and gamma-ray spectrometry methods. Experiments of leaching uranium from disaggregated samples were also made. The granite is medium grained with an average composition of 36% quartz, 25% K-feldspar, 38% plagioclase, and 1% biotite and others. In an 80-acre (32 ha.) outcrop area 32 samples, most of which have some uranium removed from weathering, show an average uranium content of 25 ppM; relatively unweathered samples have 50 to 100 ppM uranium. Most uranium occurs between grain boundaries which is called integranular uranium; some occurs in microfractures developed during late, hydrothermal stages. A portion of the uranium also occurs in discrete minerals, particularly oxides of iron or iron-titanium, and accessory minerals such as zircon, sphene, garnet, and others. This distribution indicates that much of the uranium mineralization was a result of deuteric or hydrothermal activities. Selected acids of various concentrations were used in experimental leaching of uranium from Oatman Creek granite. Other variables in the experiments were degree of disaggregation and duration of leaching. The results indicate that more than two thirds of the uranium can be leached in a few hours time from the granite without excessive grinding, when a 5N acid is used. This study shows that the Oatman Creek granite may be a long-term source of uranium in the future

  14. Uranium deposits in granitic rocks

    This report is a review of published data bearing on the geology and origin of uranium deposits in granitic, pegmatitic and migmatitic rocks with the aim of assisting in the development of predictive criteria for the search for similar deposits in the U.S. Efforts were concentrated on the so-called ''porphyry'' uranium deposits. Two types of uranium deposits are primarily considered: deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in gneiss terrains, and disseminations of uranium in high-level granites. In Chapter 1 of this report, the general data on the distribution of uranium in igneous and metamorphic rocks are reviewed. Chapter 2 contains some comments on the classification of uranium deposits associated with igneous rocks and a summary of the main features of the geology of uranium deposits in granites. General concepts of the behavior of uranium in granites during crustal evolution are reviewed in Chapter 3. Also included is a discussion of the relationship of uranium mineralization in granites to the general evolution of mobile belts, plus the influence of magmatic and post-magmatic processes on the distribution of uranium in igneous rocks and related ore deposits. Chapter 4 relates the results of experimental studies on the crystallization of granites to some of the geologic features of uranium deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in high-grade metamorphic terrains. Potential or favorable areas for igneous uranium deposits in the U.S.A. are delineated in Chapter 5. Data on the geology of specific uranium deposits in granitic rocks are contained in Appendix 1. A compilation of igneous rock formations containing greater than 10 ppM uranium is included in Appendix 2. Appendix 3 is a report on the results of a visit to the Roessing area. Appendix 4 is a report on a field excursion to eastern Canada

  15. Geology, geochemistry, and geochronology of an A-type granite in the Mulock Glacier area, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    On the north side of the Mulock Glacier and at Cape Teall in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, deformed greenschist facies Skelton Group metasediments are intruded by the post-kinematic A-type Mulock Granite. Geochemical data indicate that this intrusive complex is similar to A-type granitoids previously described both to the north (Glee Intrusives and Penny Hill Granite), where they form part of the Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Province, and to the south (Foggydog Granite Suite). A U-Pb zircon date of 546 ± 3 Ma on the Mulock Granite places a minimum constraint on the age, and timing of deformation of the Skelton Group rocks in this area, and indicates that the Mulock Granite was emplaced during the initial stages of the Ross Orogeny. This age also confirms that crystallisation of this granite body was synchronous with that of A-type granitoids from the Royal Society Range to Skelton Glacier area immediately to the north. (author). 60 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Some pecularities of physical properties of the Kukulbei granitic massive with reference to their ore manifestation

    The granites of the Kukulbei complex belong to the youngest mesozoic intrusive formations of south-eastern trans-Baikal. They occur as small blocks composed of acid and extremely acid biotitic and leucocratic granites that vary greatly in their structural features. The granites are spatially and paragenetically (and in some gases genetically) linked with numerous deposits of rare metals and fluorite. A variation in the type of ore mineralization is found to be linked with specific blocks; the variation is expressed as a preponderance of one or two metals with a marked subordination of others. A typical petrographical feature of Kukulbei granites is the high general radioactivity (18 - 25 mr/hr). It was established that the type of rare-metal mineralization depends on the nature of the radioactivity of the granites. For granites with a significant preponderance in their make-up of radioactive uranium and reduced concentrations of thorium and potassium, high concentrations of tantalum niobates are typical; where potassium and thorium play a greater role in the radioactivity, tungsten mineralization predominates, together with uranium. Despite some admixture of rare-metal mineralization, the types mentioned are typically quite clearly isolated. (V.Ya.)

  17. Influence of Age, Thought Content, and Anxiety on Suppression of Intrusive Thoughts

    Beadel, Jessica R.; Green, Jennifer S.; Hosseinbor, Shahrzad; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding differences in responses following attempts to suppress versus simply monitor intrusive thoughts is important given the established relationship between intrusive thinking and numerous forms of psychopathology. Moreover, these differences may vary as a function of age. Because of the links between aging and both enhancement in emotion regulation skills and decline in inhibition skills, older and younger adults were expected to differ in their responses (e.g., experience of negat...

  18. Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic implications of Late Triassic granites in the Mongolian Altai Mountains

    Dash, Batulzii; Boldbaatar, Enkhjargal; Zorigtkhuu, Oyun-Erdene; Yin, An

    2016-03-01

    Although the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in western China and western Mongolia occurred in the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian, widespread intra-continental magmatism continued to occur across this region from the Late Permian to the end of the Triassic. In this study we document field relationships and geochemical characterization of a Late Triassic felsic intrusive complex in the western Mongolian Altai. The plutonic complex occurs as sills, dikes, and small stocks and its composition varies from biotite granite, two-mica granite, to leucogranite. Structurally, the plutonic complex occurs in the hanging wall of a segment of the regionally extensively (>1500 km long) Irtysh-Ertix-Bulgan thrust zone. As the plutonic bodies both cut and are deformed by the shear fabrics in this regional thrust shear zone, the duration of felsic magmatism and regional thrusting was temporally overlapping. This suggests that magmatism was coeval with crustal thickening. Major- and trace-element data and isotopic analysis of granitoid samples from our study area indicate that the felsic intrusions were derived from partial melting of meta-sediments, with the biotite and two-mica granite generated through vapor-absent melting and the leucogranite from flux melting. Although the Mongolian Altai intrusions were clearly originated from anatexis, coeval granite in the Chinese Altai directly west of our study area in the hanging wall of the Irtysh-Ertix-Bulgan thrust was derived in part from mantle melting. To reconcile these observations, we propose a Himalayan-style intracontinental-subduction model that predicts two geologic settings for the occurrence of felsic magmatism: (1) along the intracontinental thrust zone where granite was entirely generated by anatexis and (2) in the hanging wall of the intracontinental thrust where convective removal and/or continental subduction induced mantle melting.

  19. Geochemistry and petrography of U-Th-Y mineralisation in alkali feldspar granite (alaskite) dykes around Dhanota, Mahendragarh district, Haryana, India

    Radioactive alkali feldspar granite (alaskite) occurs as dykes within the Proterozoic granite gneiss around Dhanota. Samples have assayed 0.011 to 0.16% U3O8 and 0.005 to 0.16% ThO2. Yttrium values range from 250 to 800 ppm. Uranothorite occurs in association with zircon, xenotime, magnetite, hematite, sphene and goethite. The U-Th-Y mineralization in alaskites of Dhanota is disseminated syn-magmatic intrusive type. (author)

  20. New methodical developments for GRANIT; Nouveaux developpements methodologiques pour GRANIT

    Baessler, S. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA-22904 (United States); Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., Oak Ridge, TN-37831 (United States); Gagarski, A.M.; Toperverg, B.P. [PNPI, Orlova Roscha, Gatchina, RU-188300 (Russian Federation); Lychagin, E.V.; Muzychka, A.Y.; Strelkov, A.V. [JINR, 6 Joliot-Curie, Dubna, RU-141980 (Russian Federation); Mietke, A. [Faculty of Science, Department of Phys., Technical University, Dresden, G-01062 (Germany); Nesvizhevsky, V.V. [ILL, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, Grenoble, F-38042 (France); Pignol, G. [LPSC/IN2P3-UJF-INPG, 53 rue des Martyrs, Grenoble, F-38026 (France); Toperverg, B.P.; Zhernenkov, K. [Ruhr Univ. Bochum, 150 Universitatstrasse, Bochum, G-44780 (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    New methodical developments for the GRANIT spectrometer address further improvements of the critical parameters of this experimental installation, as well as its applications to new fields of research. Keeping in mind an extremely small fraction of ultra cold neutrons (UCN) that could be bound in gravitational quantum states, we look for methods to increase statistics due to: developing UCN sources with maximum phase-space density, counting simultaneously a large fraction of neutrons using position-sensitive detectors, and decreasing detector backgrounds. Also we explore an eventual application of the GRANIT spectrometer beyond the scope of its initial goals, for instance, for reflectometry with UCN. (authors)

  1. Petrology and petrogenesis of the older and younger granitoids of Wadi Beizah area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Ragab, A. I.; Menesy, M. Y.; Diab, M. M.

    The studied granitoids of Wadi Beizah area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, are represented by older arc-granitoids intruded by a post-collisional stock of younger pink granite. The arc-granitoids (I-type) cover a wide compositional spectrum from meladiorites, diorites, quartzdiorites/monzodiorites and tonalites, to leucogranodiorites. Their distribution pattern is unimodal dominated by diorites. They are of low-K calc-alkaline character and represent the plutonic rocks of the mature, ensimatic island arc stage. Three models for the geotectonic environment of the younger granites of the Eastern Desert of Egypt have been suggested: (1) Within-plate, rifting, tensional environment similar to the Oslo Rift of Norway (Greenberg, 1981) Stern et al., 1984, 1986), (2) Extensive crustal anatexis during collisional tectonics, compression, thickening of the crust and thrust imbrication (Hussein et al., 1982; Ragab, 1987b), (3) Active continental margin geotectonic environment (Abdel-Rahman and Martin, 1987). These three models are discussed in detail. The present workers believe that the Younger Granites in general are the products of extensive crustal anatexis at the culmination of the Pan-African orogenic cycle when arc-arc suturing is complete. Recent studies revealed a low-angle thrust event in the Central Eastern Desert followed the initial arc-arc collision and continued after the deposition of the molasse-type sediments (Ries et al., 1983; El-Ramly et al., 1984; Greiling et al., 1984; Habib et al., 1985; Greiling and El-Ramly, 1985) which indicate thickening of the crust and compression regime at the time of emplacement of the Younger Granites. The dominance of ≪granite minimum≫ composition of these late orogenic granites suggests extensive crustal anatexis. Their low Nb-content (granitic rocks from the NE Sudan which on a geochemical evidence are the products of within-continental plate ≪hot-spot≫ magmatism with Nb-content of about 50-300 ppm (Gass, 1979); (2) The Oslo Rift within-plate granites with Nb-content of 226 ppm (Pearce et al., 1984). A post-collision model showing the formation of the ≪petrotectonic assemblage≫ of this stage (molasse-type sediments deposited in fault-bounded troughs, and calc-alkaline bimodal intermediate and felsic magmas) as well as the heat sources in the geotectonic environment of thrust imbrication and the mode of formation of the Younger Granites by crustal anatexis is suggested. K/Ar dating of a younger granite sample gave an age of 584 ± 5 M.a. which is compatible with several similar ages of younger pink granites in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. An older granite sample gave an age of 591 ± 7 M.a. (K/Ar method) indicating resetting of its isotopic clocks probably as a result of the extensive crustal anatexis event.

  2. Radiometric age and origin of Abu Garadi Granite-central eastern desert Egypt

    Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of 620 m.y. was obtained for Abu Garadi granite. One of the late orogenic plutonites of the Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Evaluation of this age as well as correlation with previously reported ages on granites of the same orogenic stage in the Central Eastern Desert are presented. The value 0.7183 obtained for the initial Sr Sr87/Sr86 ratio is significantly higher than other ratios obtained on similar granitic intrusions in the Eastern Desert of this age. This high value may be attributed to either partial fusion of the older metamorphic rocks in the area followed by emplacement or to assimilation of a large portion of pre-existing meta-sedimentary by a primary with subsequent homogenization of Sr isotopes throughout the rocks. The second model is preferred

  3. Geothermal potential of Caledonian granites in Ireland and the Isle of Man: Implications from hydrothermal alteration

    Fritschle, Tobias; Daly, J. Stephen; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Buhre, Stephan; McConnell, Brian; The Iretherm Team

    2015-04-01

    Ordovician to Devonian (Caledonian) granites are common in the Iapetus Suture Zone (ISZ) in Ireland and Britain. Some of these, e.g., the buried Kentstown and Glenamaddy granites, are situated beneath Upper Palaeozoic sedimentary basins, and hence are potential geothermal targets. Numerous granites of similar age and related origin (Fritschle et al., 2014) are exposed astride the ISZ. They are considered to be analogous to the buried ones, and their geochemical characteristics are used as a proxy for the buried granites as samples from deep drilling are naturally limited. The whole-rock geochemistry of nine granite intrusions (71 samples, including both hydrothermally altered and unaltered samples) varies significantly, but with no obvious geographical control. The granites are S- and I-Types with ASI (Aluminium Saturation Index) between 0.7 - 1.4. Average heat production rates range from 1.4 μW/m³ for the Leinster Granite to 4.9 μW/m³ for the Drogheda Granite (Fritschle et al., 2015). The heat-producing elements uranium (U), thorium (Th) and potassium (K) and calculated heat production rates generally correlate positively with niobium and rubidium concentrations. However, S-Type compared to I-Type granites show elevated abundances in rubidium (>130 ppm) and usually have a lower Th/U ratio. Altered samples tend to have a higher Th/U ratio compared to unaltered ones. Within individual plutons trends of decreasing heat production rates with increasing Th/U ratios were observed. This trend is attributed to the hydrothermal redistribution of the mobile heat-producing element uranium. This is also implied by uranium-enrichment in hydrothermally generated Ca and Si-veinlets. Metasomatic processes such as hydrothermal alteration appear capable of significantly redistributing mobile elements such as uranium. Hence, these processes may act as a major mechanism controlling the granite's heat production budget, often shaping a pluton's geothermal exploitation potential. Fritschle, T., Daly, J.S., Whitehouse, M.J., Buhre, S., McConnell, B., 2015. Geothermal potential of Caledonian granites astride the Iapetus Suture Zone in Ireland and the Isle of Man - Implications for EGS prospectivity. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2015, in press. Fritschle, T., Daly, J.S., Whitehouse, M.J., McConnell, B., Buhre, S., 2014. Zircon geochronology and Hf-O isotope geochemistry from granites in the Iapetus Suture Zone in Ireland and the Isle of Man. Geophysical Research Abstracts 16, EGU-2014-801.

  4. Mineral chemistry and geochemistry of the Late Neoproterozoic Gabal Abu Diab granitoids, Central Eastern Dessert, Egypt: Implications for the origin of rare metal post-orogenic A-type granites

    Sami, Mabrouk; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Farahat, Esam S.; Ahmed, Awaad F.; Mohamed, Haroun A.

    2015-04-01

    The Neoproterozoic Gabal Abu Diab pluton is a part of the Arabian Nubian shield (ANS) continental crust and located in the Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt. It constitutes multiphase granitic pluton intruded into granodiorite and metagabbro-diorite rocks with sharp and nonreactive contacts. Based on field observations, colors, structural variations and petrographic investigations, this granitic outcrop consists of an inner core of two-mica granite (TMG) followed outward by garnet bearing muscovite granite (GBMG) and albite granite (AG). Petrographical study indicated that medium to coarse-grained TMG is dominated by K-feldspar (Or88-98), quartz, plagioclase (albite, An0-7), muscovite and biotite with hypidiomorphic texture. With exception the appearance of garnet and the disappearance of biotite the GBMG resembles the TGM, while AG is leucocratic without any mafic mineral. The main accessories are zircon, Nb and Ta-bearing rutile, columbite, ilmenorutile, ilmenite, magnetite and apatite. This mineralogical similarity and the existence of columbite group minerals (CGM) in all granitoids, indicates a cogenetic relationship. Microprobe analyses reveal that, besides the CGM, rutile and ilmenite are the main repository phases for Nb-Ta-Ti. Columbite-(Mn) exists as individual subhedral crystals (up to 100μm in size) or intimate intergrowth with Nb-bearing rutile and/or ilmenite. The CGM are represented mostly by columbite-(Mn) with Ta/(Ta+Nb) and Mn/(Mn+Fe) ratio ranging from 0.02-0.08 and 0.4-0.9, respectively suggesting extreme degree of magmatic fractionation. Rutile contains significant amounts of Ta (up to 4 wt.% Ta2O5) and Nb (up to 22 wt.% Nb2O5). Biotites are phlogopite-annite in composition (Ann47-60Phlog40-53,on average) and are enriched with AlIV that characterize peraluminous granites. Garnets contain 60-69 mol.% spessartine and 28-36 mol.% almandine where, the ratio of spessartine and almandine together exceeds 95 mole percent, similar to garnet occur within A-type granite worldwide. According to Zhang et al., 2012, the garnet crystallized at the expense of biotite from the MnO-rich evolved melt after fractionation of biotite, plagioclase, K-feldspar, zircon, apatite, and ilmenite. The granitoids are alkali feldspar granites showing distinct geochemical features and most likely, belong to the post-orogenic younger Egyptian granitoids. They are peraluminous A-type alkaline rocks but they have lower Fe2O3, MgO, MnO, CaO, TiO2, P2O5, Sr, Ba, V, and higher SiO2, Na2O, K2O, Nb, Ta, U, Zr, Th, Ga/Al and Rb than the typical rocks of this type. The positive correlation between Ba and Sr, and the negative correlation between Rb and K/Rb reveal fractional crystallization of alkali feldspar. The similarity in most geochemical characteristics suggests that Abu Diab granitoids are genetically related to each other and extremely enrichment in incompatible elements such as Nb and Ta, indicating that they crystallized from extremely differentiated magmas. References: Zhang, J., Ma, C. and She, Z., 2012. An Early Cretaceous garnet-bearing metaluminous A-type granite intrusion in the East Qinling Orogen, central China: Petrological, mineralogical and geochemical constraints. Geoscience Frontiers 3 (5), 635-646.

  5. Archaean greenstone belts and associated granitic rocks - A review

    Anhaeusser, Carl R.

    2014-12-01

    Archaean greenstone belts and associated granitic rocks comprise some of the most diverse rock types on the Earth's surface and were formed during the early stages of the development of the planet from Eoarchaean to Neoarchaean times - a period extending back from about 4000 to 2500 million years ago. Because of their great age, these rocks have received unprecedented attention from a wide spectrum of Earth scientists striving to learn more about the evolution of the Earth, including its crust, hydrosphere, atmosphere, the commencement of life, and the nature and distribution of mineral deposits. The knowledge gained thus far has accumulated incrementally, beginning with solid field-based studies, the latter being supplemented with increasingly advanced technological developments that have enabled scientists to probe fundamental questions of Earth history. Archaean granite-greenstone terranes display considerable variability of lithologies and geotectonic events, yet there are unifying characteristics that distinguish them from other geological environments. Most greenstone belts consist of a wide variety of volcanic and sedimentary rocks that reflect different evolutionary conditions of formation and all have invariably been influenced by subsequent geotectonic factors, including the intrusion of ultramafic, mafic and granitic complexes, resulting in widespread deformation, metamorphism, metasomatism, as well as mineralization. Geochemical and isotopic age determinations have shown how complex these ancient rocks are and efforts at understanding the nature and evolution of the hydrosphere, atmosphere and primitive life have made Archaean terranes exciting environments in which to study. Conflicting views as to the nature, history and origin of many of the rock types and events in Archaean terranes has been ongoing and stimulating. This review attempts to describe the main lithotypes and other characteristics of granite-greenstone belt geology and points to some areas where contrasting views have been expressed.

  6. Interrelations between extensional shear zones and synkinematic intrusions: The example of Ikaria Island (NE Cyclades, Greece)

    Laurent, Valentin; Beaudoin, Alexandre; Jolivet, Laurent; Arbaret, Laurent; Augier, Romain; Rabillard, Aurlien; Menant, Armel

    2015-05-01

    The Aegean extensional backarc domain is an ideal place to investigate the interrelations between syntectonic intrusions and large-scale detachments, understanding whether the intrusions have a triggering effect on the inception of metamorphic core complex formation or not. A new field study of Ikaria Island (NE Cyclades, Greece) in two Miocene granitoid plutons intruding a high-temperature metamorphic dome, namely the Raches and Karkinagrion granites, leads to the identification of a major structure that has been omitted in previous studies: the Gialiskari Detachment. This regional-scale detachment is correlated with the North Cycladic Detachment System. Structural fieldwork at the scale of the entire Raches and Karkinagrion intrusions allows us to propose a map of strain intensity in these granites. This map, based on macrostructural criteria, highlights a strong strain gradient in both intrusions from base to top, when approaching the Gialiskari Detachment. Along the strain gradient, a continuum of top-to-the north shearing deformation is recognized, including i) syn-magmatic deformation, ii) high-temperature ductile deformation at submagmatic state, iii) mylonitic to ultramylonitic deformation, and iv) low-temperature brittle deformation. A scenario of the interactions between the detachment and the Raches and Karkinagrion intrusions during their emplacement is proposed. We show that these granites were emplaced while the exhumation of the Ikaria metamorphic dome was already underway. We conclude that these plutons do not initially localize detachments, and instead that detachments localize and control the ascent of plutons. Intrusions then interact with detachments, accommodating their upward migration in the crust. This scenario is described on other Cycladic islands such as on Tinos or Mykonos. At a larger scale, the final emplacement of plutons may result from the flow of molten crust toward metamorphic core complex during extension.

  7. New methodical developments for GRANIT

    Baessler, S.; Gagarski, A. M.; Lychagin, E. V.; Mietke, A.; Muzychka, A. Yu.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Pignol, G.; Strelkov, A. V.; Toperverg, B. P.; Zhernenkov, K.

    2011-10-01

    New methodical developments for the GRANIT spectrometer address further improvements of the critical parameters of this experimental installation, as well as its applications to new fields of research. Keeping in mind an extremely small fraction of ultra cold neutrons (UCN) that could be bound in gravitational quantum states, we look for methods to increase statistics due to: developing UCN sources with maximum phase-space density, counting simultaneously a large fraction of neutrons using position-sensitive detectors, and decreasing detector backgrounds. Also we explore an eventual application of the GRANIT spectrometer beyond the scope of its initial goals, for instance, for reflectometry with UCN.

  8. New methodical developments for GRANIT

    Baessler, Stefan [ORNL; Nesvizhevsky, V. [ Inst Max Von Laue Paul Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble 9, France; Toperverg, B [Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany; Zhernenkov, K. [Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany; Gagarski, A [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia; Lychagin, E [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Muzychka, A [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Strelkov, A [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Mietke, A [Technische Universitat Dresden

    2011-01-01

    New methodical developments for the GRANIT spectrometer address further improvements of the critical parameters of this experimental installation, as well as its applications to new fields of research. Keeping in mind an extremely small fraction of ultra cold neutrons (UCN) that could be bound in gravitational quantum states, we look for methods to increase statistics due to: developing UCN sources with maximum phase-space density, counting simultaneously a large fraction of neutrons using position-sensitive detectors, and decreasing detector backgrounds. Also we explore an eventual application of the GRANIT spectrometer beyond the scope of its initial goals, for instance, for reflectometry with UCN.

  9. Status of LLNL granite projects

    The status of LLNL Projects dealing with nuclear waste disposal in granitic rocks is reviewed. This review covers work done subsequent to the June 1979 Workshop on Thermomechanical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository and is prepared for the July 1980 Workshop on Thermomechanical-Hydrochemical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository. Topics reviewed include laboratory determination of thermal, mechanical, and transport properties of rocks at conditions simulating a deep geologic repository, and field testing at the Climax granitic stock at the USDOE Nevada Test Site

  10. Status of LLNL granite projects

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-12-31

    The status of LLNL Projects dealing with nuclear waste disposal in granitic rocks is reviewed. This review covers work done subsequent to the June 1979 Workshop on Thermomechanical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository and is prepared for the July 1980 Workshop on Thermomechanical-Hydrochemical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository. Topics reviewed include laboratory determination of thermal, mechanical, and transport properties of rocks at conditions simulating a deep geologic repository, and field testing at the Climax granitic stock at the USDOE Nevada Test Site.

  11. Feasibility study of the Conway Granite as a geothermal energy resource

    Osberg, P.H.; Wetterauer, R.; Rivers, M.; Bothner, W.A.; Creasy, J.W.

    1978-08-15

    The eastern part of the White Mountain batholith is dominated by four intrusive complexes, which contain similar sequences of intrusive rocks. Although the details of the sequence of intrusion differ from complex to complex, the Osceola Granite is generally an early phase, followed by the development of ring dikes of Albany Porphyritic Quartz Syenite and finally the intrusion of Conway Granite. One intrusive complex contains riebeckite granite as a late phase, and at least two complexes fed volcanic eruptions, some of the products of which are preserved in subsided blocks. A specialized study of the orientation of joints was made in the eastern halo of the batholith. Measurement of gravity over the eastern part of the batholith and reduction of these data allows gravity residuals to be calculated and two- and three-dimensional models for the eastern part of the batholith to be constructed. The gravity models are consistent with steeply dipping contacts with the country rocks, and the maximum depth of the eastern part of the batholith is between 4 km and 5.25 km. The temperature distribution within the eastern part of the batholith can be determined using existing parameters for heat flow, heat production, and conductivity augmented by new data for heat production. The geologic boundaries and the gravity model provide the geometric constraints for the temperature distribution. Both one- and two-dimensional models are developed. The temperature distribution varies both vertically and laterally within the batholith. Estimates of temperature beneath the batholith are 170/sup 0/C at 6 km and 220/sup 0/C at 8 km.

  12. WLAN Intrusion Detection System

    Ms. Sushama Shirke; Mr. S.B.Vanjale

    2011-01-01

    This is an implementation of the Wireless LAN Intrusion Detection System (WIDS ) using clock-skews as a fingerprinting property as suggested by Jana-Kasera [1]. Our objective is to detect the presence of a fake access point (AP) in a Wireless LAN (WLAN). Use of clock -skew enables us to effectively detect Medium Access Control (MAC) Address spoofing. The principle used in this project is that clock s k e w s remain consistent over time for the same AP but vary significantly across AP’s. We ha...

  13. Spatial Intrusion of Mining

    SarathChand P.V; Bhukya Shankar Nayak; Rambabu pemula; Nagamani K.; Bhukya Ravindranaik,

    2011-01-01

    The Spatial Intrusion of Mining is a conceptual of space or the location component. The Mining can be viewed as the data about the objects which are located in physical space. It may be implemented by a specific location attributes by latitudes and longitudes and also by more implicitly included about the partitioning of the databases which are based on the location. The spatial data bases and ware houses were the data is accesses by by using the queries containing directions, adjacent and co...

  14. Petrochemical characteristics of Serra do Meio alkaline granite (Campo Alegre de Lourdes - Bahia State)

    The Serra do Meio granite outcrops near the town of Campo Alegre de Lourdes, north-northeast of Bahia State. The granite is intrusive into micachists, which are correlatives of the Salgueiro-Cachoeirinha Group (Early Proterozoic), during early to the syn-tectonic shear phase. The geological setting also comprises a phosphatic rock-bearing carbonatitic complex and gabbroid complexes with one of the main world resources of Fe-Ti-V. The granite mineralogical composition grades from Aegerine-augite alkali-feldspar granite/syenites to Leuco alcali-feldspar granite. The geochemical analysis shows SiO2-enrichment (67 to 76%), in alkalis (Na2+K2O, 7,5 to 12,5%), Nb (up to 680ppm), Zr (up to 2,390ppm), Y (up to 250ppm) e REE (up to 796ppm). The geochemical behaviour is peculiar to alkaline series, denoting a silica-oversaturated, potassium-rich, magma. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns display a first group with smooth slopes from the La to Lu, and a second one with negative slopes. Negative Eu anomalies are displayed in all the patterns. The first group is HREE-enriched, with low fractionation ratios. Samples with milonytic fabrics and higher fractionation ratios are related to the second group, suggesting the interaction of metassomatic fluids and the alkaline magma. Discriminant diagrams for Nb, Y and Rb, coupled with geophysical data, point to an intrusive granite in an extensional within a plate tectonic setting of attenuated continental crust. (author)

  15. Intrusive growth of sclerenchyma fibers

    Snegireva, A.V.; Ageeva, M. V.; Amenitskii, S.I.; Chernova, T.E.; Ebskamp, M.; Gorshkova, T. A.

    2010-01-01

    Intrusive growth is a type of cell elongation when the rate of its longitudinal growth is higher than that of surrounding cells; therefore, these cells intrude between the neighboring cells penetrating the middle lamella. The review considers the classical example of intrusive growth, e.g., elongation of sclerenchyma fibers when the cells achieve the length of several centimeters. We sum the published results of investigations of plant fiber intrusive growth and present some features of intru...

  16. Potassium - argon age data from the Bundelkhand granite and associated rocks and their comparison with the rubidium - strontium isochron ages

    Bundelkhand granitic complex occupies a semi-circular area (north of C.I.S.) of about 25000 sq.km. K-Ar age data on hornblende and biotite from amphibolite and mica schist enclaves in Bundelkhand Granitic Complex from widely separated areas (Aver.c. 2413 Ma) are correlatable with the Rb-Sr (WR) mineral isochron age (c.2402 Av.) of granodiorites and granite, suite II indicating the absence of later thermal events (300 degC, biotite blocking temperature) after the granite (II) emplacement (Rb-Sr data). These K-Ar mineral ages indicate the thermal episodes due to the emplacement of the granite. The younger mineral age (2187 Ma Av) may be correlated with the thermal episodes related to the emplacement of Suite III granite (2130 Ma). Bundelkhand Granitic Complex may broadly be correlated with the lower proterozoic (I) granites of Closepet, Chitradurga, Hyderabad, Karimnagar, (South India), Malanjkhand and Dongargarh covering large areas in Madhya Pradesh, Central India and South India. Thus K-Ar ages may be reliable in case the blocking temperatures of minerals dated keep the 40Ar in the lattice in tact since emplacement. (author). 27 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  17. Les intrusions de Wirgane (Haut Atlas occidental, Maroc): témoins d'un magmatisme syn- à tardi-cinématique hercynien? (Intrusions of Wirgane [western High Atlas, Morocco]: evidence for a syn- to late kinematic magmatism of Variscan age?)

    Eddif, A.; Gasquet, D.; Hoepffner, C.; Ayad, N. Ait

    2000-11-01

    The Wirgane intrusives were emplaced into the Late Neoproterozoic to Palæozoic series of the northeast of the Moroccan western High Atlas. The intrusions exhibit a large compositional range from monzogabbro to granite, and they have suffered, together with the country rocks, part of the Variscan tectonic evolution. In the immediate vicinity of the intrusions, thermal metamorphism developed in the country rocks. According to the mineral chemistry of igneous amphibole compositions of diorites and metamorphic minerals, the depth of intrusives was estimated to be less than 11 km. Strain patterns, mapped in both the plutons and the country rocks, and microtectonic data indicate that the intrusions were emplaced in a dextral transcurrent shearing context during the Variscan Orogen. When compared with other intrusions of the western High Atlas (Tichka, Azegour), the Wirgane intrusives are considered to be related to the late stages of the Variscan Belt of Morocco.

  18. Groundwater evolution of the granite area, Korea

    The geochemistry and environmental isotopes of groundwater in the Cretaceous granite of the Yeongcheon area has been investigated. The hydrochemistry of groundwater belongs to the Ca-HCO3 type. The oxygen-18 and deuterium data are clustered along the meteoric water line, indicating that the groundwater is of meteoric water origin. Tritium data show that the groundwaters were mostly recharged before pre-thermonuclear period and have been mixed with younger surface water flowing rapidly along fractured zones. Based on the mass balance and reaction simulation approaches using both the hydrochemistry of groundwater and the secondary mineralogy of fracture-filling materials, the low-temperature hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in the area has been modeled. The results of geochemical simulation show that the concentrations of Ca, Na and HCO3 and pH of waters increase progressively owing to the dissolution of reactive minerals in flow paths. The concentrations of Mg and K first increase with the dissolution of reactant minerals, but later decrease when montmorillonite and illitic material are precipitated respectively. The continuous adding of reactive minerals, i. e. the progressively larger degrees of water/rock interaction, causes the formation of secondary minerals with the following sequence: hematite > gibbsite > kaolinite > montmorillonite > illitic material > microcline. The results of reaction simulation agree well with the observed water chemistry and secondary mineralogy, indicating the successful applicability of this simulation technique to delineate the complex hydrogeochemistry of bedrock groundwaters. (author)

  19. MORPHOMETRY OF ZIRCON FROM BETLIAR GRANITE

    Jakabská Katarína

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrical analyse has been provided, using the method of [10] , on zircon from granite porphyry at Betliar. The result of this investigation indicate a comagmatic origin of Betliar and other granite bodies in the Gemericum. The source materila for at the granite magma formation originated by hybridization of crust-mantle rocks.

  20. MORPHOMETRY OF ZIRCON FROM BETLIAR GRANITE

    Jakabská Katarína

    1997-01-01

    Morphometrical analyse has been provided, using the method of [10] , on zircon from granite porphyry at Betliar. The result of this investigation indicate a comagmatic origin of Betliar and other granite bodies in the Gemericum. The source materila for at the granite magma formation originated by hybridization of crust-mantle rocks.

  1. Radio-elements distribution and localization of uranium mineralization in gaiter granitic pluton, North Estern Desert, Egypt

    Ga bal G attar area covers about 450 k m2 of crystalline basement rocks outcropped in north eastern desert. The younger granites of Ga bal G attar area acquired their importance due to the hosting seven uranium mineralizations occurrences. In the form of pitch blend as a principal primary uranium mineral as well as uranophane, beta-uranophane and kalsetal as principal secondary uranium minerals, hosted in G. G attar younger granites. The presence of uranium mineralizations at G. G attar is related to the late magmatic stage which has concentrated uranium in the residual solidified granitic magma forming uranium primary mineralization. The first form of uranium mineralizations in G. G attar granites is pitchblende and the second form is mainly as substitutions in the granitic rocks accessory minerals. The solidified G. G attar granites were faulted, joints and sheared due to tectonic events acted good channels for percolating meteoric water which mixes with the trapped residual magmatic fluids rich in uranium and thorium. These conditions generated low temperature hydrothermal systems, which released uranium from the hosting granites essential and accessory minerals. Released this uranium was redeposited as secondary uranium minerals in the shear zones that beside secondary uranium hypo gene solutions from other sources. Ga bal G attar granite was affected by strong acidic hydrothermal solutions. That derived became later strong alkaline hydrothermal solutions. These solutions played the most important role in the alteration of the G attar granite along shear zones. Secondary uranium minerals have been formed by altering primary uranium minerals (pitchblende) due to ph and/or Eh changes resulted by the effect of hydrothermal fluids. The role of iron oxides in adsorbing mobilized uranium from its circulating solutions can not be neglected.

  2. Re-Os molybdenite dating of granite-related Sn-W-Mo mineralization at Hnilec, Gemeric Superunit, Slovakia

    Re-Os molybdenite ages from the exocontact of the Hnilec granite-greisen body provide temporal constraints for tin, tungsten and molybdenite mineralization in the Gemeric Superunit, Slovakia. Two molybdenite separates were taken from a representative sample of the Sn-W-Mo mineralization at Hnilec and their Re-Os ages of 262.2 ± 0.9 and 263.8 ± 0.8 Ma (2-sigma) are in excellent agreement. The obtained Re-Os molybdenite ages are similar to recent but less precise electron microprobe monazite (276 ± 13 Ma) and U-Pb single zircon (250 ± 18 Ma) ages from the Hnilec granite intrusion, supporting a granite-related greisen origin for the Sn-W-Mo mineralization. Our precise Re-Os molybdenite ages resolve the long time controversy over the timing of high-temperature mineralization in the Gemeric Superunit. These Permian ages eliminate suggestions of an Alpine age. The sulphur isotope composition of the studied molybdenite is δ34S(CDT) = 1.71 ± 0.2 %o and is consistent with a magmatic sulphur source. Field observations indicate the lack of a broad contact aureole in the vicinity of the Hnilec granite body. Shallow level granite emplacement in schistose host rocks was accompanied by alteration and formation of tin-tungsten greisen in the upper part of the granite and exocontact molybdenite mineralization, both commonly lacking in other granite bodies within the Gemeric Superunit. (author)

  3. Patherns in the rare earth elements of the Serra do Carambei granite (Parana) and the others associated ignous rocks

    The rare earth elements (REE) distribution patters in igneous rocks of the Serra do Carambei Granite area (Parana) were a very important tool to elucidate the genetic processes and the cogenetic relationships between these rocks. The porphyroid facies of the Cunhaporanga Granitoid Complex has a REE distribution pattern characterized by decreasing concentrations in direction to the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and the smooth Eu negative anomalie, compatible with amphibole fractionation during the magma ascent and the incipient plagioclase fractionation. The REE pattern of the Serra do Carambei Granite is characterized by the strong Eu negative anomalie, by the light rare earth element (LREE) depletion and by the HREE increase. This shape of the REE patterns is frequently observed in Sn-W granites, according to French authors. However in the igneous rocks of the Serra do Carambei Granite area this is not true. ''Rhyolite'' dytes intrusives in the Serra do Carambei Granite exhibit REE pattern similar to the wall rock, indicating then the same genetic processes. The Castro Group rhyolites have REE patterns with decreasing concentrations in direction to the HREE and smooth Eu negative anomalie. The REE distribution patterns is against the consanguinity between the ''rhyolites'' intruded in the Serra do Carambei Granite and the rhyolites of the Castro Group and also between these rhyolites and the above mentioned Granite. (author)

  4. Experimental and geochemical evidence for derivation of the El Capitan Granite, California, by partial melting of hydrous gabbroic lower crust

    Ratajeski, K.; Sisson, T.W.; Glazner, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    Partial melting of mafic intrusions recently emplaced into the lower crust can produce voluminous silicic magmas with isotopic ratios similar to their mafic sources. Low-temperature (825 and 850??C) partial melts synthesized at 700 MPa in biotite-hornblende gabbros from the central Sierra Nevada batholith (Sisson et al. in Contrib Mineral Petrol 148:635-661, 2005) have major-element and modeled trace-element (REE, Rb, Ba, Sr, Th, U) compositions matching those of the Cretaceous El Capitan Granite, a prominent granite and silicic granodiorite pluton in the central part of the Sierra Nevada batholith (Yosemite, CA, USA) locally mingled with coeval, isotopically similar quartz diorite through gabbro intrusions (Ratajeski et al. in Geol Soc Am Bull 113:1486-1502, 2001). These results are evidence that the El Capitan Granite, and perhaps similar intrusions in the Sierra Nevada batholith with lithospheric-mantle-like isotopic values, were extracted from LILE-enriched, hydrous (hornblende-bearing) gabbroic rocks in the Sierran lower crust. Granitic partial melts derived by this process may also be silicic end members for mixing events leading to large-volume intermediate composition Sierran plutons such as the Cretaceous Lamarck Granodiorite. Voluminous gabbroic residues of partial melting may be lost to the mantle by their conversion to garnet-pyroxene assemblages during batholithic magmatic crustal thickening. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  5. Gamma-spectrometric surveys in differentiated granites. II: the Joaquim Murtinho Granite in the Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex, Parana, SE Brazil; Levantamentos gamaespectrometricos em granitos diferenciados. II: O exemplo do Granito Joaquim Murtinho, Complexo Granitico Cunhaporanga, Parana

    Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada; Fruchting, Allan [Votorantim Metais, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: allan.fruchting@vmetais.com.br; Guimaraes, Gilson Burigo [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias], e-mail: gburigo@ig.com.br; Alves, Luizemara Soares [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: luizemara@petrobras.com.br; Martin, Victor Miguel Oliveira; Ulbrich, Horstpeter Herberto Gustavo Jose [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], e-mail: vicmartin6@ig.com.br, e-mail: hulbrich@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Detailed mapping at the NW corner of the large Neo proterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), Parana state, SE Brazil, redefined the Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG), a late intrusion in CGC with an exposed area of about 10 km{sup 2}, made up mainly by evolved 'alaskites' (alkali-feldspar leuco granites). This unit is in tectonic contact with the Neoproterozoic-Eocambrian volcano-sedimentary Castro Group, to the W, and is intrusive into other less evolved granitic units of the CGC to the E. Petrographically, JMG shows mainly mesoperthite and quartz, with subordinate amounts of altered micas and some accessory phases, mainly zircon. The equi to inequigranular granites are usually deformed with cataclastic textures, are often brecciated, and may have miarolitic structures. Formation of late albite, sericite, carbonate and hematite was caused by deuteric and hydrothermal alteration. A gamma-ray spectrometric survey at 231 stations which measured total counts (TC), Ueq K%, eU ppm and eTh ppm was used to construct several direct and derived maps. Compared to neighboring units the JMG has significant anomalies, especially in the TC, %K, eTh and eU maps, although the differences are less obvious in some derived maps. These evolved granites are enriched in these three elements. Geochemical behavior of K, Th and U is used to analyse the results observed in maps. Enhanced weathering under a subtropical climate with moderate to high average temperatures and heavy rainfall affects mainly feldspars and biotite, and may also destabilize most U and Th-bearing accessory phases. Th is most likely retained in restite minerals in soils, being relatively immobile, while part of U may migrate as uranyl ion in oxidizing media. K is especially affected by feldspar alteration to K-free clays (mainly kaolinite), and may be completely leached. Gamma-ray spectrometric methods are valid tools to study facies in granitic rocks, especially in those that are enriched in K, Th and U. (author)

  6. Spatial and temporal relationships between granites and porphyry copper deposits in northern Chile

    Jiskoot, Courtney; Mutch, Euan; Cooper, Frances; Tattitch, Brian; Matjuschkin, Vladimir; Blundy, Jon

    2014-05-01

    Chile is the leading copper producing country in the world, hosting ~30% of known worldwide copper reserves. Subduction-related magmatism in Chile has been ongoing since at least Mesozoic time, with progressive inland migration of the magmatic arc from the Jurassic coast eastward to the active western cordillera in the high Andes. Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) in Chile are spatially and temporally related to emplacement of shallow, felsic to intermediate composition plutons that sourced the ore-forming magmas and mineralising fluids. However, not every such intrusion in Chile is associated with a mineralised deposit, suggesting that there are other controls on whether or not an intrusion hosts a PCD. Models for porphyry copper formation typically assume emplacement of these felsic to intermediate intrusions at shallow crustal levels (5-15 km depth) [1], but absolute constraints on emplacement depths for both mineralised and barren systems are lacking. In order to explore the relationship between granite emplacement depths and occurrences of PCDs in northern Chile, we have created a geospatial database that compares the age, geochemistry, and depth of mapped felsic to intermediate plutons (e.g. granites, tonalities, and diorites) with the locations of known PCDs, as well as major fault zones and volcanic centres. Emplacement depths have been calculated from published geochemical analyses using existing calibrations of the Al-in-hornblende barometer, which is widely used for calc-alkaline granitic rocks [2]. We are also developing a new experimental calibration of the barometer using a combination of piston cylinder experiments (5, 7, and 10 kbar), externally heated pressure vessel experiments (0.5-2 kbar), and electron microprobe analyses on a granitic sample of the Lluta batholith, collected in northern Chile. This improved Al-in-hornblende barometer, calibrated for shallow intrusions, will provide a viable alternative to estimating depths of PCD formation from fluid inclusions, which is often hampered by alternations between lithostatic and hydrostatic pressure. Furthermore, the results of this study will be broadly applicable to investigating the potential links between intrusion depth, PCD formation, and parameters such as regional tectonic patterns and fluid/melt interactions. References: [1] Sillitoe, 2010, Porphyry Copper Systems, Ec. Geol., 105, 3-41. [2] Anderson et al., 2008, Thermometers and Thermobarometers in Granitic Systems, Rev. Min. Geochem., 69, 121-142.

  7. Resolving the Younger Dryas Event Through Borehole Thermometry

    Firestone, John Francis

    One of the most striking features of the ice core records from Greenland is a sudden drop in oxygen isotope values (delta O-18) between approximately 11,500 and 10,700 years ago. This Younger Dryas event was an intense return to ice age conditions during a time of general de-glaciation. As recorded in the ice cores, temperatures in Greenland cooled by roughly seven degrees Kelvin. W. Broecker and R. Fairbanks have proposed competing explanations for the cooling and cause of this "aborted ice age." One supposes that the seven degree cooling is real and results from a shutdown in the North Atlantic ocean circulation; the other, that it is largely fictitious and records an intrusion of isotopically light glacial meltwater into the ice core records. Using optimal control methods and heat flow modelling, the author makes a valiant but ultimately futile attempt to distinguish the Younger Dryas event in the ice sheet temperatures measured at Dye 3, South Greenland. The author discusses the prospects for attempting the same in the new Summit boreholes in Central Greenland: how that will require more accurate temperature measurements, a coupled thermo-mechanical model, and a refined uncertainty analysis. He concludes by discussing how borehole temperature analysis may improve the climate histories determined from ice cores.

  8. Cretaceous evolution of the Adria-Europe plate boundary: succession of events recorded in granites and enclaves of the Moslava?ka Gora (Croatia)

    Petrinec, Zorica; Balen, Draen

    2014-05-01

    Complex Cretaceous S-type granitoid pluton, geotectonically related to an active continental margin, makes a central part of the Moslava?ka Gora (MG) crystalline and hosts two groups of enclaves. Cognate enclaves, genetically related to the granitoid host rocks, comprise different types of microgranular enclaves, tourmaline nodules, K-feldspar megacrysts and other inhomogenities found inside the two-mica granitoids. All of these enclaves provide evidence of the petrogenetic processes that took place inside the MG Cretaceous magmatic system. On the other hand, foreign enclaves, mostly xenoliths of metapelitic and metabasic rocks, hold information about the metamorphic events that preceded or were contemporaneous with the intrusion and solidification of the igneous body. Based on the age data gathered by earlier researchers of the MG crystalline and P-T data extracted from the study of Cretacoeus granitoids and their enclaves, it was possible to characterize multiple episodes of Cretaceous igneous and metamorphic evolution of the MG. Intrusion of the mantle-related mafic magma at pressures ~8 kbar and temperatures ~920 C has been regarded as the oldest Cretaceous magmatic pulse (~110-90 Ma) recorded in the MG crystalline complex, leaving behind local occurrences of gabbroic rocks. Its relation to the medium-pressure metamorphic event recorded in amphibole-bearing xenoliths reaching ~8 kbar and max. ~800 C has not been elucidated so far. It was followed by a younger LP-HT event (100-90 Ma), recorded in a sequence of partial melting reactions in the metapelitic rocks reaching granulite facies conditions (2-5 kbar, ~720-790 C). Such melt-producing reactions documented in the km-sized metapelitic xenoliths point to the nature and extent of processes in the metapelitic source rocks that contributed to the overall production of the granitic magma in this setting. All of the aforementioned events preceded the Late Cretaceous intrusion of the central granitoid body and oscillations of igneous activity recored in the products of mixing and hybridization between granitoids and more mafic magmas (MME enclaves) and the onset of immiscibility (tourmaline nodules) nad the intrusion of leucogranites. According to our data, all of these pulses occurred in a low-pressure crustal setting (<3 kbar, 660-770 C). Late Cretaceous peak of igneous activity in the MG system was accompanied by a second LP-HT metamorphic event (<2 kbar, <650 C) that has been recorded in all MG crystalline lithologies and is correlated with the crystallization and cooling of the crystalline complex, following the intrusion of the central granitoid body. Fluids released by its crystallization led to fluid-assisted melting reactions in cm- to m-sized metapelitic enclaves, recording the interaction of granitoid host with the encapsulated fragments of metapelitic rocks and their role in the granite petrogenesis at Moslava?ka Gora. Data gathered by the study of different types of enclaves from the Moslava?ka Gora granitoid rocks are mutually consistent and reflect the complexity of Cretaceous evolution of a small and geotectonically still enigmatic crystalline fragment at the Adria-Europe plate boundary. This approach opens new perspectives for future research of the processes that took place in the mobile zone on the southeastern margins of Mesozoic Europe.

  9. The Pan-African high-K calc-alkaline peraluminous Elat granite from southern Israel: geology, geochemistry and petrogenesis

    Eyal, M.; Litvinovsky, B. A.; Katzir, Y.; Zanvilevich, A. N.

    2004-10-01

    Calc-alkaline leucocratic granites that were emplaced at the late post-collision stage of the Pan-African orogeny are abundant in the northern half of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Commonly, they are referred to as the Younger Granite II suite. In southern Israel such rocks are known as Elat granite. Studies of these rocks enable to recognize two types of granites: coarse-grained, massive Elat granite (EG), and fine- to medium-grained Shahmon gneissic granite (SGG). Both granite types are high-K and peraluminous ( ASI ranges from 1.03 to 1.16). They are similar in modal composition, mineral and whole-rock chemistry. Within the EG, a noticeable distinction in whole-rock chemistry and mineral composition is observed between rocks making up different plutons. In particular, the granite of Wadi Shelomo, as compared to the Rehavam pluton, is enriched in SiO 2, FeO∗, K 2O, Ba, Zr, Th, LREE and impoverished in MgO, Na 2O, Sr, and HREE. The Eu/Eu∗ values in the granite are low, up to 0.44. Mass-balance calculations suggest that chemical and mineralogical variations were caused by fractionation of ˜16 wt.% plagioclase from the parental Rehavam granite magma at temperature of 760-800 °C (muscovite-biotite geothermometer). The Rb-Sr isochrons yielded a date of 623 ± 24 Ma for the EG, although high value of age-error does not allow to constrain time of emplacement properly. The Rb-Sr date for SGG is 640 ± 9 Ma; however, it is likely that this date points to the time of metamorphism. A survey of the literature shows that peraluminous, high-K granites, similar to the EG, are abundant among the Younger Granite II plutons in the Sinai Peninsula and Eastern Desert, Egypt. They were emplaced at the end of the batholithic (late post-collision) stage. The most appropriate model for the generation of the peraluminous granitic magma is partial melting of metapelite and metagreywacke.

  10. Passive intrusion detection system

    Laue, E. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detection system is described in which crystal oscillators are used to provide a frequency which varies as a function of fluctuations of a particular environmental property of the atmosphere, e.g., humidity, in the protected volume. The system is based on the discovery that the frequency of an oscillator whose crystal is humidity sensitive, varies at a frequency or rate which is within a known frequency band, due to the entry of an intruder into the protected volume. The variable frequency is converted into a voltage which is then filtered by a filtering arrangement which permits only voltage variations at frequencies within the known frequency band to activate an alarm, while inhibiting the alarm activation when the voltage frequency is below or above the known frequency band.

  11. Rapid deployment intrusion detection system

    A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs

  12. Origin of alkali-feldspar granites: An example from the Poimena Granite, northeastern Tasmania, Australia

    Mackenzie, Douglas E.; Black, Lance P.; Sun, Shen-Su

    1988-10-01

    The Lottah Granite is a composite pluton of tin-mineralised, strongly peraluminous alkali-feldspar granite which intrudes the Poimena Granite, a major component of the mid-Devonian Blue Tier Batholith of northeastern Tasmania. Earlier workers interpreted the Lottah Granite as a metasomatised differentiate of the Poimena Granite. The Poimena Granite is a slightly peraluminous, felsic, I-type biotite granite which contains restite minerals and shows linear trends on Marker plots, both consistent with restite separation. The mineralogy, chemical variation, and isotopic characteristics of the Lottah Granite are consistent with origin as a magma genetically unrelated to the host granite. The Lottah Granite contains sanidine, albite, topaz, zinnwaldite and other minerals consistent with crystallisation from a melt. It is richer than the Poimena Granite in Li, Rb, Sn, Ga, F, and P, and trends on variation diagrams are distinctly different ( e.g., SiO 2decreases as Na 2O, Rb, Li and F increase) from those of the Poimena Granite. Furthermore, Rb-Sr isotopic dating indicates that the Lottah Granite was emplaced about 10 Ma after the Poimena Granite, and initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios indicate that the Lottah Granite was derived from a higher- 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.715 .002, c. 0.70933 .0008), higher-?Nd (-2.15 to -2.75, c. about -6) source composition. Chemical and mineralogical evolution of the Lottah Granite conform to the experimental behaviour of Li-F-rich melts, and indicate a possible crystallisation temperature range as extreme as 750-430C. Vertical chemical zonation of the Lottah Granite is consistent with fractional crystallisation and accumulation of residual liquids at the top of the magma chamber. Many other examples of alkali-feldspar granite, and much of the associated mineralisation, are probably also of essentially primary magmatic origin rather than of metasomatic or hydrothermal origin as commonly interpreted. They may also be genetically unrelated to granites with which they are associated.

  13. Charnockites and granites of the western Adirondacks, New York, USA: a differentiated A-type suite

    Whitney, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    Granitic rocks in the west-central Adirondack Highlands of New York State include both relatively homogeneous charnockitic and hornblende granitic gneisses (CG), that occur in thick stratiform bodies and elliptical domes, and heterogeneous leucogneisses (LG), that commonly are interlayered with metasedimentary rocks. Major- and trace-element geochemical analyses were obtained for 115 samples, including both types of granitoids. Data for CG fail to show the presence of more than one distinct group based on composition. Most of the variance within the CG sample population is consistent with magmatic differentiation combined with incomplete separation of early crystals of alkali feldspar, plagioclase, and pyroxenes or amphibole from the residual liquid. Ti, Fe, Mg, Ca, P, Sr, Ba, and Zr decrease with increasing silica, while Rb and K increase. Within CG, the distinction between charnockitic (orthopyroxene-bearing) and granitic gneisses is correlated with bulk chemistry. The charnockites are consistently more mafic than the hornblende granitic gneisses, although forming a continuum with them. The leucogneisses, while generally more felsic than the charnockites and granitic gneisses, are otherwise geochemically similar to them. The data are consistent with the LG suite being an evolved extrusive equivalent of the intrusive CG suite. Both CG and LG suites are metaluminous to mildly peraluminous and display an A-type geochemical signature, enriched in Fe, K, Ce, Y, Nb, Zr, and Ga and depleted in Ca, Mg, and Sr relative to I- and S-type granites. Rare earth element patterns show moderate LREE enrichment and a negative Eu anomaly throughout the suite. The geochemical data suggest an origin by partial melting of biotite- and plagioclase-rich crustal rocks. Emplacement occurred in an anorogenic or post-collisional tectonic setting, probably at relatively shallow depths. Deformation and granulite-facies metamorphism with some partial melting followed during the Ottawan phase of the Grenville Orogeny, yielding the present migmatitic granitic and charnockitic gneisses. ?? 1992.

  14. Results of Rb-Sr-dating and fluid inclusion study in quartz of Gigor'evsky complex granites, Khanka massif

    Rb-Sr isotopic system is studied to determine the age of Grigori'evsky complex granites, while the inclusions of mineral-forming media in rock quartz are studied to clarify certain peculiarities of fluid conditions of intrusions formation. The isotopic composition and 87Sr/86Sr concentrations are determined by the method of double isotopic dilution, while 87Rb concentration - by the method of isotopic dilution. The obtained data allow to determine the isotopic age of the Grigor'evsky granites as equal to 396±7 mln years. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Crystallization and uplift path of late Variscan granites evidenced by quartz chemistry and fluid inclusions: Example from the Land's End granite, SW England

    Drivenes, Kristian; Larsen, Rune Berg; Müller, Axel; Sørensen, Bjørn Eske

    2016-05-01

    The megacrystic, coarse-grained granite of the Land's End granitic complex, SW England, has been investigated by analyzing fluid inclusions, trace elements, and cathodoluminescence textures of quartz. By applying the TitaniQ geothermobarometer together with the cathodoluminescence textures, a two-stage emplacement process is proposed. K-feldspar and quartz phenocrysts crystallized in a deep magma chamber at ca. 18-20 km depth. The phenocrysts were transported together with the melt to a shallow emplacement depth at ca. 5-9 km in multiple intrusive events, causing the composite appearance of the granitic complex. This model of emplacement concurs with similar granites from the Erzgebirge. At the emplacement level, the magma exsolved an aqueous fluid with average salinity of 17.3% m/m NaCl and 9.7% m/m CaCl2. Fluids with higher salinities were exsolved deeper in the system, as the magma experienced stages of water saturation and water undersaturation during ascent from the deep magma chamber. The complex fluid inclusion textures are the results of multiple stages of entrapment of aqueous fluids in the host phases as multiple recharge events from the deeper magma chamber supplied fresh melts and aqueous volatiles. Titanium contents in quartz are closely related to the panchromatic cathodoluminescence intensity, and the Al/Ti ratio is reflected by the 3.26 eV/2.70 eV ratio of hyperspectral cathodoluminescence.

  16. Status of the GRANIT facility

    Roulier, Damien; Vezzu, Francis; Baessler, Stefan; Clément, Benoît; Morton, Daniel; Nesvizhevsky, Valery; Pignol, Guillaume; Rebreyend, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The GRANIT facility is a follow-up project, which is motivated by the recent discovery of gravitational quantum states of ultracold neutrons. The goal of the project is to approach the ultimate accuracy in measuring parameters of such quantum states and also to apply this phenomenon and related experimental techniques to a broad range of applications in particle physics as well as in surface and nanoscience studies. We overview the current status of this facility, the recent test measurements...

  17. Status of the GRANIT Facility

    Roulier, DamienUniversité Grenoble-Alpes, 38000 Grenoble, France; Vezzu, Francis; Baeßler, Stefan; Clément, Benoît; Morton, Daniel; Valery V. Nesvizhevsky; Pignol, Guillaume; Rebreyend, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    The GRANIT facility is a follow-up project, which is motivated by the recent discovery of gravitational quantum states of ultracold neutrons. The goal of the project is to approach the ultimate accuracy in measuring parameters of such quantum states and also to apply this phenomenon and related experimental techniques to a broad range of applications in particle physics as well as in surface and nanoscience studies. We overview the current status of this facility, the recent test measurements...

  18. Thermal expansion behaviour of granites

    Plevová, Eva; Vaculíková, Lenka; Kožušníková, Alena; Ritz, M.; Simha Martynková, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 2 (2015), s. 1555-1561. ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : thermomechanical analysis * differential thermal analysis * granites Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.042, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10973-015-4996-z

  19. Geochemistry of a - type Kuilapal granite from North Singhbhum Mobile Belt, Eastern India: implication for radioelemental concentration

    The 1.6 Ga old Kuilapal granite (KG), with areal extension of 80 km2 area, is intrusive into Palaeo to Meso Proterozoic Singhbhum Group of rocks in the northeastern part of North Singhbhum Mobile Belt (NSMB) of East India Shield. The KG is medium to coarse-grained, and commonly shows gneissic banding parallel to regional foliation of the country rock. After combining field relations, petrographic observations and new geochemical data, it is inferred that Kuilapal granite postdates deformational events of the mobile belt. Geochemically, Kuilapal granite is fairly silica-rich, alkali dominated and has high total FeO/MgO and Ga/Al ratios, but low to moderate CaO content. It is metaluminous (av. A/CNK = 0.95) and contains abundant alkali feldspar and Fe-rich biotite and amphibole. It displays notable enrichment of Rb, Th, U, K, Nb, Zr, Y and REE and depletion of Ba, Sr, P and Ti with negative Eu/Eu* anomaly. The mineralogical and geochemical characters indicate that it is A-type granite, which formed in 'Within Plate Granite' (WPG) tectonic set up, which is in contrary to the earlier view of peraluminous S-type suite. Compared to average crustal composition, the A-type Kuilapal granite is distinctly fertile for U, Th, Y, Nb and rare earths elements. The present geochemical data and thermal characteristics are suggestive of generation of the rock in an extensional regime of the mobile belt. In this tectonic milieu, polymetallic-rich intrusive Kuilapal granite offers favourable geological environment for prospecting and exploration of radioactive, rare metals and rare earth minerals in the North Singhbhum Mobile Belt

  20. Network Intrusion Forensic Analysis Using Intrusion Detection System

    Manish (Nishik) Kumar; Dr. M. Hanumanthappa; Dr. T.V. Suresh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The need for computer intrusion forensics arises from the alarming increase in the number of computer crimes that are committed annually. After a computer system has been breached and an intrusion has been detected, there is a need for a computer forensics investigation to follow. Computer forensics is used to bring to justice, those responsible for conducting attacks on computer systems throughout the world. Because of this the law must be follow precisely when conducting a forensics investi...

  1. Geochemistry of the Karamea Batholith, New Zealand and comparisons with the Lachlan Fold Belt granites of SE Australia

    Muir, R. J.; Weaver, S. D.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Eby, G. N.; Evans, J. A.; Ireland, T. R.

    1996-12-01

    The Karamea Batholith in the Buller terrane of the South Island New Zealand forms part of an extensive Middle-Late Devonian belt of magmatic activity along, or close to, the Paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana. The belt includes the I- and S-type granites of the Lachlan Fold Belt in SE Australia and coeval rocks in Antarctica. The northern half of the Karamea Batholith comprises five main intrusive phases: Zetland Diorite, Whale Creek Granite, Karamea Granite, O'Sullivans Granite and Dunphy Granite. To the east of the Karamea Batholith in the Takaka terrane, ultramafic-mafic Devonian igneous rocks are represented by the Riwaka Complex. The rocks forming the Karamea Batholith are a high-K calc-alkaline suite ranging in composition from metaluminous (ASI for Zetland Diorite = 0.8) to strongly peraluminous (ASI for Dunphy Granite = 1.2-1.3). Initial {87Sr}/{86Sr} ratios exhibit a large range from 0.705 in the Zetland Diorite to 0.719 in the Dunphy Granite. The corresponding values for ? Nd are -0.3 and -9.2. There is a strong inverse correlation between ? Nd and initial {87Sr}/{86Sr}, which suggests that the Karamea rocks were generated by a simple mixing process. The mafic end-member (with ? Nd = 0), which is itself probably derived from a mixed lithospheric source, is taken to be the Zetland Diorite/Riwaka Complex, and the crustal end-member is represented by Ordovician Greenland Group greywackes that form the country rocks to the batholith. Mixing is also supported by recent U-Pb zircon studies. The inherited zircon population in the granites matches the detrital zircon population in the Greenland Group greywackes. The Whale Creek Granite, Karamea Granite and O'Sullivans Granite can be modelled by 20-30% crustal material, whereas the Dunphy Granite appears to represent 65-85% crustal material. In terms of the I-S classification scheme developed for the Lachlan Fold Belt granites in SE Australia, both types are present in the Karamea Batholith. However, in New Zealand there appears to be a continuum from one extreme to the other, which is consistent with the mixing model presented here.

  2. Intensive low-temperature tectono-hydrothermal overprint of peraluminous rare-metal granite: a case study from the Dlhá dolina valley (Gemericum, Slovakia

    Breiter Karel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A unique case of low-temperature metamorphic (hydrothermal overprint of peraluminous, highly evolved rare-metal S-type granite is described. The hidden Dlhá dolina granite pluton of Permian age (Western Carpathians, eastern Slovakia is composed of barren biotite granite, mineralized Li-mica granite and albitite. Based on whole-rock chemical data and evaluation of compositional variations of rock-forming and accessory minerals (Rb-P-enriched K-feldspar and albite; biotite, zinnwaldite and di-octahedral micas; Hf-(Sc-rich zircon, fluorapatite, topaz, schorlitic tourmaline, the following evolutionary scenario is proposed: (1 Intrusion of evolved peraluminous melt enriched in Li, B, P, F, Sn, Nb, Ta, and W took place followed by intrusion of a large body of biotite granites into Paleozoic metapelites and metarhyolite tuffs; (2 The highly evolved melt differentiated in situ forming tourmaline-bearing Li-biotite granite at the bottom, topaz-zinnwaldite granite in the middle, and quartz albitite to albitite at the top of the cupola. The main part of the Sn, Nb, and Ta crystallized from the melt as disseminated cassiterite and Nb-Ta oxide minerals within the albitite, while disseminated wolframite appears mainly within the topaz-zinnwaldite granite. The fluid separated from the last portion of crystallized magma caused small scale greisenization of the albitite; (3 Alpine (Cretaceous thrusting strongly tectonized and mylonitized the upper part of the pluton. Hydrothermal low-temperature fluids enriched in Ca, Mg, and CO2 unfiltered mechanically damaged granite. This fluid-driven overprint caused formation of carbonate veinlets, alteration and release of phosphorus from crystal lattice of feldspars and Li from micas, precipitating secondary Sr-enriched apatite and Mg-rich micas. Consequently, all bulk-rock and mineral markers were reset and now represent the P-T conditions of the Alpine overprint.

  3. Human intrusion in geologic disposal

    This report discusses the possibility of human intrusion into the WIPP facility, an undergound disposal facility for alpha-bearing wastes. The probability of exploratory drilling occurring at the site is described

  4. Precambrian evolution and cratonization of the Tarim Block, NW China: Petrology, geochemistry, Nd-isotopes and U-Pb zircon geochronology from Archaean gabbro-TTG-potassic granite suite and Paleoproterozoic metamorphic belt

    Zhang, Chuan-Lin; Li, Huai-Kun; Santosh, M.; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Zou, Hai-Bo; Wang, Hongyan; Ye, Haimin

    2012-03-01

    We report field characteristics, petrography, geochemistry and isotopic ages of the Neoarchaean intrusive complex and the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic belt around Quruqtagh in the northern margin of the Tarim Block, NW China in an attempt to evaluate the evolution of the Precambrian basement of the Tarim Block. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the tonalite-trondhjemite complex with gabbroic enclaves and the slightly younger potassic granites crystallized at ca. 2.60 Ga and ca. 2.53 Ga respectively, and were metamorphosed at ca.1.85-1.80 Ga. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the amphibolite to granulite facies assemblages in the strongly deformed Paleoproterozoic gneiss-schist belt were generated during a major thermal event at 1.85-1.80 Ga, and were again overprinted by late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic metamorphism (1.1-0.95 Ga). Geochemically, the gabbros occurring within the tonalite-trondhjemite suite exhibit arc tholeiite signature and their chemical and Nd isotopic compositions suggest that they were derived from partial melting of a metasomatised and depleted mantle. The tonalites and trondhjemites have varied geochemical compositions but both preserve distinct Archaean TTG (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) signatures. However, the ca. 2.53 Ga potassic granites have very different geochemical compositions as compared to the tonalite-trondjemite suite and show extreme enrichment of LREE and LILE, as well as a marked depletion of HREE and HFSE. Based on the geochemical and geochronological data presented in this contribution, we suggest that: (1) the gabbro-tonalite-trondhjemite suite and the late potassic granites represent an evolution from an arc system through the final collision and late or post-orogenic extension when the potassic granite was emplaced, thus building the cratonic architecture of the proto-crust of the Tarim Block; (2) the ca.1.9-1.8 Ga metamorphism marks an important orogenic event in the crystalline basement of the Tarim Block which was stabilized during the early Precambrian; (3) the 1.9-1.8 Ga and 1.1-0.9 Ga metamorphic ages form part of the global-scale orogeny identified to be related to the Paleoproterozoic Columbia and Neoproterozoic Rodinia supercontinent assemblies.

  5. Natural radionuclide distribution in Brazilian commercial granites

    Anjos, R.M. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (BR)]. E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.br; Veiga, R. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (BR); Soares, T. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (BR); Santos, A.M.A. [Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho-Fundacentro, C.P. 11484, 05499-970 Sao Paulo, SP (BR); Aguiar, J.G. [Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho-Fundacentro, C.P. 11484, 05499-970 Sao Paulo, SP (BR); Frasca, M.H.B.O. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo-IPT, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado 532, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-901 Sao Paulo, SP (BR); Brage, J.A.P. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (BR); Uzeda, D. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (BR); Mangia, L. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (BR); Facure, A. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (BR); Mosquera, B. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (BR); Carvalho, C. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (BR); Gomes, P.R.S. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (BR)

    2005-06-01

    The dimension stones sector in Brazil produces several varieties of granites, marbles, slates and basalts. More than half of this production corresponds to around 200 different commercial types of granites with specific names, geographical and geological origins and mineral compositions. The well-known natural radioactivity present in rocks, where high radiation levels are associated with igneous rocks such as granite, can be used to determine their general petrologic features. This subject is important in environmental radiological protection, since granites are widely used as building and ornamental stones. In this paper, it is applied to correlate the petrographic characteristics of commercial granites with their corresponding dose rates for natural radioactivity. Amounts of thorium, uranium and potassium concentrations have been reported in several Brazilian commercial granite samples.

  6. Natural radionuclide distribution in Brazilian commercial granites

    The dimension stones sector in Brazil produces several varieties of granites, marbles, slates and basalts. More than half of this production corresponds to around 200 different commercial types of granites with specific names, geographical and geological origins and mineral compositions. The well-known natural radioactivity present in rocks, where high radiation levels are associated with igneous rocks such as granite, can be used to determine their general petrologic features. This subject is important in environmental radiological protection, since granites are widely used as building and ornamental stones. In this paper, it is applied to correlate the petrographic characteristics of commercial granites with their corresponding dose rates for natural radioactivity. Amounts of thorium, uranium and potassium concentrations have been reported in several Brazilian commercial granite samples

  7. Southern complex: geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, and mineral chemistry of selected uranium- and thorium-rich granites

    Four major rock groups are defined in the Southern Complex: the Bell Creek Granite (BCG), the Clotted Granitoids (CGR), the Albite Granite (AGR), and the Migmatite Complex. Metatexites of the Migmatite Complex are the oldest rocks and include paleosome of a metasedimentary and metavolcanic protolith represented by Banded Iron Formation, Banded Amphibolite, and Banded Gneisses, and interlayered or crosscutting leucogranites. The CGR span the range from metatexite to diatexite and represent in-situ partial melting of metapelitic layers in the protolith during intrusion of the BCG. The BCG cuts the migmatites, is locally cut by the CGR, and was derived by partial melting of a dominantly metasedimentary protolith at some depth below the presently exposed migmatites during a regional tectonothermal event. The Albite Granite is a 2km diameter, muscovite-fluorite-columbite-bearing intrusive stock that cuts all other major units. The thorium history of the BCG is a function of the history of monazite. The thorium history of the CGR is also dominated by monazite but the thorium content of this unit cannot be entirely accounted for by original restite monazite. The uranium history of the BCG and CGR was dominated by magmatic differentiation and post magmatic, metamorphic and supergene redistributions and is largely independent of the thorium history. The thorium and uranium history of the AGR was dominated by magmatic/deuteric processes unlike the BCG and CGR

  8. Mental Disorders Increasing for Younger Smokers

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156957.html Mental Disorders Increasing for Younger Smokers Psychiatric problems showing ... adolescent and young adult smokers may benefit from mental health screening so that any related psychiatric or ...

  9. Intrusion detection a machine learning approach

    Tsai, Jeffrey JP

    2011-01-01

    This important book introduces the concept of intrusion detection, discusses various approaches for intrusion detection systems (IDS), and presents the architecture and implementation of IDS. It emphasizes on the prediction and learning algorithms for intrusion detection and highlights techniques for intrusion detection of wired computer networks and wireless sensor networks. The performance comparison of various IDS via simulation will also be included.

  10. An immunological approach to intrusion detection

    Watkins, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an examination of intrusion detection schemes. It discusses traditional views of intrusion detection, and examines the more novel, but perhaps more effective, approach to intrusion detection as modeled on the human immune system. The discussion looks at some of the implications raised by intrusion detection research for information security in general.

  11. Thermal History and Crystallinity of Sheet Intrusions

    Whittington, A. G.; Nabelek, P. I.; Hofmeister, A.

    2011-12-01

    Magma emplaced in a sheet intrusion has two potential fates: to crystallize, or quench to glass. Rapidly chilled sheet margins are typically glassy or microcrystalline, while interiors are coarser-grained. The actual textures result from a combination of thermal history and crystallization kinetics, which are related by various feedback mechanisms. The thermal history of cooling sheet intrusions is often approximated using the analytical solution for a semi-infinite half-space, which uses constant thermal properties such as heat capacity (CP), thermal diffusivity (D) and thermal conductivity (k = D?CP), where ? is density. In reality, both CP and D are strongly T-dependent for glasses and crystals, and melts have higher CP and lower D than crystals or glasses. Another first-order feature ignored in the analytical solution is latent heat of crystallization (?Hxt), which can be implemented numerically as extra heat capacity over the crystallization interval. For rhyolite melts, D is ~0.5 mm2s-1 and k is ~1.5 Wm-1K-1, which are similar to those of major crustal rock types and granitic protoliths at magmatic temperatures, suggesting that changes in thermal properties accompanying partial melting of the crust should be relatively minor. Numerical models of hot (~920C liquidus for 0.5 wt.% H2O) shallow rhyolite intrusions indicate that the key difference in thermal history between bodies that quench to obsidian, and those that crystallize, results from the release of latent heat of crystallization, which enables bodies that crystallize to remain at high temperatures for much longer times. The time to solidification is similar in both cases, however, because solidification requires cooling through the glass transition (Tg ~620C) in the first case, and cooling only to the solidus (~770C) in the second. For basaltic melts, D is ~0.3 mm2s-1 and k is ~1.0 Wm-1K-1, compared to ~0.6 mm2s-1 and 2.5 Wm-1K-1 for crystalline basalt or peridotite at magmatic temperatures, suggesting that changes in thermal properties accompanying partial melting of the mantle or crystallization of basalt may be important. Numerical models of basaltic sheet intrusions indicate that they will almost always crystallize, even at sheet margins, because their emplacement temperature (~1220C) is sufficiently high that the country rock adjacent to the sheet will be raised above the Tg of the melt (~650C). The long period of time spent above Tg, combined with the rapid crystallization kinetics of basaltic melts, ensures that crystallization is near-complete, even if the crystal size is small, except where unusually rapid chilling occurs due to efficient convective or radiative losses (for example subaerial, subaqeous or subglacial lava flows).

  12. Age of granites of Wrangel Island metamorphic complex

    Luchitskaya, Marina; Sergeev, Sergey; Sokolov, Sergey; Tuchkova, Marianna

    2014-05-01

    Within huge arctic shelf of Eastern-Siberian and Chukchi seas the metamorphic basement (Wrangel complex, Berri Formation) is exposed only on the Wrangel Island. There are different points of views on the age of metamorphic rocks of Wrangel complex (Berri Formation): (1) Neoproterozoic (Kameneva, 1970; Ageev, 1979; Kos'ko et al., 1993, 2003), (2) Devonian (Til'man et al., 1964, 1970; Ganelin, 1989). Metamorphic basement is represented by stratified complex, composed of dislocated metavolcanic, metavolcaniclastic and metasedimentary rocks (schists, metasandstones, metaconglomerated) with single lenses and layers of carbonate rocks (Wrangel Island…, 2003). Among basement rocks in the central part of Wrangel Island there are felsic intrusive bodies. They form small tabular bodies from tens centimeters to 70-80 meters in thickness, rarely dikes and small stocks (up to 20 x 30 m) and are composed of granite-porphyres, rarely muscovite porphyr-like granites and granosyenites (Wrangel Island…, 2003). The age of intrusions allow to determine the age of basement formation. Earlier the age of intrusions was determined by different methods and correlated to the boundary between Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic: K-Ar 570-603 Ma, Pb-Pb 590±50 Ma (S.M. Pavlov, Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology, USSR Academy of Sciences), Rb-Sr 475±31 Ma (I.M.Vasil'eva, Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology, USSR Academy of Sciences), U-Pb 609, 633, 677 Ma (Geological Survey of Canada) (Wrangel Island…, 2003; Kos'ko et al., 1993; Cecile et al., 1991). In the lower part of metamorphic rocks of Wrangel complex there are conformable tabular bodies of gneissosed and foliated granitoides. The latter are meramorphosed and transformed in biotite-muscovite-feldspar-quartz-sericite and muscovite-feldspar-quartz-sericite gneisses and schists, where relics of primary minerals (quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, rarely biotite and muscovite) and equigranular granitic texture are preserved. Accessory minerals of granitoides are zircon, sphene, apatite. During field work of 2006 year the probes for U-Pb SHRIMP zircon datings were collected (upper reaches of Khishchnikov River). Dating was carried out on SHRIMP-II in the Center of Isotopic Studies of Federal State Unitary Enterprize "A.P.Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute". Wheited mean ages of zircons from three probes are: 702±3 Ma (N=19), 701±7 Ma (N=3), 707±4 Ma (N=25). They indicate Neoproterozoic age of granitoides. Furthermore, some zircons contain inherited cores, for which following datings were obtained: 1.1; 1,21; 1.107; 1.2-1,4; 1.58; 1.8; 2.6 Ga. These data allow supposing the presence of ancient (Neoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic) rocks in the basement of Wrangel Island and their participation in the melting process during granite magmas formation. The work was supported by Russian Fund of Basic Researhes projects 13-05-00249, 14-05-00031, Scientific school NSh-2981.2014.5.

  13. Two Appollo 12 Granit Rock Fragments: Evidence for the Priximal Coexistence of High-Th Impact Melt Breccia and Granite

    Seddio, S. M.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2012-03-01

    We characterize a lunar granite fragment and a granitic breccia. The breccia’s granitic component is that of the granite fragment if it equilibrated with a more mafic lithology. We infer a source region with granite and high-Th impact melt breccia.

  14. Thermomechanical properties of Stripa granite

    The Stripa material properties testing program was initiated to study, by laboratory testing, the thermomechanical behavior of the Stripa rock mass and to provide material properties for input into numerical programs for simulation of the in situ heater experiments at Stripa. The portion of the program dealing with measurement of elastic moduli and coefficients of thermal expansion of dry, intact samples of Stripa granite was completed in fiscal year 1980. A summary of the most significant findings resulting from tests on six samples are presented in this report

  15. Status of the GRANIT facility

    Roulier, Damien; Baessler, Stefan; Clément, Benoît; Morton, Daniel; Nesvizhevsky, Valery; Pignol, Guillaume; Rebreyend, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The GRANIT facility is a follow-up project, which is motivated by the recent discovery of gravitational quantum states of ultracold neutrons. The goal of the project is to approach the ultimate accuracy in measuring parameters of such quantum states and also to apply this phenomenon and related experimental techniques to a broad range of applications in particle physics as well as in surface and nanoscience studies. We overview the current status of this facility, the recent test measurements and the nearest prospects.

  16. P-T and chemical evolution of the Mont-Blanc granite during the alpine orogenesis

    Rossi, M.; Rolland, Y.; Vidal, O.

    2003-04-01

    The Mont-Blanc massif is one of the Variscan external crystalline massifs of the western Alps. It is composed of gneisses and one granitic intrusion that were buried and exhumed during the Alpine orogenesis. The Mont-Blanc granite is crosscut by NNE-SSW and N-S alpine shear zones that were formed between 47 and 10 Ma, according to previous radiometric datings. The granite is thus not affected by the Hercynian, but only by the Alpine deformation. The chemical homogeneity of this granite on regional scale allows the study of chemical composition changes from unsheared to sheared granite. A multi-disciplinary study based on detailed mapping, chemical analysis and thermobarometry will allow determining the relationships between deformation, fluid circulation patterns and P-T evolution. This study thus constitutes a good opportunity to characterize the processes of fluid, mass and heat transport at middle crustal depths during an orogeny. Shear zones and associated hydrothermal veins comprise several mineralogical assemblages: epidote-, chlorite-, muscovite-, quartz- and calcite-bearing assemblages. Geothermobarometry based on P-T equilibria obtained on several costable phyllosilicate minerals constrain P-T conditions at approx. 5 kbar and 400C. Pervasive fluid infiltration has also occurred in the granite, as shown by centimetric to metric alteration haloes (episyenites) developed around horizontal veins. Episyenites are formed by the dissolution of quartz directly after vein opening, and sub-contemporaneously to shear zone deformation. Mineralogical and geochemical analyses show great variations of composition between shear zone materials, episyenites and the undeformed and unaltered granite (host-granite). Such variations are interpreted to result from fluid-rock interactions (alteration / recrystallization) associated to shear zone deformation during the massifs exhumation. Subsequent mass gains/ losses estimated in shear zones are high, implying high fluid/rock ratios and elevated time-integrated fluid fluxes (of the order of 106 m3 fluid/m2). Several processes appear to be involved in the transfer of matter when comparing mass balance studies to mineralogical evolution: (1) circulation of a fluid that may have internal or external sources, and (2) diffusion of matter at grain boundaries. In order to quantify the relative importance of the latter process in a granitic basement, complementary pressure-solution experiments have been undertaken on silica-rich materials. The objective of these experiments is to relate mass transfer and the associated mineralogical evolution to rates of coaxial deformation in a silica-rich rock.

  17. Formation of the Late Permian Panzhihua plutonic-hypabyssal-volcanic igneous complex: Implications for the genesis of Fe-Ti oxide deposits and A-type granites of SW China

    Shellnutt, J. G.; Jahn, B.-M.

    2010-01-01

    The Late Permian (260 Ma) Emeishan large igneous province of SW China contains numerous magmatic Fe-Ti oxide deposits. The Fe-Ti oxide deposits occur in the lower parts of evolved layered gabbroic intrusions which are spatially and temporally associated with A-type granitic rocks. The 260 Ma Panzhihua layered gabbroic intrusion hosts one of the largest magmatic Fe-Ti oxide deposits in China and is coeval with a peralkaline A-type granitic pluton. The granite has intruded the overlying Emeishan flood basalts and fed at least one dyke which erupted onto the surface producing columnar jointed trachytes. The presence of syenodiorite between the layered gabbro and granite is evidence for compositional evolution from mafic to intermediate to felsic rocks. The syenodiorites have intermediate to felsic composition with SiO 2 = 61 to 65 wt.%, MgO = 0.27 to 0.6 wt.% and CaO = 1.0 to 2.5 wt.% as compared to the granite SiO 2 = 65 to 72 wt.%, MgO = 0.1 to 0.4 wt.%, CaO = 1(Eu/Eu* = 1.1 to 2.6) in the gabbroic intrusion, to Panzhihua region, which thus form a genetically related plutonic-hypabyssal-volcanic complex. Other granite-gabbro complexes in the region likely formed in a similar manner.

  18. Contrasting zircon morphology and UPb systematics in peralkaline and metaluminous post-orogenic granite complexes of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Aleinikof, J.N.; Stoeser, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    Uzircon ages are reported for seven metaluminous-to-peralkaline post-orogenic granites from the Late Proterozoic Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia. Zircons from the metaluminous rocks are prismatic, with length-to-width ratios of ??? 2-4: 1 and small pyramidal terminations. In contrast, zircons from three of the four peralkaline complexes either lack well-developed prismatic faces (are pseudo-octahedral) or are anhedral. Some zircons from the peralkaline granites contain inherited radiogenic Pb and have very high common Pb contents (206Pb/204Pb Zircons in the metaluminous granites do not contain inheritance and yield well-defined concordia intercepts. The span of ages of the seven complexes (670-470 Ma) indicates that post-orogenic granitic magmatism was not a singular event in the Arabian Shield but rather occurred as multiple intrusive episodes from the Late Proterozoic to the Middle Ordovician. ?? 1989.

  19. Contrasting Structures and Deformational History of Syntectonic Granites of Campina Grande and Serra Redonda, Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    Sérgio Wilians de Oliveira Rodrigues

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Campina Grande and Serra Redonda Granites are intrusive along the contact of the Paleoproterozoic basement(Alto Moxotó Domain with the Tonian gneisses (Alto Pajeú Domain of the Borborema Province (northeast Brazil. TheCampina Grande Granite (U-Pb age = 581± 2 Ma shows a concentric oval-shaped structure whereas the Serra RedondaGranite (U-Pb age = 576 ± 3 Ma has a tabular shape, elongated in the NE-SW direction. The plutons are separated bythe left-lateral Galante transcurrent shear zone. In this study, the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS was appliedto 64 outcrops of granites to determine the internal structures of these plutons and to explore the relationship betweenmagmatism and deformation in an orogenic setting. The magnetic fabrics are concordant with the metamorphic structure ofthe host rocks. Strike-slip shear zones controlled the emplacement of the Serra Redonda Granite, as indicated by sigmoidalfoliation, defining shear bands associated with the Galante shear zone. In contrast, the magmatic/magnetic fabric of theCampina Grande granite seems to have been produced by body (ascensional forces. The pluton displays an inward dipping, concentric planar fabric parallel to the wall rock contact and lineations highly oblique to the foliation trend. The fabric of the Campina Grande pluton is consistent with a magma moving over a ramp dipping to southwest, with the lineation at high angle to the NE-trending flow direction. The contrasting structures of the plutons reflect the episodic nature of orogenic deformation, which was punctuated by the alternation of weak and strong strains, affecting the fabric development of the syntectonic intrusions.

  20. Colorectal cancer in younger population: our experience

    Objective: To promote awareness regarding increased occurrence of colorectal cancer in younger population and its clinicopathological features compared to older patients. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2010 to January 2011 on patients with diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma admitted through emergency or outpatient departments to Surgical Unit 5, Civil Hospital, Karachi. Data regarding age, gender, presentation, site of tumour, surgery performed and Dukes staging was collected and analysed. Results: A total of 23 patients were operated during the study period: 13 (56.52%) males and 10 (43.47%) females. Of them 12 (52.17%) were below the age of 40 years, while 3 (13.04%) patients were in the 11-20 age group. In 7 (30.4%) patients, tumour was irresectable at the time of presentation so a palliative procedure (diversion colostomy or ileostomy) was performed. There was a higher proportion of younger patients with metastatic disease at the time of presentation (n=9; 75%) while 10 out of 12 patients in the younger age group (83.3%) had a tumour of left colon, particularly rectum. Conclusion: Although colorectal cancer is usually a disease of older patients, it is increasingly becoming more common in younger population. Data suggests a leftward distribution for colorectal carcinoma and that younger patients present with more advanced disease and poorer prognosis. (author)

  1. Rb-Sr age of Godhra and related granites, Gujrat, India

    Rubidium and strontium determinations are reported for Godhra and geographically related granites from central Gujarat. The whole rock data define a Rb-Sr isochron corresponding to a common age of 955 +- 2O m.y. and initial Sr ratio of 0.7130 +- 0.0O1. This age is distinctly older than the age of 735 m.y. reported for the Erinpura suite of rocks from Mount Abu in western Rajasthan and from Idar in nothern Gujarat. There are at least two generations of post-Delhi intrusive rocks in the Gujarat precambrian. Boitites associated with these granites have the same age as the whole-rocks within experimental error indicating the absence of significant metamorphic heating since the time of emplacement. It is significant that rocks of similar age occur in the Rajasthan Precambrian mainly in the axial zone of the Aravalli Mountains. (author)

  2. Incorporation of granite waste in red ceramics

    This work has as its objective to evaluate the effect of granite powder waste incorporation in a red ceramic body. The granite waste came from an industry of stone sawing operations located in the municipal area of Santo Antonio de Padua, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Initially the granite sawing waste was characterized in terms of chemical composition, particles size distribution and X-ray diffraction. After that, clay mixtures with 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt.% of granite waste were prepared. Red ceramic specimens were fabricated by extrusion and then fired in an industrial furnace at 970 deg. C. The specimens were also tested to determine the water absorption, linear shrinkage and three points bending flexural strength. Microstructural evaluation was carried out by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and mercury porosimetry. The results indicate that granite waste presents favorable characteristics for addition into red ceramics due to facilities on the drying stages and decrease in porosity

  3. Gravity data inversion as a probe for the 3D shape at depth of granitic bodies

    Granitic intrusions represent potential sites for waste disposal. A well constrained determination of their geometry at depth is of importance to evaluate possible leakage and seepage within the surroundings. Among geophysical techniques, gravity remains the best suited method to investigate the 3D shape of the granitic bodies at depth. During uranium exploration programmes, many plutons emplaced within different geochemical and tectonic environment have been surveyed. The quality of gravity surveying depends on the intrinsic accuracy of the measurements, and also on their density of coverage. A regularly spaced and dense coverage (about 1 point/km2) of measurements over the whole pluton and its nearby surroundings is needed to represent the gravity effect of density variations. This yields a lateral resolution of about 0.5 kilometer, or less depending on depth and roughness of the floor, for the interpretation of the Bouguer anomaly map. We recommend the use of a 3D iterative method of data inversion, simpler to run when the geometry and distribution of the sources are already constrained by surface data. This method must take into account the various density changes within the granite and its surroundings, as well as the regional effect of deep regional sources. A total error in the input data (measurements, densities, regional field) is estimated at 6%. We estimate that the total uncertainty on the calculated depth values does not exceed ± 15%. Because of good coverage of gravity measurements, the overall shape of the pluton is certainly better constrained than the depth values themselves. We present several examples of gravity data inversion over granitic intrusions displaying various 3D morphologies. At a smaller scale mineralizations are also observed above or close to the root zones. Those examples demonstrate the adequacy of joint studies in constraining the mode of magma emplacement before further studies focussing to environmental problems. 59 refs, 9 figs

  4. Intrusion Detection using unsupervised learning

    Kusum bharti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is the one of the efficient datamining techniques for intrusion detection. In clustering algorithm kmean clustering is widely used for intrusion detection. Because it gives efficient results incase of huge datasets. But sometime kmean clustering fails to give best result because of class dominance problem and no class problem. So for removing these problems we are proposing two new algorithms for cluster to class assignment. According to our experimental results the proposed algorithm are having high precision and recall for low class instances.

  5. DOE Intrusion Detection Systems Handbook

    The article reviews the Intrusion Detection Systems Handbook that was prepared by Sandia Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Safeguards and Security. The purpose of the handbook is to provide information pertinent to the selection, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance of the elements of an intrusion detection system. These elements include interior and exterior sensors, alarm assessment equipment, and alarm reporting equipment. The handbook also contains a discussion of how these elements can be integrated into an operationally effective system

  6. Application of Sm/Eu/, Rb/Sr, Ce/Yb and F-Rb ratios to discriminate between Tin mineralized and non-mineralized S-type granites

    Mash had granites and Gran diorites are divided into three groups bas sed on their ages and composition: (1) Deh Now-Vakilabad-Kuhsangi Granodiorites and Quartz monzodiorites, (2) Sang bast Granite and (3) Khalaj- Gheshlagh Biotite-muscovite Granite. All these intrusive s belong to S-type granite, The oldest are in the range of intermediate and the youngest are acidic in composition. Intrusive rocks in the area of Deh now to Kuhsangi show trend of differentiation. Major, trace and rare earth elements within the source rocks of porphyry Sn, Mo, and Cu deposits were compared and very distinct differences were noticed. Differentiation index, Rb/Sr, Ce/Yb, and (Sr87/Sr86) ratios can be used to identify the source rocks for porphyry Sn, Mo, or Cu. Major, as well as trace and rare earth elements of Mash had Granites and Granodiorites were compared with tin mineralized granites of the world. As a result, four diagrams were presented to be utilized in order to discriminate between Sn mineralized and non-mineralized granites. Such as Rb to the ratio of Sm/Eu, F to Rb and the three angle of F, Rb, Sr + Ba

  7. Radioactive waste disposal in granite

    Within the framework of completing its knowledge of various rock formations, the Federal Government also considers the suitability of granite for radioactive waste disposal. For this purpose, the Federal Minister of Research and Technology participated from 1983 to 1990 in relevant research and development activities in the NAGRA rock laboratory at Grimsel, Switzerland. After about 17 field tests, it can be stated that the understanding of basic connections and interactions between the mechanical behaviour of the rock, which is determined, for instance, by natural or artificially induced rock movements, and the hydrogeological or rock hydraulic relations could be clearly improved. So far, the German share in the project costs amounts to a total of approximately DM 20.7 million. Till the end of 1993, further activities are scheduled to be carried out which will require financial funds of about DM 6.3 million. (orig./HSCH)

  8. Conventional U-Pb dating versus SHRIMP of the Santa Barbara Granite Massif, Rondonia, Brazil

    Sparrenberger, I.; Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Santa Ba??rbara Granite Massif is part of the Younger Granites of Rondo??nia (998 - 974 Ma) and is included in the Rondo??nia Tin Province (SW Amazonian Craton). It comprises three highly fractionated metaluminous to peraluminous within-plate A-type granite units emplaced in older medium-grade metamorphic rocks. Sn-mineralization is closely associated with the late-stage unit. U-Pb monazite conventional dating of the early-stage Serra do Cicero facies and late-stage Serra Azul facies yielded ages of 993 ?? 5 Ma and 989 ?? 13 Ma, respectively. Conventional multigrain U-Pb isotope analyses of zircon demonstrate isotopic disturbance (discordance) and the preservation of inherited older zircons of several different ages and thus yield little about the ages of Sn-granite magmatism. SHRIMP U-Pb ages for the Santa Ba??rbara facies association yielded a 207Pb/206Pb weighted-mean age of 978 ?? 13 Ma. The textural complexity of the zircon crystals of the Santa Ba??rbara facies association, the variable concentrations of U, Th and Pb, as well as the mixed inheritance of zircon populations are major obstacles to using conventional multigrain U-Pb isotopic analyses. Sm-Nd model ages and ??Nd (T) values reveal anomalous isotopic data, attesting to the complex isotopic behaviour within these highly fractionated granites. Thus, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon and conventional U-Pb monazite dating methods are the most appropriate to constrain the crystallization age of the Sn-bearing granite systems in the Rondo??nia Tin Province.

  9. Petrography and geochemistry of the Singo granite, Uganda, and implications for its origin

    Nagudi, Betty; Koeberl, Christian; Kurat, Gero

    2003-02-01

    The Singo granite in western central Uganda intrudes metasedimentary rocks that have experienced low-grade regional and contact metamorphism. Rocks of the main body are pink and coarse-grained with a porphyritic texture. Marginal gray medium-grained biotite granite (BG) and several other varieties with intermediate composition occur with limited extent. The Singo granite is generally massive, contains mainly plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz, biotite, muscovite and opaques. The BG has higher Al 2O 3, MgO, CaO, Fe 2O 3, TiO 2, Ba, Zr, and V, but lower SiO 2, Th, U, and rare earth elements (REE) and alkali totals than the pink porphyritic granite (PPG). Spider diagrams (chondrite-normalized) show negative Eu, Sr, and Nb anomalies, and unfractionated heavy-REE (HREE). The Eu and Sr anomalies and unfractionated HREE suggest the presence of plagioclase and absence of garnet in the source, whereas the Nb anomaly implies a crustal component. Singo granite has both S- and I-type characteristics, and was emplaced in a syn- to post-collision tectonic setting in several magma pulses within relatively short time intervals. The pluton, in general, shows zonation in texture, mineralogy, and geochemistry from the margin to the center. The BG is relatively old and less felsic, whereas the PPG represents a younger and more felsic part of the pluton. There is continuity between the BG and the PPG through the intermediate granite, suggesting a common origin. Field, petrographic, and geochemical characteristics support a magmatic origin from a water-undersaturated, heterogeneous crustal source rock under low pressure conditions. Petrographic and chemical variations were mainly the result of fractional crystallization and source heterogeneity. Late- and post-magmatic stages were dominated by strong hydrothermal activity.

  10. P-T path fluid evolution in the Gross Spitzkoppe granite stock, Namibia

    Stephen Frindt

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gross Spitzkoppe granite stock (GSS is a zoned 30 km^2 epizonal intrusion that consists of three main granites: 1 medium-grained biotite granite (marginal, 2 a coarse-grained biotite granite, and 3 a central, porphyritic granite. The stock contains pegmatites as banded marginal stockscheiders and isolated pockets composed of large alkali feldspar and quartz, dark mica, interstitial fluorite, and euhedral topaz and beryl crystals. In the porphyritic granite there are local wolframite-bearing greisens and hydrothermal fluorite and topaz-rich veins.Fluid inclusion studies were conducted on: 1 topaz and quartz crystals from the marginal stockscheider; 2 quartz, topaz, fluorite and beryl crystals from isolated pegmatites; 3 topaz from a miarolitic pegmatite; 4 beryl and quartz veins from greisenized porphyritic granite; and 5 fluorite from a late fluorite vein inthe coarse-grained biotite granite. Preliminary data indicate the presence of three compositionally distinct primary and pseudosecondary inclusion types that are of late magmatic-hydrothermal origin.Type 1. Low salinity (0–10 eq. wt% NaCl H2O (± CO2 inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 550˚C. These inclusions are from quartz, topaz and beryl. Inclusions in fluorite from the fluorite vein homogenize at ~170˚C and have a salinity of ca. 1–2 eq. wt% NaCl.Type 2. Saline (25–30 eq. wt% NaCl halite-bearing H2O (± CO2 inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 400˚C. These inclusions are from quartz.Type 3. Low salinity (0–3 eq. wt% NaCl H2O-CO2 inclusions that homogenize to vapor phase in the temperature range of 330 to 550˚C. These inclusions are from quartz and topaz.Hydrothermal fluids from greisen minerals are represented by type 1 and type 2 H2O inclusions. They are predominantly of low salinity (~8 eq. wt% NaCl and homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 500˚C. Isochores for contemporaneous type 2 and type 3 inclusions with homogenization temperature range of 330 to 400˚C indicate a maximum trapping pressure of about 900 bar for the marginal stockscheider.

  11. Open magma chamber processes in the formation of the Permian Baima mafic-ultramafic layered intrusion, SW China

    Liu, Ping-Ping; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Wang, Christina Yan; Xing, Chang-Ming; Gao, Jian-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The Baima mafic-ultramafic layered intrusion of the 260-Ma Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP) hosts the second largest Fe-Ti-(V) oxide deposit in the Panxi region, SW China. It is a ~ 1600-m-thick layered body intruded by slightly younger syenitic and granitic plutons. The intrusion includes the Lower and Upper Zones. Troctolite and olivine pyroxenite of the Lower Zone contains conformable oxide ore layers, whereas the Upper Zone consists of olivine gabbro and gabbro with abundant apatite in the higher level. The crystallization order of the silicates in the Baima intrusion is olivine → plagioclase → clinopyroxene. Fe-Ti oxides (titanomagnetite and ilmenite) crystallized after olivine, and possibly plagioclase. The oxide ores in the Lower Zone show slightly LREE enriched patterns with (La/Yb)N values between 2.0 and 6.4, and positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*) of 1.0 to 2.7. In contrast, olivine gabbros in the Lower Zone display stronger LREE enrichments (La/YbN = 7.7-14.0) and positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 2.8-3.3). Gabbros in the Upper Zone have REE profiles characterized by intermediate LREE enrichments with (La/Yb)N values of 3.2 to 11.2 and positive Eu anomalies of 2.1 to 3.0. Primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns are characterized by negative La-Ce, Th, Sm and positive Nb-Ta, Ba and Ti anomalies in oxide ores and negative Th-U, Zr-Hf and positive Ba, Sr and Ti anomalies in olivine gabbro and gabbro. Fo of olivine and An of plagioclase remain roughly constant from 0 to ~ 90 m in the Lower Zone, indicating that the magma chamber was continuously filled by compositionally similar magmas during the initial stage. Three magma replenishments occurred afterwards in the upper part of the Lower Zone and the Upper Zone based on compositional reversals of plagioclase, olivine and Sr isotope. Mass balance calculations show that the Baima parental magma can produce all oxide ores under closed system conditions. A wide range of An values of plagioclase within thin sections and disequilibrium Sr isotopic compositions of plagioclase both along the stratigraphic profile (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70312-0.70510) and within thin sections indicate convection and co-accumulation of cumulus plagioclase that had crystallized from different magmas. We propose that the ~ 1600m-thick Baima intrusion formed in an open and isotopically heterogeneous magma chamber that was periodically recharged by compositionally similar or more primitive magmas. In each replenishment cycle, the magma underwent progressive crustal contamination and fractional crystallization. Convection and sorting of crystals based on density differences result in igneous layering characterized by intervals of oxide ores, troctolite and olivine gabbro.

  12. AMS studies in Portuguese variscan granites

    Sant'Ovaia, Helena; Martins, Helena; Noronha, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    A large volume of Variscan granitic rocks outcrop in Central Iberian Zone which are well documented concerning geological mapping, petrography and geochemistry but whose magnetic characteristics and fabric remain unknown. In this study we summarize the available AMS data from approximately 644 sampling stations (5152 samples) on different massifs of Variscan Portuguese granites. Despite their different geological, petrographic and geochemical characteristics, magnetic susceptibility (K) values obtained for the majority of the studied granites range from 15 to 300 10-6 SI. The dominant paramagnetic behaviour of the granite bodies reflects the presence of ilmenite as the main iron oxide. This feature indicates the reduced conditions involved in the granite melt formation during the Variscan orogeny. The two-mica granites show K values ranging between 15 to 70 10-6 SI which are lower than values displayed by the biotite-rich facies scattered within the interval of 70 and 300 10-6 SI. The magnetite-bearing granites are scarce but represented in Lavadores, Gers and Manteigas. Even so, only the Lavadores body could be considered as a true magnetite-type granite (K >3.0 10-3 SI) in face of its K, comprised between 1550 and 19303 10-6 SI. Magnetic anisotropy can be used as a "marker" for the deformation experienced by granite mushes during their crustal emplacement and further cooling. Magnetic anisotropy can thus be correlated with the finite deformation of a rock, as record by mineral fabrics. Post-tectonic granites, such as those from Vila Pouca de Aguiar, Pedras Salgadas, Caria, Vila da Ponte, Chaves and Lamas de Olo, have a magnetic anisotropy Serra da Estrela, the magnetic anisotropy falls within the 2.5% and 5% range. The magnetic anisotropy of the Lavadores granite is always higher than 10%. This feature, however, reflects the presence of rough alignments of magnetite co-existent with magmatic to submagmatic microstructures. The shape parameter T is quite variable; however, the average values, for all the massifs, are always higher than zero, suggesting the presence of oblate AMS ellipsoids due to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of biotite. The values of magnetic susceptibility and magnetic anisotropy allowed a petrophysical characterization of the paramagnetic Variscan granites as was proposed by Sant'Ovaia & Noronha (2005).

  13. CO2 laser cutting of natural granite

    Riveiro, A.; Mejías, A.; Soto, R.; Quintero, F.; del Val, J.; Boutinguiza, M.; Lusquiños, F.; Pardo, J.; Pou, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial black granite boards (trade name: "Zimbabwe black granite") 10 mm thick, were successfully cut by a 3.5 kW CO2 laser source. Cutting quality, in terms of kerf width and roughness of the cut wall, was assessed by means of statistically planned experiments. No chemical modification of the material in the cutting walls was detected by the laser beam action. Costs associated to the process were calculated, and the main factors affecting them were identified. Results reported here demonstrate that cutting granite boards could be a new application of CO2 laser cutting machines provided a supersonic nozzle is used.

  14. STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ANOMALY INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM

    Hari Om; Tanmoy Hazra

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze an anomaly based intrusion detection system (IDS) for outlier detection in hardware profile using statistical techniques: Chi-square distribution, Gaussian mixture distribution and Principal component analysis. Anomaly detection based methods can detect new intrusions but they suffer from false alarms. Host based Intrusion Detection Systems (HIDSs) use anomaly detection to identify malicious attacks i.e. intrusion. The features are shown by large set of dimensions an...

  15. VISUALIZATION TECHNIQUES FOR INTRUSION DETECTION A SURVEY

    Ibrahim Elhenawy; Alaa El - Din Riad; Ahmed Hassan; Nancy Awadallah

    2011-01-01

    In traditional intrusion detection system (IDS) environments, little activity has been applied to usingvisual analysis as an aid to intrusion detection. With more information systems being attacked and attacktechniques evolving, the task of detecting intrusions is becoming an increasingly difficult. Efficientinformation visualization is an important element required for urgent detection of intruders.This paper presents a survey on using visualization techniques in intrusion detection system.F...

  16. A-type stratoid granites of Madagascar: evidence of Rodinia rifting at ca 790 Ma

    Nedelec, Anne; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Bouchez, Jean-Luc

    2015-04-01

    The so-called stratoid granites are sheet-like granites emplaced as conformable sills in the Precambrian basement of central Madagascar. Most of them have A-type affinities (Ndlec et al. 1995). They are everywhere characterized by the same structural pattern evidencing two stages of deformation. The first one (foliations mildly dipping to the west and lineations trending WSW) is regarded as the consequence of synkinematic magma emplacement. The second stage, characterized by interference folds, steeply dipping foliations and subhorizontal lineations trending to the north, corresponds to a more or less pronounced reworking in ductile conditions, regarded as the result of Late Pan-African transcurrent tectonics. To the north of Antananarivo, the stratoid granites are associated with comagmatic quartz-syenites. New U-Pb zircons ages obtained by in situ analyses reveal two group of ages: upper intercept ages of ca 790 Ma, and younger ages of ca 550 Ma corresponding to crystal rims. These new data question the geological significance of former TIMS ages of ca 630 Ma formerly obtained from the same rocks (Paquette & Ndlec 1998). It is suggested that the stratoid granites and syenites were emplaced during a crustal thinning event corresponding to an early Rodinia rifting stage. The Pan-African imprint on these rocks is therefore limited to reheating, tectonic reworking and deep fluid transfer in the vicinity of Late-Neoproterozoic shear zones at ca 550 Ma (Ndlec et al. 2014).

  17. Lower Carboniferous post-orogenic granites in central-eastern Sierra de Velasco, Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina: U-Pb monazite geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes

    Grosse, Pablo; Sllner, Frank; Bez, Miguel A.; Toselli, Alejandro J.; Rossi, Juana N.; de La Rosa, Jesus D.

    2009-07-01

    The central-eastern part of the Sierra de Velasco (Sierras Pampeanas, NW Argentina) is formed by the large Huaco (40 30 km) and Sanagasta (25 15 km) granite massifs and the small La Chinchilla stock (2 2 km). The larger granites intrude into Ordovician metagranitoids and crosscut Devonian (?) mylonitic shear zones, whereas the small stock sharply intrudes into the Huaco granite. The two voluminous granites are biotitic-muscovitic and biotitic porphyritic syeno- to monzogranites. They contain small and rounded tonalitic and quartz-dioritic mafic microgranular enclaves. The small stock is an equigranular, zinnwaldite- and fluorite-bearing monzogranite. The studied granites are silica-rich (SiO2 >70%), potassium-rich (K2O >4%), ferroan, alkali-calcic to slightly calk-alkalic, and moderately to weakly peraluminous (A/CNK: 1.06-1.18 Huaco granite, 1.01-1.09 Sanagasta granite, 1.05-1.06 La Chinchilla stock). They have moderate to strong enrichments in several LIL (Li, Rb, Cs) and HFS (Nb, Ta, Y, Th, U) elements, and low Sr, Ba and Eu contents. U-Pb monazite age determinations indicate Lower Carboniferous crystallization ages: 350-358 Ma for the Huaco granite, 352.7 1.4 Ma for the Sanagasta granite and 344.5 1.4 Ma for the La Chinchilla stock. The larger granites have similar ?Nd values between -2.1 and -4.3, whereas the younger stock has higher ?Nd of -0.6 to -1.4, roughly comparable to the values obtained for the Carboniferous San Blas granite (-1.4 to -1.7), located in the north of the sierra. The Huaco and Sanagasta granites have a mainly crustal source, but with some participation of a more primitive, possibly mantle-derived, component. The main crustal component can be attributed to Ordovician peraluminous metagranitoids. The La Chinchilla stock derives from a more primitive source, suggesting an increase with time in the participation of the primitive component during magma genesis. The studied granites were generated during a post-orogenic period in a within-plate setting, possibly as a response to the collapse of the previous Famatinian orogen, extension of the crust and mantle upwelling. They are part of the group of Middle Devonian-Lower Carboniferous granites of the Sierras Pampeanas. The distribution and U-Pb ages of these granites suggests a northward arc-parallel migration of this mainly post-orogenic magmatism with time.

  18. Granite emplacement during contemporary shortening and normal faulting: structural and magnetic study of the Veiga Massif (NW Spain)

    Roman-Berdiel, T.; Pueyo-Morer, E. L.; Casas-Sainz, A. M.

    1995-12-01

    The Veiga Massif belongs to the calc-alkaline series of Hercynian granitic rocks of the Ibero-Armorican arc The Veiga granodiorite intruded during the Upper Carboniferous into the core of the WNW-ESE N-verging 'Ollo de Sapo' antiform, formed by Precambrian and Palaeozoic metasediments. Internal fabrics show that magma intrusion was contemporary with shortening. Measurements of feldspars orientations and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) throughout the granite are consistent and indicate a foliation striking WNW-ESE (parallel-to-folding), with a constant dip of 75-85 °N. The zonation of bulk low-field susceptibility is related to mineral content and indicates a more basic composition at the southern and western borders. The difference in elevation between outcrops (more than 600 m) allows us to infer the three-dimensional attitude of granite fabrics throughout the Massif. Syn-magmatic fabric folds are preserved in the inner part of the igneous body. The highest degree of magnetic anisotropy is observed in areas located near the bottom and top of the intrusion. At the scale of the Massif, foliation is convergent toward the bottom of the intrusion, along a line located at its northern border, where the magma source is interpreted to be located. In the western border of the Massif, the presence of C and S structures indicates that magma cooling was coeval with movement of the Chandoiro fault, a N-S striking normal fault with a N290E hanging wall displacement direction. These results indicate that emplacement of the Veiga granite is coeval with NNE-SSW shortening and with an WNW-ESE extension direction, parallel to the trend of the late folds.

  19. Magnetic anisotropy of the Redeno granite, eastern Amazonian craton (Brazil): Implications for the emplacement of A-type plutons

    de Oliveira, Davis Carvalho; Neves, Srgio Pacheco; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Mariano, Gorki; Correia, Paulo Barros

    2010-10-01

    A magnetic fabric study was performed on the Redeno pluton in an attempt to understand its emplacement history. The Redeno pluton is part of the 1.88 Ga, anorogenic, A-type Jamon suite that intruded 2.97-2.86 Ga-old Archean granitoids of the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrane in the eastern Amazonian craton (northern Brazil). Previous gravity survey indicates that the pluton is a 6 km-thick, tabular intrusion. It is characterized by a concentric distribution of facies, with rings of seriated and porphyritic granite that cut across the main facies of even-grained monzogranites. The whole set is intruded by leucogranites that occupy the center of the pluton. Petrographic examination, magnetic susceptibilities, coercivity-spectra and thermomagnetic curves indicate that the magnetic fabric is primarily carried by coarse-grained multidomain magnetite. This is reinforced by the coincidence of magnetic susceptibility and remanence anisotropy principal axes. The absence of solid-state deformation features and the low anisotropy degrees indicate that the magnetic fabric is magmatic in origin. The magnetic fabric displays a systematic pattern, with all facies, including the rings of porphyritic granite, being characterized by concentric, gently dipping foliations associated with gently plunging lineations. Only the central leucogranitic facies shows a slightly discordant pattern with steeply dipping fabrics at its northeastern sector. An emplacement model by vertical stacking of successive magma batches is proposed for the construction of the Redeno pluton, which reconciles the tabular shape of the intrusion, the petrographic and geochemical zoning, and the magnetic fabric pattern. Initially, two magma batches were emplaced as sills. First the even-grained monzogranite, then the seriated and porphyritic granites, which formed by mingling of a leucogranitic melt with the host biotite-monzogranitic magma as attested by geochemical data and field evidence. The final shape of the pluton was acquired after the intrusion and inflation of the central leucogranite giving raise to the concentric pattern of facies in map view.

  20. Shoshonitic intrusion magmatism in Pajeu-Paraiba belt: the Bom Jardim complex

    The Bom Jardim complex is a multi phase intrusion emplaced within the basement of the Pajeu-Paraiba belt, in the Borborema province, N.E., Brazil, during the Pan African (Brasiliano) orogeny, 600 Ma ago. The Bom Jardim complex is primarily composed of monzonites and syenites with subordinated granites. The major and trace elements geochemistry has established a shoshonitic affinity for the monzonite-syenite assemblages, whereas the granites are clearly of a high-K calc-alkaline character. The main geochemical trends determined for the complex are the result of fractionation of mainly amphibole, biotite, alkali feldspar ±clinopyroxene within the developing magmas. The enrichment in transition metal elements, LILE and high LILE/HSFE ratios, coupled with an initial Sr sup(87)/Sr sup(86) ratio of 0.70709 is consistent with a subduction related magma source. (author)

  1. The GRANIT project: Status and Perspectives

    ler, Stephan Baeß; Gagarski, Alexei; Grigorieva, Ludmilla; Kreuz, Michael; Naraghi, Fabrice; Nesvizhevsky, Valery; Pignol, Guillaume; Protassov, Konstantin; Rebreyend, Dominique; Vezzu, Francis; Voronin, Alexei

    2012-01-01

    The GRANIT project is the follow-up of the pioneering experiments that first observed the quantum states of neutrons trapped in the earth's gravitational field at the Institute Laue Langevin (ILL). Due to the weakness of the gravitational force, these quantum states exhibit most unusual properties: peV energies and spatial extensions of order 10 $\\mu$m. Whereas the first series of observations aimed at measuring the properties of the wave functions, the GRANIT experiment will induce resonant ...

  2. Meltwater routing and the Younger Dryas

    Condron, Alan; Winsor, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Younger Dryasthe last major cold episode on Earthis generally considered to have been triggered by a meltwater flood into the North Atlantic. The prevailing hypothesis, proposed by Broecker et al. [1989 Nature 341:318321] more than two decades ago, suggests that an abrupt rerouting of Lake Agassiz overflow through the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Valley inhibited deep water formation in the subpolar North Atlantic and weakened the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circula...

  3. Petrology and textural evolution of granites associated with tin and rare-metals mineralization at the Pitinga mine, Amazonas, Brazil

    Lenharo, Sara Lais Rahal; Pollard, Peter J.; Born, Helmut

    2003-01-01

    The Água Boa and Madeira igneous complexes at the Pitinga mine were emplaced into acid volcanic rocks of the Paleoproterozoic Iricoumé Group, and host major tin, rare-metal (Zr, Nb, Ta, Y, REE) and cryolite mineralization. The igneous complexes are elongate NE-SW and each is composed of three major facies that, in order of emplacement, include porphyritic and equigranular rapakivi granite and biotite granite in both igneous complexes, followed by topaz granite in the Água Boa igneous complex (ABIC) and albite granite in the Madeira igneous complex (MIC). Rapakivi, porphyritic and granophyric textures observed in the granites are interpreted to reflect multiple stages of crystallization at different pressures (depths). Decompression during ascent shifted the magmas into the plagioclase stability field, causing partial resorption of quartz, with subsequent growth at lower pressure. Fluid saturation and separation probably occurred after final emplacement at shallow levels. Temperature and pressure estimates based on phase relations and zircon concentrations range from a maximum of 930 °C and 5 kbar for the rapakivi granites to below 650 °C and 1 kbar for the peralkaline albite granite. This suggests initial crystallization of early intrusive phases at around 15 km depth, with final emplacement of more volatile-rich crystal-mush at a depth of 0.5-1 km. Accessory minerals, including zircon, thorite, monazite, columbite-tantalite, cassiterite, bastnaesite and xenotime are present in almost all facies of the Água Boa and Madeira igneous complexes, attesting to the highly evolved character of the magmas. The presence of magnetite and/or primary cassiterite indicate crystallization under oxidizing conditions above the NNO buffer. The evolutionary sequence and Nd isotope characteristics ( TDM=2.2-2.4 Ga) of the Pitinga granites are similar to those of other Proterozoic rapakivi granites. However, petrographic, geochemical and Nd isotopic data ( ɛNd initial=-2.1 to +0.5) suggest that the different facies of the Pitinga granites were derived from different crustal sources with variable input of a mantle component.

  4. Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS)

    The adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique data system which uses computer controlled data systems, video cameras and recorders, analog-to-digital conversion, environmental sensors, and digital recorders to collect sensor data. The data can be viewed either manually or with a special computerized data-reduction system which adds new data to a data base stored on a magnetic disc recorder. This report provides a synoptic account of the AIDS as it presently exists. Modifications to the purchased subsystems are described, and references are made to publications which describe the Sandia-designed subsystems

  5. Zircon Recycling in Arc Intrusions

    Miller, J.; Barth, A.; Matzel, J.; Wooden, J.; Burgess, S.

    2008-12-01

    Recycling of zircon has been well established in arc intrusions and arc volcanoes, but a better understanding of where and how zircons are recycled can help illuminate how arc magma systems are constructed. To that end, we are conducting age, trace element (including Ti-in-zircon temperatures; TzrnTi) and isotopic studies of zircons from the Late Cretaceous (95-85 Ma) Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (TIS) in the Sierra Nevada Batholith (CA). Within the TIS zircons inherited from ancient basement sources and/or distinctly older host rocks are uncommon, but recycled zircon antecrysts from earlier periods of TIS-related magmatism are common and conspicuous in the inner and two most voluminous units of the TIS, the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak Granodiorites. All TIS units have low bulk Zr ([Zr]825°C), [Zr] in the TIS is a factor of 2 to 3 lower than saturation values. Low [Zr] in TIS rocks might be attributed to a very limited supply of zircon in the source, by disequilibrium melting and rapid melt extraction [1], by melting reactions involving formation of other phases that can incorporate appreciable Zr [2], or by removal of zircon at an earlier stage of magma evolution. Based on a preliminary compilation of literature data, low [Zr] is common to Late Cretaceous N.A. Cordilleran granodioritic/tonalitic intrusions (typically Tzrnsat [3]. A corollary is that slightly older zircon antecrysts that are common in the inner units of the TIS could be considered inherited if they are derived from remelting of slightly older intrusions. Remelting at such low temperatures in the arc would require a source of external water. Refs: [1] Sawyer, J.Pet 32:701-738; [2] Fraser et al, Geology 25:607-610; [3] Harrison et al, Geology 35:635- 638

  6. Intrusive Images in Psychological Disorders

    Brewin, Chris R; Gregory, James D.; Lipton, Michelle; Burgess, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Involuntary images and visual memories are prominent in many types of psychopathology. Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders, and psychosis frequently report repeated visual intrusions corresponding to a small number of real or imaginary events, usually extremely vivid, detailed, and with highly distressing content. Both memory and imagery appear to rely on common networks involving medial prefrontal regions, posterior regions in th...

  7. Non-intrusive valve diagnosis

    This article describes how advanced in-situ monitoring and testing techniques avoid unnecessary valve disassembly. The variety of valves now used in power plants presents a challenge to monitor and maintain. Of the 1,000 or more valves commonly found in a nuclear power plant, many are crucial to reliable safety function performance. Hence, nuclear industry engineers developed many of the recent techniques in valve condition monitoring, non-intrusive and in-situ testing, and preventive maintenance. Now, other power plant engineers can reduce operating and maintenance costs by taking advantage of this modern test equipment. Plant engineers can configure some state-of-the-art, non-intrusive valve diagnostic instruments for many functions, including monitoring check valves, and air-, motor- and solenoid-operated valves. Other functions include testing air-operated valves in-situ and detecting internal leaks non-intrusively in all power plant components. Laboratory test data and field applications have proved these systems to be very effective

  8. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: Pre-Nagssugtoqidian crustal evolution in West Greenland: geology, geochemistry and deformation of supracrustal and granitic rocks north-east of Kangaatsiaq

    Watt, Gordon R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The area north-east of Kangaatsiaq features polyphase grey orthogneisses, supracrustal rocks and Kangaatsiaq granite exposed within a WSW–ENE-trending synform. The supracrustal rocks are comprised of garnet-bearing metapelites, layered amphibolites and layered, likewise grey biotite paragneisses. Their association and geochemical compositions are consistent with a metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary basin (containing both tholeiitic and calc-alkali lavas and is similar to other Archaean greenstone belts. The Kangaatsiaq granite forms a 15 × 3 km flat, subconcordant body of deformed,pink, porphyritic granite occupying the core of the supracrustal synform, and is demonstrably intrusive into the amphibolites. The granite displays a pronounced linear fabric (L or L > S. Thepost-granite deformation developed under lower amphibolite facies conditions (400 ± 50°C, and is characterised by a regular, NE–SW-trending subhorizontal lineation and an associated irregular foliation, whose poles define a great circle; together they are indicative of highly constrictional strain. The existence of a pre-granite event is attested by early isoclinal folds and a foliation within the amphibolites that is not present in the granite, and by the fact that the granite cuts earlier structures in the supracrustal rocks. This early event, preserved only in quartz-free lithologies, resulted in high-temperature fabrics being developed under upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions.

  9. Geochronology and tectonic significance of Middle Proterozoic granitic orthogneiss, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, Western China

    Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Bird, D.K.; Wu, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    Amphibolite-facies para- and orthogneisses near Dulan, in the southeast part of the North Qaidam terrane, enclose minor ultra-high pressure (UHP) eclogite and peridotite. Field relations and coesite inclusions in zircons from paragneiss suggest that felsic, mafic, and ultramafic rocks all experienced UHP metamorphism and a common amphibolite-facies retrogression. Ion microprobe U-Pb and REE analyses of zircons from two granitic orthogneisses indicate magmatic crystallization at 927 ?? Ma and 921 ?? 7 Ma. Zircon rims in one of these samples yield younger ages (397-618 Ma) compatible with partial zircon recrystallization during in-situ Ordovician-Silurian eclogite-facies metamorphism previously determined from eclogite and paragneiss in this area. The similarity between a 2496 ?? 18 Ma xenocrystic core and 2.4-2.5 Ga zircon cores in the surrounding paragneiss suggests that the granites intruded the sediments or that the granite is a melt of the older basement which supplied detritus to the sediments. The magmatic ages of the granitic orthogneisses are similar to 920-930 Ma ages of (meta)granitoids described further northwest in the North Qaidam terrane and its correlative west of the Altyn Tagh fault, suggesting that these areas formed a coherent block prior to widespread Mid Proterozoic granitic magmatism. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  10. Mesoscopic faults in the granite of Isola del Giglio (Tuscan Archipelago)

    Passerini, P.; Marcucci, M.

    1992-06-01

    Faults at the mesoscopic scale in the granite at Isola del Giglio are examined by considering the strike, dip, pitch of the striae and minerals on the fault planes. The pattern of faulting is areally variable. Dykes and veins are often parallel to faults, suggesting a genetic connection. A major system of faults, mainly reverse and steeply dipping, strikes north-northwest and is characterized by the frequent occurrence of crushed tourmaline, these faults are often developed along pegmatite veinlets or dykes, and were probably produced by a combination of hydraulic and shear fracturing in the final stage of cooling of the granite. Another prominent phase of faulting is testified to by ENE-striking fault planes, strike-slip to oblique-slip, devoid of tourmaline and mostly coated with chlorite. p ]The prevalence of reverse and strike-slip faults over normal faults contradicts the traditional views about dominantly extensional tectonics in this area during the Pliocene and Quaternary. Extensional deformation at Isola del Giglio ended with the granite intrusion; crustal melting and extension ended at about 5 Ma, after which subvertical and strike-slip movements became dominant.

  11. Anomally '60': a uraniferous granitic pluton on Melville Peninsula, N.W.T

    The Proterozoic (Aphebian) Penrhyn Group in the Foxe Fold Belt in south-central Melville Peninsula, N.W.T. hosts numerous coarse-grained to pegmatitic granitic plutons, some of which show a definite enrichment in uranium with a few being significantly anomalous. Anomaly '60' is caused by a strongly radioactive pegmatitic granite intrusion that occurs at the base of the Penrhyn metasediments which rest unconformably on Archean gneisses. The granite is both discordant and concordant with the Proterozoic country rocks (marbles and paragneisses) and exhibits ghost layering at numerous localities. Uranium mineralization as uranophane and other secondary minerals sometimes forming pseudomorphs after uraninite appears to show a strong association with biotite accumulations. Thorium is variably present and may exceed the uranium content. Results from rock geochemistry, ground radiometry, detailed prospecting and a diamond drill program of six short holes conducted in 1979, indicate that although some ore grade mineralization occurs over short sections, the low grade and tonnage potential coupled with logistical difficulties, makes this 'porphyry uranium' occurrence uneconomic at present

  12. Mineralogy, chemistry, and age of granitic veins at Nicholson's Point, South Coast, Natal

    Undeformed granitic veins exposed at Nicholson's Point, southern Natal, intrude nearly all the foliated rock types between Drakes Beach and Leisure Bay and therefore appear to post-date the major deformation episodes. The veins define an en echelon array and appear to have been emplaced syn-tectonically to post-tectonically. In addition to quartz and feldspar, the veins are characterized by variable ferro magnesian minerals, namely, tourmaline, magnetite, dumortierite, and biotite. A Rb/Sr isotope study yields a date of 960 32 Ma which is within error of the date of the nearby deformed Glenmore Granite. These results imply that much of the deformation history recorded in the southern sector of Natal Structural and Metamorphic Province either occurred within a relatively short period or that the age of the Glenmore Granite is a reset age. The veins represent one of the youngest events recognized in the tectonic and intrusive history of the Natal Structural and Metamorphic Province. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Geochronology of granitic rocks from the Ruangwa region, southern Tanzania: links with NE Mozambique and beyond

    Thomas, Robert J.; Bushi, Alphonce M.; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Jacobs, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    New U–Pb zircon LA-ICP-MS data are presented for 4 granitoid bodies which intrude high grade gneisses of the previously unmapped Ruangwa region in southern Tanzania. The study area forms part of the late Neoproterozoic East African Orogen (EAO). The oldest unit, a coarse-grained migmatitic granitic orthogneiss gave an early Neoproterozoic (Tonian) crystallization age of 899 ± 9/16 Ma, which is similar to, but significantly younger than, Stenian-Tonian basement ages in areas relatively nearby....

  14. Two contrasting granite types: 25 years later

    The concept of I- and S-type granites was introduced in 1974 to account for the observation that, apart from the most felsic rocks, the granites in the Lachlan Fold Belt have properties that generally fall into two distinct groups. This has been interpreted to result from derivation by partial melting of two kinds of source rocks, namely sedimentary and older igneous rocks. The original publication on these two granite types is reprinted and reviewed in the light of 25 years of continuing study into these granites. Data on oxygen isotopic compositions of the two granite types were not available in 1974. O'Neil and Chappell (1977) found differences in such composition between the I- and S-type granites of the Berridale Batholith, with the two types having δ18O values less than and greater than 10%o, respectively, relative to SMOW This division is supported by our additional unpublished data on granites from other parts of the Lachlan Fold Belt, but needs to be tested further. Chappell and White (1974) noted that the initial 87Sr/86Sr values for a single S-type pluton are more variable than for I-type plutons, interpreted to reflect the more heterogeneous nature of the source material. That observation has been confirmed by later observations. The heterogeneity of isotopic compositions of S-type plutons is illustrated by the Jillamatong Granodiorite of the Kosciuszko Batholith. For that single unit, the range in 87Sr/86Sr calculated at 430 Ma is from 0.71115 to 0.71541. Copyright (2001) Geological Society of Australia

  15. Monazite-(Ce in Hercynian granites and pegmatites of the Bratislava massif, Western Carpathians: compositional variations and Th-U-Pb electron-microprobe dating

    Pavel Uher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monazite-(Ce represents a characteristic magmatic accessory mineral of the Hercynian peraluminous S-type granites to granodiorites and related granitic pegmatites of the Bratislava Granitic Massif (BGM, Malé Karpaty Mountains, Central Western Carpathians, SW Slovakia. Monazite forms euhedral to subhedral crystals, up to 200 μm in size, usually it is unzoned in BSE, rarely it reveals oscillatory or sector zoning. Thorium concentrations of 2 to 9 wt. % ThO2 (≤0.09 apfu and local elevated uranium contents (≤4.3 wt. % UO2, ≤0.04 apfu are characteristic for the pegmatite monazites. Both huttonite ThSiREE-1P-1 and cheralite Ca(Th,UREE-2 substitutions took place in the studied monazite. Electron-microprobe Th-U-Pb monazite dating of the granites and pegmatites gave an isochron age of 353±2 Ma (MSWD = 0.88, n = 290, which confirmed the meso-Hercynian, Carboniferous, Lower Mississipian magmatic crystallization. An analogous age (359±11 Ma was obtained from monazite from adjacent paragneiss, corresponding to the age of the Hercynian contact thermal metamorphism related to the granite intrusion of BGM. Monazite in some granite shows also older clastic or authigenic grains or zones (~505 to 400 Ma, with maximum of 420±7 Ma which probably represents inherited material from the Lower Paleozoic metapelitic to metapsammitic protolith of BGM.

  16. Geochemical and Sr-isotopic signatures in the 2.6 B.Y. Lepakshi granite, Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh: implications for its origin and evolution

    The predominantly leucocratic 2.6 b.y. old Lepakshi granite (a suite of granite, granodiorite and quartz-monzonite), near Hindupur in the Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh is intrusive into the Archaean schistose rocks and contains xenolithic patches of amphibolite. Compositionally, it is predominantly quartz-monzonitic with granodiorite and granite variants. The relatively low initial 87Sr/86Sr (Sri = 0.7026) of this Lepakshi granite implies its derivation from a juvenile crustal source with very limited crustal residence time, indicating the absence of involvement of any metasedimentary source. The source also appears to have fair amount of mafic component. A volcanic arc type tectonic setting, along with the collision processes and the associated tectonic activity operating in tandem, resulting in an increased P-T regime, granulite facies metamorphism and anatectic melting at mid- to lower crustal levels is suggested for the origin of this granite. The large ion lithophile (LIL) elements removed from the lower crust (due to granulite facies metamorphism and the associated fluid activity) were incorporated in the granites of the Lepakshi type. (author). 45 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Zircon Hf isotope perspective on the origin of granitic rocks from eastern Bavaria, SW Bohemian Massif

    Siebel, Wolfgang; Chen, Fukun

    2010-07-01

    The petrogenetic potential of in situ laser ablation Hf isotope data from melt precipitated zircons was explored through the analyses of about 700 individual crystals derived from about 20 different granitic intrusions covering the Variscan basement segment of eastern Bavaria, SE Germany. In combination with geochemical features, four major suites of granitic rocks can be distinguished: (1) NE Bavarian redwitzites (52-57 wt% SiO2, intrusion ages around 323 Ma) have chondritic ?Hf(t) values (+0.8 to -0.4). The redwitzites are hybrid rocks and the Hf data are permissive of mixing of a mantle progenitor and crustal melts. (2) Various intermediate rock types (dioritic dyke, granodiorite, palite, 59-63 wt% SiO2, 334-320 Ma) from the Bavarian Forest yield negative ?Hf(t) values between -3.4 and -5.1. These values which apparently contradict a mantle contribution fingerprint an enriched (metasomatized) mantle component that was mixed with crustal material. (3) Voluminous, major crust forming granites sensu stricto (67-75 wt% SiO2, 328-298 Ma) are characterized by a range in ?Hf(t) values from -0.5 to -5.6. Different crustal sources and/or modification of crustal melts by various input of juvenile material can explain this variation. (4) Post-plutonic ( c. 299 Ma) porphyritic dykes of dacitic composition (64-67 wt% SiO2) from the southern Bavarian Forest have chondritic ?Hf(t) values (+0.6 to -1.1) and display large intergrain Hf isotope variation. The dykes form a separate petrogenetic group and the Hf data suggest that the zircons crystallized when a pristine mantle-derived parental melt was modified by infiltration of crustal material. The zircon Hf data form a largely coherent positive array with the whole-rock Nd data and both systems yield similar two-stage depleted mantle model ages (1.1-1.7 Ga).

  18. Bokan Mountain peralkaline granitic complex, Alexander terrane (southeastern Alaska): evidence for Early Jurassic rifting prior to accretion with North America

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Karl, Susan M.; Keppie, J. Duncan; Kontak, Daniel J.; Shellnutt, J. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The circular Bokan Mountain complex (BMC) on southern Prince of Wales Island, southernmost Alaska, is a Jurassic peralkaline granitic intrusion about 3 km in diameter that crosscuts igneous and metasedimentary rocks of the Alexander terrane. The BMC hosts significant rare metal (rare earth elements, Y, U, Th, Zr, and Nb) mineralization related to the last stage of BMC emplacement. U–Pb (zircon) and 40Ar/39Ar (amphibole and whole-rock) geochronology indicates the following sequence of intrusive activity: (i) a Paleozoic basement composed mainly of 469 ± 4 Ma granitic rocks; (ii) intrusion of the BMC at 177 ± 1 Ma followed by rapid cooling through ca. 550 °C at 176 ± 1 Ma that was synchronous with mineralization associated with vertical, WNW-trending pegmatites, felsic dikes, and aegirine–fluorite veins and late-stage, sinistral shear deformation; and (iii) intrusion of crosscutting lamprophyre dikes at >150 Ma and again at ca. 105 Ma. The peralkaline nature of the BMC and the WNW trend of associated dikes suggest intrusion during NE–SW rifting that was followed by NE–SW shortening during the waning stages of BMC emplacement. The 177 Ma BMC was synchronous with other magmatic centres in the Alexander terrane, such as (1) the Dora Bay peralkaline stock and (2) the bimodal Moffatt volcanic suite located ~30 km north and ~100 km SE of the BMC, respectively. This regional magmatism is interpreted to represent a regional extensional event that precedes deposition of the Late Jurassic – Cretaceous Gravina sequence that oversteps the Wrangellia and Alexander exotic accreted terranes and the Taku and Yukon–Tanana pericratonic terranes of the Canadian–Alaskan Cordillera.

  19. Towards an Effective Intrusion Response Engine Combined with Intrusion Detection in Ad Hoc Networks

    Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Douligeris, Christos

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an effective intrusion response engine combined with intrusion detection in ad hoc networks. The intrusion response engine is composed of a secure communication module, a local and a global response module. Its function is based on an innovative tree-based key agreement protocol while the intrusion detection engine is based on a class of neural networks called eSOM. The proposed intrusion response model and the tree-based protocol, it is based on, are analyzed concerning key secrecy while the intrusion detection engine is evaluated for MANET under different traffic conditions and mobility patterns. The results show a high detection rate for packet dropping attacks.

  20. Rare metal granites and related rocks of the Ukrainian shield

    Esipchuk, K.Ye.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Two rare metal leucocratic granites, Perga and Kamennaya complexes, can be distinquished on the Ukrainian shield. The Perga complex consists of medium- and coarse grained, mainly porphyric, biotite, riebeckite and aegirine granites, granite porphyries, microclinites and albitites with rare metal mineralization (genthelvite, phenacite, tantalite, cassiterite and wolframite etc.. Granites from several stocks (up to 30 km2 in the northwestern part of the shield, situated along the fracture zone, restricted the large Korosten pluton of rapakivi granites to the northwest. The age of these granites (Pb-Pb and U-Pb methods on zircon and monazite practically coincide with the age of rapakivi granites being 1750 Ma. Within the Korosten complex of rapakivi granites we consider that zinnwaldite granites, which are characterized by fluorite and topazine mineralization, represent the final phase of pluton. These granites differ from the Perga ones by their low content of rare metals. The Kamennaya Mogila complex lies in the southeastern part of the Ukrainian shield. It consists of biotite and muscovite-biotite, medium- and coarse-grained (also porphyric, and occasionally greisining granites with rare metal mineralization (cassiterite, columbite, molybdenite, wolframite and beryl. Granites form several stocks (5-30 km2 situated 10-30 km to the west-northwest of the South-Kalchik gabbro-syenite-granite pluton. Granitoids in both of these complexes have similar isotopic ages (1800 Ma. Leucocratic subalkaline granites (the Novoyanisol type are known within the pluton itself, occupying an intermediate position between the above mentioned in terms of mineral and geochemical composition. The gabbro-syenite-granite formation of the Nearazov region has a substantial similarity to the anorthosite-rapakivi-granite formation. In this respect the relation of each of them to rare metal granites is rather remarkable. This relation is, most probably, not only spatial, but also genetic. The typical rare metal granites are situated not in the parent plutons but at some distance from them.

  1. Multiple origins for the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous high-K calc-alkaline I-type granites in northwestern Fujian province, SE China and tectonic implications

    Wang, Guo-Chang; Jiang, Yao-Hui; Liu, Zheng; Ni, Chun-Yu; Qing, Long; Zhang, Qiao; Zhu, Shu-Qi

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive study of zircon U-Pb dating and in situ Hf isotopes, whole-rock major and trace element geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes was carried out for three late Mesozoic granitic plutons (Waitun, Shipi and Taiyuan) in northwestern Fujian province, SE China. We assess the origin of the granites and their relationship to the evolution of the late Mesozoic volcanic-intrusive complex belt in SE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that three plutons were emplaced in the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (168-109 Ma), in which the Waitun and Shipi plutons are intrusive complexes. All the plutons are composed of high-K calc-alkaline I-type granites with a great diversity in elemental and isotopic compositions. The granites have SiO2 contents of 68.3-78.5 wt.%, showing a gradual decrease in initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7181 to 0.7091) and increase in εNd (T) (- 16.7 to - 8.1) and εHf (T) (in-situ zircon) (- 20.6 to - 6.9) with decreasing emplacement ages. Geochemical data suggest that the Middle Jurassic (~ 168 Ma) Waitun granites are of purely crustal origin, derived by partial melting of a mixed source of Paleoproterozoic metaigneous (~ 78%) and metasedimentary (~ 22%) rocks at a depth of 30-40 km triggered by underplating of basaltic magma. Mixing of such crustal melts with about 10% basaltic magma could account for the origin of the Late Jurassic (~ 161 Ma) Waitun granites. The Late Jurassic (~ 156 Ma) Shipi and Early Cretaceous (~ 134 Ma) Taiyuan granites were produced by extensive fractional crystallization of primary crustal melts, the source of which show relatively high proportion (~ 82%) of metaigneous rocks. The Early Cretaceous (~ 109 Ma) Shipi granites were generated by partial melting of a mixed source of Paleoproterozoic metaigneous (~ 92%) and metasedimentary (~ 8%) rocks at a depth of ~ 30 km plus additional (~ 15%) input from coeval basaltic magma. The granites were formed in a continental arc setting induced by northwestward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate. Progressive slab rollback since the Middle Jurassic from inland to the coastal area is the most likely mechanism for the generation of the granites.

  2. PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN GRANITE WORKERS

    Srilakshmi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS has significantly increased over the last few decades and has become a main health challenge worldwide. Prevalence of MS is quickly rising in developing countries due to changing lifestyle. It was considered worthwhile to study MS and its components in granite workers since granite factories are situated in and around Khammam area. Moreover, no studies of MS in granite workers have been reported in literature. OBJECTIVES: Aim of our study is to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in granite workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 210 male workers in the age group of 20 - 50 working in granite industries located in and around the Khammam town of Telangana State are selected for the present study. Blood pressures (BP, waist circumference (WC were measured. Fasting blood samples were collected for the estimation of glucose and lipids. RESULTS: 69 subjects out of 210 were identified as having MS based on updated National cholesterol education programme - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP - ATP III guidelines. CONCLUSION: MS should be identified and remedial measures may be suggested, so that the risk of hypertension, cardiovascular risk, diabetes and the resultant morbidity is minimized and can be delayed

  3. Head and neck malignancies in younger patients

    We treated 23 (1.4% of all our primary cases) younger patients who are from 15 years old to 29 years old with head and neck malignancies at the Department of Head and Neck Surgery of the Miyagi Cancer Center Hospital for the past 12 years. There were 12 male and 11 female, and the sex ratio was approximately 1:1. There were 12 oral cancer patients, 6 epipharyngeal cancer patients and so on. There were 14 squamous cell carcinomas, 3 nasopharyngeal carcinomas and so on. 60% of all cases were squamous cell carcinomas. Clinically, advanced stage (stage III and IV) was diagnosed in 70% of patients at presentation. Although 19 patients had no past history, 2 patients had bronchial asthma, one had schizophrenia, and one had psychological disorder. Radical treatment was performed in 20 of 23 examples. The estimated Kaplan-Meier 5-year cause-specific survival rates for all patients were 76% and the 10-year cause-specific survival rates were 63%, respectively. It was thought that survival consequence was excellent in the whole. The problems of head and neck tumor treatment in a younger patient were thought about with late effect by radioactive rays and genital disorder by cancer chemotherapy. (author)

  4. Sorption behaviour of granite for radionuclides in groundwater condition

    The sorption behavior of granite for Cs and Nd in the underground water condition was investigated as the function of mineralogical alteration of granite and particle size. The physicochemical characterization of the granite samples was carried out in terms of mineral phase, pore structure and elements eluted by soft acid treatment as the function of alteration of the granite. The increase of porosity of granite, and phase change of biotite and plagioclase into chlorite and illite, respectively were observed with the increase of alteration degree. The sorption capacities of the series of granites slightly increased with the increase of alteration degree. (authors)

  5. Mobile Agents in Intrusion Detection System: Review and Analysis

    Kamaruzaman Maskat; Mohd Afizi Mohd Shukran; Mohammad Adib Khairuddin; Mohd Rizal Mohd Isa

    2011-01-01

    Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is used to detect intrusion and then alert the system administrator about the intrusion. This is what traditional IDS is all about. It is then up to the system administrator to deal with the intrusion. Human intervention is still needed when it comes to dealing with intrusion. This is because traditional IDS could only detect the intrusion but could not, on its own respond towards the intrusion. IDS is only able to alert the system administrator when it detect...

  6. Early Mesozoic granites in the Nanling Belt, South China: Implications for intracontinental tectonics associated with stress regime transformation

    Song, Meijia; Shu, Liangshu; Santosh, M.

    2016-04-01

    The link between two tectono-magmatic events during Early and Late Mesozoic periods in the Nanling Belt of South China remains debated. Here we present zircon U-Pb geochronology, Hf isotopes and whole-rock geochemistry of granitic intrusions from Zhuguangshan in the Nanling Belt. The zircon data exhibit two magmatic episodes with 206Pb/238U ages of ca. 230 Ma and 150 Ma, representing the Indosinian (Early-Middle Triassic period) and Early Yanshanian (Jurassic-Cretaceous period) events, respectively. The Indosinian granites are characterized by strongly peraluminous nature with high A/CNK values (> 1.1), whereas the Early Yanshanian granites are weakly peraluminous (average A/CNK value of 1.06). Although the Early Yanshanian granites bear higher HREE contents and lower LREE/HREE ratios, the two-phase granites show enrichment in LREE, Rb, Th, U and Pb, depletion in Eu and negative Ba, Sr, Nb and Ti anomalies. All samples show variably negative εHf(t) values (- 5 to - 16) with two-stage Hf model ages clustered around 1.8-2.1 Ga. Our data indicate that the two-phase granitic magmas were generated from the partial melting of early Paleoproterozoic basement rocks with no input of mantle material. Combined with other geological evidence, we infer that the Indosinian tectono-magmatic event was closely related to intracontinental orogeny triggered by collisions along the boundaries of South China Craton, in relation to processes associated with the E-W trending Tethys tectonic domain. We envisage that the Early Yanshanian event might be a response to the back-arc extension of NW-directed paleo-Pacific plate subduction. The Nanling Belt is a critical zone that records the transformation from Tethys to paleo-Pacific tectonic regimes.

  7. Classification and Importance of Intrusion Detection System

    Rajasekaran K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS is a device or software application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a Management Station. Some systems may attempt to stop an intrusion attempt but this is neither required nor expected of a monitoring system. Due to a growing number of intrusion events and also because the Internet and local networks have become so ubiquitous, organizations are increasingly implementing various systems that monitor IT security breaches. This includes an overview of the classification of intrusion detection systems and introduces the reader to some fundamental concepts of IDS methodology: audit trail analysis and on-the-fly processing as well as anomaly detection and signature detection approaches. This research paper discusses the primary intrusion detection techniques and the classification of intrusion Detection system.

  8. Non-intrusive refractometer sensor

    Pabitra Nath

    2010-04-01

    An experimental realization of a simple non-intrusive refractometer sensor is demonstrated in this communication. The working principle of the sensor is based on intensity modulation of the back-reflected light when output light from an optical fibre end focusses onto air–medium interface. The change in the refractive index of the medium affects the reflectance of the incident light signal and thus modulates the back-reflected signal. Refractive index variation as small as 0.002 RIU can be measured using the present technique. The advantages of the technique are its simplicity, cost efficiency and usefulness in monitoring refractive indices of acidic solutions.

  9. Evolutionary Design of Intrusion Detection Programs

    Ajith Abraham; Crina Grosan; Carlos Martin-Vide

    2007-01-01

    Intrusion detection is the process of monitoring the events occurring in a computer system or network and analyzing them for signs of intrusions, defined as attempts to compromise the confidentiality, integrity, availability, or to bypass the security mechanisms of a computer or network. This paper proposes the development of an Intrusion Detection Program (IDP) which could detect known attack patterns. An IDP does not eliminate the use of any preventive mechanism but it works as the last def...

  10. Investigations of small intrusions in southern Scotland

    Cooper, D. C.; Parker, M E; Allen, P M

    1982-01-01

    Sixteen small intrusions and one mineral occurrence were examined briefly for indications of disseminated mineralisation. Stream sediment and panned concentrate samples were collected from streams crossing some of the intrusions to supplement existing coverage, and geophysical surveys were conducted over Priestlaw, Cockburn Law and Lamberton Moor. Rock samples collected at some of the localities were analysed for major and trace elements. The intrusive rocks rang...

  11. Framework for Choosing Best Intrusion Detection System

    Bilal Maqbool Beigh

    2015-01-01

    As there are many intrusion detection systems available in the market and yet there is not a single guideline framed by any researcher or any organization so that a company or an organization will decide which intrusion detection system is best suited to their company for the purpose of security. Here in this paper, we have proposed a novel guideline in terms of framework for choosing right most intrusion detection system for an organization. The framework needs some security expert so that t...

  12. Self-adaptive web intrusion detection system

    Guyet, Thomas; Quiniou, Ren; Wang, Wei; Cordier, Marie-Odile

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of the web server contents and the emergence of new kinds of intrusions make necessary the adaptation of the intrusion detection systems (IDS). Nowadays, the adaptation of the IDS requires manual -- tedious and unreactive -- actions from system administrators. In this paper, we present a self-adaptive intrusion detection system which relies on a set of local model-based diagnosers. The redundancy of diagnoses is exploited, online, by a meta-diagnoser to check the consistency of ...

  13. Network Intrusion Detection Types and Computation

    Purvag Patel; Chet Langin; Feng Yu; Shahram Rahimi

    2012-01-01

    Our research created a network Intrusion Detection Math (ID Math) consisting of two components: (1) a way of specifying intrusion detection types in a manner which is more suitable for an analytical environment; and (2) a computational model which describes methodology for preparing intrusion detection data stepwise from network packets to data structures in a way which is appropriate for sophisticated analytical methods such as statistics, data mining, and computational intelligence. We used...

  14. Intrusion Detection Using Data Mining Technique

    Stuti Singh; Roshan Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    In reality it is not possible to prevent security breaches completely using the existing security technologies. The intrusion detection plays an important role in network security and information system. However, many current intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are signature based systems. The signature based IDS also known as misuse detection looks for a specific signature to match, and identify an intrusion. When the signatures or patterns are provided, they can detect all known attack patte...

  15. The GRANIT project: Status and Perspectives

    ler, Stephan Baeß; Grigorieva, Ludmilla; Kreuz, Michael; Naraghi, Fabrice; Nesvizhevsky, Valery; Pignol, Guillaume; Protassov, Konstantin; Rebreyend, Dominique; Vezzu, Francis; Voronin, Alexei

    2012-01-01

    The GRANIT project is the follow-up of the pioneering experiments that first observed the quantum states of neutrons trapped in the earth's gravitational field at the Institute Laue Langevin (ILL). Due to the weakness of the gravitational force, these quantum states exhibit most unusual properties: peV energies and spatial extensions of order 10 $\\mu$m. Whereas the first series of observations aimed at measuring the properties of the wave functions, the GRANIT experiment will induce resonant transitions between states thus accessing to spectroscopic measurements. After a brief reminder of achieved results, the principle and the status of the experiment, presently under commissioning at the ILL, will be given. In the second part, we will discuss the potential of GRANIT to search for new physics, in particular to a modified Newton law in the micrometer range.

  16. Granite Sludge Reuse in Mortar and Concrete

    Husam D. Al- Hamaiedeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of solid wastes produced in granite industry to the environment without any treatment cause not only economical but also serious environmental problems. In this study Granite Powder (GP which produced as solid waste from the cutting and polishing of granite rocks was reused as additive to mortar and concrete cement. Incorporation of GP in mortar and concrete in ratios of 10, 20, 30 wt.% improved mortar and concrete compressive strengths and the concrete workability. The experimental results show that GP can be used to replace cement or fine aggregate in concrete which provide not only solve an environmental problem by safe disposal of GP but also reduce the stress on the limited natural resources and the cost of concrete production.

  17. Is the risk of human intrusion exaggerated

    As part of the procedure for modelling long-term changes to the environment of a radioactive waste repository, account has to be taken of the potential for human intrusion. In estimating the frequency of intrusive acts, the independence of events is commonly assumed within the framework of a Poisson model. A more sophisticated statistical model is developed here which treats human intrusion as a finite Markov process, with states defined according to information of the radiological hazard at a site, and the enforcement of access regulations. With anthropological arguments invoked to assign Markov transition values for future millenia, a significant intrusion rate mitigation factor is found

  18. Late-Hercynian intrusion-related gold deposits: An integrated model on the Tighza polymetallic district, central Morocco

    Éric, Marcoux; Khadija, Nerci; Yannick, Branquet; Claire, Ramboz; Gilles, Ruffet; Jean-Jacques, Peucat; Ross, Stevenson; Michel, Jébrak

    2015-07-01

    Gold have been recently recognized in the Tighza (formerly Jebel Aouam) district, in the Hercynian belt of central Morocco. This district has long been known for its W mineralization, as well as major Pb-Ag-Zn, and minor Sb-Ba deposits, all geographically associated with late-Hercynian calc-alkaline magmatism. Gold mineralization in the district is mainly hosted by thick W-Au quartz veins located around the "Mine granite" small granitic plug. Within the veins, gold grade is highest (up to 70 g/t) close to the granite but rapidly decreases going outward from the granite, defining a perigranitic zoning. Anomalous gold grades have also been measured in hydrothermal skarn layers close to two other granitic plugs (Kaolin granite and Mispickel granite), associated with disseminated As-Fe sulfides. The paragenetic sequence for the W-Au quartz veins shows three stages: (1) an early oxidized stage with wolframite-scheelite associated with early quartz (Q1), (2) an intermediate Bi-As-Te-Mo-Au sulfide stage with loellingite, bismuth minerals and native gold with a later quartz (Q2), restricted to a narrow distance from the granite, and (3) a late lower temperature As-Cu-Zn-(Pb) stage with abundant massive pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite and sphalerite, locally forming independent veins ("pyrrhotite vein"). Both Q1 hyaline and Q2 saccharoidal gold-bearing quartz display aqua-carbonic fluids with minor H2S and Cu and an homogeneous composition (81 mole% H2O, 18 mole% CO2 and about 1 mole% NaCl). The trapping pressure is estimated to 1.5-2 kbar with temperature ranging from 300 to 350 °C. Q1 inclusions have exploded indicating an uplift of the Tighza block, that lead to saccharoidal Q2 quartz deposition with multiphase NaCl-saturated fluid inclusions. 40Ar/39Ar dating demonstrates that the "Mine granite", tungsten skarnoid, scheelite-molybdenite veins, and very likely gold-bearing veins are coeval, emplaced at 286 ± 1 Ma. Multiple and widespread metal sources are indicated by radiogenic isotope studies. Nd and Sr isotope compositions of scheelite and granites suggest the participation of a juvenile component while lead isotopes demonstrate a major participation of the basement. Both gold mineralization and zoning suggest that the system developed at the end of the magmatic activity, accompanying a major transition in magmatic fluid composition. The morphology of the gold-bearing mineralization is dependent of the permeability and the reactivity of host-rocks: focus circulation of fluids through pre-existing tectonic corridors, reactivated by late-Hercynian intrusions favor the formation of large W-type gold veins, while infiltration of fluid within reactive stratigraphic layers gives rise to skarn mineralization. A 40Ar/39Ar date (W1 north vein: 291.8 ± 0.3 Ma) indicates that hydrothermal circulation predates gold and tungsten deposition in open fractures as well as Mine granite emplacement. The W-Au mineralization preceded the onset of a large convective hydrothermal cell around the intrusion that led to the formation of the Pb-Ag-Zn mined veins. The Tighza polymetallic district displays numerous similarities with the R-IRG model that was defined in the American Cordillera, such as thermal and zonation patterns, carbonic hydrothermal fluids and chronology of intrusion and related deposits, but also provides new insight to the R-IRG model such as wide Au-quartz veins instead of sheeted Au-veins, oxidation state of the magma, and Sr-Nd isotopic data. These results establish a major magmatic contribution and discard a direct genetic relationship between gold mineralization and major neighboring Pb-Ag-Zn veins. A large number of classic Pb-Zn district of the Western Hercynides belong to the same clan.

  19. Structural, Petrographic and Geochemical Characteristics of Mafic Dikes Intrusive in Metasedimentary Rocks of the Crixás Greenstone Belt, Goiás

    Hardy Jost; Jayme Estevão Scandolara

    2010-01-01

    Mafic dikes and stocks are a common feature in the Archean terrain of Goiás, Central Brazil, where they occur asswarms of 2.3 - 2.5 Ga within the granite-gneiss complexes (2.8 e 2.7 Ga), as well as intrusions related to the komatiite andbasalt flows of the greenstone belts lower stratigraphic units, but were unknown within the upper metasedimentary units.Detailed study of core sections from several drill-sites in the area of the Crixás greenstone belt gold deposits showed thatdike intrusion o...

  20. Retention of Anionic Species on Granite: Influence of Granite Composition - 12129

    Technetium (Tc-99, T1/2 = 2.1.105 yrs) and selenium (Se-79, T1/2 = 6.5.104 yrs) belong among fission products, being produced by fission of nuclear fuel. Both elements can significantly contribute to risk due to their complicated chemistry, long life times, high mobility and prevailing anionic character. Therefore, knowledge of migration behaviour under different conditions can significantly improve input into performance and safety assessment models. Granite is considered as a potential host rock for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in many countries. Granitic rocks consist usually of quartz, feldspar, plagioclase (main components), mica, chlorite, kaolinite (minor components). The main feature of the rock is advection governed transport in fractures, complemented with diffusion process from fracture towards undisturbed rock matrix. The presented work is focused on interaction of anionic species (TcO4-, SeO42-, SeO32-) with granitic rock. Furthermore, the importance of mineral composition on sorption of anionic species was also studied. The batch sorption experiments were conducted on the crushed granite from Bohemian Massive. Five fractions with defined grain size were used for static batch method. Mineral composition of each granitic fraction was evaluated using X-ray diffraction. The results showed differences in composition of granitic fractions, even though originating from one homogenized material. Sorption experiments showed influence of granite composition on adsorption of both TcO4- and SeO32- on granitic rock. Generally, Se(IV) showed higher retention than Tc(VII). Se(VI) was not almost sorbed at all. Fe containing minerals are pronounced as a selective Se and Tc sorbent, being reduced on their surface. As micas in granite are usually enriched in Fe, increased sorption of anionic species onto mica enriched fractions can be explained by this reason. On the other hand, fractions enriched in feldspar did not show increased sorption affinity to Tc and Se. (authors)

  1. Intrusion-aware Alert Validation Algorithm for Cooperative Distributed Intrusion Detection Schemes of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Young-Jae Song; Sungyoung Lee; Heejo Lee; Hassan Jameel; Brian J. dAuriol; Riaz Ahmed Shaikh

    2009-01-01

    Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed ano...

  2. Evolution of silicic magma in the upper crust: the mid-Tertiary Latir volcanic field and its cogenetic granitic batholith, northern New Mexico, USA

    Lipman, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    Structural and topographic relief along the eastern margin of the Rio Grande rift, northern New Mexico, provides a remarkable cross-section through the 26-Ma Questa caldera and cogenetic volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Latir field. Exposed levels increase in depth from mid-Tertiary depositional surfaces in northern parts of the igneous complex to plutonic rocks originally at 3-5 km depths in the S. Erosional remnants of an ash-flow sheet of weakly peralkaline rhyolite (Amalia Tuff) and andesitic to dactitic precursor lavas, disrupted by rift-related faults, are preserved as far as 45 km beyond their sources at the Questa caldera. Broadly comagmatic 26 Ma batholithic granitic rocks, exposed over an area of 20 by 35 km, range from mesozonal granodiorite to epizonal porphyritic granite and aplite; shallower and more silicic phases are mostly within the caldera. Compositionally and texturally distinct granites defined resurgent intrusions within the caldera and discontinuous ring dikes along its margins: a batholithic mass of granodiorite extends 20 km S of the caldera and locally grades vertically to granite below its flat-lying roof. A negative Bouguer gravity anomaly (15-20 mgal), which encloses exposed granitic rocks and coincides with boundaries of the Questa caldera, defined boundaries of the shallow batholith, emplaced low in the volcanic sequence and in underlying Precambrian rocks. Paleomagnetic pole positions indicate that successively crystallised granitic plutons cooled through Curie temperatures during the time of caldera formation, initial regional extension, and rotational tilting of the volcanic rocks. Isotopic ages for most intrusions are indistinguishable from the volcanic rocks. These relations indicate that the batholithic complex broadly represents the source magma for the volcanic rocks, into which the Questa caldera collapsed, and that the magma was largely liquid during regional tectonic disruption. -from Author

  3. Production of hybrid granitic magma at the advancing front of basaltic underplating: Inferences from the Sesia Magmatic System (south-western Alps, Italy)

    Sinigoi, Silvano; Quick, James E.; Demarchi, Gabriella; Klötzli, Urs S.

    2016-05-01

    The Permian Sesia Magmatic System of the southwestern Alps displays the plumbing system beneath a Permian caldera, including a deep crustal gabbroic complex, upper crustal granite plutons and a bimodal volcanic field dominated by rhyolitic tuff filling the caldera. Isotopic compositions of the deep crustal gabbro overlap those of coeval andesitic basalts, whereas granites define a distinct, more radiogenic cluster (Sri ≈ 0.708 and 0.710, respectively). AFC computations starting from the best mafic candidate for a starting melt show that Nd and Sr isotopic compositions and trace elements of andesitic basalts may be modeled by reactive bulk assimilation of ≈ 30% of partially depleted crust and ≈ 15%-30% gabbro fractionation. Trace elements of the deep crustal gabbro cumulates require a further ≈ 60% fractionation of the andesitic basalt and loss of ≈ 40% of silica-rich residual melt. The composition of the granite plutons is consistent with a mixture of relatively constant proportions of residual melt delivered from the gabbro and anatectic melt. Chemical and field evidence leads to a conceptual model which links the production of the two granitic components to the evolution of the Mafic Complex. During the growth of the Mafic Complex, progressive incorporation of packages of crustal rocks resulted in a roughly steady state rate of assimilation. Anatectic granite originates in the hot zone of melting crust located above the advancing mafic intrusion. Upward segregation of anatectic melts facilitates the assimilation of the partially depleted restite by stoping. At each cycle of mafic intrusion and incorporation, residual and anatectic melts are produced in roughly constant proportions, because the amount of anatectic melt produced at the roof is a function of volume and latent heat of crystallization of the underplated mafic melt which in turn produces proportional amounts of hybrid gabbro cumulates and residual melt. Such a process can explain the restricted range in isotopic compositions of most rhyolitic and granitic rocks of the Permo-Carboniferous province of Europe and elsewhere.

  4. Archean and paleoproterozoic granitoids and crustal evolution of the Rio Maria granite-greenstone terrane, Eastern Amazonian craton Brazil

    The Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrane (RMGGT) is situated in the Caraj Province, which is the most important Archean domain of the Amazonian craton (Machado et al., 1991; Macambira and Lafon, 1995; Tassinari and Macambira, 1999; Santos et al., 2000; Dall'Agnol et al., 2000). Several Archean granitoid suites and supracrustal sequences have been described in the RMGGT (Dall'Agnol et al., 1997; Althoff et al., 2000; Souza et al., 2001). Geochemical and isotopic data are now available allowing a better evaluation of the crustal evolution of this terrane. Paleoproterozoic, A-type oxidized granites (Dall'Agnol et al., 1999a) are intrusive in the Archean rocks of the RMGGT and their evolution will also be discussed (au)

  5. Iron content and reducing capacity of granites and bentonite

    The iron contents in various granites and in bentonite have been determined. For granites, the content is usually in the range 1-9% (weight) and 2.5-3% for bentonite. Most of the iron is divalent in the granites (70-90%); in bentonite the divalent fraction is 25-50%. A large part of the divalent iron in the granites appears to be accessible for the reduction of dissolved oxygen in an aqueous system. (author)

  6. Granites and the geodynamic history of the neoproterozoic Brası´lia belt, Central Brazil: a review

    Pimentel, Márcio M.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Botelho, Nilson F.

    1999-03-01

    Recent field and geochronological studies have demonstrated the importance of granitic magmatism in the evolution of the Neoproterozoic Brası´lia Belt, in Central Brazil. This is an orogenic belt developed in response to the convergence between the Amazon, São Francisco-Congo and Paraná continental blocks. The presence of Neoproterozoic juvenile arc rocks and syn-collisional peraluminous granites challenged previous intracontinental evolution models for the belt. The granitoid intrusions reviewed in this paper record the different stages of evolution of the orogen and their field and isotopic characteristics can be used to reconstruct the tectonic history of the belt. The main field and isotopic characteristics of four granite suites associated with the Brası´lia Belt are reviewed: (i) 1.77-1.58 Ga old rift related A-type granite intrusions, (ii) ca. 0.8-0.7 syn-collisional granitoids, (iii) arc metatonalites and metagranodiorites (ca. 0.9 to 0.63 Ga), and (iv) bimodal post-orogenic suite ranging in age from ca. 0.59 to 0.48 Ga. These rocks suggest that during most of the Neoproterozoic the western margin of the São Francisco continent faced a large oceanic basin, where subduction and oceanic lithosphere consumption started at ca. 0.9 Ga, roughly coeval with the initial stages of the break up of Rodinia. Final ocean closure happened at ca. 0.63-0.60 Ga with crustal thickening, uplift and erosion. Post-orogenic extension-related magmatism took place between ca. 0.6 and 0.5 Ga and was partially contemporaneous with the deposition of the Paraguay and Tucavaca sedimentary successions, resulting from the rifting event related to the break up of Laurentia from southwestern Gondwana.

  7. U-Pb zircon geochronology of intrusive and basement rocks in the Jacurici Valley region, Sao Francisco Craton, BA, Brazil; Geocronologia U-Pb em zircao de rochas intrusivas e de embasamento na regiao do Vale do Jacurici, Craton do Sao Francisco, BA

    Silveira, Carlos Jose Sobrinho da; Frantz, Jose Carlos; Marques, Juliana Charao; Roos, Siegbert; Peixoto, Vinicius Medina, E-mail: silveira.carlosjose@hotmail.com, E-mail: jose.frantz@propesq.ufrgs.br, E-mail: juliana.marques@ufrgs.br, E-mail: sig_duda@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: vinimpeixoto@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Geologia Isotopica; Queiroz, Waldemir Jose Alves de, E-mail: waldemirqueiroz@hotmail.com [Companhia de Ferro Ligas da Bahia (FERBASA), Pojuca, BA (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    The Jacurici Complex, located in the NE of the Sao Francisco Craton, is constituted by several Cr-mineralized mafic-ultramafic N-S bodies, possible fragments of a single sill disrupted during deformation. Some works suggest it is intruded on the Serrinha Block while others consider it in the Salvador-Curaca Belt. The basement on this region is informally divided into paragneisses and orthogneisses; the latter is supposed to be younger considering it is less deformed. Petrography revealed that some of the paragneisses are alkali-feldspar granite strongly milonitized. The orthogneisses occur at the north and consist, at least in part, of monzogranites with heterogeneous deformation, locally of low temperature. U-Pb zircon dating were performed for five representative samples. Just three provided good concordia ages. A mafic rock produced a 2102 ± 5 Ma age and it is petrographically similar to the metanorites described in the Jacurici Complex, being interpreted as the record of the first pulses of the mafic magmatism. A monzogranite yielded a 2995 ± 15 Ma age, older than expected, related to the Serrinha Block. The alkali-feldspar granite yielded a 2081 ± 3 Ma age. The Itiuba Syenite and the pegmatites that crosscut the Jacurici Complex have similar ages. Considering the lack of information about the supracrustal sequence that hosts the intrusive alkaline and mafic-ultramafic rocks at the Ipueira and the Medrado areas, it is possible that part of the terrain belongs to the Salvador-Curaca Belt. We suggest that the Jacurici Complex could be intruded after the tectonic amalgamation between the Serrinha Block and the older part of the Salvador-Curaca Belt and, therefore, could be hosted by both terrains. (author)

  8. Petrology, geochemistry and origin of topaz granite

    René, Miloš

    New York : Nova Science, 2012 - (Blasik, M.; Hanika, B.), s. 99-115 ISBN 9781620815663 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0540 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : topaz granite * mineralogy * geochemistry Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  9. Scaling property of ideal granitic sequences

    D. Xu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of granite textures and structures using a mathematical model for characterization of granites has been a long-term attempt of mathematical geologists over the past four decades. It is usually difficult to determine the influence of magma properties on mineral crystallization forming fined-grained granites due to its irregular and fine-grained textures. The ideal granite model was originally developed for modeling mineral sequences from first and second-order Markov properties. This paper proposes a new model for quantifying scale invariance properties of mineral clusters and voids observed within mineral sequences. Sequences of the minerals plagioclase, quartz and orthoclase observed under the microscope for 104 aplite samples collected from the Meech Lake area, Gatineau Park, Qubec were used for validation of the model. The results show that the multi-scale approaches proposed in this paper may enable quantification of the nature of the randomness of mineral grain distributions. This, in turn, may be related to original properties of the magma.

  10. Q-ROUTING AND INTRUSION DETECTION

    D.B. Ojha

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we showed the procedure for solution of routing problem and intrusion detection. Our approach consist Q-routing and verification for authorization in MANET. Keywords: Authentication, Intrusion Detection System (IDS),Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET),Monitoring node, Security.

  11. Towards an effective intrusion response engine combined with intrusion detection in ad hoc networks

    Mitrokotsa, A.; Komninos, N.; Douligeris, C.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present an effective intrusion response engine combined with intrusion detection in ad hoc networks. The intrusion response engine is composed of a secure communication module, a local and a global response module. Its function is based on an innovative tree-based key agreement protocol while the intrusion detection engine is based on a class of neural networks called eSOM. The proposed intrusion response model and the tree-based protocol, it is based on, are analyzed concer...

  12. Gamma radiation measurements in Brazilian commercial granites

    Anjos, R.M.; Veiga, R.; Mosquera, B.; Carvalho, C.; Macario, K. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Gamma radiation from radionuclides which are characterized by half lives comparable to the age of the earth, such as 40 K and the radionuclides from the 238 U and 232 Th series, and their decay products, represent the main terrestrial source of irradiation to the human body. Their concentrations vary for different types of rocks, where high radiation levels are associated with igneous rocks such as granite. Thorium, uranium and potassium concentrations of granitic rocks are intimately related to their mineral compositions and general petrologic features. Then, these features associated with effects of weathering and metamorphism produce expressive alterations in the relationship between the natural radionuclides (Th, U, K, Th/U and Th/K). Consequently, the measurements of thorium, uranium, and potassium concentrations of different granite samples result on individual differentiation sequences. From the 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K activity concentrations obtained for each sample, it is possible to evaluate their respective dose rates in air, when these stones are used as tiling rocks. These results are of great interest in the environmental radiological protection study, since granites are widely used as building and ornamental materials, including as indoor covering. In this way, the Laboratory of Radioecology (L.A.R.A.) of the Physics Institute of the Universidade Federal Fluminense (I.F. -U.F.F.) has been performing analyzes on more than one hundred differ ent types of the main Brazilian commercial granites in last two years [1]. Using NaI and HP Ge gamma-ray spectrometers to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides in these samples, the annual effective dose rates and the gamma activity concentration index have been evaluated and compared to the limits proposed by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and European Commission (E.C.). In addition, the correlations between thorium, uranium and potassium have been obtained with the aim of correlating the petrographic characteristics of commercial granites with their corresponding dose rates for natural radioactivity. Our results show, contrary to what some works have reported in international literature, that the Brazilian granites are not composed by minerals which could produce high levels of dose rates when used as covering material. (authors)

  13. Gamma radiation measurements in Brazilian commercial granites

    Full text of publication follows: Gamma radiation from radionuclides which are characterized by half lives comparable to the age of the earth, such as 40 K and the radionuclides from the 238 U and 232 Th series, and their decay products, represent the main terrestrial source of irradiation to the human body. Their concentrations vary for different types of rocks, where high radiation levels are associated with igneous rocks such as granite. Thorium, uranium and potassium concentrations of granitic rocks are intimately related to their mineral compositions and general petrologic features. Then, these features associated with effects of weathering and metamorphism produce expressive alterations in the relationship between the natural radionuclides (Th, U, K, Th/U and Th/K). Consequently, the measurements of thorium, uranium, and potassium concentrations of different granite samples result on individual differentiation sequences. From the 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K activity concentrations obtained for each sample, it is possible to evaluate their respective dose rates in air, when these stones are used as tiling rocks. These results are of great interest in the environmental radiological protection study, since granites are widely used as building and ornamental materials, including as indoor covering. In this way, the Laboratory of Radioecology (L.A.R.A.) of the Physics Institute of the Universidade Federal Fluminense (I.F. -U.F.F.) has been performing analyzes on more than one hundred differ ent types of the main Brazilian commercial granites in last two years [1]. Using NaI and HP Ge gamma-ray spectrometers to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides in these samples, the annual effective dose rates and the gamma activity concentration index have been evaluated and compared to the limits proposed by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and European Commission (E.C.). In addition, the correlations between thorium, uranium and potassium have been obtained with the aim of correlating the petrographic characteristics of commercial granites with their corresponding dose rates for natural radioactivity. Our results show, contrary to what some works have reported in international literature, that the Brazilian granites are not composed by minerals which could produce high levels of dose rates when used as covering material. (authors)

  14. Leaky cable intrusion detection sensors

    Buried Line Field Disturbance Sensors used for the purpose of outdoor perimeter intrusion detection are unique in the sense that they are covert and terrain following. Considerable effort has been spent in recent years to develop an effective Buried Line Sensor using leaky (or ported) cable technology. To date, a modular CW (Continuous Wave) approach to designing such a sensor has proven to be the most effective compromise in terms of cost, performance and installation. Proper design of a leaky cable sensor requires an in-depth knowledge of the coupling performance and attenuation characteristics of the sensor cable to be used. The ''Forward Wave'' (codirectional) method of detection is discussed. This paper contains theoretical and experimental expressions developed to demonstrate operation in terms of cost, performance and ease of installation

  15. Intrusion detection using secure signatures

    Nelson, Trent Darnel; Haile, Jedediah

    2014-09-30

    A method and device for intrusion detection using secure signatures comprising capturing network data. A search hash value, value employing at least one one-way function, is generated from the captured network data using a first hash function. The presence of a search hash value match in a secure signature table comprising search hash values and an encrypted rule is determined. After determining a search hash value match, a decryption key is generated from the captured network data using a second hash function, a hash function different form the first hash function. One or more of the encrypted rules of the secure signatures table having a hash value equal to the generated search hash value are then decrypted using the generated decryption key. The one or more decrypted secure signature rules are then processed for a match and one or more user notifications are deployed if a match is identified.

  16. Analysis of the Younger Dryas Impact Layer

    Firestone, Richard B.; West, Allen; Revay, Zsolt; Hagstrum, Jonathon T,; Belgya, Thomas; Hee, Shane S. Que; Smith, Alan R.

    2010-02-27

    We have uncovered a thin layer of magnetic grains and microspherules, carbon spherules, and glass-like carbon at nine sites across North America, a site in Belgium, and throughout the rims of 16 Carolina Bays. It is consistent with the ejecta layer from an impact event and has been dated to 12.9 ka BP coinciding with the onset of Younger Dryas (YD) cooling and widespread megafaunal extinctions in North America. At many locations the impact layer is directly below a black mat marking the sudden disappearance of the megafauna and Clovis people. The distribution pattern of the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) ejecta layer is consistent with an impact near the Great Lakes that deposited terrestrial-like ejecta near the impact site and unusual, titanium-rich projectile-like ejecta further away. High water content associated with the ejecta, up to 28 at. percent hydrogen (H), suggests the impact occurred over the Laurentide Ice Sheet. YDB microspherules and magnetic grains are highly enriched in TiO{sub 2}. Magnetic grains from several sites are enriched in iridium (Ir), up to 117 ppb. The TiO{sub 2}/FeO, K/Th, TiO{sub 2}/Zr, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FeO+MgO, CaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, REE/ chondrite, FeO/MnO ratios and SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni, Co, U, Th and other trace element abundances are inconsistent with all terrestrial and extraterrestrial (ET) sources except for KREEP, a lunar igneous rock rich in potassium (K), rare-earth elements (REE), phosphorus (P), and other incompatible elements including U and Th. Normal Fe, Ti, and {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U isotopic abundances were found in the magnetic grains, but {sup 234}U was enriched over equilibrium values by 50 percent in Murray Springs and by 130 percent in Belgium. 40K abundance is enriched by up to 100 percent in YDB sediments and Clovis chert artifacts. Highly vesicular carbon spherules containing nanodiamonds, glass-like carbon, charcoal and soot found in large quantities in the YDB layer are consistent with an impact followed by intense burning. Four holes in the Great Lakes, some deeper than Death Valley, are proposed as possible craters produced by the airburst breakup of a loosely aggregated projectile.

  17. Intrusion-Aware Alert Validation Algorithm for Cooperative Distributed Intrusion Detection Schemes of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Young-Jae Song

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a validation algorithm that addresses this problem. This algorithm utilizes the concept of intrusion-aware reliability that helps to provide adequate reliability at a modest communication cost. In this paper, we also provide a security resiliency analysis of the proposed intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm.

  18. Intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm for cooperative distributed intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks.

    Shaikh, Riaz Ahmed; Jameel, Hassan; d'Auriol, Brian J; Lee, Heejo; Lee, Sungyoung; Song, Young-Jae

    2009-01-01

    Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a validation algorithm that addresses this problem. This algorithm utilizes the concept of intrusion-aware reliability that helps to provide adequate reliability at a modest communication cost. In this paper, we also provide a security resiliency analysis of the proposed intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm. PMID:22454568

  19. Radioactivity and Geochemistry of Jasperoid Veins in Gabal Al-AGLAB Granitic Pluton, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Al-Aglab granitic pluton hosts jasperoid as vein type mineralization. This mineralization are structurally controlled by faults and their feather joints, which are associated with NE-SW to ENE- WSW joints and micro-fractures,widespread silicification, and to a lesser extent kaolinitization and sericitization as well as other alterations accompanying the uranium mineralization. Petrologically, the studied younger granites are classified as syenogranites and texturally asperthitic leucogranites. They are originated from per aluminous, calc-alkaline, highly fractionated magma. The studied granites showed higher U and Th contents and lower Th/U ratios than those of the normal granites. They are considered as uraniferous granites originated from highly fractionated U rich magma with trapping high concentrations of uranium in the higher quotient of the radioactive accessory minerals (e.g. zircon, apatite and sphene). Uranium is concentrated at the central parts of the jasperoid veins, following the NE trend and dipping SE direction, due to their intersection with the WNW sinistral fault. Some of the anomalies are associated with visible secondary uranium minerals mainly uranophane and beta-uranophane. The high levels of radioactivity are mainly due to the high U and Th contents in jasperoid veins and the uranium content reached to 843 ppm and thorium 206 ppm. Gabal Al-Aglab uranium occurrence is considered as an example for a simple uranium vein type mineralization. It is closely associated with and restricted to the younger granite itself that affected by hydrothermal alteration. The uranium bearing late magmatic fluids could be derived from the same magma that originates the granitic pluton itself at the late stage of the magmatic activity. Geochemically, XRF and ESEM (environmental scanning electron microscope) analyses showed that Gabal Al-Aglab jasperoid veins were enriched in Th, U, Zr, W and LREE (Ce and La). The separated heavy fractions of jasperoid veins showed the presence of alunogen Al2(SO4)3.17H2O and pahasapite (Ca, Li) 11 Li 8Be 24(PO4)24.38H2O

  20. A Survey on Intrusion Detection using Data Mining Techniques

    Venkatesan, R

    2012-01-01

    Intrusions are the activities that violate the security policy of system. Intrusion Detection is the process used to identify intrusions. Network security is to be considered as a major issue in recent years, since the computer network keeps on extending dramatically. Information Systems and Networks are subject to electronic attacks and the possibilities of intrusion are very high.  An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a system for detecting intrusions and reporting to the authority or to ...

  1. A Distributed Network Intrusion Detection System with Active Surveillance Agent

    Bin Zeng; Lu Yao; Rui Wang

    2013-01-01

    A distributed network intrusion detection system (IDS) called SA-NIDS is proposed based on the network-based intrusion detection architecture. It includes three basic components, Local Intrusion Detection Monitor (LIDM), Global Intrusion Detection Controller (GIDC), and Surveillance Agent (SA). Basically, the LIDM is used to do packets capturing, packets de-multiplexing, local intrusion detection and intrusion inferring. The GIDC is installed in administration center for communicating and man...

  2. Ragnar Granit 100 years--memories and reflections.

    Kernell, D

    2000-12-01

    The Swedish-Finnish Nobel laureate Ragnar Granit, born 100 years ago, is commemorated in a brief article by one of his former PhD students and collaborators. After a short account of Granit's life and scientific career, special attention is given to Granit's role as a teacher in research training and his published thoughts on this matter, partly reflecting Granit's own experience as a "postdoc" in the laboratory of Sherrington (Oxford). The article includes personal recollections of how it was to work together with Granit in his laboratory. PMID:11232369

  3. Granite suites and supersuites of eastern Australia

    Separate granite plutons in southeastern Australia can commonly be grouped into suites on the basis of shared similarities in field, petrographic and compositional data. Granites in different plutons of the same suite share common properties or exhibit a sequence of such features Rocks of the same suite are co genetic, but the details of their genesis need not be known or agreed on, to group granite units in such a way. These rocks are co genetic in the sense that they shared a similar petrogenesis and were derived from source materials of essentially the same composition, whereas differences between suites reflect analogous differences in their source rocks. The term suite is lithologic or lithodemic in a stratigraphic sense and is closely analogous to the lithostratigraphic term group As such, the plutons within a suite need not be of the same age, and age is not a factor in recognising a suite. However, the fact that the petrogenesis of the components of a suite resulted in such similar products means that their ages are likely to be similar Granite plutons that share many similar features, but which also show distinct differences and which may be assigned to more than one suite, may be grouped into supersuites. The allocation of granites to suites is fundamental to understanding their petrogenesis. Suites vary in the complexity of their compositional variation. Simple suites show variations in element abundances that are highly correlated and the dispersion of composition within such suites is considered to result from varying degrees of fractionation of entrained restite from a melt. Intricate suites vary in composition in more complex ways and their variation is considered to be a consequence of processes such as fractional crystallisation. Any mineralisation is generally associated with intricate suites, and the occurrence of mineralisation and its precise character is generally specific to particular suites. If isotopic compositional dispersion within a granite suite is observed, a process of magma mixing or mingling is commonly invoked. A particular case where isotopic dispersion would occur is that when a mantle-derived component partly melts and then mingles with a crustal magma (Barbarin 1991); the more felsic rocks would be isotopically more evolved than the mafic ones. Granite derived from heterogeneous source rocks, particularly granites formed from relatively low degrees of partial melting from metasedimentary rocks, might be expected to reflect that lack of isotopic uniformity in their source compositions. For example, Chappell et al. (1999) noted that the initial 87Sr/86Sr values for 10 granites sampled from various parts of the Jillamatong pluton show a range of 0.0039, approximately 50-fold that of analytical uncertainty. For this very mafic unit of the S-type Bullenbalong Suite, there is no systematic variation of strontium isotopic composition with SiO2, although samples of more felsic members of the Bullenbalong Suite and Supersuite show a systematic decrease in initial 87Sr/86Sr with increase in SiO2. This observation indicates that variation in initial isotope ratios is here source related, and not magma-mingling related. Copyright (2001) Geological Society of Australia

  4. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: phenomenological evolution of the geologic disposal

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the phenomenological aspects of the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes (HLLL) in granite formations. Content: 1 - introduction: ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formation; 2 - the granitic environment: geologic history, French granites; 3 - HLLL wastes and disposal design concepts; 4 - identification, characterization and modeling of a granitic site: approach, geologic modeling, hydrologic and hydro-geochemical modeling, geomechanical and thermal modeling, long-term geologic evolution of a site; 5 - phenomenological evolution of a disposal: main aspects of the evolution of a repository with time, disposal infrastructures, B-type wastes disposal area, C-type wastes disposal area; spent fuels disposal area, radionuclides transfer and retention in the granitic environment; 6 - conclusions: available knowledge, methods and tools for the understanding and modeling of the phenomenological evolution of a granitic disposal site. (J.S.)

  5. Innovative Method for Saltwater Intrusion Control

    Z. Payal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt water intrusion is the migration of saltwater into freshwater aquifers under the influence of groundwater development (Freeze and Cherry, 1979. The most detrimental effect that ground water depletion causes lowering of water table. Another problem due to saltwater intrusion is changing saltwater freshwater interface. Methods for controlling intrusion vary widely depending on the source of the saline water, the extent of intrusion, local geology, water use and economic factors. The proposed methodology to control saltwater intrusion is (ADR Abstraction, Desalination and Recharge. The proposed methodology interplays between the major parameters of the system to control saltwater intrusion. These parameters include the soil/aquifer properties, the well locations, the well depths, the rates and the relation between the abstraction and recharge rates which depends on the recovery rate and the salinity degree. It is capable of completely preventing saltwater intrusion because it increases the volume of fresh groundwater and decreases the volume of saltwater, while considering economical aspects, environmental impact and sustainable development of water resources.

  6. Archaean tonalitic-trondhjemitic and granitic plutonism in the Gaviao block, Sao Francisco craton, Bahia, Brazil: geochemical and geochronological characteristics

    The granitic-gneissic terranes of the Gaviao Block in the central-southern Sao Francisco Craton are a Key area to the understanding of the evolution of the South American Platform. The Archaean granitic-gneissic rocks are intimately associated with the Umburanas and Contendas Mirante greenstone belts. The metamorphic grades vary from greenschist to amphibolite facies. These rocks were intensely deformed and intruded by Paleoproterozoic granites. The main evolution of the Gaviao Block is market by the formation of granitoid nuclei during various episodes of TTG plutonism between 3.2 and 3.4 Ga. The TDM Sm-Nd model ages for these granitoids range from 3.2 and 3.6 Ga, indicating involvement of sialic crust in their genesis, in agreement with the ?Nd(t) values between -4.0 and -1.3. Between 3.1 and 2.5 Ga, the Gaviao Block was affected by volcanic and sedimentary activity associated with the formation of the Umburanas and Contendas Mirante greenstone belts, intruded by granites about 2.75 and 2.5 Ga ago. During the paleoproterozoic, the Gaviao Block was regionally deformed and metamorphosed, and intruded by granites between 2.1 and 1.9 Ga. During the mesoproterozoic, tectonic and metamorphic activity occurred between 1.2 and 1.0 Ga as suggested by resetting of Rb-Sr and K-Ar systematics. Finally, regional tectono-thermal overprints in the areas occurred during the Neoproterozoic. These episodes are accompanied by the intrusion of mafic dikes at about 0.9 Ga K-Ar ages given by biotites fall within the range 0.5-0.7 Ga and mark the end of the cratonization stage. (author)

  7. Deformation microstructures of Barre granite: An optical, Sem and Tem study

    Schedl, A.; Kronenberg, A.K.; Tullis, J.

    1986-01-01

    New scanning electron microscope techniques have been developed for characterizing ductile deformation microstructures in felsic rocks. In addition, the thermomechanical history of the macroscopically undeformed Barre granite (Vermont, U.S.A.) has been reconstructed based on examination of deformation microstructures using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructures reveal three distinct events: 1. (1) a low-stress, high-temperature event that produced subgrains in feldspars, and subgrains and recrystallized grains in quartz; 2. (2) a high-stress, low-temperature event that produced a high dislocation density in quartz and feldspars; and 3. (3) a lowest-temperature event that produced cracks, oriented primarily along cleavage planes in feldspars, and parallel to the macroscopic rift in quartz. The first two events are believed to reflect various stages in the intrusion and cooling history of the pluton, and the last may be related to the last stages of cooling, or to later tectonism. ?? 1986.

  8. Intrusion detection using deep belief network

    This paper proposes an intrusion detection technique based on DBN (Deep Belief Network) to classify four intrusion classes and one normal class using KDD-99 dataset. The proposed technique is based on two phases: in first phase it removes the class imbalance problem and in the next, it applies DBN followed by FFNN (Feed-Forward Neural Network) to build a prediction model. The obtained results are compared with those given in (9). The prediction accuracy of our model shows promising results on both intrusion and normal patterns. (author)

  9. Framework for Choosing Best Intrusion Detection System

    Bilal Maqbool Beigh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As there are many intrusion detection systems available in the market and yet there is not a single guideline framed by any researcher or any organization so that a company or an organization will decide which intrusion detection system is best suited to their company for the purpose of security. Here in this paper, we have proposed a novel guideline in terms of framework for choosing right most intrusion detection system for an organization. The framework needs some security expert so that they can check the equation to be satisfied.

  10. Rb-Sr geochronology and petrogenesis of granitoids from the Chhotanagpur granite gneiss complex of Raikera-Kunkuri region, Central India

    The Precambrian Chhotanagpur granite gneiss complex (CGGC) terrain covers more than 80,000 sq km area, and is dominated by granitoid gneisses and migmatites. Recent geochronological data indicate that the CGGC terrain has witnessed five tectonomagmatic thermal events at: (i) 2.5-2.4 Ga, (ii) 2.2-2.0 Ga (iii)1.6-1.4 Ga (iv) 1.2-1.0 Ga and (v) 0.9-0.8 Ga. Of these, the third and the fourth events are widespread. The whole-rock Rb-Sr isotopic analysis of twenty granite samples from the CGGC of Raikera-Kunkuri region, Jashpur district, Chhattisgarh, Central India yields two distinct isochrons. The eleven samples of grey granites define an isochron age of 1005±51 Ma with moderate initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7047±0.0065, which corresponds to the fourth tectonomagmatic event. On the other hand, the nine samples of pink granites indicate younger isochron age of 815±47 Ma with a higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7539±0.0066 that matches with the fifth phase of the thermal event. The data suggest emplacement of large bodies of grey granite at ∼1005 Ma that evolved possibly from precursors of tonalitic-granodioritic composition. Furthermore, the younger age (∼ 815 Ma) suggests the age of metasomatism, involving isotopic resetting, that resulted in genesis of pink granite bodies of limited areal extent. By analogy, the age of metasomatism (∼815 Ma) may also be taken to represent the age of Y-mineralisation in the Raikera-Kunkuri region of the CGGC terrain. (author)

  11. Metasedimentary melting in the formation of charnockite: Petrological and zircon U-Pb-Hf-O isotope evidence from the Darongshan S-type granitic complex in southern China

    Jiao, Shu-Juan; Li, Xian-Hua; Huang, Hui-Qing; Deng, Xi-Guang

    2015-12-01

    Charnockites are Opx-bearing igneous rocks commonly found in high-grade metamorphic terranes. Despite being volumetrically minor, they show a wide range in both bulk geochemistry and intensive parameters. They form a characteristic component of the AMCG (anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite) suite, but their association with typical S-type granites is less well-known. The Darongshan S-type granitic complex (DSGC) in Guangxi Province, southern China, contains granites varying in mafic silicate mineral assemblages from Bt + Crd (Darongshan suite) to Opx + Grt + Bt + Crd (Jiuzhou suite) and Opx + Crd ± Bt (Taima suite), corresponding to a geochemical transition from magnesian calc-alkalic to ferroan calc-alkalic. However, its genesis, even the accurate age of intrusion, remains highly contentious despite intensive research. In order to understand the genesis of charnockite and its genetic relationship with S-type granite; here, we first determined zircon U-Pb ages of each suite using a SIMS on the basis of a detailed petrological study. Zircon U-Pb ages show that all suites of the complex were emplaced contemporaneously at ca. 249 Ma. Monazite apparent U-Pb ages are indistinguishable from zircon U-Pb ages within analytical error. Further in situ zircon Hf-O isotope analyses reveal that the granitic complex was dominantly derived from reduced melting metasedimentary rocks (δ18Ozircon = ca. 11‰; εHf(t)zircon = ca. - 10; Δlog FMQ ≤ 0; Mn in apatite oxybarometer) with rare material input from the mantle. The variation in δ18O (7.8‰-12.9‰) is more likely a result of hybridization, whereas that in εHf(t) (- 31.9 to - 1.8) is a result of both hybridization and disequilibrium melting. The variation in mineralogy and geochemistry may be interpreted as a result of entrainment of peritectic garnets from biotite-dehydration melting. Nevertheless, heat input from mantle through basaltic intrusion/underplating is considered to play a major role in high-temperature (> 850 °C) melting at mid-crustal levels (i.e. the cordierite stable field) for generation of the granitic complex. We interpret that the granites were intruded in a back-arc setting and basaltic magmatism was directly associated with slab roll-back and tearing during the latest Permian and early Triassic times.

  12. Alpha intrusion on ovenight polysomnogram

    Nahapetian R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 30 year-old Army veteran with a past medical history significant for chronic lumbar back pain stemming from a fall-from-height injury sustained in 2006 was referred to the sleep laboratory for evaluation of chronic fatigue and excessive daytime hypersomnolence. His Epworth sleepiness scale score was 16. He denied a history of snoring and witnessed apnea. Body Mass Index (BMI was 25.7 kg/m2. His main sleep related complaints were frequent nocturnal arousals, poor sleep quality, un-refreshing sleep, prolonged latency to sleep onset, and nightmares. An In-lab attended diagnostic polysomnogram was performed. Sleep efficiency was reduced (73% and overall arousal index was not significantly elevated (3.2 events/hour. The sleep study showed rapid eye movement (REM related sleep disordered breathing that did not meet diagnostic criteria for sleep apnea. There was no evidence for period limb movement disorder. However, the study was significant for alpha wave intrusion in stage N2 non-REM and stage ...

  13. The SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating and its geological significance on the volcanic-intrusive rocks in broken crater of Xunwu, Jiangxi province

    Xunwu broken crater located in the transition zone of Wuyi rise belt and Nanling tectonic belt, controlled by the NE direction Huichang-Xunwu fault belt and the EW direction Sannan-Xunwu fault belt,and developed a volcanic-intrusive rocks that made up of porphyroclastic lava and granite-porphyry. The zircon U-Pb dating with a higher accuracy yields the following results: the age of pyroclastic rocks in the volcanic-intrusive rocks in broken crater is (96.71.1) Ma and the age of granite-porphyry is (97.30.9) Ma. According to the geological chronology,the boundary between the Early Cretaceous and the Late Cretaceous is (99.60.9)Ma, the geological age of the volcanic-intrusive rocks of Xunwu broken crater is early Late Cretaceous. Age determinations of the volcanic-intrusive rocks provide the age evidence for Xunwu broken crater which belong to Yousheng formation. (authors)

  14. Comparison of specularly reflecting mirrors for GRANIT

    Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K. V.; Quemener, G.; Forest, D.; Ganau, P.; Mackowski, J. M.; Michel, Ch.; Montorio, J. L.; Morgado, N.; Pinard, L.; Remillieux, A.

    2007-08-01

    The specularity of ultracold neutron reflection was compared for different "promising" surfaces, including sapphire, silica, silica with carbon (diamond-like), and copper coatings with very small roughness. The probability of total losses of ultracold neutrons (UCN) from a specular trajectory was dominated by diffusive (non-specular) elastic scattering of UCN. In all the cases considered the quality of reflection was sufficiently high for storage of UCN at specular trajectories for the first stage of GRANIT experiment.

  15. The Pedregal granite (Portugal: petrographic and geochemical characterization of a peculiar granitoid

    Ferreira, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pedregal granite outcrops in the Central Iberian Zone, northern Portugal, in the eastern border of a synorogenic variscan granite-migmatite complex sub-concordant with the regional metamorphic structures. It is a granitoid (ca. 3 km2 with an elongated NW-SE shape intruded in staurolite-micaschist and banded gneiss-migmatite rocks, with local igneous breccias in the contact. The country rocks belong to a metapelitic and metasammitic sequence of Edicarian-Cambrian age, known as the “Complexo Xisto-Grauváquico” (CXG which shows a main regional foliation with a NW-SE to NNW-SSE direction. The Pedregal granite is peraluminous (its A/CNK parameter ranges from 1.18 to 1.62, with a magnesian and alkali to alkali-calcic signature. The peculiar features of the granite are high contents of Zr (389 to 435 ppm and a LREE flat pattern, which are uncommon characteristics for granitic rocks, as well as the corroded shape of the biotite, and the large amount of secondary muscovite. These peculiar features distinguish it from the adjacent synorogenic granites. The field, petrographical and chemical features of the Pedregal granite are in accordance with a second phase of partial melting of a residuum, depleted by melt segregation during a first melting episode with the involvement of peritectic garnet and abundant residual biotite with LREE- and Zr-bearing accessory minerals. Besides, the intrusive character of the granite, and the presence of metasedimentary xenoliths point out to a secondary diatexite.El granito de Pedregal aflora en la Zona Centro-Ibérica, en el norte de Portugal, en el borde oriental de un complejo granito-migmatítico sinorogénico varisco, subconcordante con las estructuras metamórficas regionales. Es un granitoide (ca. 3 km2 de forma elongada NW-SE, que intruye en micaesquistos estaurolíticos y en rocas gneissico- migmatíticas bandeadas, con brechas ígneas locales en el contacto. Las rocas encajantes pertenecen a una secuencia metapelítica-metasamítica de edad Ediacariense - Cámbrico, conocida como el “Complejo Esquisto-Grauváquico” (CEG, que muestra una foliación regional principal NW-SE a NNW- SSE. El granito de Pedregal es peralumínico (el parámetro A/CNK oscila desde 1.18 hasta 1.62, con una composición magnesiana, entre alcalina y alcalino-cálcica. Sus características peculiares son el alto contenido de Zr (389–435 ppm y de tierras raras ligeras (LREE que presentan un patrón plano, la forma corroída de la biotita, y la gran cantidad de moscovita secundaria. Estas características peculiares lo distinguen de los otros granitos sinorogénicos adyacentes. Las características de campo, petrográficas y químicas del granito de Pedregal parecen apuntar a una segunda fase de fusión parcial de un residuo, empobrecido por la segregación de fundido durante una primera fase de fusión con participación de granate peritéctico y abundante biotita residual con minerales accesorios portadores de LREE y Zr. Además, el carácter intrusivo del granito, y la presencia de xenolitos metasedimentarios sugieren una diatexita secundaria.

  16. Late Triassic Porphyritic Intrusions And Associated Volcanic Rocks From The Shangri-La Region, Yidun Terrane, Eastern Tibetan Plateau: Implications For Adakitic Magmatism And Porphyry Copper Mineralization

    Wang, B.; Zhou, M.; Li, J.; Yan, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Yidun terrane, located on the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau, has been commonly considered to be a Triassic volcanic arc produced by subduction of the Ganzi-Litang oceanic lithosphere. The Yidun terrane is characterized by numerous arc-affinity granitic intrusions located along a 500-km-long, north-south-trending belt. Among these granitic bodies, several small porphyritic intrusions in the southern segment of the terrane (Shangri-La region) are associated with large porphyry copper deposits. These porphyritc intrusions are composed of diorite and quartz diorite, and spatially associated with andesites and dacites. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of the intrusions range from 230 to 215 Ma. The andesites and dacites are intercalated with slates and sandstones and have ages of around 220 Ma. The intrusive and volcanic rocks have SiO2 contents from 56.6 to 67.1 wt.%, Al2O3 from 14.2 to 17.4 wt.% and MgO from 1.9 to 4.2 wt.%. They show significant negative Nb-Ta anomalies on primitive mantle-normalized spidergrams. They have high La/Yb (13-49) ratios with no prominent Eu anomalies. All the rocks have high Sr (258-1980 ppm), and low Y (13-21 ppm) with high Sr/Y ratios (29-102). The geochemical features indicate that both the volcanic rocks and porphyritic intrusions were derived from adakitic magmas. They have similar initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7058 to 0.7077) and ?Nd (-1.88 to -4.93) values, but can be further divided into two groups: high silica (HSA) and low silica adakitic rocks (LSA). The HSA, representing an early stage of magmatism (230 to 215 Ma), were derived from oceanic slab melts with limited interaction with the overlying mantle wedge. At 215 Ma, more extensive interaction resulted in the formation of LSA. We propose that HSA were produced by flat subduction leading to melting of oceanic slab, whereas subsequent slab break-off caused the significant interaction between slab melts and the mantle wedge and thus the generation of the LSA. Compared with barren granitic intrusions in the northern Yidun terrane, the copper mineralization in the Shangri-La porphyritic intrusions was likely related to slab-derived adakitic magma.

  17. Degradation studies on granite in alkaline solution

    Batch leaching experiments of granite with the artificial cement leachate and the leachate of low-alkalinity-cement (LW) were carried out to evaluate the effect of the hiperalkaline plume on the environment of the high-level and TRU radioactive waste repository. Dissolution of Si and Al from feldspar included in the granite and precipitation of C-S-H were confirmed from the results of the leaching experiments with artifitial cement leachate. From this result it was found that the composition of surrounding rock changed. It also suggested that the retardation factor of migration of radionuclides would change. On the contrary, only decrease of concentrations in Si, Al and Ca in the leachate was observed in the experiment with LW. This result might indicate that C-S-H and/or C-A-S-H precipitated as secondary minerals in the LW case. From these results, it was considered that the hyperalkaline plume from the cementitious leachate might caused the change of disposal conditions such as the change in distribution coefficients of rock by precipitation of the secondary mineral and the increase in hydraulic conductivity by the dissolution of rock. On the other hand, the influences of the LW would be comparatively small, because LW and granite might equilibrate in short time. (author)

  18. Diffusion of uranium in the granite rock

    In the safety assessment of high level radioactive waste disposal, a significant retardation factor of radionuclides leaking from an underground repository can be expected. When radionuclides released from an underground repository are transported with the moving groundwater along cracks in the rock, the radionuclides will be retarded by not only adsorption on the surface of the cracks but also by process diffusion into submicron pores of rock matrix. In this experiments have been performed by process diffusion of uranium in water saturated granite. The measured penetration profile of uranium was composed of two parts. This profile was successfully explained by considering two diffusion paths in granite rock. One diffusion path was possibly a fissure with a width of few microns and another was a submicron pores of granite rock. The orders of magnitude of diffusivities for uranium were 10-12 m2/sec through the fissure and 1015 m2/sec through the submicron pores. The difference between the diffusivities of two path is thought to be caused by small geometrical factor of submicron pores, if to compared with fissures. (author)

  19. U-Pb-Nd-Hf isotope geochemistry of the Mesoproterozoic A-type granites in Mannefallknausane, western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Ramo, O. T.; Kurhila, M.; Luttinen, A. V.; Andersen, T.

    2009-12-01

    The bedrock of western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica records several stages of anorogenic magmatism. The Grenvillean-age metamorphic basement gneisses of Heimefrontfjella and Mannefallknausane were intruded by mafic dikes (Bauer et al., 2003) and A-type granite plutons (Jacobs, 1991) at circa 1 Ga. A 590 Ma suite of mafic dikes manifests a subsequent episode of Proterozoic anorogenic magmatism (Bauer et al., 2003). Jurassic (180 Ma) continental flood basalts (CFBs), their intrusive equivalents, and associated alkaline mafic rocks represent the third and youngest episode of anorogenic magmatism (Luttinen et al., 1998; Romu and Luttinen, 2007). The crystalline bedrock in western Dronning Maud Land is composed of the Archean Grunehogna craton and the Mesoproterozoic Maud mobile belt. About 100 km south of Archean-Proterozoic transition, in the Proterozoic realm, nunataks of Mannefallknausane (74.5oS, 15oW) are dominated by Precambrian granitoid rocks and rare paragneisses. Three principal granites can be identified: a white, garnet-bearing K-feldspar-megacrystic biotite granite; a red biotite-hornblende±clinopyroxene granite with or without plagioclase-mantled K-feldspar-megacrysts (rapakivi texture); and a dark green porphyritic charnockite with orthopyroxene and hornblende. The presence of rapakivi texture, the mode of occurrence, and geochemical composition of the granites of Mannefallknausane imply A typology. For two varieties of the red granite (wiborgite and pyterlite), our new U-Pb data imply crystallization ages of 1073 ± 6 Ma and 1084 ± 8 Ma, respectively. These are compatible with a U-Pb zircon upper intercept age of 1073 ± 8 Ma of the charnockite (Arndt et al., 1991). The initial Nd isotope composition of these rocks is relatively radiogenic [epsilon-Nd (1075 Ma) value of the biotite granite -0.5; red granite +0.3, +0.5; charnockite +1.4], as is that of a country-rock gneiss from the surrounding bedrock (+1.0). Initial zircon epsilon-Hf values of the wiborgite and pyterlite are +5.2 ± 2.2 (2 sigma) and +6.3 ± 1.8 (2 sigma), respectively, and thus confirm the juvenile character of the red granite. The epsilon-Nd (1075 Ma) value of a coeval (1076 ± 7 Ma) mafic plutonic rock from the nearby Heimefrontfjella region is clearly more positive (+4.1) than those of the A-type association of Mannefallknausane and implies a depleted mantle source. The A-type granite-charnockite association in western Dronning Maud Land was emplaced into a comparatively juvenile crust at 1075 Ma and has Nd and Hf isotope systematics that are compatible with a major Proterozoic crustal source component.

  20. Relationships between deformation and magmatism in the Pan-African Kandi Shear Zone: Microstructural and AMS studies of Ediacaran granitoid intrusions in central Bnin (West Africa)

    Adissin Glodji, L.; Bascou, J.; Yessoufou, S.; Mnot, R.-P.; Villaros, A.

    2014-09-01

    Relationships between the metamorphic basement, granitic intrusions and the Kandi Shear Zone (KSZ) in central Bnin have been investigated using petrological and structural approaches, in order to better understand the space and time parameters of the Pan-African shear deformation and the Ediacaran magmatism. In central Bnin, metamorphic rocks from the KSZ display a steep to vertical N-S trending foliation, a sub-horizontal mineral lineation together with kinematic indicators in agreement with a dextral transcurrent mega-shear zone. Four granitic intrusions (Dassa, Tr, Gobada and Tchetti) show many petrological similarities. They are biotite amphibole - ilmenite magnetite monzogranites with ferrous and metaluminous I-type features derived from high-K calk-alkaline magma. A fifth intrusion (Fita) is an alkali-feldspar, biotite, magnetite and ilmenite bearing granite crystallized from an alkaline magma. Moreover, high K2O, Zr, Y, Nb and low CaO, MgO and Al2O3 contents together with high (FeOt/MgO) and low LIL/HFS elements ratios suggesting an A-type granite affinity. Microstructural and AMS investigations presented in this paper show (i) solid-state deformation evidence for Dassa pluton and (ii) a magmatic deformation for the Tr, Tchetti, Gobada and Fita granitoids. Foliation in Dassa is parallel to the mesoscopic planar mylonitic foliation of the metamorphic basement. In the Tr, Tchetti, Gobada and Fita granitoids, magmatic textures and magnetic fabrics are coherent with the KSZ activity. These data suggest (i) a syn-kinematic nature for most of the intrusions (Tr, Gobada, Tchetti and Fita), except Dassa which correspond to an earlier event (ii) the succession of high-K calk-alkaline (Dassa, Tr, Gobada, Tchetti) evolves toward alkaline magmas (Fita) during the KSZ strike-slip tectonics. These observations highlight the changing nature of magma composition, magmatic processes and the different sources during KSZ activity in the Bnin Nigerian Shield. These new results suggest that the previous geodynamic interpretations, which assume a post-tectonic emplacement for the Gobada intrusion or an active continental margin setting for most of the late Pan-African (Ediacaran) granites intruded in central Bnin, has to be re-examined.

  1. Adapting safety requirements analysis to intrusion detection

    Lutz, R.

    2001-01-01

    Several requirements analysis techniques widely used in safety-critical systems are being adapted to support the analysis of secure systems. Perhaps the most relevant system safety techique for Intrusion Detection Systems is hazard analysis.

  2. Prevention and analysis of hacker's intrusion

    The author analyzes the behavior characteristics and relevant technologies about the hacker's intrusion, and gives some corresponding solutions pertinently. To the recent events about hackers, the author gives detailed introduction and puts forward the relevant advice and valuable consideration

  3. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  4. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in granite formations

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive wastes, a performance assessment of a repository of vitrified HLW in granite was carried out. Three disposal sites were considered: the reference site Auriat and two alternative sites, Barfleur and a site in the U.K. The report describes the methodology adopted (a deterministic and a stochastic approach) with the corresponding data base and the models used. A parametric study of sub-systems (near field, far field and biosphere) was carried out by CEA-ANDRA using AQUARIUS, DIMITRIO and BIOS. A global evaluation of the performances was carried out by CEA-IPSN using MELODIE code. The results of deterministic calculations showed for Auriat a maximum dose equivalent evaluated at 6.10-3m Sv/a arising 3 millions years after disposal. Results of human intrusion scenario analyses, uncertainty analyses and global sensitivity analyses are presented. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  5. Data Mining and Intrusion Detection Systems

    Zibusiso Dewa; Leandros A. Maglaras

    2016-01-01

    The rapid evolution of technology and the increased connectivity among its components, imposes new cyber-security challenges. To tackle this growing trend in computer attacks and respond threats, industry professionals and academics are joining forces in order to build Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) that combine high accuracy with low complexity and time efficiency. The present article gives an overview of existing Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) along with their main principles. Also th...

  6. [Intrusive care and the nursing approach].

    Bécu, Anays Vaplet; Viltart, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    All caregivers who listen to patients will hear them tell their experience of the intrusive nature of care, whether it be basic, technical, educational or relational. The relational approach implemented by nurses enables them to identify organisational and behavioural methods which favour the establishment of a climate of trust. It helps them appropriate this interdisciplinary approach to caregiving, limiting as much as possible the intrusion felt by the patient during their hospital stay. PMID:26043629

  7. Intrusion Detection System: Security Monitoring System

    ShabnamNoorani,; Sharmila Gaikwad Rathod

    2015-01-01

    An intrusion detection system (IDS) is an ad hoc security solution to protect flawed computer systems. It works like a burglar alarm that goes off if someone tampers with or manages to get past other security mechanisms such as authentication mechanisms and firewalls. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a device or a software application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a management station.Intrusio...

  8. Adaptive Genetic Algorithm Model for Intrusion Detection

    K. S. Anil Kumar; Dr. V. Nanda Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Intrusion detection systems are intelligent systems designed to identify and prevent the misuse of computer networks and systems. Various approaches to Intrusion Detection are currently being used, but they are relatively ineffective. Thus the emerging network security systems need be part of the life system and this ispossible only by embedding knowledge into the network. The Adaptive Genetic Algorithm Model - IDS comprising of K-Means clustering Algorithm, Genetic Algorithm and Neural Netwo...

  9. The Development of Intrusive Thoughts to Obsessions

    Berry, Lisa- Marie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to consider the role of appraisals of intrusivethoughts in the development of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. A narrativeliterature review explored the hypothesis that ‘normal’ intrusive thoughts lieon a continuum with clinical obsessions. The review discussed previousresearch on intrusive thoughts in nonclinical samples and drew comparisonswith characteristics of clinical obsessions. An internet-based empiricalinvestigation employed a randomised controlled trial des...

  10. Possible genetic link between I-type granite and orogenic gold deposits in Egypt (metamorphic-magmatic interaction?)

    Abd El Monsef, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The orogenic gold deposits are a distinctive type of deposits that revealed unique temporal and spatial association with an orogeny. Where, the system of gold veins and related ore minerals was confined to hydrothermal solutions formed during compressional to transpressional deformation processes at convergent plate margins in accretionary and collisional orogens, with the respect to ongoing deep-crustal, subduction-related thermal processes. In Egypt, most of vein-type and dyke-type gold mineralization are restricted to granitic rocks or at least near of granitic intrusion that seems to have had an important influence on gold mineralization. Shear zone-related, mesothermal gold deposits of Fatira and Gidami mines in the northern Eastern Desert of Egypt are found within granitic bodies or at the contact between granites and metavolcanic rocks. The hosting-granitic rocks in Fatira and Gidami areas are mainly of granodioritic composition (I-Type granite) which is related to calc-alkaline magmatic series. However, Fatira granitoids were developed within island arc tectonic settings related to mature island arc system (Late-orogenic stage), at relatively low temperature (around 660° C) and medium pressure between (5 - 10 Kbar). On the other hand, Gidami granitoids were developed during the collision stage in continental arc regime related to active continental margin (Syn-orogeny), which were crystallized at relatively high temperature (700-720° C) and low pressure (around 0.1 Kbar). The ore mineralogy includes pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, covellite, ilmenite, goethite ± pyrrhotite ± pentlandite ± galena ± molybdenite. Native gold is detected only in Gidami mineralization as small inclusions within pyrite and goethite or as tiny grains scattered within quartz vein (in close proximity to the sulfides). In Fatira deposits, it is detected only by microprobe analysis within the crystal lattice of pyrite and jarosite. Fluid inclusions study for the mineralized ores revealed two main groups of fluid inclusions in both areas: A) Aqueous inclusions (H2O-NaCl±KCl system), and B) Carbonic inclusions (H2O-CO2-NaCl±CH4). A drop of pressure during the migration of these fluids to shallower depths along the shear zones was the main reason for phase separation. Isochores calculation from microthermometric results proved that, the P-T boundary conditions outlined for Fatira gold deposits are of 275° to 297° C and between (0.2 - 1.2 Kbar); and of 277° to 300° C and between (0.2 - 1 Kbar) for Gidami gold deposits. The normalization Chondrite patterns of rare earth elements (REEs) for the gold-ore deposits with the surrounding I-type granitic rocks exhibit an obvious similarity and positive correlation. The geological, mineralogical, geochemical and fluid inclusions studies revealed a genetic link between gold mineralization and intrusion of calc-alkaine granitic magma. Whereas, The granitic magma acts as a supplier for the ore-bearing fluid and as a heat source for metamorphic processes, leading to hydrothermal convection currents.

  11. A system for distributed intrusion detection

    Snapp, S.R.; Brentano, J.; Dias, G.V.; Goan, T.L.; Heberlein, L.T.; Ho, Che-Lin; Levitt, K.N.; Mukherjee, B. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Div. of Computer Science); Grance, T. (Air Force Cryptologic Support Center, San Antonio, TX (USA)); Mansur, D.L.; Pon, K.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Smaha, S.E. (Haystack Labs., Inc., Austin, TX (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The study of providing security in computer networks is a rapidly growing area of interest because the network is the medium over which most attacks or intrusions on computer systems are launched. One approach to solving this problem is the intrusion-detection concept, whose basic premise is that not only abandoning the existing and huge infrastructure of possibly-insecure computer and network systems is impossible, but also replacing them by totally-secure systems may not be feasible or cost effective. Previous work on intrusion-detection systems were performed on stand-alone hosts and on a broadcast local area network (LAN) environment. The focus of our present research is to extend our network intrusion-detection concept from the LAN environment to arbitarily wider areas with the network topology being arbitrary as well. The generalized distributed environment is heterogeneous, i.e., the network nodes can be hosts or servers from different vendors, or some of them could be LAN managers, like our previous work, a network security monitor (NSM), as well. The proposed architecture for this distributed intrusion-detection system consists of the following components: a host manager in each host; a LAN manager for monitoring each LAN in the system; and a central manager which is placed at a single secure location and which receives reports from various host and LAN managers to process these reports, correlate them, and detect intrusions. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Modeling sill intrusion in volcanic calderas

    Macedonio, Giovanni; Giudicepietro, Flora; D'Auria, Luca; Martini, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    We present a numerical model for describing sill intrusion in volcanic calderas. The dynamics of volcanic calderas are often subject to long-term unrests, with remarkable ground deformation, seismicity, and geochemical changes, that do not culminate in an eruption. On the contrary, in some cases, unrests with minor geophysical changes are followed, in few months, by an eruption, as in the case of Rabaul Caldera in 1994 and Sierra Negra (Galapagos) in 2005. The main common features of calderas are the relevant ground deformations with intense uplift episodes, often followed by subsidence. We think that the process of sill intrusion can explain the common features observed on different calderas. In our model, the sill, fed by a deeper magma reservoir, intrudes below a horizontal elastic plate, representing the overlying rocks and expands radially. The model is based on the numerical solution of the equation for the elastic plate, coupled with a Navier-Stokes equation for simulating magma intrusion in the viscous regime. The numerical simulations show that during the feeding process, the ground is subject to uplift. When the feeding stops a subsidence occurs in the central zone. For very low flexural rigidity of the elastic plate, the subsidence can occur even during the intrusion of the sill. The stress field produced by the intrusion is mainly concentrated in a circular zone that follows the sill intrusion front.

  13. Network Intrusion Detection using Support Vector Regression

    Govindarajan Muthukumarasamy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Data Mining is the use of algorithms to extract the information and patterns derived by the knowledge discovery in databases process. Classification maps data into predefined groups or classes. It is often referred to as supervised learning because the classes are determined before examining the data. This paper addresses using ensemble approach of Support Vector Regression for intrusion detection. Due to increasing incidents of cyber attacks, building effective intrusion detection systems (IDS are essential for protecting information systems security, and yet it remains an elusive goal and a great challenge. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approach are demonstrated by means of data mining problem: Network Intrusion Detection. Intrusion detection systems help network administrators prepare for and deal with network security attacks. These systems collect information from a variety of systems and network sources, and analyze them for signs of intrusion and misuse. We show that proposed ensemble of Support Vector Regression is superior to individual approach for intrusion detection in terms of classification rate.

  14. Petrogenetic modeling of three mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions in the Emeishan large igneous province, SW China, based on isotopic and bulk chemical constraints

    Zhang, Zhaochong; Mao, Jingwen; Saunders, Andrew D.; Ai, Yu; Li, Ying; Zhao, Li

    2009-12-01

    Mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions align along a N-S trending fault zone in the central part of the late Permian Emeishan large igneous province, SW China. We present major and trace element and clinopyroxene Sr, Nd, Pb and O isotopic compositions of three representative mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions, the Panzhihua gabbro intrusion that hosts V-Ti-Fe ores, the Limahe peridotite intrusion that hosts Cu-Ni ores, and the Xinjie peridotite and pyroxenite intrusion that hosts both V-Ti-Fe and Cu-Ni-PGE ores. The Panzhihua intrusion is more evolved, and rich in Fe and Ti, whereas the Limahe ore-bearing rocks are rich in Mg, and the unmineralized gabbro-diorites are rich in Ca and Al. Both the petrology and geochemistry of the Xinjie intrusion are transitional between those of the two other intrusions. Petrography and geochemistry indicate that there is a large amount of cumulus magnetite and ilmenite in the Panzhihua and Xinjie intrusions. This has changed the ratios of elements normally considered incompatible in basaltic systems (e.g., La/Zr and La/Nb), because high field strength elements (Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta) show significant partitioning into the magnetite structure [Klemme, S., Günthe, D., Hametner, K., Prowatke, S., Zack, T., 2006. The partitioning of trace elements between ilmenite, ulvospinel, armalcolite and silicate melts with implications for the early differentiation of the moon. Chemical Geology 234, 251-263]. The parental magma of the Panzhihua intrusion is estimated to be ferropicrite. Thus, in combination with their low δ 18O values (Panzhihua intrusion could be ascribed to ascending plume-derived magma contaminated by a Fe- and Ti-rich lithospheric mantle source. In contrast, negative ɛNd( t) values (- 0.6 to - 4.13), high δ 18O values (> 6‰), radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions, and high La/Nb and La/Ta ratios imply that the Limahe intrusion was derived from mantle-plume magmas contaminated by granitic crustal materials. The δ 18O values (4.8-8.0‰) and Pb isotope ratios suggest that the Xinjie intrusion may result from plume-derived magmas variably contaminated by basic crustal materials in situ. The formation of the different types of the magmatic-ore deposits within the Emeishan LIP may be mainly attributed to their different sources.

  15. The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis: A requiem

    Pinter, Nicholas; Scott, Andrew C.; Daulton, Tyrone L.; Podoll, Andrew; Koeberl, Christian; Anderson, R. Scott; Ishman, Scott E.

    2011-06-01

    The Younger Dryas (YD) impact hypothesis is a recent theory that suggests that a cometary or meteoritic body or bodies hit and/or exploded over North America 12,900 years ago, causing the YD climate episode, extinction of Pleistocene megafauna, demise of the Clovis archeological culture, and a range of other effects. Since gaining widespread attention in 2007, substantial research has focused on testing the 12 main signatures presented as evidence of a catastrophic extraterrestrial event 12,900 years ago. Here we present a review of the impact hypothesis, including its evolution and current variants, and of efforts to test and corroborate the hypothesis. The physical evidence interpreted as signatures of an impact event can be separated into two groups. The first group consists of evidence that has been largely rejected by the scientific community and is no longer in widespread discussion, including: particle tracks in archeological chert; magnetic nodules in Pleistocene bones; impact origin of the Carolina Bays; and elevated concentrations of radioactivity, iridium, and fullerenes enriched in 3He. The second group consists of evidence that has been active in recent research and discussions: carbon spheres and elongates, magnetic grains and magnetic spherules, byproducts of catastrophic wildfire, and nanodiamonds. Over time, however, these signatures have also seen contrary evidence rather than support. Recent studies have shown that carbon spheres and elongates do not represent extraterrestrial carbon nor impact-induced megafires, but are indistinguishable from fungal sclerotia and arthropod fecal material that are a small but common component of many terrestrial deposits. Magnetic grains and spherules are heterogeneously distributed in sediments, but reported measurements of unique peaks in concentrations at the YD onset have yet to be reproduced. The magnetic grains are certainly just iron-rich detrital grains, whereas reported YD magnetic spherules are consistent with the diffuse, non-catastrophic input of micrometeorite ablation fallout, probably augmented by anthropogenic and other terrestrial spherular grains. Results here also show considerable subjectivity in the reported sampling methods that may explain the purported YD spherule concentration peaks. Fire is a pervasive earth-surface process, and reanalyses of the original YD sites and of coeval records show episodic fire on the landscape through the latest Pleistocene, with no unique fire event at the onset of the YD. Lastly, with YD impact proponents increasingly retreating to nanodiamonds (cubic, hexagonal [lonsdaleite], and the proposed n-diamond) as evidence of impact, those data have been called into question. The presence of lonsdaleite was reported as proof of impact-related shock processes, but the evidence presented was inconsistent with lonsdaleite and consistent instead with polycrystalline aggregates of graphene and graphane mixtures that are ubiquitous in carbon forms isolated from sediments ranging from modern to pre-YD age. Important questions remain regarding the origins and distribution of other diamond forms (e.g., cubic nanodiamonds). In summary, none of the original YD impact signatures have been subsequently corroborated by independent tests. Of the 12 original lines of evidence, seven have so far proven to be non-reproducible. The remaining signatures instead seem to represent either (1) non-catastrophic mechanisms, and/or (2) terrestrial rather than extraterrestrial or impact-related sources. In all of these cases, sparse but ubiquitous materials seem to have been misreported and misinterpreted as singular peaks at the onset of the YD. Throughout the arc of this hypothesis, recognized and expected impact markers were not found, leading to proposed YD impactors and impact processes that were novel, self-contradictory, rapidly changing, and sometimes defying the laws of physics. The YD impact hypothesis provides a cautionary tale for researchers, the scientific community, the press, and the broader public.

  16. Natural radioactivity of granites used as building materials

    Sixteen kinds of different granites, used as building materials, imported to Greece mainly from Spain and Brazil, were sampled and their natural radioactivity was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 4K of granites are presented and compared to those of other building materials as well as other granite types used all over the world. In order to assess the radiological impact from the granites investigated, the absorbed and the effective doses were determined. Although the annual effective dose is higher than the limit of 1 mSv y-1 for some studied granites, they could be used safely as building materials, considering that their contribution in most of the house constructions is very low. An attempt to correlate the relatively high level of natural radioactivity, shown by some of the granites, with their constituent radioactive minerals and their chemical composition, was also made

  17. Inventory of granitic masses in the State of Nevada

    This report is a compilation of 200 areas of exposed granitic rock within the State of Nevada. Data were compiled to be used in assessing granitic rock as a potential medium for the subsurface storage of radioactive wastes. The compilation was done on a county-by-county basis. Factors considered for each area of exposed granitic rock are general location, coordinates, land classification, areal extent, accessibility, remoteness, geologic setting, hydrologic setting, aeromagnetic expression, mining activities, general comments, and selected references

  18. Preparation of glass-ceramic materials from granitic rocks waste

    Gamal A. Khater

    2012-01-01

    Crystallisation of glasses based on the diopside-anorthite eutectic system, containing increased amount (10–50 wt.%) of wollastonite based on granite quarries waste, was investigated for the preparation of cheap technical glass-ceramic materials. Granite quarries waste consisted of about 52 wt.% of the batch constituents depending on composition. The granite quarries waste composition was sometimes modified by adding other ingredients such as dolomite, limestone and Al2O3. Batches were melted...

  19. A Comprehensive Study in Data Mining Frameworks for Intrusion Detection

    R.Venkatesan, R. Ganesan, A. Arul Lawrence Selvakumar

    2012-01-01

    Intrusions are the activities that violate the security policy of system. Intrusion Detection is the process used to identify intrusions. Network security is to be considered as a major issue in recent years, since the computer network keeps on expanding every day. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a system for detecting intrusions and reporting to the authority or to the network administration. Data mining techniques have been successfully applied in many fields like Network Management,...

  20. Feature Selection Using Particle Swarm Optimization in Intrusion Detection

    Iftikhar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The prevention of intrusion in networks is decisive and an intrusion detection system is extremely desirable with potent intrusion detection mechanism. Excessive work is done on intrusion detection systems but still these are not powerful due to high number of false alarms. One of the leading causes of false alarms is due to the usage of a raw dataset that contains redundancy. To resolve this issue, feature selection is necessary which can improve intrusion detection performance. Latterly, pr...

  1. Java-Based Intrusion Detection System in a Wired Network

    Eugne C. Ezin; Herv Akakpo Djihountry

    2011-01-01

    Intrusion Detection has become an integral part of the information security process. The cost involved in protecting network resources is often neglected when compared with the actual cost of a successful intrusion, which strengthens the need to develop more powerful intrusion detection systems. Many existing systems for intrusion detection are developed in C, Objective-C, Tcl, C++ programming languages. In this paper, we design and develop a network intrusion detection system using Java prog...

  2. Multilayer Intrusion Detection System In Web Application Based Services

    Narmadha.S; Deepak Lakshmi Narashima

    2013-01-01

    Web based services having a data transfer from different layer. Web services separate layer for the data transfer and the process is difficult in the service. Service transferring data is having intrusion from the user interaction in web based services to detect the intrusion in alert basis and detect the intrusion in both online and offline. In offline alert data previously having attack basis it can be rectified. The online alert system data having the intrusion collect the intrusion in buf...

  3. Timing and source constraints on the relationship between mafic and felsic intrusions in the Emeishan large igneous province

    Zhong, Hong; Campbell, Ian H.; Zhu, Wei-Guang; Allen, Charlotte M.; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Xie, Lie-Wen; He, De-Feng

    2011-03-01

    Several I- and A-type granite, syenite plutons and spatially associated, giant Fe-Ti-V deposit-bearing mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions occur in the Pan-Xi (Panzhihua-Xichang) area within the inner zone of the Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP). These complexes are interpreted to be related to the Emeishan mantle plume. We present LA-ICP-MS and SIMS zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-Nd isotopic compositions for the gabbros, syenites and granites from these complexes. The dating shows that the age of the felsic intrusive magmatism (256.2 ± 3.0-259.8 ± 1.6 Ma) is indistinguishable from that of the mafic intrusive magmatism (255.4 ± 3.1-259.5 ± 2.7 Ma) and represents the final phase of a continuous magmatic episode that lasted no more than 10 Myr. The upper gabbros in the mafic-ultramafic intrusions are generally more isotopically enriched (lower ɛNd and ɛHf) than the middle and lower gabbros, suggesting that the upper gabbros have experienced a higher level of crustal contamination than the lower gabbros. The significantly positive ɛHf( t) values of the A-type granites and syenites (+4.9 to +10.8) are higher than those of the upper gabbros of the associated mafic intrusion, which shows that they cannot be derived by fractional crystallization of these bodies. They are however identical to those of the mafic enclaves (+7.0 to +11.4) and middle and lower gabbros, implying that they are cogenetic. We suggest that they were generated by fractionation of large-volume, plume-related basaltic magmas that ponded deep in the crust. The deep-seated magma chamber erupted in two stages: the first near a density minimum in the basaltic fractionation trend and the second during the final stage of fractionation when the magma was a low density Fe-poor, Si-rich felsic magma. The basaltic magmas emplaced in the shallow-level magma chambers differentiated to form mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions accompanied by a small amount of crustal assimilation through roof melting. Evolved A-type granites (synenites and syenodiorites) were produced dominantly by crystallization in the deep crustal magma chamber. In contrast, the I-type granites have negative ɛNd( t) [-6.3 to -7.5] and ɛHf( t) [-1.3 to -6.7] values, with the Nd model ages ( TNdDM2) of 1.63-1.67 Ga and Hf model ages ( THfDM2) of 1.56-1.58 Ga, suggesting that they were mainly derived from partial melting of Mesoproterozoic crust. In combination with previous studies, this study also shows that plume activity not only gave rise to reworking of ancient crust, but also significant growth of juvenile crust in the center of the ELIP.

  4. Diffusion experiment of a radionuclide in granitic rock cores

    An effective diffusion coefficient of neptunium-237 which is one of hazardous long-lived radionuclide including high level radioactive waste was determined by using 40 mm diameter and 5 mm thick disks under an aerobic condition. An alpha autoradiography was performed for cross sections of a 20 mm thick granite disk to study the penetrated neptunium into granite. The effective diffusion coefficient of neptunium diffused through a water saturated granite was about 2.5 x 10-13 m2/sec. The autoradiograph of solid state track detectors clearly showed that biotite constituting granite has storage pores and keep diffusing species in it. (author)

  5. Portuguese granites associated with Sn-W and Au mineralizations

    Ana M.R. Neiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In northern and central Portugal, there are different tin-bearing granites. Most of them are of S-type, others have mixed characteristics of I-type and S-type granites and a few are of I-type. Tin-tungsten deposits are commonly associated with Hercynian tin-bearing S-type granites. Some quartz veins with wolframite are associated with an I-type granite, which has a low Sn content. In suites of tin-bearing S-type granitic rocks, Sn content increases as a function of the degree of fractional crystallization. Greisenizations of two-mica S-type granites associated with tin-tungsten mineralizations are accompanied by an increase in SiO2, H2O+, Sn, W, Nb, Ta, Rb, Zn, and Pb and decrease in MgO, Na2O, V, Sc,Zr, and Sr. The granite associated with the Jales gold deposit is of S-type and strongly differentiated like the tin-bearing S-type granites, but it has a very low Sn content. During fractional crystallization, Si, Rb, Sn, Pb, Au, As, Sb, and S increase. During increasing degree of hydrothermal alteration of this granite at the gold-quartz vein walls, there are progressive increases in K2O, H2O+, Sn, Cs, Cu, Pb, Au, Sb, As, and S.

  6. Simulation of bentonite colloid migration through granite

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Colloidal bentonite particles generate at the interface of buffer and host rock in spent nuclear fuel repository due to an erosion process and migrate through granite by the water flow. Stability of these colloids and their migration possibilities have been studied on account of radionuclide transport possibility as colloid could carry adsorbed radionuclides in groundwater through granite. That is why a simulation of bentonite colloid migration in the surrounding of a repository might be requested. According to chemical condition as ionic strength and pH, the colloidal particles coagulate into clusters and that influence the migration of particles. The coagulation kinetics of natural bentonite colloids were experimentally studied in many articles, for example by light scattering techniques. We created a model of coagulation of bentonite colloids and simulation of a chosen experiment with use of the multicomponent reactive transport equation. The coagulation model describes clustering of particles due to attractive van der Waals forces as result of collision of particles due to heat fluctuation and different velocity of particles during sedimentation and velocity gradient of water flow. Next, the model includes influence of repulsive electrostatic forces among colloidal particles leading to stability of particles provided high surface charge of colloids. In the model, each group of clusters is transported as one solution component and the kinetics of coagulation are implemented as reactions between the components: a shift of particles among groups of particles with similar migration properties, according to size of the clusters of colloids. The simulation of migration of bentonite colloid through granite using the coagulation model was calibrated according to experiment results. On the basis of the simulation, one can estimate the basic processes that occur during bentonite colloid migration. That could be useful for prediction of spent nuclear fuel repository safety with the help of model of bentonite colloid behavior during migration. (authors)

  7. Characterization of Climax granite ground water

    Isherwood, D.; Harrar, J.; Raber, E.

    1982-08-01

    The Climax ground water fails to match the commonly held views regarding the nature of deep granitic ground waters. It is neither dilute nor in equilibrium with the granite. Ground-water samples were taken for chemical analysis from five sites in the fractured Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The waters are high in total dissolved solids (1200 to 2160 mg/L) and rich in sodium (56 to 250 mg/L), calcium (114 to 283 mg/L) and sulfate (325 to 1060 mg/L). Two of the samples contained relatively high amounts of uranium (1.8 and 18.5 mg/L), whereas the other three contained uranium below the level of detection (< 0.1 mg/L). The pH is in the neutral range (7.3 to 8.2). The differences in composition between samples (as seen in the wide range of values for the major constituents and total dissolved solids) suggest the samples came from different, independent fracture systems. However, the apparent trend of increasing sodium with depth at the expense of calcium and magnesium suggests a common evolutionary chemical process, if not an interconnected system. The waters appear to be less oxidizing with depth (+ 410 mV at 420 m below the surface vs + 86 mV at 565 m). However, with Eh measurements on only two samples, this correlation is questionable. Isotopic analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and that the source of the sulfate is probably the pyrite in the fracture-fill material. Analysis of the measured water characteristics using the chemical equilibrium computer program EQ3 indicates that the waters are not in equilibrium with the local mineral assemblage. The solutions appear to be supersaturated with respect to the mineral calcite, quartz, kaolinite, muscovite, k-feldspar, and many others.

  8. Characterization of Climax granite ground water

    The Climax ground water fails to match the commonly held views regarding the nature of deep granitic ground waters. It is neither dilute nor in equilibrium with the granite. Ground-water samples were taken for chemical analysis from five sites in the fractured Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The waters are high in total dissolved solids (1200 to 2160 mg/L) and rich in sodium (56 to 250 mg/L), calcium (114 to 283 mg/L) and sulfate (325 to 1060 mg/L). Two of the samples contained relatively high amounts of uranium (1.8 and 18.5 mg/L), whereas the other three contained uranium below the level of detection (< 0.1 mg/L). The pH is in the neutral range (7.3 to 8.2). The differences in composition between samples (as seen in the wide range of values for the major constituents and total dissolved solids) suggest the samples came from different, independent fracture systems. However, the apparent trend of increasing sodium with depth at the expense of calcium and magnesium suggests a common evolutionary chemical process, if not an interconnected system. The waters appear to be less oxidizing with depth (+ 410 mV at 420 m below the surface vs + 86 mV at 565 m). However, with Eh measurements on only two samples, this correlation is questionable. Isotopic analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and that the source of the sulfate is probably the pyrite in the fracture-fill material. Analysis of the measured water characteristics using the chemical equilibrium computer program EQ3 indicates that the waters are not in equilibrium with the local mineral assemblage. The solutions appear to be supersaturated with respect to the mineral calcite, quartz, kaolinite, muscovite, k-feldspar, and many others

  9. Thermoluminescence of the mineral components in granite

    The thermoluminescence (TL) of the minerals in Climax Stock (Nevada, USA) granite has been studied. The principal mineral constituents are plagioclase, quartz, potassium feldspar and biotite. Pyrite, sphene apatite and zircon occur at one percent or less. All exhibit TL except biotite. The TL kinetics were determined for plagioclase, quartz, potassium feldspar and pyrite. Plagioclase and potassium feldspar exhibit second order and pyrite first orker kinetics. Natural TL of quartz follows second order and artificial TL first order kinetics. However, in these four minerals unrealistic kinetic parameters are often obtained; thus more general kinetics, e.g. interactive kinetics, may apply. 8 figures

  10. Characterization of mechanical damage in granite

    Minh-Phong Luong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to illustrate the use of infrared thermography as a non-destructive and non-contact technique to observe the phenomenological manifestation of damage in granite under unconfined compression. It allows records and observations in real time of heat patterns produced by the dissipation of energy generated by plasticity. The experimental results show that this technique, which couples mechanical and thermal energy, can be used for illustrating the onset of damage mechanism by stress concentration in weakness zones.

  11. GRANITE- A steroscopic imaging Chernkov telescope system

    A second 10 meter class imaging telescope was constructed on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, the site of the original 10 meter Whipple Cherenkov telescope. The twin telescope system with a 140 meter base line will allow both a reduction in the energy threshold and an improvement in the rejection of the hardonic background. The new telescope started operation in December 1991. With the final completion of the first installation stage (GRANITE I) during spring 92, it is now operating simultaneously with the orginal reflector. We describe in this paper design and construction of the new instrument and demonstrate the capability of the experiment to record coincident events

  12. Electrophysiological correlates of processing faces of younger and older individuals.

    Ebner, Natalie C; He, Yi; Fichtenholtz, Harlan M; McCarthy, Gregory; Johnson, Marcia K

    2011-09-01

    The 'own-age bias' in face processing suggests that the age of a face constitutes one important factor that influences attention to and memory for faces. The present experiment investigated electrophysiological correlates of processing faces of younger and older individuals. Younger participants were presented with pictures of unfamiliar younger and older faces in the context of a gender categorization task. A comparison of event-related potentials showed that early components are sensitive to faces of different ages: (i) larger positive potential peaking at 160 ms (P200) for older than younger faces at fronto-central electrodes; (ii) larger negative potential peaking at 252 ms (N200) for younger than older faces at fronto-central electrodes; (iii) larger negative-going deflection peaking at 320 ms (N250) for younger than older faces at occipito-temporal electrodes; and (iv) larger late positive potential peaking at 420 ms (LPP 420) for older than younger faces at parietal and other electrodes. We discuss similarities between the present study and a previously published study of faces of different races as suggesting involvement of comparable electrophysiological responses when differentiating between stimulus categories. PMID:21030480

  13. Gravity-driven intrusions in stratified fluids

    Maurer, Benjamin Dudley

    All natural fluids stratify. Stable stratifications, in which isobars and isopycnals are parallel, are capable of supporting internal wave motion. Unstable stratification, in which density and pressure gradients are not aligned, results in gravity-driven flow. Gravity currents are a subset of these flows in which horizontal density gradients sharpen and propagate horizontally, transporting mass, momentum, and energy. If the density of the gravity current is within the density extrema of the stably stratified ambient fluid, it propagates as an intrusion at an intermediate height. Through laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, this dissertation explores the influence of stratification on the dynamics of gravity-driven intrusions. Intrusions require stable stratification in the ambient fluid, which is capable of transporting momentum and energy away from the current in the form of internal waves. We investigate the constant velocity propagation of well-mixed intrusions propagating into a linearly stratified ambient fluid. Varying the level of neutral buoyancy, we quantify the corresponding variation in structure, momentum, and energy of the upstream wave field. Adjacent stable stratifications of differing vertical density structure necessarily entail horizontal density gradients. These gradients determine the hydrostatic pressure differences driving the ensuing gravity current. We examine the mid-depth, constant velocity propagation of one linearly stratified fluid into another more strongly linearly stratified fluid. Working from the available potential energy of the system and measurements of the intrusion thickness, we develop an energy model to describe the speed of the intrusion in terms of the ratio of the two buoyancy frequencies. Distinct from adjacent linear stratifications, adjacent discrete stratifications may create flow consisting of interleaving intrusions. Single intrusions into a two-layer ambient fluid are well understood. Limiting our study to an idealized system of multiple intrusions, we attempt to extend the two-layer model to describe the interleaving process. We show that this simple extension fails when the average densities of the two stratifications are unequal, and suggest that this failure is due to the coupling of interfacial waves across constant density layers.

  14. NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION AND PREVENTION ATTACKS

    Harpreet kaur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection is an important technology in business sector as well as an active area of research. It is an important tool for information security. A Network Intrusion Detection System is used to monitor networks for attacks or intrusions and report these intrusions to the administrator in order to take evasive action. Today computers are part of networked; distributed systems that may span multiple buildings sometimes located thousands of miles apart. The network of such a system is a pathway for communication between the computers in the distributed system. The network is also a pathway for intrusion. This system is designed to detect and combat some common attacks on network systems. It follows the signature based IDs methodology for ascertaining attacks. A signature based IDS will monitor packets on the network and compare them against a database of signatures or attributes from known malicious threats. In this system the attack log displays the list of attacks to the administrator for evasive action. This system works as an alert device in the event of attacks directed towards an entire network.

  15. The Phalaborwa Syenite Intrusions along the West-Central Boundary of the Kruger National Park

    C. Frick

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The geology of the Phalaborwa Complex is described and emphasis placed on the distribution of the large number of syenite intrusions. The petrography of the different textural types of syenites is discussed and it is shown that porphyritic, granular, gneissic and hypidiomorphic syenites are present. The petrography shows that the deformation textures, which are present in some of the syenites, may have formed during the emplacement of syenitic magmas which contained a high concentration of crystals. The geochemistry of the syenites is discussed and it is shown that they were not derived from an alkali basaltic magma through fractional crystallisation, but that they may rather represent alkali basaltic magmas which were contaminated by granitic material. The mode of emplacement of the Phalaborwa Complex is discussed and the relationship between the pyroxenites is explained.

  16. Shrimp U-Pb age and Sr-Nd isotopes of the Morro do Baú mafic intrusion: implications for the evolution of the Arenópolis volcano-sedimentary sequence, Goiás Magmatic Arc

    Márcio M. Pimentel; Hollanda, Maria Helena B. M.; Richard Armstrong

    2003-01-01

    The Arenópolis volcano-sedimentary sequence is located in the southern part of the Goiás Magmatic Arc and includes a ca. 900 Ma calc-alkaline arc sequence made of volcanic rocks ranging in composition from basalts to rhyolites, metamorphosed under greenschist to amphibolite facies. Small calc-alkaline gabbro to granite sub-volcanic bodies are also recognized. The Morro do Baú intrusion is the largest of these intrusions, and is made of gabbros and diorites. Zircon grains separated from one ga...

  17. A-type and I-type granitoids and mylonitic granites of Hassan Salaran area of SE Saqqez, Kurdistan, Iran

    Abdullah, Fakhraddin Mohammad; Saeed Ahmad, Sheler

    2014-05-01

    The Hassan Salarn area is located 20km to southeast of Saqqez city in Kurdistan Province, western Iran. In this area there are two distinct granitic rock suites consisting A-type and I-type granites and also mylonitic granites. These A-type and I-type granites have various petrological and geochemical characteristics. They also have different origins and petrogenesis. A-type granitoids comprise alkali feldspar granite, syenogranite and quartz alkali feldspar syenite, whereas I-type granitoids are composed of monzogranite, granodiorite and tonalite. Geochemically, A-type granitoids are peralkaline and acmite-normative but I-type granitoids are subalkaline (calc-alkaline), metaluminous and diopside-normative. A-type granitoids are also ferroan alkali and ferroan alkali-calcic whereas I-type granitoids are magnesian and calcic. A-type granitoids resemble to within plate granites and post-orogenic granites whereas I-type granitoids resemble to volcanic arc granites. A-type granitoids contain higher concentrations of alkalies, Zr, Rb, Nb, Y, Th, Ce, high FeO/MgO ratios and lower concentrations of Mg, Ca and Sr, resembling post-orogenic A-type granites. It is possible that heat from a mantle-derived magma which intruded into the lower crust, and/or rapid crustal extension have been essential generation of approriate melts producing A-type granitoids. Thus we can conclude that A-type granitoids were generated from a mixed mantle-crust source. Negative Nb anomalies and low contents of Ti and P probably indicate a subduction-related origin for protolith of I-type granitoids. Negative Nb anomalies and enrichment in Ce relative to its adjacent elements can be related to involvement of continental crust in magmatic processes. I-type granitoids are also enriched in Rb, Ba, K, Th, Ce and depleted in Nb, Zr and Y, indicating that they have had interacted with crust. I-type granitoids may result from contamination of mantle-derived magmas by continental crust during a subduction event. The mylonitic granites are elongated masses with a NE-SW trend and their contacts with the A-type and I-type granitoids are fault contact. Hand specimens have a layered appearance with green bands made from chlorite and epidote and grey to white bands with quartz and feldspar. These rocks contain plagioclase, quartz and orthoclase under the microscope. Also fine-grained minerals such as quartz, sericite, epidote, chlorite and opaque minerals make the groundmass wrapping the porphyroclasts. Pressure shadows around porphyroclasts of plagioclase and quartz and crystallization of fine-grained quartz and sericite in these places along with intense alteration of plagioclase to epidote and sericite, existence of quartz with different sizes, andaluse extinction in quartz crystals, and elongation of chlorites, resulted from dynamic recrystallisation of biotites all indicate effect of stresses on the rocks. Considering the similar mineralogical composition of the mylonitic rocks with I-type granitoid, it could be concluded that the granodioritic magma, after intrusion and solidification, is changed to mylonite in a shear zone due to tectonical forces.

  18. Uranium in the Carnmenellis granite, Cornwall, England

    Samples from a 30 meter core from the Rosemanowas quarry in the Carnmenellis granite in Cornwall, England were analyzed by induced fission track detection, delayed neutron detection, backscattered electron imaging in a SEM, and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry. Uranium occurs mainly in: (1) primary accessory minerals; (2) alteration and replacement phases, and (3) microcrack-sealing phases. Zircon, monazite, and apatite are common uraniferous primary accessory minerals. Uraniferous alteration phases include hematite, rutile and pyrolusite. Hematite is a common uraniferous replacement phase. Most sealed microcracks contain uranium. Hematite and pyrolusite are ubiquitous uraniferous crack-sealing phases. Autunite and churchite are occasional uraniferous crack-sealing phases. Whole rock uranium concentrations are extremely variable. High uranium contents result from high percentages of uraniferous primary accessory phases and/or rutile. Hydrothermal activity, such as hematization, can result in depleted whole rock uranium concentrations. Results of this study indicate that uranium and light rare earth elements have been mobilized and redistributed in this section of the Carnmenellis granite by postmagmatic processes. 28 refs., 13 figs. 2 tabs

  19. The 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue. Report

    The aim of the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue is to inform the French authorities, associations and population about the project of construction of an underground laboratory for the study of the disposal of high level and long-life radioactive wastes in a granitic environment. The aim of the dialogue was not to select a site but to collect the public reactions and advices about such a project. However, such a dialogue has partially failed because of a misunderstanding of the population about the aims of the mission. However, the mission has collected many point of views and questions which are developed in this report. The first and second chapters recall the process of the mission and its progress, while a third chapter stresses on the questions asked by the public and which concern the fear of nuclear wastes and the incompatibility between the disposal of wastes and the socio-economical development of the region concerned. Thanks to the lessons drawn from this experience, the mission has formulated some recommendations (chapter 4) concerning the need for a better information of the population about any topic in relation with the radioactive wastes. Some complementary information is provided in appendixes. (J.S.)

  20. Warren Hunt to test granite well

    Various theories which purport to explain the existence of the Alberta oil sands, were discussed briefly. One theory, held among others by Warren Hunt, speculates that oil is formed deep in the Precambrian basement and not in the higher sedimentary rock. According to this theory, methane in the crust is the abiogenic product that results from hydrogen reacting with silicon carbide in the lower mantle. As it rises through the fractures, it encounters the microbiota, and hydrogen is stripped away making larger molecules until only bitumen remains. Hunt and other adherents of this theory believe that hydrocarbon reservoirs are replenished as oil is produced, hence there is no end to the world's oil supply. This theory is about to be tested by retesting a granite well near Fort McMurray, which was suspended in September 1994, when funding dried up. Kaleeda Enterprises, owners of the well, believe that the well bottom is currently in a granite pool, and oil will be found by deepening the well to 2,150 metres from the current 1,650 metres. While this is not universally accepted, if true, the abiogenic theory would go a long way towards explaining the origin of the oil sands

  1. Intrusion Detection System: Security Monitoring System

    ShabnamNoorani,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS is an ad hoc security solution to protect flawed computer systems. It works like a burglar alarm that goes off if someone tampers with or manages to get past other security mechanisms such as authentication mechanisms and firewalls. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a device or a software application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a management station.Intrusion Detection System (IDS has been used as a vital instrument in defending the network from this malicious or abnormal activity..In this paper we are comparing host based and network based IDS and various types of attacks possible on IDS.

  2. An Overview on Intrusion Detection in Manet

    Rajesh D. Wagh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a self-configuring of mobile devices network connected without wires and hence MANET has become a very popular technology now days. A MANETS are the networks that are building, when some mobile nodes come in the mobility range of each other for data transfer and communication. In MANET, nodes are not stable hence the communication topology is not stable due to this vulnerable for attacks. MANET devices are connected via wireless links without using an existing network infrastructure or centralized administration due to which MANETs are not able to diverse types of attacks and intrusions. Hence intrusion detection has attracted many researchers. This paper gives an overview and different methods to detect intrusion in MANET.

  3. An Architecture of Hybrid Intrusion Detection System

    Kanubhai K Patel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection System (IDS is renowned and widely-deployed security tool to detect attacks and malicious activities in information system. It is an essential element of any contemporary information system. There are mainly two techniques for intrusion detection: i signature-based (misuse detection and ii anomaly-based detection technique. Both the techniques have their advantages and disadvantages. This paper presents research from an ongoing study on the use of features of both the intrusion detection techniques to design a novel and efficient hybrid IDS. An architecture and implementation details of our hybrid IDS are presented. Furthermore, unique characteristics of our hybrid IDS are described. This paper concludes with future research directions and challenges in IDS.

  4. Data Mining and Intrusion Detection Systems

    Zibusiso Dewa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of technology and the increased connectivity among its components, imposes new cyber-security challenges. To tackle this growing trend in computer attacks and respond threats, industry professionals and academics are joining forces in order to build Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS that combine high accuracy with low complexity and time efficiency. The present article gives an overview of existing Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS along with their main principles. Also this article argues whether data mining and its core feature which is knowledge discovery can help in creating Data mining based IDSs that can achieve higher accuracy to novel types of intrusion and demonstrate more robust behaviour compared to traditional IDSs.

  5. Viscoelastic behavior of partially molten granites

    Bagdassarov, Nikolai; Dorfman, Alexander

    1998-05-01

    Effects of partial melting on complex shear modulus (G ∗) and internal friction ( Q-1) of granites have been investigated using a torsion-deformation apparatus in the frequency range of 2 mHz-20 Hz at 650-1250°C. Granite samples from Kirchberg/W. Erzgebirge, Germany (OG1) and fine-grained quartz-feldspar porphyry Åland/SW Finland (QFP) have been annealed for ≈30 h at temperatures of 1175°C and 1150°C, 1 bar, log[ fO 2]≈-11.7. The partially molten OG1 samples contained ≈40±2 vol% solid phase, QFP samples ≈55-60 vol%, mainly of quartz crystals. Two different viscoelastic behaviors have been observed: melt-dominated viscoelasticity below a critical quartz-crystal concentration (≈40 vol%) for OG1 samples and weak elastic behavior caused by mechanical interaction between crystals above a critical crystal concentration (≈55-60 vol%) in QFP samples. For OG1 samples the Newtonian relaxed viscosity is observable at high-temperature-low-frequency conditions. For QFP samples the Newtonian relaxed viscosity is unattainable, either by torsion deformation (strain rate up to 10 -2 s -1) or by dilatometry (strain rate up to 10 -5 s -1). The internal friction log[ Q-1( ωτ)] (where ω is angular frequency, τ is shear-stress relaxation time) for partially molten samples plotted on a double-log plot vs. normalized frequency ωτ has different slopes above and below ωτ=1. For OG1 and QFP samples at ωτ≫1 the slope of log[ Q-1( ωτ)] is ˜-0.5 to -0.55 and does not depend on the volume fraction of crystals. In OG1 sample at ωτ≪1 this slope is -0.45. In QFP samples the slope is ≈0 and the internal friction is practically independent of ωτ at the high temperature-low frequency limit Q-1( ωτ⇒0)≈2. In sample OG1 where the crystal content lies below the rheological critical concentration, the observed dependencies of G( ωτ) and Q-1( ωτ) are related to a power-law Q-body with the exponent ˜0.5. In sample QFP where crystal contents are above the rheological critical value, the mechanical contacts between crystals determine a weak elastic behavior of the suspension ascribed to a Caputo-body stress relaxation function with the exponent ˜0.55. The imaginary component of the shear modulus G'( ωτ) for sample OG1 is asymmetrical with an extended shoulder ωτ≫1. In sample QFP G″( ωτ) has a symmetrical shape. The difference between effective shear viscosity of partially molten granite with 40 vol% of crystals and shear viscosity of the partial melt may be of 3 log(Pa s) units. Thus, the effective shear viscosity of partially molten granite (40-50 vol% of crystals) is close to the shear viscosity of the melt phase having the same bulk composition. A model of temperature and frequency dependencies of the complex shear-wave velocity based on the experimentally determined parameters has been suggested for partially molten granites.

  6. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily activities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis (HD) and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering sociodemographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was carried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were analyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 + - 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%), 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear families. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 + - 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%), work (70%) finance (55%), diet (50%) sexual life (38%) and psychological status (25%). Illness had not intruded in areas of relationship with spouse (67%), friends (76%), family (79%), social (40%) and religious functions (72%). Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02). (author)

  7. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    Bapat Usha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily acti-vities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among pa-tients on hemodialysis (HD and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering socio-demographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was ca-rried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were ana-lyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 ± 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%, 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear fami-lies. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 ± 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%, work (70% finance (55%, diet (50% sexual life (38% and psychological status (25%. Illness had not intruded in areas of rela-tionship with spouse (67%, friends (76%, family (79%, social (40% and religious functions (72%. Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02.

  8. Sm/Nd and whole rock geochemistry characterization of the Serra Branca granite: evidence of Archean crust in the Pajeu Paraiba fold belt

    Guimaraes, Ignez de Pinho; Silva Filho, Adejardo F. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia

    1997-12-31

    This work presents and discusses the geochemical and Samarium-Neodymium (SM/Nd) isotopic data for the Serra Branca granite. The Serra Branca granite constitutes one among several brasiliano (=Pan African) intrusions of the transversal zone of the Borborema Tectonica Province, northeastern of Brazil. It is intruded into gneisses and migmatites from the Alto Pajeu Terrain (TAP). The Alto Pajeu Terrain comprises mainly metasediments with minor volcanic contributions and the brasiliano magmatism is restrict to the TAP. After presenting the geological and petrographical considerations, the study shows the Sm-Nd data and concludes that the geochemical and Sm-Nd isotopic signatures of the Serra Branca complex point to a magma generation in the contact zone between an Archean and a Tranzamazonian crust, during decompression, which followed the Brasiliano collisional event

  9. The Serra do Carambei Granite - PR and the uraniferous anomalism

    The Serra do Carambei Granite forms a pluton relatively homogeneous, covering about 33 km2, cropping out as an elongate retangular body trending NE-SW, being emplaced in the Cunhaporanga Granitoid Complex. Its characteristics indicates a kind of hololeucocratic granite, equigranular, medium to coarse-grained, consisting predominantly of microperthitic alkali-feldspar, quartz and a small amount of biotite (less than 1%), thus being classified as an alaskite. Chemical data allows a classification in the group of granite with high contents of silica (74-76% Wt. SiO2), dominantly alkaline chemism and hypersolvus character, derived from a parental magma under saturated in water with distinguished features of granitoids from the magnetite series and types I and A granites. The pluton shows important chemical variations due to weathering processes. However detailed chemical studies reveal the presence of anomalous concentrations of trace elements such as U, Sn, Nb, Y, Zr, the Serra do Carambei Granite lacks economically important mineralizations because of the absence of well-developed tardi/pos-magmatic processes that could concentrate them. The SW side of the granite is cut by leucocratic rhyolite dykes that show some radiometric anomalies. These rocks, which are highly diferentiated, were emplaced contemporaneously to the Serra do Carambei Granite. Although petrographic and chronological similarities are found between the uraniferous alaskite of Roessing (Namibia) and the Serra do Carambei Granite anyhow it was not possible to establish any lateral continuity with the uranifeous Pan-African Province. (Author)

  10. Experimental methods of determining thermal properties of granite

    Determination of thermal properties of granite using the block method is discussed and compared with other methods. Problems that limit the accuracy of contact method in determining thermal properties of porous media are evaluated. Thermal properties of granite is determined in the laboratory with a...

  11. Distributed Firewall with Intrusion Detection System

    Linquan Xie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of Internet, network security has received significant attention over pass ten years due to the increasing threat of hacker attacks. To achieve security goals, most corporate environments have deployed firewalls to block the intrusion. However, traditional firewalls only provided static filleting analysis so that they can not analyze the content of data packet for providing dynamic security requirement. In order to address this issue, in this paper, we integrate the traditional firewalls with intrusion detection technologies. The proposed can provides dynamic security defense by atomically updating the policies based on the detection condition.

  12. Adaptive Genetic Algorithm Model for Intrusion Detection

    K. S. Anil Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection systems are intelligent systems designed to identify and prevent the misuse of computer networks and systems. Various approaches to Intrusion Detection are currently being used, but they are relatively ineffective. Thus the emerging network security systems need be part of the life system and this ispossible only by embedding knowledge into the network. The Adaptive Genetic Algorithm Model - IDS comprising of K-Means clustering Algorithm, Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network techniques. Thetechnique is tested using multitude of background knowledge sets in DARPA network traffic datasets.

  13. Computationally Efficient Neural Network Intrusion Security Awareness

    Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2009-08-01

    An enhanced version of an algorithm to provide anomaly based intrusion detection alerts for cyber security state awareness is detailed. A unique aspect is the training of an error back-propagation neural network with intrusion detection rule features to provide a recognition basis. Network packet details are subsequently provided to the trained network to produce a classification. This leverages rule knowledge sets to produce classifications for anomaly based systems. Several test cases executed on ICMP protocol revealed a 60% identification rate of true positives. This rate matched the previous work, but 70% less memory was used and the run time was reduced to less than 1 second from 37 seconds.

  14. Martian intrusions - Possible sites and implications

    Schultz, P. H.

    1978-01-01

    Both the Moon and Mars exhibit volcanic modification of impact craters characterized by subfloor intrusions that either lift the old crater floor or result in extrusions of lava. Endogenic modification of martian craters, however, probably has involved interactions between such intrusive bodies and permafrost, as suggested by differences between lunar and martian floor-fractured craters. Such interactions raise the interesting possibility for hydrothermally concentrating ores in a manner analogous to the Sudbury structure on the Earth that may be consistent with interpretations of Viking lander results.

  15. Effective analysis of cloud based intrusion detection system

    Sanjay Ram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of IDS is to analyze events on the network and identify attacks. The increasing number of network security related incidents makes it necessary for organizations to actively protect their sensitive data with the installation of intrusion detection systems (IDS. People are paid more attention on intrusion detection which as an important computer network security technology. According to the development trend of intrusion detection, detecting all kinds of intrusions effectively requires a global view of the monitored network, Here, discuss about new intrusion detection mechanism based on cloud computing, which can make up for the deficiency of traditional intrusion detection, and proved to be great scalable.

  16. Age and origin of coeval TTG, I- and S-type granites in the Famatinian belt of NW Argentina

    Full text: Located on the Palaeozoic Pacific margin of Gondwana, at the opposite extreme to the Lachlan Fold Belt, the Sierras Pampeanas of central and NW Argentina also constitute a large granitic province displaying the coeval concurrence of I and S-type magmas. The Famatinian magmatic belt consists mostly of granitoids emplaced in Early Ordovician times, after Cambrian accretion of the Pampean terrane and before the Late Ordovician/Silurian accretion of the Precordillera terrane. New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages, isotope and geochemical data are used to interpret the petrogenesis of this belt. Three types of granitoid are recognized in the Famatinian belt, based on lithology and geochemical data. These are (a) a minor trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite (TTG) group, which occurs only in the Pampean foreland, (b) a metaluminous I-type gabbromonzogranite suite, and (c) S-type granites, which occur both as small cordieritic intrusions associated with l-type granodiorites and as large batholithic masses. Twelve new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages establish the contemporaneity of all three types in Early Ordovician times (mainly 470-490 Ma ago). Sr- and Nd-isotopic data suggest that, apart from some TTG plutons with asthenospheric characteristics, the remaining magmas were derived from a Proterozoic crust-lithospheric mantle section (Nd model ages of 1500-1700 Ma). Granulite xenoliths in Cretaceous alkalic rocks that have been described by other authors may represent samples of this source region. Trace element modelling suggests that the TTG and I-type gabbros originated by variable melting of a lithospheric gabbroid source at 10-12 kbar and ca. 5 kbar, respectively. The voluminous intermediate and acidic I-types, which show a trend to slightly more evolved isotopic signatures than the inferred source, probably represent hybridization of the most primitive magmas with lower and middle crustal melts. The highly peraluminous S-type granites have similar isotopic and inherited zircon patterns to Cambrian supracrustal metasedimentary rocks deposited in the Pampean cycle, and were derived from them by local anatexis. Other major components of the S-type batholiths, including porphyritic biotite granites, probably involved melting of deeper crust and mixing with the l-type magmas, leading to an isotopic and geochemical continuum. This model is similar to others that have been advanced for the I- and S-type granites of the Lachlan Fold Belt of Australia and the Hercynian granites of Spain, but we argue that in the Famatinian belt at least no juvenile mantle source was involved. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

  17. Clinical presentation of urolithiasis in older and younger population

    Murat Dursun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: We compared stone size, localization, complaint at the time of applying, comorbidity, treatment and complications between older (60 years of age and older and younger patients with urolithiasis (59 years of age and younger. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 950 consecutive patients who presented to our clinic and underwent surgery for urolithiasis from January 2007 to March 2012. The patients were divided into two groups: patients ? 60 years an patients < 60 years. Results: There were 174 men and 61 women in elderly group, 528 men and 187 women in younger group. Ureteral stones were found more often in the younger group compared to elderly patients (p < 0.05. Conversely, bladder stone was more frequent in the elderly group. In the elderly group comorbidities are more frequent (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart disease, osteoarthritis and chronic obstructive lung. Patients ? 60 years significantly had larger kidney and bladder stones compared the younger, but ureteral stone sizes were not statistically different between the two groups. Older patients had a higher postoperative complication rate than younger patients (16% versus 3%, p < 0.05 although postoperative complications (e.g. urinary retention, cardiac dysrythmia, fever, constipation were not serious and resolved with medical treatment. The average length of stay in hospital was longer in the elderly group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Elderly patients with urolithiasis usually have larger and more complex stone disease, more comorbidities and atypical presentation.

  18. Multiple causes of the Younger Dryas cold period

    Renssen, Hans; Mairesse, Aurlien; Goosse, Hugues; Mathiot, Pierre; Heiri, Oliver; Roche, Didier M.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Valdes, Paul J.

    2015-12-01

    The Younger Dryas cooling event disrupted the overall warming trend in the North Atlantic region during the last deglaciation. Climate change during the Younger Dryas was abrupt, and thus provides insights into the sensitivity of the climate system to perturbations. The sudden Younger Dryas cooling has traditionally been attributed to a shutdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation by meltwater discharges. However, alternative explanations such as strong negative radiative forcing and a shift in atmospheric circulation have also been offered. Here we investigate the importance of these different forcings in coupled climate model experiments constrained by data assimilation. We find that the Younger Dryas climate signal as registered in proxy evidence is best simulated using a combination of processes: a weakened Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, moderate negative radiative forcing and an altered atmospheric circulation. We conclude that none of the individual mechanisms alone provide a plausible explanation for the Younger Dryas cold period. We suggest that the triggers for abrupt climate changes such as the Younger Dryas are more complex than suggested so far, and that studies on the response of the climate system to perturbations should account for this complexity.

  19. Chemical characteristics of zircon from A-type granites and comparison to zircon of S-type granites

    Breiter, Karel; Lamarão, C. N.; Krás Borges, R. M.; Dall'Agnol, R.

    1192/195, April (2014), s. 208-225. ISSN 0024-4937 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : zircon * A-type granites * S-type granites * Wiborg batholith * Brazil * Krušné hory/Erzgebirge Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 4.482, year: 2014

  20. Fluid inclusion planes and paleofluid records in the Podlesí granite, Krušné hory Mts., Czech Republic

    Dobeš P

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Three generations of fluid inclusion planes (FIP were distinguished in rocks of the PTP-3 borehole from the Podlesí granite stock (Krušné hory Mts.. The oldest generation of FIP is believed to have followed the propagation of proto-tectonic subhorizontal aplite dykes and steep veinlets of greisen mineralization, at temperatures of about 400 °C and pressures less than 100 MPa. The later FIP contain fluid inclusions with homogenization temperatures from 140 to 270 °C, and likely represent hydrothermal fluids associated with the repeated opening of fractures during the late stages of intrusive complex development.

  1. Petrology of the Sutherland commanage melilite intrusives

    The petrology of the Sutherland Commonage olivine melilitite intrusives have been investigated using petrographic and chemical methods. The results of the geochemical study suggest that the Commonage melilites were derived by the melting of a recently metasomatised region of the asthenosphere, probably under the influence of an ocean-island-type hotspot situated in the lower mantle

  2. Wave Induced Saline Intrusion in Sea Outfalls

    Larsen, Torben; Burrows, Richard

    Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the influence of wave increases the tendency of saline intrusion in multi-riser sea outfalls. The flow field in the diffusor under such unsteady and inhomogeneous circumstances is in general very complex, but when sufficient wave energy is...

  3. Iron isotope systematics of the Skaergaard intrusion

    Lesher, Charles; Lundstrom, C.C.; Barfod, Gry; Glessner, Justin; Brown, Eric; Thy, Peter; Salmonsen, Lars Peter; Tegner, Christian

    /or liquid immiscibility. Forty-eight whole rock samples from well-constrained stratigraphic levels in the intrusion were crushed, powdered and dissolved, followed by iron separation by ion chromatography. Purified solutions were analyzed by MC- ICPMS in high-resolution mode using the sample-std bracket...

  4. Evolutionary Design of Intrusion Detection Programs

    Ajith Abraham

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection is the process of monitoring the events occurring in a computer system or network and analyzing them for signs of intrusions, defined as attempts to compromise the confidentiality, integrity, availability, or to bypass the security mechanisms of a computer or network. This paper proposes the development of an Intrusion Detection Program (IDP which could detect known attack patterns. An IDP does not eliminate the use of any preventive mechanism but it works as the last defensive mechanism in securing the system. Three variants of genetic programming techniques namely Linear Genetic Programming (LGP, Multi-Expression Programming (MEP and Gene Expression Programming (GEP were evaluated to design IDP. Several indices are used for comparisons and a detailed analysis of MEP technique is provided. Empirical results reveal that genetic programming technique could play a major role in develop- ing IDP, which are light weight and accurate when compared to some of the conventional intrusion detection systems based on machine learning paradigms.

  5. Intrusive [r] and Optimal Epenthetic Consonants

    Uffmann, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues against the view of intrusive [r] as a synchronically arbitrary insertion process. Instead, it is seen as a phonologically natural process, which can be modelled within the framework of Optimality Theory (OT). Insertion of [r] in phonologically restricted environments is a consequence of a more general theory of consonant…

  6. An Adaptive Database Intrusion Detection System

    Barrios, Rita M.

    2011-01-01

    Intrusion detection is difficult to accomplish when attempting to employ current methodologies when considering the database and the authorized entity. It is a common understanding that current methodologies focus on the network architecture rather than the database, which is not an adequate solution when considering the insider threat. Recent

  7. Smart sensor systems for outdoor intrusion detection

    A major improvement in outdoor perimeter security system probability of detection (PD) and reduction in false alarm rate (FAR) and nuisance alarm rate (NAR) may be obtained by analyzing the indications immediately preceding an event which might be interpreted as an intrusion. Existing systems go into alarm after crossing a threshold. Very slow changes, which accumulate until the threshold is reached, may be assessed falsely as an intrusion. A hierarchial program has begun at Stellar to develop a modular, expandable Smart Sensor system which may be interfaced to most types of sensor and alarm reporting systems. A major upgrade to the SSI Test Site is in progress so that intrusions may be simulated in a controlled and repeatable manner. A test platform is being constructed which will operate in conduction with a mobile instrumentation center with CCTVB, lighting control, weather and data monitoring and remote control of the test platform and intrusion simulators. Additional testing was contracted with an independent test facility to assess the effects of severe winter weather conditions

  8. Variscan thrusting in I- and S-type granitic rocks of the Tribeč Mountains, Western Carpathians (Slovakia: evidence from mineral compositions and monazite dating

    Broska Igor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tribeč granitic core (Tatric Superunit, Western Carpathians, Slovakia is formed by Devonian/Lower Carboniferous, calc-alkaline I- and S-type granitic rocks and their altered equivalents, which provide a rare opportunity to study the Variscan magmatic, post-magmatic and tectonic evolution. The calculated P-T-X path of I-type granitic rocks, based on Fe-Ti oxides, hornblende, titanite and mica-bearing equilibria, illustrates changes in redox evolution. There is a transition from magmatic stage at T ca. 800–850 °C and moderate oxygen fugacity (FMQ buffer to an oxidation event at 600 °C between HM and NNO up to the oxidation peak at 480 °C and HM buffer, to the final reduction at ca. 470 °C at ΔNN= 3.3. Thus, the post-magmatic Variscan history recorded in I-type tonalites shows at early stage pronounced oxidation and low temperature shift back to reduction. The S-type granites originated at temperature 700–750 °C at lower water activity and temperature. The P-T conditions of mineral reactions in altered granitoids at Variscan time (both I and S-types correspond to greenschist facies involving formation of secondary biotite. The Tribeč granite pluton recently shows horizontal and vertical zoning: from the west side toward the east S-type granodiorites replace I-type tonalites and these medium/coarse-grained granitoids are vertically overlain by their altered equivalents in greenschist facies. Along the Tribeč mountain ridge, younger undeformed leucocratic granite dykes in age 342±4.4 Ma cut these metasomatically altered granitic rocks and thus post-date the alteration process. The overlaying sheet of the altered granites is in a low-angle superposition on undeformed granitoids and forms “a granite duplex” within Alpine Tatric Superunit, which resulted from a syn-collisional Variscan thrusting event and melt formation ~340 Ma. The process of alteration may have been responsible for shifting the oxidation trend to the observed partial reduction.

  9. Variscan thrusting in I- and S-type granitic rocks of the Tribe? Mountains, Western Carpathians (Slovakia): evidence from mineral compositions and monazite dating

    Broska, Igor; Petrk, Igor

    2015-12-01

    The Tribe? granitic core (Tatric Superunit, Western Carpathians, Slovakia) is formed by Devonian/Lower Carboniferous, calc-alkaline I- and S-type granitic rocks and their altered equivalents, which provide a rare opportunity to study the Variscan magmatic, post-magmatic and tectonic evolution. The calculated P-T-X path of I-type granitic rocks, based on Fe-Ti oxides, hornblende, titanite and mica-bearing equilibria, illustrates changes in redox evolution. There is a transition from magmatic stage at T ca. 800-850 C and moderate oxygen fugacity (FMQ buffer) to an oxidation event at 600 C between HM and NNO up to the oxidation peak at 480 C and HM buffer, to the final reduction at ca. 470 C at ?NN= 3.3. Thus, the post-magmatic Variscan history recorded in I-type tonalites shows at early stage pronounced oxidation and low temperature shift back to reduction. The S-type granites originated at temperature 700-750 C at lower water activity and temperature. The P-T conditions of mineral reactions in altered granitoids at Variscan time (both I and S-types) correspond to greenschist facies involving formation of secondary biotite. The Tribe? granite pluton recently shows horizontal and vertical zoning: from the west side toward the east S-type granodiorites replace I-type tonalites and these medium/coarse-grained granitoids are vertically overlain by their altered equivalents in greenschist facies. Along the Tribe? mountain ridge, younger undeformed leucocratic granite dykes in age 3424.4 Ma cut these metasomatically altered granitic rocks and thus post-date the alteration process. The overlaying sheet of the altered granites is in a low-angle superposition on undeformed granitoids and forms "a granite duplex" within Alpine Tatric Superunit, which resulted from a syn-collisional Variscan thrusting event and melt formation ~340 Ma. The process of alteration may have been responsible for shifting the oxidation trend to the observed partial reduction.

  10. The intrusive complexof the Island of Giglio: geomagnetic characteristics of plutonic facies with low susceptibility contrast

    R. Cavallini

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Two main plutonic facies characterize the intrusive complex of the Island of Giglio, and the trend of their contact at depth has been modelled using a 2D½ analysis based on a detailed geomagnetic survey in order to verify the geological hypothesis of the subsurface geometry of this contact. The magnetic anomaly connected with the discontinuity is quite low, due to the small difference between the magnetic susceptibilities of the two granitic facies. Development of this model of inversion of the magnetic field, which is in good agreement with the geological interpretation, was made possible by: 1 accurate control of the geomagnetic time variations and consequent temporal reduction, 2 a very low level of the artificial magnetic noise, 3 high density of the magnetic survey, 4 detailed knowledge of the mapped geologic contact between facies and of their petrologic characteristics, and 5 direct local measurements of the magnetic susceptibilities of the key lithologies. The model shows the trends of the geological contact, as projected in three E-W sections, that dips eastward in the range between 210 and 540, supporting the geologic hypothesis that the Pietrabona facies represents an external shell of the shallowly emplaced Giglio monzogranite intrusion.

  11. Tourmaline occurrences within the Penamacor-Monsanto granitic pluton and host-rocks (Central Portugal): genetic implications of crystal-chemical and isotopic features

    da Costa, I. Ribeiro; Mouro, C.; Rcio, C.; Guimares, F.; Antunes, I. M.; Ramos, J. Farinha; Barriga, F. J. A. S.; Palmer, M. R.; Milton, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    Tourmalinization associated with peraluminous granitic intrusions in metapelitic host-rocks has been widely recorded in the Iberian Peninsula, given the importance of tourmaline as a tracer of granite magma evolution and potential indicator of Sn-W mineralizations. In the Penamacor-Monsanto granite pluton (Central Eastern Portugal, Central Iberian Zone), tourmaline occurs: (1) as accessory phase in two-mica granitic rocks, muscovite-granites and aplites, (2) in quartz (mica)-tourmaline rocks (tourmalinites) in several exocontact locations, and (3) as a rare detrital phase in contact zone hornfels and metapelitic host-rocks. Electron microprobe and stable isotope (?18O, ?D, ?11B) data provide clear distinctions between tourmaline populations from these different settings: (a) schorl-oxyschorl tourmalines from granitic rocks have variable foititic component (X? = 17-57 %) and Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratios (0.19-0.50 in two-mica granitic rocks, and 0.05-0.19 in the more differentiated muscovite-granite and aplites); granitic tourmalines have constant ?18O values (12.1 0.1 ), with wider-ranging ?D (-78.2 4.7 ) and ?11B (-10.7 to -9.0 ) values; (b) vein/breccia oxyschorl [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.31-0.44] results from late, B- and Fe-enriched magma-derived fluids and is characterized by ?18O = 12.4 , ?D = -29.5 , and ?11B = -9.3 , while replacement tourmalines have more dravitic compositions [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.26-0.64], close to that of detrital tourmaline in the surrounding metapelitic rocks, and yield relatively constant ?18O values (13.1-13.3 ), though wider-ranging ?D (-58.5 to -36.5 ) and ?11B (-10.2 to -8.8 ) values; and (c) detrital tourmaline in contact rocks and regional host metasediments is mainly dravite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.35-0.78] and oxydravite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.51-0.58], respectively. Boron contents of the granitic rocks are low (Monsanto pluton, either as direct tourmaline precipitation in cavities and fractures crossing the pluton margin (vein/breccia tourmalinites), or as replacement of mafic minerals (chlorite or biotite) in the host-rocks (replacement tourmalinites) along the exocontact of the granite. Thermometry based on 18O equilibrium fractionation between tourmaline and fluid indicates that a late, B-enriched magmatic aqueous fluid (av. ?18O ~12.1 , at ~600 C) precipitated the vein/breccia tourmaline (?18O ~12.4 ) at ~500-550 C, and later interacted with the cooler surrounding host-rocks to produce tourmaline at lower temperatures (400-450 C), and an average ?18O ~13.2 , closer to the values for the host-rock. Although B-metasomatism associated with some granitic plutons in the Iberian Peninsula seems to be relatively confined in space, extending integrated studies such as this to a larger number of granitic plutons may afford us a better understanding of Variscan magmatism and related mineralizations.

  12. How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?

    Trickl, T.; Vogelmann, H.; Giehl, H.; Scheel, H.-E.; Sprenger, M.; Stohl, A.

    2014-09-01

    Preliminary attempts of quantifying the stratospheric ozone contribution in the observations at the Zugspitze summit (2962 m a.s.l.) next to Garmisch-Partenkirchen in the German Alps had yielded an approximate doubling of the stratospheric fraction of the Zugspitze ozone during the time period 1978 to 2004. These investigations had been based on data filtering by using low relative humidity (RH) and elevated 7Be as the criteria for selecting half-hour intervals of ozone data representative of stratospheric intrusion air. To quantify the residual stratospheric component in stratospherically influenced air masses, however, the mixing of tropospheric air into the stratospheric intrusion layers must be taken into account. In fact, the dewpoint mirror instrument at the Zugspitze summit station rarely registers RH values lower than 10% in stratospheric air intrusions. Since 2007 a programme of routine lidar sounding of ozone, water vapour and aerosol has been conducted in the Garmisch-Partenkirchen area. The lidar results demonstrate that the intrusion layers are drier by roughly one order of magnitude than indicated in the in situ measurements. Even in thin layers RH values clearly below 1% have frequently been observed. These thin, undiluted layers present an important challenge for atmospheric modelling. Although the ozone values never reach values typical of the lower-stratosphere it becomes, thus, obvious that, without strong wind shear or convective processes, mixing of stratospheric and tropospheric air must be very slow in most of the free troposphere. As a consequence, the analysis the Zugspitze data can be assumed to be more reliable than anticipated. Finally, the concentrations of Zugspitze carbon monoxide rarely drop inside intrusion layers and normally stay clearly above full stratospheric values. This indicates that most of the CO, and thus the intrusion air mass, originates in the shallow "mixing layer" around the thermal tropopause. The CO mixing ratio in these descending layers between 1990 and 2004 exhibits a slightly positive trend indicating some Asian influence on the lowermost stratosphere in the high-latitude source region of most intrusions reaching the station.

  13. How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?

    T. Trickl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary attempts of quantifying the stratospheric ozone contribution in the observations at the Zugspitze summit (2962 m a.s.l. next to Garmisch-Partenkirchen in the German Alps had yielded an approximate doubling of the stratospheric fraction of the Zugspitze ozone during the time period 1978 and 2004. These investigations had been based on data filtering by using low relative humidity and elevated 7Be as the criteria for selecting half-hour intervals of ozone data representative of stratospheric intrusion air. For quantifying the residual stratospheric component in stratospherically influenced air masses, however, the mixing of tropospheric air into the stratospheric intrusion layers must be taken into account. In fact, the dew-point-mirror instrument at the Zugspitze summit station rarely registers relative humidity (RH values lower than 10% in stratospheric air intrusions. Since 2007 a programme of routine lidar sounding of ozone, water vapour and aerosol has been conducted in the Garmisch-Partenkirchen area. The lidar results demonstrate that the intrusion layers are dryer by roughly one order of magnitude than indicated in the in-situ measurements. Even in thin layers frequently RH values clearly below 1% have been observed. These thin, undiluted layers present an important challenge for atmospheric modelling. Although the ozone values never reach values typical of the lower-stratosphere it becomes, thus, obvious that, without strong wind shear or convective processes, mixing of stratospheric and tropospheric air must be very slow in most of the free troposphere. As a consequence, the analysis the Zugspitze data can be assumed to be more reliable than anticipated. Finally, the concentrations of Zugspitze carbon monoxide rarely drop inside intrusion layers and normally stay clearly above full stratospheric values. This indicates that most of the CO and, thus, the intrusion air mass originate in the shallow "mixing layer" around the thermal tropopause. The CO mixing ratio in these descending layers between 1990 and 2004 exhibits a slightly positive trend indicating some Asian influence on the lowermost stratosphere in the high-latitude source region of most intrusions reaching the station.

  14. How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?

    T. Trickl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary attempts of quantifying the stratospheric ozone contribution in the observations at the Zugspitze summit (2962 m a.s.l. next to Garmisch-Partenkirchen in the German Alps had yielded an approximate doubling of the stratospheric fraction of the Zugspitze ozone during the time period 1978 to 2004. These investigations had been based on data filtering by using low relative humidity (RH and elevated 7Be as the criteria for selecting half-hour intervals of ozone data representative of stratospheric intrusion air. To quantify the residual stratospheric component in stratospherically influenced air masses, however, the mixing of tropospheric air into the stratospheric intrusion layers must be taken into account. In fact, the dewpoint mirror instrument at the Zugspitze summit station rarely registers RH values lower than 10% in stratospheric air intrusions. Since 2007 a programme of routine lidar sounding of ozone, water vapour and aerosol has been conducted in the Garmisch-Partenkirchen area. The lidar results demonstrate that the intrusion layers are drier by roughly one order of magnitude than indicated in the in situ measurements. Even in thin layers RH values clearly below 1% have frequently been observed. These thin, undiluted layers present an important challenge for atmospheric modelling. Although the ozone values never reach values typical of the lower-stratosphere it becomes, thus, obvious that, without strong wind shear or convective processes, mixing of stratospheric and tropospheric air must be very slow in most of the free troposphere. As a consequence, the analysis the Zugspitze data can be assumed to be more reliable than anticipated. Finally, the concentrations of Zugspitze carbon monoxide rarely drop inside intrusion layers and normally stay clearly above full stratospheric values. This indicates that most of the CO, and thus the intrusion air mass, originates in the shallow "mixing layer" around the thermal tropopause. The CO mixing ratio in these descending layers between 1990 and 2004 exhibits a slightly positive trend indicating some Asian influence on the lowermost stratosphere in the high-latitude source region of most intrusions reaching the station.

  15. Example of fracture characterization in granitic rock

    A detailed study of geologic discontinuities for an underground heater test in highly fractured granitic rock is reported. Several prominent shear fractures were delineated within a 6 x 30 x 15 m rock mass by correlating surface mapping and borehole fracture logs. Oblique-reverse faulting is suspected on at least one of the surfaces, and its inferred borehole intercepts appear to be collinear in the direction of slickensiding observed in the field. Four distinct joint sets were identified, one of which coincides with the shear fractures. Another lies nearly horizontal, and two others are steeply inclined and orthogonal. Fracture lengths and spacings for the four joint sets are represented by lognormal probability distributions

  16. Diffusion data in granite. Recommended values

    Diffusion data for radionuclide transport in the porous matrix of rock are proposed for Swedish rock and ground waters, for performance assessment. Suggested data are based on an experimental diffusion study, where tritiated water was used as noninteracting diffusing species in stationary diffusion experiments in Aespoe fine grained granite and diorite. These data, for tritiated water, were used as reference in our study. For other species the effective diffusivities could be predicted from knowledge of the relative behaviour of these species to that of tritiated water. The behaviour is influenced by the difference in free water diffusivity and sometimes the existence of anion exclusion of surface diffusion. Apparent diffusivities are also calculated using sorption data, in addition to the effective diffusivities. Data are proposed for high saline and low saline ground water conditions

  17. Les granites varisques du Massif Armoricain

    Capdevila, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Un important magmatisme intrusif a affecté le massif armoricain entre la fin du Dévonien et le début du Permien. Ce plutonisme a été décrit dans le passé sur la base de différents critères. Nous le présentons ici pour la première fois sur la seule base pétro-géochimique. Ce seul critère permet de mettre en évidence 5 associations plutoniques de nature et d'origine différentes. 1) Une association calco-alcaline allant des gabbros aux granites à biotite et hornblende, de composition orogénique,...

  18. THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STRIPA GRANITE

    Swan, G.

    1978-08-01

    The mechanical properties of Stripa granite are presented as determined from small (laboratory size), oven-dried specimens, The properties determined include Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, unaxial compressive fracture stress, and the expansion coefficient, all as a function of temperature, In addition the Brazilian tensile fracture stress, residual shear strength as a function of a normal stress and the rock's anisotropy ratios are presented, Finally ultrasonic determinations at 1 MHz of the rock's dilatational wave velocity are given and the deduced Young's modulus is compared with the static value for room temperature. This report is one of a series documenting the results of the Swedish-American cooperative research program in which the cooperating scientists explore the geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical, and structural effects anticipated from the use of a large crystalline rock mass as a geologic repository for nuclear waste.

  19. Alkaline lixiviation of uranium in granitic pegmatite

    The work described herein concerns the determination of the experimental optimum conditions for the alkaline lixiviation of uranium based on the following parameters: time, pH, temperature, density and grane size. The samples were obtained from the Supamo complex, near the Currupia river in the Piar District of the Bolivar State in Venezuela. They have a granitic composition and graphitic texture. The uranium was found in them as a secondary oxidized mineral of green-yellow colour localized in fractures fissures, intergranular spaces and also in the mica as. Secondary uranitite. The lixiviation process was carried out using Na2CO3/NaHCO3 buffer solution and for 100 gr. samples the best values for an efficient process were found by using 170 mesh grane size and 500 ml of pH buffer at 700C for a 24 hour time period. (author)

  20. Expected repository environments in granite: thermal environment

    This report was prepared for the Reference Repository Conditions - Interface Working Group and will be used to formulate a standardized description of repository conditions for use by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. A baseline repository in granite is defined and three waste types are considered: unreprocessed spent fuel, commercial high-level waste, and defense high-level waste. Three different scales of repository environment are described - the very-near field (near the waste canister), the near field (the room and pillar), and the far field (the entire repository and surroundings). Information was compiled from the literature and, in addition, a number of calculations were performed. The major emphasis is on describing the thermal environment although the ground-water flow and chemical and radiation environments are also described. 61 figures, 24 tables

  1. A Novel Datamining Based Approach for Remote Intrusion Detection

    Renu Deepti.S, Loshma.G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, as information systems are more open to the Internet,attacks and intrusions are also increasing rapidly so the importance of secure networks is also vital. New intelligent Intrusion Detection Systems which are based on sophisticated algorithms are in demand.Intrusion Detection System (IDS is an important detection used as a countermeasure to preserve data integrity and system availability from attacks. It is a combination of software and hardware that attempts to perform intrusion detection.In data mining based intrusion detection system, we should make use of particular domain knowledge in relation to intrusion detection in order to efficiently extract relative rules from large amounts of records.This paper proposes boosting method for intrusion detection and it is possible to detect the intrusions in all the Systems, without installing the Software in client System (like client-server via Web service (Apache tomcat by using the ip address of the client system.

  2. A network-based realtime intrusion detection system

    The author first reviews the background of Intrusion Detection (ID), then discusses the models and classifications of Intrusion Detection System (IDS). After detail the basic concepts to realize network-based realtime IDS, the analysis of authors' work are presented

  3. Automated electronic intruder simulator for evaluation of ultrasonic intrusion detectors

    An automated electronic intruder simulator for testing ultrasonic intrusion detectors is described. This simulator is primarily intended for use in environmental chambers to determine the effects of temperature and humidity on the operation of ultrasonic intrusion detectors

  4. Uranium-lead isotope systematics and apparent ages of zircons and other minerals in precambrian granitic rocks, Granite Mountains, Wyoming

    Ludwig, K. R.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    Zircon suites from the two main types of granite in the Granite Mountains, Wyoming, yielded concordia-intercept ages of 2,640??20 m.y. for a red, foliated granite (granite of Long Creek Mountain) and 2,595??40 m.y. for the much larger mass of the granite of Lankin Dome. These ages are statistically distinct (40??20 m.y. difference) and are consistent with observed chemical and textural differences. The lower intercepts of the zircon chords of 50??40 and 100+ 75 m.y. for the granite of Long Creek Mountain and granite of Lankin Dome, respectively, are not consistent with reasonable continuous diffusion lead-loss curves but do correspond well with the known (Laramide) time of uplift of the rocks. Epidote, zircon, and apatite from silicified and epidotized zones in the granites all record at least one postcrystallization disturbance in addition to the Laramide event and do not define a unique age of silicification and epidotization. The lower limit of ???2,500 m.y. provided by the least disturbed epidote, however, suggests that these rocks were probably formed by deuteric processes shortly after emplacement of the granite of the Lankin Dome. The earlier of the two disturbances that affected the minerals of the silicified-epidotized rock can be bracketed between 1,350 and 2,240 m.y. ago and is probably the same event that lowered mineral K-Ar and ages in the region. Zircon suites from both types of granite show well-defined linear correlations among U content, common-Pb content, and degree of discordance. One of the zircon suites has an extremely high common-Pb content (up to 180 ppm) and exhibits a component of radiogenic-Pb loss that is apparently unrelated to radiation damage. ?? 1978 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Chemistry of deep groundwaters from granitic bedrock

    Water analysis data from Fjaellveden, Gideaa, Svartboberget and Kamlunge (7 different drilling holes, 26 sampling levels at vertical depths between 100 and 600 m) are discussed. Most of the waters are Na(sup)+ -Ca2(sup)+ -HCO3(sup)- -dominated with a total salt content of 200-300 mg/1 and pH of 8-9. Intrusions of Na(sup)+ -Cl(sup)- -dominated saline waters (up to 650 mg/1) are observed at great depth. The conditions are generally strongly reducing. The presence of clayish material (kaolinite, smectities) and zeolites in the fractures appears to have a large influence on the cation concentration ratios. The contents of organics, largely fulvic acids of intermediate molecular weight (180 and deuterium) indicate a non-marine origin of the water and only minor exchanges with the surroundings. The presence of tritium is evidence of intrusions of young waters in some of the samples, probably due to the disturbances during drilling and sampling. (author)

  6. IRETHERM: Magnetotelluric Assessment of Geothermal Energy Potential of Hydrothermal Aquifer, Radiothermal Granite and Warm Spring Targets in Ireland

    Jones, Alan G.; Muller, Mark; Fullea, Javier; Vozar, Jan; Blake, Sarah; Delhaye, Robert; Farrell, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    IRETHERM (www.iretherm.ie) is an academic-government-industry, collaborative research project, funded by Science Foundation Ireland, with the overarching objective of developing a holistic understanding of Ireland's low-enthalpy geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. With the exception of Permo-Triassic basins in Northern Ireland, hosting geothermal aquifers of promising but currently poorly-defined potential, rocks with high primary porosity have not been identified elsewhere. Whether any major Irish shear zones/faults might host a geothermal aquifer at depth is also unknown, although clusters of warm-springs in the vicinity of two major shear zones are promising. IRETHERM's objectives over a four-year period are to: (i) Develop multi-parameter geophysical modelling and interpretation software tools that will enhance our ability to explore for and assess deep aquifers and granitic intrusions. (ii) Model and understand temperature variations in the upper-crust. Firstly, by building a 3-D model of crustal heat-production based on geochemical analysis of surface, borehole and mid- to lower-crustal xenolith samples. Secondly, by modelling, using a fully self-consistent 3-D approach, observed surface heat-flow variation as a function of variation in the structure and thermal properties of the crust and lithosphere, additionally constrained by surface elevation, geoid, gravity, seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data. (iii) Test a strategic set of eight "type" geothermal targets with a systematic program of electromagnetic surveys (MT, CSEM) across ten target areas. During 2012, IRETHERM collected over 220 MT/AMT sites in the investigation of a range of different geothermal target types. Here we present preliminary electrical resistivity modelling results for each target investigated and discuss the implications of the models for geothermal energy potential: 1. Rathlin Basin The only sedimentary strata in Ireland known to provide reliable primary porosity, supporting deep hydrothermal aquifers, are found in the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone Group and in the upper-Permian, preserved in several basins in Northern Ireland. Our survey over the Rathlin Basin aims to map the geometry of these strata at depth and assess their porosity and permeability characteristics. 2. Kilbrook warm spring. Kilbrook warm spring is characterised by the warmest spring waters in Ireland (24.8°C) and highest Total Dissolved Solids concentration. Our high-resolution AMT survey over this occurrence aims to image the subsurface fluid conduit systems that bring these waters to surface. 3. Leinster and Galway granites Many of Ireland's exposed granites are associated with high radioactive element concentrations, high radiogenic heat production (HP) values and elevated surface heat-flow (SHF). Surveys over two of these granites - the Leinster granite (SHF: 80 mWm-2, HP: 2-3 µWm-3) and the Galway granite (SHF: 65-77 mWm-2, HP: 4-7 µWm-3) - aim to define the geometry, volume and local/regional heating effect of the granites and assess their suitability for energy provision using EGS. The models will also be assessed for indications of naturally occurring hydrothermal aquifers associated with either major faults that cross-cut the granites or the granite-country rock contacts.

  7. Effective analysis of cloud based intrusion detection system

    Sanjay Ram

    2012-01-01

    The goal of IDS is to analyze events on the network and identify attacks. The increasing number of network security related incidents makes it necessary for organizations to actively protect their sensitive data with the installation of intrusion detection systems (IDS). People are paid more attention on intrusion detection which as an important computer network security technology. According to the development trend of intrusion detection, detecting all kinds of intrusions effectively requir...

  8. A Frequency-Based Approach to Intrusion Detection

    Mian Zhou; Sheau-Dong Lang

    2004-01-01

    Research on network security and intrusion detection strategies presents many challenging issues to both theoreticians and practitioners. Hackers apply an array of intrusion and exploit techniques to cause disruption of normal system operations, but on the defense, firewalls and intrusion detection systems (IDS) are typically only effective in defending known intrusion types using their signatures, and are far less than mature when faced with novel attacks. In this paper, we adapt the frequen...

  9. Simulation of network intrusion detection system with GPenSim

    LIU, Bo

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, network has penetrated into every aspect of our life with its rapid growth and popularization. More and more serious network security problems have occurred together with this process, especially network intrusion problem. It has seriously affected the normal use of network, so research of network intrusion detection has become one of the hottest research areas. This thesis simulated a network intrusion detection system based on particle filter to solve the network intrusion ...

  10. Dynamics of shallow magmatic intrusions: theory and application to the detection of planetary intrusion.

    Thorey, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Intrusive magmatism plays a fundamental role in the accretionary pro- cesses of terrestrial crust. Indeed, when magma is forced to the surface, only a small amount of it actually reaches that level. Most of the magma is in- truded into the crust where it solidifies into a wide range of features, from the small scale sills and laccoliths to large scale batholiths (several hundred kilo- meters in size). The topographic deformation that could be caused by shallow intrusions can be constrained by...

  11. IRETHERM: The geothermal energy potential of Irish radiothermal granites

    Farrell, Thomas; Jones, Alan; Muller, Mark; Feely, Martin; Brock, Andrew; Long, Mike; Waters, Tim

    2014-05-01

    The IRETHERM project is developing a strategic understanding of Ireland's deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. One aspect of IRETHERM's research focuses on Ireland's radiothermal granites, where increased concentrations of radioelements provide elevated heat-production (HP), surface heat-flow (SHF) and subsurface temperatures. An understanding of the contribution of granites to the thermal field of Ireland is important to assessing the geothermal energy potential of this low-enthalpy setting. This study focuses on the Galway granite in western Ireland, and the Leinster and the buried Kentstown granites in eastern Ireland. Shallow (Dublin. In the Galway granite batholith, on the west coast of Ireland, the Costelloe-Murvey granite returned HP = 7 μWm-3 and HF = 77 mWm-2, measured at the Rossaveal borehole. The buried Kentstown granite, 35 km NW of Dublin, has an associated negative Bouguer anomaly and was intersected by two mineral exploration boreholes at depths of 660 m and 490 m. Heat production is measured at 2.4 μWm-3 in core samples taken from the weathered top 30 m of the granite. The core of this study consists of a program of magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data acquisition across the three granite bodies, over three fieldwork seasons. MT and AMT data were collected at 59 locations along two profiles over the Leinster granite. Preliminary results show that the northern units of the Leinster granite (40 km SW of Dublin) extend to depths of 2-5 km. Preliminary results from the southern profile suggest a greater thickness of granite to a depth of 6-9 km beneath the Tullow pluton, 75 km SW of Dublin. Over the Galway granite, MT and AMT data have been collected at a total of 75 sites (33 consist of only AMT data acquisition, with both MT and AMT recorded at the remaining 42). Preliminary results show a deep resistor extending to depths of 15-20 km beneath the central block, with the resistive upper layer extending to depths of 3.5-7 km west of the Shannawona fault, a major structure that cuts the batholith. MT and AMT data acquired along a profile at 22 locations over the Kentstown granite suggests that this buried granite is at a depth of 400 m beneath the centre of the gravity anomaly. The MT and AMT data will be integrated with gravity and seismic refraction data (in the case of the Leinster granite) to identify deeply penetrating faults, which may provide conduits for hydrothermal fluids, and to produce a robust estimation of the volumetric extent of the granites, which is crucial in defining their geothermal energy potential. Thermal conductivity and geochemical data will be incorporated to constrain the heat contribution of granites to the Irish crust.

  12. Granitic rocks from the southern Gyeongsang basin, southeastern Korea, (1)

    In southern Gyeongsang basin, southeastern Korea, there are many granitic rock masses. They were divided into 7 groups according to their geological evidences. K-Ar age was determined on 36 samples obtained from the respective groups. Group A: pre-Gyeongsang granitic rock (Pre-Cretaceous), A1 220 m.y., A2 166 m.y.; group B: outer zone granitic rock (Cretaceous), 115-72 m.y.; group C: ditto (ditto), 97-70 m.y.; group D: ditto (ditto), 89-68 m.y.; group E: ditto (ditto), 82-68 m.y.; group F: inner zone granitic rock (Cretaceous), 75-74 m.y.; group G: Tertiary granitic rock, 63-41 m.y. The large part of the Cretaceous granitic masses show the double elongated ring form. Most of the Tertiary granitic rocks were probably emplaced in close relation with the Eonyang fault line and Ulsan fault line/or their extension line of the area. (J.P.N.)

  13. U-Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite from Mesoproterozoic granitic gneisses of the northern Blue Ridge, Virginia and Maryland, USA

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Burton, W.C.; Lyttle, P.T.; Nelson, A.E.; Southworth, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    Mesoproterozoic granitic gneisses comprise most of the basement of the northern Blue Ridge geologic province in Virginia and Maryland. Lithology, structure, and U-Pb geochronology have been used to subdivide the gneisses into three groups. The oldest rocks, Group 1, are layered granitic gneiss (1153 ?? 6 Ma), hornblende monzonite gneiss (1149 ?? 19 Ma), porphyroblastic granite gneiss (1144 ?? 2 Ma), coarse-grained metagranite (about 1140 Ma), and charnockite (>1145 Ma?). These gneisses contain three Proterozoic deformational fabrics. Because of complex U-Pb systematics due to extensive overgrowths on magmatic cores, zircons from hornblende monzonite gneiss were dated using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP), whereas all other ages are based on conventional U-Pb geochronology. Group 2 rocks are leucocratic and biotic varieties of Marshall Metagranite, dated at 1112??3 Ma and 1111 ?? 2 Ma respectively. Group 3 rocks are subdivided into two age groups: (1) garnetiferous metagranite (1077 ?? 4 Ma) and quartz-plagioclase gneiss (1077 ?? 4 Ma); (2) white leucocratic metagranite (1060 ?? 2 Ma), pink leucocratic metagranite (1059 ?? 2), biotite granite gneiss (1055 ?? 4 Ma), and megacrystic metagranite (1055 ?? 2 Ma). Groups 2 and 3 gneisses contain only the two younger Proterozoic deformational fabrics. Ages of monazite, seprated from seven samples, indicate growth during both igneous and metamorphic (thermal) events. However, ages obtained from individual grains may be mixtures of different age components, as suggested by backscatter electron (BSE) imaging of complexly zoned grains. Analyses of unzoned monazite (imaged by BSE and thought to contain only one age component) from porphyroblastic granite gneiss yield ages of 1070, 1060, and 1050 Ma. The range of ages of monazite (not reset to a uniform date) indicates that the Grenville granulite event at about 1035 Ma did not exceed about 750??C. Lack of evidence for 1110 Ma growth of monazite in porphyroblastic granite gneiss suggests that the Short Hill fault might be a Grenvillian structure that was reactivated in the Paleozoic. The timing of Proterozoic deformations is constrained by crystallization ages of the gneissic rocks. D1 occurred between about 1145 and 1075 Ma (or possibly between about 1145 and 1128 Ma). D2 and D3 must be younger than about 1050 Ma. Ages of Mesoproterozoic granitic rocks of the northern Blue Ridge are similar to rocks in other Grenville terranes of the eastern USA, including the Adirondacks and Hudson Highlands. However, comparisons with conventional U-Pb ages of granulite-grade rocks from the central and southern Appalachians may be specious because these ages may actually be mixtures of ages of cores and overgrowths.

  14. Design of a dosimetric evaluation protocol workers granite quarries

    The Autonomous Community of Extremadura is one of the major regions of Spain as far as the extraction of granite and further processing of products derived from it are concerned. One of the most industrialized areas of the sector presents a serious problem for non-radiological occupational health of workers, particularly silicosis. Since in this area of activity levels of granites can be classified as medium-high within the precipitates ranges, the question is whether in addition to this occupational disease, there is a radiological impact associated with the activity NORM extraction and manufacturing of granite.

  15. Sorption behavior of Am(III) onto granite

    Sorption behavior of Am(III) onto granite was investigated. The distribution coefficient (Kd) of Am(III) onto granite was determined in the solution pH of which was ranged from 2.9 to 11.4 and ionic strength was set at 10-2 and 10-1. The Kd values were found to increase with increasing pH and with decreasing ionic strength. The obtained data were successfully analyzed by applying an electrical double layer model. The optimum parameters of the double layer electrostatics and adsorption reactions were obtained, and the selective adsorption behavior of Am(III) onto the granite was discussed. (author)

  16. Vertical zonality of fractionated granite plutons reflected in zircon chemistry

    Breiter, Karel

    s. l : Universidad d Salamanca ; Escuela politécnica superior de Avila ; Universidad de Granada, 2011 - (Molina, J.; Scarrow, J.; Bea, F.; Montero, P.). s. 25-25 ISBN 978-84-694-5253-0. [Hutton Symposium on Granites and Related Rocks /7./. 04.07.2011-09.07.2011, Avila] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : zircon * granite geochemistry * granite zonality * Cínovec * Beauvoir Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.seventh-hutton.org/meeting/Abstracts,_posters,_Lithos_Special_Issue_files/abstracts_book_Hutton_ISBN.pdf

  17. Total knee arthroplasty in the younger patient: challenges and solutions

    Keeney JA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available James A Keeney Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO, USA Abstract: Total knee arthroplasty is being performed for an increasing number of younger patients with osteoarthritis. Several studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of residual symptoms among younger total knee arthroplasty patients and functional activity lower than expectations based on age and preoperative diagnosis. Limited studies have specifically focused on specific techniques or implant designs on this patient population, but have not identified optimal approaches. Limiting the most common complications that lead to early surgical revision, infection and instability, is important to ensure both short-term symptom resolution and long-term implant survivorship. Keywords: total knee arthroplasty, TKA, younger patient, outcomes, implant selection, surgical techniques

  18. SHRIMP U/Pb zircon ages of acid volcanic rocks in the Chitradurga and Sandur groups, and granites adjacent to the Sandur Schist belt, Karnataka

    Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U/Pb dating of zircon grains from a schistose acid volcanic rock from the Daginkatte formation in the Chitradurga group of the late Archaean Dharwar supergroup in western Karnataka has yielded a precise concordant age of 2614 ± 8 Ma which indicates the time of melt crystallisation. In contrast, zircons from similar schistose acid volcanic rocks in the Vibhuti Gudda formation of the Sandur group in the Sandur schist belt of eastern Karnataka yielded less precise concordia intercept ages of 2658 ± 14 and 2691 ± 18 Ma. Zircons from high-strain grey gneisses which appears to be the oldest recognizable component of the late Archaean granite complex adjacent to the Sandur schist belt have an imprecise age of 2719 ± 40 Ma. Zircons from the youngest recognizable granite adjacent to the belt have also yielded an imprecise, but younger, age of 2570 ± 62 Ma. The ages show that granite emplacement and deformation adjacent to the Sandur schist belt took place in a period of c.150 Ma. The imprecise ages of zircon in the acid volcanic rocks in the Sandur Group and the adjacent granites are related to Neoproterozoic loss of lead which may have been an effect of either weathering or a regional thermal event. We favour the latter in the light of the record of Pan-African thermal effects in the east and south of southern Peninsular India. (author). 33 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Granitoid magmatism of Alarmaut granite-metamorphic dome, West Chukotka, NE Russia

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Katkov, S. M.

    2009-04-01

    Main tectonic elements of West Chukotka are Alazey-Oloy, South-Anyui and Anyui-Chukotka fold systems, formed as a result of collision between structures of North-Asian continent active margin and Chukotka microcontinent [1-3]. South-Anyui fold system, separating Alazey-Oloy and Anyui-Chukotka systems, is considered as suture zon, formed as a result of oceanic basin closing [4-6]. Continent-microcontinent collision resulted in formation of large orogen with of northern and southern vergent structures, complicated by strike-slip deformations [7, 8]. Within Anyui-Chukotka fold system several rises, where most ancient deposits (crystalline basement and Paleozoic cover of Chukotka microcontinent) are exposed, were distinguished [2, 9-11]. Later they were considered as granite-metamorphic domes [12-14]. Alarmaut dome is located at West Chukotka to the north from Bilibino city and is traced from south to north in more than 120 km. General direction of structure is discordant to prevailing NW extensions of tectonic elements of the region. Paleozoic-Triassic deposits are exposed within the Alarmaut dome: 1) D3-C1 - crystalline schists, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, marbles (700 m) [11]; 2) C1 - marblized limestones, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, amphibole-pyroxene crystalline schists. Limestones contain corals, indicating Visean age of deposits [11]. Metamorphism reaches amphibolite facies, maximum P-T conditions are 660°С and 5 kbar. Migmatites, indicating in situ partial melting, are observed. Intensity of deformations of Paleozoic rocks increases at the boundary with Triassic deposits [11]; in the western part of dome slices of Pz rocks are separated by blastomylonite horizons [14]. Within Alramaut dome granitoids of Lupveem batholith (central part of dome), Bystrinsky pluton (southeastern part), and small Koyvel' and Kelil'vun plutons were studied. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data indicate Early Cretaceous (117-112 m.a.) age of granitoids [15]. Analyses of cores of some zircons from granodiorites of Lupveem batholith indicate Precambrian age of protolith (717, 1070.4 and 1581.5 m.a.) [15]. 40Ar-39Ar age of synmetamorphic biotite varies from 108 to 103 m.a. [15]. Intrusive rocks of Alarmaut dome are represented by wide spectrum of rocks: diorites, Q diorites, Q monzodiorites, granodiorites, tonalites, granites. Granodiorites and granites contain mafic enclaves of monzonites and Q monzonites. SiO2 contents in rocks of Alarmaut dome varies from 58,55% in diorites to 71,3% in granites; in enclaves - from 54,6% in monzonites to 61.89% in Q monzonites. Granitoids are normal and subalkaline rocks according to SiO2 vs K2O+Na2O and belong to high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonite series according to K2O vs SiO2. They are mainly metaluminous rocks (ASI intermediate rocks are characterized by LREE enrichment, HREE depletion and insignificant negative Eu-anomaly (LaN/YbN=8,42-15,69; Eu/Eu*=0,66-0,94). Granodiorites and granites REE patterns are more enriched in LREE, more depleted in HREE and have deeper negative Eu-anomaly (LaN/YbN=11,48-45,6; Eu/Eu*=0,47-0,81). REE patterns of monzonites from enclaves in granites and granodiorites are similar to patterns of host rocks. REE patterns of intermediate rocks and granodiorites are well correlated with those of "mafic root" rocks of K2 Kigluaik pluton from the core part of the same name gneiss dome, Seward Peninsula, Alaska [16], and K1-2 granitoids of Chauna fold zone, West Chukotka [17]. Spidergrams of granitoids and enclaves are similar and characterized by LILE, LREE enrichment and Nb, Sr, P, Ti depletion, typical for supra-subduction magmatites. On F1-F2 diagram [18], separating granitoids by geodynamic settings, granitoids fall in the field of collisional granites; on Rb vs Y+Nb diagram, along the boundary between the fields of syncollisional granites and volcanic arc granites, but within the field of postcollisional [19]. Geochronological and structural data indicate temporal relation between magmatism, metamorphism and deformations, accompanying formation of dome structure. Structural data also indicate the dome formation between two regional strike-slips. Strike-slip deformations of terminal stage of collision might have resulted in local zones of extensions [6, 8]. Intrusive contacts of studied granitoid plutons with already deformed host deposits indicate their postcollisional origin. Wide petrographical spectrum of granitoids, hornblende and biotite existence in granites, metaluminous high-K and shoshonite character, biotites compositions allow belonging them to high-K granites of I-type. Appearance of I-type granites in postcollisional setting is usually related to crustal anatexis under the influence of hot asthenospheric mantle due to delamination of lower parts of lithosphere. At the same time the processes of mingling of magmas of different composition, assimilation, fractional crystallization take place. Thus, in tectonic scenario of Alarmaut dome formation except dominating submergence of Chukotka microcontinent margin beneath the structures of North-Asian craton active margin we should assume slab-breakoff or delamination of lithospheric mantle which might have facilitated heat transfer, necessary for melting of granite magma. Aptian-Albian volcanism, localized in postcollisional extensional structures, confirms this assumption. Interrelations of major oxides in granitoids show that compositions of Alarmaut intermediate rocks fall in the fields of melts, experimentally obtained during partial melting of amphibolites, and compositions of granodiorites and granites, along the boundary zone of partial melts of greywackes and dacites, tonalites. Heterogeneity of granitoids source composition or different level of magma contamination by ancient crustal material is confirmed by Sr-Nd data. It is expressed in significant dispersal of ɛNd(Т) and 87Sr/86Sr values in granitoids. Work is carried out at the financial support of RFBR (projects № 07-05-00255, 08-05-00547), leading scientific school NSh-3172.2008.5, Programs of basic researches ONZ RAS 6. References 1. Parfenov L.M. Continental margins and island arcs of Mesozoides of North-East Asia. Novosibirsk, 1984. 192 p. (in Russian) 2. Zonenshain L.P., Kuz'min M.I., Natapov L.M. Tectonics of lithospheric plates of USSR territory // М.: Nauka, 1990. V. 2. 327 p. (in Russian) 3. Sokolov S.D. Classification and hierarchy of fold constructions. М. GEOS. 2008. P.71-100. (in Russian) 4. Seslavinsky K.B. South-Anyui suture zone (West Chukotka) // Dokl. AN USSR. 1979. V. 249. P. 1181-1185 (in Russian) 5. Natal'in B.A. Early Mesozoic eugeosynclinal systems in the northern part of Circum-Pacifica. М.: Nauka. 1984. 136 p. (in Russian) 6. Sokolov S.D., Bondarenko G.Ye., Morozov O.L.,. Shekhovtsov V.A., Glotov S.P.,. Ganelin A.V., Kravchenko-Berezhnoy I.R. The South Anyui Suture, NE Arctic Russia: facts and problems to solve. Tectonic Evolution of the Bering Shelf-Chukchi Sea-Arctic Margin and Adjacent Landmasses. Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Paper, 2002, 360. P. 209-224 7. Sokolov S.D., Bondarenko G.E., Morozov O.L., Luchitskaya M.V. Tectonics of junction zone between Verkhoyan-Chukotka and Koryak-Kamchatka fold // Byul. MOIP. Otd. Geol. 2001. V. 76. Is.6. P.24-37. (in Russian) 8. Bondarenko G.E. Tectonics and geodynamic evolution of Mesozoides of north framework of Pacific Ocean. М.: MGU, 2004. 46 p. (in Russian) 9. Til'man S.M. Comparative tectonics of Mesozoides of northern part of Pacific rim. Novosibirsk: Nauka. 1973. 325 p. (in Russian) 10. Grantz A., Moore T. E., Roeske S.M. Gulf of Alaska to Arctic Ocean: Geological Society of America Continental-Ocean Transect A-3, scale 1:500,000. Menlo Park, California, 1991, 72 р. 11. Sadovsky A.I. Geologic map of USSR, scale 1:200000. Anyui-Chauna series. Paper R-58-XXVII, XXVIII. (Ed: Gel'man M.L.) Explanatory report. Leningrad: VSEGEI, 1970, 84 p. (in Russian) 12. Gel'man M.L. Phanerozoic granite-metamorphic domes at Russian North-East. Paper 2. Magmatism, metamorphism and migmatization in Late Mesozoic domes // Pacific geology. 1996. V. 15. № 1. P. 84-93. (in Russian) 13. Bering Strait Geologic Field Party, Koolen metamorphic complex, NE Russia: implications for the tectonic evolution of the Bering Strait region // Tectonics, vol. 16, no. 5, p. 713-729 14. Bondarenko G.E., Luchitskaya M.V. Mesozoic tectonic evolution of Alarmaut rise // Byul. MOIP. Otd. Geol. V. 78. Is. 3. P. 25-38. (in Russian) 15. Katkov S.M., Strikland A., Miller E.L. Age of granite batholiths in the Anyui-Chukotka Foldbelt // Doklady. Earth Sciences. 2007. Vol. 414. № 4. P. 515-518. 16. Amato J.M., Wright J.E. Potassic mafic magtism in the Kigluaik gneiss dome, northern Alaska: a geochemical study of arc magmatism in an extensional tectonic setting // J. Geophys. Res. 1997. Vol.102. N B4. P.8065-8084 17. Tikhomirov P.L., Luchitskaya M.V., Kravchenko-Berezhnoy I.R. Comparison of Cretaceous granitoids of the Chaun tectonic zone to those of the Taigonos Peninsula, NE Asia: rock chemistry, composition of rock forming minerals, and conditions of formation // Stephan Mueller series. Geology and Tectonic Origins of Northeast Russia: A Tribute to Leonid Parfenov (in press) 28. Velikoslavinsky S.D. Geochemical typification of acid magmatic rocks of leading geodynamic settings // Petrology. 2003. V. 11. № 4. P.363-380. (in Russian) 19. Pearce J.A. Sources and settings of granitic rocks // Episodes. 1996. V. 19. N. 4. P. 120-125

  20. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: phenomenological evolution of the geologic disposal; Dossier 2005: Granite. Tome evolution phenomenologique du stockage geologique

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the phenomenological aspects of the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes (HLLL) in granite formations. Content: 1 - introduction: ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formation; 2 - the granitic environment: geologic history, French granites; 3 - HLLL wastes and disposal design concepts; 4 - identification, characterization and modeling of a granitic site: approach, geologic modeling, hydrologic and hydro-geochemical modeling, geomechanical and thermal modeling, long-term geologic evolution of a site; 5 - phenomenological evolution of a disposal: main aspects of the evolution of a repository with time, disposal infrastructures, B-type wastes disposal area, C-type wastes disposal area; spent fuels disposal area, radionuclides transfer and retention in the granitic environment; 6 - conclusions: available knowledge, methods and tools for the understanding and modeling of the phenomenological evolution of a granitic disposal site. (J.S.)

  1. Permeability of generic repository rocks at simulated in situ conditions. [Comparison of Westerly granite and White Lake genissic granite

    Heard, H.C.; Trimmer, D.; Duba, A.; Bonner, B.

    1979-04-23

    New laboratory data are reported on the effect of confining (lithostatic) pressure, pore-water pressure, and principal stress difference on permeability of Westerly granite and White Lake gneissic granite. Permeabilities as low as 10/sup -19/ cm/sup 2/ (10/sup -11/ D) have been measured successfully, using a transient technique. Principal strains, electrical conductivity, and compressional velocity are determined simultaneously. Applied loads on the 15-cm diameter by 28-cm long test sample are controlled automatically and all data are taken by a microcomputer. Results on the gneissic granite indicate permeabilities of 10/sup -18/ to 10/sup -19/ cm/sup 2/ that appear to be unaffected either by effective pressure or by stress. The granite yields permeabilities of 4x10/sup -16/ cm/sup 2/ that decrease by a factor of two with pressure and vary by a factor of two with stress. When compared to the initial value, compressional velocities increase by 4% and conductivity decreases by 50% as pressure is increased to 50 MPa in the gneissic granite. In granite, these become 3% and 58%, respectively. At pressure, loading of the granite of 0.5 of failure stress increases conductivity by about 20%.

  2. The Younger Dryas age of the Salpausselk moraines in Finland

    Joakim Donner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The late-glacial Younger Dryas Stadial, as defined over seventy years ago in Denmark, was compared with the withdrawal of the Scandinavian ice sheet and correlated in Finland in 1951 with the formation of the Salpausselk moraines. Since then a great number of studies of Younger Dryas has eventually led to its definition in the Event Stratigraphy for the North Atlantic region, based on the oxygen isotope stratigraphy in the Greenland ice-core NGRIP. The age of the Younger Dryas / Preboreal boundary, the beginning of the Holocene, is in this stratigraphy dated at 11 653 yr. BP, an age close to the age deter-mined for the drainage of the Baltic Ice Lake and the beginning of the rapid retreat of the ice margin from Salpausselk II in Finland and the corresponding Billingen moraine in Sweden. This leads to the conclusion that the Salpausselk moraines Ss I and Ss II were formed during Younger Dryas, according to the revised varve chronology between c. 12 260 and c. 11 600 yr. BP. The third Salpausselk, Ss III, was according to this dating formed in early Holocene. After the 1950s, when the Salpausselk moraines were dated as having been formed during the Younger Dryas Stadial, the ages of the boundaries of Younger Dryas changed as a result of revisions of the time scales of varved clays and the use of radiocarbon ages and their calibrations. As a result of these changes the age of the two main Salpausselk moraines, Ss I and Ss II, is older than assumed 60 years ago on the basis of the varve chronology.

  3. The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis: a critical review

    van Hoesel, Annelies; Hoek, Wim Z.; Pennock, Gillian M.; Drury, Martyn R.

    2014-01-01

    The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis suggests that multiple extraterrestrial airbursts or impacts resulted in the Younger Dryas cooling, extensive wildfires, megafaunal extinctions and changes in human population. After the hypothesis was first published in 2007, it gained much criticism, as the evidence presented was either not indicative of an extraterrestrial impact or not reproducible by other groups. Only three years after the hypothesis had been presented, a requiem paper was published. Despite this, the controversy continues. New evidence, both in favour and against the hypothesis, continues to be published.

  4. An Independent Evaluation of the Younger Dryas Extraterrestrial Impact Hypothesis

    Surovell, T. A.; Holliday, V. T.

    2009-12-01

    Based on elevated concentrations of a set of impact markers at the onset of the Younger Dryas stadial from sedimentary contexts across North America, Firestone, Kennett, West, and others have argued that 12.9 ka, the Earth experienced an impact by an extraterrestrial body, an event that had devastating ecological consequences for humans, plants, and animals in the New World. In this paper, we report the results of an independent analysis of magnetic minerals and microspherules from seven sites of similar age including two previously examined by Firestone et al. We were unable to reproduce any results of the Firestone et al. study and find no support for Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact.

  5. The state of the art in intrusion prevention and detection

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan

    2013-01-01

    The State of the Art in Intrusion Prevention and Detection analyzes the latest trends and issues surrounding intrusion detection systems in computer networks, especially in communications networks. Its broad scope of coverage includes wired, wireless, and mobile networks; next-generation converged networks; and intrusion in social networks.Presenting cutting-edge research, the book presents novel schemes for intrusion detection and prevention. It discusses tracing back mobile attackers, secure routing with intrusion prevention, anomaly detection, and AI-based techniques. It also includes infor

  6. Intrusion Detection in Data Mining With Classification Algorithm

    PATEL HEMANT, BHARAT SARKHEDI, HIREN VAGHAMSHI

    2013-01-01

    In the research of intrusion detection there are so manyattacks in the real life and some IDS System to detect it like network-based IDS, host-based IDS and application-based IDS to detect the Intrusion. In this paper, one frame work is introduce to detect an intrusion data with the help of data mining, a framework for intrusion detection system for filtering data set to network attacks. We also talk about the basic data mining technology for finding intrusion data for the data set. Detection...

  7. Expansion of the granitic post-orogenic magmatism in the formation of Serrinha (Northeastern Bahia, B R), Sao Francisco craton; Expansao do magmatismo granitico pos-orogenico no nucleo Serrinha (NE Bahia), craton do Sao Francisco: idade U-Pb do Macico Granitico Pedra Vermelha

    Rios, Debora Correia; Conceicao, Herbet; Rosa, Maria de Lourdes da Silva; Marinho, Moacyr Moura [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Geofisica e Geologia. Lab. de Petrologia Aplicada a Pesquisa Mineral]. E-mail: debora@cpgg.ufba.br; herbet@ufba.br; lourdes@cpgg.ufba.br; cbpmdt@cbpm.com.br; Davis, Donaldo Wayne [University of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Geology. Earth Sciences Centre]. E-mail: dond@geology.utoronto.ca

    2005-09-15

    The Pedra Vermelha Granitic Massif, located at the North area of Serrinha Nucleus, presents a circular shape, being intrusive at the Archaean geoscience-magmatic basement rocks and the Paleoproterozoic volcano sedimentary sequences. The single zircon U-Pb dating yield a crystallization age of 2080 {+-} 8 Ma. The geological, petrographic al and litogeochemical characteristics of the studied rocks are similar to those of the Morro do Lopes granitic magmatism (2076 {+-} 6 a 2071 {+-} 6 Ma), which is located at the South area of this nucleus. These allow us to infer that those post-orogenic alkaline bodies are widespread throughout the Serrinha Nucleus and constitute its last Paleoproterozoic magmatic expression. (author)

  8. Inclusões fluidas crepitadas, fluidos hipersalinos e aquo-carbônicos em quartzo associado a rochas micáceas no Granito Xinguara - Terreno Granito-Greenstone de Rio Maria, PA Decrepitated fluid inclusions, aqueous-carbonic and hypersaline fluids in quartz associated to micaceous rocks in the Xinguara Granite - Rio Maria Granite - Greenstone terrain, Pará, Brazil

    Marcelo Leopoldo Weber

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As rochas micáceas encontradas no Granito Xinguara, terreno Granito-Greenstone de Rio Maria, Pará, são compostas por muscovita e clorita com níveis de quartzo intercalados, que formam uma xistosidade bem desenvolvida. Essa xistosidade é cortada por veios de quartzo. Ambas as gerações de quartzo apresentam os mesmos tipos de inclusões fluidas em halos ou trilhas secundárias de composições variadas entre aquosas, aquo-carbônicas e saturadas em torno de grandes inclusões primárias crepitadas ou em trilhas transgranulares secundárias. A grande variação de temperaturas de homogeneização, a alta salinidade, as evidências de estrangulamento e a existência das inclusões crepitadas permitem supor forte influência de alterações pós-formacionais e reequilíbrio relacionados à intrusão do granito. Essas rochas foliadas são, portanto, enclaves metassedimentares afetados por fluidos graníticos hipersalinos aquo-carbônicos.The micaceous rocks occurring in the Xinguara Granite, Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone terrain, Pará State, Brazil, are composed of muscovite and chlorite with quartz levels intercalated forming a well developed schistosity. This schistosity is cut by quartz veins. Both quartz generations show the same aqueous, aqueous-carbonic and halite-bearing fluid inclusions either in secondary inclusions halos and trails surrounding decrepitated primary fluid inclusions or in transgranular secondary trails. A wide variation of homogenization temperatures, high salinity, necking down and the decrepitated inclusions existence indicates strong influence of post-formational alteration and reequilibration linked to the granite intrusion. These foliated rocks are metasedimentary enclaves affected by late hypersaline aqueous-carbonic granitic fluids.

  9. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in seagrasses ecosystems

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses represents a global threat to seagrasses and thereby an important parameter in resilience of seagrass ecosystems. In contrast seegrasses colonize and grow in hostile sediments, where they are constantly exposed to invasion of toxic gaseous sulfide. Remarkably little...... strategies of seagrasses to sustain sulfide intrusion. Using stable isotope tracing, scanning electron microscopy with x-ray analysis, tracing sulfur compounds combined with ecosystem parameters we found different spatial, intraspecific and interspecific strategies to cope with sulfidic sediments. 1......) Tolerance, by elimination (eg. Zostera marina); where we found precipitation of sulfide as non-toxic elemental sulfur on the inner wall of the root lacunae. 2) Utilization (eg. Z. marina), where seagrasses detoxify and incorporate sulfides by active uptake and metabolize to sulfate, representing a non...

  10. A Survey on Intrusion Detection in MANETs.

    BakeyaLakshmi, P.; Santhi, K.

    2012-10-01

    A mobile ad hoc network is an infrastructureless network that changes its links dynamically, which makes routing in MANET a difficult process. As Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) has become a very important technology, research concerning its security problem, especially, in intrusion detection has attracted many researchers. Feature selection methodology plays a vital role in the data analysis process. PCA is used to analyze the selected features. This is because, redundant and irrelevant features often reduce performance of the intrusion detection system. It performs better in increasing speed and predictive accuracy. This survey aims to select and analyze the network features using principal component analysis. While performing various experiments, normal and attack states are simulated and the results for the selected features are analyzed.

  11. Sensing Danger: Innate Immunology for Intrusion Detection

    Uwe, Aickelin

    2008-01-01

    The immune system provides an ideal metaphor for anomaly detection in general and computer security in particular. Based on this idea, artificial immune systems have been used for a number of years for intrusion detection, unfortunately so far with little success. However, these previous systems were largely based on immunological theory from the 1970s and 1980s and over the last decade our understanding of immunological processes has vastly improved. In this paper we present two new immune inspired algorithms based on the latest immunological discoveries, such as the behaviour of Dendritic Cells. The resultant algorithms are applied to real world intrusion problems and show encouraging results. Overall, we believe there is a bright future for these next generation artificial immune algorithms.

  12. UK nitrex studies of intrusion frequency

    Methods are described that have been developed for UK Nirex to assess the frequency of human intrusion into a deep repository for low and intermediate level waste. After outlining the general risk targets and equations, two exposure scenarios related to exploratory drilling are examined. The frequency model developed for these scenarios takes account of: the frequency with which exploration might occur in a given area, the probability of detecting the repository prior to removing waste, and the probability of the group at risk suffering exposure. In its simplest form, the model predicts that the frequency of intrusion is proportional to the areal drilling frequency local to the repository, and some typical estimates of this parameter are given. Example risk estimates are also presented. An important finding is that the repository may present a geomagnetic anomaly, which will aid its detection in advance of drilling

  13. Discussion on the genetic type and metallogenetic specialization for Guidong granite massif

    The genetic type for Guidong granite massif is studied. It is considered that the granite massif is of polygenesis in which Aizi granite belongs to I-type; Xia-zhuang, ?52-3 and ?53-1 granite belong to S-type; Luxi granite is the one between I-type and S-type. The main reason resulting in the difference of uranium mineralization between the eastern and western parts of the granite massif is due to the different genetic types for different granite bodies. In addition, nature gold was first found in Aizi biotite granite. After comparison it is confirmed that Aizi granite possesses the basic characteristics of gold-productive granite, so it is necessary to undertake the prospecting of gold deposit in this area

  14. Estimation of uranium content in granite sample of Rajasthan

    Human population is always exposed to ionizing radiations from natural sources present in earth's crust. Uranium is the heaviest and radioactive trace element found in geological materials at ppm level. Although it is considered a rare element it has higher abundance in earth crust than other toxic elements such as K, Sb, Cd, Pi and Hg etc. Uranium plays significant role in various cosmochronological and nucleosynthesis events. Hence estimation of uranium in granite is important mainly for studying the radioactive heat generation (primarily responsible for the decay of the primordial radionuclides) in earth crust. In present study 40K, 226Ra and 232Th have been estimated in granite samples using gamma spectrometry technique. Uranium has been estimated in granite samples using fission track method and the radioactive heat generated in granite samples obtained from different places of Rajasthan has also been calculated. (author)

  15. Machine Learning Techniques for Intrusion Detection

    Zamani, Mahdi; Movahedi, Mahnush

    2013-01-01

    An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a software that monitors a single or a network of computers for malicious activities (attacks) that are aimed at stealing or censoring information or corrupting network protocols. Most techniques used in today's IDS are not able to deal with the dynamic and complex nature of cyber attacks on computer networks. Hence, efficient adaptive methods like various techniques of machine learning can result in higher detection rates, lower false alarm rates and re...

  16. Intrusion Detection Based On Clustering Algorithm

    Nadya El MOUSSAID; Ahmed TOUMANARI; Maryam ELAZHARI

    2013-01-01

    The traditional Intrusion detection systems have been used long time ago, namely Anomaly-Based detection and Signature-based detection but have many drawbacks that limit their performance. Consequently the main goal of this paper is to use data mining techniques including classification using clustering methods to overpass these defects. This classification will be done by using k-means algorithm. Therefore we have improved k-means to overcome its limits specially the cluster’s number initial...

  17. Perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system

    To obtain an effective perimeter intrusion detection system requires careful sensor selection, procurement, and installation. The selection process involves a thorough understanding of the unique site features and how these features affect the performance of each type of sensor. It is necessary to develop procurement specifications to establish acceptable sensor performance limits. Careful explanation and inspection of critical installation dimensions is required during on-site construction. The implementation of these activities at a particular site is discussed

  18. A Comprehensive Study in Data Mining Frameworks for Intrusion Detection

    R.Venkatesan, R. Ganesan, A. Arul Lawrence Selvakumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrusions are the activities that violate the security policy of system. Intrusion Detection is the process used to identify intrusions. Network security is to be considered as a major issue in recent years, since the computer network keeps on expanding every day. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a system for detecting intrusions and reporting to the authority or to the network administration. Data mining techniques have been successfully applied in many fields like Network Management, Education, Science, Business, Manufacturing, Process control, and Fraud Detection. Data Mining for IDS is the technique which can be used mainly to identify unknown attacks and to raise alarms when security violations are detected. The purpose of this survey paper is to describe the methods/ techniques which are being used for Intrusion Detection based on Data mining concepts and the designed frame works for the same. We are also going to review the related works for intrusion detection.

  19. Intrusion Learning: An Overview of an Emergent Discipline

    Tony Bailetti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide a definition of intrusion learning, identify its distinctive aspects, and provide recommendations for advancing intrusion learning as a practice domain. The authors define intrusion learning as the collection of online network algorithms that learn from and monitor streaming network data resulting in effective intrusion-detection methods for enabling the security and resiliency of enterprise systems. The network algorithms build on advances in cyber-defensive and cyber-offensive capabilities. Intrusion learning is an emerging domain that draws from machine learning, intrusion detection, and streaming network data. Intrusion learning offers to significantly enhance enterprise security and resiliency through augmented perimeter defense and may mitigate increasing threats facing enterprise perimeter protection. The article will be of interest to researchers, sponsors, and entrepreneurs interested in enhancing enterprise security and resiliency.

  20. A Survey on Intrusion Detection using Data Mining Techniques

    R. Venkatesan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrusions are the activities that violate the security policy of system. Intrusion Detection is the process used to identify intrusions. Network security is to be considered as a major issue in recent years, since the computer network keeps on extending dramatically. Information Systems and Networks are subject to electronic attacks and the possibilities of intrusion are very high.  An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a system for detecting intrusions and reporting to the authority or to the network administration.  Data mining techniques have been successfully applied in many fields like Network Management, Education, Biology, Marketing, Manufacturing, Process control, and Fraud Detection.  Data Mining for IDS is the technique which can be used mainly to identify unknown attacks and to raise alarms when security violations are detected.  The purpose of this survey paper is to describe the methods/ techniques which are being used for Intrusion Detection based on Data mining concepts.  

  1. Intrusion Detection in Data Mining With Classification Algorithm

    PATEL HEMANT, BHARAT SARKHEDI, HIREN VAGHAMSHI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the research of intrusion detection there are so manyattacks in the real life and some IDS System to detect it like network-based IDS, host-based IDS and application-based IDS to detect the Intrusion. In this paper, one frame work is introduce to detect an intrusion data with the help of data mining, a framework for intrusion detection system for filtering data set to network attacks. We also talk about the basic data mining technology for finding intrusion data for the data set. Detection in the field of data mining for intrusion detection. We also discuss some of the common algorithms for intrusion detection, such as decision trees, Naive Bayes, Naive Bayes (CFSGSW, NBTree improved adaptive NBTree it.

  2. Decision Tree Based Algorithm for Intrusion Detection

    Kajal Rai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a defense measure that supervises activities of the computer network and reports the malicious activities to the network administrator. Intruders do many attempts to gain access to the network and try to harm the organization’s data. Thus the security is the most important aspect for any type of organization. Due to these reasons, intrusion detection has been an important research issue. An IDS can be broadly classified as Signature based IDS and Anomaly based IDS. In our proposed work, the decision tree algorithm is developed based on C4.5 decision tree approach. Feature selection and split value are important issues for constructing a decision tree. In this paper, the algorithm is designed to address these two issues. The most relevant features are selected using information gain and the split value is selected in such a way that makes the classifier unbiased towards most frequent values. Experimentation is performed on NSL-KDD (Network Security Laboratory Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining dataset based on number of features. The time taken by the classifier to construct the model and the accuracy achieved is analyzed. It is concluded that the proposed Decision Tree Split (DTS algorithm can be used for signature based intrusion detection.

  3. Testing Of Network Intrusion Detection System

    Jagadeep Vegunta

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Network based intrusion detection system use the models of attacks to identify intrusive behavior ability of systems to detect attacks by quality of models which are called signatures. Some attacks exploits in different ways. For this reason we use testing tools that able to detect goodness of signatures. This technique describes test and evaluate misuse detection models in the case of network-based intrusion detection systems. we use Mutant Exploits are working against vulnerability applications. This mutant exploit is based on mechanism to generate large no. of exploit by applying mutant operators. The results of the systems in detecting these variations pro-vide a quantitative basis for the evaluation of the quality of the corresponding detection model. but here we are going to find defects of this testing and is this test will provide 100% security for this system (or not. and also which technique gives much security among these techniques fuzzy logic, neural networks, hybrid fuzzy and neural networks, naïve bayes, genetic algorithms and data mining.

  4. Evaluation of radon exhalation rate from granite stone

    This study evaluates radon exhalation rate from 10 different granite stones, used for building construction in Iran. Radon exhalation rate ranged from non-detectable to 0.6 Bq m-2h-1. Six samples had exhalation rate above detectable level. A significant statistical relationship between radon exhalation rate with 226Ra and 232Th indicated that 226Ra and 232Th were responsible for radon exhalation from granite stones. (author)

  5. The Polumir granite: Addititional data on its origin

    Vukov Milenko S.; Milovanović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    The Polumir granite is exposed on several localities due to erosion, and its chemical and mineral composition is presented in this paper. It is built of K-feldspar, plagioclase, myrmekite, metasomatic albite, biotite, muscovite and quartz, while apatite, magnetite, monazite, allanite and zircon are present as accessory minerals. According to its chemical and mineral composition and rock chemistry (trace and REE elements) the Polumir granite is leucocratic, sin-collisional, with S-type charact...

  6. Radionuclide Transport in Fracture-Granite Interface Zones

    Hu, Q; Mori, A

    2007-09-12

    In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study diffusion paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, we employed a micro-scale mapping technique that interfaces laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA/ICP-MS) to measure the fine-scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np) in the fracture-granite interface zones. Long-lived {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the adjacent rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-based mapping of the LA/ICP-MS technique. The injected sorbing actinides are mainly located within the advective flowing fractures and the immediately adjacent regions. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. These actinides did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as the relatively higher-porosity granite matrix, most likely due to the low porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and diffusivity of the fracture wall (a thickness of about 0.4 mm separates the mylonite region from the fracture) and the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for the more diffusive {sup 237}Np over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modeling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results. Measured apparent diffusivity of multiple tracers in granite provided consistent predictions for radionuclide transport in the fractured granitic rock.

  7. Discussion on the new field of uranium prospecting in granite

    The author analyses the occurrence characteristics and formation conditions for uranium deposits within calderas and brecciated complexes of some granites in China and foreign countries. It is suggested that attention should be paid to look for the brecciated complex-type uranium deposit in the superimposed volcanic activity centre of granite area in the future, which should be regarded as the target for active investigation and new field of uranium prospecting

  8. Older and Younger Workers: The Equalling Effects of Health

    Beck, Vanessa; Quinn, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the statistical evidence on the effects that ill health has on labour market participation and opportunities for younger and older workers in the East Midlands (UK). Design/methodology/approach: A statistical analysis of Labour Force Survey data was undertaken to demonstrate that health issues…

  9. Binaural Advantage for Younger and Older Adults with Normal Hearing

    Dubno, Judy R.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Horwitz, Amy R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Three experiments measured benefit of spatial separation, benefit of binaural listening, and masking-level differences (MLDs) to assess age-related differences in binaural advantage. Method: Participants were younger and older adults with normal hearing through 4.0 kHz. Experiment 1 compared spatial benefit with and without head shadow.…

  10. Movement of fossil pore fluids in granite basement, Illinois

    The compositions of pore fluids in granite cores from the Precambrian basement in northern Illinois were determined. The estimated chloride concentration in the aqueous phase increases from near zero at the upper contact with sandstone to 2.7 M at 624 m below the contact. Traces of aliphatic oil are present in the overlying sandstone and the upper 516 m of granite, and oil occupies most of the pore space in one sample of unaltered granite 176 m below the contact. The oil has a Δ13C of -25%, about the same as average petroleum. The high concentrations of salt more than 500 m below the contact imply that little or no fresh water has reached these levels of the granite by flow. Lower concentrations near the contact are consistent with replacement of brine in the sandstone by fresh water at least 11 m.y. ago and subsequent upward diffusion of salt from the granite. Geologic data suggest that the time of replacement was about 130 Ma. The purpose of the investigation is to study the record of movement of intergranular fluids within a granite pluton. The composition and movement of ground waters can determine the extent that hazardous or radioactive wastes disposed in igneous rock will remain isolated

  11. Hydraulic fracturing in granite under geothermal conditions

    Solberg, P.; Lockner, D.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental hydraulic fracturing of granite under geothermal conditions produces tensile fracture at rapid fluid injection rates and shear fracture at slow injection rates and elevated differential stress levels. A sudden burst of acoustic emission activity accompanies tensile fracture formation whereas the acoustic emission rate increases exponentially prior to shear fracture. Temperature does not significantly affect the failure mechanism, and the experimental results have not demonstrated the occurrence of thermal fracturing. A critical result of these experiments is that fluid injection at intermediate rates and elevated differential stress levels increases permeability by more than an order of magnitude without producing macroscopic fractures, and low-level acoustic emission activity occurs simultaneously near the borehole and propagates outward into the specimen with time. Permeability measurements conducted at atmospheric pressure both before and after these experiments show that increased permeability is produced by permanent structural changes in the rock. Although results of this study have not demonstrated the occurrence of thermal fracturing, they suggest that fluid injection at certain rates in situ may markedly increase local permeability. This could prove critical to increasing the efficiency of heat exchange for geothermal energy extraction from hot dry rock. ?? 1980.

  12. Rare accessory uraninite in a Sierran granite

    Uraninite occurs as a minor accessory constituent in a Sierran granite. The mineral is rare; one grain was found in a single thin-section, and no further uraninite has been noted in heavy mineral concentrates from other rocks of the local area. Electron and ion microprobe analysis gives UO2 85.4, ThO2 6.8, PbO2 1.8, Y2O3 1.7, Nd2O3 0.6, and H2O 3.0, sum 99.3 weight percent. UO3 could not be analyzed directly, but approximate cell-edge data suggest UO2.15 as a composition. Because additional possibly uranium-bearing minerals (e.g., zircon, apatite, allanite) are present in the rock, it seems unusual that a discrete uranium-rich mineral should coexist with them. The U--Pb age calculated for the uraninite is, however, not greatly different from the K--Ar age of the unit in which it occurs; it therefore is suggested that the mineral is primary and not reworked from a preexisting rock

  13. Glacier retreat in New Zealand during the Younger Dryas stadial.

    Kaplan, Michael R; Schaefer, Joerg M; Denton, George H; Barrell, David J A; Chinn, Trevor J H; Putnam, Aaron E; Andersen, Bjørn G; Finkel, Robert C; Schwartz, Roseanne; Doughty, Alice M

    2010-09-01

    Millennial-scale cold reversals in the high latitudes of both hemispheres interrupted the last transition from full glacial to interglacial climate conditions. The presence of the Younger Dryas stadial (approximately 12.9 to approximately 11.7 kyr ago) is established throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere, but the global timing, nature and extent of the event are not well established. Evidence in mid to low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, in particular, has remained perplexing. The debate has in part focused on the behaviour of mountain glaciers in New Zealand, where previous research has found equivocal evidence for the precise timing of increased or reduced ice extent. The interhemispheric behaviour of the climate system during the Younger Dryas thus remains an open question, fundamentally limiting our ability to formulate realistic models of global climate dynamics for this time period. Here we show that New Zealand's glaciers retreated after approximately 13 kyr bp, at the onset of the Younger Dryas, and in general over the subsequent approximately 1.5-kyr period. Our evidence is based on detailed landform mapping, a high-precision (10)Be chronology and reconstruction of former ice extents and snow lines from well-preserved cirque moraines. Our late-glacial glacier chronology matches climatic trends in Antarctica, Southern Ocean behaviour and variations in atmospheric CO(2). The evidence points to a distinct warming of the southern mid-latitude atmosphere during the Younger Dryas and a close coupling between New Zealand's cryosphere and southern high-latitude climate. These findings support the hypothesis that extensive winter sea ice and curtailed meridional ocean overturning in the North Atlantic led to a strong interhemispheric thermal gradient during late-glacial times, in turn leading to increased upwelling and CO(2) release from the Southern Ocean, thereby triggering Southern Hemisphere warming during the northern Younger Dryas. PMID:20829791

  14. Clinical Analysis of Lung Cancer Patients Younger Than 30 Years

    Guangjie HOU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It is common recognized that young patients of lung cancer have poor prognosis due to relatively higher malignancy and more invasive growth. In the past most studies on young patients of lung cancer selected patients younger than 40 or 45 years old, and there were few clinical materials for younger patients under 30 years. This study retrospectively described the the disease history, stage, treatment and pathology features of lung cancer patients younger than 30 years and aimed to provide references for these patients. Methods Those patients younger than 30 years, once admitted in the General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army for lung cancer from 1993 to date, were sought in medical record system, and 53 patients were found in total. In this group, there were 34 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients and 19 small cell lung cacer (SCLC patients. The male/female ratio was 1.5:1. In the NSCLC patients, there were 27 adenocarcinomas, 6 squamous carcinomas and 1 adenosquamous carcinoma, with no large cell carcinoma involved. In these patients, 12 patients received operations while 38 patients got chemo- and/or radiotherapy and 3 quited any treatment. Results There was no death in hospital, however, in the 12 patients who got operation, only 8 patients got complete resection while 4 patients got palliative resection. Conclusion Lung cancer patients younger than 30 years had a high fraction of adenocarcinoma and small cell type pathologically and most of them were in late stage when presenting with symptoms in hospital and would have a dismal prognosis. The routine health examination and early diagnosis should be emphasized to improve the prognosis of these patients.

  15. Asymmetric textural and structural patterns of a granitic body emplaced at shallow levels: The La Chinchilla pluton, northwestern Argentina

    Macchioli Grande, M.; Alasino, P. H.; Rocher, S.; Larrovere, M. A.; Dahlquist, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    New mapping and a detailed structural study of the La Chinchilla stock, Sierra de Velasco, NW Argentina, suggest an asymmetrical shape of the pluton and provide strong evidence for its shallow emplacement depth. The pluton is a Lower Carboniferous monzogranite composed of K-feldspar, quartz, plagioclase and biotite. It exhibits an internal asymmetric textural zoning, defined by porphyritic granite in the southeastern region to equigranular granite in the northwestern region. The presence of subhorizontal dikes in the northwestern area, where the contacts dip shallowly, and subvertical dikes intruding the host rock nearby steep-dipping intrusive contacts in the southeastern region are compatible with an overall asymmetrical shape and internal structure of this pluton. Considering published crystallization ages, a dominant strain field occurring at around 12 Ma is inferred based on magmatic fabrics in the pluton and its host rock (the Huaco pluton), with a principal shortening direction oriented SW-NE, consistent with the general NW-SE strike of the body. Field evidence supports brittle fracturing and block displacement as the dominant emplacement mechanism, suggesting that magmatic stoping dominated during the late stage of the evolution of the magma chamber.

  16. The Aero geophysical Project Se rra do Mar Sul in the region of the Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex, Parana, Southern Brazil: analysis of the gamma-ray spectrometric survey

    This paper analyses spectrometric data of the Aero geophysical Project Serra do Mar Sul (APSMS) in the Meso to Neo proterozoic basement of eastern Parana state, southern Brazil. Three main lithostratigraphic units are found, elongated N30-40E. The easternmost is the Tres Corregos Granitic Complex (TCGC), constituted by calc-alkaline granites and their mega-enclaves. The central unit is the low-grade metamorphic Itaiacoca Group. The western strip is occupied by the mostly calc-alkaline Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), also with large enclaves. Further west, the molassic volcano-sedimentary Eopaleozoic Castro Group, deposited in a graben, overlies un conformably the CGC. The Devonian sandstone Furnas Formation, to the west, is the main unit of the Parana Basin in this region. The Cretaceous Banhadao alkaline massif (8 km2) intrudes the TCGC. The heavily weathered central-northern area of the CGC is in part covered by the alluvial deposits of the Iapo drainage basin. Data were corrected with a cosine directional filter (degree 6), and presented as cps (counts per second). U and K give answers that may be spurious, not always correlated with the geology. Most CGC intrusions present rather high Th-U, lower total (TC) and very low K counts, as opposed to the values found in the TCGC. High TC are found in some of the more evolved plutons within the CGC (e.g., the A-type Serra do Carambei Granite). The TCGC granites can be divided into two radiometric domains, one adjacent to the Itaiacoca belt and another to the E-SE (visible in TC and K counts), corresponding to the Sao Sebastiao Granite. The mega-enclaves show lower counts in all channels than the surrounding granites. The Itaiacoca belt is marked in TC and U-Th maps by low to medium counts. The Castro Group shows a complex pattern controlled by lithology. The Furnas sediments show low to medium responses (TC map). The Iapo river deposits stand out clearly by very low counts (TC, U, Th) against the C GC rocks. (author)

  17. The H2O content of granite embryos

    Bartoli, Omar; Cesare, Bernardo; Remusat, Laurent; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Poli, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of H2O contents of natural granites has been an on-going challenge owing to the extremely fugitive character of H2O during cooling and ascent of melts and magmas. Here we approach this problem by studying granites in their source region (i.e. the partially melted continental crust) and we present the first NanoSIMS analyses of anatectic melt inclusions (MI) hosted in peritectic phases of migmatites and granulites. These MI which totally crystallized upon slow cooling represent the embryos of the upper-crustal granites [1, 2, 3]. The approach based on the combination of MI and NanoSIMS has been here tested on amphibolite-facies migmatites at Ronda (S Spain) that underwent fluid-present to fluid-absent melting at ~700 C and ~5 kbar. Small (? 5 m) crystallized MI trapped in garnet have been remelted using a piston-cylinder apparatus and they show leucogranitic compositions. We measure high and variable H2O contents (mean of 6.51.4 wt%) in these low-temperature, low-pressure granitic melts. We demonstrate that, when the entire population from the same host is considered, MI reveal the H2O content of melt in the specific volume of rock where the host garnet grew. Mean H2O values for the MI in different host crystals range from 5.4 to 9.1 wt%. This range is in rather good agreement with experimental models for granitic melts at the inferred P-T conditions. Our study documents for the first time the occurrence of H2O heterogeneities in natural granitic melts at the source region [3]. These heterogeneities are interpreted to reflect the birth of granitic melts under conditions of "mosaic" equilibrium, where the distinct fractions of melt experience different buffering assemblages at the micro-scale, with concomitant differences in melt H2O content. These results confirm the need for small-scale geochemical studies on natural samples to improve our quantitative understanding of crustal melting and granite formation. The same approach adopted here can be applied to MI hosted in higher-temperature, granulite-facies rocks that represent the parents of many upper-crustal granites. This will result in a better understanding of formation and evolution of granitic magmas. [1] Cesare et al. (2009) Geology, 37, 627-630. [2] Bartoli et al. (2013) Geology, 41, 115-118. [3] Bartoli et al. (2014) EPSL, 395, 281-290.

  18. The 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue. Report; Mission collegiale de concertation Granite. Rapport

    Boisson, P.; Huet, Ph.; Mingasson, J

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue is to inform the French authorities, associations and population about the project of construction of an underground laboratory for the study of the disposal of high level and long-life radioactive wastes in a granitic environment. The aim of the dialogue was not to select a site but to collect the public reactions and advices about such a project. However, such a dialogue has partially failed because of a misunderstanding of the population about the aims of the mission. However, the mission has collected many point of views and questions which are developed in this report. The first and second chapters recall the process of the mission and its progress, while a third chapter stresses on the questions asked by the public and which concern the fear of nuclear wastes and the incompatibility between the disposal of wastes and the socio-economical development of the region concerned. Thanks to the lessons drawn from this experience, the mission has formulated some recommendations (chapter 4) concerning the need for a better information of the population about any topic in relation with the radioactive wastes. Some complementary information is provided in appendixes. (J.S.)

  19. Results of the radiological survey at the Granite City Steel facility, Granite City, Illinois

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, uranium ingots were x-rayed for the Atomic Energy Commission at the South Plant facility of the Granite City Steel Company, Granite City, Illinois. The x-ray equipment is still housed in a building on the southern end of the property. At the time of the survey, neither the equipment nor the building had been used for some time. It is the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to verify that such sites are in compliance with current federal guidelines. Because documentation establishing the current radiological condition of the property is unavailable, a radiological survey was conducted by members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in March 1989. The survey included: measurement of gamma exposure rates both indoors and outdoors; collection and radionuclide analysis of soil and debris samples; and measurements to determine alpha and beta-gamma surface contamination. 3 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Geochemistry of an island-arc plutonic suite: Wadi Dabr intrusive complex, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Abu El-Ela, Fawzy F.

    1997-05-01

    The Wadi Dabr intrusive complex, west of Mersa-Alam, Eastern Desert, Egypt ranges in composition from gabbro to diorite, quartz diorite and tonalite. The gabbroic rocks include pyroxene-horn blend e gabbro, hornblende gabbro, quartz-hornblende gabbro, metagabbro and amphibolite. Mineral chemistry data for the gabbroic rocks indicate that the composition of clinopyroxenes ranges from diopside to augite and the corresponding magma is equivalent to a volcanic-arc basalt. Plagioclase cores range from An 75 to An 34 for the gabbroic varieties, except for the metagabbro which has An 11-18. The brown amphiboles are primary phases and classified as calcic amphiboles, which range from tschermakitic hornblende to magnesiohornblende. Green hornblende and actinolite are secondary phases. Hornblende barometry and hornblende-plagioclase themometry for the gabbroic rocks estimate crystallisation conditions of 2-5 kb and 885-716°C. The intrusive rocks cover an extensive silica range (47.86-72.54 wt%) and do not exhibit simple straight-line variation on Harker diagrams for many elements (e.g. TiO 2, Al 2O 3, FeO ∗, MgP, CaO, P 2O 5, Cr, Ni, V, Sr, Zr and Y). Most of these elements exhibit two geochemical trends suggesting two magma sources. The gabbroic rocks are relatively enriched in large ion lithophile elements (K, Rb, Sr and Ba) and depleted in high field strength elements (Nb, Zr, Ti and Y) which suggest subduction-related magma. Rare earth element (REE) data demonstrate that the gabbroic rocks have a slight enrichment of light REE [(La/Yb) N=2.67-3.91] and depletion of heavy REE ((Tb/Yb) N=1.42-1.47], which suggest the parent magma was of relatively primitive mantle source. The diorites and tonalites are clearly calc-alkaline and have negative anomalies of Nb, Zr, and Y which also suggest subduction-related magma. They are related to continental trondhjemites in terms of RbSr, KNaCa, and to volcanic-arc granites in terms of Rband NbY. The Wadi Dabr intrusive complex is analogous to intrusions emplaced in immature ensimatic island-arcs and represents a mixture of mantle (gabbroic rocks) and crustal fusion products (diorites and tonalites) modified by fractional processes.

  1. U(VI) sorption on granite: prediction and experiments

    One widely accepted approach - component additivity (CA) - to describe the sorption of contaminants onto complex materials such as rocks or soils is based on the assumption that the surface of a complex mineral assemblage is composed of a mixture of mineral constituents whose surface properties are known from independent studies. An internally consistent SCM (surface complexation model) database can be developed that describes the adsorption reactions of solutes to each phase. Here, the capability of such a methodology was tested, using the code MINTEQA2 including thermodynamic data of the NEA-TDB, and literature data for SCM, namely the DDL model. The sorption characteristics of U(VI) on granite (from Eibenstock, Saxony, Germany, with the main components quartz, albite, orthoclase, and muscovite) was predicted and then compared to batch experiments. Granite plays an important role in the remediation of former uranium ore mining and milling sites, but is also one of the host rocks considered for final disposal of nuclear materials. Safety assessment requires a detailed understanding of this system and its retention potential with regard to hazardous components. Namely the sorption of uranium in this complex rock is not fully understood yet. The experiments thus also provided a better understanding of the far-field behaviour in granitic geological nuclear repositories. The robustness of the prediction was tested by variation of the granite composition and the variation of the specific surface area (SSA) - first all components were predicted with a uniform granite SSA, second with a distinct SSA for each granite component (determined on pure minerals for the same grain size fractions). Changes in compositions yielded only marginal differences in the prediction. Different approaches to SSA showed somewhat larger deviations. In conclusion, the CA methodology is a valid and robust approach to U(VI) sorption onto complex substrates such as granite, provided sufficient information on component phases is available. This should help to minimize experimental efforts and to increase confidence into complex SCM computations. (orig.)

  2. Preliminary report on the geology and gold mineralization of the South Pass granite-greenstone terrain, Wind River Mountains, western Wyoming (US)

    Hausel, W. D.

    The South Pass granite-greenstone terrain lies near the southern tip of the Wind River Mountains of western Wyoming. This Archean supracrustal pile has been Wyoming's most prolific source of gold and iron ore. From 1962 to 1983, more than 90 million tons of iron ore were recovered from oxide-facies banded iron formation, and an estimated 325,000 ounces of gold were mined from metagreywacke-hosted shears and associated placers. Precambrian rocks at South Pass are unconformably overlain by Paleozoic sediments along the northeast flank, and a Tertiary pediment buries Archean supracrustals on the west and south. To the northwest, the supracrustals terminate against granodiorite of the Louis Lake batholith; to the east, the supracrustals terminate against granite of the Granite Mountains batholith. The Louis Lake granodiorite is approximately 2,630 + or - 20 m.y. old, and the Granite Mountains granite averages 2,600 m.y. old. The geometry of the greenstone belt is best expressed as a synform that has been modified by complex faulting and folding. Metamorphism is amphibolite grade surrounding a small island of greenschist facies rocks. The younger of the Archean supracrustal successions is the Miners Delight Formation. This unit yielded a Rb-Sr isochron of 2,800 m.y. A sample of galena from the Snowbird Mine within the Miners Delight Formation yielded a model age averaging 2,750 m.y. The Snowbird mineralization appears to be syngenetic and is hosted by metavolcanics of calc-alkaline affinity. Discussion follows.

  3. Observations of borehole deformation modulus values before and after extensive heating of a granitic rock mass

    An extensive campaign of in situ deformation modulus measurements was recently completed using a standard NX borehole jack. These results were obtained in a granite intrusive where spent nuclear-fuel assemblies and electrical heaters had raised the rock temperatures 100C to 400C above ambient. We present an analysis of temperature effects based on 41 preheat and 63 post-heat measurements in three boreholes. Using analysis of covariance statistical techniques, we found that the deformation modulus is affected by heat, loading direction, and position within the borehole. The analysis also uncovered a significant interaction between the effects of heating and loading direction. We used 123 measurements from the same boreholes to evaluate the ''Draft Standard Guide for Estimating the In Situ Modulus of Rock Masses Using the NX-Borehole Jack'' which was recently proposed by Heuze. In particular, we examined the criterion for screening measurements in those cases where contact between the jack platen and the borehole wall was incomplete. We found that the proposed screen appears to operate randomly on the data and is therefore ineffective. 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Network Intrusion Detection based on GMKL Algorithm

    Li Yuxiang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the 31th statistical reports of China Internet network information center (CNNIC, by the end of December 2012, the number of Chinese netizens has reached 564 million, and the scale of mobile Internet users also reached 420 million. But when the network brings great convenience to people's life, it also brings huge threat in the life of people. So through collecting and analyzing the information in the computer system or network we can detect any possible behaviors that can damage the availability, integrity and confidentiality of the computer resource, and make timely treatment to these behaviors which have important research significance to improve the operation environment of network and network service. At present, the Neural Network, Support Vector machine (SVM and Hidden Markov Model, Fuzzy inference and Genetic Algorithms are introduced into the research of network intrusion detection, trying to build a healthy and secure network operation environment. But most of these algorithms are based on the total sample and it also hypothesizes that the number of the sample is infinity. But in the field of network intrusion the collected data often cannot meet the above requirements. It often shows high latitudes, variability and small sample characteristics. For these data using traditional machine learning methods are hard to get ideal results. In view of this, this paper proposed a Generalized Multi-Kernel Learning method to applied to network intrusion detection. The Generalized Multi-Kernel Learning method can be well applied to large scale sample data, dimension complex, containing a large number of heterogeneous information and so on. The experimental results show that applying GMKL to network attack detection has high classification precision and low abnormal practical precision.

  5. ENSEMBLE DESIGN FOR INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEMS

    S. Mercy Shalinie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection problem is one of the most promising research issues of Information Security. The problem provides excellent opportunities in terms of providing host and network security.Intrusion detection is divided into two categories with respect to the type of detection. Misuse detection and Anomaly detection. Intrusion detection is done using rule based, Statistical, and Soft computing techniques. The rule based measures provides better results but the extensibility of the approach is still a question. The statistical measures are lagging in identifying the new types of attacks. Soft Computing Techniques offers good results since learning is done using the training, and during testing the new pattern of attacks was also recognized appreciably. This paper aims at detecting Intruders using both Misuse and Anomaly detection by applying Ensemble of soft Computing Techniques. Neural networks,Support Vector Machines and Nave Bayes Classifiers are trained and tested individually and the classification rates for different classes are observed. Then threshold values are set for all the classes. Based on this threshold value the ensemble approach produces result for various classes. The standard kddcup99 dataset is used in this research for Misuse detection. Shonlau dataset of truncated UNIXcommands is used for Anomaly detection. The detection rate and false alarm rates are notified.Multilayer Perceptrons, Nave Bayes classifiers and Support vector machines with three kernel functionsare used for detecting intruders. The Precision, Recall and F- Measure for all the techniques are calculated. The cost of the techniques is estimated using the cost measures. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves are drawn for all the techniques. The results show that Support Vector Machines and Ensemble approach provides better detection rate of 99% than the other algorithms.

  6. Hippocampal sclerosis in children younger than 2 years

    Kadom, Nadja [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Tsuchida, Tammy; Gaillard, William D. [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is rarely considered as a diagnosis in children younger than 2 years. To describe imaging features in conjunction with clinical information in patients with hippocampal sclerosis who are younger than 2 years. We retrospectively reviewed MR brain imaging and clinical information in five children in whom the diagnosis of HS was made both clinically and by MRI prior to 2 years of age. Imaging features establishing the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis were bright T2 signal and volume loss, while the internal architecture of the hippocampal formation was preserved in almost all children. Clinically, all children had an infectious trigger. It is necessary for radiologists to consider HS in children with certain clinical features to plan an MRI protocol that is appropriate for detection of hippocampal pathology. (orig.)

  7. Obesity and sexual dysfunction in younger Danish men

    Andersen, Ingelise; Heitman, B. L.; Wagner, Gorm

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Proportion of populations that are overweight and obese are on the rise and generally affecting more than 50% of the adult Western male population. It is, therefore, of interest to look at possible associations between obesity and sexual function in a homogeneous population. AIM: To...... examine a possible association between sexual disorders (erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory disorders, and sexual desire disorders) and obesity among younger men born and living in Denmark. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study of sexual health among Danish younger men. Questionnaires were...... OUTCOME MEASURES: The associations between self-reported erectile, ejaculatory and desire disorders, and body mass index(BMI) were examined, stratified by age group and smoking status. RESULTS: The material was found to be generally representative of the Danish population of men of similar age in regard...

  8. Personality traits and pathology in older and younger incarcerated women.

    Hurt, Susan; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2002-04-01

    Personality disorders were examined in 157 incarcerated women, using the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; Clark, 1996) to assess 10 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised (DSM-III-R; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) diagnostic categories and dimensions and 15 domains of trait/temperament relevant to disordered personality. Similar to both community samples and incarcerated men, older women had lower rates of personality disorders than younger women, and the difference was mostly accounted for by differences in the Cluster B disorders. In an exploratory analysis of trait and temperament scales, the older women also scored lower in Aggression, Disinhibition, Entitlement, Exhibitionism, Impulsivity, and Manipulativeness while younger women scored lower in Workaholism and Propriety. These findings suggest that remission of antisocial behavior in women may be associated with changes in lower order personality traits or temperament. PMID:11920697

  9. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking

    Kalivas, Benjamin C.; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumbens during a relapse episode. We delineate an accumbens microcircuit that mediates cue-induced drug seeking becoming an intrusive event. This microcircuit harbors many potential therapeutic targets. We focus on preclinical and clinical studies, showing that administering N-acetylcysteine restores uptake of synaptic glutamate by astroglial glutamate transporters and thereby inhibits intrusive thinking. We posit that because intrusive thinking is a shared endophenotype in many disorders, N-acetylcysteine has positive effects in clinical trials for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction, gambling, trichotillomania, and depression.

  10. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking.

    Kalivas, Benjamin C; Kalivas, Peter W

    2016-03-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumbens during a relapse episode. We delineate an accumbens microcircuit that mediates cue-induced drug seeking becoming an intrusive event. This microcircuit harbors many potential therapeutic targets. We focus on preclinical and clinical studies, showing that administering N-acetylcysteine restores uptake of synaptic glutamate by astroglial glutamate transporters and thereby inhibits intrusive thinking. We posit that because intrusive thinking is a shared endophenotype in many disorders, N-acetylcysteine has positive effects in clinical trials for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction, gambling, trichotillomania, and depression. PMID:27069381

  11. Introduction to gravity currents and intrusions

    Ungarish, Marius

    2009-01-01

    The whole book is well written in a clear and pedagogical general style. … the author has, in my opinion, produced the first comprehensive book entirely devoted to the modeling of gravity currents and intrusions. This book will be particularly useful to graduate and PhD students, as well as to academics and research engineers working in this field. It may be used as a self-consistent document to get a detailed idea of the state of knowledge about a given problem or a guide toward more specialized papers. It is rich with ideas regarding the direction in which further research is warranted. This

  12. Strontium isotope fractionation in the kiglapait intrusion.

    Morse, S A

    1983-04-01

    The initial ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 rises systematically from 0.70395 to 0.70662 over the upper 10 percent of the Kiglapait layered intrusion. This ratio is strongly correlated with potassium and rubidium. Contamination, exchange, and magma mixing fail to account for the increase, which is ascribed to the imperfect retention of radiogenic strontium-87 in feldspar-like structural units of the melt inherited from the magma source. These accidents in chemical discrimination persist most readily in anhydrous melts. PMID:17795827

  13. Geophysical characterization from Itu intrusive suite

    The integrated use of geophysical, geological, geochemical, petrographical and remote sensing data resulted in a substantial increase in the knowledge of the Itu Intrusive Suite. The main geophysical method was gamma-ray spectrometry together with fluorimetry and autoradiography. Three methods were used for calculation of laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry data. For U, the regression method was the best one. For K and Th, equations system and absolute calibration presented the best results. Surface gamma-ray spectrometry allowed comparison with laboratory data and permitted important contribution to the study of environmental radiation. (author)

  14. Unconventional applications of conventional intrusion detection sensors

    A number of conventional intrusion detection sensors exists for the detection of persons entering buildings, moving within a given volume, and crossing a perimeter isolation zone. Unconventional applications of some of these sensors have recently been investigated. Some of the applications which are discussed include detection on the edges and tops of buildings, detection in storm sewers, detection on steam and other types of large pipes, and detection of unauthorized movement within secure enclosures. The enclosures can be used around complicated control valves, electrical control panels, emergency generators, etc

  15. Avoiding problems with intrusion detection systems

    This paper analyzes the process which is typically followed in implementing an Intrusion Detection System. The analysis shows that this process lacks adequate checks and balances, and for this reason, is a likely contributor to the problems most commonly encountered. Elements of the process most likely to create problems are identified, and suggestions for improving the process are made. No effort is made to describe problems which are specific to a given technology or product, or are related to a particular category of sites or facilities

  16. Diversity Management in Intrusion Tolerant Systems

    Henriques, Miguel Garcia Tavares, 1988-

    2011-01-01

    Uma aplicação importante dos protocolos de tolerância a faltas arbitrárias (ou Bizantinas) é a construção de sistemas tolerantes a intrusões, que são capazes de funcionar correctamente mesmo que alguns dos seus componentes sejam comprometidos. Estes sistemas são concretizados através da replicação de componentes e da utilização de protocolos capazes de tolerar faltas arbitrárias, quer na rede como num subconjunto de réplicas. Os protocolos garantem um comportamento correcto ainda que exist...

  17. The hypercorrection effect in younger and older adults

    Eich, Teal S.; Stern, Yaakov; Metcalfe, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The hypercorrection effect, which refers to the finding that errors committed with high confidence are more likely to be corrected than are low confidence errors, has been replicated many times, and with both young adults and children. In the present study, we contrasted older with younger adults. Participants answered general-information questions, made confidence ratings about their answers, were given corrective feedback, and then were retested on questions that they had gotten wrong. Whil...

  18. Impaired hypoxic cerebral vasodilation in younger adults with metabolic syndrome

    Harrell, John W.; Morgan, Barbara J.; Schrage, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) increases the risk of cerebrovascular disease and stroke; however, its impact on human cerebral circulation remains unclear. Reduced cerebral dilation is also associated with an increased risk of stroke and may occur in MetSyn adults. We hypothesised that MetSyn adults would exhibit reduced cerebral vasodilation to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) was insonated with Doppler ultrasound in younger (approximately 35 years) MetSyn and hea...

  19. Younger Dryas deglaciation of Scotland driven by warming summers

    Bromley, Gordon R. M.; Putnam, Aaron E.; Rademaker, Kurt M.; Lowell, Thomas V.; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Hall, Brenda; Winckler, Gisela; Birkel, Sean D.; Borns, Harold W.

    2014-01-01

    Resolving the full manifestation of past abrupt climate change is key to understanding the processes driving and propagating these events. As a principal component of global heat transport, the North Atlantic Ocean also is susceptible to rapid disruptions of meridional overturning circulation and thus widely invoked as a cause of abrupt climate variability in the Northern Hemisphere. We assess the impact of one such North Atlantic cold event—the Younger Dryas Stadial—on an adjacent ice mass a...

  20. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2003 Annual Report.

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A. [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2003 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2003 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 2.1 times less in 2003 than in 2002. The wild Chinook catch was 1.1 times less than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 1.7 times less than in 2002. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.1 times less than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 579 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2003, the Snake River trap captured five hatchery and 13 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 36 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant differences in catch between 2003 and the previous year were due mainly to low flows during much of the trapping season and then very high flows at the end of the season, which terminated the trapping season 12 days earlier than in 2002. Trap operations began on March 9 and were terminated on May 27. The trap was out of operation for a total of zero days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 16.8% less and wild Chinook salmon catch was 1.7 times greater than in 2002. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2003 was 5.6% less than in 2002. Wild steelhead trout collection was 19.2% less than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 9 and were terminated on May 24 due to high flows. There were zero days when the trap was out of operation due to high flow or debris. The decrease in hatchery Chinook catch in 2003 was partially due to differences in flow between years because there was a 5.9% increase in hatchery production in the Salmon River drainage in 2003. The decrease in hatchery steelhead catch may be partially due to a 13% decrease in hatchery production in the Salmon River drainage in 2003. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged Chinook salmon and steelhead trout marked at the Snake River trap were affected by discharge. Statistical analysis of 2003 data detected a relation between migration rate and discharge for wild Chinook salmon but was unable to detect a relation for hatchery Chinook. The inability to detect a migration rate discharge relation for hatchery Chinook was probably caused by age 0 fall Chinook being mixed in with the age 1 Chinook. Age 0 fall Chinook migrate much slower than age 1 Chinook, which would confuse the ability to detect the migration rate discharge relation. For wild Chinook salmon there was a 1.4-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. For steelhead trout tagged at the Snake River trap, statistical analysis detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge. For hatchery and wild steelhead trout, there was a 1.7-fold and a 1.9-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. Travel time and migration rate to Lower Granite Dam for fish marked at the Salmon River trap were calculated. Statistical analysis of the 2003 data detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge for hatchery Chinook salmon, wild Chinook salmon and hatchery steelhead trout. Not enough data were available to perform the analysis for wild steelhead trout. Migration rate increased 14-fold for hatchery Chinook salmon, 8.3-fold for wild Chinook salmon and 2.4-fold for hatchery steelhead as discharge increased between 50 kcfs and 100 kcfs. Fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River and Salmon River traps were interrogated at four dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary dams). Because of the addition of the fourth interrogation site (Lower Monumental) in 1993 and the installation of the Removable Spillway Weir at Lower Granite Dam in 2001, caution must be used in comparing cumulative interrogation data. Cumulative interrogations at the four dams for fish marked at the Snake River trap were 65% for hatchery Chinook, 72% for wild Chinook, 66% for hatchery steelhead, and 67% for wild steelhead. Cumulative interrogations at the four dams for fish marked at the Salmon River trap were 48% for hatchery Chinook, 61% for wild Chinook salmon, 57% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 56% for wild steelhead trout.

  1. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2002 Annual Report.

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A. [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 2002 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2002 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 11.4 times greater in 2002 than in 2001. The wild Chinook catch was 15.5 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 2.9 times greater than in 2001. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.8 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 3,996 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2002, the Snake River trap captured 69 hatchery and 235 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 114 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant increase in catch in 2002 was due to a 3.1 fold increase in hatchery Chinook production and a more normal spring runoff. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on June 7. The trap was out of operation for a total of four days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 4.2 times greater and wild Chinook salmon catch was 2.4 times greater than in 2001. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the 2001 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the previous year's catch. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on May 29 due to high flows. The trap was out of operation for four days due to high flow or debris. The increase in hatchery Chinook catch in 2002 was due to a 3.1 fold increase in hatchery production and differences in flow between years. Changes in hatchery and wild steelhead catch are probably due to differences in flow between years. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged Chinook salmon and steelhead trout marked at the Snake River trap were affected by discharge. Statistical analysis of 2002 data detected a relation between migration rate and discharge for hatchery and wild Chinook salmon. For hatchery and wild Chinook salmon there was a 4.7-fold and a 3.7-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. For steelhead trout tagged at the Snake River trap, statistical analysis detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge. For hatchery and wild steelhead trout, there was a 1.8-fold and a 1.7-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. Travel time and migration rate to Lower Granite Dam for fish marked at the Salmon River trap were calculated. Statistical analysis of the 2002 data detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge for wild Chinook salmon and hatchery steelhead trout. The analysis was unable to detect a relation between migration rate and discharge for hatchery Chinook salmon. The lack of a detectable relation was probably a result of the migration rate data being spread over a very narrow range of discharge. Not enough data were available to perform the analysis for wild steelhead trout. Migration rate increased 4.3-fold for wild Chinook salmon and 2.2-fold for hatchery steelhead between 50 kcfs and 100 kcfs. Fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River trap were interrogated at four dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary dams). Because of the addition of the fourth interrogation site (Lower Monumental) in 1993 and the installation of the Removable Spillway Weir at Lower Granite Dam in 2000, caution must be used in comparing cumulative interrogation data. Cumulative interrogations at the four dams for fish marked at the Snake River trap were 61% for hatchery Chinook, 68% for wild Chinook, 58% for hatchery steelhead, and 62% for wild steelhead. Cumulative interrogations at the four dams for fish marked at the Salmon River trap were 51% for hatchery Chinook, 59% for wild Chinook salmon, 45% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 54% for wild steelhead trout. Cumulative interrogations were significantly lower in 2002 than in previous years with similar flow.

  2. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2005 Annual Report.

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A. [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2005 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2005 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, the age-1 and older fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Age-0 Chinook salmon are more difficult to distinguish between wild and non-adclipped hatchery fish and therefore classified as unknown rearing. The total annual hatchery spring/summer Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 0.34 times greater in 2005 than in 2004. The wild spring/summer Chinook catch was 0.34 times less than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 0.67 times less than in 2004. Wild steelhead trout catch was 0.72 times less than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 1,152 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2005, the Snake River trap captured 219 hatchery and 44 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 110 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. Trap operations began on March 6 and were terminated on June 3. The trap was out of operation for a total of one day due to heavy debris. FPC requested that the trap be restarted on June 15 through June 22 to collect and PIT tag age-0 Chinook salmon. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 1.06 times greater and wild Chinook salmon catch was 1.26 times greater than in 2004. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2005 was 1.41 times greater and wild steelhead trout collection was 1.27 times greater than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 6 and were terminated on May 17 due to high flows. There were two days when the trap was taken out of service because of mechanical failure. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagged Chinook salmon and steelhead trout marked at the Snake River trap were affected by discharge. Statistical analysis of 2005 data detected a relation between migration rate and discharge for hatchery Chinook but was unable to detect a relation for wild Chinook. The inability to detect a migration rate discharge relation for wild Chinook salmon was caused by a lack of data. For hatchery Chinook salmon there was a 1.8-fold increase in migration rate between 50 and 100 kcfs. For steelhead trout tagged at the Snake River trap, statistical analysis detected a significant relation between migration rate and lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge. For hatchery and wild steelhead trout, there was a 2.2-fold and a 2.2-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. Travel time and migration rate to Lower Granite Dam for fish marked at the Salmon River trap were calculated. Statistical analysis of the 2005 data detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge for hatchery Chinook salmon, wild Chinook salmon, hatchery steelhead trout, and wild steelhead trout. Migration rate increased 4.2-fold for hatchery Chinook salmon, 2.9-fold for wild Chinook salmon and 2.5-fold for hatchery steelhead, and 1.7-fold for wild steelhead as discharge increased between 50 kcfs and 100 kcfs. Fish tagged with PIT tags at the Snake River and Salmon River traps were interrogated at four dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental and McNary dams). Because of the addition of the fourth interrogation site (Lower Monumental) in 1993 and the installation of the Removable Spillway Weir at Lower Granite Dam in 2001, caution must be used in comparing cumulative interrogation data. Cumulative interrogations at the four dams for fish marked at the Snake River trap were 84% for hatchery Chinook, 89% for wild Chinook, 94% for hatchery steelhead, and 93% for wild steelhead. Cumulative interrogations at the four dams for fish marked at the Salmon River trap were 71% for hatchery Chinook, 78% for wild Chinook salmon, 80% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 81% for wild steelhead trout.

  3. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2004 Annual Report.

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A. [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2004 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2004 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 1.1 times greater in 2004 than in 2003. The wild Chinook catch was 1.1 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 1.2 times greater than in 2003. Wild steelhead trout catch was 1.6 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 978 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2004, the Snake River trap captured 23 hatchery and 18 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 60 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. Trap operations began on March 7 and were terminated on June 4. The trap was out of operation for a total of zero days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 10.8% less and wild Chinook salmon catch was 19.0% less than in 2003. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2004 was 20.0% less and wild steelhead trout collection was 22.3% less than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 7 and were terminated on May 28 due to high flows. There were two days when the trap was taken out of service because wild Chinook catch was very low, hatchery Chinook catch was very high, and the weekly quota of PIT tagged hatchery Chinook had been met. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged Chinook salmon and steelhead trout marked at the Snake River trap were affected by discharge. Statistical analysis of 2004 data detected a relation between migration rate and discharge for wild Chinook salmon but was unable to detect a relation for hatchery Chinook. The inability to detect a migration rate discharge relation for hatchery Chinook salmon was caused by age-0 fall Chinook being mixed in with the age 1 Chinook. Age-0 fall Chinook migrate much slower than age-1 Chinook, which would confuse the ability to detect the migration rate discharge relation. When several groups, which consisted of significant numbers of age-0 Chinook salmon, were removed from the analysis a relation was detected. For hatchery and wild Chinook salmon there was a 2.8-fold and a 2.4-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. For steelhead trout tagged at the Snake River trap, statistical analysis detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge. For hatchery and wild steelhead trout, there was a 2.3-fold and a 2.0-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. Travel time and migration rate to Lower Granite Dam for fish marked at the Salmon River trap were calculated. Statistical analysis of the 2004 data detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge for hatchery Chinook salmon, wild Chinook salmon and hatchery steelhead trout. Not enough data were available to perform the analysis for wild steelhead trout. Migration rate increased 7.0-fold for hatchery Chinook salmon, 4.7-fold for wild Chinook salmon and 3.8-fold for hatchery steelhead as discharge increased between 50 kcfs and 100 kcfs. Fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River and Salmon River traps were interrogated at four dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary dams). Because of the addition of the fourth interrogation site (Lower Monumental) in 1993 and the installation of the Removable Spillway Weir at Lower Granite Dam in 2001, caution must be used in comparing cumulative interrogation data. Cumulative interrogations at the four dams for fish marked at the Snake River trap were 82% for hatchery Chinook, 77% for wild Chinook, 90% for hatchery steelhead, and 90% for wild steelhead. Cumulative interrogations at the four dams for fish marked at the Salmon River trap were 68% for hatchery Chinook, 70% for wild Chinook salmon, 80% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 79% for wild steelhead trout.

  4. Rb-Sr ages and palaeomagnetic data for some Angolan alkaline intrusives

    New Rb-Sr age measurements are reported for a number of intrusives from Angola. Data for the Njoio and Tchivira nepheline syenite bodies yield mineral isochrons indicating ages of 104,3+-0,8 Ma and 130,8+-1,4 Ma respectively. Palaeomagnetic studies on the same occurrences gave marginal and scattered results respectively. Micas from the Camafuca crater-facies kimberlite yielded and apparent age of 1 822+-151 Ma, a result that is far in excess of the Tertiary (or younger) age inferred for this pipe. Similarly conflicting data were obtained for the Nova Lisboa kimberlite. It is likely that older crustal micas incorporated in the kimberlite breccias are responsible for the anomalous ages reported on the kimberlites. Satisfactory palaeomagnetic data are reported for the Zenza and Bailundu occurrences, not dated by the Rb-Sr method. A convenient K-Ar age of 80+-0,8 Ma was obtainable for Zenza

  5. Evidence of the younger dryas in Central America

    Leyden, Barbara W.

    Three sites provide records that address whether the Younger Dryas was manifest in Central America. Marine records from Barbados and the Cariaco Basin are discussed, as well as possible climatic forcing mechanisms. Sequences from montane La Chonta Bog, Costa Rica, and lowland Lake Quexil, Guatemala, record a temperature decline of 1.5-2.5°C dated between 11,070-10,400 14C years BP and ca. 12,000-10,300 14C years BP, respectively. The record from Lake La Yeguada, Panama, does not include cooling, although significant reorganization of local communities occurred during the Younger Dryas chronozone. Colder tropical SSTs throughout deglaciation contributed to sub-regional climatic variation, more intense monsoonal activity, and cooler air temperatures. However, the temperature reversals are not associated with the coldest tropical SSTs which occurred during meltwater pulses. The temperature reversals appear to be a response to extra-tropical conditions, presumably in the North Atlantic, which suggests that Younger Dryas cooling extended as far south as Costa Rica. In Panama, monsoonal conditions may have blocked cooler temperatures. Precipitation continued to increase throughout deglaciation due to strong forcing by seasonal solar insolation in Central America while desiccation events occurred to the north and south.

  6. Arctic freshwater forcing of the Younger Dryas cold reversal.

    Tarasov, Lev; Peltier, W R

    2005-06-01

    The last deglaciation was abruptly interrupted by a millennial-scale reversal to glacial conditions, the Younger Dryas cold event. This cold interval has been connected to a decrease in the rate of North Atlantic Deep Water formation and to a resulting weakening of the meridional overturning circulation owing to surface water freshening. In contrast, an earlier input of fresh water (meltwater pulse 1a), whose origin is disputed, apparently did not lead to a reduction of the meridional overturning circulation. Here we analyse an ensemble of simulations of the drainage chronology of the North American ice sheet in order to identify the geographical release points of freshwater forcing during deglaciation. According to the simulations with our calibrated glacial systems model, the North American ice sheet contributed about half the fresh water of meltwater pulse 1a. During the onset of the Younger Dryas, we find that the largest combined meltwater/iceberg discharge was directed into the Arctic Ocean. Given that the only drainage outlet from the Arctic Ocean was via the Fram Strait into the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian seas, where North Atlantic Deep Water is formed today, we hypothesize that it was this Arctic freshwater flux that triggered the Younger Dryas cold reversal. PMID:15931219

  7. Network Intrusion detection by using PCA via SMO-SVM

    Alesh Kumar Sharma, Satyam Maheswari

    2012-01-01

    As network attacks have increased in number and severity over the past few years, intrusion detection system (IDS) is increasingly becoming a critical component to secure the network. Due to large volumes of security audit data as well as complex and dynamic properties of intrusion behaviors, optimizing performance of IDS becomes an important open problem that is receiving more and more attention from the research community. Intrusion poses a serious security risk in a network environment. Th...

  8. Intrusion Detection By Data Mining Algorithms: A Review

    Rafsanjani, Marjan Kuchaki; Varzaneha, Zahra Asghari

    2013-01-01

    – With the increasing use of network-based services and sensitive information on networks, maintaining information security is essential. Intrusion Detection System is a security tool used to detect unauthorized activities of a computer system or network. Data mining is one of the technologies applied to intrusion detection. This article introduces various data mining techniques used to implement an intrusion detection system. Then reviews some of the related studies focusing on data mining a...

  9. Identification of Human Intrusion Types into Radwaste Disposal Facility

    Human intrusion has long been recognized as a potentially important post-closure safety issue for rad waste disposal facility. It is due to the difficulties in predicting future human activities. For the preliminary study of human intrusion, identification of human intrusion types need to be recognized and investigated also the approaching of problem solving must be known to predict the prevention act and accepted risk. (author)

  10. Network Intrusion Detection Model based on Fuzzy Support Vector Machine

    Yanjun Long; Jianquan Ouyang; Xinwen Sun

    2013-01-01

    Network intrusion detection is of great importance in the research field of information security in computer networks. In this paper, we concentrate on how to automatically detect the network intrusion behavior utilizing fuzzy support vector machine. After analyzing the related works of the proposed paper, we introduce the main characterics of fuzzy support vector machine, and demonstrate its formal description in detail. Next, the proposed intrusion detection system is organized as five modu...

  11. Cluster Based Cost Efficient Intrusion Detection System For Manet

    Kumarasamy, Saravanan; B, Hemalatha; P, Hashini

    2013-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc networks are temporary wireless networks. Network resources are abnormally consumed by intruders. Anomaly and signature based techniques are used for intrusion detection. Classification techniques are used in anomaly based techniques. Intrusion detection techniques are used for the network attack detection process. Two types of intrusion detection systems are available. They are anomaly detection and signature based detection model. The anomaly detection model uses the historica...

  12. Intrusion Detection Scheme based on IPSO-RBF

    Wen-Tie WU; Li, Min; LIU, Bo

    2013-01-01

    In order to overcome the separately selection advantages of traditional feature and RBF neural network parameter, increase accuracy rate of networks intrusion detection, there came up with a research on neural network intrusion detection of improved particle swarm optimization. According to optimize the feature selection of network and RBF neural network parameter, established a neural network intrusion detection model of IPSO-RBF, made convergence and disturbance variation analysis on...

  13. Fuzzy Approach for Intrusion Detection System: A Survey

    Partha Sarathi Bhattacharjee; Dr. Shahin Ara Begum

    2013-01-01

    Secured data communication over internet and any other network is always under threat of intrusions and misuses. Intrusions pose a serious security threat for the stability and the security of information in a network environment. An intrusion is defined as any set of actions that attempt to compromise the integrity, confidentiality or availability of a resource. It includes attempting to destabilize the network, gaining unauthorized accessto files with privileges, or mishandling and misusing...

  14. A hot spring in granite of the Western Tianshan, China

    The western Tianshan range is a major Cenozoic orogenic belt in central Asia exposing predominantly Paleozoic rocks including granite. Ongoing deformation is reflected by very rugged topography with peaks over 7000 m high. Active tectonic deformation is tied to an E-W trending fracture and fault system that sections the mountain chain into geologically diverse blocks that extend parallel to the orogen. In the Muzhaerte valley upwelling hot water follows such a fault system in the Muza granite. About 20 L min-1 Na-SO4-Cl water with a temperature of 55 deg. C having a total mineralization of about 1 g L-1 discharge from the hot spring. The water is used in a local spa that is frequented by the people of the upper Ili river area. Its waters are used for balneological purposes and the spa serves as a therapeutic institution. The major element composition of the hot water is dominated by Na and by SO4 and Cl, Ca is a minor component. Dissolved silica (1.04 mmol L-1) corresponds to a quartz-saturation temperature of 116 deg. C and a corresponding depth of the source of the water of about 4600 m. This temperature is consistent with Na/K and Na/Li geothermometry. The water is saturated with respect to fluorite and contains 7.5 mg L-1 F- as a consequence of the low Ca-concentration. The water is undersaturated with respect to the primary minerals of the reservoir granite at reservoir temperature causing continued irreversible dissolution of granite. The waters are oversaturated with respect to Ca-zeolite minerals (such as stilbite and mesolite), and it is expected that zeolites precipitate in the fracture pore space and in alteration zones replacing primary granite. The stable isotope composition of O and H supports a meteoric origin of the water. The Cl/Br mass ratio of 1500 suggests that the salinity results from halite dissolution. Salts leached from powders of Muza granite show the same Cl/Br signature as the hot spring water. Sodium chloride is stored in fluid and solid inclusions in the granite, which have been introduced to quartz by ductile shearing and faulting related to ongoing orogenesis. The hot water remobilizes the salt that is continuously liberated by the tectonic deformation. Water-granite interaction contributes a thenardite-component (Na2SO4) to the major element composition by albite dissolution in H2SO4. The water-rock interaction along faults and fractures transforms and alters Muza granite to a low-temperature epigranite

  15. Uranium distribution in Brazilian granitic rocks. Identification of uranium provinces

    The research characterized and described uranium enriched granitoids in Brazil. They occur in a variety of tectonic environments and are represented by a variety granite types of distinct ages. It may be deduced that in general they have been generated by partial melting process of continental crust. However, some of them, those with tonality composition, indicate a contribution from mantle derived materials, thus suggesting primary uranium enrichment from the upper mantle. Through this study, the identification and characterization of uranium enriched granite or uranium provinces in Brazil can be made. This may also help identify areas with potential for uranium mineralization although it has been note that uranium mineralization in Brazil are not related to the uranium enrichment process. In general the U-anomalous granitoids are composed of granites with alkaline composition and granite ''sensu strictu'' which comprise mainly of syenites, quartz-syenites and biotite-hornblende granites, with ages between 1,800 - 1,300 M.a. The U-anomalous belongings to this period present high Sr initial ratios values, above 0.706, and high Rb contents. Most of the U-enriched granitoids occur within ancient cratonic areas, or within Early to Mid-Proterozoic mobile belts, but after their cratonization. Generally, these granitoids are related to the border zones of the mobile belts or deep crustal discontinuity. Refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Granite geomorphology and its geological controls, Serra da Estrela, Portugal

    Migo?, Piotr; Vieira, Gonalo

    2014-12-01

    Serra da Estrela is an elevated granite massif in central Portugal, characterized by extensive plateau surfaces incised by deep valleys affected by Quaternary glaciation, bounded by steep fault-generated escarpments. The presence of seven major textural variants of granite provides an opportunity to study the relationships between lithology and relief, whereas DEM analysis helped to show the relationships between lithology and topography objectively. The higher ground is associated with fine- to medium-grained granites and is typified by planar surfaces of low gradient, with occasional angular tors and rock pedestals. Block fields built by angular material are common in the parts that were not previously glaciated. Less elevated parts of the plateau are supported by medium- to coarse-grained granites and show more varied topography, with an abundance of tors, boulder piles, and depressions. Lithological boundaries locally coincide with slope breaks but this is not the rule. In the northern part of the massif a deep topographic basin has evolved in biotite granite, whereas deeply incised valleys follow major fault lines. Geological controls show a hierarchy, in that gross relief reflects the pattern of tectonic uplift and subsidence, whereas lithology and then fracture patterns become more and more important if one focuses on smaller and smaller landforms.

  17. Mechanical and thermomechanical behaviour of Lac du Bonnet granite

    Mechanical and thermomechanical rock property tests have been carried out on Lac du Bonnet granitic samples. These tests have provided design data and allowed data interpretations for geosphere modelling, conceptual vault engineering and in situ experiments associated with the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (NRWMP). The results indicated the following trends with increasing depth: decreased uniaxial compressive strength; decreased tensile strength; decreased Young's modulus; decreased zero-pressure compressive wave velocity; increased Poisson's ratio. The observed trends compared with a slight compositional variation of the Lac du Bonnet granitic pluton with depth. Altered pink granite samples from the upper zones of the formation were stronger in compression and deformed less than the slightly altered greenish grey, or grey granitic samples from the deeper horizons. It is felt that this behaviour can be attributed to stress relaxation in the grey granites after drilling. The strength and deformational properties of the rock samples were relatively unaffected by increasing temperature to 200 degrees Celsius, except at low confining pressures (below 5 MPa). The apparent thermal expansion of the rock samples occurred in multiple stages over the temperature range of 25 degrees Celsius to 200 degrees Celsius. Apparent expansion is lower during the initial stages of heating and may not be detected under in situ conditions if large fractures are present

  18. Modelling radiation dose for Brazilian granite as building material

    Granite is a term to describe magmatic rocks consisting of quartz and feldspar (plagioclase and potassium feldspar) and, incidentally, biotite, muscovite, amphibole and rarely pyroxene. These rocks are used as buildings material as ornamental countertops and floors due to characteristics like coloration and polishing. Some of their accessory minerals are associated with uranium and thorium and consequently to their daughter radionuclides, as radium and radon. This study aims to calculate doses due radon and gamma radiation for people inside buildings with granite floor and countertops. In a previous study about Brazilian granite, samples of the three types of the stones were collected and processed and the concentrations of activity of natural radionuclides were determined. The doses due to the use of the samples as floor and countertops in Brazilian buildings were assessed with the Radar's-Build software. The doses were compared and the granite Crema Bordeaux showed the higher contribution to radon and external dose than the others granite samples that showed similar values of dose. 226Ra and 40K were the major responsible by the external dose. (author)

  19. The instrumental neutron-activation analysis of granites from the Bushveld Complex

    Three methods of instrumental neutron-activation analysis, 14MeV, reactor thermal, and reactor epithermal, are compared for the analysis of granites form the Bushveld Complex. A total of 34 elements can be determined in the granites by these methods. Samples from the Zaaiplaats area were analysed by thermal neutron activation, and 22 elements were determined in all of them. These elements were used to distinguish between the mineralized Bobbejaankop and Lease granites and the Main granite by the use of multivariate statistics. The Bobbejaankop granite appears as a more-differentaited rock carrying greater amounts of the incompatible elements than does the Main granite

  20. Modeling Saltwater Intrusion using Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Langevin, C. D.; Panday, S. M.; Hughes, J. D.; Lien, J.

    2012-12-01

    Numerical simulation of saltwater intrusion often requires fine discretization to accurately represent variable-density groundwater flow and salt transport. With adaptive mesh refinement methods, grid resolution can be focused in areas with high concentration gradients. This resolution can change during the simulation by coarsening or refining in different parts of the model as concentration gradients change. To test adaptive mesh refinement, we implemented a variable-density groundwater flow and solute transport simulator using an object-oriented design. The method is based on an unstructured grid implementation of quadtree refinement. With quadtree refinement individual cells can be subdivided into four equal-sized cells. This refinement can occur anywhere in the model and to any grid nesting level. An implicit ghost-node correction concept was utilized to ensure that solutions to the variable-density flow equation were second-order accurate in space and that spurious velocities did not exacerbate numerical dispersion. A second-order implicit total-variation-diminishing (TVD) scheme was also implemented to minimize numerical dispersion. The program was tested using variations of the Henry problem and other problems involving unstable density configurations of brine overlying freshwater. For the tested problems, the adaptive mesh refinement strategy showed substantial computational advantages over simulations using finely discretized fixed-resolution grids. The approach was tested for saltwater intrusion problems; however, the methodology would apply generally to solute transport problems and could also be used for transient groundwater flow problems with spatially and temporally varying hydraulic gradients.

  1. Identifying Network Intrusions using One Dimensional distance

    Greeshma K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Firewalls and other simple boundary devices lack some degree of intelligence when it comes to observing, recognizing, and identifying attack signatures that may be present in the traffic they monitor and the log files they collect. Without sounding critical of such other systems capabilities, this deficiency explains the need for an intrusion detection systems,IDS helping to maintain proper network security. The simplest way to define an IDS is to describe it as a specialized tool that knows how to read and interpret the contents of log files from routers, firewalls, servers, and other network devices.To provide the effective result for detecting intrusions, this process introduces a new approach by clustering and classification technique. In this process, two distances are measured and summed. The first one is depended on the distance between each data sample and its cluster centre, and the second distance is between the data and its nearest neighbour in the same cluster. Then, this new and one-dimensional distance based feature is used to represent each data

  2. Posttraumatic intrusive symptoms across psychiatric disorders.

    Bryant, Richard A; O'Donnell, Meaghan L; Creamer, Mark; McFarlane, Alexander C; Silove, Derrick

    2011-06-01

    Reexperiencing symptoms are a key feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study investigated the pattern of reexperiencing symptoms in non-PTSD posttraumatic disorders. This study recruited 1084 traumatically injured patients during hospital admission and conducted follow-up assessment 12 months later (N = 817, 75%). Twelve months after injury, 22% of patients reported a psychiatric disorder they had never experienced prior to the traumatic injury. One-third of patients with a non-PTSD disorder satisfied the PTSD reexperiencing criteria. Whereas patients with a non-PTSD disorder were more likely to experience intrusive memories, nightmares, psychological distress and physiological reactivity to reminders, only patients with PTSD were likely to experience flashback memories (OR: 11.41, 95% CI: 6.17-21.09). The only other symptom that was distinctive to PTSD was dissociative amnesia (OR: 4.50, 95% CI: 2.09-9.71). Whereas intrusive memories and reactions are common across posttraumatic disorders, flashbacks and dissociative amnesia are distinctive to PTSD. PMID:21159353

  3. Improving Intrusion Detection Using Genetic Algorithm

    Z. Muda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection System (IDS is one of the key security components in todays networking environment. A great deal of attention has been recently paid to anomaly detection to accomplish intrusion detection. However, a major problem with this approach is maximizing detection rate and accuracy, as well as minimizing false alarm i.e., inability to correctly discover particular types of attacks. To overcome this problem, a genetic algorithm approach is proposed. Genetic Algorithm (GA is most frequently employed as a robust technology based on machine learning for designing IDS. GAs are search algorithms which are based on the principles of natural selection and genetics. GA functions on a number of possible solutions using the principle of survival of the fittest with the aim to generate better approximations to solve a particular problem GA is facing. The validity of this approach is verified using Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining Cup 1999 (KDD Cup 99 dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the existing techniques, with the detection rate of attack and false alarm rates of 95.7265 and 4.2735, respectively.

  4. Petrochemistry of the Reduced, Ilmenite-Series Granitoid Intrusion Related to the Hired Gold-Tin Prospect (Basiran, Eastern Iran

    M.H. Karimpour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Doing research, two suites of Oligocene-Miocene granitoids, one relatively oxidized (magnetite-series and the other relatively reduced (ilmenite-series, were identified at Hired, Eastern Iran. Since Au-Sn mineralization is associated only with the relatively reduced ilmenite-series suite. It became interested to study the petrochemistry and petrophysics of these intrusive rocks. The magnetic susceptibility of the magnetite-series granitoids is greater than 300 x10-5 SI. This suite includes meta-aluminous, medium-K to high-K series gabbros to diorites containing magnetite, hornblende and biotite. The magnetic susceptibility of the ilmenite-series granitoids are less than 60 x10-5 SI. This suite includes meta-aluminous, high-K to shoshonitic diorites to granites, containing, biotite, muscovite and tourmaline. Both the ilmenite and magnetite series suites are strongly enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs = K, Th, Rb, Ba and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSE = Nb, Sr, Ti, Hf. Chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Element (REE plots indicate strong enrichments of light relative to heavy REE, with (La/YbN between 7-24. Ilmenite suite granitoids have pronounced negative europium anomalies. Stockwork mineralization is found within and nearby the relatively reduced ilmenite-series granites. Based on their mineral assemblages (arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, tourmaline, pyrite, gold and quartz, the ore-bearing fluids that generated these stockwork veins was also reduced. This and the spatial relationship of mineralization with the ilmenite suite granitoids, indicates that the ore fluids originated from reduced granitoid magmas. Hired Au-Sn deposit is a reduced-intrusion related gold system.

  5. Microbial community evolution across a granitic chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California

    Moore, J.; Macalady, J. M.; White, A. F.; Schulz, M. S.; Brantley, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    Ongoing research at a marine terrace chronosequence in Santa Cruz, CA includes quantification of biogeochemical and physical processes to better understand the evolution of soil development and the soil microbial community. The chronosequence, formed on granite-derived marine sediments, is located in a Mediterranean climate zone and is dominated by grassland vegetation. Two features of the chronosequence relevant to the soil microbial community are the progressive depletion of primary minerals--containing nutrients such as Ca, K, and P--with soil age, and the increase of the aboveground plant biomass from terrace 1 (65 ka) to terrace 2 (90 ka) with a subsequent decrease for terraces 3 (137 ka) and 5 (226 ka). This study investigated soil microbial community size and composition in both the surface soils (0-0.07 m) and in subsurface depth profiles (down to at least 2 meters) across the chronosequence. Trends in the surface concentrations of carbon and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were similar to the aboveground plant biomass with an increase from terrace 1 to terrace 2 and then a slight decrease in terraces 3 and 5. Soil microbial community composition trends, measured by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), with soil age were somewhat different. Concentrations of the 18:29,12 lipid, a lipid derived from fungi as well as fine plant roots, declined with soil age. As expected from previously published studies of soil microbial communities with depth, concentrations of carbon, MBC, and PLFAs declined with increasing depth in the subsurface. Preliminary PLFA data indicated two main microbial community changes with depth. First, the 18:29,12 concentration decreased as a fraction of the total PLFA concentration, and second, branched chain lipids commonly associated with gram-positive bacteria increased as a fraction of the total PFLA concentration. The variation of soil carbon and the soil microbial community as a function of depth appeared to change with soil age. Shallow subsurface (0.2-1 m) carbon, MBC, and PLFA concentrations declined more rapidly relative to surface concentrations in the older terraces (3 and 5) than in terrace 2. Interestingly, the decline in the 18:29,12 lipid fraction was more pronounced in the younger terrace 2 soil than in the older terrace 3 and 5 soils. Results from this first study of soil microbiology across a long-term (declining ecosystem) grassland chronosequence differed from similar studies on forested long-term chronosequences. In particular, the 18:29,12 lipid declined as a fraction of the total PLFA pool in the surface soil with soil age, rather than increasing as was the case for the forested chronosequences. Additionally, this was the first study of subsurface soil microbiology across a long-term chronosequence. PLFA results indicated that variations in the soil microbial community with age were more significant in the subsurface than at the surface. These changes in the soil microbial community were likely connected to changes in the plant biomass. Plant biomass changes were, in turn, probably driven by the increased depletion of primary minerals and nutrients such as Ca or P with soil age across the chronosequence. At the Santa Cruz chronosequence, changes in soil chemistry due to chemical weathering appear to be driving changes in the ecology of the soil microbial community.

  6. Post-collisional multistage magmatism in the Ribeira mobile belt: geochemical and isotopic study of the Varzea Alegre intrusive complex, Espirito Santo, Brazil

    Medeiros, Silvia Regina de; Mendes, Julio Cezar [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia]. E-mail: medeiros@igeo.ufrj.br; Wiedemann-Leonardos, Cristina Maria [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: wiedeman@unb.br

    2000-03-01

    The Varzea Alegre Intrusive Complex (VAIC) corresponds to a post-collisional (late orogenic) pluton, related to the Brasiliano cycle, situated in the central part of the Espirito Santo State. It intrudes amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphic rocks of the Ribeira Belt. Two distinct domains were recognised in this zoned pluton: an inner domain with opx-gabbro, monzogabbro, diorite, quartz-diorite and megaporphyritic granite, and an outer one comprising an irregular and large ring of charnockitic rocks. Geochemical data from the former reveal medium to high-K calc-alkalic rocks, enriched in incompatible elements, mainly Ba, Sr, La, Ce and Pb and partially depleted in HFS elements. The charnockitic rocks show a high-K alkali-calcic signature; they are rich in Ba, K and some HFS elements, such a Zr, P and Nb. The incompatible element enrichment detected in the rocks of the VAIC has been reported for several intrusions from this part of the Ribeira Belt. A Rb-Sr isochronic age of 508{+-} 12 Ma was determined for the megaporphyritic granite. The T{sub DM} model age varies from 1.3 Ga (opx-gabbro) to ca. 1.67 Ga (charnockitic rocks), which can be related to an important Mesoproterozoic crustal event. The calculated T{sub CHUR} model ages of the cogenetic opx-gabbros and intermediary rocks is ca. 1.0 Ga, interpreted as the time when the basic magma was extracted from the source. (author)

  7. Association of lung cancer mortality with precambrian granite

    Sixteen counties in New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey that are associated with the Reading Prong granite deposits have significantly higher age-adjusted lung cancer rates among whites of both sexes (1950-1979) than do 17 nearby control counties. Elevated radon daughter concentrations have been found in homes near the Reading Prong granites. Fraction of populations living in cities with over 5,000 persons, industrial centers, cities with populations above 20,000, and median incomes did not differ significantly for three county groups (those which include the granite, fringe area, and control areas). Weaknesses were inadequate home measurements of radon and lack of smoking information. Findings are consistent with several other studies relating radon in homes to lung cancer

  8. Micromechanical modeling of the elasto-viscoplastic behavior of granite

    The frictional sliding of weakness planes (cracks and interfaces) inside the granite is considered as the origin of inelastic deformation. When granite is used in some long-term facilities, e.g., underground cavities and slopes or storage of nuclear wastes, special attentions should be paid to its time-dependent deformation. We present in this paper a micromechanic-based elasto-viscoplastic approach for modeling the time-dependent deformation of granite. Inspired by the polycrystalline theory of metallic materials, the sliding behavior in an individual grain is regarded as the sole source of plastic deformation, which is characterized by a Mohr-Coulomb-type yield criterion and a non-associated plastic potential. The micro-macro transition is realized within the framework of Hill's self-consistent approach. The performance of the proposed model is evaluated by several case studies and by reproducing experimental data

  9. Gravitational Quantum States of Neutrons and the New Granit Spectrometer

    Nesvizhevsky, V. V.

    The review covers recent developments on gravitational quantum states of neutrons and the new GRANIT spectrometer, discussed during the Workshop GRANIT-2010 in Les Houches.1 The GRANIT facility2 includes the spectrometer and the infrastructure needed for its operation. It is constructed at Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL)3 in Grenoble for studies of/with gravitational quantum states of neutrons, and for related topics. New methodical developments4 are discussed for future upgrades of this facility. An important motivation for this activity consists in constraining fundamental short-range forces.5 Other quantum phenomena in gravitational field,6 and centrifugal quantum states of neutrons,7 were discussed as well. A detailed presentation of all these topics could be found in Workshop-2010 presentations.8 We will focus here on instrumental developments and on options for studying neutron gravitational states.

  10. The sorption behavior of Np on the crushed granite media

    In order to predict release and transport rates, it is essential to understand the chemical interaction of actinides under aqueous condition. We studied the batch experiment of sorption behavior of the237Np with some parameters of solution acidity contact time, and physicochemical properties of geomedia for understanding the interaction of dissolved neptunium with granite rock. The studies were carried out on two kinds of geomedia, freshed and weathered granite samples. In the experiment, we find that Np show different sorption behaviors on crushed granite with solution pH, contact periods and geomedium. It has been found that the distribution ratio of 237Np with geomedia was increased somewhat with increasing solution pH and contact period in the experiment. (author)

  11. The Polumir granite: Addititional data on its origin

    Vukov Milenko S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Polumir granite is exposed on several localities due to erosion, and its chemical and mineral composition is presented in this paper. It is built of K-feldspar, plagioclase, myrmekite, metasomatic albite, biotite, muscovite and quartz, while apatite, magnetite, monazite, allanite and zircon are present as accessory minerals. According to its chemical and mineral composition and rock chemistry (trace and REE elements the Polumir granite is leucocratic, sin-collisional, with S-type characteristics. It crystallized at temperature of about 650°C and under pressure of 2-4 kbar. Results of isotope analyses (K-Ar method on biotites indicate that the Polumir granite was formed during the Miocene (14-19 Ma and it has undergone subsequent weak remobilization afterwards.

  12. GRANITE CUTTING WASTE: TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION FOR THE FINAL DESTINATION

    Joner Oliveira Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The granite processing market is one of the most promising business areas of the mineral sector, with an average growth of the world production of about 6% per year. The granite extraction generates residues in the form of powder rock of 20-25 wt.% of the total benefited. The granite dust must be carefully managed since it can cause siltation of rivers and human health risks. This paper presents two routes for the final destination of this waste: the vitrification process aiming the production of fibers for thermo-acoustic insulation, and the magnetic separation in order to recover the steel grit. Results showed that the forms of treatments presented are economically and ecologically viable since they represent a cost reduction in the waste disposal, and also provide the production of new materials with commercial value.

  13. On Younger Stakeholders and Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    In modern democratic countries, information sharing and effective and open communication concerning dismantling and decommissioning of of nuclear facilities as well as the management of nuclear waste are essential for the task to build the confidence required for any further development of nuclear energy. At the same time, it is often perceived that all decision making processes about nuclear energy policies are probably increasingly influenced by public opinion. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role in this regard to provide unbiased information on any health and safety related issues. In order to meet this need, it is necessary for Authorities and others to understand the values and opinions of the citizens, and especially the younger ones. They hold the key to the future at the same time as their perspective on these issues is the least understood. The need of greater public participation in decision making is becoming increasingly recognised the scientific as well as the political community. Many activities are carried out in order to stimulate to higher levels of public involvement in decision making in this active research area. Younger citizens is a stakeholder group that is often excluded in decision- making processes. The existence of large gaps between the involvement of older and younger stakeholders in decision making processes needs to be addressed, since such imbalances might otherwise lead to unequal opportunities between generations and limit the future consumption level of the coming generations. Another demanding task for the present generation is to assure that appropriate financial resources are injected into the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund. It will thereby be possible for coming generations to undertake efficient measures in the decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. To undertake such measures in line with the environmental and health codex is essential. An appropriate balance in this regard must be based on a proper understanding of the values and value functions of younger citizens. Such information must thus be an integral part of the knowledge base to be used when plans and processes are being developed for dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other older nuclear facilities. In the present project, empirical data have been collected and compiled in a survey of the values of younger citizens with regard to decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. The survey constitutes a stratified sample from three towns in Poland. They are Lublin, Olsztyn and Gdansk. A total of 780 students in the age group 14-19 years participated in the Survey. The results are compared to those from a similar study in the County of Kalmar in Sweden in the year 2006. The results include some major lesson learned. These may be summarised as follows: - Younger citizens tend to base their values regarding decommissioning on safety, and environmental aspects. Aspects like future economic growth and technological processes are less influential on the values. - Younger citizens tend to express a lack of information and debate as a basis of their value functions. Likewise, they tend to express interest in the topic and are open to become more included in the processes. - Younger citizens have suggestions on how more information can be made accessible to the general public. - Younger citizens need to be better included in the stakeholder process. This can be achieved by allowances from the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund to support groups of younger citizens to follow the Swedish process of research, development and demonstration of a concept for the management of spent nuclear fuel. Less than fully accessible information campaigns about nuclear power and associated nuclear waste may result in differences in confidence levels between different groups of stakeholders. By finding out more about the values of different stakeholders it will be possible for the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority as well as for Society as a whole to enhance the possibility t o develop a model to incorporate the views of different groups of stakeholders in calculation of future decommissioning costs. In this survey, steps are made to deepen and broaden the general knowledge of the values of one stakeholder group that will be more and more influential with time. Less than fully accessible information campaigns about nuclear power and associated nuclear waste may result in differences in confidence levels between different groups of stakeholders. By finding out more about the values of different stakeholders it will be possible for the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority as well as for Society as a whole to enhance the possibility to develop a model to incorporate the views of different groups of stakeholders in calculation of future decommissioning costs. In this survey, steps are made to deepen and broaden the general knowledge of the values of one stakeholder group that will be more and more influential with time

  14. On Younger Stakeholders and Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    Tyszkiewicz, Bogumila; Labor, Bea

    2009-08-15

    In modern democratic countries, information sharing and effective and open communication concerning dismantling and decommissioning of of nuclear facilities as well as the management of nuclear waste are essential for the task to build the confidence required for any further development of nuclear energy. At the same time, it is often perceived that all decision making processes about nuclear energy policies are probably increasingly influenced by public opinion. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role in this regard to provide unbiased information on any health and safety related issues. In order to meet this need, it is necessary for Authorities and others to understand the values and opinions of the citizens, and especially the younger ones. They hold the key to the future at the same time as their perspective on these issues is the least understood. The need of greater public participation in decision making is becoming increasingly recognised the scientific as well as the political community. Many activities are carried out in order to stimulate to higher levels of public involvement in decision making in this active research area. Younger citizens is a stakeholder group that is often excluded in decision- making processes. The existence of large gaps between the involvement of older and younger stakeholders in decision making processes needs to be addressed, since such imbalances might otherwise lead to unequal opportunities between generations and limit the future consumption level of the coming generations. Another demanding task for the present generation is to assure that appropriate financial resources are injected into the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund. It will thereby be possible for coming generations to undertake efficient measures in the decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. To undertake such measures in line with the environmental and health codex is essential. An appropriate balance in this regard must be based on a proper understanding of the values and value functions of younger citizens. Such information must thus be an integral part of the knowledge base to be used when plans and processes are being developed for dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other older nuclear facilities. In the present project, empirical data have been collected and compiled in a survey of the values of younger citizens with regard to decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. The survey constitutes a stratified sample from three towns in Poland. They are Lublin, Olsztyn and Gdansk. A total of 780 students in the age group 14-19 years participated in the Survey. The results are compared to those from a similar study in the County of Kalmar in Sweden in the year 2006. The results include some major lesson learned. These may be summarised as follows: - Younger citizens tend to base their values regarding decommissioning on safety, and environmental aspects. Aspects like future economic growth and technological processes are less influential on the values. - Younger citizens tend to express a lack of information and debate as a basis of their value functions. Likewise, they tend to express interest in the topic and are open to become more included in the processes. - Younger citizens have suggestions on how more information can be made accessible to the general public. - Younger citizens need to be better included in the stakeholder process. This can be achieved by allowances from the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund to support groups of younger citizens to follow the Swedish process of research, development and demonstration of a concept for the management of spent nuclear fuel. Less than fully accessible information campaigns about nuclear power and associated nuclear waste may result in differences in confidence levels between different groups of stakeholders. By finding out more about the values of different stakeholders it will be possible for the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority as well as for Society as a whole to enhance the possibility t o develop a model to incorporate the views of different groups of stakeholders in calculation of future decommissioning costs. In this survey, steps are made to deepen and broaden the general knowledge of the values of one stakeholder group that will be more and more influential with time. Less than fully accessible information campaigns about nuclear power and associated nuclear waste may result in differences in confidence levels between different groups of stakeholders. By finding out more about the values of different stakeholders it will be possible for the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority as well as for Society as a whole to enhance the possibility to develop a model to incorporate the views of different groups of stakeholders in calculation of future decommissioning costs.

  15. Geology, alteration, age dating and petrogenesis of intrusive bodies in Halak Abad prospect area, NE Iran

    Maliheh Ghourchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Halak Abad prospect occurs in the northeastern part of Central Iran zone (Sabzevar structural zone. In this investigation, geochemical evolution, age and source of part of northeastern Iran magmatic arc (intrusive bodies in Halak Abad area in the Khorasan Razavi province has been studied. The exposed rocks consist of volcanic rocks with andesite and dacite nature, limestone, plutonic rocks mostly diorite, quartz diorite, monzodiorite, quartz monzonite, granodiorite and granite and sedimentary rocks such as limestone, sandstone and conglomerate. Magnetic susceptibility of intrusive rocks is >100 × 10-5 SI, so they belong to the magnetite-series (oxidized. This magmatism is mainly low-K (tholeiite series and meta-aluminous. The amounts of Zr, Th, Nb and Ti show depletion compared to N-MORB. Trace elements behavior shows a nearly flat pattern. Age of granodiorite body based on U-Pb zircon dating is 99.7±1.8 Ma (Mid-Cretaceous and 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio is 0.7047. The geochemical signature and 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio in the area suggest volcanic arc magmatism in subduction zone. This magmatism has characteristic such as high Na2O (3-7 %, low K2O (0.12-1 %, high CaO (4-5.7%, low Rb (1-20 ppm, low total REE (<40 ppm, high Ba/Nb, Sm/Yb<2, (La/YbN<5, 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio < 0.7045 and εNd: +4.5 show differences with normal granitoids in subduction zones. Geochemical and petrological characteristics indicate melting in relatively low pressure (shallow depth. The lines of evidence demonstrate that formation of this granitoid needs a suprasubduction zone.

  16. Mantle fluid metallogeny of granite-type uranium deposits in northern Guangdong

    Both Guidong and Zhuguang composites in northern Guangdong Province consist of Indosinian and Yanshanian granite bodies. The two most well-known granite-type uranium ore fields in China, Xiazhuang and Changjiang, are located in the eastern parts of the the two composites, respectively. Studies on H, O, C, Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopes of uranium deposits Xiwang, Shituling and Xianshi within the Xiazhuang ore field and deposit Mianhuakeng within the Changjiang ore field showed that ore-forming fluid had DH2O of -97∼-4.1% and δ18OH2O of 8.1∼0.06%; post-ore fluid had δDH2O of -71∼-5% and δDH2O of 2.0∼-0.94%. After being compared with various fluids, these data suggested the ore-forming fluids were mainly composed of mantle fluid, whereas in the post-mineralization fluids, addition of fluids with meteoric water origin became evident or even dominant. Calcites from ore veins had δ13C of -9.2∼-0.31%, indicating mantle origin of ΣCO2. Studies of Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes revealed that ore-forming materials were a mixture of metal elements coming from granites, mafic dikes and basement metamorphic rocks. Mantle fluid metallogeny of these uranium deposits was compatible with the following geological facts. The deposits in Xiazhuang and Changjiang ore fields fell into super large ones. Within the ore fields, there were many mafic dikes of various groups and strike directions. Fault-depression basins were developed outside the granite composites. The timing and space of ore formation were closely related to the extension tectonic event (or emplacement of mafic dikes. The ore components were characterized by multiple origins. Both permissively and zoned distributions of alkaline alterations were strong and the mineralization fluids were originated from the mantle. The mineralization model could be described as follows: Fluids from Dehydration and degassing of subducting slabs in the late Mesozoic altered the mantle in the mantle wedge by metasomatism to form mantle fluids which finally flew into crust through deep extensional tectonic activities (or intrusion of mafic dike magmas). During moving up process, the mantle fluids which were enriched in alkali and ΣCO2 interacted with the crustal rocks (especially uranium-rich rocks), resulting in alkaline alteration of crustal rocks and mobilizing uranium and other metals in the rocks. As a result, the mantle-derived fluids gradually became uranium-rich fluids. Deposition of pitchblende during late evolution stages of the mantle fluids was related with following factors: 1) mixing of the ore-forming fluids with fluids of meteoric-water origin so as to change the physicochemical conditions of the fluids, 2) boiling of the fluids when they entering low pressure environment and thus escaping of CO2 to lead to decomposition of the uranyl-carbonate ions in the fluids, 3) interaction between uranyl-ion bearing fluids and reducer bearing mafic dikes.. (authors)

  17. Assessing exposure to granite countertops--Part 1: Radiation.

    Myatt, Theodore A; Allen, Joseph G; Minegishi, Taeko; McCarthy, William B; Stewart, James H; Macintosh, David L; McCarthy, John F

    2010-05-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Known sources include radon, soil, cosmic rays, medical treatment, food, and building products such as gypsum board and concrete. Little information exists about radiation emissions and associated doses from natural stone finish materials such as granite countertops in homes. To address this knowledge gap, gross radioactivity, gamma ray activity, and dose rate were determined for slabs of granite marketed for use as countertops. Annual effective radiation doses were estimated from measured dose rates and human activity patterns while accounting for the geometry of granite countertops in a model kitchen. Gross radioactivity, gamma activity, and dose rate varied significantly among and within slabs of granite with ranges for median levels at the slab surface of ND to 3000 cpm, ND to 98,000 cpm, and ND to 1.5E-4 mSv/h, respectively. The maximum activity concentrations of the (40)K, (232)Th, and (226)Ra series were 2715, 231, and 450 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated annual radiation dose from spending 4 h/day in a hypothetical kitchen ranged from 0.005 to 0.18 mSv/a depending on the type of granite. In summary, our results show that the types of granite characterized in this study contain varying levels of radioactive isotopes and that their observed emissions are consistent with those reported in the scientific literature. We also conclude from our analyses that these emissions are likely to be a minor source of external radiation dose when used as countertop material within the home and present a negligible risk to human health. PMID:19707248

  18. Molar Intrusion in Open-bite Adults Using Zygomatic Miniplates.

    Marzouk, Eiman S; Abdallah, Essam Mohamed; El-Kenany, Walid A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the skeletal, dental and soft tissue changes that arise after intrusion of the maxillary molars using zygomatic miniplates in adult skeletal anterior open bite patients. In addition to measuring the amount and rate of molar intrusion; with special emphasis on changes in the axial inclination of the intruded molars. The study group was composed of 13 anterior open bite patients (mean age 18 years, 8 months 2 years, 2 months) with posterior dentoalveolar excess. Mini-plates were placed in the zygomatic buttress bilaterally. The upper arch was segmentally leveled and a double Trans-Palatal Arch (TPA) was bonded. Closed NiTi coil spring was placed bilaterally between the book of the mini-plate just mesial and distal to the first molar buccal tube applying intrusive force of 450 gper side. Lateral and posteroanterior cephalograms were taken before intrusion (T1: post upper segmental leveling) and after intrusion (T2). Comparison between means before and after the intrusion was done using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test (WSRT). Mandibular autorotation followed the molar intrusion, SNB and SN-Pog angles significantly increased while the ANB, MP-SN angle and N-S-Gn angle significantly decreased. The mean amount of accomplished molar intrusion was 3.1mm 0.74mm, with a rate of 0.36mm per month 0.08mm per month and a bite closure of 6.55mm 1.83mm. There was no significant buccal tip in the right and left molars upon intrusion. Conclusion: Miniplates zygomatic anchorage can be used effectively for skeletal open bite correction through posterior dento-alveolar intrusion. Intrusion of the posterior teeth with skeletal anchorage induced counterclockwise rotati