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Sample records for younger granite intrusion

  1. Petrology and Radioactivity of Gabal Al-Aglab younger granite, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with petrology and radioactivity of Gabal Al-Aglab younger granite, central Eastern desert, Egypt. Geologically the area consists of ophiolotic Melange and younger granite. The study reveals that the younger granite are post orogenic granites, characterized by high differential index, which in turn represents the latest stage of the successive younger granite intrusions. Microscopically, Gabal Al- Aglab younger granites is holocrystalline, medium to coarse grained, characterized by the predominance of perthite over plagioclase, quartz and biotite. Zircon, apatite, titanite, allanite, and opaque minerals are the accessory and secondary minerals. The pegmatites occur as lenticular and circular pockets at the periphery of the younger granites. Geochemically, the younger granites show mainly peraluminous to metaluminous character and originated from subalkaline magma in within plate tectonic setting (crustal thickness > 30 km) at water vapour pressure varying from 0.5 to 3 kb with crystallization temperature between 670° to 800° C. Field survey together with the complied total count aeroradiometric map reveal that the pegmatites of Gabal Al- Aglab younger granite is significantly highly radioactive compared to the surrounding rocks. The uranium content varies between 3 to 12 ppm with an average of 7.1 ppm and thorium from 11 to 35 ppm with an average of 20 ppm and an average ratio (Th/U) 2.8.The pegmatites show higher U contents relative to their hosted younger granites as identified by microscopic investigation, scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by XRD.

  2. Emplacement mechanisms and structural influences of a younger granite intrusion into older wall rocks - a principal study with application to the Goetemar and Uthammar granites. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruden, Alexander R. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Toronto (Canada))

    2008-12-15

    The c. 1.80 Ga old bedrock in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, which is the focus of the site investigation at Oskarshamn, is dominated by intrusive rocks belonging to the c. 1.86-1.65 Ga Transscandinavian Igneous Belt (TIB). However, the site investigation area is situated in between two c. 1.45 Ga old anorogenic granites, the Goetemar granite in the north and the Uthammar granite in the south. This study evaluates the emplacement mechanism of these intrusions and their structural influence on the older bedrock. Field observations and structural measurements indicate that both the Goetemar and the Uthammar granites are discordant and have not imposed any significant ductile deformation on their wall-rocks. The apparent conformity of geological contacts and fabrics in the wall rocks and the southern margin of the Goetemar granite is coincidental and inherited from the pattern of Svecokarelian deformation of the TIB. However, interpretation of regional aeromagnetic data suggests that the granites occur within a broad, NNE-SSW trending linear belt, pointing to deep seated tectonic control on their generation, ascent and emplacement. Thermochronology indicates that the granites were emplaced at depths between 4 and 8 km into brittle wall rocks. The 3-D shape of the Goetemar and Uthammar plutons has been investigated by 2.75D forward modelling of the residual gravity anomalies due to both granites. Both granites are associated with strong residual gravity anomalies of up to -10 mgal. Constraints on the geometry of the plutons at the surface are provided from surface geology maps and several deep boreholes located on or close to the model profiles. A further variable in the gravity modelling is introduced by either allowing the upper contact of the plutons to assume the most suitable orientation to produce the best fit between the modelled and observed gravity ('unconstrained models') or by forcing the near surface orientation of the contacts to be vertical ('constrained models'). The unconstrained model profiles for both plutons are characterized by gently outward dipping upper contacts to depths approx1 km, gently inward dipping lower contacts and a thin, centrally located root extending to depths of 5 to 10 km. However, this geometry is not supported by available boreholes, which do not penetrate the upper contact of the Goetemar pluton as predicted by the models. The constrained models are consistent with borehole data. They characterize the plutons as having vertical contacts in the upper 500 to 1,000 m, a 1,000 to 1,500 m thick mid-level body with outward dipping upper and horizontal and lower contacts, respectively, and broad roots extending to depths of approx4 km. Preliminary observations and gravity modelling results indicate that the Goetemar and Uthammar granites are discordant plutons with geometries most consistent with punched laccoliths, with some modification due to floor subsidence due to root development. Their vertical and lateral dimensions fall in the upper range for laccoliths and lower range for plutons as defined by recent data compilations. Their emplacement required elastic bending and eventual failure of roof rocks that was likely accompanied by reactivation of pre-existing fractures and shear zones and possibly the creation of new brittle fractures. Cooling and crystallization of the granites resulted in thermal resetting of the wall rocks and the establishment of a transient hydrothermal system, now recorded by fracture filling mineral assemblages

  3. Emplacement mechanisms and structural influences of a younger granite intrusion into older wall rocks - a principal study with application to the Goetemar and Uthammar granites. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The c. 1.80 Ga old bedrock in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, which is the focus of the site investigation at Oskarshamn, is dominated by intrusive rocks belonging to the c. 1.86-1.65 Ga Transscandinavian Igneous Belt (TIB). However, the site investigation area is situated in between two c. 1.45 Ga old anorogenic granites, the Goetemar granite in the north and the Uthammar granite in the south. This study evaluates the emplacement mechanism of these intrusions and their structural influence on the older bedrock. Field observations and structural measurements indicate that both the Goetemar and the Uthammar granites are discordant and have not imposed any significant ductile deformation on their wall-rocks. The apparent conformity of geological contacts and fabrics in the wall rocks and the southern margin of the Goetemar granite is coincidental and inherited from the pattern of Svecokarelian deformation of the TIB. However, interpretation of regional aeromagnetic data suggests that the granites occur within a broad, NNE-SSW trending linear belt, pointing to deep seated tectonic control on their generation, ascent and emplacement. Thermochronology indicates that the granites were emplaced at depths between 4 and 8 km into brittle wall rocks. The 3-D shape of the Goetemar and Uthammar plutons has been investigated by 2.75D forward modelling of the residual gravity anomalies due to both granites. Both granites are associated with strong residual gravity anomalies of up to -10 mgal. Constraints on the geometry of the plutons at the surface are provided from surface geology maps and several deep boreholes located on or close to the model profiles. A further variable in the gravity modelling is introduced by either allowing the upper contact of the plutons to assume the most suitable orientation to produce the best fit between the modelled and observed gravity ('unconstrained models') or by forcing the near surface orientation of the contacts to be vertical ('constrained models'). The unconstrained model profiles for both plutons are characterized by gently outward dipping upper contacts to depths ?1 km, gently inward dipping lower contacts and a thin, centrally located root extending to depths of 5 to 10 km. However, this geometry is not supported by available boreholes, which do not penetrate the upper contact of the Goetemar pluton as predicted by the models. The constrained models are consistent with borehole data. They characterize the plutons as having vertical contacts in the upper 500 to 1,000 m, a 1,000 to 1,500 m thick mid-level body with outward dipping upper and horizontal and lower contacts, respectively, and broad roots extending to depths of ?4 km. Preliminary observations and gravity modelling results indicate that the Goetemar and Uthammar granites are discordant plutons with geometries most consistent with punched laccoliths, with some modification due to floor subsidence due to root development. Their vertical and lateral dimensions fall in the upper range for laccoliths and lower range for plutons as defined by recent data compilations. Their emplacement required elastic bending and eventual failure of roof rocks that was likely accompanied by reactivation of pre-existing fractures and shear zones and possibly the creation of new brittle fractures. Cooling and crystallization of the granites resulted in thermal resetting of the wall rocks and the establishment of a transient hydrothermal system, now recorded by fracture filling mineral assemblages

  4. Contribution to uranium geochemistry in intrusive granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to define the position of a certain number of French granitic deposits within the field of the geochemistry of granites in general, and of the geochemistry of uranium in particular. The regions concerned are: - 3 French Hercynian ranges, in the Vendee, in Brittany and in the Morvan, - 1 African range, probably precambrian, of the Hoggar. For each range, the petrochemical framework is first of all determined and then the degree of chemical homogeneity of the rocks is evaluated. In the petrochemical groups thus obtained the geochemical behaviour of the uranium is studied. From a point of view of the geochemistry of the granites under investigation, a comparison of the laws of distribution of the major elements in the 4 ranges shows up a convergence of average composition which was not anticipated by geological and petrographic considerations alone. The statistical and geochemical distribution laws of the total uranium as a function of the petrochemical variations are established. A study of the chemical forms of uranium in the rocks has drawn an attention to the qualitative and quantitative importance of the fraction of this uranium soluble in dilute acids. We have therefore reconsidered on the one hand, the laws of distribution of the insoluble uranium, which represents essentially the uranium fixed in crystalline structures (zircon, allanite...), and we have justified on the other hand the interest presented by the soluble uranium: this, although more complex in character, presents a geochemical unity in post magmatic phenomena which makes possible to find a genetic connection between the uraniferous deposits and the intrusive massifs. Finally we have given a plan of the geochemical cycle of uranium, in which we hope to have provided some more accurate data on the igneous phase. (author)

  5. Geochemical Characteristics of Some peraluminous Younger Granite Masses, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen representative samples of younger granites from Gabal El Mueilha, Gabal Harhagite and GabalQash Amir in the central and south Eastern Desert of Egypt were analyzed for major, trace and rare earth elements. Petrographical and geochemical studies revealed that, Gabal Harhagite is monzogranite, while Gabal El Mueilha and Gabal Qash Amir are syeno- to alkali feldspar granites. They are classified as 1-type peraluminous granite (A/CNK=1.46-1.67), P-poor (P2O5 < 0.07 wt %) and Na2O-rich (? 7.08 wt%) exhibiting differences in their REE contents. Gabal Qash Amir and Gabal El Mueilha are within- plate granite whereas Gabal Harhagite is volcanic arc granite. Peraluminous granite are good source for the uranium, rare metals (Nb-Ta, Be, W) and rare earths (La,Lu, Nd, Dy ,Y) mineralizations are examined for Gabal El Mueilha, Gabal Harhagite and Gabal Qash Amir younger granites. These granites show rare metal contents (Nb = 81, Yb = 20, U = 14, Ta = 25 ppm) and in some rare earth elements (La = 12, Lu = 3, Y = 102, Nd = 17, Dy = 12 ppm). Chondrite-normalized REE diagram shows that Gabal El Mueilha granite samples display strong HREE enrichment relative to LREE which show flat pattern with moderate to strong negative Eu andmalies. On the otherhand Gabal Harhagite and Gabal Qash Amir granite show high enrichment in LREE compared with HREE which desplay slightly falling slope with strong to low negative Eu anomalies. Field radiometric measurements revealed that the radioactivity level up to 34 ppm (eU). at Gabal El Mueilha granite , at Gabal Harhagite granite reach up to 9.5 ppm (eU), while at Gabal Qash Amir granite reach up to 47 ppm (eU).This type of granites assumed to be a specific type for tin and tungestin mineralizations

  6. Intrusive rocks from Polumir and Željin (Serbia): two contrasting granit?id types

    OpenAIRE

    Milenko

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines correlation of the most distinctive features of intrusive rocks from Polumir (granite from Polumir, Polumir granite) and from Željin (Željin granitoid). Although these two intrusions are notable similar in space (10-12 km) and time (beginning of Miocene), they are very different, even contrasting concerning their petrography, genesis and geotectonic. Mineralogy, petrology and chemistry of Polumir granite (P?2.5 km2), and of Željin quartz diorite and tonalite, as well as of...

  7. Distress and Recurrence of Intrusive Thoughts in Younger and Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Magee, Joshua C.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study incorporated a lifespan perspective into existing theories of intrusive thoughts to examine age-related differences in the difficulty controlling intrusive thoughts, the distress following intrusive thought recurrences, and the meanings assigned to these recurrences. Younger (N = 51) and older (N = 49) community adults were randomly assigned to suppress (i.e., keep out of mind) or monitor an intrusive thought. Participants rated their positive and negative affect throughout ...

  8. Characteristics and significance of uranium bearing pan african younger granite in the eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surficial uranium mineralization was discovered in four pan african younger granite plutons in the eastern desert of egypt. The present study revealed great similarity between these plutons both in petrography and geochemistry. They are two-feldspar, two-mica peraluminous granites which have been formed by melting of crustal materials and emplaced during the late stage stage of a late proterozoic orogenic cycle. Radiometric and geochemical investigations indicate that these granites are fertile with respect to U and form a potential target for primary uranium deposits. Four models are suggested to explain the source and mechanism of the surficial uranium mineralization in these granites. The most applicable model is the oxidation of U+4 found in minute disseminated uraninite grains and its subsequent mobilization. This is supported by petrographic and autoradiographic studies. The bearings of the present study on further exploration for uranium deposits in granites of the arabian- Nubian shield in general are discussed

  9. The Rio Dourado Intrusive Suite - 1.88 Ga A-type Granite - Southeastern Amazonian Craton - Mato Grosso - Brazil

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    Márcia Aparecida de Sant’Ana Barros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rio Dourado Intrusive Suite (RDIS is composed of granitic rocks which are exposed in the southeastern AmazonCraton, Central Amazon Province. These granites intruded into the Paleoproterozoic granites of the Vila Rica IntrusiveSuite. The predominantly pyroclastic felsic volcanic rocks of the Iriri Group are coeval and spatially associated with theintrusive granites. Petrographic studies allow us to divide the Rio Dourado granites into: biotite granites, amphibole-bearingbiotite granites and granophyric granites. Modal compositions range from monzo to syenogranites. The oxidized A-typegranite is characterized by FeO/FeO+MgO ranging from 0.8 - 0.95, high contents of FeOT and low contents of CaO, as wellas peraluminous composition. In the tectonic discrimination diagrams, samples of these granites plot in the post-collisionalfield. REE patterns show enrichment in the LREE relative to HREE and negative Eu anomalies. Negative anomalies ofTa and Nb, as well as depletion in the HREE, features which are typical of A-type granites of post-collisional settings, are observed in multi-element diagrams,. Ce, Yb, Nb and Ga contents are transitional between those of A2 and A1-type granites. U-Pbzircon dating by TIMS yielded an age of 1876 ± 39, whereas negative values of ?Nd (-3 to -10 and model ages (TDM between 2.6 and2.8 Ga indicate it was formed by re-melting of older (possibly Archean crust.

  10. Age of Pedra Branca granite (Goias) and possible geotectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rb-Sr geochronologic dating of granites from the Pedra Branca Granite Massif (Nova Roma, Goias) shown an age of 1405 ± 21My. and a questionable initial Sr87/Sr86 ratio of 0,7004 ± 0,006. Rhyolite from the base of the Arai Group is probably of the same age as the granitic intrusion. The 475 ± 19 My. age for the granitic intrusion is evidence of the Brasiliano Cycle imprint in Pedra Branca region. The age attributed to the Pedra Branca Granite is lower than known ages of the Goias tin granites giving rise to new geotectonic interpretations. It is possible that the Pedra Branca Granite represents a low-level intrusion emplaced at the beginning of structuration and deposition of the Arai basin. It may be correlated with granitic intrusions related to a rift stage above mantle hot spots, like the Nigerian tin younger granites. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the radiological consequences of a human intrusion in a granite formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methodology used in France for the evaluation of the radiological consequences associated to a nuclear waste repository in a deep geological formation is the deterministic one. This means that, in addition to the calculations in connection with the ''normal'' scenario, a limited number of ''altered'' scenarios, representing the different families of plausible scenarios and corresponding to the most important consequences resulting from there families, have to be taken into account. Among them, the human intrusion scenario is an important one. In a study performed inside the CEC PAGIS project and also for a french expert group (Goguel group) which carried out a methodologic work for the national site selection procedure, results concerning the quantification of the radiological consequences of a human intrusion have been obtained without attempting at the evaluation of its probability. The intrusion time ranged from 1 000 to 100 000 years and different contamination scenarios were taken into account. It was assumed that the intrusion led to the creation of a 100 cubic meters edge cubic cavity in the immediate vicinity to the repository. Using the description of the Auriat site realized for PAGIS, the calculation was performed in three steps: - calculation of the evolution of the repository until the intrusion time, - computation of the supposed instantaneous new flow distribution after the intrusion, - computation of the dose rate, using the mean volumic activity in the cavity walls and the outgoing flow rate. Three exposure scenarios were considered: - a worker in the mine exposed to by external irradiation and contaminated by inhalation of radioactive materials, -an animal drinking in the vicinity during the mining operation, - gardening after the closure of the mine. With the exception of the worker scenario (the dose rate may reach 10-2 Sv/year, which is comparable with the normal exposure in a granite mine), the other dose rates were found to be quite low

  12. The spatial variation of initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Toki granite, Central Japan. Implications for the intrusion and cooling processes of a granitic pluton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial variation in initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (SrI) in the Toki granite, Central Japan, shows heterogeneity ranging from 0.708942 to 0.710069, which provides information on the intrusion and cooling processes of plutons. The Toki granite has three mineralogy-based rock facies: muscovite-biotite granite (MBG), hornblende-biotite granite (HBG) and biotite granite (BG). Large SrI values were found to be distributed at the western margin (west MBG) and the lithologically central region (central BG), while small SrI values were found at the northeast margin (northeast MBG). Regions with high and low Sr concentrations were also found in the Toki granite. In the Sr-rich samples, SrI (0.708942-0.709789) increases with 100/Sr (0.7-1.5). This geochemical trend extends towards the country sedimentary rocks of the Mino Terrane, which can be interpreted to result from assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) between the original granitic magma and the Mino sedimentary rocks. The SrI values in the Sr-rich regions show a correlation with the Alumina Saturation Index (ASI). In particular, the west MBG, with large SrI values, is classified as a peraluminous granitoid with large ASI, suggesting that the western margin of the pluton was strongly affected by assimilation during the intrusion process. The Sr-poor samples are present both in the central BG, with large SrI values, and in the northeast MBG, with small SrI values. The Sr-poor samples have small ASI and large differentiation indices, indicating that the central BG and the northeast MBG were generated either by different AFC process with different amounts of contaminants or by the intrusion and fractionation of different source magma with different SrI values. Overall, the geochemical spatial variations found in the Toki granite can be explained by various degrees of assimilation and fractional crystallization in the magma chamber and/or multi-stage intrusions with different degrees of crystallization of plural source magmas with different SrI values. Previous petrographical and thermochronological studies revealed that the Toki granite effectively cooled from the wall at the western margin in the cooling stage at temperatures below 500°C. Larger SrI and ASI values found in this study corresponded to the western margins where the earlier and more rapid cooling took place, indicating that the Toki granite was preferentially cooled from the peraluminous marginal regions where the assimilation of country rock was the most extensive. (author)

  13. Contribution to uranium geochemistry in intrusive granites; Contribution a la geochimie de l'uranium dans les granites intrusifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulomb, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-01-15

    This work aims to define the position of a certain number of French granitic deposits within the field of the geochemistry of granites in general, and of the geochemistry of uranium in particular. The regions concerned are: - 3 French Hercynian ranges, in the Vendee, in Brittany and in the Morvan, - 1 African range, probably precambrian, of the Hoggar. For each range, the petrochemical framework is first of all determined and then the degree of chemical homogeneity of the rocks is evaluated. In the petrochemical groups thus obtained the geochemical behaviour of the uranium is studied. From a point of view of the geochemistry of the granites under investigation, a comparison of the laws of distribution of the major elements in the 4 ranges shows up a convergence of average composition which was not anticipated by geological and petrographic considerations alone. The statistical and geochemical distribution laws of the total uranium as a function of the petrochemical variations are established. A study of the chemical forms of uranium in the rocks has drawn an attention to the qualitative and quantitative importance of the fraction of this uranium soluble in dilute acids. We have therefore reconsidered on the one hand, the laws of distribution of the insoluble uranium, which represents essentially the uranium fixed in crystalline structures (zircon, allanite...), and we have justified on the other hand the interest presented by the soluble uranium: this, although more complex in character, presents a geochemical unity in post magmatic phenomena which makes possible to find a genetic connection between the uraniferous deposits and the intrusive massifs. Finally we have given a plan of the geochemical cycle of uranium, in which we hope to have provided some more accurate data on the igneous phase. (author) [French] Le but du travail presente est de situer sur le plan de la geochimie des granites en general, sur le plan de la geochimie de l'uranium en particulier, un certain nombre de massifs granitiques francais: - 3 massifs hercyniens francais, en Vendee, en Bretagne et dans le Morvan, - 1 massif africain, probablement precambrien, du Hoggar. Dans chaque massif, nous determinons en premier lieu le cadre petrochimique et evaluons le degre d'homogeneite chimique des roches. Dans les familles petrochimiques ainsi determinees, nous etudions le comportement geochimique de l'uranium. Du point de vue de la geochimie des granites etudies, le comparaison des lois de repartition des elements majeurs fait apparaitre dans les 4 massifs une convergence de composition moyenne que ne laissaient pas prevoir la geologie et la petrographie. Nous etablissons les lois de repartition statistiques et geographiques de l'uranium total en fonction des variations petrochimiques. L'etude des formes de l'uranium a l'interieur des roches a attire notre attention sur l'importance qualitative et quantitative de la fraction de cet uranium soluble dans les acides dilues. Nous reprenons donc, d'un cote les lois de repartition de l'uranium insoluble qui represente pratiquement l'uranium inclus dans les structures cristallines (zircon, allanite...) et justifions d'un autre cote l'interet presente par l'uranium soluble qui, malgre un caractere plus complexe, permet par son unite geochimique dans les phenomenes postmagmatiques, de trouver une liaison genetique entre les gisements uraniferes et les massifs intrusifs. Nous presentons enfin, un schema du cycle geochimique de l'uranium dans lequel nous esperons avoir pu apporter quelques precisions sur la phase ignee. (auteur)

  14. Preliminary Nd isotopic data for the Anicuns-Itaberai sequence, associated orthogeneisses, and granite intrusions, Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Anicuns-Itaberai supracrustals are exposed along a ca. 90 km long N-S belt in the central-western part of Goias. Based on field and structural characteristics, previous studies have compared it to Archaean greenstone belt associations, (Barbosa 1987, Nunes 1990). Recent work by Pimentel et al. (1996, 2000a, b) have challenged this model and suggested a much younger age for these rocks. Granitoids exposed in the vicinities of Turvania and Choupana have TDM model ages between 0.94 and 1.13 Ga and yielded a Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron of 863±97 Ma with ?ND(T) of ca. +4 (Pimentel et al. 2000a). Metavolcanic rocks exposed to the southeast of the Anicuns-Itaberai sequence, in the vicinities of Pontalina, have also yielded a Neoproterozoic Sm-Nd isochron age (830±9 Ma) and ?ND(T) of +3.1 (Pimentel et al. 2000b). These rocks, therefore, are part of the Neoproterozoic Goias Magmatic Arc, raising the question wether the neighbouring Anicuns Sequence is also part of the juvenile arc. In this paper we present the first Sm-Nd isotopic data for supracrustal rocks of the northern part of the Anicuns-Itaberai Sequence as well as for associated regional gneisses, and intrusive granites and diorites (au)

  15. Magmatic associations of Cape granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-orogenic to orogenic calcalkaline peraluminous magmatism was important during the early stages of the geochemical evolution of the Cape granites. This stage was followed by late orogenic to post-orogenic subalkaline and eventually post orogenic transitional alkaline and alkaline magmatism. The intrusion of older peraluminous granites was the result of the subduction of continental crust and remelting of sedimentary material. Evidence suggesting the intrusion of granites alder than even the oldest Cape granite was found. Approximately sixty million years after the major period of peraluminous magmatism, emplacement of subalkaline magmas took place. The intrusion of the different subalkaline granites was controlled by continued re-activation along weak zones parallel to the subduction zone, causing pressure release and remelting. A mantle component became more important during the intrusion of the younger granites. The geochemical characteristics of some of the younger granites may be explained by remelting of mantle-metasomatized oceanic crust. This model explains the mature island arc geochemistry exhibited even by the peraluminous leucogranites. 3 refs

  16. Geochemical Characteristics and Chemical Electron Microprobe U-Pb-Th Dating of Pitchblende Mineralization from Gabal Gattar Younger Granite, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan A. A. Shahin

    2014-01-01

    Pitchblende mineralization was studied in the younger granite samples collected from Gabal Gattar, north Eastern Desert, Egypt using electron scanning microscope (ESM) and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA). This study revealed that this pitchblende contains significant Zr content reaching up to (66.80% ZrO2), which suggests that volcanic rocks were probably the source of such a deposit. High level emplaced high-K Calc-alkaline plutons as Qattar granite may have bee...

  17. Intrusion of basaltic magma into a crystallizing granitic magma chamber: The Cordillera del Paine pluton in southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Peter J.

    1991-10-01

    The Cordillera del Paine pluton in the southernmost Andes of Chile represents a deeply dissected magma chamber where mafic magma intruded into crystallizing granitic magma. Throughout much of the 10x15 km pluton, there is a sharp and continuous boundary at a remarkably constant elevation of 1,100 m that separates granitic rocks (Cordillera del Paine or CP granite: 69 77% SiO2) which make up the upper levels of the pluton from mafic and comingled rocks (Paine Mafic Complex or PMC: 45 60% SiO2) which dominate the lower exposures of the pluton. Chilled, crenulate, disrupted contacts of mafic rock against granite demonstrate that partly crystallized granite was intruded by mafic magma which solidified prior to complete crystallization of the granitic magma. The boundary at 1,100 m was a large and stable density contrast between the denser, hotter mafic magma and cooler granitic magma. The granitic magma was more solidified near the margins of the chamber when mafic intrusion occurred, and the PMC is less disrupted by granites there. Near the pluton margins, the PMC grades upward irregularly from cumulate gabbros to monzodiorites. Mafic magma differentiated largely by fractional crystallization as indicated by the presence of cumulate rocks and by the low levels of compatible elements in most PMC rocks. The compositional gap between the PMC and CP granite indicates that mixing (blending) of granitic magma into the mafic magma was less important, although it is apparent from mineral assemblages in mafic rocks. Granitic magma may have incorporated small amounts of mafic liquid that had evolved to >60% SiO2 by crystallization. Mixing was inhibited by the extent of crystallization of the granite, and by the thermal contrast and the stable density contrast between the magmas. PMC gabbros display disequilibrium mineral assemblages including early formed zoned olivine (with orthopyroxene coronas), clinopyroxene, calcic plagioclase and paragasite and later-formed amphibole, sodic plagioclase, mica and quartz. The early formed gabbroic minerals (and their coronas) are very similar to phenocrysts in late basaltic dikes that cut the upper levels of the CP granite. The inferred parental magmas of both dikes and gabbros were very similar to subalkaline basalts of the Patagonian Plateau that erupted at about the same time, 35 km to the east. Mafic and silicic magmas at Cordillera del Paine are consanguineous, as demonstrated by alkalinity and trace-element ratios. However, the contemporaneity of mafic and silicic magmas precludes a parent-daughter relationship. The granitic magma most likely was derived by differentiation of mafic magmas that were similar to those that later intruded it. Or, the granitic magma may have been contaminated by mafic magmas similar to the PMC magmas before its shallow emplacement. Mixing would be favored at deeper levels when the cooling rate was lower and the granitic magma was less solidified.

  18. Characteristics of pegmatoidal granite exposed near Bayalan, Ajmer district, Rajasthan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nilanjan Dasgupta; Taritwan Pal; Joydeep Sen; Tamoghno Ghosh

    2011-08-01

    The study involves the characterization of pegmatoidal granite, southeast of Beawar, Ajmer district, Rajasthan. Earlier researchers had described this granite as part of the BGC, basement to the Bhim Group of the Delhi Super Group rocks. However, the present study indicates that it is younger than the rocks of Bhim Group of South Delhi Fold Belt, into which it is intrusive. The intrusion is structurally controlled and the outcrop pattern is phacolithic. The granite had intruded post-D2 deformation of the Delhi orogeny along the axial planes of D2 folds. The intrusion has also resulted in the formation of a contact aureole about the calc gneisses.

  19. Advective heat transfer and fabric development in a shallow crustal intrusive granite – the case of Proterozoic Vellaturu granite, south India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dilip Saha; Sukanya Chakraborti

    2007-10-01

    Syntectonic plutons emplaced in shallow crust often contain intermediate-to low-temperature deformation microstructures but lack a high-temperature, subsolidus deformation fabric,although the relict magmatic fabric is preserved. The Proterozoic Vellaturu granite emplaced at the eastern margin of the northern Nallamalai fold belt,south India during the late phase of regional deformation has a common occurrence of intermediate-to low-temperature deformation fabric, superimposed over magmatic fabric with an internally complex pattern. But high-T subsolidus deformation microstructure and fabric are absent in this pluton.The main crystal plastic deformation and ?uid enhanced reaction softening was concentrated along the margin of the granite body. Resulting granite mylonites show Y-maximum c axis fabric in completely recrystallized quartz ribbons,dynamic recrystallization of perthites,and myrmekite indicative of fabric development under intermediate temperature (?500-400° C). The weakly-deformed interior shows myrmekite,feldspar microfracturing and limited bulging recrystallization of quartz.The abundance of prism subgrain boundaries is indicative of continuing deformation through low-temperature(?300° C).The relative rates of cooling in ?uenced by advective heat transfer and deformation of the pluton seem to control the overall subsolidus fabric development.The rapid advective heat transfer from the interior in the early stages of subsolidus cooling was followed by slow cooling through intermediate temperature window as a well-developed phyllosilicate rich mylonitic skin around the granite body slowed down conductive heat loss.Low-T crystal plastic deformation of quartz was effected at a late stage of cooling and deformation of the shallow crustal granite body emplaced within the greenschist facies Nallamalai rocks.

  20. Spatial association of Neoproterozoic continental arc I-type and post-collision A-type granitoids in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: The Wadi Al-Baroud Older and Younger Granites, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bialy, Mohammed Zaky; Omar, Mohamed M.

    2015-03-01

    The Neoproterozoic basement of Wadi Al-Baroud area located at the northern Eastern Desert (ED) of Egypt, at the northernmost segment of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), is comprised of two different granite suites. A large batholith ascribed to the Older Granite suite, extends across the boundary between the northern and central ED, and is intruded by two isolated plutons of the Younger Granite suite. The Older Granite suite includes gray-colored, massive to gneissose, granodiorites to tonalites typically containing microgranular mafic enclaves. These are calc-alkaline, magensian, metaluminous I-type granitoids, with high Sr contents, and depleted in Rb, Nb, Y and REE. The Younger Granite suite plutons are pink to red, biotite and two-mica monzogranites. These are peraluminous A-type granites exhibiting a high-K calc-alkaline nature, and varying between ferroan and magnesian type granites. The A-type granites of the Younger Granite suite are enriched in Ga, Y, HFSE and REE elements, and depleted in the LILE elements Ba, Sr and Rb and transition metals Cr, Ni, Co, Sc and V. Magmatic saturation temperatures indicate early crystallization of apatite at high temperature in the metaluminous I-type Older Granite suite, while in the peraluminous A-type Younger Granites its crystallization occurs later after separation of zircon and monazite. The plutons of the Younger Granite suite were generated during the post-collisional stage of the northern ANS, following collision between the juvenile ANS crust and the pre-Neoproterozoic continental blocks of west Gondwana. The emplacement of the Older Granite suite took place earlier, within a normally mature continental arc prior to the collision. These pre-collision granitoids evolved through assimilation-fractional crystallization processes from mantle-derived parental magmas, which have interacted with crustal materials during ascent and storage. The post-collisional Younger Granite suite seems to have been derived by high degree, partial melting of metasedimentary sources, particularly psammitic and pelitic metasediments.

  1. GRANNY, a data bank of chemical analyses of Laramide and younger high-silica rhyolites and granites from Colorado and north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigerwald, Celia H.; Mutschler, Felix E.; Ludington, Steve

    1983-01-01

    GRANNY is a data bank containing information on 507 chemically analyzed Laramide or younger high-silica rhyolites and granites from Colorado and north-central New Mexico. The data were compiled from both published and unpublished sources. The data bank is designed to aid in the recognition of igneous rocks with a high exploration potential for the discovery of molybdenum (and other lithophile element) deposits. Information on source reference, geographic location, age, mineralogic and petrologic characteristics, major constituent analyses, and trace element analyses for each sample are given. The data bank is available in two formats: 1) paper- or microfiche-hardcopy, and 2) fixed format computer readable magnetic tape.

  2. Late Cretaceous Middle Fork caldera and its resurgent granite porphyry intrusion, east-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C. R.; Dusel-Bacon, C.; Aleinikoff, J. N.; Slack, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    Named for the Middle Fork of the North Fork of the Fortymile River, the Middle Fork caldera encompasses a 10 x 20 km area of rhyolite welded tuff and granite porphyry ~100 km west of the Yukon border. Intracaldera tuff has ?4 mm quartz and feldspar phenocrysts and cm-sized fiamme; its maximum exposed thickness is 850 m. Less densely welded tuff near the caldera margins locally contains 1-2 cm K-feldspar megacrysts and pumice clasts to 6 cm. Zircon from intracaldera tuff yields a SHRIMP-RG U-Pb age of 68.7 ± 1.1 Ma (all ages 95% confidence). Granite porphyry occupies much of an 8 x 12 km area having 650 m of relief within the western part of the caldera fill. Zircon from the porphyry gives a SHRIMP-RG U-Pb age of 68.4 ± 1.0 Ma. These ages agree with a previous 40Ar/39Ar biotite age of 69.1 ± 0.5 Ma for proximal outflow tuff. The crystal-rich intracaldera tuff contains embayed quartz, plagioclase>K-feldspar, biotite, and Fe-Ti oxide phenocrysts in a very fine-grained crystalline groundmass. The porphyry carries 40-50% of larger phenocrysts of the same phases (skeletal quartz to 1 cm; K-feldspar to 2 cm, rarely to 4 cm) in a fine-grained groundmass characterized by abundant 50-100 ?m quartz. Compositions of 3 tuff and 3 porphyry samples overlap, form a limited differentiation series at 69-72% SiO2, have arc geochemical signatures, and yield subparallel chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns with light REE enrichment, concave-upward heavy REE, and small negative Eu anomalies. Although their phenocrysts differ in size (owing to fragmentation of crystals in the tuff) and abundance, the similar mineralogy, composition (in spite of crystal concentration in the tuff), and indistinguishable ages of the tuff and porphyry indicate that the magmas were closely related. A rare magmatic enclave (54% SiO2, arc geochemical signature) in the porphyry may be similar to parental magma and provides evidence of mafic magma and thermal input. The porphyry is interpreted to have been exposed by erosion of thick intracaldera tuff from an asymmetric resurgent dome. The Middle Fork of the North Fork of the Fortymile River cuts an arcuate valley into and around the caldera on the west and north, and may have cut down from an original caldera moat. Proximal outflow tuff, and thus the 69 Ma land surface, remains at the west margin of the caldera structure. The Middle Fork caldera lies within a region of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and Mesozoic plutons bounded by northeast-trending faults. To the northwest, Cretaceous plutonic rocks are widely exposed, indicating greater exhumation. The Middle Fork is a relatively well preserved caldera within a broad region of Alaska and adjacent Yukon that contains Late Cretaceous plutons and, in the less deeply exhumed blocks, silicic volcanic rocks.

  3. Determination of concentrations and isotopic ratio of uranium in groundwaters drawn from two deep wells drilled in granitic rocks belonging to Itu intrusive suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the first results obtained in the determination of dissolved uranium concentrations and (234U/238U) activity ratios of groundwaters drawn from two deep wells drilled in granitic rocks belonging to Itu Intrusive Suite, which is located at eastern Sao Paulo State. One of the wells, whose groundwaters have been analyzed, is located in Salto Town, while the other one is located in Itu Town. The groundwater sampling is monthly and begun on September, 2004, in order to investigate possible sazonal variations. The alpha spectrometry technique, associated with isotopic dilution method, has been used for these determinations. The data obtained up to now show that the groundwaters from Salto present uranium concentrations significantly lower ((0.098 ± 0.007) - (0.17 ± 0.01) ng/g) than those from Itu ((0.22 ± 0.02) - (0.31 ± 0.02) ng/g). The 234U and 238U isotopes of the investigated groundwaters from both wells are in radioactive disequilibrium, with (234U/238U) activity ratios systematically higher than unity. Although the groundwaters from Salto well are characterized by low 234U and 238U specific activities they present higher (234U/238U) activity ratios than those from Itu. The observed differences on the behavior of uranium concentrations and (234U/238U) activity ratios in the groundwaters from the two wells are very probably due to the large variety of granitic rocks from Itu Intrusive Suite, which are characterized by distinct uranium abundances. (author)

  4. Implications of Late Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages of granitic intrusions cutting ophiolitic and volcanogenic rocks for the assembly of the Tauride allochthon in SE Anatolia (Helete area, Kahramanmara? Region, SE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurlu, Nusret; Parlak, Osman; Robertson, Alastair; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2015-07-01

    An assemblage of NE-SW-trending, imbricate thrust slices (c. 26 km E-W long × 6.3 km N-S) of granitic rocks, basic-felsic volcanogenic rocks (Helete volcanics), ophiolitic rocks (Meydan ophiolite) and melange (Meydan melange) is exposed near the Tauride thrust front in SE Anatolia. The volcanogenic rocks were previously assumed to be Eocene because of associated Nummulitic limestones. However, ion probe U-Pb dating of zircons extracted from the intrusive granitic rocks yielded ages of 92.9 ± 2.2-83.1 ± 1.5 Ma (Cenomanian-Campanian). The Helete volcanic unit and the overlying Meydan ophiolitic rocks both are intruded by granitic rocks of similar age and composition. Structurally underlying ophiolite-related melange includes similar-aged, but fragmented granitic intrusions. Major, trace element and rare earth element analyses coupled with electron microprobe analysis of the granitic rocks show that they are metaluminus to peraluminus and calc-alkaline in composition. A magmatic arc setting is inferred from a combination of tectonomagmatic discrimination, ocean ridge granite-normalized multi-element patterns and biotite geochemistry. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data further suggest that the granitoid rocks were derived from variably mixed mantle and crustal sources. Granitic rocks cutting the intrusive rocks are inferred to have crystallized at ~5-16 km depth. The volcanogenic rocks and granitic rocks originated in a supra-subduction zone setting that was widely developed throughout SE Anatolia. Initial tectonic assembly took place during the Late Cretaceous probably related to northward subduction and accretion beneath the Tauride continent (Keban and Malatya platforms). Initial tectonic assembly was followed by exhumation and then transgression by shelf-depth Nummulitic limestones during Mid-Eocene, as documented in several key outcrops. Final emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin took place during the Early Miocene.

  5. Extreme U-Th disequilibrium in rift-related basalts, rhyolites and granophyric granite and the timescale of rhyolite generation, intrusion and crystallization at Alid volcanic center, Eritrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Charlier, B.L.A.; Clynne, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Rhyolite pumices and co-erupted granophyric (granite) xenoliths yield evidence for rapid magma generation and crystallization prior to their eruption at 15.2 ?? 2.9 ka at the Alid volcanic center in the Danikil Depression, Eritrea. Whole-rock U and Th isotopic analyses show 230 Th excesses up to 50% in basalts crystallization of the Alid granophyre occurred rapidly and at shallow depths at ???20-25 ka, as confirmed by analyses of mineral separates and ion microprobe data on individual zircons. Evidently, 30 000-50 000 years were required for extraction of basalt from its mantle source region, subsequent crystallization and melt extraction to form silicic magmas, and final crystallization of the shallow intrusion. The granophyre was then ejected during eruption of the comagmatic rhyolites. ?? 2006 Oxford University Press.

  6. From explosive breccia to unidirectional solidification textures: magmatic evolution of a phosphorus- and fluorine-rich granite system (Podlesí, Krušné hory Mts., Czech Republic)

    OpenAIRE

    Breiter K

    2002-01-01

    The Podlesí granite stock in western Krušné hory Mts. represents the most highly fractionated part of the late Variscan Nejdek-Eibenstock pluton. Internal fabric of the stock has been studied in several boreholes up to 350 m deep. The stock is composed of two tongue-like bodies of albite-protolithionite-topaz granite (stock granite) coalesced at depth, which were emplaced into Ordovician phyllite and biotite granite of younger intrusive complex (YIC) of the Nejdek pluton. The uppermost part o...

  7. 234U and 238U behavior in groundwaters extracted from fractured granitic bodies of Itu intrusive suite (SP-Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the first results of the determination of dissolved uranium concentrations, as well as (234U/238U) activity ratios of groundwaters extracted from deep wells drilled in fractured rocks of Itu Intrusive Suite (Sao Paulo State) are presented. The analytical method used in this study is alpha spectrometry, that allows determining uranium activity concentrations, as well as (234U/238U) activity ratios with high precision and accuracy levels. (author)

  8. Occurrence of ? 1Ga Jambugoda granite in Aravali Craton, a tectonic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The granites and gneisses of southern parts of Aravali Mountain Belt (AMB), NW India, are referred to as Godhra Granite and Gneiss and have an intrusive relationship with the surrounding metasedimentary rocks, which belong to the Lunavada Group in the north and Champaner Group in the south (Fig.1). These two groups comprise the younger part of the Aravali Supergroup. Two granite varieties, coarse and fine, are commonly observed and occupy an area of about 5000 km2. The coarse-grained granite is grayish and porphyritic in nature. It consists phenocrysts of feldspar and quartz, and abundant biotite. Fine grained granite is commonly found to occur in association with coarse grained granite; at places, the former is seen to have an intrusive relationship with the latter. Available age data information is scant, and is mainly based on Rb-Sr wholerock methods. In spite of these limitations, the available data indicate that the granitoids might comprise two or more age groupings. Published Rb-Sr ages for various plutons include Mt. Abu granite 735 ± 15 Ma , Godhra granite 955 ± 20 Ma, Sendra granite 966 ± 250 Ma, and Ambaji granite ?1228 Ma. Godhra granite assumes importance due to its proximity to the Son-Narmada North Fault (SnF) and is believed to have formed during the growth of the Indian shield in Mesoproterozoic times. Further ?1 Ga granites play a vital role in global tectonics therefore an attempt has been made to decipher various episodes of granitic evolutionary events in these parts of the subcontinent

  9. The petrogenesis of a wolframite-bearing greisen in the Vykmanov granite stock, Western Krušné hory pluton (Czech Republic)

    OpenAIRE

    Štemprok M; Pivec E; Langrová A

    2005-01-01

    A wolframite-bearing greisen at Vykmanov, near Ostrov (Czech Republic) occurs at the contact of a small granite stock belonging to the Late Variscan Younger Intrusive Complex (YIC) of the Western Krušné hory/Erzgebirge pluton. The stock emerges as an outcrop of 0.8 × 0.3 km size from a hidden granite body in the eastern continuation of the Nejdek-Eibenstock granite massif. The lens-like greisen body consists mainly of quartz, topaz, protolithionite, and muscovite; it also contains wolframite ...

  10. Geology, Petrology and Uranium Distribution in Granitic Masses of Wads Faliq El-Sahl and Faliq El-Waar, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faliq El-Sahl and Faliq El-Waar granitic plutons are located in the north Eastern Desert. The field studies clarified that the younger granites are related to successive magmatic intrusions forming two main granitic masses and pegmatite within both granites. Petrographically, the main rock types of each of the two masses are monzogranites and syenogranites. Pegmatites could be classified into mineralized pegmatites within the syenogranites and non-mineralized pegmatites which are distributed within the monzogranites. The main fault trends cutting through the study area in decreasing order of predominance are NNW- SSE, NW-SE, NE-SW and NNE-SSW. The younger granites are dissected by four major sets of joints, in decreasing order of abundance striking NW-SE, NE-SW, NNW-SSE and ENE-WSW. Geochemically, the studied granites originate from peraluminous subalkaline magma considered as post orogenic within plate granites, intruded in a crust of thickness between 22 km and 30 km; with Rb/Sr ratios range from 0.1 to 1.0 during crystallization of monzogranites but Rb/Sr ratios range from 1.0 to 10.0 during crystallization of syenogranites. The geochemical ratios of the studied younger granites show similarity to a great extent suggesting that these granites represent outcrops of one batholith and originate by magmatic differentiation of the same magma. The syenogranites could be considered as uraniferous granites (U 19-14 ppm, Th 31 -26 ppm) originated from highly fractionated U-rich magma. In monzogranites uranium exist only in zircon, sphene and apatite. Uranium essentially concentrated during the magmatic stage in apatite and zircon. Both meteoric water and hydrothermal solutions allowed to liberate U+6 and to be redepositing along micro fractures supported by increasing uranium content in the secondary hematite and fluorite. Pegmatites show higher U-contents relative to both granite types with presence of uranophane mineral within the syenogranites

  11. El Granito Calasuya: un intrusivo alcalifeldespático postcolisional en el batolito de Sierra Norte-Ambargasta, Córdoba / The Calasuya Granite: a postcollisional alkalifeldspar intrusive in the Sierra Norte-Ambargasta batholith, Córdoba province

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Javier, Elortegui Palacios; Raúl, Lira; Fernanda, Poklepovic; Michael J., Dorais.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La zona central del extenso batolito Sierra Norte-Ambargasta, en el bloque más oriental de las Sierras Pampeanas orientales, está representada por granitoides de arco magmático tipo I (granodioritas, monzogranitos, pórfidos dacíticos y riolíticos denominados serie La Isla - Cerro de los Burros), int [...] ruidos por cuerpos menores félsicos postcolisionales, químicamente más evolucionados (denominados unidades Puesto de Los Caminos y Cerro Baritina), todos pertenecientes al Neoproterozoico- Cámbrico inferior. Nueva información geológica y geoquímica de la región centro-oriental del mismo batolito permitió identificar un plutón de composición alcalifeldespática, denominado Granito Calasuya, el primero de esta naturaleza en el batolito. Su mineralogía distintiva la constituyen la composición albítica de la plagioclasa magmática (An Abstract in english The central-western portion of the extended Sierra Norte-Ambargasta batholith, in the easternmost block of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas, is largely characterized by pre-collisional I-type magmatic arc granitoids (granodiorites, monzogranites, dacite and rhyolite porphyries named La Isla - Cerro de [...] los Burros series), and by smaller sized postcollisional felsic intrusives of higher evolved chemistry (named Puesto de los Caminos and Cerro Baritina units), all of which crystallized along the Late Proterozoic -Lower Cambrian time span. New geological and geochemical data from the central and oriental areas of the batholith allowed to identify an intrusive body of alkalifeldspar composition (the Calasuya granite), the first of its type in the batholith. Its distinctive mineralogy is highlighted by the albitic composition of magmatic plagioclase (molar An

  12. El Granito Calasuya: un intrusivo alcalifeldespático postcolisional en el batolito de Sierra Norte-Ambargasta, Córdoba The Calasuya Granite: a postcollisional alkalifeldspar intrusive in the Sierra Norte-Ambargasta batholith, Córdoba province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Elortegui Palacios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La zona central del extenso batolito Sierra Norte-Ambargasta, en el bloque más oriental de las Sierras Pampeanas orientales, está representada por granitoides de arco magmático tipo I (granodioritas, monzogranitos, pórfidos dacíticos y riolíticos denominados serie La Isla - Cerro de los Burros, intruidos por cuerpos menores félsicos postcolisionales, químicamente más evolucionados (denominados unidades Puesto de Los Caminos y Cerro Baritina, todos pertenecientes al Neoproterozoico- Cámbrico inferior. Nueva información geológica y geoquímica de la región centro-oriental del mismo batolito permitió identificar un plutón de composición alcalifeldespática, denominado Granito Calasuya, el primero de esta naturaleza en el batolito. Su mineralogía distintiva la constituyen la composición albítica de la plagioclasa magmática (An The central-western portion of the extended Sierra Norte-Ambargasta batholith, in the easternmost block of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas, is largely characterized by pre-collisional I-type magmatic arc granitoids (granodiorites, monzogranites, dacite and rhyolite porphyries named La Isla - Cerro de los Burros series, and by smaller sized postcollisional felsic intrusives of higher evolved chemistry (named Puesto de los Caminos and Cerro Baritina units, all of which crystallized along the Late Proterozoic -Lower Cambrian time span. New geological and geochemical data from the central and oriental areas of the batholith allowed to identify an intrusive body of alkalifeldspar composition (the Calasuya granite, the first of its type in the batholith. Its distinctive mineralogy is highlighted by the albitic composition of magmatic plagioclase (molar An < 6 %, the high #Fe (0.97 of accessory biotite, the presence of accessory late magmatic fluorite, and the conspicuous postmagmatic albitization process. Its highly fractionated nature is shown by high SiO2 and low CaO, MgO, TiO2, MnO and Fe2O3(t contents, also evidenced by Rb, Y and Th enrichment, and Sr, Ba and Zr depletion. The total REE content is low, showing asymmetric spider-type diagrams with predominance of LREE over HREE; positive Ce/Ce* anomalies as well as deep negative Eu/Eu* are also remarkable characteristics of this pluton. The Zr+Nb+Ce+Y versus Ga/Al ratio unequivocally displays its I-type highly fractionated signature. According to some field and geochemical patterns, the Calasuya granite gathers similarities with granites of the Puesto de los Caminos unit, which groups highly evolved postcollisional epizonal granitoids. Notwithstanding, despite these evidences, REE patterns and its accessory mineralogy reveal more affinity with the Cerro Baritina unit which is represented by Lower Cambrian syenogranitic aplites, interpreted together with other highly evolved granitoids as indicators of the Pampean orogeny closure.

  13. Quartz And Zircon as markers of the magmatic-hydrothermal evolution of the Antônio Vicente Granite, Velho Guilherme Intrusive Suite, Carajás Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Nery Lamarão

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available the Antônio Vicente Granite, Carajás Province, by scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL images. In the lessevolved rocks, containing amphibole and biotite, well developed anhedral to subhedral, luminescent and intensely fractured crystalsdominate, named Qz1. Hydrothermal fluids that percolated the granite modified the magmatic quartz (Qz1 into Qz2 and Qz3 throughprocesses of alteration, dissolution and recrystallization, with these changes much more evident in the intensely altered syenograniterocks. Qz4 constitute medium-to-coarse grained crystals, usually luminescent and comparatively little fractured. Its occurrence is restrictedto strongly hydrotermalized syenogranite rocks and bodies of greisens, suggesting the beginning of the greisenization process.In the greisens, medium-to-coarse grained euhedral, concentrically zoned quartz crystals dominate, with typical features of hydrothermalorigin (Qz5. Fine crystals of zoned cassiterite (? 100 ?m are common and fill cavities in the types Qz4 and Qz5. Zircon crystalsdominantly anhedral, corroded, with the highest contents of Hf and the lower Zr/Hf ratios belong to more evolved and hydrothermallyaltered rocks and to associated greisens, both carriers of Sn mineralization. This fact suggests that the geochemical signature of zircon,especially Zr/Hf ratio, can be used for the preliminary assessment of metallogenic potential of tin granites.

  14. The Encantada Granite: registration of a peraluminous intrusion in the Rondonian Province - San Ignacio, in SW Amazonic Craton, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brena Verginassi do Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Encantada Granite occurs on the extreme southwest of the state of Mato Grosso, SW of the Amazonian Craton, near the border of Brasil/Bolívia. It corresponds to an body oriented to NNW direction that intruded metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. It consists of leucogranites with monzo- to sienogranitic composition, marked by prominent schistosity. It is characterized by equigranular to porphyritic inequigranular texture, and composed of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, muscovite and biotite with garnet, zircon, allanite and opaque minerals. Chlorite and epidote are the most common secondary minerals. The geochemical study allows the classification of the magmatism as having acid character, sub-alkaline, high-potassium-calc-alkaline to shoshonitic type. These rocks have alumina index saturation higher than 1, with normative corundum, and thus classified as peraluminous granite. Due to the reflection of the excess of aluminium, they have various aluminous phases, mainly muscovite, biotite and garnet; presents typical pattern of calc-alkaline rocks rich in potassium with enrichment of light ETRs over the heavy ones. The collected data allows to consider that the Encantada Granite rocks were generated from the partial melting of crustal rocks of pelitic composition.

  15. Geochemistry of granitic rocks in Indian cratons, a prelude for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peninsular India constitutes Archaean continental nuclei, supercrustals episodic granitic intrusive and effusives, mobile belts and all are welded together by rifts and sutures. The episodic nature of granitic magmatism is well represented with peak ages recorded around 470, 1100, 1800, 2200, 2500, 3100, 3300, 3500 Ma (1) and played a vital role in crustal growth of Peninsular Indian shield similar to the world wide crustal evolution during the Proterozoic times. These cratonic blocks are stabilized and formed basement for Proterozoic basins. This granite related magmatic events include juvenile granites and reactivated gneisses in several parts of the shield areas. These accretions brought metals from mantle and also helped in their remobilization from early formed crustal blocks. Large Ion Lithoplile elements including U, Th and K thus added to the crust, later formed the potential source for QPC, unconformity related uranium deposits. In this paper, geochemical and petrogenetic evolution of granites of Dharwar, Basta, Sighbhum and Bundelkhand cratons of various ages are presented with an emphasis to narrow down the target areas for uranium exploration. The late phase granites of crustal derived with A and S type characters occurring as younger variants in the craton are favourable horizons for uranium exploration. (author)

  16. Petrogenesis of the gold bearing Zarrin granite

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, Mohammed-Vali; Omrani, Jafar; Moritz, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Zarrin granite intrusion is located in the Central Iran, to west of Chapedoni and Posht-e-Badam faults. It consists of three separate outcrops situated at the northern end of a long mountain range, which is comprised of Mesozoic rocks. Lithologically the intrusion contains granites as well as, gneisses (?) and aplites. Petrographic and geochemical evidence strongly suggest that they are cogenetic. High aluminum contents and other characteristics of these rocks, as well as petrographic evidenc...

  17. Granites petrology, structure, geological setting, and metallogeny

    CERN Document Server

    Nédélec, Anne; Bowden, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Granites are emblematic rocks developed from a magma that crystallized in the Earth’s crust. They ultimately outcrop at the surface worldwide. This book, translated and updated from the original French edition Pétrologie des Granites (2011) is a modern presentation of granitic rocks from magma genesis to their crystallization at a higher level into the crust. Segregation from the source, magma ascent and shapes of granitic intrusions are also discussed, as well as the eventual formation of hybrid rocks by mingling/mixing processes and the thermomechanical aspects in country rocks around granite plutons. Modern techniques for structural studies of granites are detailed extensively. Granites are considered in their geological spatial and temporal frame, in relation with plate tectonics and Earth history from the Archaean eon. A chapter on granite metallogeny explains how elements of economic interest are concentrated during magma crystallization, and examples of Sn, Cu, F and U ore deposits are presented. Mi...

  18. Interacción termal entre magmas graníticos laramídicos y rocas encajonantes mesoproterozoicas: Historia de enfriamiento de intrusivos de la Sierrita Blanca, NW Sonora / Thermal interaction between Laramide granitic magmas and Mesoproterozoic country rocks: thermochronology of intrusives of Sierrita Blanca, NW Sonora

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mónica A., Enríquez-Castillo; Alexander, Iriondo; Gabriel, Chávez-Cabello; Michael J., Kunk.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Un estudio termocronológico semi-cuantitativo, combinando técnicas geocronológicas de U-Pb y 40Ar/39Ar, permitió evaluar el fenómeno de cristalización y posterior enfriamiento del cuerpo intrusivo laramídico Sierrita Blanca, así como el efecto termal del mismo en las rocas encajonantes mesoproterozo [...] icas (~1.1 Ga) denominadas granito Murrieta. La disparidad en edades U-Pb en zircones para dos muestras del granito Sierrita Blanca (72.6 ± 1.2 Ma y 69.7 ± 1.0 Ma) pudiera estar asociada al enfriamiento más rápido del magma en la zona de contacto con el encajonante mesoproterozoico; pero no se puede descartar que esta unidad granítica esté compuesta por múltiples intrusiones de composición similar y relativamente espaciadas en el tiempo. Las edades de 40Ar/39Ar (biotita y feldespato potásico) de la muestra de granito más cercana al encajonante son también más antiguas que las de la roca recolectada en la zona más interna del intrusivo. El enfriamiento inicial del granito es relativamente rápido desde la temperatura de cierre del zircón hasta la de la biotita (~36-32°C/Ma), para que posteriormente se pase a enfriamientos relativamente lentos desde la biotita hasta el feldespato potásico (~10-9°C/Ma). Estos enfriamientos del granito Sierrita Blanca son comparables, aunque quizá un poco más lentos, a los estimados para otros granitoides laramídicos del NW de México. Tres muestras del granito mesoproterozoico Murrieta, recolectadas a diferentes distancias del intrusivo laramídico, fueron fechadas por U-Pb en zircones (~1.1 Ga), reiterándose la resistencia de esta sistemática a los efectos termales. Sin embargo, se aprecia la presencia de zircones con pérdida evidente de Pb, que se asocian a la exposición de estas rocas al calor y/o fuidos relacionados a la intrusión laramídica, siendo este efecto más pronunciado en la roca recolectada cerca del contacto con el granito. Este efecto de reajuste isotópico es mucho más marcado para la sistemática de 40Ar/39Ar en biotita y feldespato potásico, al encontrarse estos minerales totalmente reajustados a edades laramídicas. Las estimaciones de enfriamiento post-reajuste isotópico entre biotita y feldespato potásico (~18-15°C/Ma) de las rocas encajonantes son, en cierto modo, armónicas con los enfriamientos estimados para estos mismos minerales en el granito laramídico. Esto sugiere que el enfriamiento general del área de la Sierrita Blanca, después de la intrusión granítica lara-mídica, fue coherente, fnalizando este en las zonas más internas del intrusivo. Por último, destacar que el pulso magmático miocénico presente en la Sierrita Blanca no ha causado ningún efecto termal apreciable en las rocas graníticas cretácicas o mesoproterozoicas. Abstract in english A semi-quantitative thermochronological study, combining U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, has allowed assessment of the crystallization and cooling history of the Laramide Sierrita Blanca granite as well as the thermal effects resulting from the intrusion into the Mesoproterozoic host rocks (~1.1 G [...] a Murrieta granite). The U-Pb zircon age discrepancy between two samples of the Sierrita Blanca granite (72.6 ± 1.2 Ma and 69.7 ± 1.0 Ma) could be explained by a process of faster magma cooling in the contact zone with the host Murrieta granite. However, that the Sierrita Blanca granitic unit was made up of multiple intrusions of similar compositions emplaced relatively close in time cannot be discarded. The 40Ar/39Ar ages of both biotite and K-feldspar for the granite collected close to the contact are also signifcantly older than the ages for the sample collected in a more internal zone of the intrusion. The initial cooling of the Sierrita Blanca granite was fairly fast and monotonous from the closure temperature of zircon to that of biotite (~36-32°C/Ma). Subsequently, the cooling of these Laramide rocks became relatively slow (~10-9°C/Ma) between the closure temperature of biotite and K-feldspar. These estimated cooling rates are similar, pe

  19. Source-inherited compositional diversity in granite batholiths: The geochemical message of Late Paleozoic intrusive magmatism in central Calabria (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiannacca, Patrizia; Cirrincione, Rosolino; Bonanno, Fiorenza; Carciotto, Manuele Mario

    2015-11-01

    The Serre Batholith, in central Calabria, is a Late Paleozoic granitoid complex that makes up the middle portion, ca. 13 km thick, of a continuous and nearly complete section of the continental crust. The batholith displays a large compositional variety, with granitoid rocks ranging with continuity from quartz diorite to syenogranite, a distinct group of leucotonalites also occur. The granitoids are on the whole magnesian and calcic to calc-alkalic, with only some of the more evolved rocks showing a ferroan calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic composition. Quartz diorites and tonalites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, while granodiorites and granites are weakly to strongly peraluminous, with two-mica porphyritic types being the only population with a genuine strongly peraluminous character. Fe*-number, MALI and ASI features highlight a strong affinity of the Serre Batholith rocks with Cordilleran granitoids, inherited from the compositions of the source rocks rather than reflecting the real tectonic environment of the magmas. Major trace element and existing Sr-Nd data are consistent with an origin of the Serre Batholith from the assembling of several batches of magmas with specific original compositions derived by fluid-absent melting of different crustal sources. Quartz diorites and tonalites originated from a metabasaltic magma source, whereas metagraywackes with various mafic and pelitic contents appear the most likely sources of weakly peraluminous granodiorites and strongly peraluminous granodiorites and granites. Biotite ± amphibole granodiorites could also have been derived from mafic-intermediate metaigneous sources. Two-mica porphyritic leucogranites are the only rock types representing pure crustal melts, resulting from melting of mafic pelitic sources. The other granitoid compositions are too silica-poor and MgO + FeOt rich to represent pure melts, so they need to include other components, such as solid restitic/peritectic material entrained from the magma source. Mantle-derived magmas do not appear to have played a role in the geochemical diversity of the Serre Batholith granitoids; their inherited arc signature resulted from partial melting of crustal material of magmatic arc derivation, such as magnesian igneous rocks and sediments derived from their rapid erosion. This study suggests that post-collisional granitoid magmatism is likely not to be associated with the direct generation of new continental crust; all the granitoid rock types appear to represent recycled and reworked crustal material.

  20. Syn- and post-tectonic granite plutonism in the Sausar Fold Belt, central India: Age constraints and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Das, Kaushik; Hayasaka, Yasutaka; Sarkar, Arindam

    2015-08-01

    Sausar Fold Belt (SFB) in central India forms the southern part of the Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ) - a crustal scale Proterozoic mobile belt dissecting the Indian craton, whose tectonothermal history and age is important for understanding the Proterozoic crustal history of the Indian craton. SFB comprises a gneissic basement (TBG: Tirodi Biotite Gneiss) overlain by a supracrustal sequence of quartzite-pelite-carbonate (SSG: Sausar Group). SSG and TBG are deformed and metamorphosed in greenschist to amphibolite facies. Two phases of granite intrusion are observed in the SSG - a syntectonic foliated granite and a post-tectonic massive granite, with clear structural relationship with the host rocks. Monazite chemical dating (U-Th-total Pb) of the foliated and massive granites yield Neoproterozoic (ca. 945-928 Ma) ages that contradict many earlier geochronological interpretations. Foliated granites and the immediately adjacent TBG show monazite grains with ca. 945 Ma mean age, interpreted as the timing of D2 deformation and amphibolite facies metamorphism of SSG. The post tectonic granites intruded these rocks around 928 Ma, and were largely undeformed. A terminal thermal overprint is found in some monazite grain rims at ca. 785 Ma age. The younger Sausar tectonothermal events have overprinted the adjacent high-grade granulites of Ramakona-Katangi Granulite (RKG) belt, and should not be considered as parts of the same tectonothermal event representing different depth sections only.

  1. Granite genesis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guo-Neng

    2007-01-01

    Provides a synthesis of current ideas of granite genesis in the earth's crust developed over the last 20 yearsProvides an alternative model for granite genesis and a reinterpretation of current ideasHighlights results of Chinese research (published in Chinese) over the last 30 years in English for the first time

  2. A Rb-Sr isotope study of a young granite sheet at Marble Delta, southern Natal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rb-Sr isotope data are presented for two apophyses of a granite sheet intrusive into marble at Marble Delta, southern Natal. Granite samples collected near the margins of these apophyses contain calcite and are thought to have been contaminated by the marble during intrusion of the granite magma. In contrast, those further away from contacts lack calcite. The 'uncontaminated' granite samples define an isochron date of 899 ± 11 Ma. This data is thought to represent the intrusive age of the granite sheet. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  3. From explosive breccia to unidirectional solidification textures: magmatic evolution of a phosphorus- and fluorine-rich granite system (Podlesí, Krušné hory Mts., Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breiter K

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The Podlesí granite stock in western Krušné hory Mts. represents the most highly fractionated part of the late Variscan Nejdek-Eibenstock pluton. Internal fabric of the stock has been studied in several boreholes up to 350 m deep. The stock is composed of two tongue-like bodies of albite-protolithionite-topaz granite (stock granite coalesced at depth, which were emplaced into Ordovician phyllite and biotite granite of younger intrusive complex (YIC of the Nejdek pluton. The uppermost part of the intrusion is bordered by a layer of marginal pegmatite (stockscheider up to 50 cm thick. Explosive breccia was found as an isolated block at the southwest contact of the stock. It is comprised of fragments of phyllite several millimetres to 5 cm in size cemented with fine-grained granitic matrix similar to the stock granite, but very fine-grained.
    Within the uppermost 100 m, the stock granite is intercalated with several mostly flat-lying dykes of albite-zinnwaldite-topaz granite (dyke granite. Upper and lower contacts of the dykes are sharp, flat, but in detail slightly uneven. The thickest dyke (about 7 m outcrops in an old quarry. A prominent example of layering with unidirectional solidification textures (UST was found in the upper part of this major dyke. Individual Q-Afs laminae are separated by comb quartz layers and/or by layers of oriented fan-like zinnwaldite aggregates. A pegmatite-like layer with oriented megacrysts of Kfs up to 6 cm long was encountered in the uppermost part of the dyke. One thin layer of fine-grained quartz with oriented Kfs-megacrysts was found within the stock granite.
    Post-magmatic processes, particularly greisenisation, developed only to a limited degree. The uppermost flat dyke of the dyke granite was partly greisenised into white quartz-rich (+topaz, Li-mica, wolframite greisen. Scarce thin, steep stringers of biotite greisen were encountered over the entire outcrop and in drilled parts of the stock granite and surrounding biotite granite.

  4. The mafic - granitic connection of the Torres del Paine laccolith, Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuthold, J.; Muntener, O.; Baumgartner, L.; Putlitz, B.; Ovtcharova, M.; Schaltegger, U.; Chiaradia, M.

    2009-12-01

    We have conducted a field, petrological and geochronological study of a bimodal intrusive complex from the Torres del Paine laccolith, Patagonia, Chile. The goal of this study is to understand how various types of mafic rocks evolve at shallow pressure and how they are related in space and time to the various granitic sheets. From field relations it is evident that the granite intruded as a series of sheets, with the oldest pulse on top and the youngest at the base of the laccolith. High precision U-Pb dating on single zircons (Michel et al. Geology 2008) is in agreement with field relations and yielded 12.59±0.02 for the oldest and 12.51±0.03 for the youngest granite dated. The granites are underlain by a series of mafic sills composed of hornblende-gabbros and diorites. We distinguish two types of hornblende gabbros that are chemically similar but clearly different with respect to their mineral crystallization sequence. However, the contacts between the different mafic rocks are ductile as illustrated by mafic enclaves in diorite or ascent of small diorite diapirs into overlaying hornblende gabbros, indicating (near-) simultaneous emplacement of most of the mafic rocks. Bulk rock chemistry suggests that the mafic and granitic rocks follow a high - K calcalkaline to shoshonitic differentiation trend. Liquid compositions calculated from Laser Ablation ICP-MS trace element analysis of cumulate minerals indicate that the mafic rocks crystallized from a K-rich basaltic to shoshonitic magma. Intercumulus minerals show equilibrium with a granodioritic to granitic melt, that is similar to Paine granites. Preliminary isotope dilution - thermal ionization mass spectrometry on zircons from one gabbro and one diorite yielded 12.40±0.04 and 12.447±0.013 Ma, which is about 60'000 years younger than the youngest granite dated so far. This would suggest that a large volume of the laccolith grows downwards, with younger and more mafic sheets at the bottom of the complex. The youngest granites that cut the entire complex, however, await precise dating. Michel et al. (2008), Geology 36/6, 459-462

  5. High precision ages from the Torres del Paine Intrusion, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, J.; Baumgartner, L.; Cosca, M.; Ovtcharova, M.; Putlitz, B.; Schaltegger, U.

    2006-12-01

    The upper crustal bimodal Torres del Paine Intrusion, southern Chile, consists of the lower Paine-Mafic- Complex and the upper Paine-Granite. Geochronologically this bimodal complex is not well studied except for a few existing data from Halpern (1973) and Sanchez (2006). The aim of this study is to supplement the existing data and to constrain the age relations between the major magmatic pulses by applying high precision U-Pb dating on accessory zircons and 40Ar/39Ar-laser-step-heating-ages on biotites from the Torres del Paine Intrusion. The magmatic rocks from mafic complex are fine to medium-grained and vary in composition from quartz- monzonites to granodiorites and gabbros. Coarse-grained olivine gabbros have intruded these rocks in the west. The granitic body is represented by a peraluminous, biotite-orthoclase-granite and a more evolved leucocratic granite in the outer parts towards the host-rock. Field observations suggest a feeder-zone for the granite in the west and that the granite postdates the mafic complex. Two granite samples of the outermost margins in the Northeast and South were analyzed. The zircons were dated by precise isotope-dilution U-Pb techniques of chemically abraded single grains. The data are concordant within the analytical error and define weighted mean 206/238U ages of 12.59 ± 0.03 Ma and 12.58 ± 0.01 Ma for the two samples respectively. A 40Ar/39Ar-age for the second sample yield a date of 12.37 ± 0.11 Ma. Three 40Ar/39Ar -ages of biotites were obtained for rocks belonging to the mafic complex. A hbl-bio- granodiorite from the central part, approximately 150 m below the subhorizontal contact with the granite, gives an age of 12.81 ± 0.11 Ma. A hbl-bio-granodiorite and an olivine-gabbro west of the feeder-zone date at 12.42 ± 0.14 Ma and 12.49 ± 0.11 Ma, respectively. The obtained older age of 12.81 Ma for the granodiorite in the central part is consistent with structural relationships of brittle fracturing of the mafic complex by the granite and we conclude that some parts of the mafic complex were emplaced before the granite. The well defined 206/238U-age for zircons and the slightly younger 40Ar/39Ar -ages for biotites of both rock suites show that emplacement and cooling of the Torres del Paine Intrusion took place in a relatively short time-frame. Halpern, 1973, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 84/7: 2407-2422. Sanchez et.al., 2006. V SSAGI, Punta del Este, April 2006.

  6. The petrogenesis of a wolframite-bearing greisen in the Vykmanov granite stock, Western Krušné hory pluton (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štemprok M

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A wolframite-bearing greisen at Vykmanov, near Ostrov (Czech Republic occurs at the contact of a small granite stock belonging to the Late Variscan Younger Intrusive Complex (YIC of the Western Krušné hory/Erzgebirge pluton. The stock emerges as an outcrop of 0.8 × 0.3 km size from a hidden granite body in the eastern continuation of the Nejdek-Eibenstock granite massif. The lens-like greisen body consists mainly of quartz, topaz, protolithionite, and muscovite; it also contains wolframite (ferberite and native bismuth mineralization. It was formed by replacement of a medium-grained, equigranular, slightly porphyritic Li-F granite of the Karlovy Vary pluton characterized by weak postmagmatic albitization and pervasive muscovitization. The greisen is geologically and compositionally transitional between the Li-rich greisens in albite granites (e.g. with zinnwaldite such as at Krásno and the Li-poor greisens (e.g. phengite greisens at Gottesberg and P?ebuz associated with weakly albitized granites of the Younger Intrusive Complex. The Vykmanov greisen formed in a subsolidus stage of granite evolution by progressive alkali loss and fluorine metasomatism, leading to the formation of Li-mica quartz greisen subsequently replaced by topaz-quartz greisen at the granite/crystalline contact. These greisens were affected by late-stage muscovitization and argillitization (sericitization, the formation of clay minerals. The Li-Fe mica composition of the greisens corresponds to protolithionite (lithian siderophyllite and is similar to the composition of micas in the enclosing granite. The tungsten-bearing greisenization represents a postmagmatic episode in the development of the Krušné hory/Erzgebirge batholith, and is located at the eastern contact of highly evolved YIC granites of the Western Krušné hory pluton. The greisen formed from CO2 -poor hydrothermal solutions, at about 400 °C, which evolved from highly saline brines as evidenced by fluid inclusion studies. The geological situation suggests that the mineralizing fluids were mostly magmatic and were responsible for the tungsten-bismuth specialization of the greisens, whereas meteoric waters participated in mineralization during later stages.

  7. Granites of Gable El-Dob Area and Associated Pegmatites, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geochemistry And Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The late Pan-African El-Dob granites in the Egyptian Central Eastern Desert are small and circular bodies from older and younger granites. The older granitoids are represented by granodiorites and tonalites and they are intruded by the younger gabbros and younger granites with sharp contacts. The younger granites are represented by alkali feldspar granites cropping out in the central part of the studied area forming Gable El-Dob. The older and younger granites are cut by pegmatite and quartz veins. El-Dob granites are peraluminous and I-type granites. The older granites belong to volcanic arc granites (VAG), while the younger granites belong to within plate granites (WPG). Pegmatite veins possess high contents of important elements as Zn, Y and Cu. The El-Dob granites have relatively high uranium and thorium contents. The average equivalent uranium is 19.2 ppm for the older granites and 32.5 ppm for the younger granites, the average eTh is 55.4 ppm with the average eTh/ eU = 3.1 for the older granites and the average eTh is 86 ppm with the average eTh/ eU = 2.8 for the younger granites. These radiometric measurements are higher than the Clark values, i. e uraniferous granites. In pegmatites, the average eU content is 32.5 ppm and the average of eTh content is 86 ppm. Most of the radioactive anomalies are associated with the pegmatites

  8. Uranium in granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research activities of the Canadian Uranium in Granites Study are presented in 18 papers and 3 abstracts. 'Granites' is used as a generic term for granitoids, granitic rocks, and plutonic rocks

  9. Maurim intrusive suite: a calc-alkacic batholite zoned of catarinense shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geological survey of the Florianopolis Sheet (SG.22-Z-D-V) identified and characterized a calc-alkacic multi-intrusive and polydiapiric suite that occurs as a granitic batholite roughly concentric in texture and composition. This co-magmatic plutonic sequence is intrusive in the granite-gneissic basement of amphibolite facies, with which it was formerly confounded. The initial magmatic terms, put-in-place at the marginal portions of the batholite, are represented by quartz-diorites and tonalites (Forquilha Tonalites), followed by granodiorites (alto da Varginha Granodiorite), granodiorites to monzonites (Rio das Antas Granite) and completed by an inner portions of porphyritic monzonites (Sao Pedro de Alcantara Granite). The identifications of the compositional zoning that results from the development of the magmatic chamber is based on the examination of 74 rock samples that were analysed for major and minor oxides and trace elements (Ba, F, Li, Mo, Sn, W, Y, Rb, Nb, Zr and Sr). The treatment of these data shows the portions where mantle fractions predominate as well as the others where crustal meltings dominate, what demonstrates an origin by in situ differentiation processes, fractioning and different degrees of magmatic mixing. Geochronologic dating by Rb/Sr, K/Ar and U/Pb methods show isochronic and conventional ages of 600 to 700 m.y. that roughly are in accord with the temporal progress towards the younger felsic phases, putting this suite in the Upper Proterozoic age. The initial Sr sup(87) / Sr sup(86) ratios, around 0.710, point to a crustal origin with variable mantle contribution to these rocks. (author)

  10. Magmatic constraints on localization of natural stone deposits in the Vehmaa rapakivi granite batholith, southwestern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavi Selonen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The 1580–1570 Ma old Vehmaa rapakivi granite batholith was studied with the aim to define the geological constraints for localization of natural stone deposits in the batholith. The batholith comprises four roughly concentric granite intrusions from the margin inwards: pyterlite, coarse-grained porphyritic rapakivi granite and two types of medium-grained porphyritic rapakivi granite. Also porphyry aplite and even-grained rapakivi granite occur. The batholith has intruded as a succession of pulses of subhorizontal sheet-like intrusions conceivably through repeated cauldron subsidence. Natural stone quarries are confined only to certain intrusions within the batholith. We show that the medium-grained porphyritic granite body in the centre of the batholith comprises two almost identical but different intrusions, with only slightly different appearances: the inner (IG and the outer (OG granite. The quarries are confined to the outer intrusion which has an appearance more attractive to the market than that of the inner intrusion. The localization of the natural stone deposits in the Vehmaa batholith is a result of the magmatic history of the batholith, producing intrusions of different appearances with different commercial potential.

  11. Determination of concentrations and isotopic ratio of uranium in groundwaters drawn from two deep wells drilled in granitic rocks belonging to Itu intrusive suite; Determinacao das concentracoes e razoes isotopicas de uranio em aguas subterraneas extraidas de pocos perfurados em rochas da suite intrusiva de Itu (SP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Francisca de; Reyes, Erika; Marques, Leila Soares [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas. Dept. de Geofisica]. E-mail: francisca@iag.usp.br; erika@iag.usp.br; leila@iag.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the first results obtained in the determination of dissolved uranium concentrations and ({sup 234}U/{sup 238}U) activity ratios of groundwaters drawn from two deep wells drilled in granitic rocks belonging to Itu Intrusive Suite, which is located at eastern Sao Paulo State. One of the wells, whose groundwaters have been analyzed, is located in Salto Town, while the other one is located in Itu Town. The groundwater sampling is monthly and begun on September, 2004, in order to investigate possible sazonal variations. The alpha spectrometry technique, associated with isotopic dilution method, has been used for these determinations. The data obtained up to now show that the groundwaters from Salto present uranium concentrations significantly lower ((0.098 {+-} 0.007) - (0.17 {+-} 0.01) ng/g) than those from Itu ((0.22 {+-} 0.02) - (0.31 {+-} 0.02) ng/g). The {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U isotopes of the investigated groundwaters from both wells are in radioactive disequilibrium, with ({sup 234}U/{sup 238}U) activity ratios systematically higher than unity. Although the groundwaters from Salto well are characterized by low {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U specific activities they present higher ({sup 234}U/{sup 238}U) activity ratios than those from Itu. The observed differences on the behavior of uranium concentrations and ({sup 234}U/{sup 238}U) activity ratios in the groundwaters from the two wells are very probably due to the large variety of granitic rocks from Itu Intrusive Suite, which are characterized by distinct uranium abundances. (author)

  12. Gamma-spectrometric surveys in differentiated granites. II: the Joaquim Murtinho Granite in the Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex, Parana, SE Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed mapping at the NW corner of the large Neo proterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), Parana state, SE Brazil, redefined the Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG), a late intrusion in CGC with an exposed area of about 10 km2, made up mainly by evolved 'alaskites' (alkali-feldspar leuco granites). This unit is in tectonic contact with the Neoproterozoic-Eocambrian volcano-sedimentary Castro Group, to the W, and is intrusive into other less evolved granitic units of the CGC to the E. Petrographically, JMG shows mainly mesoperthite and quartz, with subordinate amounts of altered micas and some accessory phases, mainly zircon. The equi to inequigranular granites are usually deformed with cataclastic textures, are often brecciated, and may have miarolitic structures. Formation of late albite, sericite, carbonate and hematite was caused by deuteric and hydrothermal alteration. A gamma-ray spectrometric survey at 231 stations which measured total counts (TC), Ueq K%, eU ppm and eTh ppm was used to construct several direct and derived maps. Compared to neighboring units the JMG has significant anomalies, especially in the TC, %K, eTh and eU maps, although the differences are less obvious in some derived maps. These evolved granites are enriched in these three elements. Geochemical behavior of K, Th and U is used to analyse the results observed in maps. Enhanced weathering under a subtropical climate with moderate to high average temperatures and heavy rainfall affects mainly feldspars and biotite, and may also destabilize most U and Th-bearing accessory phases. Th is most likely retained in restite minerals in soils, being relatively immobile, while part of U may migrate as uranyl ion in oxidizing media. K is especially affected by feldspar alteration to K-free clays (mainly kaolinite), and may be completely leached. Gamma-ray spectrometric methods are valid tools to study facies in granitic rocks, especially in those that are enriched in K, Th and U. (author)

  13. 2005 dossier: granite; Dossier 2005: granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - advantage of granitic formations for the geologic disposal; 2 - containers; 3 - design study of a disposal facility in granitic environment; 4 - understanding and modelling of granite; 5 - description of disposal concepts in granitic environment; 6 - long-term and safety aspects; 7 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  14. Tourmaline occurrences within the Penamacor-Monsanto granitic pluton and host-rocks (Central Portugal) : genetic implications of crystal-chemical and isotopic features

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Isabel Ribeiro da; Mourão, C.; Récio, C.; Guimarães, Fernanda M. G.; Antunes, I. M.; Ramos, João Farinha; Barriga, Fernando; Palmer, Martin R.; Milton, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Tourmalinization associated with peraluminous granitic intrusions in metapelitic host-rocks has been widely recorded in the Iberian Peninsula, given the importance of tourmaline as a tracer of granite magma evolution and potential indicator of Sn-W mineralizations. In the Penamacor-Monsanto granite pluton (Central Eastern Portugal, Central Iberian Zone), tourmaline occurs: (1) as accessory phase in two-mica granitic rocks, muscovite-granites and aplites, (2) in quartz (±mica)-tour...

  15. Tectono-magmatic evolution of the younger Gardar southern rift, South Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G.J. Upton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The 1300–1140 Ma Gardar period in South Greenland involved continental rifting, sedimentation and alkaline magmatism. The latest magmatism was located along two parallel rift zones, Isortoq–Nunarsuit in the north and the Tuttutooq–Ilimmaasaq–Narsarsuaq zone in the south addressed here. The intrusive rocks crystallised at a depth of <4 km and are essentially undisturbed by later events. Magmatism in the southern zone began with the emplacement of two giant, ?800 m wide dykes and involved intrusion of transitional olivine basaltic, high Al/Ca magmas crystallising to troctolitic gabbros. These relatively reduced magmas evolved through marked iron enrichment to alkaline salic differentiates. In the Older giant dyke complex, undersaturated augite syenites grade into sodalite foyaite. The larger, c. 1163 Ma Younger giant dyke complex (YGDC mainly consists of structureless troctolite with localised developments of layered cumulates. A layered pluton (Klokkenis considered to be coeval and presumably comagmatic with the YGDC. At the unconformitybetween the Ketilidian basement and Gardar rift deposits, the YGDC expanded into a gabbroic lopolith. Its magma may represent a sample from a great, underplated mafic magma reservoir, parental to all the salic alkaline rocks in the southern rift. The bulk of these are silica undersaturated; oversaturated differentiates are probably products of combined fractional crystallisation and crustalassimilation.A major dyke swarm 1–15 km broad was intruded during declining crustal extension, with decreasing dyke widths and increasing differentiation over time. Intersection of the dyke swarm and E–W-trending sinistral faults controlled the emplacement of at least three central complexes (Narssaq, South Qôroq and early Igdlerfigssalik. Three post-extensional complexes (Tugtutôq,Ilímaussaq and late Igdlerfigssalik along the former rift mark the end of magmatism at c. 1140 Ma. The latter two complexes have oblate plans reflecting ductile, fault-related strain. The Tugtutôqcomplex comprises quartz syenites and alkali granites. The Ilímaussaq complex mainly consists of nepheline syenite crystallised from highly reduced, Fe-rich phonolitic peralkaline (agpaitic magma,and resulted in rocks with very high incompatible element concentrations.Abundant anorthositic xenoliths in the mafic and intermediate intrusions point to a large anorthosite protolith at depth which is considered of critical importance in the petrogenesis of the salicrocks. Small intrusions of aillikite and carbonatite may represent remobilised mantle metasomites. The petrological similarity between Older and Younger Gardar suites implies strong lithospheric control of their petrogenesis. The parental magmas are inferred to have been derived from restitic Ketilidian lithospheric mantle, metasomatised by melts from subducting Ketilidian oceanic crust and by small-scale melt fractions associated with Gardar rifting.There are numerous analogies between the southern Gardar rift and the Palaeogene East Africanrift.

  16. Petrography and geochemistry of the topaz-bearing granite stocks in Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi, western margin of the Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Lukkari

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi granite stocks at the western margin of the Wiborg rapakivi batholith are multiphase rapakivi granite intrusions in which the most evolved phase is topaz-bearing granite. The Artjärvi stock is composed of porphyritic and even-grained biotite granite and even-grained topaz granite, and the Sääskjärvi stock comprises even-grained biotite granite and porphyritic topazgranite. The granites are metaluminous to peraluminous A-type granites, showing within-plate (WPG geochemical characteristics. The topaz granites from the Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi stocks are petrographically and geochemically similar to other topaz-bearing rapakivi granites in Finland. The anomalous geochemistry of the topaz granite is essentially magmatic; postmagmatic reactions have only slightly modified its composition. Greisen veins, some of which are mineralized, are widely found associated with the Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi stocks.The most characteristic feature of the Artjärvi granite stock is a stockscheider at the roof contact of the topaz granite. The stockscheider is composed of schlieren layering and pegmatite layers parallel to the contact. The most probable mechanism for the formation of the schlieren layering is velocity-gradient sorting parallel to the flow, which led to accumulation of mafic minerals along the upper contact of the topaz granite. Cooling and contraction of the topaz granite formed fractures parallel to the roof contact and the residual pegmatite magmas were injected along the fractures forming pegmatite layers. Textures like graphic intergrowths, aplitic groundmass and fan-shaped alkali feldspar crystals associated with the Artjärvi porphyritic biotite granite and pegmatite indicatecrystallization from undercooled magma. Miarolitic cavities found in the porphyritic biotite granite and topaz granite indicate at least local volatile saturation.

  17. The Layos Granite, Hercynian Complex of Toledo (Spain): an example of parautochthonous restite-rich granite in a granulitic area

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero González, Luis C.; Villaseca González, Carlos

    1992-01-01

    The Layos Granite forms elongated massifs within the Toledo Complex of central Spain. It is late-tectonic with respect to the F2 regional phase and simultaneous with the metamorphic peak of the region, which reached a maximum temperature of 800-850°C and pressures of 400-600 MPa. Field studies indicate that this intrusion belongs to the "regional migmatite terrane granite" type. This granite is typically interJayered with sill-like veins and elongated bodies of cordierite/ garn...

  18. 2005 dossier: granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - advantage of granitic formations for the geologic disposal; 2 - containers; 3 - design study of a disposal facility in granitic environment; 4 - understanding and modelling of granite; 5 - description of disposal concepts in granitic environment; 6 - long-term and safety aspects; 7 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  19. Gamma-spectrometric Surveys in Differentiated Granites. II: the Joaquim Murtinho Granite in the Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex, Paraná, SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Miguel Oliveira Martin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed mapping at the NW corner of the large Neoproterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC, Paraná state, SE Brazil, redefined the Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG, a late intrusion in CGC with an exposed area of about 10 km2, made up mainly by evolved“alaskites” (alkali-feldspar leucogranites. This unit is in tectonic contact with the Neoproterozoic- Eocambrian volcano-sedimentaryCastro Group, to the W, and is intrusive into other less evolved granitic units of the CGC to the E. Petrographically, JMG shows mainlymesoperthite and quartz, with subordinate amounts of altered micas and some accessory phases, mainly zircon. The equi to inequigranulargranites are usually deformed with cataclastic textures, are often brecciated, and may have miarolitic structures. Formation of latealbite, sericite, carbonate and hematite was caused by deuteric and hydrothermal alteration. A gamma-ray spectrometric survey at 231stations which measured total counts (TC, Ueq K%, eU ppm and eTh ppm was used to construct several direct and derived maps. Comparedto neighboring units the JMG has signifi cant anomalies, especially in the TC, %K, eTh and eU maps, although the differences areless obvious in some derived maps. These evolved granites are enriched in these three elements. Geochemical behavior of K, Th and Uis used to analyse the results observed in maps. Enhanced weathering under a subtropical climate with moderate to high average temperaturesand heavy rainfall affects mainly feldspars and biotite, and may also destabilize most U and Th-bearing accessory phases. Th is most likely retained in restite minerals in soils, being relatively immobile, while part of U may migrate as uranyl ion in oxidizing media. K is especially affected by feldspar alteration to K-free clays (mainly kaolinite, and may be completely leached. Gamma-ray spectrometricmethods are valid tools to study facies in granitic rocks, especially in those that are enriched in K, Th and U.

  20. Uranium-lead isotope systematics in uraniferous alkali-rich granites from the Granite Mountains, Wyoming: implications for uranium source rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of U-Th-Pb isotopic analyses of whole-rock granite samples from the Granite Mountains, Wyoming, suggests that uranium has been mobilized at least twice since the intrusion of the granite. A few samples were found to have concentrations of some of the mobilized uranium (as much as 1,460 ppm U). Although these samples are not petrographically or chemically distinguishable from those that lost uranium, most are highly fractured. It therefore appears that fracturing may be an important control in forming ore deposits in granites. 40 refs

  1. Geochemistry and Geochronology U-Pb SHRIMP of granites from Peixoto de Azevedo: Alta Floresta Gold Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data of granites in the Peixoto de Azevedo region, Mato Grosso, Brazil, in the eastern portion of the Alta Floresta Gold Province, led to the recognition of two granitic bodies bounded by regional major faults and shear zones. In the northwestern portion a body with featured as biotite granodiorite, coarse-grained, with porphyritic to inequigranular texture, metaluminous to peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline and magnesium character. In the southeastern portion of the area, a biotite monzogranite coarse-grained, with equigranular to porphyritic texture, slightly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline and dominantly of ferrous character. U- Pb dating (SHRIMP) showed that the biotite monzogranite has an age of 1869 ± 10 Ma, similar to the Matupa Intrusive Suite, while the biotite granodiorite has an age of 1781 ± 10 Ma, that is the age expected to Peixoto Granite. Both units show patterns of rare earth elements with enrichment of light over heavy and negative Eu anomaly (LaN/YbN » 7.6 to 17.31 and ratios Eu/EU? between 0.46 – 0.72 for biotite monzogranite and LaN/YbN » 7.13 to 29.09 with ratios Eu/Eu? between 0.25 - 0.40 for the biotite granodiorite). Trace elements pattern for both present negative anomalies of Ba, P, Ti and Nb indicating an evolution from mineral fractionation and subduction related sources. In this paper, it is suggested that the monzogranite Matupa was developed in mature arc tectonic environment. For the Peixoto Granite, two hypotheses are suggested: (a) it was developed in younger magmatic arc environment associated with the Colider Magmatism or (b) it was generated in extensional tectonic environment during the Columbia Super continent break up. (author)

  2. Proterozoic granitic magmatism in the Fennoscandian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, I.; Lahtinen, R.; Rämö, O. T.

    2003-04-01

    The main tectonic units of the Fennoscandian Shield are 1) the Archean 3.1--2.6 Ga granite gneiss (GGT) -- greenstone belt domain in the east, 2) the broad orogenic Svecofennian domain (1.9--1.8 Ga), and 3) the Southwest Scandinavian domain that consists of granitic gneisses, Gothian arc-type volcanic -- sedimentary and plutonic rocks (1.7--1.55 Ga), and has a Sveconorwegian (Grenvillian) overprint. The Svecofennian domain was formed by sequential accretion of volcanic arcs to the Archean craton (Lahtinen, 1994; Nironen, 1997). Rifting of the Archean craton at 2.50--2.44 Ga led to emplacement of a bimodal suite of layered mafic intrusions and minor A-type quartz syenites -- granites into the Archean crust in nortern Finland and adjacent Russia. Nd isotopes suggest Archean crustal source for some of the silicic plutons (Lauri and Mänttäri, 2003). The earliest Svecofennian granitoid rocks are ˜1.92 Ga gneissic calc-alkalic tonalities and granodiorites in central and northernmost Finland close to the Archean craton. I-type 1.89--1.87 Ga calc-alkalic granitoids of tonalite-granodiorite-granite association are common in the Svecofennian belts. In the Central Finland Granitoid Complex two suites can be separated: the 1.89--1.88 Ga calc-alkalic deformed granodiorites and granites, and the massive 1.88--1.87 Ga alkali-calcic or alkalic quartz monzonites and monzogranites (Nironen et al., 2000; Rämö et al., 2001). Southern Finland is characterized by 1.84--1.80 Ga migmatite-forming peraluminous S-type granites that were formed by anatectic melting of mainly sedimentary -- volcanic rocks of the thick Svecofennian crust. The Svecofennian plutonism was finished by intrusion of extension-related postorogenic (post-collisional) 1.80--1.77 Ga granite stocks that have a shoshonitic affinity and were possibly derived from enriched lithospheric mantle. Nd isotopes of the 1.81--1.77 Ga granites of northern Finland and the 1.88--1.86 Ga granites of eastern Finland near the Archean border indicate a major Archean source component (Huhma, 1986). The western margin of the Svecofennian domain is marked by the Transcandinavian Igneous Belt consisting of various 1.8--1.5 Ga granites. A-type rapakivi granites and associated diabase dikes of southern Finland, Russian Karelia, Baltic countries, and central Sweden can be divided into four age groups, from east to west: 1.56--1.53 Ga, 1.67--1.62 Ga, 1.59--1.54 Ga, 1.53--1.47 Ga. Bimodal magmatism, extensional setting and thinning of the lower crust below rapakivi granites can be explained by the mafic underplate model (Haapala and Rämö, 1992).

  3. Uranium rich granite and uranium productive granite in south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper briefly introduces the differences between uranium rich granite and uranium productive granite in the 5 provinces of South China, and discusses their main characteristics in 4 aspects, the uranium productive granite is highly developed in fracture, very strong in alteration, often occurred as two-mica granite and regularly developed with intermediate-basic and acid dikes. The above characteristics distinguish the uranium productive granite from the uranium rich granite. (authors)

  4. Metallogenic aspects of Itu intrusive suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrated use of geological, geochemical, geophysical and remote sensing data is providing interesting new information on the metallogenic characteristics of the Itu Intrusive Suite. During World War II, up to 1959, a wolframite deposit was mined near the border of the northernmost body (Itupeva Granite). This deposit is formed by greisen veins associated with cassiterite and topaz, clearly linked with later phases of magmatic differentiation. Generally those veins are related to hydrothermal alteration of the granites and the above mentioned shear zone. U, Th and K determinations by field and laboratory gammaspectrometry were used for regional distribution analysis of those elements and its ratios and calculation of radioactivity heat production. In this aspects, the Itupeva Granite is the hottest and presents several anomalies in the Th/U ratio, indicative of late or post magmatic oxidation processes. (author)

  5. Hydrothermal alteration of Hercynian granites, its significance to the evolution of geothermal systems in granitic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Jose M.; Matias, Maria J.; Basto, Maria J.; Aires-Barros, Luis A. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Carreira, Paula M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional n 10, 2686 - 953 Sacavem (Portugal); Goff, Fraser E. [Earth and Planetary Sciences Department, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    We discuss geochemical and isotopic ({sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) data recording the hydrothermal alteration of northern Portuguese Hercynian granites by Na-HCO{sub 3}-CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters. Whole-rock samples from drill cores of Vilarelho da Raia granite have {delta}{sup 18}O values in the +11.47 to +10.10 permille range. The lower values correspond to highly fractured granite samples displaying vein and pervasive alteration. In the pervasive alteration stage, which probably results from a convective hydrothermal system set up by the intrusion of the granites, the metamorphic waters are in equilibrium with hydrous minerals. In contrast, the vein alteration of these granitic rocks was caused by water of meteoric origin. The oxygen ratios between water (W) and rock (R), the so-called W/R ratios, obtained for the open system (where the heated water is lost from the system by escape to the surface) range between 0.05 and 0.11, suggesting that the recrystallization of the veins was influenced by a small flux of meteoric water. Stable isotope analyses performed on the cores show that the vein alteration stage relates to post-emplacement tectonic stresses acting on the granite, probably of late Hercynian age. Our results are consistent with the existence of two separate alteration events (pervasive and vein) caused by hydrothermal waters of different isotopic characteristics. The studies presented in this paper should be viewed as a natural analogue that uses the alteration features observed in a fossil geothermal system at Vilarelho da Raia to assess possible water-rock reactions presently occurring at depth in granitic rocks of the nearby Chaves area. (author)

  6. Tectonic imprints within a granite exposed near Srinagar, Rajasthan, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trishit Ruj; Nilanjan Dasgupta

    2014-08-01

    Partial melting in the middle to lower crustal level produces melts of granitic composition during orogeny. Thrusts play a vital role in their exhumation after consolidation of these granitic melts. In this paper we focus on one such granite along the eastern margin of the Delhi Fold Belt (DFB) rocks near Srinagar, Rajasthan, India. This is the first report of granite within the area and holds a key stratigraphic position in the entire rock package. The said granite is found to be intrusive to the DFB metasediments as well as their basement popularly known as the Banded Gneissic Complex (BGC). We disentangle the deformation fabrics seen within the granite and associated DFB metasediments, suggesting that subsequent to emplacement and consolidation, the granite has co-folded along with the country rocks. Three deformational events could be identified within the DFB metasediments namely, D1D, D2D and D3D. The peak metamorphism was achieved in the D1D event. The granite magma is generated and emplaced late syn-kinematic to D1D and thereafter is deformed by D2D and D3D producing D1G and D2G structural fabrics. These compressive deformations resulted in the collapse of the basin; the combined package of DFB rocks and the granite was thrusted eastwards over the basement rocks. The tectonic transport direction during thrusting is suggested eastwards from our structural analysis. Transverse faults developed perpendicular to the length of the granite have led to partitioning of the strain thereby showing a heterogeneity in the development of fabric within it.

  7. Petrology and geochemistry of the Los Cuartos granite, Tafi del Valle, Tucuman, northwest of Argentina: its integration to the regional magmatic layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Cuartos Granite crops out on the western flank of the Cumbres Calchaquies, east of Tafi del Valle, Tucuman Province, Argentina. It has a granitic to granodioritic composition, of two micas, being biotite dominant. The granite is medium grained and inequigranular, with rare K-feldspar megacrysts. It contains host-rock xenoliths with different degrees of assimilation. The granite intrusion produced contact metamorphism in the surrounding basement, with development of andalucite porphyroblasts and poikiloblastic biotite. The granite is calk-alkaline and peraluminous, and is K- and P-rich and Ca- and Napoor compared to other granitoids of the region. The pluton shows late-tectonic features with regard to the regional deformation. The granite possibly intruded during the Ordovician (Famatinian Cycle) and its emplacement was structurally controlled by the Tafi Megafracture. Los Cuartos Granite and other intrusive bodies of the region share similar petrographical, geochemical, structural and geochronological characteristics. (Author).

  8. Geochemical characteristics of the Cadalso-Casillas de Flores Complex (Sierra de Gata). A late Hercynian peraluminous high phosphorus granite

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Mohamud, A.; Pérez Del Villar, L.; Pellicer Bautista, María José

    1997-01-01

    The Cadalso-Casillas de Flores granitic complex is a peraluminous, phosphorus rich, late-hercynian epizonal granite. It is composed of six major units representing two different intrusions, where four of the units belong to the first intrusion. Concentrations of MgO, AI2Oy CaO, TiO}, Fe203t, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, REE and Th decrease with the evolution in the units of the first intrusion. Nevertheless, in the second, there is no observable evolutionary trend and only Rb, Nb and LREE dearly increase f...

  9. Geochemical geochronology and genesis of granite from Coronel Murta, Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological, petrographic, geochemical (including rare-earth elements) and geochronological data of the Coronel Murta (Northeast Minas Gerais State) post-tectonic intrusive alkalic granites were summarized in order to discuss their genesis. This paper shows that Coronel Murta granites were generated by anatexis of dominantly metasedimentary rocks, in an ensialic environment, as the late results of an intraplate A-type subduction during the Brazilian Cycle. (author)

  10. Research on metallogenic specialization and metallogenic prognosis of granite in Nanling region: a case study of hydrothermal uranium deposit and hydrothermal tungsten-tin deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the principles of remote sensing information model and stepwise discriminant analysis, the metallogenic specialization discrimnant model of the intrusions rich in uranium and tungsten-tin was established, based on the data of 339 granite samples which consist of 99 granite samples rich in uranium, 89 granite samples rich in tungsten-tin and 151 granite under estimation in Nanling region. F test results showed that this model was applicable and highly significant for the intrusion estimation. The model was used to judge the uranium bearing or tungsten-tin bearing potential of the under estimated intrusions, and supplied a evidence for the further estimation of metallogenic intrusions. The built model has objectivity and operability, implements the quantitative evaluation for metallogenic specialization, and should play an important role on metallogenic specialization researches. (authors)

  11. Radiatives elements distribution in Serra do Carambei granite, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Serra do Carambei Granite, the uranium present in the rock in anomalous concentration is hosted, preferentially, in accessory mineralogical phases-zircon, xenotime, magnetite and ilmenite, and, in lesser proportion, in the essential minerals of the rock-potassium feldspar and also iron oxydes/hydroxydes and alterated biotite. Optical petrography, autorradiomicrography, scanning electronic microscopy, and the utilization of correlation matrixes and the respective dendrograms revealed a distribution of radioactive elements basically controlled by autometassomatic, tardi/pos-magmatic or supergene processes. Intrusive felsic dikes in the Serra do Carambei Granite have radioelement concentration level approximately four times higher than the enclosing granite, where uranium as well as thorium is preferentially found in metamictized accessory minerals-zircon and allanite. (author)

  12. Intrusion Detection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pietro, Roberto Di

    2008-01-01

    In our world of ever-increasing Internet connectivity, there is an on-going threat of intrusion, denial of service attacks, or countless other abuses of computer and network resources. In particular, these threats continue to persist due to the flaws of current commercial intrusion detection systems (IDSs). Intrusion Detection Systems is an edited volume by world class leaders in this field. This edited volume sheds new light on defense alert systems against computer and network intrusions. It also covers integrating intrusion alerts within security policy framework for intrusion response, rel

  13. Radiometric age of granite from Campo Formoso, BA-Brazil - a minimum age for Jacobina group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Campo Formoso granite represents the magmatic phase of the remobilized Pre-Jacobina basement, located within an are defined by the Serra de Jacobina, north of Campo Formoso, Bahia. Intrusive relationships between this granite and the Jacobina Group metasediments, gradational changes in textures and compositions between the granite and basement rocks, and the general structural-topographic expression of this suggest a mantled gneiss dome model for this area. A RB/Sr whole rock isochron age of 1911 +- 13 m.y. for the Campo Formoso granite is established. This date is interpreted as the age of the development of the structure, as well as a minimum age for the Jacobina Group metasediments. K/Ar dates on muscovites from the Campo Formoso granite are concordant with the Rb/Sr isocron. It is suggested that a lower regional thermal gradient in the Campo Formoso area during Transamazonic time is the cause for a more rapid cooling environment. (Author)

  14. The GRANIT spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of quantum states of matter in a gravitational field was demonstrated recently in the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, in a series of experiments with ultra cold neutrons (UCN). UCN in low quantum states is an excellent probe for fundamental physics, in particular for constraining extra short-range forces; as well as a tool in quantum optics and surface physics. The GRANIT is a follow-up project based on a second-generation spectrometer with ultra-high energy resolution, permanently installed in ILL. It will become operational in 2011. The spectrometer consists of several neutron-optics elements and UCN detectors installed on a massive granite table in an aluminium vacuum chamber with a volume of about 1.5 m3. 3 types of detectors will be used at the first stage of the GRANIT experiment: 3He gaseous proportional counters with extremely low background, position-sensitive nuclear-track UCN detectors will be used to study the spatial distribution in quantum states, and real-time position-sensitive detectors with a resolution of a few hundred microns to measure velocity distributions of neutrons in quantum states. The key elements of the GRANIT spectrometer is a set of mirrors to shape/analyze neutron spectra and to store neutrons in quantum states

  15. PETROGRAFÍA, GEOQUÍMICA Y GEOCRONOLOGÍA DEL GRANITO DE PARGUAZA EN COLOMBIA / PETROGRAPHY, GEOCHEMISTRY AND GEOCHRONOLOGY OF PARGUAZA GRANITE IN COLOMBIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amed, Bonilla-Pérez; José Carlos, Frantz; Juliana, Charão-Marques; Thomas, Cramer; José A., Franco-Victoria; Elise, Mulocher; Zeze, Amaya-Perea.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El Granito de Parguaza aflora en el departamento de Vichada-(Colombia), hacia la margen del río Orinoco y es parte del gran batolito descrito en Venezuela como Granito del Parguaza. Este cuerpo en Colombia aflora como cerros aislados tipo inselberg y serranías de poca extensión con pendientes abrupt [...] as que sobresalen entre las extensas llanuras terciarias. Representa uno de los granitos anorogénicos aflorantes más grandes del mundo y puede ser distinguido como una de las unidades colombianas más antiguas (Mesoproterozoico) que no han sufrido deformación. Se caracteriza por presentar textura rapakivi tipo wiborgita y piterlita, su composición es granítica a granítica de feldespato alcalino. Además de las variaciones composicionales y texturales, se encuentran zonas de grano fino, diques pegmatíticos, aplíticos y venas de cuarzo. Geoquímicamente se clasifica como un granito tipo A, metaluminoso a peralcalino, formado en ambiente post-colisional a anorogénico. Nuevas mediciones de U/Pb con LA-ICP-MS en circones indican nuevas edades concordantes de 1.392 ± 5 Ma y 1.402 ± 2 Ma para las partes más distales, respectivamente, mucho más jóvenes que edades propuestas anteriormente en territorio venezolano 1.545 Ma, lo cual puede ser interpretado como un intrusivo más complejo o como procesos de cristalización muy lentos de núcleo a borde. Por otro lado, estas edades son correlacionadas con granitos anorogénicos similares en el W del Cratón Amazónico en Brasil y con otros afloramientos rapakivi estudiados en el departamento de Guainía al SE de Colombia. Abstract in english The Parguaza Granite outcrops in the Vichada department of Colombia, towards the Orinoco River margin, where it conforms a portion of the large batholith described in Venezuela as Granito de El Parguaza. This intrusion outcrops in Colombia as isolated inselberg hills and moderately extended mountain [...] chains with abrupt slopes that protrude through Tertiary plains. It represents one of largest anorogenic granites worldwide and is one of the oldest colombian units (Mesoproterozoic) without tectonic deformation. The granite exhibits both typical Wiborgite and Pyterlite rapakivi texture, with a monzogranitic to alkali feldspar granitic composition. Among the compositional and textural variations, we find fine-grain zones, pegmatitic and aplitic dikes as well as quartz veins. Geochemically, it conforms a metaluminous to peralkaline A-type granite, intruded under post-collisional to rifting anorogenic conditions. New U/Pb measurements with LA-ICP-MS in zircons show hither to unknown concordant ages of 1392 ± 5 My to 1402 ± 2 My, respectively in the more distal zones; much younger than 1545 My ages reported in Venezuela, which may be explained or by a more complex intrusion and crystallization history or by a very slow crystallization process from the core to the edge; on the other hand, these ages are in concordance to similar anorogenic granites from the W Amazonian Craton in Brazil and with other rapakivi outcrops studied in the Guainía Department in the south-east of Colombia.

  16. Caracterización geoquímica del granito El Durazno, extremo norte de la sierra de Velasco, La Rioja / Geochemical characterization of El Durazno granite, Northern Sierrra de Velasco, La Rioja

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel A, Báez; Ana S, Fogliata; Steffen, Hagemann; Fernando G, Sardi.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El área de estudio se ubica en el norte de la sierra de Velasco, en la provincia de La Rioja. Está compuesta principalmente por rocas graníticas que cristalizaron durante dos eventos magmáticos principales en el Ordovícico y el Carbonífero. Los granitos más antiguos presentan diferentes grados de de [...] formación y los más jóvenes no están deformados. Los granitos datados como carboníferos hasta el presente en este sector son Asha y San Blas. Este último presenta una zona central más evolucionada químicamente, asociado a mineralizaciones de Sn. El granito El Durazno aflora al sureste del granito San Blas, no está deformado e intruye al ortogneis Antinaco, compuesto por rocas deformadas del Ordovícico. Es un granito postorogénico, peraluminoso y fuertemente diferenciado, con contenidos de Na2O>K2O. Presenta altos contenidos en Rb, Li, W, Cs, Nb y Ta y bajos en Ba, Sr, Y, Zr y Ce. El índice de caracterización geoquímica (GCI) para granitos asociados a mineralizaciones de W da valores positivos mayores que 4. Las tierras raras presentan contenidos totales bajos, entre 5,3 y 15,3 ppm, anomalía negativa de Eu y efecto tetrada convexo. En el borde norte del granito El Durazno existen vetas de cuarzo con wolframita y hematita distribuidas irregularmente que intruyen al ortogneis Antinaco. Tienen rumbo aproximado N-S y una corrida irregular. La ausencia de deformación, relaciones de campo y características geoquímicas indican que el granito El Durazno es un intrusivo muy diferenciado asociado a mineralización de W y de posible edad carbonífera. Abstract in english The studied area is located in the north of the sierra de Velasco, La Rioja province. It is mainly composed of granitic rocks that crystallized during two main magmatic events in the Ordovician and Carboniferous. The older granites have different types of deformation whereas the younger granites are [...] not deformed. Two Carboniferous granites have been dated in this area: Asha and San Blas. The latter has a chemically evolved central zone related to Sn mineralization. The El Durazno undeformed granite outcrops southeast of the San Blas granite, and intrudes into the deformed Ordovician Antinaco orthogneiss. It is a postorogenic, peraluminous and strongly differentiated granite, with contents of Na2O>K2O. It has high values of Rb, Li, W, Cs, Nb and Ta, and low values of Ba, Sr, Y, Zr and Ce. The geochemical characterization index (GCI) for W-bearing differentiated granites is positive with values greater than 4. The REE show low total contents, between 5,3 and 15,3 ppm, negative Eu anomalies and a convex tetrad effect. At the northern border of the El Durazno granite, quartz veins with irregularly distributed wolframite and hematite cross-cut the Antinaco orthogneiss. The veins have irregular north-south strike. The absence of deformation, field relations and geochemical characteristics indicate that the El Durazno granite is a highly differentiated intrusive associated with W mineralization and of possible Carboniferous age.

  17. Fabric transpositions in granite plutons - an insight from non-scaled analogue modelling.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratinová, Zuzana; Machek, Mat?j; Kusbach, V.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 75, ?. 1 (2010), s. 267-277. ISSN 0016-7622 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KJB300120702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : analogue modelling * magmatic fabrics * granite intrusions * rheology * AMS Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.396, year: 2010

  18. Late-magmatic to hydrothermal processes in the Ilímaussaq intrusion, South Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Graser, Gesa

    2008-01-01

    The 1.16 Ga old, persodic Ilímaussaq intrusion in South Greenland solidified at a depth of about 3 to 4 km, between the granitic basement and the sandstones and pillow-bearing basalts of the Eriksfjord Formation. The intrusion consists of alkali granite, syenites, and agpaitic nepheline syenites, which are cut by late-magmatic veins. This thesis deals with late-magmatic to hydrothermal processes in the Ilímaussaq complex and focuses on the fluid phase. The late-stage fluids are of major inter...

  19. Geochemistry and Geochronology U-Pb SHRIMP of granites from Peixoto de Azevedo: Alta Floresta Gold Province; Geoquimica e geocronologia U-Pb (SHRIMP) de granitos da regiao de Peixoto de Azevedo: Provincia Aurifera Alta Floresta, MT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernanda Rodrigues da; Barros, Marcia Aparecida Sant' Ana; Pierosan, Ronaldo; Pinho, Francisco Edigio Cavalcante; Tavares, Carla; Rocha, Jhonattan, E-mail: geologia.fernanda@gmail.com, E-mail: mapabarros@yahoo.com, E-mail: ronaldo.pierosan@gmail.com.br, E-mail: aguapei@yahoo.com, E-mail: carlageologia@hotmail.com, E-mail: geologojrocha@live.com [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Rocha, Mara Luiza Barros Pita; Vasconcelos, Bruno Rodrigo; Dezula, Samantha Evelyn Max, E-mail: marapita1@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: brunovasc@gmail.com, E-mail: samanthadezula@gmail.com [Universidade de Brasilia (UNB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geologia

    2014-09-15

    The analysis of petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data of granites in the Peixoto de Azevedo region, Mato Grosso, Brazil, in the eastern portion of the Alta Floresta Gold Province, led to the recognition of two granitic bodies bounded by regional major faults and shear zones. In the northwestern portion a body with featured as biotite granodiorite, coarse-grained, with porphyritic to inequigranular texture, metaluminous to peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline and magnesium character. In the southeastern portion of the area, a biotite monzogranite coarse-grained, with equigranular to porphyritic texture, slightly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline and dominantly of ferrous character. U- Pb dating (SHRIMP) showed that the biotite monzogranite has an age of 1869 ± 10 Ma, similar to the Matupa Intrusive Suite, while the biotite granodiorite has an age of 1781 ± 10 Ma, that is the age expected to Peixoto Granite. Both units show patterns of rare earth elements with enrichment of light over heavy and negative Eu anomaly (La{sub N}/Yb{sub N} » 7.6 to 17.31 and ratios Eu/EU{sup ?} between 0.46 – 0.72 for biotite monzogranite and La{sub N}/Yb{sub N} » 7.13 to 29.09 with ratios Eu/Eu{sup ?} between 0.25 - 0.40 for the biotite granodiorite). Trace elements pattern for both present negative anomalies of Ba, P, Ti and Nb indicating an evolution from mineral fractionation and subduction related sources. In this paper, it is suggested that the monzogranite Matupa was developed in mature arc tectonic environment. For the Peixoto Granite, two hypotheses are suggested: (a) it was developed in younger magmatic arc environment associated with the Colider Magmatism or (b) it was generated in extensional tectonic environment during the Columbia Super continent break up. (author)

  20. The assessment of human intrusion into underground repositories for radioactive waste Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared with the primary objective of establishing a methodology for the assessment of human intrusion into deep underground repositories for radioactive wastes. The disposal concepts considered are those studied in the performance assessment studies Pagis and Pacoma, coordinated by the CEC. These comprise four types of host rock, namely: clay, granite, salt and the sub-seabed. Following a review of previous assessments of human intrusion, a list of relevant human activities is derived. This forms the basis for detailed characterization of groundwater abstraction and of exploitation of mineral and other resources. Approaches to assessment of intrusion are reviewed and consideration is given to the estimation of probabilities for specific types of intrusion events. Calculational schemes are derived for specific intrusion events and dosimetric factors are presented. A review is also presented of the capacity for reduction of the risks associated with intrusions. Finally, conclusions from the study are presented

  1. The assessment of human intrusion into underground repositories for radioactive waste Volume 1: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared with the primary objective of establishing a methodology for the assessment of human intrusion into deep underground repositories for radioactive wastes. The disposal concepts considered are those studied in the performance assessment studies Pagis and Pacoma, coordinated by the CEC. These comprise four types of host rock, namely: clay, granite, salt and the sub-seabed. Following a review of previous assessments of human intrusion, a list of relevant human activities is derived. This forms the basis for detailed characterization of groundwater abstraction and of exploitation of mineral and other resources. Approaches to assessment of intrusion are reviewed and consideration is given to the estimation of probabilities for specific types of intrusion events. Calculational schemes are derived for specific intrusion events and dosimetric factors are presented. A review is also presented of the capacity for reduction of the risks associated with intrusions. Finally, conclusions from the study are presented

  2. Geochemical and Rb-Sr isotopic study of Kuilapal granite and Arkasani granophyre from the eastern Indian craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor intrusive bodies of granite occur along the periphery of the Archaean trondhjemitic batholith of the eastern Indian craton. Small granite bodies intruding low-grade sediments and volcanics also occur north of the Dalma volcanic belt. Of these, Kuilapal granite body is the largest. Petrographic and geochemical characters of the minor granite bodies south of Dalma volcanics are similar to those of Kuilapal granite. On the basis of these characters, Kuilapal granite and Arkasani granophyre are inferred to have been produced by shallow-level fractional crystallisation of a crustally - derived granodiorite melt. Dominance of xenoliths in the Kuilapal granite suggests large-scale assimilation of crustal rocks. A Rb-Sr age of 1638 ± 38 Ma with Sr of 0.72173 ± 0.00156 (MSWD=11.3) has been obtained for the Kuilapal granite. This age is strikingly close to the Rb-Sr age of 1677 ± 11 Ma as obtained for the soda granite of Mosabani. The Rb-Sr age of 1638 ± 38Ma, it seems, is the minimum age of emplacement of Kuilapal granite. A Rb-Sr whole-rock age of 1052 ± 84Ma has been obtained for the Arkasani granophyre. Microstructural and textural evidence in some of the samples indicate deformation-induced and fluid-controlled recrystallization. The emplacement age of the Arkasani granophyre is likely to be older than 1052 Ma. (author). 31 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Numerical Modelling of Melt Segregation Within and Around Sill Intrusions

    OpenAIRE

    Solano, James

    2011-01-01

    The continental crust has an observed stratification from mafic lower crust to granitic shallow crust. How this stratification arises is one of the key unanswered questions in igneous petrology. For this thesis a general coupled model of heat and mass transport during buoyancy driven melt segregation has been developed and employed to simulate the intrusion and subsequent evolution of sills in regions termed deep crustal hot zones. A system of governing equations describing the...

  4. Interior intrusion detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dry, B. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Interior intrusion detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs

  6. The rapakivi granite plutons of Bodom and Obbnäs, southern Finland: petrography and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosunen, P.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Obbnäs and Bodom granite plutons of southernmost Finland show the typical petrographic and geochemical features of the Proterozoic rapakivi granites in Finland and elsewhere: they cut sharply across the 1900 Ma Svecofennian metamorphic bedrock and have the geochemical characteristics of subalkaline A-type granites. The Bodom pluton is composed of porphyritic granites (hornblende-, hornblende-biotite-, and biotite-bearing varieties and an even-grained granite that probably represent two separate intrusive phases. This lithologic variation does not occur in the Obbnäs pluton, which is almost entirely composed of porphyritic hornblende-biotite granite that gradually becomes more mafic to the southwest. Three types of hybrid granitoids resulting from magma mingling and mixing occur on the southwestern tip of the Obbnäs peninsula. The Bodom granites are syenogranites, whereas the composition of the Obbnäs granite varies from syeno- to monzogranite. The main silicates of both the Bodom and Obbnäs granites are quartz, microcline, plagioclase (An1541, biotite (siderophyllite, and generally also amphibole (ferropargasite or hastingsite. Plagioclase-mantled alkali feldspar megacrysts are absent or rare. The accessory minerals are fluorite, allanite, zircon, apatite, and iron-titanium oxides; the Obbnäs granite also contains titanite. The Bodom and Obbnäs granites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, with average A/CNK of 1.00 and 1.05, respectively, have high Fe/Mg (average FeOtot/[FeOtot+MgO] is 0.94 for the Bodom and 0.87 for the Obbnäs granites, and high Ga/Al (3.78 to 5.22 in Bodom and 2.46 to 4.18 in Obbnäs. The REE contents are high with LREE-enriched chondrite-normalized patterns and moderate (Obbnäs to relatively strong (Bodom negative Eu-anomalies. The Obbnäs granite is enriched in CaO, TiO2, MgO, and FeO, and depleted in SiO2 and K2O compared to the Bodom granites. Also, there are differences in the Ba, Rb, and Sr contents of the two plutons (Ba and Sr higher, Rb lower in Obbnäs that cannot easily be traced to single parental granite magma. These features, together with the presence of titanite in the Obbnäs pluton, suggest different sources for the granites of the two plutons: a potassium feldspar-rich source for Bodom and potassium feldspar-poor for Obbnäs.

  7. Study on Kalimantan uranium province: The assessment on uranium mineralization of metamorphic and granitic rocks at Schwaner mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium exploration activities done by CEA-BATAN had discovered uranium occurrences as the radiometric and uranium content anomalies at metamorphic and granite rocks of Schwaner Mountains, Kalimantan. A part of the occurrences on metamorphic rocks at Kalan basin has been evaluated and be developed onto follow-up step of prospecting by construction of some drilling holes and an exploration adit. In order to increase the national uranium resources, it is necessarily to extent the exploration activity to out side or nearby of Kalan basin. The goal of this assessment is to understand the uranium accumulation mechanism at Pinoh metamorphic rocks of Kalan Kalimantan and to delineate areas that uranium may exist. The assessment was based on the aspect of geology, anomaly of radioactivity and uranium contents, tectonics and alterations. Pinoh metamorphic rocks which is influenced by Sukadana granite intrusion are the high potential rocks for the uranium accumulation, because the intrusion contains a relatively high of U, Th, Cu, Zn, Nb, Mn, and W. The potential rock distributions are in between G. Ransa granite intrusion at the east and Kotabaru granite intrusions at the west. The mineralizations are categorized as vein type deposits of granitic association

  8. Geochronology and geochemistry of Hamaerwula granitic porphyry in Inner Mongolia of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Zhao, Q.; Zheng, C.; Sinoprobe Program of China

    2011-12-01

    Hamaerwula granitic porphyry is located in the active continental margin of the Late Paleozoic at the southeastern edge of Erguna-Xingan blocks,and also lies in the middle parts of Tongxing-Baoshi volcanic rock zone within the Daxinganling volcanic rock belts of the Mesozoic. Daxinganling is the major tectonic-magmatic activity belts in the eastern China.. The Hamaerwula granitic porphyry is exposed in approximately 33.29 km2, which occurred as a intrusion in the late Jurassic volcanic - sedimentary strata, indicating that the intrusion was formed after the Late Jurassic. U-Pb isochron determination shows that the weighted average of the apparent ages of the granitic porphyry is 124.9±2.5Ma.The granitic porphyry geochemisty is characterized by high SiO2(with a mean value of 74.48% ranging 71.262%-77.61%) , rich alkali (K2O+Na2O)( with mean value of 7.46% ranging 6.32%-8.77%) , and high K2O/Na2O ratio (1.1-2.2). The granitic porphyry is rich in Al, and poor in Ca,Fe,and Mg, belonging to potassium-rich calc-alkaline rock series. Sr,Rb,Th and Ce are enriched, and Zr, Hf, Sm, Y and Yb are relatively depleted. The chondrite-normalized patterns of rare earth elements(REE) show that light REE are concentrated and well fractionated, heavy REE are relative deficient and poorly fractionated, and negative Eu anomaly is highly strong. The tectonic settings discrimination analysis of the granitic porphyry with REE and trace elements suggested that the granitic porphyry is of the late orogenic granite porphyry. The orogenesis in Daxinganling area had been finished before Mesozoic, the continental volcanic-sedimentary strata were developed in Mesozoic, the magmatic activity was abnormally strong in Mid- and late Mesozoic.The field geological features showed that the granitic porphyry in this area was formed in the late orogenic period. A large number of studies confirmed that K-rich calc-alkaline granites were formed in tensional tectonic environment. Geochronology and geochemistry characteristics show that (1)the granite porphyry in Hamaerwula was formed in the early Cretaceous(K1),the zircon U-Pb age was 124.9 ± 2.5Ma;(2) SiO2 in Hamaerwula granitic porphyry was saturated,and aluminum supersaturated;(3) the Hamaerwula granitic porphyry belonged to the late orogenic granitoids.

  9. Uranium distribution in the Um Samra-Um Bakra granitic plutons and associated pegmatites, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um Samra -Um Bakra granitic plutons are located in the central Eastern Desert between latitudes 25 degree 15 and 25 degree 19 N and longitudes 34 degree 03 and 34 deg 11 E. The younger granites in the studied area are subdivided into two varieties, monzogranites and syenogranites. The syenogranites could be considered as uraniferous (fertile) granites, originated from highly fractionated, U-rich magma. They contain from 15.5 to 24.5 ppm uranium and from 20.5 to 25.0 ppm thorium. Both U and Th were essentially concentrated during the magmatic stage in accessory minerals as apatite, fluorite and zircon. The secondary processes as fracturing and alteration processes allowed the meteoric water and hydrothermal solutions to liberate labile uranium and redeposited their loads along micro fractures. Pegmatites show higher U-contents relative to both types of the studied younger granites. Pegmatites could be classified into two separate groups: 1) mineralized pegmatites which are located near the contact of Um Samra younger granites; they possess U-mineralization (kasolite) and 2) non-mineralized pegmatites which are distributed within Um Bakra younger granites themselves; they show lower U-contents relative to the first type. (author)

  10. Les intrusions de Wirgane (Haut Atlas occidental, Maroc): témoins d'un magmatisme syn- à tardi-cinématique hercynien? (Intrusions of Wirgane [western High Atlas, Morocco]: evidence for a syn- to late kinematic magmatism of Variscan age?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddif, A.; Gasquet, D.; Hoepffner, C.; Ayad, N. Ait

    2000-11-01

    The Wirgane intrusives were emplaced into the Late Neoproterozoic to Palæozoic series of the northeast of the Moroccan western High Atlas. The intrusions exhibit a large compositional range from monzogabbro to granite, and they have suffered, together with the country rocks, part of the Variscan tectonic evolution. In the immediate vicinity of the intrusions, thermal metamorphism developed in the country rocks. According to the mineral chemistry of igneous amphibole compositions of diorites and metamorphic minerals, the depth of intrusives was estimated to be less than 11 km. Strain patterns, mapped in both the plutons and the country rocks, and microtectonic data indicate that the intrusions were emplaced in a dextral transcurrent shearing context during the Variscan Orogen. When compared with other intrusions of the western High Atlas (Tichka, Azegour), the Wirgane intrusives are considered to be related to the late stages of the Variscan Belt of Morocco.

  11. Geology and U-Pb geochronology of the Banabuiu granite, Northeastern Ceara, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Banabuiu massif crops out in the Central Ceara Domain (DCC) of the Borborema Province (NE Brasil), as an N-S elongate granite intrusion, concordant with the regional structures. It was emplaced into basement rocks of Paleoproterozoic age, extensively transformed into gneisses and migmatites during the Brasilian orogeny (?600 Ma). Using U-Pb zircon dating, the crystallization age of the Banabuiu syn-kinematic two-mica granite was estimated at 578.6 ± 6.5 Ma. The granite is strongly peraluminous (A/CNK 1,098 - 1,134) and shows a typical S-type geochemical signature. The ?Nd580 values are strongly negative ?Nd580 = -19 a - 23) and partially overlap with those of the Paleoproterozoic gneissmigmatite complex (?Nd580 = -12 to -26), suggesting that the parental magmas of the Banabuiu granite could have been produced by partial melting of similar crustal materials. (Author) 21 refs.

  12. Contribution to the uranium geochemistry on granites in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to define the position of two of Ecuador granitic deposits within the field of the geochemistry of granites in general and of the geochemistry of uranium in particular. The regions concerned are: The Bonita and ABITAGUA. For each range the petrochemical framework is first of all determined and then the degree of chemical homogeneity of rocks is evaluated. In the petrochemical groups thus obtained the geochemical behaviour of the uranium is studied. From the viewpoint of the geochemistry of the granites under investigation, a comparison of the laws of distribution of the mayor elements in two ranges shows up a covergence of average composition which was not anticipated by geological and petrografic considerations alone. The statistical and geochemical distribution laws of the total uranium as a function of petrochemical variations are established. A study of chemical forms of uranium in the rocks has drawn an attention to the qualitative and quantitative importance of the faction of uranium soluble in delute acids. We have therefore reconsidered on the one hand, the laws of distribution of the insoluble and we have justified on the other hand the interest presented by the soluble post magmatic phenomena which makes possible to find a genetic connection between the uraniferous deposits and the intrusive massifs. Finally we have given tables of analytic composition total of the granites. (Author)

  13. Radioelemental characterization of neoproterozoic south Khasi batholith and mylliem granite pluton by portable gamma-ray spectrometry: its implication on uranium exploration in parts of east and west Khasi hills, Meghalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younger granite activity in the form of South Khasi Batholith (SKB), Kyrdem, Mylliem and Nongpoh plutons occur as intrusive into the basement gneissic complex and Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Shillong group of rocks. Ground portable gamma ray spectrometric survey carried out over the SKB, the Mylliem pluton and the basement gneissic complex. The eTh, eTh/eU and K contours clearly demarcate their lithocontacts. Radiometrically, these plutons are of hyperacidic to alkaline in nature. The magmatic evolution and the differentiated origin of granites are reflected by high concentration of eTh and K. The low Th/K values within the pluton indicate presence of diorite bodies and also suggest K enrichment along the margin of the Mylliem pluton. Higher concentration of radioelements along the margin of Mylliem pluton may be due to the role of hydrothermal phase to transport the radioelements. The high eTh/eU values and uranium favourability index of the SKB may imply possible loss of considerable amount of uranium to become provenance for the nearby uranium districts. (author)

  14. Geochronology of Triassic-Jurassic granitoids in the southern frames of Mongol-Okhotsk fold belt and the principles of early mesozoic granitic formation in the Central and East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of U-Pb and U-Pb-Th-isotope dating of zircon from biotite and leucocratic granites in the southern frames of the Mongol-Okhotsk fold belt are presented. The similar estimates of the above mentioned granite ages (208±9 and 190±3 mln. years), the granites being referred traditionally to different intrusive complexes, permit defining essentially the scale of the early mesozoic magmatism manifestations in the Central and East Asia

  15. Artificial weathering of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir sulfatación. Se analizan los resultados obtenidos en cada ensayo y se discuten las limitaciones de los mismos para reproducir las patologías desarrolladas en los monumentos así como la influencia que pueden tener en dichas patologías aspectos como las condiciones de humectación y secado, el tipo de disolución salina (mixta-simple y la influencia de los planos de debilidad de las rocas en el desarrollo de unas u otras formas de alteración.

  16. The Swedish Bohus granite - a stone with a fascinating history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Eliasson, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    One of the most well-known and well spread Swedish stone types used as building stones is the Bonus granite. It outcrops in an area north of Gothenburgh (SW Sweden), along the coastline, approximately 35 km wide and 85 km long. The granite continues into Norway as the Iddefjord granite. The Bohus granite is one of Sweden's youngest granites. Isotopic dating shows that the magma cooled at about 920 M years ago and thus marking the end of the Sveconorwegian orogoney. It is a composite granite massif area with several granitic intrusions but with rather homogeneous mineralogy. However, colour and texture varies quite a lot and the colour ranges from red to reddish grey although some pure grey varieties occur sparsely. The grain size ranges from medium grained to coarse grained and even with some porphyric parts. Quarrying in an industrial scale started 1842. The merchant A C Kullgren opened the first quarry and produced stones for the construction of the 86 km long Trollhättan channel connecting lake Vänern and the Atlantic ocean in the SW Sweden The stone was used for constructing harbors and wharves along the channel. Several quarries opened in the late 1800 around 1870 - 1890 and the export increased steadily with deliveries to Germany, Denmark, Holland, England and even to South America. The stone industries in Bohuslän (Bohus county), at its peak in 1929, engaged around 7 000 employees. During the depression in 1930 almost all of them became unemployed. However, as a curiosity, production and export continued to Germany for construction of Germania, the future World capital city ("Welthauptstadt Germania"), planned by Adolf Hitler and Albert Speer. About 500 stone workers were kept employed for this project during the late thirties. Today several varieties are still produced: Evja/Ävja, Tossene, Brastad, Näsinge, Broberg, Nolby, Allemarken and Skarstad. However, the number of stone workers is far from that of the early 1900. The Swedish production is mainly blocks but also paving products like sets, slabs and kerb stones are still manufactured in Sweden. Blocks are generally further processed in other countries like Italy and China to reach the European market as semi-finished products like slabs or finished products for any kind of application. The granite is very durable and suitable for all types of natural stone products.

  17. Geochemistry of pegmatites associated with the Cape Coast granite complex of southern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cape Coast granite complex, which is associated with the metasedimentary basin rocks of Birimian in Ghana are, also referred to as the basin - type granitoids, and forms part of the two major types of Eburan granitoids in Ghana. The Cape Coast granite complex is characterized by various intrusions such as acid intrusion and pegmatites. The pegmatites associated with the Cape Coast granite complex are noted to be related to the margin of the granite batholiths. The mineralogical characteristics of the pegmatites have been documented, but there is little published information on the geochemical characteristics, source and tectonic settings and mode of emplacement of these pegmatites as compared to the Cape Coast granite complex. The objectives of this project were therefore to determine the compositions and geochemistry of the pegmatite and use the data to infer the possible source of these pegmatites. The geochemical data indicates that the pegmatites of the Egyaa, Saltpond and Akim Oda areas consist of a low to high-K, S-type characteristics, with three samples from Saltpond having metaluminous character. Lower values of molar CaO/ (MgO + FeOtot) coupled with higher values of molar Al2O3/ MgO + Fetot) suggest their derivation from partial melting from metabalistic source. The data suggests the rocks so have emplaced in a volcanic arc and ocean ridge geotectonic environment. (au)

  18. The age and origin of Grenville Province uraniferous granites and pegmatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mineralization in pegmatites and granites occurs widely in the Grenville Province but is especially important near Bancroft, Ontario and north of Mont Laurier and Johan Beetz in Quebec. Most investigators have concluded that these rocks were produced by anatexis of a uranium-enriched sedimentary protolith. We have used Rb-Sr isotopic methods to test this and other hypotheses and have reexamined the petrologic and structural features that led to these hypotheses. Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron ages from all three areas range from 937 to 980 Ma, some 150 Ma younger than the age of the peak of Grenville metamorphism as inferred from numerous ages from syntectonic intrusive rocks and high-grade metasediments. The ages of the pegmatites are similar to or just slightly greater than K-Ar ages from this region. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7028 to 0.7054, plus one poorly defined value of 0.709. Excluding this last one, these values are only slightly greater than mantle ratios, and calculations show that these rocks could not have been derived from the quartzofeldspathic gneisses of these areas and certainly not from Grenville Supergroup sediments. The late timing of the emplacement of these rocks and the popularity of a continental collision model for the Grenville Province producing a very thick crust lead us to suggest an origin by deep melting due to isothermal decompression during rapid uplift. This suggestion is supported by the location of all the occurrences near zones interpreted to be paleorift systems

  19. Climax granite test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) program, is carrying out in situ rock mechanics testing in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This summary addresses only those field data taken to date that address thermomechanical modeling for a hard-rock repository. The results to be discussed include thermal measurements in a heater test that was conducted from October 1977 through July 1978, and stress and displacement measurements made during and after excavation of the canister storage drift for the Spent Fuel Test (SFT) in the Climax granite. Associated laboratory and field measurements are summarized. The rock temperature for a given applied heat load at a point in time and space can be adequately modeled with simple analytic calculations involving superposition and integration of numerous point source solutions. The input, for locations beyond about a meter from the source, can be a constant thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The value of thermal conductivity required to match the field data is as much as 25% different from laboratory-measured values. Therefore, unless we come to understand the mechanisms for this difference, a simple in situ test will be required to obtain a value for final repository design. Some sensitivity calculations have shown that the temperature field is about ten times more sensitive to conductivity than to diffusivity under the test conditions.The orthogonal array was designed to detect anisotropy. After considering all error sources, anisotropic efforts in the thermal field were less than 5 to 10%

  20. Petrology and geochemistry of the Los Cuartos granite, Tafi del Valle, Tucuman, northwest of Argentina: its integration to the regional magmatic layout; Petrologia y geoquimica del granito Los Cuartos, Tafi del Valle, Tucuman, noroeste de Argentina: integracion al esquema magmatico regional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J.P.; Bellos, L.I.

    2010-07-01

    Los Cuartos Granite crops out on the western flank of the Cumbres Calchaquies, east of Tafi del Valle, Tucuman Province, Argentina. It has a granitic to granodioritic composition, of two micas, being biotite dominant. The granite is medium grained and inequigranular, with rare K-feldspar megacrysts. It contains host-rock xenoliths with different degrees of assimilation. The granite intrusion produced contact metamorphism in the surrounding basement, with development of andalucite porphyroblasts and poikiloblastic biotite. The granite is calk-alkaline and peraluminous, and is K- and P-rich and Ca- and Napoor compared to other granitoids of the region. The pluton shows late-tectonic features with regard to the regional deformation. The granite possibly intruded during the Ordovician (Famatinian Cycle) and its emplacement was structurally controlled by the Tafi Megafracture. Los Cuartos Granite and other intrusive bodies of the region share similar petrographical, geochemical, structural and geochronological characteristics. (Author).

  1. Granites and granitoids of the southern region - Granite molybdenite system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic concentrations of molybdenum are genetically closely associated with acidic and moderately acid granitoids-granites, granodiorites, monzonites and diorites, and are located in two geotectonic settings: subduction-related and rift-related. The aim of this paper is twofold, first succinctly approach the geology, tectonic setting and chemical parameters of the 'granite molybdenite system' as defined by Mutschler and/or alcali granite porphyry bodies emplaced in the North American continent for occasion of a Mesozoic-Fanerozoic extensile event; second to relate the computer-assisted evaluation of 422 major element chemical analysis of granites and granitoids of southern region of Brazil, using chemical fingerprints (SiO2 ? 74. Owt%, Na2O ? 3.6wt%, K2O ? 4.5wt%), and K2O/Na2O ratio > 1.5 developed and testified from North American and Finnish occurrences, may locate molybdenite-bearing granite bodies with high exploration potential. These techniques suggest that some late Precambrian to early Paleozoic granite-rhyolite assemblages inserted at domains of the SG. 22/23 Curitiba/Iguape, SH. 21/22 Uruguaiana/Porto Alegre and SI.22 Lagoa Mirim Sheets, have exploration potential for molybdenum. (author)

  2. Paleomagnetism of Fluorite Veins in the Devonian St. Lawrence Granite and Regional Tectonism of the Avalon Terrane, Newfoundland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, K.; Symons, D. T.

    2008-05-01

    The St. Lawrence fluorite veins within the Devonian St. Lawrence Granite and its related porphyry dikes constitute a major high-grade resource of fluorspar in Canada. Paleomagnetic analysis of 359 specimens from 29 sites, including both fluorite veins and granite, shows that there is no statistically significant difference at 95% confidence between the site mean characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) directions carried by pyrrhotite and/or magnetite of the veins and the granite. There is no evidence of a post-emplacement metamorphic event in the granite or surrounding country rocks. Thus these concordant directions indicate that the granite and fluorite veins are coeval in origin and retain a primary remanence. However, the combined mean ChRM direction of 25 vein and granite sites yields a Middle Pennsylvanian paleopole of ~316 Ma on the North American apparent polar wander path at 35.6°N, 128.8°E (A95 = 3.5°) that is much younger than the 374±2 Ma Devonian U/Pb zircon age for the granite. Structural relationships of two intersecting vertical vein sets indicate that the St. Lawrence Granite has not been tilted since the fluorite veins were formed. Therefore, the difference between the measured and expected paleopoles is interpreted to be the result of a postemplacement counterclockwise rotation of the St. Lawrence Granite region about a vertical axis by ~ 17°. The analysis of Carboniferous paleopoles in the northern Appalachian Orogen indicates that this rotation is Late Devonian.

  3. Uranium-lead age of zircons from granites and the substrate of the Mazara massif (Southern Urals)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnobaev, A. A.; Puchkov, V. N.; Sergeeva, N. D.; Busharina, S. V.

    2015-07-01

    The U-Pb dating of zircons from the Mazara granite massif (Southern Urals) by means of the SHRIMP II technique resulted in the conclusion that the zircons were constituted of two key generations belonging, respectively, to the substrate and to the intrusion proper. The age of the granite substrate presented by zircon cores is estimated at 1527-1548 Ma; the final stage of the substrate evolution is characterized by a concordant date of 1388 ± 16 Ma. The latter estimate is much closer to the Mesoproterosoic stage of magmatism. The information on the formation of granites of the Mazara intrusion is mainly contained in the outer parts of the crystals, with two stages distinguished within the formation history. The early and final stages are determined by the datings of 746.6 ± 24.3 and 709.1 ± 5.2 Ma, respectively (both estimates conform to the Neoproterozoic).

  4. The Torres del Paine intrusion as a model for a shallow magma chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Lukas; Bodner, Robert; Leuthold, Julien; Muntener, Othmar; Putlitz, Benita; Vennemann, Torsten

    2014-05-01

    The shallow magmatic Torres del Paine Intrusive Complex (TPIC) belongs to a series of sub-volcanic and plutonic igneous bodies in Southern Chile and Argentina. This trench-parallel belt is located in a transitional position between the Patagonia Batholith in the West, and the alkaline Cenozoic plateau lavas in the East. While volumetrically small amounts of magmatism started around 28 my ago in the Torres del Paine area, and a second period occurred between 17-16 Ma, it peaked with the TPIC 12.59-12.43 Ma ago. The spectacular cliffs of the Torres del Paine National park provide a unique opportunity to study the evolution of a very shallow magma chamber and the interaction with its host rocks. Intrusion depth can be estimated based on contact metamorphic assemblages and granite solidus thermobarometry to 750±250 bars, corresponding to an intrusion depth of ca. 3km, ca. 500m above the base of the intrusion. Hornblende thermobarometry in mafic rocks agrees well with these estimates (Leuthold et al., 2014). The TPIC is composed of a granitic laccolith emplaced over 90ka (Michel et al., 2008) in 3 major, several 100m thick sheets, forming an overall thickness of nearly 2 km. Contacts are sharp between sheets, with the oldest sheet on the top and the youngest on the bottom (Michel et al., 2008). The granitic laccolith is under-plated by a ca. 400m thick mafic laccolith, built up over ca. 50ka (Leuthold et al. 2012), constructed from the bottom up. Granitic and mafic sheets are themselves composed of multiple metric to decametric pulses, mostly with ductile contacts between them, resulting in outcrop patterns resembling braided stream sediments. The contact of the TPIC with the Cretaceous flysch sediments document intrusion mechanism. Pre-existing sub-horizontal fold axes are rotated in the roof of the TPIC, clearly demonstrating ballooning of the roof; no ballooning was observed in the footwall of the intrusion. Extension during ballooning of the roof is indicated by dykes emanating from the roof of the intrusion into the host rocks. The dykes are perpendicular to the contact, radially shooting into the country rocks. Since the oldest granite is found in the roof, it is also permeated by dykes of successive intrusions. Contact metamorphism can be used to constrain the granite intrusion temperature to ca. 1000°C. Intrusion occurred in multiple pulses along the granite-host rock contact, in rapid succession, before significant cooling occurred in the aureole. Hydration of the biotite and feldspar of the immature sediments in the outer aureole contributed significantly to the overall thermal signature of the host-rock-TPIC system. In contrast, stable isotopes do not document significant fluid circulation. Leuthold, J., Müntener, O., Baumgartner, L., Putlitz, B., Ovtcharova, M., Schaltegger, U. (2012) Time resolved construction of a granitic to mafic laccolith (Torres del Paine, Patagonia). Earth Plan Sci Lett. 325. 85-92 Leuthold J., Müntener O., Baumgartner L.P., Putlitz B., (2014) Recycling of mafic crystal mush, transport and emplacement in the Torres del Paine mafic complex (Patagonia). J. Petrology; accepted pending revision Michel, J., Baumgartner, L.P. Putlitz, B., Ovtcharova, M., Schaltegger, U. (2008) Incremental growth of a shallow crustal laccolith over 80 kyrs: the Torres del Paine Granite, Patagonia. Geology vol. 36, 459-462

  5. Early Paleoproterozoic (2.5-2.0 Ga) A-type granite associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, O. T.

    2010-12-01

    A-type granites (including their volcanic equivalents) and related rocks (mafic intrusions, massif-type anorthosite, basaltic dikes and lavas, rare alkaline rocks) form a conspicuous part of the granite spectrum. They have been recognized by the geological community only relatively recently (first definition of A-type granites by Loiselle and Wones in 1979) and they are characterized by several attributes that clearly set them apart from other granitic rocks. A-type granites were originally defined as relatively dry (anhydrous), and they have high contents of alkali metals (either sodium or potassium) and most high field strength trace elements. They commonly have been emplaced in an extensional tectonic regime not directly related to lithospheric convergence (i.e., they have been considered “anorogenic” or “post-tectonic”). In terms of age, the A-type granites span almost three billion years (~2.7 Ga to Recent) of Earth’s history. Known occurrences of early Paleoproterozoic (2.5-2.0 Ga) A-type granites are relatively few and they are dwarfed by the voluminous mid-Proterozoic (1.7-1.0 Ga) A-type associations of Laurentia, Baltica, and Amazonia. 2.5-2.0 Ga A-type granite suites have been described from the North China craton (2.44, 2.16, 2.09 Ga), northwestern China (2.41, 2.34 Ga), central India (2.50, 2.18 Ga), the West Africa craton (2.07 Ga), the Congo craton (2.3 Ga), South Africa (2.05 Ga), the Karelian craton (2.44, 2.43 Ga), and Labrador (2.05 Ga). Three principal lithologic associations can be recognized for these A-type granite suites: (1) A-type granites in South Africa and Karelia represent the felsic component of layered mafic intrusions and may be very extensive (e.g., the ~30,000 km2 Bushveld granites); (2) high-K granites and syenites emplaced in late/post-orogenic or rift-associated settings (China, India, western and central Africa); and (3) a rare example of pre-2.0 Ga anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite (AMCG) suite in Labrador. A common (yet not ubiquitous) feature of these rock associations is their bimodality with mafic magmatism temporally and spatially associated with the granites. The A-type granites typically contain a major crustal source component, which underlines the significance of crustal melting in the petrogenesis of these rocks. The observation that 2.5-2.0 Ga old A-type granite suites are scarce suggests that, during this period of time, conditions for extensive crustal reorganization were not attained on a global scale. Overall, the early Paleoproterozoic has been considered a time of little net crustal growth on Earth and shortage of “juvenile” crust of this age (e.g., Condie et al. 2005). Thus, in early Paleoproterozoic, there probably was a lack of fertile crustal domains that could have provided the crustal source component for A-type granite associations in regions affected by subcontinental thermal perturbations.

  6. Geology, geochemistry, and geochronology of an A-type granite in the Mulock Glacier area, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the north side of the Mulock Glacier and at Cape Teall in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, deformed greenschist facies Skelton Group metasediments are intruded by the post-kinematic A-type Mulock Granite. Geochemical data indicate that this intrusive complex is similar to A-type granitoids previously described both to the north (Glee Intrusives and Penny Hill Granite), where they form part of the Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Province, and to the south (Foggydog Granite Suite). A U-Pb zircon date of 546 ± 3 Ma on the Mulock Granite places a minimum constraint on the age, and timing of deformation of the Skelton Group rocks in this area, and indicates that the Mulock Granite was emplaced during the initial stages of the Ross Orogeny. This age also confirms that crystallisation of this granite body was synchronous with that of A-type granitoids from the Royal Society Range to Skelton Glacier area immediately to the north. (author). 60 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  7. The Sonju Lake layered intrusion, northeast Minnesota: Internal structure and emplacement history inferred from magnetic fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, S.M.; Tikoff, B.; Ferre, E.C.; Brown, P.E.; Miller, J.D., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The Sonju Lake intrusion (SLI), in northeastern Minnesota, is a layered mafic complex of Keweenawan age (1096.1 ?? 0.8 Ma) related to the Midcontinent rift. The cumulate paragenesis of the intrusion is recognized as broadly similar to the Skaergaard intrusion, a classic example of closed-system differentiation of a tholeiitic mafic magma. The SLI represents nearly closed-system differentiation through bottom-up fractional crystallization. Geochemical studies have identified the presence of a stratabound, 50-100 m thick zone anomalously enriched in Au + PGE. Similar to the PGE reefs of the Skaergaard intrusion, this PGE-enriched zone is hosted within oxide gabbro cumulates, about two-third of the way up from the base of the intrusion. We present a petrofabric study using the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) to investigate the emplacement and flow patterns within the Sonju Lake intrusion. Petrographic and electron microprobe studies, combined with AMS and hysteresis measurements indicate the primary source of the magnetic signal is pseudo-single domain (PSD) magnetite or titanomagnetite. Low field AMS was measured at 32 sites within the Sonju Lake intrusion, which provided information about primary igneous fabrics. The magnetic fabrics in the layered series of the Sonju Lake intrusion are consistent with sub-horizontal to inclined emplacement of the intrusion and show evidence that the cumulate layers were deposited in a dynamic environment. Well-aligned magnetic lineations, consistently plunging shallowly toward the southwest, indicate the source of the magma is a vertical sill-like feeder, presumably located beneath the Finland granite. The Finland granite acted as a density trap for the Sonju Lake magmas, forcing lateral flow of magma to the northeast. The strongly oblate magnetic shape fabrics indicate the shallowly dipping planar fabrics were enhanced by compaction of the crystal mush. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mineral chemistry and geochemistry of the Late Neoproterozoic Gabal Abu Diab granitoids, Central Eastern Dessert, Egypt: Implications for the origin of rare metal post-orogenic A-type granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Mabrouk; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Farahat, Esam S.; Ahmed, Awaad F.; Mohamed, Haroun A.

    2015-04-01

    The Neoproterozoic Gabal Abu Diab pluton is a part of the Arabian Nubian shield (ANS) continental crust and located in the Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt. It constitutes multiphase granitic pluton intruded into granodiorite and metagabbro-diorite rocks with sharp and nonreactive contacts. Based on field observations, colors, structural variations and petrographic investigations, this granitic outcrop consists of an inner core of two-mica granite (TMG) followed outward by garnet bearing muscovite granite (GBMG) and albite granite (AG). Petrographical study indicated that medium to coarse-grained TMG is dominated by K-feldspar (Or88-98), quartz, plagioclase (albite, An0-7), muscovite and biotite with hypidiomorphic texture. With exception the appearance of garnet and the disappearance of biotite the GBMG resembles the TGM, while AG is leucocratic without any mafic mineral. The main accessories are zircon, Nb and Ta-bearing rutile, columbite, ilmenorutile, ilmenite, magnetite and apatite. This mineralogical similarity and the existence of columbite group minerals (CGM) in all granitoids, indicates a cogenetic relationship. Microprobe analyses reveal that, besides the CGM, rutile and ilmenite are the main repository phases for Nb-Ta-Ti. Columbite-(Mn) exists as individual subhedral crystals (up to 100?m in size) or intimate intergrowth with Nb-bearing rutile and/or ilmenite. The CGM are represented mostly by columbite-(Mn) with Ta/(Ta+Nb) and Mn/(Mn+Fe) ratio ranging from 0.02-0.08 and 0.4-0.9, respectively suggesting extreme degree of magmatic fractionation. Rutile contains significant amounts of Ta (up to 4 wt.% Ta2O5) and Nb (up to 22 wt.% Nb2O5). Biotites are phlogopite-annite in composition (Ann47-60Phlog40-53,on average) and are enriched with AlIV that characterize peraluminous granites. Garnets contain 60-69 mol.% spessartine and 28-36 mol.% almandine where, the ratio of spessartine and almandine together exceeds 95 mole percent, similar to garnet occur within A-type granite worldwide. According to Zhang et al., 2012, the garnet crystallized at the expense of biotite from the MnO-rich evolved melt after fractionation of biotite, plagioclase, K-feldspar, zircon, apatite, and ilmenite. The granitoids are alkali feldspar granites showing distinct geochemical features and most likely, belong to the post-orogenic younger Egyptian granitoids. They are peraluminous A-type alkaline rocks but they have lower Fe2O3, MgO, MnO, CaO, TiO2, P2O5, Sr, Ba, V, and higher SiO2, Na2O, K2O, Nb, Ta, U, Zr, Th, Ga/Al and Rb than the typical rocks of this type. The positive correlation between Ba and Sr, and the negative correlation between Rb and K/Rb reveal fractional crystallization of alkali feldspar. The similarity in most geochemical characteristics suggests that Abu Diab granitoids are genetically related to each other and extremely enrichment in incompatible elements such as Nb and Ta, indicating that they crystallized from extremely differentiated magmas. References: Zhang, J., Ma, C. and She, Z., 2012. An Early Cretaceous garnet-bearing metaluminous A-type granite intrusion in the East Qinling Orogen, central China: Petrological, mineralogical and geochemical constraints. Geoscience Frontiers 3 (5), 635-646.

  9. Working memory and inhibitory control across the life span: Intrusion errors in the Reading Span Test

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Christelle; Borella, Erika; Fagot, Delphine; Lecerf, Thierry; Ribaupierre, Anik de

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine to what extent inhibitory control and working memory capacity are related across the life span. Intrusion errors committed by children and younger and older adults were investigated in two versions of the Reading Span Test. In Experiment 1, a mixed Reading Span Test with items of various list lengths was administered. Older adults and children recalled fewer correct words and produced more intrusions than did young adults. Also, age-related differences wer...

  10. Uranium and other microelement ditribution in granites and host rocks of Kumyshtag mass (Northern Tien Shan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behaviour of uranium and other micro-elements for stating the dependence of their distribution in granites and enclosing rocks on the conditions of magma crystallization is considered. Distribution of the mentioned elements is characterized with account of geological and petrological factors and carbon isotope composition in inclusions of the volatile phase in granite minerals. Uranium weakly migrated in the volatile phase during the intrusive formation; uranium migration increases by the end of granite crystallization when melt acidity and its saturation with uranium grow to the utmost. Matter mass transfer in time covered magmatic-autometasomatic stages and proceeded on the background of sharp increase of the melt acidity. The main tendency in substance migration is evacuation of strong bases and accumulation of amphoteric elements including uranium

  11. Petrochemical characteristics of Serra do Meio alkaline granite (Campo Alegre de Lourdes - Bahia State)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Serra do Meio granite outcrops near the town of Campo Alegre de Lourdes, north-northeast of Bahia State. The granite is intrusive into micachists, which are correlatives of the Salgueiro-Cachoeirinha Group (Early Proterozoic), during early to the syn-tectonic shear phase. The geological setting also comprises a phosphatic rock-bearing carbonatitic complex and gabbroid complexes with one of the main world resources of Fe-Ti-V. The granite mineralogical composition grades from Aegerine-augite alkali-feldspar granite/syenites to Leuco alcali-feldspar granite. The geochemical analysis shows SiO2-enrichment (67 to 76%), in alkalis (Na2+K2O, 7,5 to 12,5%), Nb (up to 680ppm), Zr (up to 2,390ppm), Y (up to 250ppm) e REE (up to 796ppm). The geochemical behaviour is peculiar to alkaline series, denoting a silica-oversaturated, potassium-rich, magma. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns display a first group with smooth slopes from the La to Lu, and a second one with negative slopes. Negative Eu anomalies are displayed in all the patterns. The first group is HREE-enriched, with low fractionation ratios. Samples with milonytic fabrics and higher fractionation ratios are related to the second group, suggesting the interaction of metassomatic fluids and the alkaline magma. Discriminant diagrams for Nb, Y and Rb, coupled with geophysical data, point to an intrusive granite in an extensional within a plate tectonic setting of attenuated continental crust. (author)

  12. Potassium - argon age data from the Bundelkhand granite and associated rocks and their comparison with the rubidium - strontium isochron ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundelkhand granitic complex occupies a semi-circular area (north of C.I.S.) of about 25000 sq.km. K-Ar age data on hornblende and biotite from amphibolite and mica schist enclaves in Bundelkhand Granitic Complex from widely separated areas (Aver.c. 2413 Ma) are correlatable with the Rb-Sr (WR) mineral isochron age (c.2402 Av.) of granodiorites and granite, suite II indicating the absence of later thermal events (300 degC, biotite blocking temperature) after the granite (II) emplacement (Rb-Sr data). These K-Ar mineral ages indicate the thermal episodes due to the emplacement of the granite. The younger mineral age (2187 Ma Av) may be correlated with the thermal episodes related to the emplacement of Suite III granite (2130 Ma). Bundelkhand Granitic Complex may broadly be correlated with the lower proterozoic (I) granites of Closepet, Chitradurga, Hyderabad, Karimnagar, (South India), Malanjkhand and Dongargarh covering large areas in Madhya Pradesh, Central India and South India. Thus K-Ar ages may be reliable in case the blocking temperatures of minerals dated keep the 40Ar in the lattice in tact since emplacement. (author). 27 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  13. Petrophysical properties of granite from the Melechov Massif, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Martin; Ulrich, Stanislav; Geraud, Yves

    2010-05-01

    The Melechov Massif is a granitic massif constituting the northernmost part of the Central Moldanubian Pluton, which belongs to the Moldanubian zone of the variscan belt in the Bohemian Massif. On an area of cca 100 km2 it is formed by 4 types of granite which are disposed in a concentric manner and are distinguished mainly by their grain size. All the granites are two-mica S-granites considered to be product of polyphase intrusion of magma issued from partial melting of the surrounding variscan metasediments. Relative to the variscan orogeny, the granites are considered to be post-orogenic and are related to isothermic decompression of upper- to middle-crust during collapse of the orogeny-thickened lithosphere. Ages of cooling derived from radiometric dating on monazites give values for all of the types 315 ± 10 Ma. The granite massif suffered brittle deformation related to cooling and induced volume contraction creating systems of joints and, in a lesser measure, faults. The Melechov massif was intensely studied during the last two decades, mainly because it has been established as a testing locality by the radioactive waste repository authority (RAWRA) of the Czech Republic. We have the intention to complement the studies done so far by detailed petrophysical and microstructural analysis of samples taken with respect to macroscopic brittle structures. Several methods are employed to reveal important differences in rock samples collected from distinct geological setting from surface outcrops, quarries and a borehole. The concerned petrophysical properties and/or related experimental methods are namely: thermal conductivity, permeability, porosity, P-wave velocity measurements; in most cases the anisotropy of these quantities is crucial. Preliminary analyses of permeability and porosity show low porosity ranging from 3,8 % for coarse-grained variety to 1,3 % for fine-grained variety and very low permeability ranging from X.10-18 m2 for fine-grained variety to X.10-20 m2 for coarse-grained variety. Preliminary analyses of P-wave velocity at low confining pressures (cca 10 %, closed fissures reduce the TC by up to 20 %, mineralogy inhomogeneities result into increase of about 10 %. To specify and to increase the confidence of our results on borehole samples, which are suspect to be critically too small relative to the prerequisities of the used TC method, we will investigate the influence of volumetric dimensions of sample on the TC values as well as the possible error induced by measurement on a cylindrical surface as compared to measurement on an „infinite' sample.

  14. Molybdenite in Pomona Island Granite at Lake Manapouri, Fiordland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small occurrence of molybdenite (MoS2) mineralisation has been discovered in the weakly A-type Pomona Island Granite on the shorelines of Lake Manapouri in eastern Fiordland. The disseminated appearance of molybdenite and the absence of quartz veins indicates that mineralisation is probably the product of magmatic and/or hydrothermal activity related to pluton crystallisation at c. 157 Ma, and not younger (c.128-116 Ma) shear zone-related mesothermal mineralisation as has been recently described from the Murchison Mountains to the north and Stewart Island to the south. Although apparently not of economic grade, the Pomona Island Granite locality is regionally important because it is the first direct pluton-related Mo-mineralisation event to be recognised in eastern Fiordland. This occurrence adds to the growing number and known styles of base metal occurrences within the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatic arc (Outboard Median Batholith) that formed on or near the New Zealand Gondwana margin. Furthermore, the wide distribution of essentially uninvestigated A-type granites in the Outboard Median Batholith means that there may be further Mo-mineralised localities awaiting discovery. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Status of LLNL granite projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-12-31

    The status of LLNL Projects dealing with nuclear waste disposal in granitic rocks is reviewed. This review covers work done subsequent to the June 1979 Workshop on Thermomechanical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository and is prepared for the July 1980 Workshop on Thermomechanical-Hydrochemical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository. Topics reviewed include laboratory determination of thermal, mechanical, and transport properties of rocks at conditions simulating a deep geologic repository, and field testing at the Climax granitic stock at the USDOE Nevada Test Site.

  16. Status of LLNL granite projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of LLNL Projects dealing with nuclear waste disposal in granitic rocks is reviewed. This review covers work done subsequent to the June 1979 Workshop on Thermomechanical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository and is prepared for the July 1980 Workshop on Thermomechanical-Hydrochemical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository. Topics reviewed include laboratory determination of thermal, mechanical, and transport properties of rocks at conditions simulating a deep geologic repository, and field testing at the Climax granitic stock at the USDOE Nevada Test Site

  17. New methodical developments for GRANIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New methodical developments for the GRANIT spectrometer address further improvements of the critical parameters of this experimental installation, as well as its applications to new fields of research. Keeping in mind an extremely small fraction of ultra cold neutrons (UCN) that could be bound in gravitational quantum states, we look for methods to increase statistics due to: developing UCN sources with maximum phase-space density, counting simultaneously a large fraction of neutrons using position-sensitive detectors, and decreasing detector backgrounds. Also we explore an eventual application of the GRANIT spectrometer beyond the scope of its initial goals, for instance, for reflectometry with UCN.

  18. Patherns in the rare earth elements of the Serra do Carambei granite (Parana) and the others associated ignous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rare earth elements (REE) distribution patters in igneous rocks of the Serra do Carambei Granite area (Parana) were a very important tool to elucidate the genetic processes and the cogenetic relationships between these rocks. The porphyroid facies of the Cunhaporanga Granitoid Complex has a REE distribution pattern characterized by decreasing concentrations in direction to the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and the smooth Eu negative anomalie, compatible with amphibole fractionation during the magma ascent and the incipient plagioclase fractionation. The REE pattern of the Serra do Carambei Granite is characterized by the strong Eu negative anomalie, by the light rare earth element (LREE) depletion and by the HREE increase. This shape of the REE patterns is frequently observed in Sn-W granites, according to French authors. However in the igneous rocks of the Serra do Carambei Granite area this is not true. ''Rhyolite'' dytes intrusives in the Serra do Carambei Granite exhibit REE pattern similar to the wall rock, indicating then the same genetic processes. The Castro Group rhyolites have REE patterns with decreasing concentrations in direction to the HREE and smooth Eu negative anomalie. The REE distribution patterns is against the consanguinity between the ''rhyolites'' intruded in the Serra do Carambei Granite and the rhyolites of the Castro Group and also between these rhyolites and the above mentioned Granite. (author)

  19. Gamma-spectrometric surveys in differentiated granites. II: the Joaquim Murtinho Granite in the Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex, Parana, SE Brazil; Levantamentos gamaespectrometricos em granitos diferenciados. II: O exemplo do Granito Joaquim Murtinho, Complexo Granitico Cunhaporanga, Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada; Fruchting, Allan [Votorantim Metais, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: allan.fruchting@vmetais.com.br; Guimaraes, Gilson Burigo [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias], e-mail: gburigo@ig.com.br; Alves, Luizemara Soares [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: luizemara@petrobras.com.br; Martin, Victor Miguel Oliveira; Ulbrich, Horstpeter Herberto Gustavo Jose [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], e-mail: vicmartin6@ig.com.br, e-mail: hulbrich@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Detailed mapping at the NW corner of the large Neo proterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), Parana state, SE Brazil, redefined the Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG), a late intrusion in CGC with an exposed area of about 10 km{sup 2}, made up mainly by evolved 'alaskites' (alkali-feldspar leuco granites). This unit is in tectonic contact with the Neoproterozoic-Eocambrian volcano-sedimentary Castro Group, to the W, and is intrusive into other less evolved granitic units of the CGC to the E. Petrographically, JMG shows mainly mesoperthite and quartz, with subordinate amounts of altered micas and some accessory phases, mainly zircon. The equi to inequigranular granites are usually deformed with cataclastic textures, are often brecciated, and may have miarolitic structures. Formation of late albite, sericite, carbonate and hematite was caused by deuteric and hydrothermal alteration. A gamma-ray spectrometric survey at 231 stations which measured total counts (TC), Ueq K%, eU ppm and eTh ppm was used to construct several direct and derived maps. Compared to neighboring units the JMG has significant anomalies, especially in the TC, %K, eTh and eU maps, although the differences are less obvious in some derived maps. These evolved granites are enriched in these three elements. Geochemical behavior of K, Th and U is used to analyse the results observed in maps. Enhanced weathering under a subtropical climate with moderate to high average temperatures and heavy rainfall affects mainly feldspars and biotite, and may also destabilize most U and Th-bearing accessory phases. Th is most likely retained in restite minerals in soils, being relatively immobile, while part of U may migrate as uranyl ion in oxidizing media. K is especially affected by feldspar alteration to K-free clays (mainly kaolinite), and may be completely leached. Gamma-ray spectrometric methods are valid tools to study facies in granitic rocks, especially in those that are enriched in K, Th and U. (author)

  20. MORPHOMETRY OF ZIRCON FROM BETLIAR GRANITE

    OpenAIRE

    Jakabská Katarína

    1997-01-01

    Morphometrical analyse has been provided, using the method of [10] , on zircon from granite porphyry at Betliar. The result of this investigation indicate a comagmatic origin of Betliar and other granite bodies in the Gemericum. The source materila for at the granite magma formation originated by hybridization of crust-mantle rocks.

  1. Interrelations between extensional shear zones and synkinematic intrusions: The example of Ikaria Island (NE Cyclades, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Valentin; Beaudoin, Alexandre; Jolivet, Laurent; Arbaret, Laurent; Augier, Romain; Rabillard, Aurélien; Menant, Armel

    2015-05-01

    The Aegean extensional backarc domain is an ideal place to investigate the interrelations between syntectonic intrusions and large-scale detachments, understanding whether the intrusions have a triggering effect on the inception of metamorphic core complex formation or not. A new field study of Ikaria Island (NE Cyclades, Greece) in two Miocene granitoid plutons intruding a high-temperature metamorphic dome, namely the Raches and Karkinagrion granites, leads to the identification of a major structure that has been omitted in previous studies: the Gialiskari Detachment. This regional-scale detachment is correlated with the North Cycladic Detachment System. Structural fieldwork at the scale of the entire Raches and Karkinagrion intrusions allows us to propose a map of strain intensity in these granites. This map, based on macrostructural criteria, highlights a strong strain gradient in both intrusions from base to top, when approaching the Gialiskari Detachment. Along the strain gradient, a continuum of top-to-the north shearing deformation is recognized, including i) syn-magmatic deformation, ii) high-temperature ductile deformation at submagmatic state, iii) mylonitic to ultramylonitic deformation, and iv) low-temperature brittle deformation. A scenario of the interactions between the detachment and the Raches and Karkinagrion intrusions during their emplacement is proposed. We show that these granites were emplaced while the exhumation of the Ikaria metamorphic dome was already underway. We conclude that these plutons do not initially localize detachments, and instead that detachments localize and control the ascent of plutons. Intrusions then interact with detachments, accommodating their upward migration in the crust. This scenario is described on other Cycladic islands such as on Tinos or Mykonos. At a larger scale, the final emplacement of plutons may result from the flow of molten crust toward metamorphic core complex during extension.

  2. Resolving the Younger Dryas Event Through Borehole Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, John Francis

    One of the most striking features of the ice core records from Greenland is a sudden drop in oxygen isotope values (delta O-18) between approximately 11,500 and 10,700 years ago. This Younger Dryas event was an intense return to ice age conditions during a time of general de-glaciation. As recorded in the ice cores, temperatures in Greenland cooled by roughly seven degrees Kelvin. W. Broecker and R. Fairbanks have proposed competing explanations for the cooling and cause of this "aborted ice age." One supposes that the seven degree cooling is real and results from a shutdown in the North Atlantic ocean circulation; the other, that it is largely fictitious and records an intrusion of isotopically light glacial meltwater into the ice core records. Using optimal control methods and heat flow modelling, the author makes a valiant but ultimately futile attempt to distinguish the Younger Dryas event in the ice sheet temperatures measured at Dye 3, South Greenland. The author discusses the prospects for attempting the same in the new Summit boreholes in Central Greenland: how that will require more accurate temperature measurements, a coupled thermo-mechanical model, and a refined uncertainty analysis. He concludes by discussing how borehole temperature analysis may improve the climate histories determined from ice cores.

  3. Intrusion detection system elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report highlights elements required for an intrusion detection system and discusses problems which can be encountered in attempting to make the elements effective. Topics discussed include: sensors, both for exterior detection and interior detection; alarm assessment systems, with the discussion focused on video assessment; and alarm reporting systems, including alarm communication systems and dislay/console considerations. Guidance on careful planning and design of a new or to-be-improved system is presented

  4. Operational Network Intrusion Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Dreger, Holger

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to examine dependencies and tradeoffs between the resource usage (CPU and memory) and the analysis capabilities of Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS). We base our work on the experience of running NIDS in large network environments (among them the Münchener Wissenschaftsnetz (MWN)). These show that resource management is vital for running NIDS in high volume networks. To reduce the resource consumption of NIDS is often only possible by reducing the NIDS' ana...

  5. Naturally occurring radionuclides in Malaysian granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of radium, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in Malaysian granite was analysed using a hyper-pure germanium gamma spectrometer. The results show that Cretaceous granites from southern part of Peninsula has lower radium concentration compared to Triassic granites from the Western Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. The mean concentrations of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in peninsular granites are 0.20 Bq/g and 0.16 Bq/g respectively. Absorbed dose rate from granite was estimated to be 190 nGy/h with a maximum value of 490 nGy/h. (Author)

  6. Motion effects on intrusion development.

    OpenAIRE

    Krans, J; Näring, G; Holmes, EA; Becker, ES

    2010-01-01

    Analogue studies on intrusion development have found that visuospatial tasks performed during the encoding of aversive information reduce subsequent intrusion development. However, these studies cannot rule out a physical explanation in terms of simple movement. In the current study we addressed this issue. Healthy participants viewed an aversive film while performing a visuospatial movement task, a configurational movement task, or no task. Intrusive images from the film were reported in a d...

  7. Cooling history of the Upper Cretaceous Palgongsan Granite, Gyeongsang Basin, SE Korea and its tectonic implication for uplift on the active continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyoun Soo; Lee, Yong Il

    2005-07-01

    Apatite and zircon fission track analyses were carried out to reconstruct the cooling and inferred uplift history of the Cretaceous Palgongsan Granite, Gyeongsang Basin, Korea. The Palgongsan Granite is one of the Bulguksa intrusive rocks that formed by arc-related plutonism during Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary time. Fission track dating of the Palgongsan Granite yielded nearly concordant ages of 53 and 65 Ma for apatite and zircon, respectively. The Palgongsan Granite also shows a simple cooling pattern, which suggests that it has not been affected by any thermal event after emplacement. The cooling history derived from fission track data combined with other thermochronometric data indicates that the Palgongsan Granite experienced relatively rapid cooling in earlier stage (> 30 °C/Ma). The initial rapid cooling rate during the Late Cretaceous has been caused by the large thermal contrast between the granite body and the country rocks. After reaching thermal equilibrium with the surrounding country rocks, the cooling rate of the Palgongsan Granite was abruptly decreased in late stage. In this late stage, the decelerated cooling rate is interpreted to have been controlled by uplift and erosion processes, and the average exhumation rate is calculated to be ca. 50 m/my over the temperature range from 100 °C to the surface temperature. The cooling history of the Palgongsan Granite is in good agreement with that of the Ryoke Granitic Belt in Southwest Japan, as well as those of the Taebaeksan Range and other Bulguksa intrusive rocks in the Gyeongsang Basin. This suggests that such cooling was probably caused by regional uplift and exhumation processes on the East Asian active continental margin. Compared with the uplift rates of the Andes, the uplift rates on the eastern Pacific margin appear to be higher than those on the western Pacific margin.

  8. Intensive low-temperature tectono-hydrothermal overprint of peraluminous rare-metal granite: a case study from the Dlhá dolina valley (Gemericum, Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiter, Karel; Broska, Igor; Uher, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    A unique case of low-temperature metamorphic (hydrothermal) overprint of peraluminous, highly evolved rare-metal S-type granite is described. The hidden Dlhá dolina granite pluton of Permian age (Western Carpathians, eastern Slovakia) is composed of barren biotite granite, mineralized Li-mica granite and albitite. Based on whole-rock chemical data and evaluation of compositional variations of rock-forming and accessory minerals (Rb-P-enriched K-feldspar and albite; biotite, zinnwaldite and di-octahedral micas; Hf-(Sc)-rich zircon, fluorapatite, topaz, schorlitic tourmaline), the following evolutionary scenario is proposed: (1) Intrusion of evolved peraluminous melt enriched in Li, B, P, F, Sn, Nb, Ta, and W took place followed by intrusion of a large body of biotite granites into Paleozoic metapelites and metarhyolite tuffs; (2) The highly evolved melt differentiated in situ forming tourmaline-bearing Li-biotite granite at the bottom, topaz-zinnwaldite granite in the middle, and quartz albitite to albitite at the top of the cupola. The main part of the Sn, Nb, and Ta crystallized from the melt as disseminated cassiterite and Nb-Ta oxide minerals within the albitite, while disseminated wolframite appears mainly within the topaz-zinnwaldite granite. The fluid separated from the last portion of crystallized magma caused small scale greisenization of the albitite; (3) Alpine (Cretaceous) thrusting strongly tectonized and mylonitized the upper part of the pluton. Hydrothermal low-temperature fluids enriched in Ca, Mg, and CO2 unfiltered mechanically damaged granite. This fluid-driven overprint caused formation of carbonate veinlets, alteration and release of phosphorus from crystal lattice of feldspars and Li from micas, precipitating secondary Sr-enriched apatite and Mg-rich micas. Consequently, all bulk-rock and mineral markers were reset and now represent the P-T conditions of the Alpine overprint.

  9. Intensive low-temperature tectono-hydrothermal overprint of peraluminous rare-metal granite: a case study from the Dlhá dolina valley (Gemericum, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breiter Karel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A unique case of low-temperature metamorphic (hydrothermal overprint of peraluminous, highly evolved rare-metal S-type granite is described. The hidden Dlhá dolina granite pluton of Permian age (Western Carpathians, eastern Slovakia is composed of barren biotite granite, mineralized Li-mica granite and albitite. Based on whole-rock chemical data and evaluation of compositional variations of rock-forming and accessory minerals (Rb-P-enriched K-feldspar and albite; biotite, zinnwaldite and di-octahedral micas; Hf-(Sc-rich zircon, fluorapatite, topaz, schorlitic tourmaline, the following evolutionary scenario is proposed: (1 Intrusion of evolved peraluminous melt enriched in Li, B, P, F, Sn, Nb, Ta, and W took place followed by intrusion of a large body of biotite granites into Paleozoic metapelites and metarhyolite tuffs; (2 The highly evolved melt differentiated in situ forming tourmaline-bearing Li-biotite granite at the bottom, topaz-zinnwaldite granite in the middle, and quartz albitite to albitite at the top of the cupola. The main part of the Sn, Nb, and Ta crystallized from the melt as disseminated cassiterite and Nb-Ta oxide minerals within the albitite, while disseminated wolframite appears mainly within the topaz-zinnwaldite granite. The fluid separated from the last portion of crystallized magma caused small scale greisenization of the albitite; (3 Alpine (Cretaceous thrusting strongly tectonized and mylonitized the upper part of the pluton. Hydrothermal low-temperature fluids enriched in Ca, Mg, and CO2 unfiltered mechanically damaged granite. This fluid-driven overprint caused formation of carbonate veinlets, alteration and release of phosphorus from crystal lattice of feldspars and Li from micas, precipitating secondary Sr-enriched apatite and Mg-rich micas. Consequently, all bulk-rock and mineral markers were reset and now represent the P-T conditions of the Alpine overprint.

  10. DRM – Intrusion or Solution?

    OpenAIRE

    Blomqvist, Ulf; Fritzell, Michael; Olofsson, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    DRM could be the solution to the content industry’s P2P dilemma, but content owners’ desire to monitor and control the consumer’s use of content can be perceived as an intrusion of privacy. High control makes consumers less active and low control invites them to experiment and to gain experience. Digital music files can easily be spread. Therefore legal services prefer keeping control over the music. This study reveals that consumers are one step ahead of the content industry, finding ways to...

  11. Additional Rb-Sr age determinations of mineral- and whole rock samples from the Leuchtenberg and Flossenbuerg granite (NE Bavaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemical and geochronological studies on the Leuchtenberg and Flossenbuerg granite intrusions led to the conclusion that granitic magmas can dwell in the crust for periods of about 30 m.y. without taking up any noticeable amounts of Sr from the enclosing rocks. As this affirmation is strongly dependent on the reliability of the age determinations, additional measurements (7 mineral and 3 whole rock analyses) were carried out to strengthen the original data. An isochron giving an age of 313 +- 9 (1 sigma) m.y. and a Sr87/Sr86-initial ratio of 0.07068 +- 0.0005 (1 sigma) was obtained from measurements on 6 samples from an outcrop in the central portion of the Leuchtenberg granite (Laemmersdorf quarry). Both of these results correspond, within the limits of error, with previously obtained values. Analyses of apatite concentrates from both granite massifs confirm the originally obtained Sr87/Sr86-initial ratios. The certainty of the isochron data is enhanced through the combined evaluation of the present mineral and whole rock measurements with the earlier measurements. The original concept of the behaviour of granitic magmas in the earths crust is strengthened by this data. The present results and the whole rock analyses of 1974 show that the Sr-isotope distribution in the Leuchtenberg granite was, within the limits of error, homogenous. (orig.)

  12. Granite Sludge Reuse in Mortar and Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Husam D. Al- Hamaiedeh; Waleed H. Khushefati

    2013-01-01

    The disposal of solid wastes produced in granite industry to the environment without any treatment cause not only economical but also serious environmental problems. In this study Granite Powder (GP) which produced as solid waste from the cutting and polishing of granite rocks was reused as additive to mortar and concrete cement. Incorporation of GP in mortar and concrete in ratios of 10, 20, 30 wt.% improved mortar and concrete compressive strengths and the concrete workability. The experime...

  13. Rapid deployment intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs

  14. Status of the GRANIT facility

    CERN Document Server

    Roulier, Damien; Baessler, Stefan; Clément, Benoît; Morton, Daniel; Nesvizhevsky, Valery; Pignol, Guillaume; Rebreyend, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The GRANIT facility is a follow-up project, which is motivated by the recent discovery of gravitational quantum states of ultracold neutrons. The goal of the project is to approach the ultimate accuracy in measuring parameters of such quantum states and also to apply this phenomenon and related experimental techniques to a broad range of applications in particle physics as well as in surface and nanoscience studies. We overview the current status of this facility, the recent test measurements and the nearest prospects.

  15. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the proterozoic granites from Jhabua and Dhar districts, Madhya Pradesh, India and their bearing on uranium mineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the western part of Madhya Pradesh a number of small plutonic granites occur as intrusive into the gneisses and Aravalli metasediments. Granites are of grey, pink colour and gneissic varieties. Mineralogically, the granites are two mica bearing. Chemically they are K2O rich, calc-alkaline, metaluminous to peraluminous and differentiated in nature. Tectonically they are volcanic arc types with an affinity to syn-collisional setup. Basement reactivation may be the cause of the emplacement of these granites as the area is traversed by a number of basement lineaments. They are enriched in light REE with Ce/Yb ratio ranging from 1.4 to 8.4. Negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* 0.2 to 0.8) suggests that they are fractionated. High Th/U ratio (1-18) indicates that uranium has been leached out. Hence the overlying infratrappeans hold potential for litho/structural controlled uranium mineralisation.(author)

  16. Field characteristics, petrography, and geochronology of the Hohonu Batholith and the adjacent Granite Hill Complex, North Westland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed geological mapping, petrography, geochemistry and geochronological studies in the Hohonu Batholith, North Westland, have identified 10 granitoid plutons emplaced during three intrusive episodes. The earliest episode is represented by a single dated Paleozoic pluton, Summit Granite (new) (381.2 ± 7.3 Ma), which is correlated with a discrete pulse of Mid-Late Devonian plutonism recognised in the Karamea Batholith. The undated Mount Graham Granite (new) is also likely to be Paleozoic, based on chemical and petrographic characteristics. The bulk of the batholith (seven plutons) was emplaced in the mid Cretaceous (114-109 Ma) and comprises two related, yet distinct, geochemical suites, which correlate with the previously defined Rahu Suite. The plutons identified are (from north to south): Pah Point Granite; Jays Creek Granodiorite (new); Uncle Bay Tonalite; Te Kinga Monzogranite; Deutgam Granodiorite; Turiwhate Granodiorite (new); and Arahura Granite (new). Mid-Cretaceous plutonism in the Western Province is considered to be the result of crustal thinning and extension following overthickening during collision of the Early Cretaceous Median Tectonic Zone volcanic arc. Late Cretaceous alkaline activity is represented by the emplacement of the A-type French Creek Granite at 1.7 ± 1.8 Ma, contemporaneous with intrusion of a major swarm of doleritic-lamprophyric dikes - the Hohonu Dike Swarm. These events correlate with the first appearance of oceanic crust in the Tasman Sea. The Granite Hill Complex is a suite of amphibolite facies gneisses occurring as an uplifted wedge between the Alpine Fault nd the Hohonu Batholith. These gneisses are considered to represent an extension of the Fraser Complex to the south. A detailed understanding of their geological affinities and history is yet to be established. (author). 66 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Contrasting Structures and Deformational History of Syntectonic Granites of Campina Grande and Serra Redonda, Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Wilians de Oliveira Rodrigues

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Campina Grande and Serra Redonda Granites are intrusive along the contact of the Paleoproterozoic basement(Alto Moxotó Domain with the Tonian gneisses (Alto Pajeú Domain of the Borborema Province (northeast Brazil. TheCampina Grande Granite (U-Pb age = 581± 2 Ma shows a concentric oval-shaped structure whereas the Serra RedondaGranite (U-Pb age = 576 ± 3 Ma has a tabular shape, elongated in the NE-SW direction. The plutons are separated bythe left-lateral Galante transcurrent shear zone. In this study, the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS was appliedto 64 outcrops of granites to determine the internal structures of these plutons and to explore the relationship betweenmagmatism and deformation in an orogenic setting. The magnetic fabrics are concordant with the metamorphic structure ofthe host rocks. Strike-slip shear zones controlled the emplacement of the Serra Redonda Granite, as indicated by sigmoidalfoliation, defining shear bands associated with the Galante shear zone. In contrast, the magmatic/magnetic fabric of theCampina Grande granite seems to have been produced by body (ascensional forces. The pluton displays an inward dipping, concentric planar fabric parallel to the wall rock contact and lineations highly oblique to the foliation trend. The fabric of the Campina Grande pluton is consistent with a magma moving over a ramp dipping to southwest, with the lineation at high angle to the NE-trending flow direction. The contrasting structures of the plutons reflect the episodic nature of orogenic deformation, which was punctuated by the alternation of weak and strong strains, affecting the fabric development of the syntectonic intrusions.

  18. Discussion on zircon LA-ICP-MS ages of Lianshanguan-Gaojiagou granites and its significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through method of LA-ICP-MS to single zircon,the authors obtained an accurate 2198±31.5 Ma and 2162±31 Ma ages of Lianshanguan-Gaojiagou granite which located in the eastern of Liaoning province, China. These two isotopic ages suggest a comprehensive crustal melting-tectonic event occurred in Eastern Liaoning and Southern Jilin area, which can be proved by other single zircon U-Pb ages and regional geology evidence. Furthermore, these ages indicate the precise and reliable time of such re-melt event which benefit to uranium pre-enrichment and strengthened by local evidence from petrology geochemistry and contact relation of field outcrop rocks. Lianshanguan-Gaojiagou complex is a re-melt and multi-intrusion granite occurred under crust extension in paleo-proterozoic era. (authors)

  19. Rb-Sr age of Godhra and related granites, Gujrat, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubidium and strontium determinations are reported for Godhra and geographically related granites from central Gujarat. The whole rock data define a Rb-Sr isochron corresponding to a common age of 955 +- 2O m.y. and initial Sr ratio of 0.7130 +- 0.0O1. This age is distinctly older than the age of 735 m.y. reported for the Erinpura suite of rocks from Mount Abu in western Rajasthan and from Idar in nothern Gujarat. There are at least two generations of post-Delhi intrusive rocks in the Gujarat precambrian. Boitites associated with these granites have the same age as the whole-rocks within experimental error indicating the absence of significant metamorphic heating since the time of emplacement. It is significant that rocks of similar age occur in the Rajasthan Precambrian mainly in the axial zone of the Aravalli Mountains. (author)

  20. On mesozoic age of ore-bearing granites of the Kyzyl-Tau massif (Mongolian Altai)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Mo=rare-metal-W province covering the territory of Russian Altai mountains and Mongolian Altai, the W-bearing granite massif Kyzyl-Tau (Mongolia) has been investigated. A sum of the obtained isotope data is described by two Rb-Sr isochrones with close ages and drastically different primary Sr-isotope ratios. The biotite granites of the main phase appeared on the isochrone of age ? = 189±20 Ma, with (87Sr/86Sr)0 0.7056±0.0028, and the leucogranites of final phase, on other isochrone of ? = 180±15 Ma with (87Sr/86Sr)0 = 0.7286±0.135. THus, it is established that the Kyzyl-Tau intrusion seems belong to the Mesozoic Triassic - Lower-Jurassic stage of magmatism. 7 refs., 3 figs.2 tabs

  1. Preliminary report on uranium and thorium content of intrusive rocks in northeastern Washington and northern Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study delineates favorable areas for uranium resources in northeastern Washington and northern Idaho by identifying granitic rocks with relatively large amounts of uranium and (or) thorium. Results are based on analysis of 344 rock samples. Uranium analyses obtained by gamma-ray spectrometric data correlate closely with fluorometric determinations. On the basis of cumulative frequency distribution curves, more than 8 ppM equivalent uranium and more than 20 ppM equivalent thorium are considered anomalous for granitic rocks in northeastern Washington and northern Idaho. Granitic rocks anomalously high in uranium and (or) thorium are concentrated in two northeast-trending belts. The most prominent, the Midnite-Hall Mountain belt, includes the Midnite and Sherwood uranium mines, and two lesser but productive areas farther north. This belt follows the contact between Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks, which is also the locus of the Kootenai arc fold belt. The second belt of anomalously radioactive granitic rocks is along the Republic graben, a prominent linear structure in an area with no recorded uranium production. Anomalously radioactive granitic rocks are generally massive quartz monzonite, alaskite, or pegmatite, which contain abundant quartz and potash feldspar. They are also characterized by pink potash feldspar, commonly as large phenocrysts, and by the presence of muscovite. Several uranium and thorium minerals have been identified in these rocks. The two belts of anomalously radioactive plutons are considered favorable for uranium resources. Deposits could occur in the intrusive rocks themselves or in favorable environments in adjacent rocks. 13 figs., 2 tables

  2. Integration of remote sensing data and ground data as an aid to exploration for granite related mineralization, Salamanca Province, W Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the major geological features associated with the Los Santos tungsten skarn are: vicinity of the intrusive granite contact: geochemical zoning within the granite; anomalous width of the contact aureole; presence of fault zones; development of limonitic soil; presence of limestone horizons. Digital image processing techniques are applied to recognize and enhance these features in satellite images and airborne geophysical datasets. In satellite images the granites are textually distinct from other terrains, due to a higher degree of variation between adjoining pixels and a higher density of lineaments. Supervised classification of TM-bands 3,4,5 and 7 allows discrimination of granite and regional metamorphic terrain, while contact-metamorphic and limonitic soils are classified better using bands 1,3,4 and 7. Airborne magnetometry discriminates well between granites and sediments. The magnetization of the sedimentary rocks in the contact aureole is reset due to thermal and chemical overprinting. This is visible in the magnetic image. Large faults are detected. Radiometric data allow distinction between granite and sediments and recognition of the geochemical zoning within the granite

  3. Colorectal cancer in younger population: our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To promote awareness regarding increased occurrence of colorectal cancer in younger population and its clinicopathological features compared to older patients. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2010 to January 2011 on patients with diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma admitted through emergency or outpatient departments to Surgical Unit 5, Civil Hospital, Karachi. Data regarding age, gender, presentation, site of tumour, surgery performed and Dukes staging was collected and analysed. Results: A total of 23 patients were operated during the study period: 13 (56.52%) males and 10 (43.47%) females. Of them 12 (52.17%) were below the age of 40 years, while 3 (13.04%) patients were in the 11-20 age group. In 7 (30.4%) patients, tumour was irresectable at the time of presentation so a palliative procedure (diversion colostomy or ileostomy) was performed. There was a higher proportion of younger patients with metastatic disease at the time of presentation (n=9; 75%) while 10 out of 12 patients in the younger age group (83.3%) had a tumour of left colon, particularly rectum. Conclusion: Although colorectal cancer is usually a disease of older patients, it is increasingly becoming more common in younger population. Data suggests a leftward distribution for colorectal carcinoma and that younger patients present with more advanced disease and poorer prognosis. (author)

  4. Human intrusion in geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the possibility of human intrusion into the WIPP facility, an undergound disposal facility for alpha-bearing wastes. The probability of exploratory drilling occurring at the site is described

  5. The geology and geochemistry of mafic and intermediate igneous rocks associated with Cape granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafic to intermediate rocks, presumably related to the Cape Granite Suite, occur scattered throughout the Western Cape. The major occurrences located near Malmesbury and from Yzerfontein to Mud River on the West Coast were studied in detail using geochemical and isotopic techniques. Smaller outcrops at Philadelphia, Stellenbosch and Kuils River were also sampled and analyzed. The mafic and intermediate rocks are intrusive into tectonized Malmesbury metasediments. The pressure during crystallization of the Malmesbury intrusion is estimated at between 3 and 6 kb using an amphibole geobarometer. An extensive hydrothermal alteration event occured at the West Coast outcrops. This event occured at a pressure of 1.9 to 4.6 kb and a temperature ranging between 462 deg C and 532 deg C as determined by chlorite geothermometry and microthermometry. Most trace elements proved to be mobile during this event, whilst rare earth elements remained stable. Major mineral phases present in the igneous rocks include plagioclase, hornblende, augite, hypersthene and quartz, while alkali feldspar, zircon, sphene, pyrite, and magnetite are present in minor amounts. Minerals formed during the hydrothermal event are epidote, calcite, quartz, pyrite and jasper. Two geochemical trends were distinguished: a calcalkaline trend at Malmesbury and a subalkaline trend along the West Coast including Yzerfontein and Mud River. A monzonitic phase at Yzerfontein yielded a 519 (+ / -7) Ma zircon age. The calcalkaline suite is expected to be older. The petrogenesis of this rock suite is complex. Repetitive intrusive events at depth explain much of the variation at Malmesbury and Yzerfontein. Fractional crystallization, remelting, magma mixing and magma mingling all contibuted to the rock-forming processes at Yzerfontein. The mafic and intermediate rocks as well as the Cape granites are interpreted as being intrusive into a subduction zone. This theory is supported by the structure of the Malmesbury metasediment host rock. 105 figs., 13 tabs., 71 refs

  6. P-T path fluid evolution in the Gross Spitzkoppe granite stock, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Frindt

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gross Spitzkoppe granite stock (GSS is a zoned 30 km^2 epizonal intrusion that consists of three main granites: 1 medium-grained biotite granite (marginal, 2 a coarse-grained biotite granite, and 3 a central, porphyritic granite. The stock contains pegmatites as banded marginal stockscheiders and isolated pockets composed of large alkali feldspar and quartz, dark mica, interstitial fluorite, and euhedral topaz and beryl crystals. In the porphyritic granite there are local wolframite-bearing greisens and hydrothermal fluorite and topaz-rich veins.Fluid inclusion studies were conducted on: 1 topaz and quartz crystals from the marginal stockscheider; 2 quartz, topaz, fluorite and beryl crystals from isolated pegmatites; 3 topaz from a miarolitic pegmatite; 4 beryl and quartz veins from greisenized porphyritic granite; and 5 fluorite from a late fluorite vein inthe coarse-grained biotite granite. Preliminary data indicate the presence of three compositionally distinct primary and pseudosecondary inclusion types that are of late magmatic-hydrothermal origin.Type 1. Low salinity (0–10 eq. wt% NaCl H2O (± CO2 inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 550?C. These inclusions are from quartz, topaz and beryl. Inclusions in fluorite from the fluorite vein homogenize at ~170?C and have a salinity of ca. 1–2 eq. wt% NaCl.Type 2. Saline (25–30 eq. wt% NaCl halite-bearing H2O (± CO2 inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 400?C. These inclusions are from quartz.Type 3. Low salinity (0–3 eq. wt% NaCl H2O-CO2 inclusions that homogenize to vapor phase in the temperature range of 330 to 550?C. These inclusions are from quartz and topaz.Hydrothermal fluids from greisen minerals are represented by type 1 and type 2 H2O inclusions. They are predominantly of low salinity (~8 eq. wt% NaCl and homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 500?C. Isochores for contemporaneous type 2 and type 3 inclusions with homogenization temperature range of 330 to 400?C indicate a maximum trapping pressure of about 900 bar for the marginal stockscheider.

  7. Modeling intrusions and correct recall in episodic memory : adult age differences in encoding of list context

    OpenAIRE

    Kliegl, Reinhold; Lindenberger, Ulman

    1993-01-01

    A model for correct recall and intrusions in cued recall of word lists is introduced. Intrusions are false responses that were correct in an earlier list. The model assumes 3 exclusive states for memory traces after encoding: with a list tag (i.e., with information about list origin), without list tags, and missing. Across lists, a trace can lose its list tag or its content. For retrieval, an optimal strategy of response selection was assumed. Younger and older laboratory-trained mnemonists p...

  8. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses represents a global threat to seagrasses. In contrast seegrasses grow in hostile sediments, where they are constantly exposed to sulfide intrusion. Little is known about the strategies to survive sulfide intrusion, if there are detoxification mechanisms and sulfur nutrition in general. By a global review of sulfide intrusion, coupled with a series of field studies and in situ experiments we elucidate sulfide intrusion and different strategies of seagrasses to sust...

  9. A-type stratoid granites of Madagascar: evidence of Rodinia rifting at ca 790 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Anne; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Bouchez, Jean-Luc

    2015-04-01

    The so-called stratoid granites are sheet-like granites emplaced as conformable sills in the Precambrian basement of central Madagascar. Most of them have A-type affinities (Nédélec et al. 1995). They are everywhere characterized by the same structural pattern evidencing two stages of deformation. The first one (foliations mildly dipping to the west and lineations trending WSW) is regarded as the consequence of synkinematic magma emplacement. The second stage, characterized by interference folds, steeply dipping foliations and subhorizontal lineations trending to the north, corresponds to a more or less pronounced reworking in ductile conditions, regarded as the result of Late Pan-African transcurrent tectonics. To the north of Antananarivo, the stratoid granites are associated with comagmatic quartz-syenites. New U-Pb zircons ages obtained by in situ analyses reveal two group of ages: upper intercept ages of ca 790 Ma, and younger ages of ca 550 Ma corresponding to crystal rims. These new data question the geological significance of former TIMS ages of ca 630 Ma formerly obtained from the same rocks (Paquette & Nédélec 1998). It is suggested that the stratoid granites and syenites were emplaced during a crustal thinning event corresponding to an early Rodinia rifting stage. The Pan-African imprint on these rocks is therefore limited to reheating, tectonic reworking and deep fluid transfer in the vicinity of Late-Neoproterozoic shear zones at ca 550 Ma (Nédélec et al. 2014).

  10. Late-Archaean Potassic Granite from the Bundelkhand Craton, Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Saheli; Saha, Lopamudra; Nasipuri, Pritam; Pati, Jayanta Kumar; Patole, Vishal

    2014-05-01

    Late-Archaean granitoids, show wide range of compositional variation: (i) TTG like granitoids with strongly fractionated REE patterns, which can be both Na-rich and K-Mg-rich (Sanukitoids) (ii) K-rich, Mg-poor biotite granites with less fractionated REE patterns and showing negative Eu-anomalies (type area, the Closepet Granite, Eastern Dharwar Craton, India). Amongst them Late-Archaean Sanukitoid or K-rich Closepet-type granitoids are most widely reported from the Archaean Cratons world-wide: Superior Province, Canada, Pilbara Craton, Yilgarn Craton, Antarctica, Limpopo Belt, Dharwar Craton. Several models proposed so far for the origin of these granitoids mostly include partial melting of hydrated basalts, reaction of slab melts with mantle wedge peridotites, re-melting of an enriched mantle and then mixing of the resulting melt with the anatectic melt generated during the melting of continental crust in subduction zone settings. The Closepet-type potassic biotite-rich granites were mostly produced by re-melting of TTG-like continental basements most likely in a subduction zone setting. Most of the proposed models suggest such partial melting to have taken place in garnet-stability field and some in orthopyroxene-stability field. In this study we report late-Archaean (~2.61-2.5 Ga) potassic granite from the Bundelkhand Craton in central India. The Late-Archaean granitoids recorded from the craton are intrusive into the high-grade supracrustal rocks of the craton. They are classified as coarse grained grey, pink porphyritic granite, medium granied pink granite, granite porphyry and fine-grained pink granite. The supracrustal rocks of the craton have been metamorphosed at ~2.78 Ga under high-pressure conditions (~17-18 kbar)- medium temperature (600ºC) in a subduction zone setting. The intrusions of the granitoids at ~2.6-2.5 Ga mark the stability of the craton. The pink-porphyritic granite studied here preserves plagioclase-potash feldspar-orthopyroxene-muscovite-biotite-quartz. Plagioclase megacrysts mostly contain orthopyroxene inclusions and are rimmed by anti-perthite and potash feldspar. Biotite and muscovite mostly occur along the potash feldspar grain boundaries or along the grain fractures. The textural observations hence indicate that these granitic rocks are formed in two stages: (i) initial TTG-like melts formed by partial melting of pre-existing mafic supracrustal rocks in the orthopyroxene-stability field, as evidenced by orthopyroxene inclusions in the plagioclase megacrysts, followed by (ii) fractionation of plagioclase crystals, thus making the melt progressively enriched in potassium that led to rimming of the plagioclase megacrysts by anti-perthite or potash feldspar. Biotite and muscovite were formed during later retrogression due to fluid ingression. Whether such magma-forming processes were related to the ~2.78 Ga tectonics recorded from the craton or may be related to a short phase of collision tectonics post to that, needs further investigation.

  11. Site selection methods for nuclear waste storage in sub-schistic granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrusive granites in schists, where most of the roof is at a depth of several hundred metres can be regarded as favourable sites for storing radioactive waste since the schistic cover has extremely low permeability. This configuration exists in various parts of France. In this paper the authors describe methods which can be applied to the study of such structures, taking a region in the Armorican Massif as a reference example. The geological evidence here showed an extensive zone with a slight gravimetric anomaly around a few granite outcrops dispersed in the schists. This structure gave reason to believe that a shallow granite mass would be found under the schistic cover, and geological and gravimetric surface studies did indeed prove that this supposition was correct. Apart from the slight gravimetric anomaly, the extent of which has been confirmed and the outlines determined, the transformations (contact metamorphism and hydrothermalism) of the enclosing schists are particularly indicative of the presence of granite. The gravimetric model shows that the thickness of the granite is at least 2.3 km and provides an initial representation of the shape and depth of the roof. These results, together with those of the structural analysis, can be used to demarcate a favourable region for investigations at depth which will make it possible: to monitor the geological structures; to define the geotechnical characteristics of the formations; to analyse and model the hydrogeological behaviour, at present known only from surface studies which do not appear to indicate any circulation of water upwards towards the surface

  12. IGSC perspective on human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroyuki Umeki, Chairman of the IGSC, indicated that when updating its programme of work, in 2007, the IGSC raised a number of issues that the group recommended RWMC-RF to consider for further discussion. The conclusions from different IGSC studies were that there is agreement at a conceptual level on the treatment of human intrusion, but a range of approaches are adopted for addressing it in safety assessment, and the degree to which these are specified in regulations also varies considerably among national programmes. The requirements and constraints for considering human intrusion are stylised and, therefore, are largely specified in regulations; in many national programmes, relatively few (or no) aspects are left to the discretion of the implementer. Human intrusion is considered as a sensitive issue for many programmes since it can be an issue of high interest to stakeholders and decisions on approaches are normally undertaken after extensive consultation; those who have already taken decisions are generally satisfied with the outcome and would not welcome work that might undermine or re-open the issue. Thus, a detailed re-examination of safety assessment of human intrusion and of the conclusions that have been reached previously is not a priority. This issue remains of interest to IGSC, however, as it must be addressed in some fashion within all safety cases. The key questions are: - Should regulations require measures to reduce the likelihood or consequences of human intrusion? What 'credit' can be taken for such measures? Is there new thinking or methods in terms of memory and markers? - What types of stylised human intrusion should be considered in a safety case? What are the roles of the regulator and implementer in doing so? - What consequences should be considered? What are the protection criteria against which to assess human intrusion scenarios? - Are the answers to any of these questions site-, culture-, concept- or waste-specific? A concluding question may be: Is there still consensus on the areas of agreement, or has thinking evolved?

  13. Granite fracture index to check suitability of granite outcrops for quarrying

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, L.M.O.

    2007-01-01

    the general characterization of the discontinuities of 10 granite rock masses in NE Portugal. During the study some discontinuity characteristics such as orientation, persistence, aperture, trace length and spacing were evaluated. The differences in the characteristics of the selected granites were described, and the most important exploration factors were identified. In the granites studied, most of the joints are oriented from N10°E to N50°E, which is compatible with the regional f...

  14. U-Pb Zircon Geochronology of Hermit's Peak Batholith Granite, Northern New Mexico: Implications for Tectonic Quiescence at 1.4 GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindline, J.; Cedillo, D. N.; Romero, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Hermit's Peak batholith, a Proterozoic metamorphic-plutonic massif in the southern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, is located in the transition zone between the Yavapai and Mazatzal Precambrian provinces. We conducted zircon geochronology at the University of Arizona's LaserChron Center on granitic phases within the Hermit's Peak batholith to establish the timing of granite magmatism relative to Proterozoic orogenesis. Two analyses (core and rim) of more than 20 zircon crystals were incorporated into a final age calculation for each sample. Within the batholith, early granitoid intrusions form centimeter- to meter-wide coarse-grained tabular sheets and layers within Paleoproterozoic host rock gneisses. The intrusions were deformed during isoclinal folding along with their host rocks, suggesting that the early granites are pre- or syntectonic with contractional deformation associated with Yavapai-Mazatzal collision. These granites show a fine- to medium-grained anhedral granular texture with quartz microstructures indicative of dynamic strain and solid state deformation, including undulose extinction, subgrain development, and serrated grain boundaries. All zircon crystals are euhedral with aspect ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 and lengths ranging from 100-300 ?m. Cathodoluminescence imaging shows that most crystals have oscillatory zonation indicating they are igneous in origin. Elemental U/Th ratios are all low (segregation, or microstructures indicative of deformation which suggests that 1.4 Ga granite magmatism in the Hermit's Peak batholith did not accompany deformation. Further structural and geochronology studies are aimed at determining the extent and influence of 1.4 granite magmatism on the construction of the Hermit's Peak batholiths and the tectonic setting for Mesoproterozoic granite emplacement.

  15. The Maua granitic massif, Central Ribeira Belt, Sao Paulo, Brazil: petrography, geochemistry and U-Pb dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Maua granitic massif is an elongated body dominated by a porphyritic biotite monzogranite which grades, in its southwestern extremity, to lighter equi granular granite and greisenized (tourmaline)-biotite-muscovite leuco granite. Abundant enclaves can be divided in three types: grey micro granular enclaves, with rounded shapes and igneous textures, are compositionally similar to the enclosing porphyritic granites; dark, rounded, micaceous enclaves have high K/Na, and may correspond to highly assimilated meta sedimentary xenoliths; and angulous gneiss xenoliths seem to be fragments of an unexposed type of country rock. The primitive magmas that formed the massif were Zr, P and LREE-saturated, and became progressively enriched in U, Cs, Y, HREE, F and possibly Ta. Geochemical data show that most of the observed compositional variation can be a reflection of crystal fractionation at the level of emplacement. However, other processes such as magma mixing, contamination and post-magmatic alteration seem to respond for local chemical variations. U-Pb monazite dating point to a crystallization age of 588 ± 2 Ma which is ca. 20 myr. younger than those of nearby crust-derived syn-orogenic granites. (author)

  16. The Maua granitic massif, Central Ribeira Belt, Sao Paulo, Brazil: petrography, geochemistry and U-Pb dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipov, Marcelo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Minas]. E-mail: filipov@usp.br; Janasi, Valdecir de Assis [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: vajanasi@usp.br

    2001-09-01

    The Maua granitic massif is an elongated body dominated by a porphyritic biotite monzogranite which grades, in its southwestern extremity, to lighter equi granular granite and greisenized (tourmaline)-biotite-muscovite leuco granite. Abundant enclaves can be divided in three types: grey micro granular enclaves, with rounded shapes and igneous textures, are compositionally similar to the enclosing porphyritic granites; dark, rounded, micaceous enclaves have high K/Na, and may correspond to highly assimilated meta sedimentary xenoliths; and angulous gneiss xenoliths seem to be fragments of an unexposed type of country rock. The primitive magmas that formed the massif were Zr, P and LREE-saturated, and became progressively enriched in U, Cs, Y, HREE, F and possibly Ta. Geochemical data show that most of the observed compositional variation can be a reflection of crystal fractionation at the level of emplacement. However, other processes such as magma mixing, contamination and post-magmatic alteration seem to respond for local chemical variations. U-Pb monazite dating point to a crystallization age of 588 {+-} 2 Ma which is ca. 20 myr. younger than those of nearby crust-derived syn-orogenic granites. (author)

  17. Monazite-(Ce in Hercynian granites and pegmatites of the Bratislava massif, Western Carpathians: compositional variations and Th-U-Pb electron-microprobe dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Uher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monazite-(Ce represents a characteristic magmatic accessory mineral of the Hercynian peraluminous S-type granites to granodiorites and related granitic pegmatites of the Bratislava Granitic Massif (BGM, Malé Karpaty Mountains, Central Western Carpathians, SW Slovakia. Monazite forms euhedral to subhedral crystals, up to 200 ?m in size, usually it is unzoned in BSE, rarely it reveals oscillatory or sector zoning. Thorium concentrations of 2 to 9 wt. % ThO2 (?0.09 apfu and local elevated uranium contents (?4.3 wt. % UO2, ?0.04 apfu are characteristic for the pegmatite monazites. Both huttonite ThSiREE-1P-1 and cheralite Ca(Th,UREE-2 substitutions took place in the studied monazite. Electron-microprobe Th-U-Pb monazite dating of the granites and pegmatites gave an isochron age of 353±2 Ma (MSWD = 0.88, n = 290, which confirmed the meso-Hercynian, Carboniferous, Lower Mississipian magmatic crystallization. An analogous age (359±11 Ma was obtained from monazite from adjacent paragneiss, corresponding to the age of the Hercynian contact thermal metamorphism related to the granite intrusion of BGM. Monazite in some granite shows also older clastic or authigenic grains or zones (~505 to 400 Ma, with maximum of 420±7 Ma which probably represents inherited material from the Lower Paleozoic metapelitic to metapsammitic protolith of BGM.

  18. Geochemical and Sr-isotopic signatures in the 2.6 B.Y. Lepakshi granite, Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh: implications for its origin and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The predominantly leucocratic 2.6 b.y. old Lepakshi granite (a suite of granite, granodiorite and quartz-monzonite), near Hindupur in the Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh is intrusive into the Archaean schistose rocks and contains xenolithic patches of amphibolite. Compositionally, it is predominantly quartz-monzonitic with granodiorite and granite variants. The relatively low initial 87Sr/86Sr (Sri = 0.7026) of this Lepakshi granite implies its derivation from a juvenile crustal source with very limited crustal residence time, indicating the absence of involvement of any metasedimentary source. The source also appears to have fair amount of mafic component. A volcanic arc type tectonic setting, along with the collision processes and the associated tectonic activity operating in tandem, resulting in an increased P-T regime, granulite facies metamorphism and anatectic melting at mid- to lower crustal levels is suggested for the origin of this granite. The large ion lithophile (LIL) elements removed from the lower crust (due to granulite facies metamorphism and the associated fluid activity) were incorporated in the granites of the Lepakshi type. (author). 45 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Geology, petrology and geochemistry of the Cacapava do Sul Granitic complex, RS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cacapava do Sul Granitic Complex comprises mainly hornblende and biotite-rich granodioritic rocks, leucogranitoids which may contain muscovite and garnet, and transitional types of granitoids. The available data suggest that it is a diapiric intrusion synchronous, with the second regional metamorphism and deformation phase, inprinted on the country rocks and on the batholith itself. Geochemical evidences are consistent with a comagmatic character for the granitic rocks and also indicate calc-alkaline affinity, with an origin either from partial melting of the lower crust or from differentiation of mantle-derived basaltic magmas, with crustal contamination. The geochemical features indicate strong similarities with orogenic granitoids intruded in highly mature arcs. The re-evaluation of Rb-Sr data indicates an age of 549 Ma and initial ratio of 0.7051 for the leucogranites. The available data suggest that the studied complex has been emplaced during the late stages of the Brasiliano Cycle, which were marked by the development of ensialic basins and shear zones, with associated granitic magmatism. In its early stages, this orogeny may be interpreted according to the classical model, involving subduction of oceanic crust. (author)

  20. Emotional Memory in Younger and Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Langeslag, S.J.E.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the interaction between emotion and cognition, which changes with advancing age. The goals of this project were to examine age differences in emotional modulation of long-term memory (LTM), short-term memory (STM), and emotion regulation. The main approach was to collect both behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data in younger and older adults during emotional memory and emotion regulation tests. In this thesis it is argued that the positivity effect can be def...

  1. Shoshonitic intrusion magmatism in Pajeu-Paraiba belt: the Bom Jardim complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bom Jardim complex is a multi phase intrusion emplaced within the basement of the Pajeu-Paraiba belt, in the Borborema province, N.E., Brazil, during the Pan African (Brasiliano) orogeny, 600 Ma ago. The Bom Jardim complex is primarily composed of monzonites and syenites with subordinated granites. The major and trace elements geochemistry has established a shoshonitic affinity for the monzonite-syenite assemblages, whereas the granites are clearly of a high-K calc-alkaline character. The main geochemical trends determined for the complex are the result of fractionation of mainly amphibole, biotite, alkali feldspar ±clinopyroxene within the developing magmas. The enrichment in transition metal elements, LILE and high LILE/HSFE ratios, coupled with an initial Sr sup(87)/Sr sup(86) ratio of 0.70709 is consistent with a subduction related magma source. (author)

  2. Innovative Method for Saltwater Intrusion Control

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Payal

    2014-01-01

    Salt water intrusion is the migration of saltwater into freshwater aquifers under the influence of groundwater development (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). The most detrimental effect that ground water depletion causes lowering of water table. Another problem due to saltwater intrusion is changing saltwater freshwater interface. Methods for controlling intrusion vary widely depending on the source of the saline water, the extent of intrusion, local geology, water use and economic fa...

  3. Origin of the Lyme Dome and implications for the timing of multiple Alleghanian deformational and intrusive events in southern Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, G.J.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Wintsch, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Geologic mapping, structural analysis, and geochronology in the area of the Lyme dome, southern Connecticut provides constraints on the origin of the rocks in the core of the dome, the absolute timing of the principal deformational and thermal events attributed to Alleghanian orogenesis, and the processes that generated the dome. Detrital zircon geochronology in combination with ages on intrusive rocks brackets the deposition of quartzite in the core of the dome sometime between ca. 925 and 620 Ma. Granite and granodiorite intruded the Neoproteorozic metasedimentary rocks in the core of the dome at ca. 620 to 610 Ma. Four major early Permian events associated with the Alleghanian orogeny affected the rocks in the Lyme dome area. Syn-tectonic migmatization and widespread penetrative deformation (D1, ca. 300 - 290 Ma) included emplacement of alaskite at 290 ?? 4 Ma during regional foliation development and aluminosilicate-orthoclase metamorphic conditions. Rocks of the Avalon terrane may have wedged between Gander cover rocks and Gander basement in the core of the Lyme during D1. Limited structural evidence for diapiric uplift of the Lyme dome indicates that diapirism started late in D1 and was completed by D2 (ca. 290 - 280 Ma) when horizontal WNW contractional stresses dominated over vertical stresses. Second sillimanite metamorphism continued and syn-tectonic D2 granite pegmatite (288 ?? 4 Ma) and the Joshua Rock Granite Gniess (284 ?? 3 Ma) intruded at this time. North-northwest extension during D3 (ca. 280 - 275 Ma) led to granitic pegmatite intrusion along S3 cleavage planes and in extensional zones in boudin necks during hydraulic failure and decompression melting. Intrusion of a Westerly Granite dike at 275 ?? 4 Ma suggests that D3 extension was active, and perhaps concluding, by ca. 275 Ma. Late randomly oriented but gently dipping pegmatite dikes record a final stage of intrusion during D4 (ca. 275 - 260 Ma), and a switch from NNW extension to vertical unloading and exhumation. Monazite and metamorphic zircon rim ages record this event at ca. 259 Ma. The evolution of the Lyme dome involved D1 mylonitization, intrusion, and migmatization during north-directed contraction, limited late D1 diapirism, D2 migmatization during WNW contraction with associated flexural flow and fold interference, D3 NNW horizontal extension and decompression melting, and final D4 vertical extension and rapid exhumation. Late regional uplift, extension, and normal faulting at higher crustal levels may have been caused by diapiric rise of the lower crust, below the structural level of the Lyme dome. The rocks record no evidence of Acadian metamorphism or deformation, suggesting that the Gander zone here was not tectonically juxtaposed with Avalon until the Alleghanian orogeny.

  4. Data Mining for Intrusion Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Anoop; Jajodia, Sushil

    Data Mining Techniques have been successfully applied in many different fields including marketing, manufacturing, fraud detection and network management. Over the past years there is a lot of interest in security technologies such as intrusion detection, cryptography, authentication and firewalls. This chapter discusses the application of Data Mining techniques to computer security. Conclusions are drawn and directions for future research are suggested.

  5. Rare metal granites and related rocks of the Ukrainian shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esipchuk, K.Ye.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Two rare metal leucocratic granites, Perga and Kamennaya complexes, can be distinquished on the Ukrainian shield. The Perga complex consists of medium- and coarse grained, mainly porphyric, biotite, riebeckite and aegirine granites, granite porphyries, microclinites and albitites with rare metal mineralization (genthelvite, phenacite, tantalite, cassiterite and wolframite etc.. Granites from several stocks (up to 30 km2 in the northwestern part of the shield, situated along the fracture zone, restricted the large Korosten pluton of rapakivi granites to the northwest. The age of these granites (Pb-Pb and U-Pb methods on zircon and monazite practically coincide with the age of rapakivi granites being 1750 Ma. Within the Korosten complex of rapakivi granites we consider that zinnwaldite granites, which are characterized by fluorite and topazine mineralization, represent the final phase of pluton. These granites differ from the Perga ones by their low content of rare metals. The Kamennaya Mogila complex lies in the southeastern part of the Ukrainian shield. It consists of biotite and muscovite-biotite, medium- and coarse-grained (also porphyric, and occasionally greisining granites with rare metal mineralization (cassiterite, columbite, molybdenite, wolframite and beryl. Granites form several stocks (5-30 km2 situated 10-30 km to the west-northwest of the South-Kalchik gabbro-syenite-granite pluton. Granitoids in both of these complexes have similar isotopic ages (1800 Ma. Leucocratic subalkaline granites (the Novoyanisol type are known within the pluton itself, occupying an intermediate position between the above mentioned in terms of mineral and geochemical composition. The gabbro-syenite-granite formation of the Nearazov region has a substantial similarity to the anorthosite-rapakivi-granite formation. In this respect the relation of each of them to rare metal granites is rather remarkable. This relation is, most probably, not only spatial, but also genetic. The typical rare metal granites are situated not in the parent plutons but at some distance from them.

  6. Geochemical Constraints on Collision-related Intrusive Rocks in Central, Northwestern and Western Anatolia (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilbeyli, Nurdane

    2010-05-01

    The intrusive rocks in Anatolia occupy a broad petrological range from I- to A- type granitoids. Thus, Turkey is a natural laboratory to study collision-related magmatism, its geochemical characteristic, source region and also tectono-magmatic evolution. The central, northwestern and western Anatolian magmatic provinces are defined by a large number of Late Mesozoic to Late Cenozoic collision-related granitoids (Ilbeyli and Kibici 2009). Calc-alkaline, subalkaline and alkaline intrusive rocks in central Anatolia are mainly metaluminous, high-K and I- to A-types. They cover a petrological range from monzodiorite through quartz monzonite to granite/syenite. All these intrusive rocks are enriched in LILE and are also radiogenic in terms of Sr, and unradiogenic in terms of Nd, isotope ratios. Their geochemical characteristics show that the intrusive rocks originated from a mantle source containing large subduction components, and have experienced crustal assimilation and fractional crystallization. Delamination of a thermal boundary layer, and/or slab breakoff is the likely mechanisms for the initiation of the diverse magmatism in the complex (Ilbeyli et al. 2009). Calc-alkaline plutonic rocks in northwestern Anatolia are mainly metaluminous, medium- to high-K and I-types. They are monzonite to granite, and all are enriched in LILE and depleted in HFSE, showing features of arc-related intrusive rocks. Geochemical data reveal that these plutons were derived from partial melting of mafic lower crustal sources. These rocks are related to subduction of the northern branch of the Neo-Tethyan ocean beneath the Sakarya microcontinent during Cretaceous-Paleocene times (Kibici et al. 2008). Calc-alkaline intrusive rocks in western Anatolia are metaluminous, high-K and I-types. They have a compositional range from granodiorite to granite, and are enriched in LILE and depleted in HFSE. Geochemical characteristics of these intrusive rocks indicate that they could have originated by the partial melting of mafic lower crustal source rocks. In western Anatolia, the melt generation mechanism for the intrusive rocks could be crustal extension and uplift following collision (Ozgenc and Ilbeyli 2008). References Kibici, Y., Ilbeyli, N., Yildiz, A. and Bagci, M. 2008. Geochemical constraints on the genesis of the Günyüzü pluton, Northwest Anatolia, Turkey. International Geology Review, 50, 931-947. Ozgenc I. and Ilbeyli, N. 2008. Petrogenesis of the Late Cenozoic Egrigöz pluton in western Anatolia (Turkey): implications for magma genesis and crustal processes. International Geology Review, 50, 375-391. Ilbeyli, N. and Kibici, Y. 2009. Collision-related granite magma genesis, potential sources and tectono-magmatic evolution: comparison between central, northwestern and western Anatolia (Turkey). International Geology Review, 51, 252-278. Ilbeyli, N., Pearce, J.A., Meighan, I.G. and Fallick, A.E. 2009. Contemporaneous Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline and alkaline magmatism in central Anatolia, Turkey: O isotope constraints on petrogenesis. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 18, 529-549.

  7. Sorption behaviour of granite for radionuclides in groundwater condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption behavior of granite for Cs and Nd in the underground water condition was investigated as the function of mineralogical alteration of granite and particle size. The physicochemical characterization of the granite samples was carried out in terms of mineral phase, pore structure and elements eluted by soft acid treatment as the function of alteration of the granite. The increase of porosity of granite, and phase change of biotite and plagioclase into chlorite and illite, respectively were observed with the increase of alteration degree. The sorption capacities of the series of granites slightly increased with the increase of alteration degree. (authors)

  8. Aging and the intrusion superiority effect in visuo-spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornoldi, Cesare; Bassani, Chiara; Berto, Rita; Mammarella, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the active component of visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM) in younger and older adults testing the hypotheses that elderly individuals have a poorer performance than younger ones and that errors in active VSWM tasks depend, at least partially, on difficulties in avoiding intrusions (i.e., avoiding already activated information). In two experiments, participants were presented with sequences of matrices on which three positions were pointed out sequentially: their task was to process all the positions but indicate only the final position of each sequence. Results showed a poorer performance in the elderly compared to the younger group and a higher number of intrusion (errors due to activated but irrelevant positions) rather than invention (errors consisting of pointing out a position never indicated by the experiementer) errors. The number of errors increased when a concurrent task was introduced (Experiment 1) and it was affected by different patterns of matrices (Experiment 2). In general, results show that elderly people have an impaired VSWM and produce a large number of errors due to inhibition failures. However, both the younger and the older adults' visuo-spatial working memory was affected by the presence of activated irrelevant information, the reduction of the available resources, and task constraints. PMID:17164187

  9. The GRANIT project: Status and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    ler, Stephan Baeß; Grigorieva, Ludmilla; Kreuz, Michael; Naraghi, Fabrice; Nesvizhevsky, Valery; Pignol, Guillaume; Protassov, Konstantin; Rebreyend, Dominique; Vezzu, Francis; Voronin, Alexei

    2012-01-01

    The GRANIT project is the follow-up of the pioneering experiments that first observed the quantum states of neutrons trapped in the earth's gravitational field at the Institute Laue Langevin (ILL). Due to the weakness of the gravitational force, these quantum states exhibit most unusual properties: peV energies and spatial extensions of order 10 $\\mu$m. Whereas the first series of observations aimed at measuring the properties of the wave functions, the GRANIT experiment will induce resonant transitions between states thus accessing to spectroscopic measurements. After a brief reminder of achieved results, the principle and the status of the experiment, presently under commissioning at the ILL, will be given. In the second part, we will discuss the potential of GRANIT to search for new physics, in particular to a modified Newton law in the micrometer range.

  10. What controls chemical variation in granitic magmas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J. D.; Stevens, G.

    2012-03-01

    Consideration of the models that have been applied to explain the chemical variations within granitic rock suites shows that most are inadequate to account for the main variations. This stems from a variety of model deficiencies, ranging from physical or energetic inadequacies to incompatibility with the chemical data or internal inconsistency between models based on, for example, isotope or trace-element data and major-element data. We contend that any model that fails any of these tests of internal consistency cannot be considered further. Thus, although we can point to examples in which many of the traditionally accepted mechanisms have played secondary roles in producing variation, there presently remains but one viable choice for the primary mechanism by which most granitic magmas acquire compositions beyond the range defined by the compositions of crustal melts. That primary mechanism is peritectic assemblage entrainment (PAE). We infer that once a partial melt has formed in a crustal protolith it may segregate from its complementary solid residue carrying small crystals of the peritectic phase assemblage formed in the melting reaction, and that the ratios of individual peritectic minerals in the entrained assemblage remains fixed in the ratio decreed by the stoichiometry of the melting reaction. For those elements with low solubilities in granitic melts, PAE (in varying degrees), accompanied by co-entrainment of accessory minerals, is responsible for most of the primary elemental variation in granitic magmas. In contrast, the concentrations of elements with high solubilities in silicic melts reflect the protolith compositions in a simple and direct way. The source is the primary control on granite magma chemistry; it dictates what is available to dissolve in the melt and what will be formed as the entrainable peritectic assemblage. The apparent complexity in granitic rock suites is largely a consequence of these processes in the source. All other mechanisms contribute only as a secondary overlay.

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Pregnancies in Younger Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Pregnancies in Younger Teens Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. Problem Many younger teens give birth at ages 15 to 17. More ...

  12. Younger Women Less Likely to Take Meds After Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Younger Women Less Likely to Take Meds After Heart Attack This, despite fact they have worse outcomes than ... HealthDay News) -- Younger women who've had a heart attack are less likely than men to be taking ...

  13. Retention of Anionic Species on Granite: Influence of Granite Composition - 12129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium (Tc-99, T1/2 = 2.1.105 yrs) and selenium (Se-79, T1/2 = 6.5.104 yrs) belong among fission products, being produced by fission of nuclear fuel. Both elements can significantly contribute to risk due to their complicated chemistry, long life times, high mobility and prevailing anionic character. Therefore, knowledge of migration behaviour under different conditions can significantly improve input into performance and safety assessment models. Granite is considered as a potential host rock for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in many countries. Granitic rocks consist usually of quartz, feldspar, plagioclase (main components), mica, chlorite, kaolinite (minor components). The main feature of the rock is advection governed transport in fractures, complemented with diffusion process from fracture towards undisturbed rock matrix. The presented work is focused on interaction of anionic species (TcO4-, SeO42-, SeO32-) with granitic rock. Furthermore, the importance of mineral composition on sorption of anionic species was also studied. The batch sorption experiments were conducted on the crushed granite from Bohemian Massive. Five fractions with defined grain size were used for static batch method. Mineral composition of each granitic fraction was evaluated using X-ray diffraction. The results showed differences in composition of granitic fractions, even though originating from one homogenized material. Sorption experiments showed influence of granite composition on adsorption of both TcO4- and SeO32- on granitic rock. Generally, Se(IV) showed higher retention than Tc(VII). Se(VI) was not almost sorbed at all. Fe containing minerals are pronounced as a selective Se and Tc sorbent, being reduced on their surface. As micas in granite are usually enriched in Fe, increased sorption of anionic species onto mica enriched fractions can be explained by this reason. On the other hand, fractions enriched in feldspar did not show increased sorption affinity to Tc and Se. (authors)

  14. Head and neck malignancies in younger patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We treated 23 (1.4% of all our primary cases) younger patients who are from 15 years old to 29 years old with head and neck malignancies at the Department of Head and Neck Surgery of the Miyagi Cancer Center Hospital for the past 12 years. There were 12 male and 11 female, and the sex ratio was approximately 1:1. There were 12 oral cancer patients, 6 epipharyngeal cancer patients and so on. There were 14 squamous cell carcinomas, 3 nasopharyngeal carcinomas and so on. 60% of all cases were squamous cell carcinomas. Clinically, advanced stage (stage III and IV) was diagnosed in 70% of patients at presentation. Although 19 patients had no past history, 2 patients had bronchial asthma, one had schizophrenia, and one had psychological disorder. Radical treatment was performed in 20 of 23 examples. The estimated Kaplan-Meier 5-year cause-specific survival rates for all patients were 76% and the 10-year cause-specific survival rates were 63%, respectively. It was thought that survival consequence was excellent in the whole. The problems of head and neck tumor treatment in a younger patient were thought about with late effect by radioactive rays and genital disorder by cancer chemotherapy. (author)

  15. Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique data system which uses computer controlled data systems, video cameras and recorders, analog-to-digital conversion, environmental sensors, and digital recorders to collect sensor data. The data can be viewed either manually or with a special computerized data-reduction system which adds new data to a data base stored on a magnetic disc recorder. This report provides a synoptic account of the AIDS as it presently exists. Modifications to the purchased subsystems are described, and references are made to publications which describe the Sandia-designed subsystems

  16. Geometry of Caldera Superfaults and Emplacement of Their Associated Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildyard, R.; Kokelaar, P.

    2006-12-01

    Caldera collapse generally involves large-scale fault movements, in some cases involving an annular structure (ring-fault) but commonly involving several intersecting fault strands. Fault displacements are typically hundreds of meters in hours or days. The geometry of caldera faults has often been depicted as inward dipping and bounding a coherent crustal block, but such `key-stone'-like geometry does not facilitate subsidence unless associated with overall extension. Recent modelling, experimentation and comparison with natural analogs show that bounding faults typically dip outwards. Reappraisal of the deeply dissected Glencoe Volcano in Scotland has shown that the archetypal bounding `ring-fault' and associated intrusions, which define an ellipse 14x8 km, comprise near vertical, outward-dipping structures that have accommodated ~700 m of subsidence. Along certain sections, pseudotachylyte occurs at the margins of voluminous (1-2000 m wide) fault intrusions of rhyolite, monzonite, diorite, tonalite and granite. The pseudotachylyte and rhyolite show various mingling relationships indicating a fluid and particulate-state interaction during emplacement. The inner contacts, against the subsided country rocks, are planar while the outer contacts are highly irregular, both on a large scale (100's m) and a small scale (10 cm -1 m). In one section, a fault strand cuts a hydrothermal system recorded by veins of quartz, epidote, pyrite and sericite. We infer that both friction melts and magmas were transformed explosively to froth or spray where they encountered rapid decompression along dilatant sections of the active superfaults. The friction melts were driven upwards, plastering separate fault surfaces, and were rapidly followed by fragmented rhyolite magma and then fluid magma that formed fault intrusions. The irregular outer contacts of the fault intrusions are interpreted as recording instantaneous explosive disruption of pressurized hydrothermal systems that were intersected by the dilational faults. Lithic breccias were removed from the rapidly formed cavities prior to the first arrival of decompressed melt-spray. The involvement of outward-dipping faults at caldera volcanoes suggests that fault-plane dilation commonly promotes explosivity along these structures.

  17. Identification of Granite Varieties from Colour Spectrum Data

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Vilán; Javier Martínez; Celestino Ordóñez; María Araújo

    2010-01-01

    The granite processing sector of the northwest of Spain handles many varieties of granite with specific technical and aesthetic properties that command different prices in the natural stone market. Hence, correct granite identification and classification from the outset of processing to the end-product stage optimizes the management and control of stocks of granite slabs and tiles and facilitates the operation of traceability systems. We describe a methodology for automatically identifying gr...

  18. Behaviour of three different types of granite under forced alteration

    OpenAIRE

    Trujillano, Raquel; Iñigo, A.C.; Rives, V.; Vicente Hernández, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of salt crystallization inside the porous networkof three types of granitic rocks has been studied. Specimen of Grey Granite, Ochre Granite and red/White Granite have been submitted to salt crystallization treatments, following the standard and modified procedures, The decay degree reached is different in each type of stone, according to their petrophysical properties. A surface stone decay is found first when following the standard procedure; the modified procedure leads to a l...

  19. Intrusive cognitions, anxiety and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Whitaker, K L

    2008-01-01

    Since the recognition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) of life-threatening illnesses as a stressor that can precipitate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), research has focussed on the issue of PTSD following cancer. Although the utility of a trauma framework has been questioned, understanding symptoms associated with PTSD such as intrusive cognitions may be critical in understanding psychological distress in cancer patients. Research has found that cancer patients experi...

  20. Non-intrusive valve diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes how advanced in-situ monitoring and testing techniques avoid unnecessary valve disassembly. The variety of valves now used in power plants presents a challenge to monitor and maintain. Of the 1,000 or more valves commonly found in a nuclear power plant, many are crucial to reliable safety function performance. Hence, nuclear industry engineers developed many of the recent techniques in valve condition monitoring, non-intrusive and in-situ testing, and preventive maintenance. Now, other power plant engineers can reduce operating and maintenance costs by taking advantage of this modern test equipment. Plant engineers can configure some state-of-the-art, non-intrusive valve diagnostic instruments for many functions, including monitoring check valves, and air-, motor- and solenoid-operated valves. Other functions include testing air-operated valves in-situ and detecting internal leaks non-intrusively in all power plant components. Laboratory test data and field applications have proved these systems to be very effective

  1. Petrochemical and petrophysical changes caused by greisenization in the younger granites of the Krušné hory batholith (Czech Republic).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štemprok, M.; Chlupá?ová, M.; Pivec, Edvín; Novák, Ji?í Karel; Lang, Miloš

    Rotterdam/ Brookfield : A. A. Balkema, 1997 - (Papunen, H.), s. 679-682 ISBN 90 5410 889 4. [Biennal SGA Meeting /4./. Turku (FI), 11.08.1997-13.08.1997] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA205/95/0149 Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  2. Towards an Effective Intrusion Response Engine Combined with Intrusion Detection in Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Douligeris, Christos

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an effective intrusion response engine combined with intrusion detection in ad hoc networks. The intrusion response engine is composed of a secure communication module, a local and a global response module. Its function is based on an innovative tree-based key agreement protocol while the intrusion detection engine is based on a class of neural networks called eSOM. The proposed intrusion response model and the tree-based protocol, it is based on, are analyzed concerning key secrecy while the intrusion detection engine is evaluated for MANET under different traffic conditions and mobility patterns. The results show a high detection rate for packet dropping attacks.

  3. Late-Hercynian intrusion-related gold deposits: An integrated model on the Tighza polymetallic district, central Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Éric, Marcoux; Khadija, Nerci; Yannick, Branquet; Claire, Ramboz; Gilles, Ruffet; Jean-Jacques, Peucat; Ross, Stevenson; Michel, Jébrak

    2015-07-01

    Gold have been recently recognized in the Tighza (formerly Jebel Aouam) district, in the Hercynian belt of central Morocco. This district has long been known for its W mineralization, as well as major Pb-Ag-Zn, and minor Sb-Ba deposits, all geographically associated with late-Hercynian calc-alkaline magmatism. Gold mineralization in the district is mainly hosted by thick W-Au quartz veins located around the "Mine granite" small granitic plug. Within the veins, gold grade is highest (up to 70 g/t) close to the granite but rapidly decreases going outward from the granite, defining a perigranitic zoning. Anomalous gold grades have also been measured in hydrothermal skarn layers close to two other granitic plugs (Kaolin granite and Mispickel granite), associated with disseminated As-Fe sulfides. The paragenetic sequence for the W-Au quartz veins shows three stages: (1) an early oxidized stage with wolframite-scheelite associated with early quartz (Q1), (2) an intermediate Bi-As-Te-Mo-Au sulfide stage with loellingite, bismuth minerals and native gold with a later quartz (Q2), restricted to a narrow distance from the granite, and (3) a late lower temperature As-Cu-Zn-(Pb) stage with abundant massive pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite and sphalerite, locally forming independent veins ("pyrrhotite vein"). Both Q1 hyaline and Q2 saccharoidal gold-bearing quartz display aqua-carbonic fluids with minor H2S and Cu and an homogeneous composition (81 mole% H2O, 18 mole% CO2 and about 1 mole% NaCl). The trapping pressure is estimated to 1.5-2 kbar with temperature ranging from 300 to 350 °C. Q1 inclusions have exploded indicating an uplift of the Tighza block, that lead to saccharoidal Q2 quartz deposition with multiphase NaCl-saturated fluid inclusions. 40Ar/39Ar dating demonstrates that the "Mine granite", tungsten skarnoid, scheelite-molybdenite veins, and very likely gold-bearing veins are coeval, emplaced at 286 ± 1 Ma. Multiple and widespread metal sources are indicated by radiogenic isotope studies. Nd and Sr isotope compositions of scheelite and granites suggest the participation of a juvenile component while lead isotopes demonstrate a major participation of the basement. Both gold mineralization and zoning suggest that the system developed at the end of the magmatic activity, accompanying a major transition in magmatic fluid composition. The morphology of the gold-bearing mineralization is dependent of the permeability and the reactivity of host-rocks: focus circulation of fluids through pre-existing tectonic corridors, reactivated by late-Hercynian intrusions favor the formation of large W-type gold veins, while infiltration of fluid within reactive stratigraphic layers gives rise to skarn mineralization. A 40Ar/39Ar date (W1 north vein: 291.8 ± 0.3 Ma) indicates that hydrothermal circulation predates gold and tungsten deposition in open fractures as well as Mine granite emplacement. The W-Au mineralization preceded the onset of a large convective hydrothermal cell around the intrusion that led to the formation of the Pb-Ag-Zn mined veins. The Tighza polymetallic district displays numerous similarities with the R-IRG model that was defined in the American Cordillera, such as thermal and zonation patterns, carbonic hydrothermal fluids and chronology of intrusion and related deposits, but also provides new insight to the R-IRG model such as wide Au-quartz veins instead of sheeted Au-veins, oxidation state of the magma, and Sr-Nd isotopic data. These results establish a major magmatic contribution and discard a direct genetic relationship between gold mineralization and major neighboring Pb-Ag-Zn veins. A large number of classic Pb-Zn district of the Western Hercynides belong to the same clan.

  4. Ilmenit z dvojslídných granit? klenovského plutonu.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    René, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 46, Prosinec (2013), s. 224-227. ISSN 0514-8057 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME10083 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : ilmenite * two-mica granite * Moldanubian Zone * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/zpravy/obsah/2012/Zpravy_2012-45.pdf

  5. Petrology, geochemistry and origin of topaz granite.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    René, Miloš

    New York : Nova Science, 2012 - (Blasik, M.; Hanika, B.), s. 99-115 ISBN 9781620815663 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA205/09/0540 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : topaz granite * mineralogy * geochemistry Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  6. Geochemical evolution of magmatism in Archean granite-greenstone terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, A. V.; Larionova, Yu. O.

    2006-05-01

    Evolution of Archean magmatism is one of the key problems concerning the early formation stages of the Earth crust and biosphere, because that evolution exactly controlled variable concentrations of chemical elements in the World Ocean, which are important for metabolism. Geochemical evolution of magmatism between 3.5 and 2.7 Ga is considered based on database characterizing volcanic and intrusive rock complexes of granite-greenstone terrains (GGT) studied most comprehensively in the Karelian (2.9-2.7 Ga) and Kaapvaal (3.5-2.9 Ga) cratons and in the Pilbara block (3.5-2.9 Ga). Trends of magmatic geochemical evolution in the mentioned GGTs were similar in general. At the early stage of their development, tholeiitic magmas were considerably enriched in chalcophile and siderophile elements Fe2O3, MgO, Cr, Ni, Co, V, Cu, and Zn. At the next stage, calc-alkaline volcanics of greenstone belts and syntectonic TTG granitoids were enriched in lithophile elements Rb, Cs, Ba, Th, U, Pb, Nb, La, Sr, Be and others. Elevated concentrations of both the “crustal” and “mantle-derived” elements represented a distinctive feature of predominantly intrusive rocks of granitoid composition, which were characteristic of the terminal stage of continental crust formation in the GGTs, because older silicic rocks and lithospheric mantle were jointly involved into processes of magma generation. On the other hand, the GGTs different in age reveal specific trends in geochemical evolution of rock associations close in composition and geological position. First, the geochemical cycle of GGT evolution was of a longer duration in the Paleoarchean than in the Meso-and Neoarchean. Second, the Paleoarche an tholeiitic associations had higher concentrations of LREE and HFSE (Zr, Ti, Th, Nb, Ta, Hf) than their Meso-and Neoarchean counterparts. Third, the Y and Yb concentrations in Paleoarchean calc-alkaline rock associations are systematically higher than in Neoarchean rocks of the same type, while their La/Yb ratios are in contrast lower than in the latter. These distinctions are likely caused by evolution of mantle magmatic reservoirs and by changes in formation mechanisms of silicic volcanics and TTG granitoids. The first of these factors was likely responsible for appearance of sanukitoid magmatic rocks in the Late Mesoarchean. Representative database considered in the work includes ca. 500 precision analyses of Archean magmatic rocks.

  7. The geology and petrogenesis of the southern closepet granite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayananda, M.; Mahabaleswar, B.; Oak, K. A.; Friend, C. R. L.

    The Archaean Closepet Granite is a polyphase body intruding the Peninsular Gneiss Complex and the associated supracrustal rocks. The granite out-crop runs for nearly 500 km with an approximate width of 20 to 25 km and cut across the regional metamorphic structure passing from granulite facies in the South and green schist facies in the north. In the amphibolite-granulite facies transition zone the granite is intimately mixed with migmatites and charnockite. Field observations suggests that anatexis of Peninsular gneisses led to the formation of granite melt, and there is a space relationship between migmatite formation, charnockite development and production and emplacement of granite magma. Based on texture and cross cutting relationships four major granite phases are recognized: (1) Pyroxene bearing dark grey granite; (2) Porphyritec granite; (3) Equigranular grey granite; and (4) Equigranular pink granite. The granite is medium to coarse grained and exhibit hypidiomorphic granular to porphyritic texture. The modal composition varies from granite granodiorite to quartz monzonite. Geochemical variation of the granite suite is consistent with either fractional crystallization or partial melting, but in both the cases biotite plus feldspar must be involved as fractionating or residual phases during melting to account trace element chemistry. The trace element data has been plotted on discriminant diagrams, where majority of samples plot in volcanic arc and within plate, tectonic environments. The granite show distinct REE patterns with variable total REE content. The REE patterns and overall abundances suggests that the granite suite represents a product of partial melting of crustal source in which fractional crystallization operated in a limited number of cases.

  8. Classification and Importance of Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS is a device or software application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a Management Station. Some systems may attempt to stop an intrusion attempt but this is neither required nor expected of a monitoring system. Due to a growing number of intrusion events and also because the Internet and local networks have become so ubiquitous, organizations are increasingly implementing various systems that monitor IT security breaches. This includes an overview of the classification of intrusion detection systems and introduces the reader to some fundamental concepts of IDS methodology: audit trail analysis and on-the-fly processing as well as anomaly detection and signature detection approaches. This research paper discusses the primary intrusion detection techniques and the classification of intrusion Detection system.

  9. Wireless Intrusion Detection and Logging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURAJ KENDHEY

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection is the security patrol, and become the eyes and ears of the network, alerting the potential vulnerabilities and intrusion attempts. Monitoring can help to spot problems in the network, as well as identify performance problems, but watching every second of traffic that passes through the network, manually searching for attacks, would be impossible. This is why there is need of specialized network intrusion detection software. This software inspects all network traffic, looking for potential attacks and intrusions. Wireless Intrusion Detection System (WIDS is wireless network sniffing tool. It is used for securing the WLAN. And it generates the alarms to the administrator as soon as something goes wrong in the WLAN.WIDS attempts to identify computers system, network intrusions and misuse by gathering and analyzing data.WIDS can monitor and analyze user and system activities. It generates the alerts based either on predefined signatures or on anomalies in the traffic.

  10. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in seagrasses ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses represents a global threat to seagrasses and thereby an important parameter in resilience of seagrass ecosystems. In contrast seegrasses colonize and grow in hostile sediments, where they are constantly exposed to invasion of toxic gaseous sulfide. Remarkably little is known about the strategies of seagrasses to survive sulfide intrusion, their potential detoxification mechanisms and sulfur nutrition in general. By a global review of sulfide intrusion, coupled wit...

  11. Strengthening intrusion detection techniques through emerging patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Grandinetti, Walter M.

    2004-01-01

    In todays world where nearly every company is dependent on the Internet to survive, it is not surprising that the role of intrusion detection has become extremely important within the last decade. Intrusion detection involves determining whether some entity has attempted to gain, or worse, it has gained unauthorized access to the system. The task of current intrusion detection systems is detect possible threats not only from insiders but also from outsiders. Based on our current knowledge,...

  12. Wireless Intrusion Detection and Logging System

    OpenAIRE

    SURAJ KENDHEY; NITIN KHOBRAGADE; SUMIT RAUT; VIKRANT NAIK

    2013-01-01

    Intrusion detection is the security patrol, and become the eyes and ears of the network, alerting the potential vulnerabilities and intrusion attempts. Monitoring can help to spot problems in the network, as well as identify performance problems, but watching every second of traffic that passes through the network, manually searching for attacks, would be impossible. This is why there is need of specialized network intrusion detection software. This software inspects all network traffic, look...

  13. Iron isotope systematics of the Skaergaard intrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesher, Charles; Lundstrom, C.C.; Barfod, Gry; Glessner, Justin; Brown, Eric; Thy, Peter; Salmonsen, Lars Peter; Tegner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The early Eocene Skaergaard intrusion, central east Greenland, is one of the most thoroughly studied layered mafic intrusions on Earth and an exceptional example of (near) closed-system magmatic differentiation. The Skaergaard intrusion is ideally suited to test models of closed-system fractional crystallization on non-traditional stable isotope systems, particularly iron. FeTi oxide minerals (titanomagnetite and ilmenite) appear after ~60% of the magma had solidified. This was a significant eve...

  14. Rb-Sr geochronology and petrogenesis of granitoids from the Chhotanagpur granite gneiss complex of Raikera-Kunkuri region, Central India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Precambrian Chhotanagpur granite gneiss complex (CGGC) terrain covers more than 80,000 sq km area, and is dominated by granitoid gneisses and migmatites. Recent geochronological data indicate that the CGGC terrain has witnessed five tectonomagmatic thermal events at: (i) 2.5-2.4 Ga, (ii) 2.2-2.0 Ga (iii)1.6-1.4 Ga (iv) 1.2-1.0 Ga and (v) 0.9-0.8 Ga. Of these, the third and the fourth events are widespread. The whole-rock Rb-Sr isotopic analysis of twenty granite samples from the CGGC of Raikera-Kunkuri region, Jashpur district, Chhattisgarh, Central India yields two distinct isochrons. The eleven samples of grey granites define an isochron age of 1005±51 Ma with moderate initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7047±0.0065, which corresponds to the fourth tectonomagmatic event. On the other hand, the nine samples of pink granites indicate younger isochron age of 815±47 Ma with a higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7539±0.0066 that matches with the fifth phase of the thermal event. The data suggest emplacement of large bodies of grey granite at ?1005 Ma that evolved possibly from precursors of tonalitic-granodioritic composition. Furthermore, the younger age (? 815 Ma) suggests the age of metasomatism, involving isotopic resetting, that resulted in genesis of pink granite bodies of limited areal extent. By analogy, the age of metasomatism (?815 Ma) may also be taken to represent the age of Y-mineralisation in the Raikera-Kunkuri region of the CGGC terrain. (author)

  15. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: phenomenological evolution of the geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the phenomenological aspects of the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes (HLLL) in granite formations. Content: 1 - introduction: ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formation; 2 - the granitic environment: geologic history, French granites; 3 - HLLL wastes and disposal design concepts; 4 - identification, characterization and modeling of a granitic site: approach, geologic modeling, hydrologic and hydro-geochemical modeling, geomechanical and thermal modeling, long-term geologic evolution of a site; 5 - phenomenological evolution of a disposal: main aspects of the evolution of a repository with time, disposal infrastructures, B-type wastes disposal area, C-type wastes disposal area; spent fuels disposal area, radionuclides transfer and retention in the granitic environment; 6 - conclusions: available knowledge, methods and tools for the understanding and modeling of the phenomenological evolution of a granitic disposal site. (J.S.)

  16. Geoquímica e geocronologia U-Pb (SHRIMP) de granitos da região de Peixoto de Azevedo: Província Aurífera Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso / Geochemistry and geochronology U-Pb Shrimp of granites from Peixoto de Azevedo: Alta Floresta Gold Province

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Rodrigues da, Silva; Márcia Aparecida Sant' Ana, Barros; Ronaldo, Pierosan; Francisco Edígio Cavalcante, Pinho; Mara Luiza Barros Pita, Rocha; Bruno Rodrigo, Vasconcelos; Samantha Evelyn Max, Dezula; Carla, Tavares; Jhonattan, Rocha.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A análise de dados petrográficos, geoquímicos e geocronológicos de granitos do Domínio Peixoto de Azevedo, Mato Grosso, na porção leste da Província Aurífera Alta Floresta, conduziu ao reconhecimento de dois corpos graníticos limitados por grandes falhamentos e zonas de cisalhamento regionais. Na po [...] rção noroeste ocorre biotita granodiorito de granulação grossa, textura inequigranular a porfirítica, metaluminoso à peraluminoso, calcialcalino de alto potássio e magnesiano. Na porção sudeste da área ocorre um biotita monzogranito de granulação grossa, textura equigranular a porfiritica, levemente peraluminoso, calcialcalino de alto potássio e caráter dominantemente ferroso. Datações U-Pb (SHRIMP) mostraram que o biotita monzogranito apresenta uma idade de 1869 ± 10 Ma, similar à Suíte Intrusiva Matupá, enquanto que o biotita granodiorito apresenta idade de 1781 ± 10 Ma, que é a idade esperada para o Granito Peixoto. As duas unidades mostram padrões de elementos terras raras com enriquecimento de leves sobre pesados e anomalia negativa de Eu (LaN/YbN " 7,6 a 17,31 e Eu/Eu* entre 0,46 - 0,72 para o biotita monzogranito e LaN/YbN " 7,13 a 29,09 com razões Eu/Eu* entre 0,25 - 0,40 para o biotita granodiorito). O padrão dos elementos traço para ambos apresenta anomalias negativas de Ba, P, Ti e Nb, indicando uma evolução por fracionamento mineral e associação com fontes modificadas por subducção e envolvimento crustal. Neste trabalho, sugere-se que o monzogranito Matupá foi gerado em ambiente de margem continental ativa, num estágio maduro. Para o biotita-granodiorito Peixoto, duas hipóteses são sugeridas: (a) formação num ambiente de arco magmático mais jovem associado ao Magmatismo Colíder ou (b) gerado em ambiente extensional, relacionado à quebra do efêmero Supercontiente Columbia. Abstract in english The analysis of petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data of granites in the Peixoto de Azevedo region, Mato Grosso, Brazil, in the eastern portion of the Alta Floresta Gold Province, led to the recognition of two granitic bodies bounded by regional major faults and shear zones. In the nor [...] thwestern portion a body with featured as biotite granodiorite, coarse-grained, with porphyritic to inequigranular texture, metaluminous to peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline and magnesium character. In the southeastern portion of the area, a biotite monzogranite coarse-grained, with equigranular to porphyritic texture, slightly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline and dominantly of ferrous character. U- Pb dating (SHRIMP) showed that the biotite monzogranite has an age of 1869 ± 10 Ma, similar to the Matupá Intrusive Suite, while the biotite granodiorite has an age of 1781 ± 10 Ma, that is the age expected to Peixoto Granite. Both units show patterns of rare earth elements with enrichment of light over heavy and negative Eu anomaly (LaN/YbN " 7.6 to 17.31 and ratios Eu/Eu* between 0.46 - 0.72 for biotite monzogranite and LaN/YbN " 7.13 to 29.09 with ratios Eu/Eu* between 0.25 - 0.40 for the biotite granodiorite). Trace elements pattern for both present negative anomalies of Ba, P, Ti and Nb indicating an evolution from mineral fractionation and subduction related sources. In this paper, it is sugested that the monzogranite Matupá was developed in mature arc tectonic environment. For the Peixoto Granite, two hypotheses are suggested: (a) it was developed in younger magmatic arc environment associated with the Colider Magmatism or (b) it was generated in extentional tectonic environment during the Columbia Supercontinent break up.

  17. Analysis of the Younger Dryas Impact Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Richard B.; West, Allen; Revay, Zsolt; Hagstrum, Jonathon T,; Belgya, Thomas; Hee, Shane S. Que; Smith, Alan R.

    2010-02-27

    We have uncovered a thin layer of magnetic grains and microspherules, carbon spherules, and glass-like carbon at nine sites across North America, a site in Belgium, and throughout the rims of 16 Carolina Bays. It is consistent with the ejecta layer from an impact event and has been dated to 12.9 ka BP coinciding with the onset of Younger Dryas (YD) cooling and widespread megafaunal extinctions in North America. At many locations the impact layer is directly below a black mat marking the sudden disappearance of the megafauna and Clovis people. The distribution pattern of the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) ejecta layer is consistent with an impact near the Great Lakes that deposited terrestrial-like ejecta near the impact site and unusual, titanium-rich projectile-like ejecta further away. High water content associated with the ejecta, up to 28 at. percent hydrogen (H), suggests the impact occurred over the Laurentide Ice Sheet. YDB microspherules and magnetic grains are highly enriched in TiO{sub 2}. Magnetic grains from several sites are enriched in iridium (Ir), up to 117 ppb. The TiO{sub 2}/FeO, K/Th, TiO{sub 2}/Zr, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FeO+MgO, CaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, REE/ chondrite, FeO/MnO ratios and SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni, Co, U, Th and other trace element abundances are inconsistent with all terrestrial and extraterrestrial (ET) sources except for KREEP, a lunar igneous rock rich in potassium (K), rare-earth elements (REE), phosphorus (P), and other incompatible elements including U and Th. Normal Fe, Ti, and {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U isotopic abundances were found in the magnetic grains, but {sup 234}U was enriched over equilibrium values by 50 percent in Murray Springs and by 130 percent in Belgium. 40K abundance is enriched by up to 100 percent in YDB sediments and Clovis chert artifacts. Highly vesicular carbon spherules containing nanodiamonds, glass-like carbon, charcoal and soot found in large quantities in the YDB layer are consistent with an impact followed by intense burning. Four holes in the Great Lakes, some deeper than Death Valley, are proposed as possible craters produced by the airburst breakup of a loosely aggregated projectile.

  18. Non-intrusive refractometer sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pabitra Nath

    2010-04-01

    An experimental realization of a simple non-intrusive refractometer sensor is demonstrated in this communication. The working principle of the sensor is based on intensity modulation of the back-reflected light when output light from an optical fibre end focusses onto air–medium interface. The change in the refractive index of the medium affects the reflectance of the incident light signal and thus modulates the back-reflected signal. Refractive index variation as small as 0.002 RIU can be measured using the present technique. The advantages of the technique are its simplicity, cost efficiency and usefulness in monitoring refractive indices of acidic solutions.

  19. Metasedimentary melting in the formation of charnockite: Petrological and zircon U-Pb-Hf-O isotope evidence from the Darongshan S-type granitic complex in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shu-Juan; Li, Xian-Hua; Huang, Hui-Qing; Deng, Xi-Guang

    2015-12-01

    Charnockites are Opx-bearing igneous rocks commonly found in high-grade metamorphic terranes. Despite being volumetrically minor, they show a wide range in both bulk geochemistry and intensive parameters. They form a characteristic component of the AMCG (anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite) suite, but their association with typical S-type granites is less well-known. The Darongshan S-type granitic complex (DSGC) in Guangxi Province, southern China, contains granites varying in mafic silicate mineral assemblages from Bt + Crd (Darongshan suite) to Opx + Grt + Bt + Crd (Jiuzhou suite) and Opx + Crd ± Bt (Taima suite), corresponding to a geochemical transition from magnesian calc-alkalic to ferroan calc-alkalic. However, its genesis, even the accurate age of intrusion, remains highly contentious despite intensive research. In order to understand the genesis of charnockite and its genetic relationship with S-type granite; here, we first determined zircon U-Pb ages of each suite using a SIMS on the basis of a detailed petrological study. Zircon U-Pb ages show that all suites of the complex were emplaced contemporaneously at ca. 249 Ma. Monazite apparent U-Pb ages are indistinguishable from zircon U-Pb ages within analytical error. Further in situ zircon Hf-O isotope analyses reveal that the granitic complex was dominantly derived from reduced melting metasedimentary rocks (?18Ozircon = ca. 11‰; ?Hf(t)zircon = ca. - 10; ?log FMQ ? 0; Mn in apatite oxybarometer) with rare material input from the mantle. The variation in ?18O (7.8‰-12.9‰) is more likely a result of hybridization, whereas that in ?Hf(t) (- 31.9 to - 1.8) is a result of both hybridization and disequilibrium melting. The variation in mineralogy and geochemistry may be interpreted as a result of entrainment of peritectic garnets from biotite-dehydration melting. Nevertheless, heat input from mantle through basaltic intrusion/underplating is considered to play a major role in high-temperature (> 850 °C) melting at mid-crustal levels (i.e. the cordierite stable field) for generation of the granitic complex. We interpret that the granites were intruded in a back-arc setting and basaltic magmatism was directly associated with slab roll-back and tearing during the latest Permian and early Triassic times.

  20. The Pedregal granite (Portugal: petrographic and geochemical characterization of a peculiar granitoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pedregal granite outcrops in the Central Iberian Zone, northern Portugal, in the eastern border of a synorogenic variscan granite-migmatite complex sub-concordant with the regional metamorphic structures. It is a granitoid (ca. 3 km2 with an elongated NW-SE shape intruded in staurolite-micaschist and banded gneiss-migmatite rocks, with local igneous breccias in the contact. The country rocks belong to a metapelitic and metasammitic sequence of Edicarian-Cambrian age, known as the “Complexo Xisto-Grauváquico” (CXG which shows a main regional foliation with a NW-SE to NNW-SSE direction. The Pedregal granite is peraluminous (its A/CNK parameter ranges from 1.18 to 1.62, with a magnesian and alkali to alkali-calcic signature. The peculiar features of the granite are high contents of Zr (389 to 435 ppm and a LREE flat pattern, which are uncommon characteristics for granitic rocks, as well as the corroded shape of the biotite, and the large amount of secondary muscovite. These peculiar features distinguish it from the adjacent synorogenic granites. The field, petrographical and chemical features of the Pedregal granite are in accordance with a second phase of partial melting of a residuum, depleted by melt segregation during a first melting episode with the involvement of peritectic garnet and abundant residual biotite with LREE- and Zr-bearing accessory minerals. Besides, the intrusive character of the granite, and the presence of metasedimentary xenoliths point out to a secondary diatexite.El granito de Pedregal aflora en la Zona Centro-Ibérica, en el norte de Portugal, en el borde oriental de un complejo granito-migmatítico sinorogénico varisco, subconcordante con las estructuras metamórficas regionales. Es un granitoide (ca. 3 km2 de forma elongada NW-SE, que intruye en micaesquistos estaurolíticos y en rocas gneissico- migmatíticas bandeadas, con brechas ígneas locales en el contacto. Las rocas encajantes pertenecen a una secuencia metapelítica-metasamítica de edad Ediacariense - Cámbrico, conocida como el “Complejo Esquisto-Grauváquico” (CEG, que muestra una foliación regional principal NW-SE a NNW- SSE. El granito de Pedregal es peralumínico (el parámetro A/CNK oscila desde 1.18 hasta 1.62, con una composición magnesiana, entre alcalina y alcalino-cálcica. Sus características peculiares son el alto contenido de Zr (389–435 ppm y de tierras raras ligeras (LREE que presentan un patrón plano, la forma corroída de la biotita, y la gran cantidad de moscovita secundaria. Estas características peculiares lo distinguen de los otros granitos sinorogénicos adyacentes. Las características de campo, petrográficas y químicas del granito de Pedregal parecen apuntar a una segunda fase de fusión parcial de un residuo, empobrecido por la segregación de fundido durante una primera fase de fusión con participación de granate peritéctico y abundante biotita residual con minerales accesorios portadores de LREE y Zr. Además, el carácter intrusivo del granito, y la presencia de xenolitos metasedimentarios sugieren una diatexita secundaria.

  1. Interaction between magmatic and tectonic stresses during dyke intrusion Interacción entre esfuerzos magmáticos y tectónicos durante la intrusión de diques

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Skarmeta

    2011-01-01

    Cataclastic and mylonitic rocks exposed in the southwestern part of the Peninsula de Mejillones, northern Chile, are intruded at high angles of the foliation by younger, steeply inclined (±70°) basaltic dykes that resemble intrusive tension gashes with knife-edge contacts with the country rocks. These late dykes developed sigmoidaly-shaped, preferred orientation paths defined by oriented pyroxene phenocrysts that vary in size, aspect ratio, concentration and distribution across the width of a...

  2. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in granite formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive wastes, a performance assessment of a repository of vitrified HLW in granite was carried out. Three disposal sites were considered: the reference site Auriat and two alternative sites, Barfleur and a site in the U.K. The report describes the methodology adopted (a deterministic and a stochastic approach) with the corresponding data base and the models used. A parametric study of sub-systems (near field, far field and biosphere) was carried out by CEA-ANDRA using AQUARIUS, DIMITRIO and BIOS. A global evaluation of the performances was carried out by CEA-IPSN using MELODIE code. The results of deterministic calculations showed for Auriat a maximum dose equivalent evaluated at 6.10-3m Sv/a arising 3 millions years after disposal. Results of human intrusion scenario analyses, uncertainty analyses and global sensitivity analyses are presented. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  3. Possible genetic link between I-type granite and orogenic gold deposits in Egypt (metamorphic-magmatic interaction?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Monsef, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The orogenic gold deposits are a distinctive type of deposits that revealed unique temporal and spatial association with an orogeny. Where, the system of gold veins and related ore minerals was confined to hydrothermal solutions formed during compressional to transpressional deformation processes at convergent plate margins in accretionary and collisional orogens, with the respect to ongoing deep-crustal, subduction-related thermal processes. In Egypt, most of vein-type and dyke-type gold mineralization are restricted to granitic rocks or at least near of granitic intrusion that seems to have had an important influence on gold mineralization. Shear zone-related, mesothermal gold deposits of Fatira and Gidami mines in the northern Eastern Desert of Egypt are found within granitic bodies or at the contact between granites and metavolcanic rocks. The hosting-granitic rocks in Fatira and Gidami areas are mainly of granodioritic composition (I-Type granite) which is related to calc-alkaline magmatic series. However, Fatira granitoids were developed within island arc tectonic settings related to mature island arc system (Late-orogenic stage), at relatively low temperature (around 660° C) and medium pressure between (5 - 10 Kbar). On the other hand, Gidami granitoids were developed during the collision stage in continental arc regime related to active continental margin (Syn-orogeny), which were crystallized at relatively high temperature (700-720° C) and low pressure (around 0.1 Kbar). The ore mineralogy includes pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, covellite, ilmenite, goethite ± pyrrhotite ± pentlandite ± galena ± molybdenite. Native gold is detected only in Gidami mineralization as small inclusions within pyrite and goethite or as tiny grains scattered within quartz vein (in close proximity to the sulfides). In Fatira deposits, it is detected only by microprobe analysis within the crystal lattice of pyrite and jarosite. Fluid inclusions study for the mineralized ores revealed two main groups of fluid inclusions in both areas: A) Aqueous inclusions (H2O-NaCl±KCl system), and B) Carbonic inclusions (H2O-CO2-NaCl±CH4). A drop of pressure during the migration of these fluids to shallower depths along the shear zones was the main reason for phase separation. Isochores calculation from microthermometric results proved that, the P-T boundary conditions outlined for Fatira gold deposits are of 275° to 297° C and between (0.2 - 1.2 Kbar); and of 277° to 300° C and between (0.2 - 1 Kbar) for Gidami gold deposits. The normalization Chondrite patterns of rare earth elements (REEs) for the gold-ore deposits with the surrounding I-type granitic rocks exhibit an obvious similarity and positive correlation. The geological, mineralogical, geochemical and fluid inclusions studies revealed a genetic link between gold mineralization and intrusion of calc-alkaine granitic magma. Whereas, The granitic magma acts as a supplier for the ore-bearing fluid and as a heat source for metamorphic processes, leading to hydrothermal convection currents.

  4. Unusual lithospheric structure beneath the Hyderabad granitic region, eastern Dharwar craton, south India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, O. P.; Agrawal, P. K.; Chetty, T. R. K.

    2002-03-01

    Using multiparametric geological and geophysical data, the evolutionary history of the lithosphere beneath the Late Archean—early Proterozoic Hyderabad granitic region (HGR) of the eastern Dharwar craton of south Indian shield has been attempted. Our study reveals that the entire granitic region and the surroundings (˜200 km×200 km) is being neotectonically uplifted possibly due to a major intrusive body situated at sub-crustal depth, leading to changes in river courses and also erosion of several kilometers (˜10 km) from its upper crustal column. Beneath this region, the Moho is elevated (32-33 km), the reduced heat flow is of the order of 28 mW/m 2 and the asthenosphere is located at shallow depths of about 124 km, i.e. far less than 200-400 km depth found in Precambrian shield areas of the globe. The cratonic mantle lithosphere beneath HGR contains a highly conductive (15 ?m) hydrous and seismically anisotropic metasomatic zone between depth of 90 and 100 km, where the estimated temperatures could be in the range of 900-1000 °C. The surface granitic layer, containing unusually high radioactivity (5.25 ?W/m 3), appears very thin probably a kilometer or so, beneath which the entire crustal column seems to be differentiated and made up of low radioactive granulite facies (?) rocks of acid to intermediate composition. Persistent episodic thermal reactivations during the last 2.6 gega years and continuous uplifting seems to have played a major role towards making its crustal column unusual.

  5. Geochronological (Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd) studies on intrusive gabbro and dolerite dykes from parts of Northern and Central Indian cratons: implications for the age of onset of sedimentation in Bijawar and Chattisgarh basins and uranium mineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dargawan gabbros intrusive into the Moli Subgroup of Bijawar Group, yielded Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of 1967 ± 140 Ma. Based on the oldest age from overlying Lower Vindhyan (1.6 Ga) and the underlying youngest basement ages (2.2 Ga), the time range of Bijawar sedimentation may be assigned as 2.1-1.6 Ga (Paleoproterozoic). Sm-Nd Model ages (TDM), obtained, for Dargawan gabbros, is c. 2876-3145 Ma. High initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70451 (higher than the contemporary mantle) and negative ?Ndi (at 1.9 Ga) value of -1.5 to - 4.5, indicate assimilation of Archaean lower crustal component by the enriched mantle source magma at the time of gabbroic intrusion. The dolerite, from Damdama area, which is intrusive into the basement and overlying sediments of Chandrapur Group in the central Indian craton, yielded Rb-Sr internal isochron age of 1641 ± 120 Ma. The high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7098 and ?Ndi value of -3.5 to -3.7 (at 1.6 Ga) is due to contamination of the mantle source magma with the overlying sediments. These dolerites have younger Sm-Nd Model ages (TDM) than Dargawan gabbros as c. 2462-2675 Ma, which is similar to the age of the Sambalpur granite, from which probably sediments to this part of Chattisgarh basin are derived. Hence mixing of sediments with the Damdama dyke during its emplacement, gives rise to high initial 87Sr/86Sr and low initial 143Nd/144 ratios for these dykes. The c. 1600 Ma age indicates minimum age of onset of the sedimentation in the Chandrapur Group of Chattisgarh basin. Both the above mafic intrusions might have taken place in an intracratonic rift related (anorogenic) tectonic setting. This study is the first reliable age report on the onset of sedimentation in the Chandrapur Group. The total minimum time span of Chandrapur and Raipur Group may be 1.6 Ga to 1.0 Ga (Mesoproterozoic). The unconformably underlying Shingora Group of rocks of Chattisgarh Supergroup thus indicates Paleoproterozoic age (older than 1.6 Ga). Most part of the recently classified Chattisgarh Supergroup and Bijawar-Vindhyan sequence are of Mesoproterozoic-Paleoproterozoic age and not of Neoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic age as considered earlier. Petrographic study of basic dykes from Damdama area (eastern margin of Chattisgarh Supergroup) indicated presence of primary uranium mineral brannerite associated with goethite. This is the evidence of mafic intrusive providing geotherm and helping in scavenging the uranium from the surrounding and later alterations causing remobilisation and reconcentration of pre-existing uranium in host rocks as well as in mafic dyke itself otherwise mafic rocks are poor source of uranium and can not have primary uranium minerals initially. It can be concluded that mafic dykes have role in uranium mineralisation although indirectly. (author)

  6. The Paleoproterozoic Nattanen-type granites in northern Finland and vicinity – a postcollisional oxidized A-type suite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esa Heilimo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The ~1.8 Ga Nattanen-type granites in the Finnish Lapland and western Kola Peninsula are found as several relatively small, high-level, discordant plutons that are easily discernible as weak maxima on aeromagnetic maps. We present U–Pb mineral isotope data on the Finnishplutons. The concordia ages are in the 1.79?1.77 Ga range and there is little evidence for inheritance. Initial radiogenic isotope compositions (our common-Pb data combined with previously published whole-rock Nd and Hf data imply a major, yet varying, Archeansource component. Elemental geochemical data on five Finnish intrusions (the Nattanen stock, the Tepasto and Pomovaara complexes, the Riestovaara and Vainospää batholiths, as well as associated dyke rocks allow the Nattanen-type granites to be classified as oxidizedA-type granites. Their petrogenesis may be related to partial melting of the lower crust by mafic underplating (extensional setting or as a result of thermal relaxation in thickened crustal setting.

  7. Natural radioactivity of granites used as building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen kinds of different granites, used as building materials, imported to Greece mainly from Spain and Brazil, were sampled and their natural radioactivity was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 4K of granites are presented and compared to those of other building materials as well as other granite types used all over the world. In order to assess the radiological impact from the granites investigated, the absorbed and the effective doses were determined. Although the annual effective dose is higher than the limit of 1 mSv y-1 for some studied granites, they could be used safely as building materials, considering that their contribution in most of the house constructions is very low. An attempt to correlate the relatively high level of natural radioactivity, shown by some of the granites, with their constituent radioactive minerals and their chemical composition, was also made

  8. Intrusion detection using secure signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Trent Darnel; Haile, Jedediah

    2014-09-30

    A method and device for intrusion detection using secure signatures comprising capturing network data. A search hash value, value employing at least one one-way function, is generated from the captured network data using a first hash function. The presence of a search hash value match in a secure signature table comprising search hash values and an encrypted rule is determined. After determining a search hash value match, a decryption key is generated from the captured network data using a second hash function, a hash function different form the first hash function. One or more of the encrypted rules of the secure signatures table having a hash value equal to the generated search hash value are then decrypted using the generated decryption key. The one or more decrypted secure signature rules are then processed for a match and one or more user notifications are deployed if a match is identified.

  9. Cognitive Control and Lexical Access in Younger and Older Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus; Luk, Gigi

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-six participants, who were younger (20 years) or older (68 years) adults and either monolingual or bilingual, completed tasks assessing working memory, lexical retrieval, and executive control. Younger participants performed most of the tasks better than older participants, confirming the effect of aging on these processes. The effect of…

  10. A deep geoelectric survey of the Carnmenellis granite

    OpenAIRE

    Beamish, D.

    1990-01-01

    A magnetotelluric survey across the Carnmenellis granite, part of the Cornubian batholith of SW England, is described. The granite is being investigated with reference to the extraction of Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy. The sounding data are found to be influenced by near-surface static distortion which can be minimized by the construction of a granite-average sounding tensor. The anisotropy in the average tensor can be attributed to the spatial form of the granite. This is verified by 2-D m...

  11. Portuguese granites associated with Sn-W and Au mineralizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M.R. Neiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In northern and central Portugal, there are different tin-bearing granites. Most of them are of S-type, others have mixed characteristics of I-type and S-type granites and a few are of I-type. Tin-tungsten deposits are commonly associated with Hercynian tin-bearing S-type granites. Some quartz veins with wolframite are associated with an I-type granite, which has a low Sn content. In suites of tin-bearing S-type granitic rocks, Sn content increases as a function of the degree of fractional crystallization. Greisenizations of two-mica S-type granites associated with tin-tungsten mineralizations are accompanied by an increase in SiO2, H2O+, Sn, W, Nb, Ta, Rb, Zn, and Pb and decrease in MgO, Na2O, V, Sc,Zr, and Sr. The granite associated with the Jales gold deposit is of S-type and strongly differentiated like the tin-bearing S-type granites, but it has a very low Sn content. During fractional crystallization, Si, Rb, Sn, Pb, Au, As, Sb, and S increase. During increasing degree of hydrothermal alteration of this granite at the gold-quartz vein walls, there are progressive increases in K2O, H2O+, Sn, Cs, Cu, Pb, Au, Sb, As, and S.

  12. Innovative Method for Saltwater Intrusion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Payal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt water intrusion is the migration of saltwater into freshwater aquifers under the influence of groundwater development (Freeze and Cherry, 1979. The most detrimental effect that ground water depletion causes lowering of water table. Another problem due to saltwater intrusion is changing saltwater freshwater interface. Methods for controlling intrusion vary widely depending on the source of the saline water, the extent of intrusion, local geology, water use and economic factors. The proposed methodology to control saltwater intrusion is (ADR Abstraction, Desalination and Recharge. The proposed methodology interplays between the major parameters of the system to control saltwater intrusion. These parameters include the soil/aquifer properties, the well locations, the well depths, the rates and the relation between the abstraction and recharge rates which depends on the recovery rate and the salinity degree. It is capable of completely preventing saltwater intrusion because it increases the volume of fresh groundwater and decreases the volume of saltwater, while considering economical aspects, environmental impact and sustainable development of water resources.

  13. High temperature hydrothermal fibrolite in «El Payo Granite», Cadalso-Casillas de Flores granitic complex (Salamanca-Caceres, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Mohamud, A.; Casquet Martín, César; Pérez Del Villar, L.; Cozar, J.; Pellicer Bautista, María José

    2002-01-01

    Subsolidus replacements of fibrolite after biotite, muscovite, andalusite and feldspars have been recognized in El Payo granite near the contact with the more evolved Casillas granite. Both granites form part of the late-Variscan Cadalso-Casillas de Flores plutonic massif. Replacements follow microfractures and grain boundaries and are associated with fibrolite-quartz and less commonly fibrolite-tourmaline intergrowths. The limits of the altered zone are imprecise but the latter seems to be a...

  14. Advanced technologies for perimeter intrusion detection sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.D.

    1995-03-01

    The development of integrated circuit fabrication techniques and the resulting devices have contributed more to the advancement of exterior intrusion detectors and alarm assessment devices than any other technology. The availability of this technology has led to the improvements in and further development of smaller more powerful computers, microprocessors, solid state memories, solid state cameras, thermal imagers, low-power lasers, and shorter pulse width and higher frequency electronic circuitry. This paper presents information on planning a perimeter intrusion detection system, identifies the site characteristics that affect its performance, and describes improvements to perimeter intrusion detection sensors and assessment devices that have been achieved by using integrated circuit technology.

  15. Simulation of bentonite colloid migration through granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Colloidal bentonite particles generate at the interface of buffer and host rock in spent nuclear fuel repository due to an erosion process and migrate through granite by the water flow. Stability of these colloids and their migration possibilities have been studied on account of radionuclide transport possibility as colloid could carry adsorbed radionuclides in groundwater through granite. That is why a simulation of bentonite colloid migration in the surrounding of a repository might be requested. According to chemical condition as ionic strength and pH, the colloidal particles coagulate into clusters and that influence the migration of particles. The coagulation kinetics of natural bentonite colloids were experimentally studied in many articles, for example by light scattering techniques. We created a model of coagulation of bentonite colloids and simulation of a chosen experiment with use of the multicomponent reactive transport equation. The coagulation model describes clustering of particles due to attractive van der Waals forces as result of collision of particles due to heat fluctuation and different velocity of particles during sedimentation and velocity gradient of water flow. Next, the model includes influence of repulsive electrostatic forces among colloidal particles leading to stability of particles provided high surface charge of colloids. In the model, each group of clusters is transported as one solution component and the kinetics of coagulation are implemented as reactions between the components: a shift of particles among groups of particles with similar migration properties, according to size of the clusters of colloids. The simulation of migration of bentonite colloid through granite using the coagulation model was calibrated according to experiment results. On the basis of the simulation, one can estimate the basic processes that occur during bentonite colloid migration. That could be useful for prediction of spent nuclear fuel repository safety with the help of model of bentonite colloid behavior during migration. (authors)

  16. Characterization of Climax granite ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Climax ground water fails to match the commonly held views regarding the nature of deep granitic ground waters. It is neither dilute nor in equilibrium with the granite. Ground-water samples were taken for chemical analysis from five sites in the fractured Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The waters are high in total dissolved solids (1200 to 2160 mg/L) and rich in sodium (56 to 250 mg/L), calcium (114 to 283 mg/L) and sulfate (325 to 1060 mg/L). Two of the samples contained relatively high amounts of uranium (1.8 and 18.5 mg/L), whereas the other three contained uranium below the level of detection (< 0.1 mg/L). The pH is in the neutral range (7.3 to 8.2). The differences in composition between samples (as seen in the wide range of values for the major constituents and total dissolved solids) suggest the samples came from different, independent fracture systems. However, the apparent trend of increasing sodium with depth at the expense of calcium and magnesium suggests a common evolutionary chemical process, if not an interconnected system. The waters appear to be less oxidizing with depth (+ 410 mV at 420 m below the surface vs + 86 mV at 565 m). However, with Eh measurements on only two samples, this correlation is questionable. Isotopic analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and that the source of the sulfate is probably the pyrite in the fracture-fill material. Analysis of the measured water characteristics using the chemical equilibrium computer program EQ3 indicates that the waters are not in equilibrium with the local mineral assemblage. The solutions appear to be supersaturated with respect to the mineral calcite, quartz, kaolinite, muscovite, k-feldspar, and many others

  17. Characterization of Climax granite ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, D.; Harrar, J.; Raber, E.

    1982-08-01

    The Climax ground water fails to match the commonly held views regarding the nature of deep granitic ground waters. It is neither dilute nor in equilibrium with the granite. Ground-water samples were taken for chemical analysis from five sites in the fractured Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The waters are high in total dissolved solids (1200 to 2160 mg/L) and rich in sodium (56 to 250 mg/L), calcium (114 to 283 mg/L) and sulfate (325 to 1060 mg/L). Two of the samples contained relatively high amounts of uranium (1.8 and 18.5 mg/L), whereas the other three contained uranium below the level of detection (< 0.1 mg/L). The pH is in the neutral range (7.3 to 8.2). The differences in composition between samples (as seen in the wide range of values for the major constituents and total dissolved solids) suggest the samples came from different, independent fracture systems. However, the apparent trend of increasing sodium with depth at the expense of calcium and magnesium suggests a common evolutionary chemical process, if not an interconnected system. The waters appear to be less oxidizing with depth (+ 410 mV at 420 m below the surface vs + 86 mV at 565 m). However, with Eh measurements on only two samples, this correlation is questionable. Isotopic analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and that the source of the sulfate is probably the pyrite in the fracture-fill material. Analysis of the measured water characteristics using the chemical equilibrium computer program EQ3 indicates that the waters are not in equilibrium with the local mineral assemblage. The solutions appear to be supersaturated with respect to the mineral calcite, quartz, kaolinite, muscovite, k-feldspar, and many others.

  18. The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis: A requiem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Nicholas; Scott, Andrew C.; Daulton, Tyrone L.; Podoll, Andrew; Koeberl, Christian; Anderson, R. Scott; Ishman, Scott E.

    2011-06-01

    The Younger Dryas (YD) impact hypothesis is a recent theory that suggests that a cometary or meteoritic body or bodies hit and/or exploded over North America 12,900 years ago, causing the YD climate episode, extinction of Pleistocene megafauna, demise of the Clovis archeological culture, and a range of other effects. Since gaining widespread attention in 2007, substantial research has focused on testing the 12 main signatures presented as evidence of a catastrophic extraterrestrial event 12,900 years ago. Here we present a review of the impact hypothesis, including its evolution and current variants, and of efforts to test and corroborate the hypothesis. The physical evidence interpreted as signatures of an impact event can be separated into two groups. The first group consists of evidence that has been largely rejected by the scientific community and is no longer in widespread discussion, including: particle tracks in archeological chert; magnetic nodules in Pleistocene bones; impact origin of the Carolina Bays; and elevated concentrations of radioactivity, iridium, and fullerenes enriched in 3He. The second group consists of evidence that has been active in recent research and discussions: carbon spheres and elongates, magnetic grains and magnetic spherules, byproducts of catastrophic wildfire, and nanodiamonds. Over time, however, these signatures have also seen contrary evidence rather than support. Recent studies have shown that carbon spheres and elongates do not represent extraterrestrial carbon nor impact-induced megafires, but are indistinguishable from fungal sclerotia and arthropod fecal material that are a small but common component of many terrestrial deposits. Magnetic grains and spherules are heterogeneously distributed in sediments, but reported measurements of unique peaks in concentrations at the YD onset have yet to be reproduced. The magnetic grains are certainly just iron-rich detrital grains, whereas reported YD magnetic spherules are consistent with the diffuse, non-catastrophic input of micrometeorite ablation fallout, probably augmented by anthropogenic and other terrestrial spherular grains. Results here also show considerable subjectivity in the reported sampling methods that may explain the purported YD spherule concentration peaks. Fire is a pervasive earth-surface process, and reanalyses of the original YD sites and of coeval records show episodic fire on the landscape through the latest Pleistocene, with no unique fire event at the onset of the YD. Lastly, with YD impact proponents increasingly retreating to nanodiamonds (cubic, hexagonal [lonsdaleite], and the proposed n-diamond) as evidence of impact, those data have been called into question. The presence of lonsdaleite was reported as proof of impact-related shock processes, but the evidence presented was inconsistent with lonsdaleite and consistent instead with polycrystalline aggregates of graphene and graphane mixtures that are ubiquitous in carbon forms isolated from sediments ranging from modern to pre-YD age. Important questions remain regarding the origins and distribution of other diamond forms (e.g., cubic nanodiamonds). In summary, none of the original YD impact signatures have been subsequently corroborated by independent tests. Of the 12 original lines of evidence, seven have so far proven to be non-reproducible. The remaining signatures instead seem to represent either (1) non-catastrophic mechanisms, and/or (2) terrestrial rather than extraterrestrial or impact-related sources. In all of these cases, sparse but ubiquitous materials seem to have been misreported and misinterpreted as singular peaks at the onset of the YD. Throughout the arc of this hypothesis, recognized and expected impact markers were not found, leading to proposed YD impactors and impact processes that were novel, self-contradictory, rapidly changing, and sometimes defying the laws of physics. The YD impact hypothesis provides a cautionary tale for researchers, the scientific community, the press, and the broader public.

  19. Thermoluminescence of the mineral components in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoluminescence (TL) of the minerals in Climax Stock (Nevada, USA) granite has been studied. The principal mineral constituents are plagioclase, quartz, potassium fledspar and biotite. Pyrite, sphene, apatite and zirconium occur at one percent or less. All exhibit TL except biotite. The TL kinetics were determined for plabgioclase, quartz, potassium feldspar and pyrite. Plagioclase and potassium feldspar exhibit second order and pyrite first order kinetics. Natural TL of quartz follows second order and artificial TL first order kinetics. However, unrealistic kinetic parameters are often obtained for these four minerals; thus more general kinetics, e.g. interactive kinetics, may apply. (autor)

  20. Thermoluminescence of the mineral components in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoluminescence (TL) of the minerals in Climax Stock (Nevada, USA) granite has been studied. The principal mineral constituents are plagioclase, quartz, potassium feldspar and biotite. Pyrite, sphene apatite and zircon occur at one percent or less. All exhibit TL except biotite. The TL kinetics were determined for plagioclase, quartz, potassium feldspar and pyrite. Plagioclase and potassium feldspar exhibit second order and pyrite first orker kinetics. Natural TL of quartz follows second order and artificial TL first order kinetics. However, in these four minerals unrealistic kinetic parameters are often obtained; thus more general kinetics, e.g. interactive kinetics, may apply. 8 figures

  1. Les granites varisques du Massif Armoricain

    OpenAIRE

    Capdevila, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Un important magmatisme intrusif a affecté le massif armoricain entre la fin du Dévonien et le début du Permien. Ce plutonisme a été décrit dans le passé sur la base de différents critères. Nous le présentons ici pour la première fois sur la seule base pétro-géochimique. Ce seul critère permet de mettre en évidence 5 associations plutoniques de nature et d'origine différentes. 1) Une association calco-alcaline allant des gabbros aux granites à biotite et hornblende, de composition orogénique,...

  2. Deep fracturation of granitic rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This documentary study realized with the financial support of the European Communities and the CEA aims at the utilization of available data for the understanding of the evolution of natural fractures in granitic rocks from the surface to deep underground, in various feasibility studies dealing with radioactive wastes disposal. The Mont Blanc road tunnel, the EDF Arc-Isere gallerie, the Auriat deep borehole and the Pyrenean rock mass of Bassies are studied. In this study are more particularly analyzed the relationship between small fractures and large faults, evolution with depth of fracture density and direction, consequences of rock decompression and relationship between fracturation and groundwater

  3. Characterization of mechanical damage in granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Phong Luong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to illustrate the use of infrared thermography as a non-destructive and non-contact technique to observe the phenomenological manifestation of damage in granite under unconfined compression. It allows records and observations in real time of heat patterns produced by the dissipation of energy generated by plasticity. The experimental results show that this technique, which couples mechanical and thermal energy, can be used for illustrating the onset of damage mechanism by stress concentration in weakness zones.

  4. GRANITE- A steroscopic imaging Chernkov telescope system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A second 10 meter class imaging telescope was constructed on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, the site of the original 10 meter Whipple Cherenkov telescope. The twin telescope system with a 140 meter base line will allow both a reduction in the energy threshold and an improvement in the rejection of the hardonic background. The new telescope started operation in December 1991. With the final completion of the first installation stage (GRANITE I) during spring 92, it is now operating simultaneously with the orginal reflector. We describe in this paper design and construction of the new instrument and demonstrate the capability of the experiment to record coincident events

  5. Geochemistry of granitic aplite-pegmatite sills and petrogenetic links with granites, Guarda-Belmonte area, central Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Neiva, Ana Margarida R.; Ramos, João Farinha

    2010-01-01

    Granitic amblygonite-subtype and lepidolite-subtype, aplite-pegmatite sills intruded a biotite>muscovite granite (G1). Two other biotite>muscovite granites (G2 and G3) and a muscovite>biotite granite (G4) crop out in the area. Variation diagrams for major and trace elements of the Variscan rocks show fractionation trends for a) G1 and G4; b) G2, G3 and aplite-pegmatite sills. The two series are confirmed by the two trends defined by major elements of primary muscovite. The sills also contain ...

  6. Geology and U-Pb geochronology of the Banabuiu granite, Northeastern Ceara, Brazil; Geologia y geocronologia U-Pb del granito de Banabuiu, Noreste de Ceara, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, M. N.; Nogueira Neto, J. A.; Azevedo, M. R.; Valle Aguado,

    2010-07-01

    The Banabuiu massif crops out in the Central Ceara Domain (DCC) of the Borborema Province (NE Brasil), as an N-S elongate granite intrusion, concordant with the regional structures. It was emplaced into basement rocks of Paleoproterozoic age, extensively transformed into gneisses and migmatites during the Brasilian orogeny ({approx}600 Ma). Using U-Pb zircon dating, the crystallization age of the Banabuiu syn-kinematic two-mica granite was estimated at 578.6 {+-} 6.5 Ma. The granite is strongly peraluminous (A/CNK 1,098 - 1,134) and shows a typical S-type geochemical signature. The {epsilon}Nd{sub 5}80 values are strongly negative ({epsilon}Nd{sub 5}80 = -19 a - 23) and partially overlap with those of the Paleoproterozoic gneissmigmatite complex ({epsilon}Nd{sub 5}80 = -12 to -26), suggesting that the parental magmas of the Banabuiu granite could have been produced by partial melting of similar crustal materials. (Author) 21 refs.

  7. Transition from oceanic to continental lithosphere subduction in southern Tibet: Evidence from the Late Cretaceous-Early Oligocene (~ 91-30 Ma) intrusive rocks in the Chanang-Zedong area, southern Gangdese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zi-Qi; Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Yang, Jin-Hui; Shi, Xiao-Bing; Ma, Lin; Tang, Gong-Jian; Gou, Guo-Ning; Jia, Xiao-Hui; Guo, Hai-Feng

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the detailed processes associated with the transition from oceanic to continental lithosphere subduction in the Gangdese Belt of southern Tibet (GBST). Here, we report zircon U-Pb age, major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data for Late Cretaceous-Early Oligocene (~ 91-30 Ma) intermediate-acid intrusive rocks in the Chanang-Zedong area immediately north of the Yarlung-Tsangpo suture zone. These rocks represent five magmatic episodes at ~ 91, ~ 77, ~ 62, ~ 48, and ~ 30 Ma, respectively. The 91-48 Ma rocks have slightly lower initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7037 to 0.7047), and higher ?Nd(t) (+ 1.8 to + 4.3) and ?Hf(t) (+ 3.5 to + 14.7) values in comparison with those (0.7057 to 0.7062, - 3.3 to - 2.5 and + 2.2 to + 6.6) of the ~ 30 Ma intrusive rocks. The ~ 91, ~ 62 and ~ 30 Ma rocks are geochemically similar to slab-derived adakites. The ~ 91 Ma Somka adakitic granodiorites were likely derived by partial melting of the subducting Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust with minor oceanic sediments, and the ~ 91 Ma Somka dioritic rocks with a geochemical affinity of adakitic magnesian andesites likely resulted from interactions between adakitic magmas and overlying mantle wedge peridotite. The ~ 77 Ma Luomu diorites were probably generated by partial melting of juvenile basaltic lower crust. The ~ 62 Ma Naika and Zedong adakitic diorites and granodiorites were likely generated mainly by partial melting of thickened juvenile mafic lower crust but the source region of the Zedong adakitic rocks also contained enriched components corresponding to Indian continental crust. The ~ 48 Ma Lamda granites were possibly generated by melting of a juvenile basaltic crust. The younger (~ 30 Ma) Chongmuda adakitic quartz monzonites and minor granodiorites were most probably derived by partial melting of Early Oligocene northward-subducted Indian lower crust beneath the southern Lhasa Block. Taking into account the regional tectonic and magmatic data, we suggest that the Gangdese Belt of southern Tibet (GBST) underwent a tectonodynamic transition from oceanic subduction to continental subduction between 100 and 30 Ma. It evolved through four stages: 100-65 Ma roll-back of subducted Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere; 65-60 Ma initial collision between Indian and Asian continents; 60-40 Ma breakoff of subducted Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere; and ~ 30 Ma northward subduction of the Indian continent.

  8. Sm/Nd and whole rock geochemistry characterization of the Serra Branca granite: evidence of Archean crust in the Pajeu Paraiba fold belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents and discusses the geochemical and Samarium-Neodymium (SM/Nd) isotopic data for the Serra Branca granite. The Serra Branca granite constitutes one among several brasiliano (=Pan African) intrusions of the transversal zone of the Borborema Tectonica Province, northeastern of Brazil. It is intruded into gneisses and migmatites from the Alto Pajeu Terrain (TAP). The Alto Pajeu Terrain comprises mainly metasediments with minor volcanic contributions and the brasiliano magmatism is restrict to the TAP. After presenting the geological and petrographical considerations, the study shows the Sm-Nd data and concludes that the geochemical and Sm-Nd isotopic signatures of the Serra Branca complex point to a magma generation in the contact zone between an Archean and a Tranzamazonian crust, during decompression, which followed the Brasiliano collisional event

  9. Intrusion Detection System Using Advanced Honeypots

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ram Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The exponential growth of Internet traffic has made public servers increasingly vulnerable to unauthorized accesses and intrusions. In addition to maintaining low latency for the client, filtering unauthorized accesses has become one of the major concerns of a server maintainer. This implementation of an Intrusion Detection System distinguishes between the traffic coming from clients and the traffic originated from the attackers, in an attempt to simultaneously mitigate the problems of both latency and security. We then present the results of a series of stress and scalability tests, and suggest a number of potential uses for such a system. As computer attacks are becoming more and more difficult to identify the need for better and more efficient intrusion detection systems increases. The main problem with current intrusion detection systems is high rate of false alarms. Using honeypots provides effective solution to increase the security.

  10. Prevention and analysis of hacker's intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author analyzes the behavior characteristics and relevant technologies about the hacker's intrusion, and gives some corresponding solutions pertinently. To the recent events about hackers, the author gives detailed introduction and puts forward the relevant advice and valuable consideration

  11. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  12. Petrogenesis of Tin-bearing Granites from Ervedosa, Northern Portugal: The Importance of Magmatic Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, M.E.P.; Neiva, A.M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Three Hercynian highly peraluminous tin-bearing granites define a sequence ranging from muscovite-biotite granite to muscovite granite. Tin-bearing quartz veins are genetically related to this sequence. Variation diagrams of most major and trace elements of granites, biotite and muscovite show fractionation trends. Least squares analysis of major elements and modelling of trace elements indicate that the muscovite-biotite granite M2 and the muscovite granite M3 were derived from the slightly ...

  13. The 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue is to inform the French authorities, associations and population about the project of construction of an underground laboratory for the study of the disposal of high level and long-life radioactive wastes in a granitic environment. The aim of the dialogue was not to select a site but to collect the public reactions and advices about such a project. However, such a dialogue has partially failed because of a misunderstanding of the population about the aims of the mission. However, the mission has collected many point of views and questions which are developed in this report. The first and second chapters recall the process of the mission and its progress, while a third chapter stresses on the questions asked by the public and which concern the fear of nuclear wastes and the incompatibility between the disposal of wastes and the socio-economical development of the region concerned. Thanks to the lessons drawn from this experience, the mission has formulated some recommendations (chapter 4) concerning the need for a better information of the population about any topic in relation with the radioactive wastes. Some complementary information is provided in appendixes. (J.S.)

  14. Warren Hunt to test granite well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various theories which purport to explain the existence of the Alberta oil sands, were discussed briefly. One theory, held among others by Warren Hunt, speculates that oil is formed deep in the Precambrian basement and not in the higher sedimentary rock. According to this theory, methane in the crust is the abiogenic product that results from hydrogen reacting with silicon carbide in the lower mantle. As it rises through the fractures, it encounters the microbiota, and hydrogen is stripped away making larger molecules until only bitumen remains. Hunt and other adherents of this theory believe that hydrocarbon reservoirs are replenished as oil is produced, hence there is no end to the world's oil supply. This theory is about to be tested by retesting a granite well near Fort McMurray, which was suspended in September 1994, when funding dried up. Kaleeda Enterprises, owners of the well, believe that the well bottom is currently in a granite pool, and oil will be found by deepening the well to 2,150 metres from the current 1,650 metres. While this is not universally accepted, if true, the abiogenic theory would go a long way towards explaining the origin of the oil sands

  15. Extracting uranium from a Wyoming granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bureau of Mines is examining a variety of low-grade uranium ores because projections indicate that an appreciable percentage of future U.S. uranium production will be derived from resources containing 0.01 to 0.1 percent U3O8. One possible source is represented by a granitic material from Wyoming; the available samples contained 0.06 and 0.12 percent U3O8. Tests were conducted to explore the general leaching characteristics of this potential resource. The material responded to both acidic and alkaline leaching techniques. Conventional acid leaching extracted 93 percent of the uranium in 18 hours; the required acid addition was 50 to 100 pounds of H2SO4 per ton of ore, and the oxidant addition was 3 pounds of NaClO3 per ton of ore. The acid consumption continues after maximum uranium recovery has been reached; this effect may complicate heap or in situ leaching with acidic solutions. Some variation in reagent requirements was noted between the two ore samples. Conventional carbonate leaching with strong solutions at 850C extracted 94 percent of the uranium in 24 hours. These granitic materials also showed some response to dilute carbonate solutions, and the results suggest that the material may be chemically amenable to heap or in situ leaching with dilute carbonate solutions

  16. Warren Hunt to test granite well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvie, W.

    1996-07-08

    Various theories which purport to explain the existence of the Alberta oil sands, were discussed briefly. One theory, held among others by Warren Hunt, speculates that oil is formed deep in the Precambrian basement and not in the higher sedimentary rock. According to this theory, methane in the crust is the abiogenic product that results from hydrogen reacting with silicon carbide in the lower mantle. As it rises through the fractures, it encounters the microbiota, and hydrogen is stripped away making larger molecules until only bitumen remains. Hunt and other adherents of this theory believe that hydrocarbon reservoirs are replenished as oil is produced, hence there is no end to the world`s oil supply. This theory is about to be tested by retesting a granite well near Fort McMurray, which was suspended in September 1994, when funding dried up. Kaleeda Enterprises, owners of the well, believe that the well bottom is currently in a granite pool, and oil will be found by deepening the well to 2,150 metres from the current 1,650 metres. While this is not universally accepted, if true, the abiogenic theory would go a long way towards explaining the origin of the oil sands.

  17. Using Commodity Coprocessors for Host Intrusion Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Seger, Mark M.

    2012-01-01

    The ever-rising importance of communication services and devices emphasizes the significance of intrusion detection. Besides general network attacks, private hosts in particular are within the focus of cyber criminals. Private data theft and the integration of individual hosts into large-scale botnets are two common purposes successfully subverted systems are used for. In order to detect any attack, intrusion detection mechanisms need to probe the data in question. Therefore, the acquisition ...

  18. Intrusion Detection System Using Advanced Honeypots

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ram Kumar; Ramajujam, Prof. T.

    2009-01-01

    The exponential growth of Internet traffic has made public servers increasingly vulnerable to unauthorized accesses and intrusions. In addition to maintaining low latency for the client, filtering unauthorized accesses has become one of the major concerns of a server maintainer. This implementation of an Intrusion Detection System distinguishes between the traffic coming from clients and the traffic originated from the attackers, in an attempt to simultaneously mitigate the ...

  19. A Bayesian Networks in Intrusion Detection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi, M; S. Zair; A. Anou; M. Bensebti

    2007-01-01

    Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) have been widely used to overcome security threats in computer networks. Anomaly-based approaches have the advantage of being able to detect previously unknown attacks, but they suffer from the difficulty of building robust models of acceptable behaviour which may result in a large number of false alarms caused by incorrect classification of events in current systems. We propose a new approach of an anomaly Intrusion detection system (IDS). It consists of bu...

  20. [Intrusive care and the nursing approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécu, Anays Vaplet; Viltart, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    All caregivers who listen to patients will hear them tell their experience of the intrusive nature of care, whether it be basic, technical, educational or relational. The relational approach implemented by nurses enables them to identify organisational and behavioural methods which favour the establishment of a climate of trust. It helps them appropriate this interdisciplinary approach to caregiving, limiting as much as possible the intrusion felt by the patient during their hospital stay. PMID:26043629

  1. Data Reduction in Intrusion Alert Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Tedesco, Gianni; Aickelin, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Network intrusion detection sensors are usually built around low level models of network traffic. This means that their output is of a similarly low level and as a consequence, is difficult to analyze. Intrusion alert correlation is the task of automating some of this analysis by grouping related alerts together. Attack graphs provide an intuitive model for such analysis. Unfortunately alert flooding attacks can still cause a loss of service on sensors, and when performing a...

  2. Improving Intrusion Detection Using Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Muda; V. Moraveji Hashemi; W. Yassin

    2013-01-01

    Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is one of the key security components in today’s networking environment. A great deal of attention has been recently paid to anomaly detection to accomplish intrusion detection. However, a major problem with this approach is maximizing detection rate and accuracy, as well as minimizing false alarm i.e., inability to correctly discover particular types of attacks. To overcome this problem, a genetic algorithm approach is proposed. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is most...

  3. Network Intrusion Detection using Support Vector Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan Muthukumarasamy

    2011-01-01

    Data Mining is the use of algorithms to extract the information and patterns derived by the knowledge discovery in databases process. Classification maps data into predefined groups or classes. It is often referred to as supervised learning because the classes are determined before examining the data. This paper addresses using ensemble approach of Support Vector Regression for intrusion detection. Due to increasing incidents of cyber attacks, building effective intrusion detection systems (I...

  4. The Serra do Carambei Granite - PR and the uraniferous anomalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Serra do Carambei Granite forms a pluton relatively homogeneous, covering about 33 km2, cropping out as an elongate retangular body trending NE-SW, being emplaced in the Cunhaporanga Granitoid Complex. Its characteristics indicates a kind of hololeucocratic granite, equigranular, medium to coarse-grained, consisting predominantly of microperthitic alkali-feldspar, quartz and a small amount of biotite (less than 1%), thus being classified as an alaskite. Chemical data allows a classification in the group of granite with high contents of silica (74-76% Wt. SiO2), dominantly alkaline chemism and hypersolvus character, derived from a parental magma under saturated in water with distinguished features of granitoids from the magnetite series and types I and A granites. The pluton shows important chemical variations due to weathering processes. However detailed chemical studies reveal the presence of anomalous concentrations of trace elements such as U, Sn, Nb, Y, Zr, the Serra do Carambei Granite lacks economically important mineralizations because of the absence of well-developed tardi/pos-magmatic processes that could concentrate them. The SW side of the granite is cut by leucocratic rhyolite dykes that show some radiometric anomalies. These rocks, which are highly diferentiated, were emplaced contemporaneously to the Serra do Carambei Granite. Although petrographic and chronological similarities are found between the uraniferous alaskite of Roessing (Namibia) and the Serra do Carambei Granite anyhow it was not possible to establish any lateral continuity with the uranifeous Pan-African Province. (Author)

  5. Alpha intrusion on ovenight polysomnogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahapetian R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 30 year-old Army veteran with a past medical history significant for chronic lumbar back pain stemming from a fall-from-height injury sustained in 2006 was referred to the sleep laboratory for evaluation of chronic fatigue and excessive daytime hypersomnolence. His Epworth sleepiness scale score was 16. He denied a history of snoring and witnessed apnea. Body Mass Index (BMI was 25.7 kg/m2. His main sleep related complaints were frequent nocturnal arousals, poor sleep quality, un-refreshing sleep, prolonged latency to sleep onset, and nightmares. An In-lab attended diagnostic polysomnogram was performed. Sleep efficiency was reduced (73% and overall arousal index was not significantly elevated (3.2 events/hour. The sleep study showed rapid eye movement (REM related sleep disordered breathing that did not meet diagnostic criteria for sleep apnea. There was no evidence for period limb movement disorder. However, the study was significant for alpha wave intrusion in stage N2 non-REM and stage ...

  6. A Comprehensive Study in Data Mining Frameworks for Intrusion Detection

    OpenAIRE

    R.Venkatesan, R. Ganesan, A. Arul Lawrence Selvakumar

    2012-01-01

    Intrusions are the activities that violate the security policy of system. Intrusion Detection is the process used to identify intrusions. Network security is to be considered as a major issue in recent years, since the computer network keeps on expanding every day. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a system for detecting intrusions and reporting to the authority or to the network administration. Data mining techniques have been successfully applied in many fields like Network Management,...

  7. Dysfunctional meaning of posttraumatic intrusions in chronic PTSD.

    OpenAIRE

    Steil, R; Ehlers, A.

    2000-01-01

    The paper suggests that the negative idiosyncratic meaning of posttraumatic intrusions (e.g., 'I am going crazy') and cognitive strategies intended to control the intrusions play a major role in maintaining posttraumatic stress disorder. Two studies of 159 and 138 motor vehicle accidents survivors showed that the dysfunctional meaning of intrusions explained a proportion of the variance of the intrusion-related distress, strategies used to end the intrusions, and PTSD severity that was not ex...

  8. Multilayer Intrusion Detection System In Web Application Based Services

    OpenAIRE

    Narmadha.S; Deepak Lakshmi Narashima

    2013-01-01

    Web based services having a data transfer from different layer. Web services separate layer for the data transfer and the process is difficult in the service. Service transferring data is having intrusion from the user interaction in web based services to detect the intrusion in alert basis and detect the intrusion in both online and offline. In offline alert data previously having attack basis it can be rectified. The online alert system data having the intrusion collect the intrusion in buf...

  9. Network Intrusion Detection using Support Vector Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajan Muthukumarasamy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Data Mining is the use of algorithms to extract the information and patterns derived by the knowledge discovery in databases process. Classification maps data into predefined groups or classes. It is often referred to as supervised learning because the classes are determined before examining the data. This paper addresses using ensemble approach of Support Vector Regression for intrusion detection. Due to increasing incidents of cyber attacks, building effective intrusion detection systems (IDS are essential for protecting information systems security, and yet it remains an elusive goal and a great challenge. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approach are demonstrated by means of data mining problem: Network Intrusion Detection. Intrusion detection systems help network administrators prepare for and deal with network security attacks. These systems collect information from a variety of systems and network sources, and analyze them for signs of intrusion and misuse.  We show that proposed ensemble of Support Vector Regression is superior to individual approach for intrusion detection in terms of classification rate.

  10. Adsorption behavior of Am(III) on granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption behavior of Am(III) on granite (sampled from drilling well BS01 at Beishan (BS) area--a potential candidate site for China's high-level radioactive waste repository, the granite sample's depth about 300 m) was studied in BS03 well groundwater by a batch technique at (25±1) degree C. The influences of pH, sulphate ion, total carbonate ion, humic acid, and concentration of the Am(III) on the adsorption behavior were also studied, and the possible adsorption mechanism was discussed. Experimental results show that the adsorption distribution rate of Am(III) on granite increases with increasing pH of aqueous phase. The chemical composition of the groundwater is the main factor which influences the species of Am(III) and adsorption behavior. The adsorption mechanism of Am(III) on granite is surface complexation. The adsorption isotherm of Am(III) on granite can be described by Freundlich's equation. (authors)

  11. Geochronology of the Suomenniemi rapakivi granite complex revisited: Implications of point-specific errors on zircon U-Pb and refined ?87 on whole-rock Rb-Sr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rämö, O.T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-grain isotope dilution and secondary ion microprobe zircon U-Pb as well as wholerock Rb-Sr isotope dilution data on the late Paleoproterozoic Suomenniemi rapakivi granite complex (exposed on the northern flank of the Wiborg batholith in southeastern Finland are discussed in the light of point-specific errors on Pb/U and proposed new values of the decay constant of 87Rb, ?87. U-Pb zircon data on hornblende granite and biotite granite of the main metaluminous-marginally peraluminous granite fractionation series of the Suomenniemi batholith indicate crystallization in the 1644-1640 Ma range, with a preferred age at 1644±4 Ma. A cross-cutting hornblende-clinopyroxene-fayalite granite is probably slightly younger, as are quartz-feldspar porphyry dikes (1634±4 Ma that cut both the main granite series and the metamorphic Svecofennian country rocks of the Suomenniemi batholith. Recalculation of whole-rock Rb-Sr data published on the main granite series of the batholith by Rämö (1999 implies errorchron ages of 1635±10 Ma and 1630±10 Ma and a magmatic 87Sr/86Sri of 0.7062±0.0024. This relatively high initial ratio is indicative of a major Proterozoic crustal source component in the granites of the batholith. The main granite series of the batholith probably cooled relatively rapidly to and below the closure temperature of the Rb-Sr isotope system, with little subsequent subsolidus adjustment. The three discrete silicic magmatic phases of the batholith (the main granite series, the hornblende-clinopyroxene-fayalite granite, and the quartz-feldspar porphyry dikes were all probably emplaced before the main volume of rapakivi granite (the Wiborg batholith proper in southeastern Finland. The Suomenniemi batholith thus represents an early magmatic precursor to the classic Wiborg batholith and was emplaced clearly before the massive rise of isotherms associated with the ascent and crystallization of the magmas that formed the bulk of the Wiborg batholith system.

  12. The Phalaborwa Syenite Intrusions along the West-Central Boundary of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Frick

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The geology of the Phalaborwa Complex is described and emphasis placed on the distribution of the large number of syenite intrusions. The petrography of the different textural types of syenites is discussed and it is shown that porphyritic, granular, gneissic and hypidiomorphic syenites are present. The petrography shows that the deformation textures, which are present in some of the syenites, may have formed during the emplacement of syenitic magmas which contained a high concentration of crystals. The geochemistry of the syenites is discussed and it is shown that they were not derived from an alkali basaltic magma through fractional crystallisation, but that they may rather represent alkali basaltic magmas which were contaminated by granitic material. The mode of emplacement of the Phalaborwa Complex is discussed and the relationship between the pyroxenites is explained.

  13. Chemical characteristics of zircon from A-type granites and comparison to zircon of S-type granites.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Breiter, Karel; Lamarão, C. N.; Krás Borges, R. M.; Dall'Agnol, R.

    1192/195, April (2014), s. 208-225. ISSN 0024-4937 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : zircon * A-type granites * S-type granites * Wiborg batholith * Brazil * Krušné hory/Erzgebirge Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 4.482, year: 2014

  14. Tourmaline occurrences within the Penamacor-Monsanto granitic pluton and host-rocks (Central Portugal): genetic implications of crystal-chemical and isotopic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, I. Ribeiro; Mourão, C.; Récio, C.; Guimarães, F.; Antunes, I. M.; Ramos, J. Farinha; Barriga, F. J. A. S.; Palmer, M. R.; Milton, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    Tourmalinization associated with peraluminous granitic intrusions in metapelitic host-rocks has been widely recorded in the Iberian Peninsula, given the importance of tourmaline as a tracer of granite magma evolution and potential indicator of Sn-W mineralizations. In the Penamacor-Monsanto granite pluton (Central Eastern Portugal, Central Iberian Zone), tourmaline occurs: (1) as accessory phase in two-mica granitic rocks, muscovite-granites and aplites, (2) in quartz (±mica)-tourmaline rocks (tourmalinites) in several exocontact locations, and (3) as a rare detrital phase in contact zone hornfels and metapelitic host-rocks. Electron microprobe and stable isotope (?18O, ?D, ?11B) data provide clear distinctions between tourmaline populations from these different settings: (a) schorl-oxyschorl tourmalines from granitic rocks have variable foititic component (X? = 17-57 %) and Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratios (0.19-0.50 in two-mica granitic rocks, and 0.05-0.19 in the more differentiated muscovite-granite and aplites); granitic tourmalines have constant ?18O values (12.1 ± 0.1 ‰), with wider-ranging ?D (-78.2 ± 4.7 ‰) and ?11B (-10.7 to -9.0 ‰) values; (b) vein/breccia oxyschorl [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.31-0.44] results from late, B- and Fe-enriched magma-derived fluids and is characterized by ?18O = 12.4 ‰, ?D = -29.5 ‰, and ?11B = -9.3 ‰, while replacement tourmalines have more dravitic compositions [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.26-0.64], close to that of detrital tourmaline in the surrounding metapelitic rocks, and yield relatively constant ?18O values (13.1-13.3 ‰), though wider-ranging ?D (-58.5 to -36.5 ‰) and ?11B (-10.2 to -8.8 ‰) values; and (c) detrital tourmaline in contact rocks and regional host metasediments is mainly dravite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.35-0.78] and oxydravite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.51-0.58], respectively. Boron contents of the granitic rocks are low (Monsanto pluton, either as direct tourmaline precipitation in cavities and fractures crossing the pluton margin (vein/breccia tourmalinites), or as replacement of mafic minerals (chlorite or biotite) in the host-rocks (replacement tourmalinites) along the exocontact of the granite. Thermometry based on 18O equilibrium fractionation between tourmaline and fluid indicates that a late, B-enriched magmatic aqueous fluid (av. ?18O ~12.1 ‰, at ~600 °C) precipitated the vein/breccia tourmaline (?18O ~12.4 ‰) at ~500-550 °C, and later interacted with the cooler surrounding host-rocks to produce tourmaline at lower temperatures (400-450 °C), and an average ?18O ~13.2 ‰, closer to the values for the host-rock. Although B-metasomatism associated with some granitic plutons in the Iberian Peninsula seems to be relatively confined in space, extending integrated studies such as this to a larger number of granitic plutons may afford us a better understanding of Variscan magmatism and related mineralizations.

  15. Total exploitation of an ornamental granite quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taboada, J.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a methodology to estimate the recovery percentage for each of the products which can be obtained from the exploitation of an ornamental granite quarry: block, semiblock, masonry-transverse stone, and the smaller materials that can be used to obtain construction aggregates. This methodology ensures that quarry exploitation is exhaustive, thereby minimising the production of spoils and the consequent negative impact on the environment. The analysis is based on a detailed and exhaustive compilation of discontinuity data from the research fronts, which are then interpreted statistically and projected over the three weakness planes that are a particular feature of ornamental granite deposits. Using this information, and bearing in mind the minimum commercially viable sizes for each kind of granite, the corresponding recovery rates are calculated for each material in each plane. The results are then integrated using spatial techniques, and the result is an evaluation of quarry contents with a view to total exploitation. This methodology was applied to a quarry in the opening phase in order to carry out an a priori assessment of the economic feasibility of the quarry.

    En este trabajo se propone una metodología para estimar el porcentaje de recuperación de cada uno de los productos que se pueden obtener en la explotación de una cantera de granito ornamental: bloque, semibloque, manpostería y per piaños, y material restante destinado a la obtención de áridos. De esta manera se logra un aprovechamiento integral de la cantera, evitándose la generación de estériles y el subsiguiente impacto ambiental producido por éstos. La metodología de análisis se basa en la recopilación detallada y exhaustiva de datos de discontinuidades en los frentes de investigación, que se interpretan estadísticamente y se proyectan sobre los tres planos de debilidad propios del granito ornamental. Con esta información, y las dimensiones mínimas comerciales de referencia para cada tipo de material, se realiza el cálculo de las recuperaciones correspondientes de cada material en cada plano y los resultados de recuperación sobre estos tres planos se integran mediante técnicas espaciales; obteniéndose la evaluación de los recursos en la cantera para su aprovechamiento integral. La metodología ha sido aplicada a una cantera en fase de apertura para realizar una valoración inicial de su viabililidad económica.

  16. Chemistry of deep groundwaters from granitic bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water analysis data from Fjaellveden, Gideaa, Svartboberget and Kamlunge (7 different drilling holes, 26 sampling levels at vertical depths between 100 and 600 m) are discussed. Most of the waters are Na(sup)+ -Ca2(sup)+ -HCO3(sup)- -dominated with a total salt content of 200-300 mg/1 and pH of 8-9. Intrusions of Na(sup)+ -Cl(sup)- -dominated saline waters (up to 650 mg/1) are observed at great depth. The conditions are generally strongly reducing. The presence of clayish material (kaolinite, smectities) and zeolites in the fractures appears to have a large influence on the cation concentration ratios. The contents of organics, largely fulvic acids of intermediate molecular weight (180 and deuterium) indicate a non-marine origin of the water and only minor exchanges with the surroundings. The presence of tritium is evidence of intrusions of young waters in some of the samples, probably due to the disturbances during drilling and sampling. (author)

  17. Alkaline lixiviation of uranium in granitic pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work described herein concerns the determination of the experimental optimum conditions for the alkaline lixiviation of uranium based on the following parameters: time, pH, temperature, density and grane size. The samples were obtained from the Supamo complex, near the Currupia river in the Piar District of the Bolivar State in Venezuela. They have a granitic composition and graphitic texture. The uranium was found in them as a secondary oxidized mineral of green-yellow colour localized in fractures fissures, intergranular spaces and also in the mica as. Secondary uranitite. The lixiviation process was carried out using Na2CO3/NaHCO3 buffer solution and for 100 gr. samples the best values for an efficient process were found by using 170 mesh grane size and 500 ml of pH buffer at 700C for a 24 hour time period. (author)

  18. Expected repository environments in granite: thermal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared for the Reference Repository Conditions - Interface Working Group and will be used to formulate a standardized description of repository conditions for use by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. A baseline repository in granite is defined and three waste types are considered: unreprocessed spent fuel, commercial high-level waste, and defense high-level waste. Three different scales of repository environment are described - the very-near field (near the waste canister), the near field (the room and pillar), and the far field (the entire repository and surroundings). Information was compiled from the literature and, in addition, a number of calculations were performed. The major emphasis is on describing the thermal environment although the ground-water flow and chemical and radiation environments are also described. 61 figures, 24 tables

  19. Diffusion data in granite. Recommended values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion data for radionuclide transport in the porous matrix of rock are proposed for Swedish rock and ground waters, for performance assessment. Suggested data are based on an experimental diffusion study, where tritiated water was used as noninteracting diffusing species in stationary diffusion experiments in Aespoe fine grained granite and diorite. These data, for tritiated water, were used as reference in our study. For other species the effective diffusivities could be predicted from knowledge of the relative behaviour of these species to that of tritiated water. The behaviour is influenced by the difference in free water diffusivity and sometimes the existence of anion exclusion of surface diffusion. Apparent diffusivities are also calculated using sorption data, in addition to the effective diffusivities. Data are proposed for high saline and low saline ground water conditions

  20. Inclusões fluidas crepitadas, fluidos hipersalinos e aquo-carbônicos em quartzo associado a rochas micáceas no Granito Xinguara - Terreno Granito-Greenstone de Rio Maria, PA / Decrepitated fluid inclusions, aqueous-carbonic and hypersaline fluids in quartz associated to micaceous rocks in the Xinguara Granite - Rio Maria Granite - Greenstone terrain, Pará, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Leopoldo, Weber; Luiz Henrique, Ronchi; Fernando Jacques, Althoff; Albano Antônio da Silva, Leite; Roberto, Dall' Agnol; Kazuo, Fuzikawa.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As rochas micáceas encontradas no Granito Xinguara, terreno Granito-Greenstone de Rio Maria, Pará, são compostas por muscovita e clorita com níveis de quartzo intercalados, que formam uma xistosidade bem desenvolvida. Essa xistosidade é cortada por veios de quartzo. Ambas as gerações de quartzo apre [...] sentam os mesmos tipos de inclusões fluidas em halos ou trilhas secundárias de composições variadas entre aquosas, aquo-carbônicas e saturadas em torno de grandes inclusões primárias crepitadas ou em trilhas transgranulares secundárias. A grande variação de temperaturas de homogeneização, a alta salinidade, as evidências de estrangulamento e a existência das inclusões crepitadas permitem supor forte influência de alterações pós-formacionais e reequilíbrio relacionados à intrusão do granito. Essas rochas foliadas são, portanto, enclaves metassedimentares afetados por fluidos graníticos hipersalinos aquo-carbônicos. Abstract in english The micaceous rocks occurring in the Xinguara Granite, Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone terrain, Pará State, Brazil, are composed of muscovite and chlorite with quartz levels intercalated forming a well developed schistosity. This schistosity is cut by quartz veins. Both quartz generations show the same [...] aqueous, aqueous-carbonic and halite-bearing fluid inclusions either in secondary inclusions halos and trails surrounding decrepitated primary fluid inclusions or in transgranular secondary trails. A wide variation of homogenization temperatures, high salinity, necking down and the decrepitated inclusions existence indicates strong influence of post-formational alteration and reequilibration linked to the granite intrusion. These foliated rocks are metasedimentary enclaves affected by late hypersaline aqueous-carbonic granitic fluids.

  1. Inclusões fluidas crepitadas, fluidos hipersalinos e aquo-carbônicos em quartzo associado a rochas micáceas no Granito Xinguara - Terreno Granito-Greenstone de Rio Maria, PA Decrepitated fluid inclusions, aqueous-carbonic and hypersaline fluids in quartz associated to micaceous rocks in the Xinguara Granite - Rio Maria Granite - Greenstone terrain, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Leopoldo Weber

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As rochas micáceas encontradas no Granito Xinguara, terreno Granito-Greenstone de Rio Maria, Pará, são compostas por muscovita e clorita com níveis de quartzo intercalados, que formam uma xistosidade bem desenvolvida. Essa xistosidade é cortada por veios de quartzo. Ambas as gerações de quartzo apresentam os mesmos tipos de inclusões fluidas em halos ou trilhas secundárias de composições variadas entre aquosas, aquo-carbônicas e saturadas em torno de grandes inclusões primárias crepitadas ou em trilhas transgranulares secundárias. A grande variação de temperaturas de homogeneização, a alta salinidade, as evidências de estrangulamento e a existência das inclusões crepitadas permitem supor forte influência de alterações pós-formacionais e reequilíbrio relacionados à intrusão do granito. Essas rochas foliadas são, portanto, enclaves metassedimentares afetados por fluidos graníticos hipersalinos aquo-carbônicos.The micaceous rocks occurring in the Xinguara Granite, Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone terrain, Pará State, Brazil, are composed of muscovite and chlorite with quartz levels intercalated forming a well developed schistosity. This schistosity is cut by quartz veins. Both quartz generations show the same aqueous, aqueous-carbonic and halite-bearing fluid inclusions either in secondary inclusions halos and trails surrounding decrepitated primary fluid inclusions or in transgranular secondary trails. A wide variation of homogenization temperatures, high salinity, necking down and the decrepitated inclusions existence indicates strong influence of post-formational alteration and reequilibration linked to the granite intrusion. These foliated rocks are metasedimentary enclaves affected by late hypersaline aqueous-carbonic granitic fluids.

  2. NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION AND PREVENTION ATTACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet kaur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection is an important technology in business sector as well as an active area of research. It is an important tool for information security. A Network Intrusion Detection System is used to monitor networks for attacks or intrusions and report these intrusions to the administrator in order to take evasive action. Today computers are part of networked; distributed systems that may span multiple buildings sometimes located thousands of miles apart. The network of such a system is a pathway for communication between the computers in the distributed system. The network is also a pathway for intrusion. This system is designed to detect and combat some common attacks on network systems. It follows the signature based IDs methodology for ascertaining attacks. A signature based IDS will monitor packets on the network and compare them against a database of signatures or attributes from known malicious threats. In this system the attack log displays the list of attacks to the administrator for evasive action. This system works as an alert device in the event of attacks directed towards an entire network.

  3. Diffusive transport in compacted mixtures of clay and crushed granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion coefficients are important parameters for predicting migration rates of contaminants through earthen barrier materials used in many waste containment strategies. Apparent diffusion coefficients, D, were measured for Tc and I in compacted 1:3 mixtures of Lake Agassiz clay and crushed granite. Technetium-99 and 129I are two of the most important radioisotopes present in nuclear fuel waste. Lake Agassiz clay is a glacial lake clay composed principally of smectite, illite, quartz and kaolinite. Before being mixed with clay, crushed granite was separated into the following particle size fractions: 3 and they were saturated with a Na-Ca-Cl-dominated synthetic groundwater solution having an effective ionic strength of 220 mol/m3. The mean D values (n = 4) for Tc in the mixes ranged from 20 ?m2/s when the granite particle size was 2000 to 4750 ?m to 0.19 ?m2/s when it was 2/s. The decrease in D with decreasing granite particle size is largely attributed to an increase in the extent of reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) and its subsequent sorption on Fe(III) oxyhydroxides present in granite. The reductants are probably Fe(II)-bearing minerals, such as magnetite, in granite. The finer the granite particle size, the greater the reactive surface area. For I, clay controls the diffusion process and granite is essentially inert filler. The mean D values for I are about 3 ?m2/s in all cases. The results show that, depending on the environmental conditions and the nature of the diffusant, crushed granite in compacted clay-based barriers can markedly slow mass transport. (orig.)

  4. An overview to Software Architecture in Intrusion Detection System

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrami, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Network intrusion detection systems provide proactive defense against security threats by detecting and blocking attack-related traffic. This task can be highly complex, and therefore, software based network intrusion detection systems have difficulty in handling high speed links. This paper reviews of many type of software architecture in intrusion detection systems and describes the design and implementation of a high-performance network intrusion detection system that combines the use of software-based network intrusion detection sensors and a network processor board. The network processor acts as a customized load balancing splitter that cooperates with a set of modified content-based network intrusion detection sensors in processing network traffic.

  5. Effective analysis of cloud based intrusion detection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Ram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of IDS is to analyze events on the network and identify attacks. The increasing number of network security related incidents makes it necessary for organizations to actively protect their sensitive data with the installation of intrusion detection systems (IDS. People are paid more attention on intrusion detection which as an important computer network security technology. According to the development trend of intrusion detection, detecting all kinds of intrusions effectively requires a global view of the monitored network, Here, discuss about new intrusion detection mechanism based on cloud computing, which can make up for the deficiency of traditional intrusion detection, and proved to be great scalable.

  6. Mechanical response of jointed granite during shaft sinking at the Canadian Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the geoscience research within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is constructing an underground research laboratory (URL) in a previously undisturbed portion of a granitic intrusive, the Lac du Bonnet batholith, approximately 100 km northeast of Winnipeg, Manitoba. The overall geotechnical objectives of the URL are to assess and improve our ability to interpret and predict the geological, geophysical, geochemical, geomechanical and hydrogeological conditions of large bodies of plutonic rock, as well as to assess the accuracy of mathematical models used to predict the near-field mechanical and hydrogeological responses of the rock mass to excavation and thermal loading. Construction will be completed in July, 1986. Large-scale testing will commence soon afterwards and will last until the facility is decommissioned in the year 2000. A rectangular access shaft, 255 m deep x 2.8 m x 4.8 m, was sunk during the period May 1984 to March 1985. Rock displacements and stress changes were monitored as the excavation face (bottom) of the shaft advanced. The major objectives of this monitoring were (a) to evaluate and improve the ability of numerical models in predicting the mechanical response of the rock mass, (b) to back-calculate the rock-mass deformation modulus as a function of depth, (c) to assess the influence of natural fractures on the mechanical response of the granitic rock mass, and (d) to evaluate the quality of the geomechanical instrumentation, to determine instrumentation needs for future field experiments. Analysis of the data from this monitoring will aid the design and modelling of further experiments in the URL. In this paper, the rock displacements measured by an array of extensometers at 15 m below ground surface are presented and compared with predictions by a three-dimensional elastic continuum finite-element model

  7. Vertical zonality of fractionated granite plutons reflected in zircon chemistry.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Breiter, Karel

    s. l : Universidad d Salamanca ; Escuela politécnica superior de Avila ; Universidad de Granada, 2011 - (Molina, J.; Scarrow, J.; Bea, F.; Montero, P.). s. 25-25 ISBN 978-84-694-5253-0. [Hutton Symposium on Granites and Related Rocks /7./. 04.07.2011-09.07.2011, Avila] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : zircon * granite geochemistry * granite zonality * Cínovec * Beauvoir Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.seventh-hutton.org/meeting/Abstracts,_posters,_Lithos_Special_Issue_files/abstracts_book_Hutton_ISBN.pdf

  8. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: phenomenological evolution of the geologic disposal; Dossier 2005: Granite. Tome evolution phenomenologique du stockage geologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the phenomenological aspects of the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes (HLLL) in granite formations. Content: 1 - introduction: ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formation; 2 - the granitic environment: geologic history, French granites; 3 - HLLL wastes and disposal design concepts; 4 - identification, characterization and modeling of a granitic site: approach, geologic modeling, hydrologic and hydro-geochemical modeling, geomechanical and thermal modeling, long-term geologic evolution of a site; 5 - phenomenological evolution of a disposal: main aspects of the evolution of a repository with time, disposal infrastructures, B-type wastes disposal area, C-type wastes disposal area; spent fuels disposal area, radionuclides transfer and retention in the granitic environment; 6 - conclusions: available knowledge, methods and tools for the understanding and modeling of the phenomenological evolution of a granitic disposal site. (J.S.)

  9. Intrusion errors in visuospatial working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornoldi, Cesare; Mammarella, Nicola

    2006-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that failure in active visuospatial working memory tasks involves a difficulty in avoiding intrusions due to information that is already activated. Two experiments are described, in which participants were required to process several series of locations on a 4 x 4 matrix and then to produce only the final location of each series. Results revealed a higher number of errors due to already activated locations (intrusions) compared with errors due to new locations (inventions). Moreover, when participants were required to pay extra attention to some irrelevant (non-final) locations by tapping on the table, intrusion errors increased. Results are discussed in terms of current models of working memory functioning. PMID:16484108

  10. An Architecture of Hybrid Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanubhai K Patel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection System (IDS is renowned and widely-deployed security tool to detect attacks and malicious activities in information system. It is an essential element of any contemporary information system. There are mainly two techniques for intrusion detection: i signature-based (misuse detection and ii anomaly-based detection technique. Both the techniques have their advantages and disadvantages. This paper presents research from an ongoing study on the use of features of both the intrusion detection techniques to design a novel and efficient hybrid IDS. An architecture and implementation details of our hybrid IDS are presented. Furthermore, unique characteristics of our hybrid IDS are described. This paper concludes with future research directions and challenges in IDS.

  11. An Overview on Intrusion Detection in Manet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh D. Wagh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a self-configuring of mobile devices network connected without wires and hence MANET has become a very popular technology now days. A MANETS are the networks that are building, when some mobile nodes come in the mobility range of each other for data transfer and communication. In MANET, nodes are not stable hence the communication topology is not stable due to this vulnerable for attacks. MANET devices are connected via wireless links without using an existing network infrastructure or centralized administration due to which MANETs are not able to diverse types of attacks and intrusions. Hence intrusion detection has attracted many researchers. This paper gives an overview and different methods to detect intrusion in MANET.

  12. Trusted Computing Based Collaborative Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamalul-Lail Ab Manan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration and information sharing has obliged participating parties to look for improved detection accuracy and reaction speed in Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems (DIDS solutions. This is mainly due to the increasing number of attacks as well as increasingly sophisticated intrusions and more alarmingly various critical components of a system can be targeted. This is further exasperated by the fact that most DIDS models do not consider the attacks targeting the collaborative network itself. We specifically find this issue to be very critical and hence in this paper we propose a trust aware DIDS simulation model that is capable of categorizing each participating IDS expertise (i.e. speciality and competence, therefore helps collaborating organizations to consult our simulation model for choosing the right candidate for any type of intrusion. We call our Model as Consultative Trusted Computing-based Collaborative IDS (CTC IDS. We utilize the Trusted Platform Module (TPM for integrity evaluation and fine-tuning peer evaluation.

  13. The intrusive complexof the Island of Giglio: geomagnetic characteristics of plutonic facies with low susceptibility contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cavallini

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Two main plutonic facies characterize the intrusive complex of the Island of Giglio, and the trend of their contact at depth has been modelled using a 2D½ analysis based on a detailed geomagnetic survey in order to verify the geological hypothesis of the subsurface geometry of this contact. The magnetic anomaly connected with the discontinuity is quite low, due to the small difference between the magnetic susceptibilities of the two granitic facies. Development of this model of inversion of the magnetic field, which is in good agreement with the geological interpretation, was made possible by: 1 accurate control of the geomagnetic time variations and consequent temporal reduction, 2 a very low level of the artificial magnetic noise, 3 high density of the magnetic survey, 4 detailed knowledge of the mapped geologic contact between facies and of their petrologic characteristics, and 5 direct local measurements of the magnetic susceptibilities of the key lithologies. The model shows the trends of the geological contact, as projected in three E-W sections, that dips eastward in the range between 210 and 540, supporting the geologic hypothesis that the Pietrabona facies represents an external shell of the shallowly emplaced Giglio monzogranite intrusion.

  14. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapat Usha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily acti-vities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among pa-tients on hemodialysis (HD and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering socio-demographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was ca-rried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were ana-lyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 ± 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%, 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear fami-lies. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 ± 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%, work (70% finance (55%, diet (50% sexual life (38% and psychological status (25%. Illness had not intruded in areas of rela-tionship with spouse (67%, friends (76%, family (79%, social (40% and religious functions (72%. Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02.

  15. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily activities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis (HD) and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering sociodemographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was carried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were analyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 + - 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%), 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear families. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 + - 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%), work (70%) finance (55%), diet (50%) sexual life (38%) and psychological status (25%). Illness had not intruded in areas of relationship with spouse (67%), friends (76%), family (79%), social (40%) and religious functions (72%). Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02). (author)

  16. Adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) software routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) was developed to collect information from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique digital data-compression, storage, and formatting system; it also incorporates a capability for video selection and recording for assessment of the sensors monitored by the system. The system is software reprogrammable to numerous configurations that may be used for the collection of environmental, bilevel, analog, and video data. This report describes the software routines that control the different AIDS data-collection modes, the diagnostic programs to test the operating hardware, and the data format. Sample data printouts are also included

  17. Computationally Efficient Neural Network Intrusion Security Awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2009-08-01

    An enhanced version of an algorithm to provide anomaly based intrusion detection alerts for cyber security state awareness is detailed. A unique aspect is the training of an error back-propagation neural network with intrusion detection rule features to provide a recognition basis. Network packet details are subsequently provided to the trained network to produce a classification. This leverages rule knowledge sets to produce classifications for anomaly based systems. Several test cases executed on ICMP protocol revealed a 60% identification rate of true positives. This rate matched the previous work, but 70% less memory was used and the run time was reduced to less than 1 second from 37 seconds.

  18. Intrusion Detection Using Cost-Sensitive Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Douligeris, Christos

    2008-01-01

    Intrusion Detection is an invaluable part of computer networks defense. An important consideration is the fact that raising false alarms carries a significantly lower cost than not detecting at- tacks. For this reason, we examine how cost-sensitive classification methods can be used in Intrusion Detection systems. The performance of the approach is evaluated under different experimental conditions, cost matrices and different classification models, in terms of expected cost, as well as detection and false alarm rates. We find that even under unfavourable conditions, cost-sensitive classification can improve performance significantly, if only slightly.

  19. Distributed Firewall with Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linquan Xie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of Internet, network security has received significant attention over pass ten years due to the increasing threat of hacker attacks. To achieve security goals, most corporate environments have deployed firewalls to block the intrusion. However, traditional firewalls only provided static filleting analysis so that they can not analyze the content of data packet for providing dynamic security requirement. In order to address this issue, in this paper, we integrate the traditional firewalls with intrusion detection technologies. The proposed can provides dynamic security defense by atomically updating the policies based on the detection condition.

  20. Convective, intrusive geothermal plays: what about tectonics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santilano, A.; Manzella, A.; Gianelli, G.; Donato, A.; Gola, G.; Nardini, I.; Trumpy, E.; Botteghi, S.

    2015-09-01

    We revised the concept of convective, intrusive geothermal plays, considering that the tectonic setting is not, in our opinion, a discriminant parameter suitable for a classification. We analysed and compared four case studies: (i) Larderello (Italy), (ii) Mt Amiata (Italy), (iii) The Geysers (USA) and (iv) Kizildere (Turkey). The tectonic settings of these geothermal systems are different and a matter of debate, so it is hard to use this parameter, and the results of classification are ambiguous. We suggest a classification based on the age and nature of the heat source and the related hydrothermal circulation. Finally we propose to distinguish the convective geothermal plays as volcanic, young intrusive and amagmatic.

  1. Total knee arthroplasty in the younger patient: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeney JA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available James A Keeney Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO, USA Abstract: Total knee arthroplasty is being performed for an increasing number of younger patients with osteoarthritis. Several studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of residual symptoms among younger total knee arthroplasty patients and functional activity lower than expectations based on age and preoperative diagnosis. Limited studies have specifically focused on specific techniques or implant designs on this patient population, but have not identified optimal approaches. Limiting the most common complications that lead to early surgical revision, infection and instability, is important to ensure both short-term symptom resolution and long-term implant survivorship. Keywords: total knee arthroplasty, TKA, younger patient, outcomes, implant selection, surgical techniques

  2. Muskovit-biotitický granit z Kalvárie v Jihlav?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    René, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 20, 1/2 (2013), s. 145-147. ISSN 1212-6209 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME10083 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : granite * petrology * geochemistry * Moldanubian Zone Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  3. Temperature dependence of uniaxial compressive strength of Hnilec granite

    OpenAIRE

    Laba? Milan

    1997-01-01

    Paper presents the results of the temperature dependence of uniaxial compressive strength of Hnilec Granite. The measurements of the uniaxial compressive strength were carried out at five different temperatures.

  4. Earth's youngest exposed granite and its tectonic implications: the 10–0.8 Ma Kurobegawa Granite

    OpenAIRE

    Hisatoshi Ito; Ryuji Yamada; Akihiro Tamura; Shoji Arai; Kenji Horie; Tomokazu Hokada

    2013-01-01

    Although the quest for Earth's oldest rock is of great importance, identifying the youngest exposed pluton on Earth is also of interest. A pluton is a body of intrusive igneous rock that crystallized from slowly cooling magma at depths of several kilometers beneath the surface of the Earth. Therefore, the youngest exposed pluton represents the most recent tectonic uplift and highest exhumation. The youngest exposed pluton reported to date is the Takidani Granodiorite (~ 1.4 Ma) in the Hida Mo...

  5. Paleo-redox boundaries in fractured granite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, K.; Christiansen, B. C.

    2010-01-01

    At the Earth's surface, Fe(II) often oxidises and forms insoluble Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides, whose particle size and structure depend on solution composition and temperature during formation and afterwards. Bacterial processes and exposure to reducing environments reduces them again, releasing dissolved iron to the groundwater. During such cycling, the Fe isotopes fractionate to an extent that is expected to depend on temperature. In this study, we report on the use of Fe-oxides as paleoredox indicators, using their structure, morphology and Fe-composition as a clue for formation conditions. In samples taken from similar to 120 m drill cores in granite from SE Sweden, X-ray amorphous, superparamagnetic, nanometre-sized Fe-oxides are confined to fractures of the upper,-,50 m, whereas well-crystalline Fe-oxides, with particle sizes typical for soils, occur down to similar to 110 m. We also identified hematite with a particle size of 100 nm, similar to hematite of hydrothermal origin. The Fe isotope composition ofthe fine-grained Fe-oxides (-1 parts per thousand granite. The absence of natural, low-temperature Fe-oxides from deeper drill cores suggests that oxygenated waters do not readily penetrate beyond about 100 m and suggests that radioactive waste repositories located at a depth of similar to 500 m should be well-protected from oxygenated waters.

  6. Automated electronic intruder simulator for evaluation of ultrasonic intrusion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated electronic intruder simulator for testing ultrasonic intrusion detectors is described. This simulator is primarily intended for use in environmental chambers to determine the effects of temperature and humidity on the operation of ultrasonic intrusion detectors

  7. Surface weathering of rapakivi granite outcrops – implications for natural stone exploration and quality evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Härmä, Paavo; Selonen, Olavi

    2008-01-01

    Implications of surface weathering of rapakivi granite outcrops for natural stone evaluation were studied in the Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith in southeastern Finland. The study was performed as field mapping, comprising the whole batholith and as detailed investigations on selected outcrops. The Wiborg batholith is composed of wiborgite, pyterlite, even-grained rapakivi granite, porphyritic rapakivi granite, porphyry aplite, and gabbro-anorthosite. Wiborgite is the main rapakivi granite ...

  8. Silica enrichment, graphic granite and aquamarine growth: a new exploration guide

    OpenAIRE

    A. BHASKARA RAO

    2002-01-01

    Granitic pegmatites are traditionally known to contain graphic, perthitic and myrmekitic intergrowths related to quartz and K- and Na- feldspars. They are further considered to characterise the pegmatite types distinguishing them from the granites and other related plutonic rock types. Graphic granite is accepted also as a synonym to granitic pegmatite. Systematic studies, by the author and colleagues, on the granitic pegmatite gem deposits have permitted the definition of two aquamarine gem ...

  9. New Contributions To The Geology, Geochemistry And Tectonic Setting Of The Aswan Granites, Southern Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Nowier, A. M. [??? ?????? ???? ????

    1990-01-01

    The Aswan granitic rocks occupy a region in southern Egypt between the stable Archaean craton of the south Western Desert and the less stable Pan-African belt of the south Eastern Desert. They include light-grey medium grained granites, red coarse-grained granites and fine-grained granites. The setup, field relations and petrography of the granitic rocks are discussed in detail. Seventeen new chemical analyses for both major and trace elements are presented. Also, the chemical analyses of ...

  10. The Polumir granite: Addititional data on its origin

    OpenAIRE

    Vukov Milenko S.; Milovanovi? Dragan

    2002-01-01

    The Polumir granite is exposed on several localities due to erosion, and its chemical and mineral composition is presented in this paper. It is built of K-feldspar, plagioclase, myrmekite, metasomatic albite, biotite, muscovite and quartz, while apatite, magnetite, monazite, allanite and zircon are present as accessory minerals. According to its chemical and mineral composition and rock chemistry (trace and REE elements) the Polumir granite is leucocratic, sin-collisional, with S-type charact...

  11. Radionuclide Transport in Fracture-Granite Interface Zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study diffusion paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, we employed a micro-scale mapping technique that interfaces laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA/ICP-MS) to measure the fine-scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides (234U, 235U, and 237Np) in the fracture-granite interface zones. Long-lived 234U, 235U, and 237Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the adjacent rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-based mapping of the LA/ICP-MS technique. The injected sorbing actinides are mainly located within the advective flowing fractures and the immediately adjacent regions. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. These actinides did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as the relatively higher-porosity granite matrix, most likely due to the low porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and diffusivity of the fracture wall (a thickness of about 0.4 mm separates the mylonite region from the fracture) and the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for the more diffusive 237Np over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modeling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results. Measured apparent diffusivity of multiple tracers in granite provided consistent predictions for radionuclide transport in the fractured granitic rock.

  12. Ecology of endolithic lichens colonizing granite in continental Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos, Asunción de los; Wierzchos, Jacek; G. Sancho, Leopoldo; Green, Allan; Ascaso, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the symbiont cells of several endolithic lichens colonizing granite in continental Antarctica and the relationships they have with the abiotic environment were analyzed in situ, in order to characterize the microecosystems integrating these lichens, from a microecological perspective. Mycobiont and photobiont cells, the majority classified as living by fluoresecent vitality testing, were observed distributed through the fissures of the granite. The fact that extrace...

  13. Infiltration Characteristics of Granitic Residual Soil of Various Weathering Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal H. Ali

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the result of a field study on the infiltration characteristics of cut a slope in granitic residual soil of various weathering grades. Granitic residual soil of weathering grade IV is found to have the highest infiltration rate. Water infiltration is found to increase from grade VI to IV and decrease from grade IV to grade III. Water infiltration is found to increase with the increase in soil porosity and void ratio.

  14. Radionuclide Transport in Fracture-Granite Interface Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Mori, A

    2007-09-12

    In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study diffusion paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, we employed a micro-scale mapping technique that interfaces laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA/ICP-MS) to measure the fine-scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np) in the fracture-granite interface zones. Long-lived {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the adjacent rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-based mapping of the LA/ICP-MS technique. The injected sorbing actinides are mainly located within the advective flowing fractures and the immediately adjacent regions. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. These actinides did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as the relatively higher-porosity granite matrix, most likely due to the low porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and diffusivity of the fracture wall (a thickness of about 0.4 mm separates the mylonite region from the fracture) and the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for the more diffusive {sup 237}Np over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modeling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results. Measured apparent diffusivity of multiple tracers in granite provided consistent predictions for radionuclide transport in the fractured granitic rock.

  15. Weathering and mobility of uranium in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous works suggested that, in uraniferous granites, the leaching of mobile uranium was complete from the earlier stages of weathering. It is shown here that this leaching seems, on the contrary, progressive, and starts at a depth of more than 10 m. This gradual departure is concealed by the local variations in rock composition. It can only be shown by comparing mean concentration in homogeneous granitic domains about 10 m2

  16. Asymmetric textural and structural patterns of a granitic body emplaced at shallow levels: The La Chinchilla pluton, northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioli Grande, M.; Alasino, P. H.; Rocher, S.; Larrovere, M. A.; Dahlquist, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    New mapping and a detailed structural study of the La Chinchilla stock, Sierra de Velasco, NW Argentina, suggest an asymmetrical shape of the pluton and provide strong evidence for its shallow emplacement depth. The pluton is a Lower Carboniferous monzogranite composed of K-feldspar, quartz, plagioclase and biotite. It exhibits an internal asymmetric textural zoning, defined by porphyritic granite in the southeastern region to equigranular granite in the northwestern region. The presence of subhorizontal dikes in the northwestern area, where the contacts dip shallowly, and subvertical dikes intruding the host rock nearby steep-dipping intrusive contacts in the southeastern region are compatible with an overall asymmetrical shape and internal structure of this pluton. Considering published crystallization ages, a dominant strain field occurring at around 12 Ma is inferred based on magmatic fabrics in the pluton and its host rock (the Huaco pluton), with a principal shortening direction oriented SW-NE, consistent with the general NW-SE strike of the body. Field evidence supports brittle fracturing and block displacement as the dominant emplacement mechanism, suggesting that magmatic stoping dominated during the late stage of the evolution of the magma chamber.

  17. Various Approaches for Detecting Attacks in Intrusion Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Priti Subramanium; Purva Adlakha

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development of computer networks and more importantly internet has created many security problems such as ever growing new intrusions on computer network systems. To secure this systemstrong intrusion detection system has to be build. An intrusion detection system monitors all inbound and outbound network activity and identifies suspicious activities that attempting to break and violate security of system. In this paper we have taken review of various approaches of Intrusion detecti...

  18. Hydraulic fracturing in granite under geothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, P.; Lockner, D.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental hydraulic fracturing of granite under geothermal conditions produces tensile fracture at rapid fluid injection rates and shear fracture at slow injection rates and elevated differential stress levels. A sudden burst of acoustic emission activity accompanies tensile fracture formation whereas the acoustic emission rate increases exponentially prior to shear fracture. Temperature does not significantly affect the failure mechanism, and the experimental results have not demonstrated the occurrence of thermal fracturing. A critical result of these experiments is that fluid injection at intermediate rates and elevated differential stress levels increases permeability by more than an order of magnitude without producing macroscopic fractures, and low-level acoustic emission activity occurs simultaneously near the borehole and propagates outward into the specimen with time. Permeability measurements conducted at atmospheric pressure both before and after these experiments show that increased permeability is produced by permanent structural changes in the rock. Although results of this study have not demonstrated the occurrence of thermal fracturing, they suggest that fluid injection at certain rates in situ may markedly increase local permeability. This could prove critical to increasing the efficiency of heat exchange for geothermal energy extraction from hot dry rock. ?? 1980.

  19. Temporal Associations and Prior-List Intrusions in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaromb, Franklin M.; Howard, Marc W.; Dolan, Emily D.; Sirotin, Yevgeniy B.; Tully, Michele; Wingfield, Arthur; Kahana, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    When asked to recall the words from a just-presented target list, subjects occasionally recall words that were not on the list. These intrusions either appeared on earlier lists (prior-list intrusions, or PLIs) or had not appeared over the course of the experiment (extra-list intrusions). The authors examined the factors that elicit PLIs in free…

  20. Evolutionary Design of Intrusion Detection Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Abraham

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection is the process of monitoring the events occurring in a computer system or network and analyzing them for signs of intrusions, defined as attempts to compromise the confidentiality, integrity, availability, or to bypass the security mechanisms of a computer or network. This paper proposes the development of an Intrusion Detection Program (IDP which could detect known attack patterns. An IDP does not eliminate the use of any preventive mechanism but it works as the last defensive mechanism in securing the system. Three variants of genetic programming techniques namely Linear Genetic Programming (LGP, Multi-Expression Programming (MEP and Gene Expression Programming (GEP were evaluated to design IDP. Several indices are used for comparisons and a detailed analysis of MEP technique is provided. Empirical results reveal that genetic programming technique could play a major role in develop- ing IDP, which are light weight and accurate when compared to some of the conventional intrusion detection systems based on machine learning paradigms.

  1. Daytime intrusive thoughts and subjective insomnia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Louise D; Baldwin, David S; Garner, Matthew

    2015-10-30

    Insomnia is increasingly recognised as a 24h complaint that is associated with an increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders. However, the effects of insomnia symptoms on maladaptive daytime patterns of thinking are poorly understood. We examined the relationship between subjective insomnia symptoms, attentional control and negative thought intrusions during daytime in a large sample of undergraduates experiencing poor sleep. A total of 109 participants completed self-report measures of sleep quality, current sleepiness, anxiety and attentional control. A behavioural measure of intrusive thought required participants to control their attention during two focus periods separated by a 5min period of self-referential worry. Thought intrusions were sampled throughout the pre- and post-worry periods. Perceived insomnia severity was associated with the reduced ability to focus attention and uniquely associated with increased negative thought intrusions in the pre-worry period. These results support suggestions that acute episodes of poor sleep can dysregulate key networks involved in attentional control and emotion regulation, and that promote negative cognitive activity. PMID:26279126

  2. Data Visualization Technique Framework for Intrusion detection

    OpenAIRE

    Alaa El - Din Riad; Ibrahim Elhenawy; Ahmed Hassan; Nancy Awadallah

    2011-01-01

    Network attacks have become the fundamental threat to today's largely interconnected computer system. Intrusion detection system (IDS) is indispensable to defend the system in the face of increasing vulnerabilities. While a number of information visualization software frameworks exist, creating new visualizations, especially those that involve novel visualization metaphors, interaction techniques, data analysis strategies, and specialized rendering algorithms, is still often a difficult proce...

  3. How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Trickl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary attempts of quantifying the stratospheric ozone contribution in the observations at the Zugspitze summit (2962 m a.s.l. next to Garmisch-Partenkirchen in the German Alps had yielded an approximate doubling of the stratospheric fraction of the Zugspitze ozone during the time period 1978 to 2004. These investigations had been based on data filtering by using low relative humidity (RH and elevated 7Be as the criteria for selecting half-hour intervals of ozone data representative of stratospheric intrusion air. To quantify the residual stratospheric component in stratospherically influenced air masses, however, the mixing of tropospheric air into the stratospheric intrusion layers must be taken into account. In fact, the dewpoint mirror instrument at the Zugspitze summit station rarely registers RH values lower than 10% in stratospheric air intrusions. Since 2007 a programme of routine lidar sounding of ozone, water vapour and aerosol has been conducted in the Garmisch-Partenkirchen area. The lidar results demonstrate that the intrusion layers are drier by roughly one order of magnitude than indicated in the in situ measurements. Even in thin layers RH values clearly below 1% have frequently been observed. These thin, undiluted layers present an important challenge for atmospheric modelling. Although the ozone values never reach values typical of the lower-stratosphere it becomes, thus, obvious that, without strong wind shear or convective processes, mixing of stratospheric and tropospheric air must be very slow in most of the free troposphere. As a consequence, the analysis the Zugspitze data can be assumed to be more reliable than anticipated. Finally, the concentrations of Zugspitze carbon monoxide rarely drop inside intrusion layers and normally stay clearly above full stratospheric values. This indicates that most of the CO, and thus the intrusion air mass, originates in the shallow "mixing layer" around the thermal tropopause. The CO mixing ratio in these descending layers between 1990 and 2004 exhibits a slightly positive trend indicating some Asian influence on the lowermost stratosphere in the high-latitude source region of most intrusions reaching the station.

  4. How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Trickl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary attempts of quantifying the stratospheric ozone contribution in the observations at the Zugspitze summit (2962 m a.s.l. next to Garmisch-Partenkirchen in the German Alps had yielded an approximate doubling of the stratospheric fraction of the Zugspitze ozone during the time period 1978 and 2004. These investigations had been based on data filtering by using low relative humidity and elevated 7Be as the criteria for selecting half-hour intervals of ozone data representative of stratospheric intrusion air. For quantifying the residual stratospheric component in stratospherically influenced air masses, however, the mixing of tropospheric air into the stratospheric intrusion layers must be taken into account. In fact, the dew-point-mirror instrument at the Zugspitze summit station rarely registers relative humidity (RH values lower than 10% in stratospheric air intrusions. Since 2007 a programme of routine lidar sounding of ozone, water vapour and aerosol has been conducted in the Garmisch-Partenkirchen area. The lidar results demonstrate that the intrusion layers are dryer by roughly one order of magnitude than indicated in the in-situ measurements. Even in thin layers frequently RH values clearly below 1% have been observed. These thin, undiluted layers present an important challenge for atmospheric modelling. Although the ozone values never reach values typical of the lower-stratosphere it becomes, thus, obvious that, without strong wind shear or convective processes, mixing of stratospheric and tropospheric air must be very slow in most of the free troposphere. As a consequence, the analysis the Zugspitze data can be assumed to be more reliable than anticipated. Finally, the concentrations of Zugspitze carbon monoxide rarely drop inside intrusion layers and normally stay clearly above full stratospheric values. This indicates that most of the CO and, thus, the intrusion air mass originate in the shallow "mixing layer" around the thermal tropopause. The CO mixing ratio in these descending layers between 1990 and 2004 exhibits a slightly positive trend indicating some Asian influence on the lowermost stratosphere in the high-latitude source region of most intrusions reaching the station.

  5. Recognition of early Carboniferous alkaline granite in the southern Altai orogen: post-orogenic processes constrained by U-Pb zircon ages, Nd isotopes, and geochemical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ying; Wang, Tao; Siebel, Wolfgang; Hong, Da-Wei; Sun, Min

    2012-06-01

    The Altai orogen forms the southern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), the world's largest accretionary orogen. However, its tectonic evolution, particularly during the late Paleozoic, is still not well understood. U-Pb zircon analyses for the Bulgen alkaline granite yield crystallization ages of 358 ± 4 Ma (SHRIMP) and 354 ± 4 Ma (LA-ICP-MS). These ages are significantly younger than published emplacement ages for subduction/collision-related syn-orogenic granitoids (460-375 Ma) in this region. The Bulgen granite has high SiO2, total alkalis, rare earth elements, HFSE (Th, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ce), and low Ba, Sr with pronounced negative anomalies in Eu, Ba, Sr, P, and Ti, showing a clear A-type geochemical signature. The granite records high ?Nd( t) values of +6.3 to +6.4 and young model ages ( T DM) of ca. 600 Ma. The Bulgen alkaline granite is largely undeformed as opposed to the early-middle Paleozoic counterparts, which form elongated deformed bodies parallel to the prevailing tectonic fabric (NW direction). Available data suggest that magmatism in the southern Altai region evolved from early-middle Paleozoic I-type tholeiitic and calc-alkaline granitoids to late Paleozoic A-type alkaline granitoids. The high ?Nd( t) values of the Bulgen alkaline granite indicate a homogeneous juvenile mantle source, whereas the early-middle Paleozoic granitoids are characterized by lower and more variable ?Nd( t) values (-2.6 to +4.2). These differences provide an important insight into the late Paleozoic orogenic processes of the Chinese Altai and indicate a significant change of the tectonic regime from a syn-orogenic regional compression setting to a post-orogenic extensional one. Major tectonic movements in this region ceased after the early Carboniferous.

  6. Older and Younger Workers: The Equalling Effects of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Vanessa; Quinn, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the statistical evidence on the effects that ill health has on labour market participation and opportunities for younger and older workers in the East Midlands (UK). Design/methodology/approach: A statistical analysis of Labour Force Survey data was undertaken to demonstrate that health issues…

  7. Memory Dynamics and Decision Making in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, M. Teresa; Gomez-Ariza, Carlos J.; Iglesias-Parro, Sergio; Pelegrina, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this research was to study whether memory dynamics influence older people's choices to the same extent as younger's ones. To do so, we adapted the retrieval-practice paradigm to produce variations in memory accessibility of information on which decisions were made later. Based on previous results, we expected to observe…

  8. Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD: Younger Adults Compared with Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…

  9. The uranium behaviour during rock-water interaction in the granites from the Itu complex (Sao Paulo, Brazil): a laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Helen S.B. da; Marques, Leila S.; Kawauchi, Roberto K., E-mail: leila@iag.usp.br, E-mail: keiji@iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas. Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the process of uranium leaching due to the rock-water interaction in the granitic rocks from Itu Complex (Sao Paulo, Brazil), an experimental arrangement was developed and built. About 2.5kg of crushed rock fragments from Cabreuva and Indaiatuba Intrusions were maintained at room temperature within a glass flask filled with circulating water. The percolating water was removed periodically (from 10 to 30 days) for uranium analysis and then replaced by an equal volume of fresh water. Alpha spectrometry was used to determine the activity concentrations of {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U, and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios, of the waters as well as of the granites. The results for both samples showed that most of the uranium is leached in the first days after the contact between rock and water. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios were significantly greater than unity, indicating radioactive disequilibrium between those isotopes, probably due to alpha recoil. Although the uranium activity concentrations in the water samples diminished with the increasing of time, it was not observed considerable variations of the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios. It was also noticed that, the amount of leached uranium as well as the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios are characteristics of each sample submitted to leaching, reflecting the differences of the granite facies mineralogy.(author)

  10. The uranium behaviour during rock-water interaction in the granites from the Itu complex (Sao Paulo, Brazil): a laboratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the process of uranium leaching due to the rock-water interaction in the granitic rocks from Itu Complex (Sao Paulo, Brazil), an experimental arrangement was developed and built. About 2.5kg of crushed rock fragments from Cabreuva and Indaiatuba Intrusions were maintained at room temperature within a glass flask filled with circulating water. The percolating water was removed periodically (from 10 to 30 days) for uranium analysis and then replaced by an equal volume of fresh water. Alpha spectrometry was used to determine the activity concentrations of 234U and 238U, and 234U/238U activity ratios, of the waters as well as of the granites. The results for both samples showed that most of the uranium is leached in the first days after the contact between rock and water. The 234U/238U activity ratios were significantly greater than unity, indicating radioactive disequilibrium between those isotopes, probably due to alpha recoil. Although the uranium activity concentrations in the water samples diminished with the increasing of time, it was not observed considerable variations of the 234U/238U activity ratios. It was also noticed that, the amount of leached uranium as well as the 234U/238U activity ratios are characteristics of each sample submitted to leaching, reflecting the differences of the granite facies mineralogy.(author)

  11. Diffusion models in metamorphic thermo chronology: application to the Serra dos Orgaos granitic plutons, Rio de Janeiro, (Ribeira Belt, SE Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermochronological modeling of the late-Brasilian, Serra dos Orgaos, post-collisional granitic plutons suggested that magma emplacement was followed by a ? 40-90 m.y. period of very slow cooling (1-2 deg C/Ma; implying little uplift and tectonic quiescence), which was terminated at ? 450 m.y. by increasing cooling rates (20-30 deg C/m.y.). It is suggested that the crust thickened during the earlier (? 620-600 m.y.) Brazilian continental-collision was uplifted and thinned prior to ? 540-550 m.y. and that the 'post-tectonic' granites were emplaced into isostatically stable crust of normal thickness. We especulate that uplift and crustal thinning prior to intrusion was the result of post-collision mantle delamination beneath the Ribeira Belt; if so, this process would have also caused an increase in the mantle heat flux across the Moho and triggered lower crustal melting to produce the 'post-tectonic' granitic magma. (author)

  12. On Younger Stakeholders and Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyszkiewicz, Bogumila; Labor, Bea

    2009-08-15

    In modern democratic countries, information sharing and effective and open communication concerning dismantling and decommissioning of of nuclear facilities as well as the management of nuclear waste are essential for the task to build the confidence required for any further development of nuclear energy. At the same time, it is often perceived that all decision making processes about nuclear energy policies are probably increasingly influenced by public opinion. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role in this regard to provide unbiased information on any health and safety related issues. In order to meet this need, it is necessary for Authorities and others to understand the values and opinions of the citizens, and especially the younger ones. They hold the key to the future at the same time as their perspective on these issues is the least understood. The need of greater public participation in decision making is becoming increasingly recognised the scientific as well as the political community. Many activities are carried out in order to stimulate to higher levels of public involvement in decision making in this active research area. Younger citizens is a stakeholder group that is often excluded in decision- making processes. The existence of large gaps between the involvement of older and younger stakeholders in decision making processes needs to be addressed, since such imbalances might otherwise lead to unequal opportunities between generations and limit the future consumption level of the coming generations. Another demanding task for the present generation is to assure that appropriate financial resources are injected into the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund. It will thereby be possible for coming generations to undertake efficient measures in the decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. To undertake such measures in line with the environmental and health codex is essential. An appropriate balance in this regard must be based on a proper understanding of the values and value functions of younger citizens. Such information must thus be an integral part of the knowledge base to be used when plans and processes are being developed for dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other older nuclear facilities. In the present project, empirical data have been collected and compiled in a survey of the values of younger citizens with regard to decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. The survey constitutes a stratified sample from three towns in Poland. They are Lublin, Olsztyn and Gdansk. A total of 780 students in the age group 14-19 years participated in the Survey. The results are compared to those from a similar study in the County of Kalmar in Sweden in the year 2006. The results include some major lesson learned. These may be summarised as follows: - Younger citizens tend to base their values regarding decommissioning on safety, and environmental aspects. Aspects like future economic growth and technological processes are less influential on the values. - Younger citizens tend to express a lack of information and debate as a basis of their value functions. Likewise, they tend to express interest in the topic and are open to become more included in the processes. - Younger citizens have suggestions on how more information can be made accessible to the general public. - Younger citizens need to be better included in the stakeholder process. This can be achieved by allowances from the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund to support groups of younger citizens to follow the Swedish process of research, development and demonstration of a concept for the management of spent nuclear fuel. Less than fully accessible information campaigns about nuclear power and associated nuclear waste may result in differences in confidence levels between different groups of stakeholders. By finding out more about the values of different stakeholders it will be possible for the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority as well as for Society as a whole to enhance the possibility t o de

  13. On Younger Stakeholders and Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In modern democratic countries, information sharing and effective and open communication concerning dismantling and decommissioning of of nuclear facilities as well as the management of nuclear waste are essential for the task to build the confidence required for any further development of nuclear energy. At the same time, it is often perceived that all decision making processes about nuclear energy policies are probably increasingly influenced by public opinion. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role in this regard to provide unbiased information on any health and safety related issues. In order to meet this need, it is necessary for Authorities and others to understand the values and opinions of the citizens, and especially the younger ones. They hold the key to the future at the same time as their perspective on these issues is the least understood. The need of greater public participation in decision making is becoming increasingly recognised the scientific as well as the political community. Many activities are carried out in order to stimulate to higher levels of public involvement in decision making in this active research area. Younger citizens is a stakeholder group that is often excluded in decision- making processes. The existence of large gaps between the involvement of older and younger stakeholders in decision making processes needs to be addressed, since such imbalances might otherwise lead to unequal opportunities between generations and limit the future consumption level of the coming generations. Another demanding task for the present generation is to assure that appropriate financial resources are injected into the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund. It will thereby be possible for coming generations to undertake efficient measures in the decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. To undertake such measures in line with the environmental and health codex is essential. An appropriate balance in this regard must be based on a proper understanding of the values and value functions of younger citizens. Such information must thus be an integral part of the knowledge base to be used when plans and processes are being developed for dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other older nuclear facilities. In the present project, empirical data have been collected and compiled in a survey of the values of younger citizens with regard to decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. The survey constitutes a stratified sample from three towns in Poland. They are Lublin, Olsztyn and Gdansk. A total of 780 students in the age group 14-19 years participated in the Survey. The results are compared to those from a similar study in the County of Kalmar in Sweden in the year 2006. The results include some major lesson learned. These may be summarised as follows: - Younger citizens tend to base their values regarding decommissioning on safety, and environmental aspects. Aspects like future economic growth and technological processes are less influential on the values. - Younger citizens tend to express a lack of information and debate as a basis of their value functions. Likewise, they tend to express interest in the topic and are open to become more included in the processes. - Younger citizens have suggestions on how more information can be made accessible to the general public. - Younger citizens need to be better included in the stakeholder process. This can be achieved by allowances from the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund to support groups of younger citizens to follow the Swedish process of research, development and demonstration of a concept for the management of spent nuclear fuel. Less than fully accessible information campaigns about nuclear power and associated nuclear waste may result in differences in confidence levels between different groups of stakeholders. By finding out more about the values of different stakeholders it will be possible for the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority as well as for Society as a whole to enhance the possibility t o de

  14. The H2O content of granite embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Omar; Cesare, Bernardo; Remusat, Laurent; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Poli, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of H2O contents of natural granites has been an on-going challenge owing to the extremely fugitive character of H2O during cooling and ascent of melts and magmas. Here we approach this problem by studying granites in their source region (i.e. the partially melted continental crust) and we present the first NanoSIMS analyses of anatectic melt inclusions (MI) hosted in peritectic phases of migmatites and granulites. These MI which totally crystallized upon slow cooling represent the embryos of the upper-crustal granites [1, 2, 3]. The approach based on the combination of MI and NanoSIMS has been here tested on amphibolite-facies migmatites at Ronda (S Spain) that underwent fluid-present to fluid-absent melting at ~700 °C and ~5 kbar. Small (? 5 µm) crystallized MI trapped in garnet have been remelted using a piston-cylinder apparatus and they show leucogranitic compositions. We measure high and variable H2O contents (mean of 6.5±1.4 wt%) in these low-temperature, low-pressure granitic melts. We demonstrate that, when the entire population from the same host is considered, MI reveal the H2O content of melt in the specific volume of rock where the host garnet grew. Mean H2O values for the MI in different host crystals range from 5.4 to 9.1 wt%. This range is in rather good agreement with experimental models for granitic melts at the inferred P-T conditions. Our study documents for the first time the occurrence of H2O heterogeneities in natural granitic melts at the source region [3]. These heterogeneities are interpreted to reflect the birth of granitic melts under conditions of "mosaic" equilibrium, where the distinct fractions of melt experience different buffering assemblages at the micro-scale, with concomitant differences in melt H2O content. These results confirm the need for small-scale geochemical studies on natural samples to improve our quantitative understanding of crustal melting and granite formation. The same approach adopted here can be applied to MI hosted in higher-temperature, granulite-facies rocks that represent the parents of many upper-crustal granites. This will result in a better understanding of formation and evolution of granitic magmas. [1] Cesare et al. (2009) Geology, 37, 627-630. [2] Bartoli et al. (2013) Geology, 41, 115-118. [3] Bartoli et al. (2014) EPSL, 395, 281-290.

  15. Geochemistry and zircon U-Pb geochronology of granitic rocks in the Buqingshan tectonic mélange belt, northern Tibet Plateau, China and its implications for Prototethyan evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruibao; Pei, Xianzhi; Li, Zuochen; Pei, Lei; Liu, Chengjun; Chen, Youxin; Chen, Guochao; Liu, Zhanqing; Yang, Jie

    2015-06-01

    The Yikehalaer intrusives are distributed in the Buqingshan tectonic mélange belt at the southern margin of East Kunlun, China. They tectonically intruded the conglomerate of Permian Gequ Formation to the south and the marble of Mesoproterozoic Kuhai Group to the north. These intrusives mainly consist of off-white coarse- and fine-grained granodiorite and granite. U-Pb dating of zircons from the intrusive samples yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 436 ± 7 Ma and 437 ± 6 Ma, indicating Early Silurian crystallization age. The intrusives are high-silica, Na-rich, I-type calc-alkalic rocks. They are divisible into two subgroups on the basis of their trace element content: adakitic rocks in the northern part and normal calc-alkalic arc rocks in the southern part. Rocks in the northern part exhibit high Sr (280-493 ppm), low Y (3.8-11.7 ppm), high Sr/Y ratios (23.9-125.0), high light rare earth elements (LREE)/ heavy rare earth elements (HREE) (15.1-35.7), and invisible Eu/Eu?. They resemble adakites formed by slab melting in subduction zones. However, the rocks in the southern part possess the attributes of normal arc rocks. In addition, the ?Hf(t) values of the intrusives are consistently positive (0.6-7.6), implying that they were generated by melting of an isotopically depleted mantle source, with insignificant contributions from crustal materials. The source residues likely contained 10-20% garnet and hornblende, and plagioclase was either absent or totally consumed during partial melting. Combining the regional tectonic data, we conclude that the Buqingshan paleo-ocean may have started to subduct in Middle Cambrian until Early Silurian (436 Ma), generating an important adakitic magma event during the late stage of oceanic crust subduction. Moreover, the Proto-Tethyan Ocean closed, and the Bayan Har, East Kunlun, and Qaidam blocks collided during the Middle-Late Silurian.

  16. Glacier retreat in New Zealand during the Younger Dryas stadial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Michael R; Schaefer, Joerg M; Denton, George H; Barrell, David J A; Chinn, Trevor J H; Putnam, Aaron E; Andersen, Bjørn G; Finkel, Robert C; Schwartz, Roseanne; Doughty, Alice M

    2010-09-01

    Millennial-scale cold reversals in the high latitudes of both hemispheres interrupted the last transition from full glacial to interglacial climate conditions. The presence of the Younger Dryas stadial (approximately 12.9 to approximately 11.7?kyr ago) is established throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere, but the global timing, nature and extent of the event are not well established. Evidence in mid to low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, in particular, has remained perplexing. The debate has in part focused on the behaviour of mountain glaciers in New Zealand, where previous research has found equivocal evidence for the precise timing of increased or reduced ice extent. The interhemispheric behaviour of the climate system during the Younger Dryas thus remains an open question, fundamentally limiting our ability to formulate realistic models of global climate dynamics for this time period. Here we show that New Zealand's glaciers retreated after approximately 13?kyr bp, at the onset of the Younger Dryas, and in general over the subsequent approximately 1.5-kyr period. Our evidence is based on detailed landform mapping, a high-precision (10)Be chronology and reconstruction of former ice extents and snow lines from well-preserved cirque moraines. Our late-glacial glacier chronology matches climatic trends in Antarctica, Southern Ocean behaviour and variations in atmospheric CO(2). The evidence points to a distinct warming of the southern mid-latitude atmosphere during the Younger Dryas and a close coupling between New Zealand's cryosphere and southern high-latitude climate. These findings support the hypothesis that extensive winter sea ice and curtailed meridional ocean overturning in the North Atlantic led to a strong interhemispheric thermal gradient during late-glacial times, in turn leading to increased upwelling and CO(2) release from the Southern Ocean, thereby triggering Southern Hemisphere warming during the northern Younger Dryas. PMID:20829791

  17. The 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue. Report; Mission collegiale de concertation Granite. Rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisson, P.; Huet, Ph.; Mingasson, J

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue is to inform the French authorities, associations and population about the project of construction of an underground laboratory for the study of the disposal of high level and long-life radioactive wastes in a granitic environment. The aim of the dialogue was not to select a site but to collect the public reactions and advices about such a project. However, such a dialogue has partially failed because of a misunderstanding of the population about the aims of the mission. However, the mission has collected many point of views and questions which are developed in this report. The first and second chapters recall the process of the mission and its progress, while a third chapter stresses on the questions asked by the public and which concern the fear of nuclear wastes and the incompatibility between the disposal of wastes and the socio-economical development of the region concerned. Thanks to the lessons drawn from this experience, the mission has formulated some recommendations (chapter 4) concerning the need for a better information of the population about any topic in relation with the radioactive wastes. Some complementary information is provided in appendixes. (J.S.)

  18. Results of the radiological survey at the Granite City Steel facility, Granite City, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, uranium ingots were x-rayed for the Atomic Energy Commission at the South Plant facility of the Granite City Steel Company, Granite City, Illinois. The x-ray equipment is still housed in a building on the southern end of the property. At the time of the survey, neither the equipment nor the building had been used for some time. It is the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to verify that such sites are in compliance with current federal guidelines. Because documentation establishing the current radiological condition of the property is unavailable, a radiological survey was conducted by members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in March 1989. The survey included: measurement of gamma exposure rates both indoors and outdoors; collection and radionuclide analysis of soil and debris samples; and measurements to determine alpha and beta-gamma surface contamination. 3 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Intrusion Detection in Data Mining With Classification Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    PATEL HEMANT, BHARAT SARKHEDI, HIREN VAGHAMSHI

    2013-01-01

    In the research of intrusion detection there are so manyattacks in the real life and some IDS System to detect it like network-based IDS, host-based IDS and application-based IDS to detect the Intrusion. In this paper, one frame work is introduce to detect an intrusion data with the help of data mining, a framework for intrusion detection system for filtering data set to network attacks. We also talk about the basic data mining technology for finding intrusion data for the data set. Detection...

  20. The state of the art in intrusion prevention and detection

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan

    2013-01-01

    The State of the Art in Intrusion Prevention and Detection analyzes the latest trends and issues surrounding intrusion detection systems in computer networks, especially in communications networks. Its broad scope of coverage includes wired, wireless, and mobile networks; next-generation converged networks; and intrusion in social networks.Presenting cutting-edge research, the book presents novel schemes for intrusion detection and prevention. It discusses tracing back mobile attackers, secure routing with intrusion prevention, anomaly detection, and AI-based techniques. It also includes infor

  1. K?Ar and 40Ar/ 39Ar evidence for a Transamazonian age (2030-1970 Ma) for the granites and emerald-bearing K-metasomatites from Campo Formoso and Carnaíba (Bahia, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, G.; Zimmermann, J.-L.; Montigny, R.

    1994-04-01

    The Campo Formoso and Carnaíba granites belong to a suite of middle Proterozoic magmatic rocks located in the northern part of the São Francisco craton. They intrude the Archaen basement and Lower Proterozoic Jacobina volcanosedimentary series. Emerald-bearing K-metasomatites in the mining districts of Campo Formoso and Carnaíba are developed within serpentinites at the contact with granite-related pegmatitic veins. K?Ar and 40Ar/ 39Ar measurements were performed on biotites and deuteric muscovites from these two granites, and phlogopites from the K-metasomatites. For the Campo Formoso granite, the biotites yield ages between 1875 ± 45 Ma and 1908 ± 47 Ma (2 ?) and the muscovites yield ages of 1897 ± 34 Ma and 2040 ± 24 Ma (2 ?). For the Carnaíba granite, the biotites and muscovites fit isochrons with ages of 1888 ± 32 and 1979 ± 28 Ma (2 ?), respectively. In contrast, phlogopites from emerald-bearing metasomatites display K?Ar ages that spread between 1900 and 2000 Ma with an isochron of 1973 ± 20 Ma (2 ?) for Carnaíba. Generally, the youngest biotite and phlogopite ages occur for specimens where these minerals are chloritized. 40Ar/ 39Ar step heating release spectra are complex but give integrated ages in good agreement with the K?Ar ages. The least disturbed spectrum permits assignment of an age of 2032 ± 10 Ma (2 ?)for the first granitic pulse of the emplacement of the Campo Formoso composite pluton. Since in Carnaíba, deuteric muscovites and chlorite-free phlogopites give similar K?Ar ages, 1979 ± 28 and 1973 ± 20 Ma (2 ?) respectively, we conclude that emerald mineralization is contemporaneous with the pervasive muscovitization of the granite. The 1979 ± 28 Ma (2 ?) age obtained by K?Ar on muscovite represents the best estimate of the Carnaíba granite cooling age. A model invoking the pervasive alteration of the upper part of the granitic cupola along the pegmatite veins and serpentinites by the muscovitizing fluids is proposed for the formation of emerald-bearing K-metasomatites. The disturbances of 40Ar/ 39Ar release spectra testify to the existence of a hydrothermal heating that overprinted the K?Ar clock of biotite and to a less extent phlogopite. This event is clearly subsequent to the Transamazonian granitization and emerald mineralization and consequently younger than 1973 ± 20 Ma. Due to the lack of structural evidences for a Braziliano event (700-500 Ma) in this region, we tentatively propose a Transamazonian age (1900 Ma) for the thermal overprint.

  2. U(VI) sorption on granite: prediction and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One widely accepted approach - component additivity (CA) - to describe the sorption of contaminants onto complex materials such as rocks or soils is based on the assumption that the surface of a complex mineral assemblage is composed of a mixture of mineral constituents whose surface properties are known from independent studies. An internally consistent SCM (surface complexation model) database can be developed that describes the adsorption reactions of solutes to each phase. Here, the capability of such a methodology was tested, using the code MINTEQA2 including thermodynamic data of the NEA-TDB, and literature data for SCM, namely the DDL model. The sorption characteristics of U(VI) on granite (from Eibenstock, Saxony, Germany, with the main components quartz, albite, orthoclase, and muscovite) was predicted and then compared to batch experiments. Granite plays an important role in the remediation of former uranium ore mining and milling sites, but is also one of the host rocks considered for final disposal of nuclear materials. Safety assessment requires a detailed understanding of this system and its retention potential with regard to hazardous components. Namely the sorption of uranium in this complex rock is not fully understood yet. The experiments thus also provided a better understanding of the far-field behaviour in granitic geological nuclear repositories. The robustness of the prediction was tested by variation of the granite composition and the variation of the specific surface area (SSA) - first all components were predicted with a uniform granite SSA, second with a distinct SSA for each granite component (determined on pure minerals for the same grain size fractions). Changes in compositions yielded only marginal differences in the prediction. Different approaches to SSA showed somewhat larger deviations. In conclusion, the CA methodology is a valid and robust approach to U(VI) sorption onto complex substrates such as granite, provided sufficient information on component phases is available. This should help to minimize experimental efforts and to increase confidence into complex SCM computations. (orig.)

  3. Silicified Granites (Bleeding Stone and Ochre Granite) as Global Heritage Stones Resources from Avila (Central of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo C.; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago; Molina-Ballesteros, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    Silicified Granites have been widely used to build the main Romanesque monuments in the 12 th century of Avila city that was designated a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 1985. The stone was used in the Cathedral (12 th century); churches located interior and exterior of the Walls (e.g. Saint Vincent; Saint Peter). During the Renaissance and Gothic period, 15 th century Silicified Granites have been used mainly to buid ribbed vaults in Avila city (e.g. Royal Palace of the Catholic Monarchs, and Chapel of Mosén Rubí). Silicified Granites are related to an intermediate and upper parts of a complex palaeoweathering mantle developed on the Iberian Hercynian Basement (the greatest part of the western Iberian Peninsula and its oldest geological entity). In the Mesozoic the basement underwent tropical weathering processes. The weathered mantle were truncated by the Alpine tectonic movements during the Tertiary, and Its remnants were unconformably covered by more recent sediments and are located in the west and south part of the Duero Basin and in the north edge of the Ambles Valley graben. For the weathering profiles developed on the Hercynian Basement is possible to define three levels from bottom to top: 1) Lower level (biotitic granodiorite/porphyry and aplite dykes); 2) Intermediate level (ochre granite); 3) Upper level (red/white granite). The lower level has been much used as a source of ornamental stone, Avila Grey granite. The porphyry and applite dykes are mainly used to built the Walls of the City. The intermediate level is called Ochre granite or Caleño and was formed from the previous level through a tropical weathering process that, apart from variations in the petrophysical characteristics of the stone, has been accompanied by important mineralogical changes (2:1 and 1:1 phyllosilicates) and decreases in the contents of the most mobile cations. The upper level has received several names, Bleeding stone, Red and White granite or Silcrete and was formed through a silicification process by CT opal, kaolinization and remobilisation of iron oxyhydroxides. The historically and protected quarry is located in a village called La Colilla, about 5 km from the city of Avila. Currently, only this stone is exploited for restorations performed in the city e.g. The Walls (the best example of a military Romanesque Spanish architecture), the church of San Peter. Resources are limited and depleting so the stone will be scarce in the short term. Taking such points into account, it is suggested that Silicified Granite (Bleeding Stone and Ochre Granite) should be recognised as a Global Heritage Stone Resource

  4. A Survey on Intrusion Detection using Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Venkatesan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrusions are the activities that violate the security policy of system. Intrusion Detection is the process used to identify intrusions. Network security is to be considered as a major issue in recent years, since the computer network keeps on extending dramatically. Information Systems and Networks are subject to electronic attacks and the possibilities of intrusion are very high.  An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a system for detecting intrusions and reporting to the authority or to the network administration.  Data mining techniques have been successfully applied in many fields like Network Management, Education, Biology, Marketing, Manufacturing, Process control, and Fraud Detection.  Data Mining for IDS is the technique which can be used mainly to identify unknown attacks and to raise alarms when security violations are detected.  The purpose of this survey paper is to describe the methods/ techniques which are being used for Intrusion Detection based on Data mining concepts.  

  5. A Comprehensive Study in Data Mining Frameworks for Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Venkatesan, R. Ganesan, A. Arul Lawrence Selvakumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrusions are the activities that violate the security policy of system. Intrusion Detection is the process used to identify intrusions. Network security is to be considered as a major issue in recent years, since the computer network keeps on expanding every day. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a system for detecting intrusions and reporting to the authority or to the network administration. Data mining techniques have been successfully applied in many fields like Network Management, Education, Science, Business, Manufacturing, Process control, and Fraud Detection. Data Mining for IDS is the technique which can be used mainly to identify unknown attacks and to raise alarms when security violations are detected. The purpose of this survey paper is to describe the methods/ techniques which are being used for Intrusion Detection based on Data mining concepts and the designed frame works for the same. We are also going to review the related works for intrusion detection.

  6. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A. [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2005 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2005 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, the age-1 and older fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Age-0 Chinook salmon are more difficult to distinguish between wild and non-adclipped hatchery fish and therefore classified as unknown rearing. The total annual hatchery spring/summer Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 0.34 times greater in 2005 than in 2004. The wild spring/summer Chinook catch was 0.34 times less than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 0.67 times less than in 2004. Wild steelhead trout catch was 0.72 times less than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 1,152 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2005, the Snake River trap captured 219 hatchery and 44 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 110 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. Trap operations began on March 6 and were terminated on June 3. The trap was out of operation for a total of one day due to heavy debris. FPC requested that the trap be restarted on June 15 through June 22 to collect and PIT tag age-0 Chinook salmon. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 1.06 times greater and wild Chinook salmon catch was 1.26 times greater than in 2004. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2005 was 1.41 times greater and wild steelhead trout collection was 1.27 times greater than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 6 and were terminated on May 17 due to high flows. There were two days when the trap was taken out of service because of mechanical failure. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagged Chinook salmon and steelhead trout marked at the Snake River trap were affected by discharge. Statistical analysis of 2005 data detected a relation between migration rate and discharge for hatchery Chinook but was unable to detect a relation for wild Chinook. The inability to detect a migration rate discharge relation for wild Chinook salmon was caused by a lack of data. For hatchery Chinook salmon there was a 1.8-fold increase in migration rate between 50 and 100 kcfs. For steelhead trout tagged at the Snake River trap, statistical analysis detected a significant relation between migration rate and lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge. For hatchery and wild steelhead trout, there was a 2.2-fold and a 2.2-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. Travel time and migration rate to Lower Granite Dam for fish marked at the Salmon River trap were calculated. Statistical analysis of the 2005 data detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge for hatchery Chinook salmon, wild Chinook salmon, hatchery steelhead trout, and wild steelhead trout. Migration rate increased 4.2-fold for hatchery Chinook salmon, 2.9-fold for wild Chinook salmon and 2.5-fold for hatchery steelhead, and 1.7-fold for wild steelhead as discharge increased between 50 kcfs and 100 kcfs. Fish tagged with PIT tags at the Snake River and Salmon River traps were interrogated at four dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental and McNary dams). Because of the addition of the fourth interrogation site (Lower Monumental) in 1993 and the installation of the Removable Spillway Weir at Lower Granite Dam in 2001, caution must be used in comparing cumulative interrogation data. Cumulative interrogations at the fo

  7. A hot spring in granite of the Western Tianshan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The western Tianshan range is a major Cenozoic orogenic belt in central Asia exposing predominantly Paleozoic rocks including granite. Ongoing deformation is reflected by very rugged topography with peaks over 7000 m high. Active tectonic deformation is tied to an E-W trending fracture and fault system that sections the mountain chain into geologically diverse blocks that extend parallel to the orogen. In the Muzhaerte valley upwelling hot water follows such a fault system in the Muza granite. About 20 L min-1 Na-SO4-Cl water with a temperature of 55 deg. C having a total mineralization of about 1 g L-1 discharge from the hot spring. The water is used in a local spa that is frequented by the people of the upper Ili river area. Its waters are used for balneological purposes and the spa serves as a therapeutic institution. The major element composition of the hot water is dominated by Na and by SO4 and Cl, Ca is a minor component. Dissolved silica (1.04 mmol L-1) corresponds to a quartz-saturation temperature of 116 deg. C and a corresponding depth of the source of the water of about 4600 m. This temperature is consistent with Na/K and Na/Li geothermometry. The water is saturated with respect to fluorite and contains 7.5 mg L-1 F- as a consequence of the low Ca-concentration. The water is undersaturated with respect to the primary minerals of the reservoir granite at reservoir temperature causing continued irreversible dissolution of granite. The waters are oversaturated with respect to Ca-zeolite minerals (such as stilbite and mesolite), and it is expected that zeolites precipitate in the fracture pore space and in alteration zones replacing primary granite. The stable isotope composition of O and H supports a meteoric origin of the water. The Cl/Br mass ratio of 1500 suggests that the salinity results from halite dissolution. Salts leached from powders of Muza granite show the same Cl/Br signature as the hot spring water. Sodium chloride is stored in fluid and solid inclusions in the granite, which have been introduced to quartz by ductile shearing and faulting related to ongoing orogenesis. The hot water remobilizes the salt that is continuously liberated by the tectonic deformation. Water-granite interaction contributes a thenardite-component (Na2SO4) to the major element composition by albite dissolution in H2SO4. The water-rock interaction along faults and fractures transforms and alters Muza granite to a low-temperature epigranite

  8. Granite geomorphology and its geological controls, Serra da Estrela, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migo?, Piotr; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2014-12-01

    Serra da Estrela is an elevated granite massif in central Portugal, characterized by extensive plateau surfaces incised by deep valleys affected by Quaternary glaciation, bounded by steep fault-generated escarpments. The presence of seven major textural variants of granite provides an opportunity to study the relationships between lithology and relief, whereas DEM analysis helped to show the relationships between lithology and topography objectively. The higher ground is associated with fine- to medium-grained granites and is typified by planar surfaces of low gradient, with occasional angular tors and rock pedestals. Block fields built by angular material are common in the parts that were not previously glaciated. Less elevated parts of the plateau are supported by medium- to coarse-grained granites and show more varied topography, with an abundance of tors, boulder piles, and depressions. Lithological boundaries locally coincide with slope breaks but this is not the rule. In the northern part of the massif a deep topographic basin has evolved in biotite granite, whereas deeply incised valleys follow major fault lines. Geological controls show a hierarchy, in that gross relief reflects the pattern of tectonic uplift and subsidence, whereas lithology and then fracture patterns become more and more important if one focuses on smaller and smaller landforms.

  9. Study on distribution coefficient for cesium between granite and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of safety evaluation of geological disposal, distribution coefficient, Kd has been measured in the laboratory. The Kd for Cs between solution and granite which is one of the candidates of igneous rocks for repository, has been measured by typical batch method. The weight of Cs adsorbed on the unit weight of granite is constant in the case that the concentration of Cs in solution is constant. There is no dependancy of the weight of Cs adsorbed on the unit weight of granite on the surface gross area of granite at equilibrium condition. Consequently it appears that the Kd, which is calculated from the weight of Cs adsorbed on granite, is constant in the case that the concentration of Cs in solution is constant. The value of Kd at equilibrium condition varies from 20(ml/g) to 1(ml/g) in the range of high Cs concentration solution. On the other hand in the range of low Cs concentration, it seems that the value of Kd is almost constant, independently of the Cs concentrations. (author)

  10. Mechanical and thermomechanical behaviour of Lac du Bonnet granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical and thermomechanical rock property tests have been carried out on Lac du Bonnet granitic samples. These tests have provided design data and allowed data interpretations for geosphere modelling, conceptual vault engineering and in situ experiments associated with the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (NRWMP). The results indicated the following trends with increasing depth: decreased uniaxial compressive strength; decreased tensile strength; decreased Young's modulus; decreased zero-pressure compressive wave velocity; increased Poisson's ratio. The observed trends compared with a slight compositional variation of the Lac du Bonnet granitic pluton with depth. Altered pink granite samples from the upper zones of the formation were stronger in compression and deformed less than the slightly altered greenish grey, or grey granitic samples from the deeper horizons. It is felt that this behaviour can be attributed to stress relaxation in the grey granites after drilling. The strength and deformational properties of the rock samples were relatively unaffected by increasing temperature to 200 degrees Celsius, except at low confining pressures (below 5 MPa). The apparent thermal expansion of the rock samples occurred in multiple stages over the temperature range of 25 degrees Celsius to 200 degrees Celsius. Apparent expansion is lower during the initial stages of heating and may not be detected under in situ conditions if large fractures are present

  11. Uranium distribution in Brazilian granitic rocks. Identification of uranium provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research characterized and described uranium enriched granitoids in Brazil. They occur in a variety of tectonic environments and are represented by a variety granite types of distinct ages. It may be deduced that in general they have been generated by partial melting process of continental crust. However, some of them, those with tonality composition, indicate a contribution from mantle derived materials, thus suggesting primary uranium enrichment from the upper mantle. Through this study, the identification and characterization of uranium enriched granite or uranium provinces in Brazil can be made. This may also help identify areas with potential for uranium mineralization although it has been note that uranium mineralization in Brazil are not related to the uranium enrichment process. In general the U-anomalous granitoids are composed of granites with alkaline composition and granite ''sensu strictu'' which comprise mainly of syenites, quartz-syenites and biotite-hornblende granites, with ages between 1,800 - 1,300 M.a. The U-anomalous belongings to this period present high Sr initial ratios values, above 0.706, and high Rb contents. Most of the U-enriched granitoids occur within ancient cratonic areas, or within Early to Mid-Proterozoic mobile belts, but after their cratonization. Generally, these granitoids are related to the border zones of the mobile belts or deep crustal discontinuity. Refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Acceptance of Smart Phone by Younger Consumers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hoe Hong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The sales of smart phone are rapidly increasing in Malaysia and in the global markets. Which means that, smart phone has a great opportunity in the future growth of the mobile industry. The aim of this research is to determine the acceptance of smart phone by younger consumers in Malaysia. A total of 113 useable questionnaires was collected and analyzed through SPSS. Google doc form was utilized to create the online questionnaire. The data collection method utilized in this paper was online interview. The result shows that, perceived usefulness (PU, perceived ease of use (PEOU, and Internet self-efficacy (ISE significantly influenced the acceptance of smart phone by younger consumers in Malaysia. However, no relationship exists among Internet self-efficacy, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Future studies should explore more on other factors to determine the acceptance of smart phone.

  13. Hippocampal sclerosis in children younger than 2 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadom, Nadja [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Tsuchida, Tammy; Gaillard, William D. [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is rarely considered as a diagnosis in children younger than 2 years. To describe imaging features in conjunction with clinical information in patients with hippocampal sclerosis who are younger than 2 years. We retrospectively reviewed MR brain imaging and clinical information in five children in whom the diagnosis of HS was made both clinically and by MRI prior to 2 years of age. Imaging features establishing the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis were bright T2 signal and volume loss, while the internal architecture of the hippocampal formation was preserved in almost all children. Clinically, all children had an infectious trigger. It is necessary for radiologists to consider HS in children with certain clinical features to plan an MRI protocol that is appropriate for detection of hippocampal pathology. (orig.)

  14. Microbial community evolution across a granitic chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.; Macalady, J. M.; White, A. F.; Schulz, M. S.; Brantley, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    Ongoing research at a marine terrace chronosequence in Santa Cruz, CA includes quantification of biogeochemical and physical processes to better understand the evolution of soil development and the soil microbial community. The chronosequence, formed on granite-derived marine sediments, is located in a Mediterranean climate zone and is dominated by grassland vegetation. Two features of the chronosequence relevant to the soil microbial community are the progressive depletion of primary minerals--containing nutrients such as Ca, K, and P--with soil age, and the increase of the aboveground plant biomass from terrace 1 (65 ka) to terrace 2 (90 ka) with a subsequent decrease for terraces 3 (137 ka) and 5 (226 ka). This study investigated soil microbial community size and composition in both the surface soils (0-0.07 m) and in subsurface depth profiles (down to at least 2 meters) across the chronosequence. Trends in the surface concentrations of carbon and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were similar to the aboveground plant biomass with an increase from terrace 1 to terrace 2 and then a slight decrease in terraces 3 and 5. Soil microbial community composition trends, measured by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), with soil age were somewhat different. Concentrations of the 18:29,12 lipid, a lipid derived from fungi as well as fine plant roots, declined with soil age. As expected from previously published studies of soil microbial communities with depth, concentrations of carbon, MBC, and PLFAs declined with increasing depth in the subsurface. Preliminary PLFA data indicated two main microbial community changes with depth. First, the 18:29,12 concentration decreased as a fraction of the total PLFA concentration, and second, branched chain lipids commonly associated with gram-positive bacteria increased as a fraction of the total PFLA concentration. The variation of soil carbon and the soil microbial community as a function of depth appeared to change with soil age. Shallow subsurface (0.2-1 m) carbon, MBC, and PLFA concentrations declined more rapidly relative to surface concentrations in the older terraces (3 and 5) than in terrace 2. Interestingly, the decline in the 18:29,12 lipid fraction was more pronounced in the younger terrace 2 soil than in the older terrace 3 and 5 soils. Results from this first study of soil microbiology across a long-term (declining ecosystem) grassland chronosequence differed from similar studies on forested long-term chronosequences. In particular, the 18:29,12 lipid declined as a fraction of the total PLFA pool in the surface soil with soil age, rather than increasing as was the case for the forested chronosequences. Additionally, this was the first study of subsurface soil microbiology across a long-term chronosequence. PLFA results indicated that variations in the soil microbial community with age were more significant in the subsurface than at the surface. These changes in the soil microbial community were likely connected to changes in the plant biomass. Plant biomass changes were, in turn, probably driven by the increased depletion of primary minerals and nutrients such as Ca or P with soil age across the chronosequence. At the Santa Cruz chronosequence, changes in soil chemistry due to chemical weathering appear to be driving changes in the ecology of the soil microbial community.

  15. Sensing Danger: Innate Immunology for Intrusion Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Uwe, Aickelin

    2008-01-01

    The immune system provides an ideal metaphor for anomaly detection in general and computer security in particular. Based on this idea, artificial immune systems have been used for a number of years for intrusion detection, unfortunately so far with little success. However, these previous systems were largely based on immunological theory from the 1970s and 1980s and over the last decade our understanding of immunological processes has vastly improved. In this paper we present two new immune inspired algorithms based on the latest immunological discoveries, such as the behaviour of Dendritic Cells. The resultant algorithms are applied to real world intrusion problems and show encouraging results. Overall, we believe there is a bright future for these next generation artificial immune algorithms.

  16. A Review on Network Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Yadav , Divakar Singh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet and computer networks are exposed to an increasing number of security threats. For new types of attacks are emerging constantly, developing flexibility and adaptability safety-oriented approaches is a serious problem. In this context, the anomal based network Intrusion detection techniques are valuable technology to protect the target systems and networks against malicious activities. However, despite a number of these methods described in the literature in recent years, security tools comprising detecting anomalies function is only beginning to emerge, and several important issues remain to be solved. This paper begins with the review of the best-known anomaly-based intrusion detection techniques. Then the available platforms, systems development and research projects are presented. Finally, the main issues are addressed for large deployments, anomaly based detectors disruption, with special emphasis on the evaluation questions.

  17. The experience of demanding work environments in younger workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, T N; Labriola, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Investigating whether certain individual or background characteristics are associated with an increased risk of experiencing an excessively demanding work environment in younger workers may help to reduce future inequality in health and maximize their labour market participation. AIMS: To describe the work environment of Danish 20- to 21-year olds and to investigate the influence of family socioeconomic background and individual characteristics at age 14-15 on later experience of physical and psychosocial work environments. METHODS: We obtained information on subjects' school performance, vulnerability, health and parental socioeconomic status from registers and a questionnaire completed in 2004. A questionnaire concerning eight measures of subjects' psychosocial and physical work environment in 2010 was used to determine the outcomes of interest. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 679 younger workers aged 20-21. The psychosocial work environment was in general good but younger workers experienced more demanding physical work than the general working population. Overall, individual as well as family factors had a limited impact on their assessment of the work environment. Low self-esteem at age 14-15 was associated with experiencing high demands and lack of trust and fairness at work, whereas low parental socioeconomic status was associated with a demanding physical work environment. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a social gradient in experiencing a demanding physical work environment at age 20-21. The psychosocial work environment experienced by younger workers was generally good, but vulnerable young people may need special attention to protect them from or prepare them for psychosocially demanding jobs later in life.

  18. The experience of demanding work environments in younger workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, T N; Labriola, M; Nohr, E A; Andersen, J H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Investigating whether certain individual or background characteristics are associated with an increased risk of experiencing an excessively demanding work environment in younger workers may help to reduce future inequality in health and maximize their labour market participation. AIMS: To describe the work environment of Danish 20- to 21-year olds and to investigate the influence of family socioeconomic background and individual characteristics at age 14-15 on later experience of phy...

  19. Acceptance of Smart Phone by Younger Consumers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Hoe Hong; Boon Heng Teh; Chin Hooi Soh

    2014-01-01

    The sales of smart phone are rapidly increasing in Malaysia and in the global markets. Which means that, smart phone has a great opportunity in the future growth of the mobile industry. The aim of this research is to determine the acceptance of smart phone by younger consumers in Malaysia. A total of 113 useable questionnaires was collected and analyzed through SPSS. Google doc form was utilized to create the online questionnaire. The data collection method utilized in this paper was online i...

  20. Sexuality and body image in younger women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schover, L R

    1994-01-01

    Breast cancer has the potential to be most devastating to the sexual function and self-esteem of premenopausal women. Nevertheless, not one study has systematically compared the impact of breast cancer treatment on sexual issues across age groups. Research shows that younger women with breast cancer have more severe emotional distress than older cohorts. In a group of patients seeking sexual rehabilitation in a cancer center, younger couples were more distressed, but also had the best prognosis with treatment. In theory, loss of a breast or poor breast appearance would be more distressing to women whose youth gives them high expectations for physical beauty. Seeking new dating relationships after breast cancer treatment is a special stressor for single women. Potential infertility also may impact on a woman's self-concept as a sexual person. Systemic treatment disrupts sexual function by causing premature menopause, with estrogen loss leading to vaginal atrophy and androgen loss perhaps decreasing sexual desire and arousability. Research on mastectomy versus breast conservation across all ages of women has demonstrated that general psychological distress, marital satisfaction, and overall sexual frequency and function do not differ between the two treatment groups. Women with breast conservation do rate their body image more highly and are more comfortable with nudity and breast caressing. There is some evidence that breast conservation offers more psychological "protection" for younger women. Research on the impact of breast reconstruction is sparse, but reveals similar patterns. Future studies should use rigorous methodology and focus on the impact of premature menopause and the effectiveness of sexual rehabilitation for younger women. PMID:7999462

  1. Obesity and sexual dysfunction in younger Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Heitman, B. L.; Wagner, Gorm

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Proportion of populations that are overweight and obese are on the rise and generally affecting more than 50% of the adult Western male population. It is, therefore, of interest to look at possible associations between obesity and sexual function in a homogeneous population. AIM: To examine a possible association between sexual disorders (erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory disorders, and sexual desire disorders) and obesity among younger men born and living in Denmark. METHODS: A co...

  2. DUNDRUM Restriction and Intrusion Liberty Ladders (DRILL)

    OpenAIRE

    KENNEDY, HARRY

    2011-01-01

    This series of rating 'ladders' is intended to allow a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the use of restrictive and intrusive interventions as part of the therapeutic management of violence and aggression in psychiatric hospital settings. This is an evolving handbook. The ladders are currently organised to facilitate a behavioural analysis. Context, antecedents, behaviour, interventions, consequences are conceptualised as a series of events organised in temporal sequence so that causes...

  3. Strategic Alert Throttling for Intrusion Detection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tedesco, Gianni; Aickelin, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Network intrusion detection systems are themselves becoming targets of attackers. Alert flood attacks may be used to conceal malicious activity by hiding it among a deluge of false alerts sent by the attacker. Although these types of attacks are very hard to stop completely, our aim is to present techniques that improve alert throughput and capacity to such an extent that the resources required to successfully mount the attack become prohibitive. The key idea presented is to...

  4. Intrusion Detection using Continuous Time Bayesian Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jing; Shelton, Christian R.

    2014-01-01

    Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) fall into two high-level categories: network-based systems (NIDS) that monitor network behaviors, and host-based systems (HIDS) that monitor system calls. In this work, we present a general technique for both systems. We use anomaly detection, which identifies patterns not conforming to a historic norm. In both types of systems, the rates of change vary dramatically over time (due to burstiness) and over components (due to service differenc...

  5. An Intrusion Detection Algorithm Based On NFPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anming, Zhong

    A process oriented intrusion detection algorithm based on Probabilistic Automaton with No Final probabilities (NFPA) is introduced, system call sequence of process is used as the source data. By using information in system call sequence of normal process and system call sequence of anomaly process, the anomaly detection and the misuse detection are efficiently combined. Experiments show better performance of our algorithm compared to the classical algorithm in this field.

  6. A Review of Vapor Intrusion Models

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yijun; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    A complete vapor intrusion (VI) model, describing vapor entry of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) into buildings located on contaminated sites, generally consists of two main parts-one describing vapor transport in the soil and the other its entry into the building. Modeling the soil vapor transport part involves either analytically or numerically solving the equations of vapor advection and diffusion in the subsurface. Contaminant biodegradation must often also be included in this simulatio...

  7. Perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain an effective perimeter intrusion detection system requires careful sensor selection, procurement, and installation. The selection process involves a thorough understanding of the unique site features and how these features affect the performance of each type of sensor. It is necessary to develop procurement specifications to establish acceptable sensor performance limits. Careful explanation and inspection of critical installation dimensions is required during on-site construction. The implementation of these activities at a particular site is discussed

  8. Traumatic Supraspinatus Tears in Patients Younger Than 25 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilisio, Matthew F; Noel, Curtis R; Noble, Jeffrey S; Bell, Robert H

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic rotator cuff tears in patients younger than 25 years are rare events, with few reports in the literature. When compared with the more mature shoulder, the young, healthy supraspinatus tendon is a robust tendon that is able to absorb a significant amount of energy before tendon failure. Therefore, the diagnosis of a rotator cuff tear can be often overlooked in this population due to the patient's age. This is a report of traumatic supraspinatus repairs in patients younger than 25 years. Nine patients younger than 25 years were identified with a posttraumatic supraspinatus tear as visualized during routine diagnostic shoulder arthroscopy. These 9 patients represented 0.33% of all rotator cuff repairs during a 9-year period. Average patient age was 19.1 years (±3.7 years; range, 13 to 25 years). Magnetic resonance imaging failed to diagnose a rotator cuff tear in 50% of the patients. Mean delay from injury to surgery was 6.6 months. All tears were arthroscopically repaired. Concomitant anterior instability pathology was demonstrated among 66.7% of the patients. No complications were reported. At latest follow-up, all patients reported minimal to no shoulder pain and were tolerating strenuous work, activities, and sports without significant complaints. Even with advanced imaging, the diagnosis of a rotator cuff tear can often be missed in this patient population. Although clinical outcomes can be good, care must be taken to broaden the diagnostic differential in young patients with posttraumatic shoulder pain. PMID:26186327

  9. Rb-Sr ages and palaeomagnetic data for some Angolan alkaline intrusives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New Rb-Sr age measurements are reported for a number of intrusives from Angola. Data for the Njoio and Tchivira nepheline syenite bodies yield mineral isochrons indicating ages of 104,3+-0,8 Ma and 130,8+-1,4 Ma respectively. Palaeomagnetic studies on the same occurrences gave marginal and scattered results respectively. Micas from the Camafuca crater-facies kimberlite yielded and apparent age of 1 822+-151 Ma, a result that is far in excess of the Tertiary (or younger) age inferred for this pipe. Similarly conflicting data were obtained for the Nova Lisboa kimberlite. It is likely that older crustal micas incorporated in the kimberlite breccias are responsible for the anomalous ages reported on the kimberlites. Satisfactory palaeomagnetic data are reported for the Zenza and Bailundu occurrences, not dated by the Rb-Sr method. A convenient K-Ar age of 80+-0,8 Ma was obtainable for Zenza

  10. 75 FR 16827 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Granite Mountain Wind, LLC Wind Energy Generation Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...Draft Granite Mountain Wind, LLC Wind Energy Generation Project Environmental...for the proposed Granite Mountain Wind Energy Generation Project and by this...to the proposed Granite Mountain Wind Energy Generation Project by any of...

  11. Efficient Mining and Detection of Sequential Intrusion Patterns for Network Intrusion Detection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Mei-Ling; Huang, Zifang; Luo, Hongli

    In recent years, pervasive computing infrastructures have greatly improved the interaction between human and system. As we put more reliance on these computing infrastructures, we also face threats of network intrusion and/or any new forms of undesirable IT-based activities. Hence, network security has become an extremely important issue, which is closely connected with homeland security, business transactions, and people's daily life. Accurate and efficient intrusion detection technologies are required to safeguard the network systems and the critical information transmitted in the network systems. In this chapter, a novel network intrusion detection framework for mining and detecting sequential intrusion patterns is proposed. The proposed framework consists of a Collateral Representative Subspace Projection Modeling (C-RSPM) component for supervised classification, and an inter-transactional association rule mining method based on Layer Divided Modeling (LDM) for temporal pattern analysis. Experiments on the KDD99 data set and the traffic data set generated by a private LAN testbed show promising results with high detection rates, low processing time, and low false alarm rates in mining and detecting sequential intrusion detections.

  12. Mantle fluid metallogeny of granite-type uranium deposits in northern Guangdong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both Guidong and Zhuguang composites in northern Guangdong Province consist of Indosinian and Yanshanian granite bodies. The two most well-known granite-type uranium ore fields in China, Xiazhuang and Changjiang, are located in the eastern parts of the the two composites, respectively. Studies on H, O, C, Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopes of uranium deposits Xiwang, Shituling and Xianshi within the Xiazhuang ore field and deposit Mianhuakeng within the Changjiang ore field showed that ore-forming fluid had DH2O of -97?-4.1% and ?18OH2O of 8.1?0.06%; post-ore fluid had ?DH2O of -71?-5% and ?DH2O of 2.0?-0.94%. After being compared with various fluids, these data suggested the ore-forming fluids were mainly composed of mantle fluid, whereas in the post-mineralization fluids, addition of fluids with meteoric water origin became evident or even dominant. Calcites from ore veins had ?13C of -9.2?-0.31%, indicating mantle origin of ?CO2. Studies of Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes revealed that ore-forming materials were a mixture of metal elements coming from granites, mafic dikes and basement metamorphic rocks. Mantle fluid metallogeny of these uranium deposits was compatible with the following geological facts. The deposits in Xiazhuang and Changjiang ore fields fell into super large ones. Within the ore fields, there were many mafic dikes of various groups and strike directions. Fault-depression basins were developed outside the granite composites. The timing and space of ore formation were closely related to the extension tectonic event (or emplacement of mafic dikes. The ore components were characterized by multiple origins. Both permissively and zoned distributions of alkaline alterations were strong and the mineralization fluids were originated from the mantle. The mineralization model could be described as follows: Fluids from Dehydration and degassing of subducting slabs in the late Mesozoic altered the mantle in the mantle wedge by metasomatism to form mantle fluids which finally flew into crust through deep extensional tectonic activities (or intrusion of mafic dike magmas). During moving up process, the mantle fluids which were enriched in alkali and ?CO2 interacted with the crustal rocks (especially uranium-rich rocks), resulting in alkaline alteration of crustal rocks and mobilizing uranium and other metals in the rocks. As a result, the mantle-derived fluids gradually became uranium-rich fluids. Deposition of pitchblende during late evolution stages of the mantle fluids was related with following factors: 1) mixing of the ore-forming fluids with fluids of meteoric-water origin so as to change the physicochemical conditions of the fluids, 2) boiling of the fluids when they entering low pressure environment and thus escaping of CO2 to lead to decomposition of the uranyl-carbonate ions in the fluids, 3) interaction between uranyl-ion bearing fluids and reducer bearing mafic dikes.. (authors)

  13. Intrusion detection using pattern recognition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Yu, Li

    2007-09-01

    Today, cyber attacks such as worms, scanning, active attackers are pervasive in Internet. A number of security approaches are proposed to address this problem, among which the intrusion detection system (IDS) appears to be one of the major and most effective solutions for defending against malicious users. Essentially, intrusion detection problem can be generalized as a classification problem, whose goal is to distinguish normal behaviors and anomalies. There are many well-known pattern recognition algorithms for classification purpose. In this paper we describe the details of applying pattern recognition methods to the intrusion detection research field. Experimenting on the KDDCUP 99 data set, we first use information gain metric to reduce the dimensionality of the original feature space. Two supervised methods, the support vector machine as well as the multi-layer neural network have been tested and the results display high detection rate and low false alarm rate, which is promising for real world applications. In addition, three unsupervised methods, Single-Linkage, K-Means, and CLIQUE, are also implemented and evaluated in the paper. The low computational complexity reveals their application in initial data reduction process.

  14. Testing Of Network Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeep Vegunta

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Network based intrusion detection system use the models of attacks to identify intrusive behavior ability of systems to detect attacks by quality of models which are called signatures. Some attacks exploits in different ways. For this reason we use testing tools that able to detect goodness of signatures. This technique describes test and evaluate misuse detection models in the case of network-based intrusion detection systems. we use Mutant Exploits are working against vulnerability applications. This mutant exploit is based on mechanism to generate large no. of exploit by applying mutant operators. The results of the systems in detecting these variations pro-vide a quantitative basis for the evaluation of the quality of the corresponding detection model. but here we are going to find defects of this testing and is this test will provide 100% security for this system (or not. and also which technique gives much security among these techniques fuzzy logic, neural networks, hybrid fuzzy and neural networks, naïve bayes, genetic algorithms and data mining.

  15. Artificial Intrusion Detection Techniques: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Gupta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Networking has become the most integral part of our cyber society. Everyone wants to connect themselves with each other. With the advancement of network technology, we find this most vulnerable to breach and take information and once information reaches to the wrong hands it can do terrible things. During recent years, number of attacks on networks have been increased which drew the attention of many researchers on this field. There have been many researches on intrusion detection lately. Many methods have been devised which are really very useful but they can only detect the attacks which already took place. These methods will always fail whenever there is a foreign attack which is not famous or which is new to the networking world. In order to detect new intrusions in the network, researchers have devised artificial intelligence technique for Intrusion detection prevention system. In this paper we are going to cover what types evolutionary techniques have been devised and their significance and modification.

  16. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A. [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2004 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2004 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 1.1 times greater in 2004 than in 2003. The wild Chinook catch was 1.1 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 1.2 times greater than in 2003. Wild steelhead trout catch was 1.6 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 978 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2004, the Snake River trap captured 23 hatchery and 18 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 60 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. Trap operations began on March 7 and were terminated on June 4. The trap was out of operation for a total of zero days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 10.8% less and wild Chinook salmon catch was 19.0% less than in 2003. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2004 was 20.0% less and wild steelhead trout collection was 22.3% less than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 7 and were terminated on May 28 due to high flows. There were two days when the trap was taken out of service because wild Chinook catch was very low, hatchery Chinook catch was very high, and the weekly quota of PIT tagged hatchery Chinook had been met. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged Chinook salmon and steelhead trout marked at the Snake River trap were affected by discharge. Statistical analysis of 2004 data detected a relation between migration rate and discharge for wild Chinook salmon but was unable to detect a relation for hatchery Chinook. The inability to detect a migration rate discharge relation for hatchery Chinook salmon was caused by age-0 fall Chinook being mixed in with the age 1 Chinook. Age-0 fall Chinook migrate much slower than age-1 Chinook, which would confuse the ability to detect the migration rate discharge relation. When several groups, which consisted of significant numbers of age-0 Chinook salmon, were removed from the analysis a relation was detected. For hatchery and wild Chinook salmon there was a 2.8-fold and a 2.4-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. For steelhead trout tagged at the Snake River trap, statistical analysis detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge. For hatchery and wild steelhead trout, there was a 2.3-fold and a 2.0-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. Travel time and migration rate to Lower Granite Dam for fish marked at the Salmon River trap were calculated. Statistical analysis of the 2004 data detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge for hatchery Chinook salmon, wild Chinook salmon and hatchery steelhead trout. Not enough data were available to perform the analysis for wild steelhead trout. Migration rate increased 7.0-fold for hatchery Chinook salmon, 4.7-fold for wild Chinook salmon and 3.8-fold for hatchery steelhead as discharge increased between 50 kcfs and 100 kcfs. Fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River and Salmon River traps were interrogated at four dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary dams). Because of the addition of the fourth interrogation site (Lower Monume

  17. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A. [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 2002 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2002 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 11.4 times greater in 2002 than in 2001. The wild Chinook catch was 15.5 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 2.9 times greater than in 2001. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.8 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 3,996 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2002, the Snake River trap captured 69 hatchery and 235 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 114 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant increase in catch in 2002 was due to a 3.1 fold increase in hatchery Chinook production and a more normal spring runoff. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on June 7. The trap was out of operation for a total of four days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 4.2 times greater and wild Chinook salmon catch was 2.4 times greater than in 2001. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the 2001 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the previous year's catch. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on May 29 due to high flows. The trap was out of operation for four days due to high flow or debris. The increase in hatchery Chinook catch in 2002 was due to a 3.1 fold increase in hatchery production and differences in flow between years. Changes in hatchery and wild steelhead catch are probably due to differences in flow between years. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged Chinook salmon and steelhead trout marked at the Snake River trap were affected by discharge. Statistical analysis of 2002 data detected a relation between migration rate and discharge for hatchery and wild Chinook salmon. For hatchery and wild Chinook salmon there was a 4.7-fold and a 3.7-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. For steelhead trout tagged at the Snake River trap, statistical analysis detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge. For hatchery and wild steelhead trout, there was a 1.8-fold and a 1.7-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. Travel time and migration rate to Lower Granite Dam for fish marked at the Salmon River trap were calculated. Statistical analysis of the 2002 data detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge for wild Chinook salmon and hatchery steelhead trout. The analysis was unable to detect a relation between migration rate and discharge for hatchery Chinook salmon. The lack of a detectable relation was probably a result of the migration rate data being spread over a very narrow range of discharge. Not enough data were available to perform the analysis for wild steelhead trout. Migration rate increased 4.3-fold for wild Chinook salmon and 2.2-fold for hatchery steelhead between 50 kcfs and 100 kcfs. Fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River trap were interrogated at four dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary dams). Because of the addition of the fourth interrogation site (Lower Monumental) in 1993 and the installation of the Removable Spillway Wei

  18. Radioactive Minerals Species of Maisah Tertiary Granite, South Sulawesi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the supporting program for radioactive mineral exploration in South Sulawesi, an attempt has been made to identify species and possible source of the minerals discovered in heavy mineral concentrates taken from Binuang River. The study was performed by petrographic observation on thin sections and grain counting analysis of crushed granite samples. Identification of minerals was done by autoradiography and x-ray diffraction methods. Radioactive minerals within the granite, such as monazite, zircon, apatite, allanite, and thorite, are similar to those found in heavy mineral concentrate samples, meaning that Maisah Granite is the source rock of radioactive minerals deposited at the river bank of Binuang River. (author). 7 refs., 7 tabs., 5 figs

  19. The Polumir granite: Addititional data on its origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukov Milenko S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Polumir granite is exposed on several localities due to erosion, and its chemical and mineral composition is presented in this paper. It is built of K-feldspar, plagioclase, myrmekite, metasomatic albite, biotite, muscovite and quartz, while apatite, magnetite, monazite, allanite and zircon are present as accessory minerals. According to its chemical and mineral composition and rock chemistry (trace and REE elements the Polumir granite is leucocratic, sin-collisional, with S-type characteristics. It crystallized at temperature of about 650°C and under pressure of 2-4 kbar. Results of isotope analyses (K-Ar method on biotites indicate that the Polumir granite was formed during the Miocene (14-19 Ma and it has undergone subsequent weak remobilization afterwards.

  20. GRANITE CUTTING WASTE: TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION FOR THE FINAL DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joner Oliveira Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The granite processing market is one of the most promising business areas of the mineral sector, with an average growth of the world production of about 6% per year. The granite extraction generates residues in the form of powder rock of 20-25 wt.% of the total benefited. The granite dust must be carefully managed since it can cause siltation of rivers and human health risks. This paper presents two routes for the final destination of this waste: the vitrification process aiming the production of fibers for thermo-acoustic insulation, and the magnetic separation in order to recover the steel grit. Results showed that the forms of treatments presented are economically and ecologically viable since they represent a cost reduction in the waste disposal, and also provide the production of new materials with commercial value.

  1. Association of lung cancer mortality with precambrian granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen counties in New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey that are associated with the Reading Prong granite deposits have significantly higher age-adjusted lung cancer rates among whites of both sexes (1950-1979) than do 17 nearby control counties. Elevated radon daughter concentrations have been found in homes near the Reading Prong granites. Fraction of populations living in cities with over 5,000 persons, industrial centers, cities with populations above 20,000, and median incomes did not differ significantly for three county groups (those which include the granite, fringe area, and control areas). Weaknesses were inadequate home measurements of radon and lack of smoking information. Findings are consistent with several other studies relating radon in homes to lung cancer

  2. Fluid inclusion study of radioactive granite and cherty cataclasite in the Southeastern part of Nanded district, Maharashtra: implications for the uranium mineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southeastern part of Nanded district, Maharashtra exposes Palaeoproterozoic granitoids, representing the younger phase of Peninsular Gneissic Complex (PGC), mark the northeastern extension of Eastern Dharwar Craton. These granitoids are predominantly pink/grey granites, which are traversed by younger phosphatic cherty cataclasites close to the Deccan Trap capping. They are also affected by profuse pegmatitic/quartzo-feldspathic, quartz and epidote venations, especially close to fault/shear zones. A number of N-S to NNE-SSW, NE-SW, NW-SE and E-W trending lineaments marked by faults/fractures/shear zones and dykes are delineated in this granitic terrain. Among these, NE-SW and NNE-SSW faults/shear zones affecting granitoids and cherty cataclasites in Shahpur-Sujayatpur and Thadisaoli area have recorded significant uranium anomalies (Granitoids: upto 1% U3O8 and 0.20% ThO2; Cherty cataclasites upto 0.11% U3O8 and <0.005% ThO2) and enrichment in rare metal and rare earth element content (Nb-77ppm, Y-111 ppm, Zr-432ppm; n=9 and total REE-1167ppm; n=3). Presence of discrete uranium/thorium minerals (uraninite, b-uranophane and thorite) and high content of resistates viz., apatite, zircon, allanite, sphene, cerianite, monazite and ilmenite are responsible for radioactivity in granitoids while phosphatic material accounts for radioactivity in cherty cataclasites

  3. Iron isotope systematics of the Skaergaard intrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesher, Charles; Lundstrom, C.C.

    The early Eocene Skaergaard intrusion, central east Greenland, is one of the most thoroughly studied layered mafic intrusions on Earth and an exceptional example of (near) closed-system magmatic differentiation. The Skaergaard intrusion is ideally suited to test models of closed-system fractional crystallization on non-traditional stable isotope systems, particularly iron. FeTi oxide minerals (titanomagnetite and ilmenite) appear after ~60% of the magma had solidified. This was a significant event affecting the liquid line of descent and potentially accompanied by iron isotope fractionation. Here we report the results of a broad study of the iron isotope compositions of gabbros within the layered and upper border series of the Skaergaard intrusion, pegmatite and granophyre associated with these gabbroic rocks, and the sandwich horizon thought to represent the product of extreme differentiation and/or liquid immiscibility. Forty-eight whole rock samples from well-constrained stratigraphic levels in the intrusion were crushed, powdered and dissolved, followed by iron separation by ion chromatography. Purified solutions were analyzed by MC- ICPMS in high-resolution mode using the sample-std bracket method. The ?56Fe values for Skaergaard gabbros range from a low of -0.019 per mil to a high of 0.253 per mil with an external precision of ±0.05 per mil (1?) or better. This range in ?56Fe spans much of that reported for terrestrial igneous rocks. ?56Fe varies systematically with stratigraphic position. Forward modeling of closed system fractional crystallization constrained by cumulate volumes, whole rock and mineral compositions, mineral modes and independent constraints on Fe isotope fractionation factors account for the stratigraphic relations, except during the final stages of differentiation of iron-rich silicate magma where the largest variation in ?56Fe occurs. We assess and dismiss liquid immiscibility, Soret effects and hydrothermal alternation as responsible for the variations, and hypothesize that Fe isotope fractionation factors for silicate minerals decrease markedly due to a change in the structural role of Fe+2 in very iron-rich silicate magmas characterizing the terminal stages of Skaergaard evolution.

  4. Oldest granite weathering profile at the Baltic craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct relations in the volcanogenic-sedimentary complex of the greenstone belts with gneiss-granites in the foundation pronounced with the weathering profile have been studied for the first time on the Baltic craton territory on the basis of results of geology-petrographic, mineralogical and isotope-geochemical studies. According to 207Pb/206Pb isotope dating of zircons from muscovite schists and gneiss-granites the age of the oldest on the Baltic craton profile of continental weathering amount to 2.8 bln. years

  5. Migration behaviour of barium and strontium in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption behaviour of Ba2+ and SR2+ cations on granite have been studied under flowing and static conditions in column and batch experiments. 133Ba, 90Sr and 3H were used as radio tracers. The retardation factors, Rf, and distribution ratios, Rd, of barium and strontium in column experiments were found to be smaller than those from batch experiments. In both techniques barium was sorbed more strongly on granite than strontium. Sorption energies were found to be in good agreement with literature values. (orig.)

  6. AGE ASPECTS OF PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT (on the example of transition from younger school development by the younger teenage period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???? ????????? ??????????

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of interrelation of features of children of different psychological age is carried out. The following provisions which have been put forward by E.E.Kravtsova that there are three spheres in which there are high-quality changes upon transition from one period to another were considered. the first sphere – communication with the adult It, according to E.E.Kravtsova marks itself entry of the child into crisis. Oboshchy the changes happening in this sphere upon transition from younger of school to younger teenage age, it is possible to note that from a position of the "eternal" pupil who needs explanations of the adult and his support, the child passes to a position of the equal partner. The second sphere – communication with contemporaries – it marks itself finding of the child in crisis. According to different authors in a transition period the contemporary gains the special importance. For the child it becomes much more important opinion of one contemporary, than many adults. However at younger teenage age the tendency arising in crisis, remains, only now and the choice of the contemporary and the basis of this choice become a subject of consciousness of the teenager. The third sphere - the consciousness characterizing the relation of the child to and which marks itself an exit of the child from crisis and transition by the new period of development.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-17

  7. Study on geochemical characteristics and genesis of Xiazhuang granite, northern Guangdong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Indonisian Xiazhuang granite comprises important part of the Guidong granite in northern Guangdong province and is characterized by high content of silica and alkali and peraluminous features. It is enriched in Rb, Th, U, Ce, Sm and Y, and depleted in Ba, Sr, P and Ti. This granite also shows slight LREE enrichment with LREE/HREE ratio of 7.54-11.18 and (La/Yb)N ratio of 7.36-16.03, and strong depletion of Eu with ?Eu values of 0.24-0.33. In the tectonic setting discrimination diagram, the Xiazhuang granite falls into the area of post-collision granite. All these features suggest that the Xiazhuang granite is a typical crust-derived granite. The granitic magma may have derived from partial melting of Paleoproterozoic meta-sedimentary rocks composed of argillaceous and arenaceous rocks in a crustal extension-thinning tectonic environment. (authors)

  8. Post-collisional multistage magmatism in the Ribeira mobile belt: geochemical and isotopic study of the Varzea Alegre intrusive complex, Espirito Santo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Varzea Alegre Intrusive Complex (VAIC) corresponds to a post-collisional (late orogenic) pluton, related to the Brasiliano cycle, situated in the central part of the Espirito Santo State. It intrudes amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphic rocks of the Ribeira Belt. Two distinct domains were recognised in this zoned pluton: an inner domain with opx-gabbro, monzogabbro, diorite, quartz-diorite and megaporphyritic granite, and an outer one comprising an irregular and large ring of charnockitic rocks. Geochemical data from the former reveal medium to high-K calc-alkalic rocks, enriched in incompatible elements, mainly Ba, Sr, La, Ce and Pb and partially depleted in HFS elements. The charnockitic rocks show a high-K alkali-calcic signature; they are rich in Ba, K and some HFS elements, such a Zr, P and Nb. The incompatible element enrichment detected in the rocks of the VAIC has been reported for several intrusions from this part of the Ribeira Belt. A Rb-Sr isochronic age of 508± 12 Ma was determined for the megaporphyritic granite. The TDM model age varies from 1.3 Ga (opx-gabbro) to ca. 1.67 Ga (charnockitic rocks), which can be related to an important Mesoproterozoic crustal event. The calculated TCHUR model ages of the cogenetic opx-gabbros and intermediary rocks is ca. 1.0 Ga, interpreted as the time when the basic magma was extracted from the source. (author)

  9. Semi-intrusive and non-intrusive stochastic methods for aerospace applications

    OpenAIRE

    Abgrall, Remi; Congedo, Pietro Marco; Galera, Stéphane; Geraci, Gianluca

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present semi-intrusive and non-intrusive techniques for uncertainties quanti?cation (UQ) in the context of the solution of partial di?erential equations, with a speci?c application to aerodynamics problems. These methods has been applied successfully to a supersonic nozzle ?ow and the analysis of an inviscid transonic ?ow over a RAE 2822 airfoil. In this case, we consider three uncertainties, on the Mach number, the angle of attack and the heat coe?cient ratio and the numerica...

  10. Pre-selection research on granite mass for high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is focused on the thinking and methods of pre-selection research on granite mass for high level radioactive waste repository. By means of image processing, image interpretation, geological characteristic analysis of granite mass, establishment of pre-selection criteria,some favorable granite masses are selected based on the field check. It is helpful to making decision for selecting candidate granite mass for high level radioactive waste repository. (authors)

  11. Geochemistry of enclaves and host granites from the Nelas area, central Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, M. M. V. G.; Neiva, A.M.R.; Whitehouse, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Tonalitic, granodioritic and monzogranitic enclaves occur in the Hercynian peraluminous porphyritic biotite granite and biotite-muscovite granite from the Nelas region. Some variation diagrams show linear trends, but others show dispersion. The enclaves generally have closely similar isotopic signatures to those of the host granites. They contain xenocrystic plagioclase with the same composition as phenocrysts of the host granite, and have biotite as the sole ferromagnesian phase with a compo...

  12. Phosphate minerals of some granitic rocks associated quartz veins from northern and central Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Neiva, A. M.R.; Silva, M. M.V.G.; Antunes, I. M.H.R.; Ramos, J.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    Phosphate minerals are common in northern and central Portuguese granitic rocks. Childrenite, eosphorite and intermediate compositions in this solid-solution séries occur in muscovite granites at Paredes da Beira and Penamacor-Monsanto, muscovite-biotite granites at Penamacor-Monsanto and in aplite veins at Vidago. The composition of childrenite and eosphorite are similar in each of these localities. Germanite occurs in a muscovite granite at Segura.

  13. Petrochemistry of the Reduced, Ilmenite-Series Granitoid Intrusion Related to the Hired Gold-Tin Prospect (Basiran, Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Karimpour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Doing research, two suites of Oligocene-Miocene granitoids, one relatively oxidized (magnetite-series and the other relatively reduced (ilmenite-series, were identified at Hired, Eastern Iran. Since Au-Sn mineralization is associated only with the relatively reduced ilmenite-series suite. It became interested to study the petrochemistry and petrophysics of these intrusive rocks. The magnetic susceptibility of the magnetite-series granitoids is greater than 300 x10-5 SI. This suite includes meta-aluminous, medium-K to high-K series gabbros to diorites containing magnetite, hornblende and biotite. The magnetic susceptibility of the ilmenite-series granitoids are less than 60 x10-5 SI. This suite includes meta-aluminous, high-K to shoshonitic diorites to granites, containing, biotite, muscovite and tourmaline. Both the ilmenite and magnetite series suites are strongly enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs = K, Th, Rb, Ba and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSE = Nb, Sr, Ti, Hf. Chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Element (REE plots indicate strong enrichments of light relative to heavy REE, with (La/YbN between 7-24. Ilmenite suite granitoids have pronounced negative europium anomalies. Stockwork mineralization is found within and nearby the relatively reduced ilmenite-series granites. Based on their mineral assemblages (arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, tourmaline, pyrite, gold and quartz, the ore-bearing fluids that generated these stockwork veins was also reduced. This and the spatial relationship of mineralization with the ilmenite suite granitoids, indicates that the ore fluids originated from reduced granitoid magmas. Hired Au-Sn deposit is a reduced-intrusion related gold system.

  14. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A. [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2003 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2003 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 2.1 times less in 2003 than in 2002. The wild Chinook catch was 1.1 times less than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 1.7 times less than in 2002. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.1 times less than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 579 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2003, the Snake River trap captured five hatchery and 13 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 36 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant differences in catch between 2003 and the previous year were due mainly to low flows during much of the trapping season and then very high flows at the end of the season, which terminated the trapping season 12 days earlier than in 2002. Trap operations began on March 9 and were terminated on May 27. The trap was out of operation for a total of zero days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 16.8% less and wild Chinook salmon catch was 1.7 times greater than in 2002. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2003 was 5.6% less than in 2002. Wild steelhead trout collection was 19.2% less than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 9 and were terminated on May 24 due to high flows. There were zero days when the trap was out of operation due to high flow or debris. The decrease in hatchery Chinook catch in 2003 was partially due to differences in flow between years because there was a 5.9% increase in hatchery production in the Salmon River drainage in 2003. The decrease in hatchery steelhead catch may be partially due to a 13% decrease in hatchery production in the Salmon River drainage in 2003. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged Chinook salmon and steelhead trout marked at the Snake River trap were affected by discharge. Statistical analysis of 2003 data detected a relation between migration rate and discharge for wild Chinook salmon but was unable to detect a relation for hatchery Chinook. The inability to detect a migration rate discharge relation for hatchery Chinook was probably caused by age 0 fall Chinook being mixed in with the age 1 Chinook. Age 0 fall Chinook migrate much slower than age 1 Chinook, which would confuse the ability to detect the migration rate discharge relation. For wild Chinook salmon there was a 1.4-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. For steelhead trout tagged at the Snake River trap, statistical analysis detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge. For hatchery and wild steelhead trout, there was a 1.7-fold and a 1.9-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. Travel time and migration rate to Lower Granite Dam for fish marked at the Salmon River trap were calculated. Statistical analysis of the 2003 data detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge for hatchery Chinook salmon, wild Chinook salmon and hatchery steelhead trout. Not enough data were available to perform the analysis for wild steelhead trout. Migration rate increased 14-fold for hatchery Chinook salmon, 8.3-fold for wild Chinook salmon and 2.4-fold for hatchery steelhead as discharge increased between 50 kcfs and

  15. Intrusion Detection System - False Positive Alert Reduction Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Manish; M.Hanumanthappa, Dr.; T. V. Suresh Kumar, Dr.

    2011-01-01

    Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is the most powerful system that can handle the intrusions of the computer environments by triggering alerts to make the analysts take actions to stop this intrusion, but the IDS is triggering alerts for any suspicious activity which means thousand alerts that the analysts should take care of it. IDS generate a large number of alerts and most of them are false positive as the behavior construe for partial attack pattern or lack of environment knowledge. These ...

  16. Identification of Human Intrusion Types into Radwaste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human intrusion has long been recognized as a potentially important post-closure safety issue for rad waste disposal facility. It is due to the difficulties in predicting future human activities. For the preliminary study of human intrusion, identification of human intrusion types need to be recognized and investigated also the approaching of problem solving must be known to predict the prevention act and accepted risk. (author)

  17. Fuzzy Approach for Intrusion Detection System: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Partha Sarathi Bhattacharjee; Dr. Shahin Ara Begum

    2013-01-01

    Secured data communication over internet and any other network is always under threat of intrusions and misuses. Intrusions pose a serious security threat for the stability and the security of information in a network environment. An intrusion is defined as any set of actions that attempt to compromise the integrity, confidentiality or availability of a resource. It includes attempting to destabilize the network, gaining unauthorized accessto files with privileges, or mishandling and misusing...

  18. Intrusion Detection using Multi-Stage Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Sahar Selim; Mohamed Hashem; Taymoor M. Nazmy

    2010-01-01

    Security has become a crucial issue for computer systems. New security failures are discovered everyday and there are a growing number of bad-intentioned people trying to take advantage of such failures. Intrusion detection is a critical process in network security. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) aim at protecting networks and computers from malicious network-based or host-based attacks. This paper presents a neural network approach to intrusion detection. We compare the use of our propose...

  19. Arduino Based Wireless Intrusion Detection Using IR Sensor and GSM?

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Kumar; Pradeep Kumar?

    2013-01-01

    Intrusion detection systems (IDS) strive to catch computer system intrusion & utilize by anygarnering and analyzing data. Wireless IDSs garner all local wireless transmissions and generate alerts basedeither on predefined signatures or on anomalies in the traffic. These wireless IDS can monitor and analyzeuser and system activities of known attacks, identity abnormal network activity and detect policy violations.Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) should be designed to facilitate the detection...

  20. Granites of Zoz area, Baroda district, Gujarat and its economic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The granites around Zoz represent a differentiated, calc-alkaline, subaluminous, A-type granite with higher uranium content. The A-type affinity points to the possibility of encountering Sn, Mo, Bi, Nb, Ta and F mineralization in the area. The low Th/U ratio also favours vein type U-deposits within granites or in adjacent metasediments. (author)

  1. Geochemistry of granulite-facies granitic rocks from Battye Glacier, northern Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proterozoic basement outcrops in the vicinity of Battye Glacier, northern Prince Charles Mountains, are dominated by granulites and gneisses derived from felsic (granitoid) intrusive igneous rocks, and by pegmatites. Felsic orthopyroxene granulites, garnet leucogneisses and garnet pegmatites have major and trace element compositions of highly felsic, but not strongly fractionated, granites. The garnet leucogneisses and garnet pegmatites have S-type characteristics, whereas the felsic granulites are probably I-type, although their high Zr+Nb+Y+Ce abundances suggest possible A-type affinities. Intermediate orthopyroxene ± clinopyroxene granulites mostly resemble I-type quartz diorites, except for a small subgroup of samples (characterised by low Na2O and K2O, and high MgO, Ni, Cr and HREE) of uncertain affinities and significance. Element ratios involving LILE (e.g. K/Rb, Rb/Ba, Rb/Sr, K/La, La/Th) closely match those typical of the inferred granitoid protoliths, suggesting that these rocks have experienced relatively little LILE depletion (except possibly for U) during regional metamorphism. It is therefore inferred that metamorphism was probably broadly isochemical. Because the felsic and intermediate granulites and garnet leucogneisses are Sr-depleted, Y-undepleted and mostly have negative Eu anomalies they are inferred to be the products of partial melting of felsic crustal sources leaving plagioclase-bearing residua. Plagioclase fractionation during crystallisation could also account for these characteristics, but K/Rb, Rb/Ba and Rb/Sr ratios in these rocks are not consistent with strong fractionation of feldspar. Garnet pegmatites differ chemically from garnet leucogneisses mainly in their lower Fe, Ti, Nb, Zn, Zr, Th and REE abundances and positive Eu anomalies, related to lower garnet, ilmenite and zircon contents in the garnet pegmatites. A genetic link between these two rock types, probably involving fractionation of these minerals during partial melting or crystallisation, is inferred. Incompatible-element abundances suggest that generation of the Battye Glacier granitic magmas from felsic crust might have occurred in a mature continental magmatic arc possibly well removed from an active subduction trench or, perhaps, in an intracontinental setting

  2. Smolt monitoring at the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1998.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka, during the 1998 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake and Salmon rivers. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam 19 1998 were marked with a fin-clip. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 226% of the 1997 number and 110% of the 1996 catch. The wild chinook catch was 120% of the 1997 catch but was only 93% of 1996. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 501% of 1997 numbers but only 90% of the 1996 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 569% of 1997 and 125% of the 1996 numbers. The Snake River trap collected 106 age-0 chinook salmon. During 1998, for the first time, the Snake River trap captured a significant number of hatchery sockeye salmon (1,552) and hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch (166). Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations began on March 8 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on June 12. The trap was out of operation for 34 d during the season due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 476% and wild chinook salmon catch was 137% of 1997 numbers and 175% and 82% of 1996 catch, respectively. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 1998 was 96% of the 1997 catch and 13% of the 1996 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1998 was 170% of the 1997 catch and 37% of the 1996 numbers. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir were affected by discharge. For fish tagged at the Snake River trap, statistical analysis of 1998 detected a significant relation between migration rate and discharge. For hatchery and wild chinook salmon there was a 2.0- and 2.6-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 thousands of cubic feet per second (kcfs). For hatchery steelhead trout there was a 2.6-fold increase in migration rate between 50 kcfs and 100 kcfs. For fish marked at the Salmon River trap, statistical analysis of the 1998 data detected a significant relation between migration rate and discharge for hatchery and wild chinook salmon hatchery and found a 3.3- and 2.6-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. A significant relation between migration rate and discharge was not detected for hatchery steelhead trout. Insufficient numbers of wild steelhead trout were PIT-tagged at the Salmon River trap to estimate travel time and migration rate to Lower Granite Dam

  3. Statistical Quality Control Approaches to Network Intrusion Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Rohitha Goonatilake; Rafic Bachnak; Susantha Herath

    2011-01-01

    In the study of network intrusion, much attention has been drawn to on-time detection of intrusion to safeguard public and private interest and to capture the law-breakers. Even though various methods have been found in literature, some situations warrant us to determine intrusions of network in real-time to prevent further undue harm to the computer network as and when they occur. This approach helps detect the intrusion and has a greater potential to apprehend the law-breaker. The purpose o...

  4. Constant Strain Frequency Sweep Measurements on Granite Rock

    OpenAIRE

    Haller, Kristian; Hedberg, Claes

    2008-01-01

    Like many materials, granite exhibits both nonlinear acoustic distortion and slow nonequilibrium dynamics. Measurements to date have shown a response from both phenomena simultaneously, thus crosscontaminating the results. In this Letter, constant strain frequency sweep measurements eliminate the slow dynamics and, for the first time, permit evaluation of nonlinearity by itself characterized by lower resonance frequencies and a steeper slope. Measurements such as these...

  5. Zirkon z extrémn? frakcionovaných peraluminických granit? západoevropských variscid.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Breiter, Karel; Škoda, R.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 2009, - (2010), s. 194-198. ISSN 0514-8057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : zircon * granite * Beauvoir * Argemela * Podlesí Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/zpravy/obsah/2009/2009-53.pdf

  6. Monte Carlo simulations for generic granite repository studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Joon H [SNL; Wang, Yifeng [SNL

    2010-12-08

    In a collaborative study between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the DOE-NE Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign project, we have conducted preliminary system-level analyses to support the development of a long-term strategy for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. A general modeling framework consisting of a near- and a far-field submodel for a granite GDSE was developed. A representative far-field transport model for a generic granite repository was merged with an integrated systems (GoldSim) near-field model. Integrated Monte Carlo model runs with the combined near- and farfield transport models were performed, and the parameter sensitivities were evaluated for the combined system. In addition, a sub-set of radionuclides that are potentially important to repository performance were identified and evaluated for a series of model runs. The analyses were conducted with different waste inventory scenarios. Analyses were also conducted for different repository radionuelide release scenarios. While the results to date are for a generic granite repository, the work establishes the method to be used in the future to provide guidance on the development of strategy for long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste in a granite repository.

  7. Migration and retention properties of the Czech reference granitic samples.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlová, V.; Franta, P.; Laciok, A.; Vopálka, D.; Macková, Anna

    Braunschweimg : -, 2007, ---. [International Conference on Radioactive Waste Disposal in Geological Formations. Braunschweig (DE), 06.11.2007-09.11.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radionuclides migration in granitic rocks, Cs and Sr sorption and diffusion, RBS Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  8. Extraction of Th and U from Swiss granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction, at the laboratory level, of U and Th from Swiss granites is discussed. The Mittagfluh, Bergell and Rotondo granites and the Giuv syenite offered a wide range of U and Th concentrations; 7.7 to 20.0 ppm U and 25.5 to 67.0 ppm Th. U and Th were determined in the leach solutions by the fission track method and by spectrophotometry, respectively. Samples containing less than 0.3 ?g U and 4 ?g Th, could be measured with an accuracy of 10% for U and 5% for Th. Leach tests were performed during which the following parameters were varied: granite-type, grain size, acid-type, acid concentration, temperature and time. There were very great leaching differences between the granites studied. Temperature was the most important parameter. Sharp differences in extraction occurred between 200C, 500C and 800C. At 800C, more than 85% U and Th were extracted. The extraction curve (percent extracted as a function of time) of aliquots sampled after 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours showed a plateau after 8 hours. The half life of the reaction was between one and two hours. As a general rule, Th was better extracted than U. (Auth.)

  9. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of felsic intrusions in the El Teniente and Laguna La Huifa areas, Central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The giant El Teniente porphyry Cu-Mo deposit is located in the Andes foothills of Central Chile (34oS). In simplistic terms, the igneous rocks at the mine can be grouped in two major units: a felsic suite of silicic intrusives (the porphyries; SiO2?56wt%) with subvertical stock-like to dyke shapes, and a mafic volcanic to subvolcanic sequence (the Farellones formation; SiO2intrusives are locally known as the 'Diorita Sewell' and 'Porfido Teniente' bodies, plus a series of minor plugs, apophyses and dikes. According to Cuadra (1986), the age of the main intrusive units spans from Late Miocene ('Diorita Sewell'; 7-8Ma) to Early Pliocene ('Porfido Teniente'; ?4-5Ma). These felsic intrusives are closely related to copper mineralization ( ?4-5Ma; Cuadra, 1986), particularly the younger 'Porfido Teniente' (Camus, 1975). Additionally, Skewes and Stern (1996) have suggested the existence of an even slightly younger porphyry pluton, not exposed at surface, but still linked to the ore genesis. Similar felsic intrusive bodies are also present in the Laguna La Huifa area (Reich, 2001), located less than 3 km to the NE from the main El Teniente body. The copper mineralization here, is interpreted to be almost contemporaneous with the El Teniente mineralization (Cuadra, 1986). Based on petrographic and geochemical information on the silicic intrusive suite, Rabbia et al. (2000) suggested that this magmatism could be considered as a Phanerozoic equivalent of an Archean high-Al TTG. Furthermore it may be classified as a modified (Na-rich) 'I' type granitoid, in the sense of Atherton and Petford (1993) and Petford and Atherton (1996). According to these authors, the younger (and hotter) lower Andean crust would be a better candidate than the older (and colder) subducted Nazca plate basalts (NPB) for being the main source of this type of magmatism. The presence of silicic lower crustal melts in the El Teniente region was earlier suggested by Kay and Kurtz (1995), who identified the geochemical fingerprint of mafic lower crust in postmineralization intrusives of the area. There is a growing regional scale, isotope data base that covers the timing of the magmatism at the El Teniente deposit (Kay and Kurtz, 1995; Stern and Skewes, 1995, Skewes and Stern, 1996 and Kurtz et al., 1997). Notwithstanding, there is still a need of additional data on a mine scale. The objective of this communication is to cover, at least partly, this need, presenting new Sr-Nd-Pb data. In the discussion section, we also discuss published Os isotope data from the El Teniente mine in order to further constrain the source of felsic magmatism linked to copper mineralization in the El Teniente and Laguna La Huifa areas (au)

  10. Performance Analysis of Intrusion Detection in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMRIDHI SHARMA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Adhoc Network is a collection of autonomous nodes or terminals which communicate with each other by forming a multihop radio network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration such as a base station. The Adhoc Network provides lack of secure boundaries. At present, the security issues on Mobile Adhoc Network have become one of the primary concerns. The MANET is more vulnerable to attacks as compared to wired networks due to distributed nature and lacks of infrastructure. Those vulnerabilities are nature of the MANET structure that cannot be removed easily. As a result, attacks with malicious intent have been and will be devised to exploit those vulnerabilities and to cripple the MANET Operation. Attacks prevention techniques such as a authentication and encryption, can be used as medium of defense for decreasing the possibilities of attacks. These techniques have a limitation on the effects of prevention techniques in practice and they are designed for a set of known attacks. They are unlikely to prevent newer attacks that are designed for circumventing the existing security measures. For this purpose, there exist a need of mechanism that “detect and response” these type of newer attacks i.e. “Intrusion and Detection”. Intrusion detection provide audit and monitoring capabilities that offer the local security to a node and help to perceive the specific trust level of other node. In addition to this ontology is a proven tool for this type of analysis. In this paper, specific ontology has been modeled which aims to explore and to classify current technique of Intrusion Detection System (IDS aware MANET. To support these ideas, a discussion regarding attacks, IDS architecture and IDS in MANET are presented inclusively and then the comparison among several researches achievement will be evaluated based on these parameters.

  11. Etude de la diagraphie neutron du granite de Beauvoir. Effet neutron des altérations et de la matrice du granite. Calibration granite. Porosité totale à l'eau et porosité neutron Analysis of the Beauvoir Granite Neutron Log. Neutron Effect of Alterations and of the Granite Matrix. Granite Calibration. Total Water Porosity and Neutron Porosity

    OpenAIRE

    Galle C.; Lapeyre C.; Struillou R.

    2006-01-01

    Cet article rend compte des travaux effectués sur la porosité du granite de Beauvoir (Sondage GPF 1 d'Echassières, Massif Central français). L'objectif de notre étude est de pouvoir obtenir des valeurs représentatives de la saturation en eau (porosité totale à l'eau n) du granite de Beauvoir à partir des mesures de porosité neutron PorositéN (diagraphie neutron BRGM) sans avoir recours aux mesures sur carottes. Notre démarche est expérimentale et nous avons tenté d'approfondir certains problè...

  12. Geophysical characterization from Itu intrusive suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrated use of geophysical, geological, geochemical, petrographical and remote sensing data resulted in a substantial increase in the knowledge of the Itu Intrusive Suite. The main geophysical method was gamma-ray spectrometry together with fluorimetry and autoradiography. Three methods were used for calculation of laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry data. For U, the regression method was the best one. For K and Th, equations system and absolute calibration presented the best results. Surface gamma-ray spectrometry allowed comparison with laboratory data and permitted important contribution to the study of environmental radiation. (author)

  13. Introduction to gravity currents and intrusions

    CERN Document Server

    Ungarish, Marius

    2009-01-01

    The whole book is well written in a clear and pedagogical general style. … the author has, in my opinion, produced the first comprehensive book entirely devoted to the modeling of gravity currents and intrusions. This book will be particularly useful to graduate and PhD students, as well as to academics and research engineers working in this field. It may be used as a self-consistent document to get a detailed idea of the state of knowledge about a given problem or a guide toward more specialized papers. It is rich with ideas regarding the direction in which further research is warranted. This

  14. Diabetes Intrusiveness and Wellness among Elders: A Test of the Illness Intrusiveness Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoster, Vaughn A.; Killian, Tim; Roessler, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Using data collected from 147 predominately African American senior citizens in Arkansas, this research examined the Illness Intrusiveness Model (Devins, 1991; Devins & Seland, 1987; Devins & Shnek, 2000) to explain variations in wellness specifically related to participants' adaptation to diabetes. The theoretical model hypothesized…

  15. Estrogen Therapy Has No Long-Term Effect on Cognition in Younger Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Estrogen therapy has no long-term effect on cognition in younger postmenopausal women NIH-funded study finds ... reasons that hormone treatments had different effects on cognition in older and younger postmenopausal women. WHIMSY is ...

  16. Hybridization of granitic magmas in the source: The origin of the Karakoram Batholith, Ladakh, NW India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, H.; Weinberg, R. F.; Andersson, U. B.; Fanning, C. M.

    2010-05-01

    Many magmatic bodies have a hybrid isotopic signature suggesting that somewhere during genesis, transport and emplacement, magmas assimilated other rocks or mixed with other magmas. Where and how hybridization takes place is seldom documented. Here, we investigate a magmatic system in the Eastern Karakoram, Ladakh, NW India, comprising an anatectic zone, and a network of sheets, stocks and plutons exposed in the Pangong Metamorphic Complex within the Karakoram Shear Zone, as well as the Karakoram Batholith. These granitic rocks have an isotopic signature indicative of a mixture between mantle and crustal sources. In the anatectic region, calc-alkaline granitoids and their meta-sedimentary country rocks underwent water-fluxed partial melting at upper amphibolite facies between 20 and 14 Ma ago. Anatexis gave rise to leucosomes and intrusive rocks that have a range in composition from leucotonalite to leucogranite. Those related to the partial melting of calc-alkaline rocks contain hornblende, whereas those related to Bt-psammites contain two micas ± garnet. Leucosomes rooting in different source rocks merge with each other and homogenize as they link up to form a hierarchy of magma channels, feeding into stocks, plutons and ultimately into the Karakoram Batholith. This interpretation is supported by Sr and Nd isotopes. Initial 87Sr/ 86Sr and ?Nd values are distinct for each of the magma protoliths in the anatectic zone and for the magmatic products. Calc-alkaline granitoids have initial 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.7042 to 0.7077 and ?Nd = + 0.6 to + 2.4, indicative of a slightly depleted mantle source region. This is in contrast to the meta-sedimentary rocks that yield initial 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.7115 to 0.7161 and ?Nd = - 10.0 to - 9.6, suggesting a stronger crustal component. Leucogranitic rocks, including a variety of leucosomes in the anatectic zone and samples from the Karakoram Batholith, yield intermediate values of initial 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.7076 to 0.7121 and ?Nd = - 3.6 to - 7.1 that can be modelled by mixing of the two source rocks. The hybrid signature of leucosomes and their similarity to intrusive leucogranites indicate that magma hybridization must have taken place within the source region as a result of the confluence of magmas to form the escape channels. We conclude that the voluminous leucogranites of the Miocene Karakoram Batholith result from water-fluxed intracrustal melting of sources with crustal and mantle signatures, and that mixing occurred within the source.

  17. ASTEROIDAL GRANITE-LIKE MAGMATISM 4.53 GYR AGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constraining the timescales for the evolution of planetary bodies in our solar system is essential for a complete understanding of planet-forming processes. However, frequent collisions between planetesimals in the early solar system obscured and destroyed much of the primitive features of the old, first-generation planetary bodies. The presence of differentiated, achondritic clasts in brecciated chondrites and of chondritic fragments in achondritic breccias clearly witness multiple processes such as metamorphism, magmatism, fragmentation, mixing, and reaccretion. Here, we report the results of ion microprobe Pb-Pb dating of a granite-like fragment found in a meteorite, the LL3-6 ordinary chondrite regolith breccia Adzhi-Bogdo. Eight spot analyses of two phosphate grains and other co-genetic phases of the granitoid give a Pb-Pb isochron age of 4.48 ± 0.12 billion years (95% confidence) and a model age of 4.53 ± 0.03 billion years (1?), respectively. These ages represent the crystallization age of a parental granite-like magma that is significantly older than those of terrestrial (4.00-4.40 Gyr) and lunar granites (3.88-4.32 Gyr) indicating that the clast in Adzhi-Bogdo is the oldest known granitoid in the solar system. This is the first evidence that granite-like formation is not only a common process on Earth, but also occurred on primitive asteroids in the early solar system 4.53 Gyr ago. Thus, the discovery of granite magmatism recorded in a brecciated meteorite provides an innovative idea within the framework of scenarios for the formation and evolution of planetary bodies and possibly exoplanetary bodies.

  18. Contamination in mafic mineral-rich calc-alkaline granites: a geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope study of the Neoproterozoic Piedade Granite, SE Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Renato J. Leite; Valdecir A. Janasi; Lucelene Martins

    2006-01-01

    The Piedade Granite (~600 Ma) was emplaced shortly after the main phase of granite magmatism in the Agudos Grandes batholith, Apiaí-Guaxupé Terrane, SE Brazil. Its main units are: mafic mineral-rich porphyritic granites forming the border (peraluminous muscovite-biotite granodiorite-monzogranite MBmg unit) and core (metaluminous titanite-bearing biotite monzogranite BmgT unit) and felsic pink inequigranular granite (Bmg unit) between them. Bmg has high LaN/YbN (up to 100), Th/U (>10) and low ...

  19. Immunization Uptake in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwaik, Ghassan Abu; Roberts, Wendy; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan; Smith, Isabel M.; Szatmari, Peter; Modi, Bonnie M.; Tanel, Nadia; Brian, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental concerns persist that immunization increases the risk of autism spectrum disorder, resulting in the potential for reduced uptake by parents of younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder ("younger sibs"). Objective: To compare immunization uptake by parents for their younger child relative to their…

  20. A Bayesian Networks in Intrusion Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection systems (IDSs have been widely used to overcome security threats in computer networks. Anomaly-based approaches have the advantage of being able to detect previously unknown attacks, but they suffer from the difficulty of building robust models of acceptable behaviour which may result in a large number of false alarms caused by incorrect classification of events in current systems. We propose a new approach of an anomaly Intrusion detection system (IDS. It consists of building a reference behaviour model and the use of a Bayesian classification procedure associated to unsupervised learning algorithm to evaluate the deviation between current and reference behaviour. Continuous re-estimation of model parameters allows for real time operation. The use of recursive Log-likelihood and entropy estimation as a measure for monitoring model degradation related with behavior changes and the associated model update show that the accuracy of the event classification process is significantly improved using our proposed approach for reducing the missing-alarm.

  1. Improving Intrusion Detection Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Muda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection System (IDS is one of the key security components in today’s networking environment. A great deal of attention has been recently paid to anomaly detection to accomplish intrusion detection. However, a major problem with this approach is maximizing detection rate and accuracy, as well as minimizing false alarm i.e., inability to correctly discover particular types of attacks. To overcome this problem, a genetic algorithm approach is proposed. Genetic Algorithm (GA is most frequently employed as a robust technology based on machine learning for designing IDS. GAs are search algorithms which are based on the principles of natural selection and genetics. GA functions on a number of possible solutions using the principle of survival of the fittest with the aim to generate better approximations to solve a particular problem GA is facing. The validity of this approach is verified using Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining Cup 1999 (KDD Cup ’99 dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the existing techniques, with the detection rate of attack and false alarm rates of 95.7265 and 4.2735, respectively.

  2. Advanced Trace Pattern For Computer Intrusion Discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Rahayu, S Siti; Shahrin, S; Zaki, M Mohd; Faizal, M A; Zaheera, Z A

    2010-01-01

    The number of crime committed based on the malware intrusion is never ending as the number of malware variants is growing tremendously and the usage of internet is expanding globally. Malicious codes easily obtained and use as one of weapon to gain their objective illegally. Hence, in this research, diverse logs from different OSI layer are explored to identify the traces left on the attacker and victim logs in order to establish worm trace pattern to defending against the attack and help revealing true attacker or victim. For the purpose of this paper, it focused on malware intrusion and traditional worm namely sasser worm variants. The concept of trace pattern is created by fusing the attacker's and victim's perspective. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to propose a general worm trace pattern for attacker's, victim's and multi-step (attacker/victim)'s by combining both perspectives. These three proposed worm trace patterns can be extended into research areas in alert correlation and computer forens...

  3. Structural features and emplacement of the late Svecofennian Perniö granite sheet in southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selonen, O.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The 1840-1830 Ma old Perniö granite occupies the southern margin of the Sauvo-Perniö granite area located in the western part of the late Svecofennian granite-migmatite zone in southern Finland. The S-type Perniö granite is light to dark red, medium- to coarse-grained with euhedral K-feldspar phenocrysts forming the porphyritic texture of the granite. The high grade supracrustal volcanic rocks and mica gneisses in the Sauvo-Perniö granite area show polyphase deformation. The D1 is characterized by isoclinal and intrafolial Fl folds. During the D2 the supracrustal sequence was thrusted towards the northwest. Combined ductile E-W shear movements and NNW-SSE compressional movements defined a transpressional tectonic regime during the D3 deformation. The Perniö granite intruded along subvertical mid-crustal feeder channels and was emplaced as a sheet or sheets along subhorizontal shear zones during the late stage of the F3 folding. After intruding into the shear zones the viscous granite magma was deformed. The K-feldspar phenocrysts in the granite acted as rigid particles in a viscous matrix and were rotated and imbricated in response to shearing along the subhorizontal shear zones indicating movements of the upper side of the granite sheet towards the west. Strike-slip dilatancy pumping is suggested as a possible mechanism for the emplacement of the Perniö granite.

  4. Zarzalejo granite (Spain). A nomination for 'Global Heritage Stone Resource'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael; José Varas-Muriel, María

    2015-04-01

    Zarzalejo granite is quarried in the Sierra de Guadarrama (Spanish Central System) foothills, in and around Zarzalejo village, in the province of Madrid, Spain. It is an inequigranular monzogranite medium-to-coarse grained, with a slight porphyritic texture (feldspar phenocrysts) and mafic micro-grained enclaves. In this abstract the candidacy of Zarzalejo granite as a "Global Heritage Resource Stone" (GHSR) is presented. This stone ideally fits the newly proposed designation as it has been used in many heritage buildings and its good petrophysical properties and durability have allowed well preserved constructions such as a Roman road, San Pedro Church in Zarzalejo (1492), Descalzas Reales Monastery in Madrid (1559-1564) and the San Lorenzo del Escorial Royal Monastery (1563-1584), to be declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. This level of construction has been a landmark in the extraction and proliferation of historic quarries created due to the high demand that such colossal monuments and buildings with granite, have required for their construction. In the mid-20th century, More, Zarzalejo granite has also been used in restoration works including the Royal Palace and the Reina Sofía Museum (2001-2005), both buildings in Madrid, Spain. Extraction of granite ashlars from tors has been a very frequent activity in the Zarzalejo neighbourhood until mid-twentieth century. So there is also a need to preserve these historic quarries. This type of stone has created a landscape that has been preserved as an open-air museum today where you can see the marks left in the granite due to historic quarry operations. The granite industry has been one of the main pillars of the Zarzalejo regional economy. For centuries, the local community have been engaged in quarrying and have created a cultural landscape based on its building stone. A quarryman monument has been erected in Zarzalejo in honor of this traditional craft as well as an architecture museum at San Lorenzo del Escorial Monastery, which shows the building material used during its construction. There is currently an active quarry of this dimension stone which continues to be sold under the commercial name of "Gris Escorial". Zarzalejo granite is mainly exported to Turkey, Italy and Saudi Arabia. Today this stone is used primarily in flooring. Other uses include cobblestones, funeral art, and building and monument restoration and rehabilitation. Sculptures have also built in recent years, notably the great monoliths in Salvador Dalí Square (1989) in Madrid. There are also small historic family-run quarries intermittently continuing this dimension stone carving tradition. Given its characteristics, Zarzalejo granite meets the requisites proposed to be nominated as a GHSR. This nomination will contribute to raising awareness and disseminate key aspects for conservation and thus ensure its use as a replacement stone in restoring heritage buildings where it was used as a building stone. Acknowledgements This study was funded by the Community of Madrid under the GEOMATERIALS 2 project (S2013/MIT-2914). The authors are members of the Complutense University of Madrid's Research Group: "Alteración y Conservación de los Materiales Pétreos del Patrimonio" (ref. 921349).

  5. Radon release from granites in south-west England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon release from granitic samples from different sites in Cornwall was examined in an attempt to model the emanation mechanisms. Large samples were taken and cut into cuboid shapes of readily determinable surface area in order to measure the 222Rn flux. The flux from the granite samples shows that the high radon levels observed in houses in Cornwall cannot be attributable to building material alone and demonstrates the importance of large scale radon transport for the elevated levels in living quarters. Crushed chips of various sizes were also taken from selected sites (Carnsew quarry and Castle-an-Dinas quarry) to investigate the effect of specific surface area on radon release. It was found that radon release per gram increased as particle size decreased and declined again at small particle sizes. The samples were characterised in terms of physical properties, chemical composition and mineralogy. The radon release trend for the Carnsew samples was mirrored in the uranium and associated element concentrations. This was, however, not the case for the Castle-an-Dinas samples, and insufficient to explain the trend for both sets of samples. A model is proposed, based on spherical particles and uniform uranium distribution, to relate the radon release to specific surface area. The modelled specific surface areas for the chips was too low by 2-3 orders of magnitude as measured by gas adsorption techniques, and the uranium was concentrated in small accessory minerals. The enhancement of surface area was attributed to the alteration of feldspar to sericite. This has implications for the release of radon. It is thought that the large surface area provides a sink for the adsorption of radon, retaining it in the rock structure. This radon retention explains the paradoxical decline in radon release at small particle size/large specific surface area. Various mechanisms for radon emanation are discussed with reference to the Cornubian granites. It is shown that, based on the measured specific surface areas, inter-crystalline diffusion is a slow process and not a significant contributor to overall radon release (0.01%). Approximately 1% of the total radon produced can be attributed to direct recoil processes, based on the calculated recoil ranges (36 nm). The remainder was attributed to diffusion processes through crystal imperfections and dislocations. The microscopic scale model developed here is extended to the macroscopic scale through examination of the large-scale factors that affect radon release. The effect of fractures and faults on macroscopic surface area and radon transport are discussed and it is concluded that their presence will increase radon release. Large-scale uranium distribution is discussed with respect to regional mineralisation. It is proposed that radon levels will be elevated in the vicinity of uraniferous mineral veins. The effect of soil covering on radon release is discussed. Whilst the soil layer inhibits radon release it is also possible that given the right formation conditions, a layer of soil may enhance radon release relative to the underlying rock source. These factors are drawn together to produce a general conceptual model for large-scale radon release. The conceptual model is applied to the granites of Cornwall (Carnmenellis pluton) through the investigation of the properties of the granite. Specifically, it is determined that the fractures in the Carnmenellis granite body will increase the radon release relative to an exposed plane surface. The various soils present on the Carnmenellis granite will serve to reduce the overall radon release, though the different types of soil have different permeabilites which lead to a variable radon release pattern across the pluton. The mineralisation will also cause the radon release to be variable across the granite body. Using the conceptual model, a radon release profile is proposed for a section across the Carnmenellis granite. The model is tested by comparison with other published data and fits well with the radon stream data of Heath (1985). The r

  6. Identification and Control of Pollution from Salt Water Intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…

  7. Salt intrusion study in Cochin estuary - Using empirical models

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, B.; Revichandran, C.; NaveenKumar, K.R.

    Intensive measurements of salt intrusion are taken at high and low waters during spring and neap tide for each month respectively from June 2007 to May 2008. Salt intrusion length at high water varied from 10 km in monsoon 2008 to more than 40 km...

  8. Etude de la diagraphie neutron du granite de Beauvoir. Effet neutron des altérations et de la matrice du granite. Calibration granite. Porosité totale à l'eau et porosité neutron Analysis of the Beauvoir Granite Neutron Log. Neutron Effect of Alterations and of the Granite Matrix. Granite Calibration. Total Water Porosity and Neutron Porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galle C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article rend compte des travaux effectués sur la porosité du granite de Beauvoir (Sondage GPF 1 d'Echassières, Massif Central français. L'objectif de notre étude est de pouvoir obtenir des valeurs représentatives de la saturation en eau (porosité totale à l'eau n du granite de Beauvoir à partir des mesures de porosité neutron PorositéN (diagraphie neutron BRGM sans avoir recours aux mesures sur carottes. Notre démarche est expérimentale et nous avons tenté d'approfondir certains problèmes liés à l'utilisation de la diagraphie neutron dans une roche granitique. Deux facteurs principaux conditionnent la réponse neutron : la concentration en hydrogène de la formation (eau libre et eau de constitution de certains minéraux et la présence d'éléments absorbeurs à forte section de capture comme le gadolinium, le cadmium, le bore, . . . et dans le cas du granite de Beauvoir, le lithium. A partir des mesures de porosité totale à l'eau n sur carottes, des essais de pertes au feu sur poudre qui nous permettent de déterminer la porosité neutron liée à l'eau de constitution PorositéN(OH- et des analyses chimiques avec lesquelles nous évaluons la porosité neutron thermique PorositéN(ox (Programme SNUPAR, Schlumberger liée à la capture neutronique, nous reconstituons la porosité neutron totale PorositéNR du granite de Beauvoir. Pour 7 échantillons caractéristiques du granite de Beauvoir, nous réalisons grâce à ces résultats une nouvelle calibration du taux de comptage neutron initial corrigé du gradient thermique et de l'effet de trou. Grâce à cette opération, il est possible de déterminer, pour les échantillons traités, la porosité neutron du granite avec une calibration granite (PorositéNg et non calcaire (PorositéNc. La connaissance de l'effet neutron de la matrice nous permet enfin d'évaluer la teneur en eau du granite (porosité totale à l'eau et de comparer celle-ci avec la porosité mesurée sur carottes (n. Nous montrons que, pour le granite de Beauvoir, l'effet neutron de la matrice est important (en moyenne proche de 7% et ne peut être négligé lorsque l'on mesure des porosités voisines de 0,5% sur carottes. La calibration de l'outil neutron dans le granite et non pas dans des calcaires est d'autre part capitale quant à la précision quantitative des résultats. This article describes the research done on the Beauvoir granite (Echassières GPF 1 borehole, French Massif Central range. The aim of this project was to obtain representative values of the water saturation (n total free water porosity of the Beauvoir granite from PorosityN neutron porosity (BRGM neutron log. The exact knowledge of the porosity of a crystalline block is effectively fundamental to determine its possibilities for being used as a waste storage site. With this goal, neutron logging provides indispensable information concerning the characterization of a porous medium. Our procedure was experimental, and we tried to go more deeply into various problems linked to the use of neutron logging in a granitic rock. Two main factors governed the neutron response : (i the hydrogen concentration of the formation (free water and combined water of various minerals and (ii the presence of absorber elements with a large capture cross-section such as gadolinium, cadmium, boron as well as lithium for the Beauvoir granite. After measuring the Beauvoir granite n total (free water porosity on core samples, we evaluated the combined water content of each sample tested on the basis of fire loss tests on rock powder at 900°C. From the hydrogen atoms volumic concentration, we determined a hydrogen index that we directly converted into the PorosityN(OH- neutron porosity, (by definition, pure water at 20°C has a hydrogen index of 1 which is equivalent to a 100% porosity. For the Beauvoir granite, the matrix combined water represents an average neutron porosity (Table 1 of about 4%. In the second phase, we used chemical analysis to evaluate the PorosityN(ox thermal neutron porosity linked to neutro

  9. Atlantic Warm Pool Trigger for the Younger Dryas Climate Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.; Teneva, L. T.

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that variability in the size and heat content of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool impacts circum-North Atlantic climate via the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation mode (Wang et al., 2008). The Atlantic Warm Pool spans the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the western tropical North Atlantic. Barbados is located near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool and coupled ocean models suggest that Barbados remains near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool under varying wind stress simulations. Measurements of the oxygen isotope paleothermometer in Acropora palmata coral species recovered from cores offshore Barbados, show a 3oC monotonic decrease in sea surface temperature from 13106 ± 83 to 12744 ± 61 years before present (errors given as 2 sigma). This interval corresponds to a sea level rise from 71.4 meters to 67.1 meters below present levels at Barbados. The 3oC temperature decrease is captured in eight A. palmata specimens that are in stratigraphic sequence, 230Th/234U dated, and analyzed for oxygen isotopes. All measurements are replicated. We are confident that this is the warm pool equivalent of the Younger Dryas climate event. The initiation of this temperature drop in the Atlantic Warm Pool predates the Younger Dryas start in Greenland ice cores, reported to start at 12896 ± 138 years (relative to AD 2000) (Rasmussen et al., 2006), while few other Younger Dryas climate records are dated with similar accuracy to make the comparison. Rasmussen, S.O., Andersen, K.K., Svensson, A.M., Steffensen, J.P., Vinther, B.M., Clausen, H.B., Siggaard-Andersen, M.L., Johnsen, S.J., Larsen, L.B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Bigler, M., Röthlisberger, R., Fischer, H., Goto-Azuma, K., Hansson, M.E., and Ruth, U., 2006, A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination: J. Geophys. Res., v. 111, p. D06102. Wang, C., Lee, S.-K., and Enfield, D.B., 2008, Atlantic Warm Pool acting as a link between Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and Atlantic tropical cyclone activity: Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., v. 9, p. Q05V03.

  10. Growth of plutons by incremental emplacement of sheets in crystal-rich host: Evidence from Miocene intrusions of the Colorado River region, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C.F.; Furbish, D.J.; Walker, B.A.; Claiborne, L.L.; Koteas, G.C.; Bleick, H.A.; Miller, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the notion that plutons are constructed incrementally, commonly over long periods of time, yet field evidence for the multiple injections that seem to be required is commonly sparse or absent. Timescales of up to several million years, among other arguments, indicate that the dominant volume does not remain largely molten, yet if growing plutons are constructed from rapidly solidifying increments it is unlikely that intrusive contacts would escape notice. A model wherein magma increments are emplaced into melt-bearing but crystal-rich host, rather than either solid or crystal-poor material, provides a plausible explanation for this apparent conundrum. A partially solidified intrusion undoubtedly comprises zones with contrasting melt fraction and therefore strength. Depending on whether these zones behave elastically or ductilely in response to dike emplacement, intruding magma may spread to form sheets by either of two mechanisms. If the melt-bearing host is elastic on the relevant timescale, magma spreads rather than continuing to propagate upward, where it encounters a zone of higher rigidity (higher crystal fraction). Similarly, if the dike at first ascends through rigid, melt-poor material and then encounters a zone that is weak enough (poor enough in crystals) to respond ductilely, the ascending material will also spread because the dike tip ceases to propagate as in rigid material. We propose that ascending magma is thus in essence trapped, by either mechanism, within relatively crystal-poor zones. Contacts will commonly be obscure from the start because the contrast between intruding material (crystal-poorer magma) and host (crystal-richer material) is subtle, and they may be obscured even further by subsequent destabilization of the crystal-melt framework. Field evidence and zircon zoning stratigraphy in plutons of the Colorado River region of southern Nevada support the hypothesis that emplacement of magma replenishments into a crystal-laden host is important in pluton construction. The dominant granite unit of the Spirit Mountain batholith displays only subtle internal contacts. However, ages and elemental zoning in zircons demonstrate a protracted history of almost 2 million years, major fluctuations in T and host melt chemistry, and mixing of strongly contrasting populations of magmatic zircon in single samples. We interpret this to reflect reactivation of rigid sponge and mush and entrainment of earlier-formed crystals, and we infer that this was in response to granitic replenishment. Much of the smaller Aztec Wash pluton comprises interlayered cumulate-textured quartz monzonite and mafic sheets. The latest phase of pluton emplacement is marked by numerous thick, fine-grained granite "sills" that intruded the subhorizontal quartz monzonite sheets. Contacts between granite and quartz monzonite are "soft," highly irregular on cm-dm scale with coarse xenocrysts from the quartz monzonite entrained in the fine-grained granite. We interpret the granite replenishments to have spread laterally within crystal-rich, melt-bearing quartz monzonite beneath rigid mafic sheets. In this case, clear evidence for the emplacement process is fortuitously preserved because the granite was emplaced in the waning stage of the thermal lifetime of the pluton, and because the mafic sheets enhance the strength contrast and make the geometry more visible. Similar "sills" of fine-grained granite were also preserved during the late stages of the history of the Spirit Mountain batholith. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Multi-core Processors based Network Intrusion Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqian Wan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly hard to build an intrusion detection system (IDS, because of the higher traffic throughput and the rising sophistication of attacking. Scale will be an important issue to address in the intrusion detection area. For hardware, tomorrow’s performance gains will come from multi-core architectures in which a number of CPU executes concurrently. We take the advantage of multi-core processors’ full power for intrusion detection in this work. We present an intrusion detection system based on the Snort open-source IDS that exploits the computational power of MIPS multi-core architecture to offload the costly pattern matching operations from the CPU, and thus increase the system’s processing throughput. A preliminary experiment demonstrates the potential of this system. The experiment results indicate that this method can be used effectively to speed up intrusion detection systems.

  12. Radar, geologic, airborne gamma ray and Landsat TM digital data integration for geological mapping of the Estrela granite complex (Para State)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is focused on the geotectonic context of the Carajas Mineral Province, Amazon Craton, which represents the most important Brazilian Mineral Province and hosts iron, cooper, gold, manganese and nickel deposits. At the end of Archean age, during the techno-metamorphic evolution, moderated alkaline granitoids were generated, such as, Estrela Granite Complex (EGC). This work has used digital integration products with the purpose of study the granite suite, its host rock, and the surrounded area. The digital integrated data were gamma-ray and geological data with satellite images (SAR-SAREX e TM-Landsat). The geophysics data, originally in 32 bits and grid format, were interpolated and converted to 8 bits images. The geological data (facies map) was digitalized and converted to a raster format. The remote sensing images were geometrically corrected to guarantee an accuracy on the geological mapping. On the data processing phase, SAR images were digital integrated with gamma-ray data, TM-Landsat image and the raster facies map. The IHS transformation was used as the technique to integrate the multi-source data. On the photogeological interpretation, SAR data were extremely important to permit the extraction of the main tectonic lineaments which occur on the following directions: +/- N45W, +/- N70W, +/- NS, +/- N20E, +/- N45E e +/- N75E. This procedure was done both in analogic and automatic form, being the automatic process more useful to complement information in the extracting process. Among the digital products generated, SAR/GAMA products (uranium, thorium and total count) were the ones that give the most important contribution. The interpretation of the SAR/GAMA's products added to the field campaign have allowed to map the limits of units that occur in the region and four facies of the Estrela Granite Complex were detected. The origin of the granite suite might be related to a magmatic differentiation or to distinct intrusion pulses. The use of the digital integrated products has showed to be extremely useful for basic geological mapping, especially to aid field campaign and the selection of key areas for detailed verification. As a final result, this research has allowed to propose obtained a geologic map of the Estrela Granite Complex area. (author)

  13. Panorama Pluton : a composite gabbro-monzodiorite early Ross Orogeny intrusion in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Province of the Walcott Glacier to Radian Glacier area of the Transantarctic Mountains contains a diverse suite of intrusions ranging from gabbro and diorite to granite, nepheline syenite, and carbonatite. Most of the plutons are alkaline (A-type), although the Panorama Pluton is mafic, comprising both hypersthene normative gabbroic and quartz normative monzodioritic lithologies. The pluton has a composite nature, determined by whole-rock geochemical trends and Nd-Sr isotope data that reflect distinctive source regions for the different components. U-Pb geochronology of zircon and titanite indicates the Panorama Pluton was intruded during the early stages of the Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic Ross Orogeny at 535 ± 9 Ma, and that it is coeval with the geochemically similar Dromedary Mafic Complex which crops out 10 km to the southeast. The Panorama Pluton is a volumetrically minor mafic component of the Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Province, which predates, by at least 15 m.y., the dominant calc-alkaline suites that occur along-strike in the Dry Valleys area to the north, and the central Transantarctic Mountains to the south. The Panorama Pluton magmas, and other Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Province lithologies, are interpreted to have formed in an extensional or transtensional jog that predates the onset of widespread Ross Orogeny subduction. (author). 48 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Geology, petrology, U-Pb (SHRIMP) geochronology of the Morrinhos granite - Paragua terrane, SW Amazonian craton: implications for the magmatic evolution of the San Ignacio orogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrinhos granite is a batholith body that is slightly elongated in the NNW direction and approximately 1,140 km2 long; it is located in the municipality of Vila Bela da Santissima Trindade of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, in the Paragua Terrane, Rondonian-San Ignacio Province, in the SW portion of the Amazonian Craton. This intrusion displays a compositional variation from tonalite to monzogranite, has a medium to coarse inequigranular texture and is locally porphyritic; biotite is the predominant mafic in one of the facies, and hornblende is predominant in the other, with both metamorphosed into the green schist facies. The studied rocks characterize an intermediate to acidic sequence that was formed by a subalkaline magmatism; the series is alkali-calcic to metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, and the rocks evolved through fractioned crystallization mechanisms. The structural data show two deformation phases represented by penetrative foliation (S1) and open folds (D2), and both phases were most likely related to the San Ignacio Orogeny. The geochronological (U-Pb SHRIMP) and isotopic (Sm-Nd) investigations of these rocks indicated a crystallization age of 1350±12Ma, TDM of approximately 1.77 Ga and ?Nd(1.35) with a negative value of -2.57, suggesting that their generation was related to a partial melting process of a Paleoproterozoic (Statherian) continental crust. The results herein indicate that the Morrinhos granite was generated in a continental magmatic arc in a late- to post-orogenic stage of the San Ignacio Orogeny, and it can be recognized as belonging to the Pensamiento Intrusive Suite. (author)

  15. Geology, petrology, U-Pb (SHRIMP) geochronology of the Morrinhos granite - Paragua terrane, SW Amazonian craton: implications for the magmatic evolution of the San Ignacio orogeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Ohana; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Sousa, Maria Zelia Aguiar de, E-mail: ohana.geo@gmail.com, E-mail: asruiz@gmail.com, E-mail: mzaguiar@terra.com.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Dept. de Geologia Geral; Batata, Maria Elisa Froes, E-mail: elisabatata@bol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisa em Evolucao Crustal e Tectonica; Lafon, Jean-Michel [Universidade Federal do Para (GEOCIAM/UFPA), Belem, PR (Brazil). Inst. Nacional de Cencia e Tecnologia de Geociencias da Amazonia

    2014-09-15

    Morrinhos granite is a batholith body that is slightly elongated in the NNW direction and approximately 1,140 km{sup 2} long; it is located in the municipality of Vila Bela da Santissima Trindade of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, in the Paragua Terrane, Rondonian-San Ignacio Province, in the SW portion of the Amazonian Craton. This intrusion displays a compositional variation from tonalite to monzogranite, has a medium to coarse inequigranular texture and is locally porphyritic; biotite is the predominant mafic in one of the facies, and hornblende is predominant in the other, with both metamorphosed into the green schist facies. The studied rocks characterize an intermediate to acidic sequence that was formed by a subalkaline magmatism; the series is alkali-calcic to metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, and the rocks evolved through fractioned crystallization mechanisms. The structural data show two deformation phases represented by penetrative foliation (S{sub 1}) and open folds (D{sub 2}), and both phases were most likely related to the San Ignacio Orogeny. The geochronological (U-Pb SHRIMP) and isotopic (Sm-Nd) investigations of these rocks indicated a crystallization age of 1350±12Ma, T{sub DM} of approximately 1.77 Ga and ?Nd{sub (1.35}) with a negative value of -2.57, suggesting that their generation was related to a partial melting process of a Paleoproterozoic (Statherian) continental crust. The results herein indicate that the Morrinhos granite was generated in a continental magmatic arc in a late- to post-orogenic stage of the San Ignacio Orogeny, and it can be recognized as belonging to the Pensamiento Intrusive Suite. (author)

  16. Low Levels of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate in Younger Burnout Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Kushnir, Mark M.; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-s) is an anabolic protective hormone of importance for maintenance of health. DHEA-s levels peak in young adults and decline thereafter with age. DHEA-s has previously been shown to be lower in individuals reporting prolonged stress. This study investigates DHEA-s levels in patients with clinical burnout, a disorder caused by long-term psychosocial stress. Methods 122 patients (51% men) and 47 controls (51% men) in the age 25–54 years were included in the study. DHEA-s levels were compared between patients and controls in the whole sample and within each of the three 10-year-interval age groups. Results In the youngest age group (25–34 years), DHEA-s levels were on average 25% lower in the patients (p = 0.006). The differences in DHEA-s levels between patients and controls were more pronounced among female than male participants (on average 32% and 13% lower, respectively). There were no differences in DHEA-s levels between patients and controls in the age group 35–44 years (p = 0.927) or 45–54 years (p = 0.897) or when analyzing all age groups together (p = 0.187). Conclusion The study indicates that levels of the health promoting “youth” hormone DHEA-s are low in younger burnout patients. The fact that younger adults have much higher DHEA-s levels and more pronounced inter-subject variability in DHEA-s levels than older individuals might explain why burnout status differentiates patients from controls only among the youngest patients included in this study. PMID:26441131

  17. Neural responses to monetary incentives in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniol, Julia; Bowen, Holly J; Wegier, Pete; Grady, Cheryl

    2015-07-01

    Reward anticipation is associated with activity in the dopaminergic midbrain as well as the ventral striatum, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex. Dopaminergic neuromodulation declines with age, suggesting that incentive processing should also undergo age-related change. However, the literature is mixed, perhaps reflecting variation in the degree to which tasks made demands on learning and memory. Furthermore, the emphasis has been on the reward network, with few studies addressing reward-related activations in other brain regions. In the current study, 16 younger adults (mean age: 25.4) and 15 older adults (mean age: 69.0) underwent fMRI while completing a monetary incentive delay task. This task allowed the separate assessment of responses to gain and loss incentive cues while minimizing memory demands. We assessed incentive-related activations using mean-centered Partial Least Squares, a data-driven multivariate technique optimal for identifying spatiotemporal whole-brain activation patterns associated with variation in task conditions. The analyses yielded two significant latent variables representing distinct incentive-related activation patterns. The first pattern showed robust activation of the reward network and was not modulated by age. The second pattern, peaking ~10s after cue onset, showed reduced deactivation of default-network regions, and increased activation of prefrontal cognitive-control regions in older adults, compared with younger adults. Neither pattern was modulated by incentive valence. Overall, these findings suggest that aging may not affect primary motivational signaling in the reward network, but may rather be associated with alterations in incentive-driven modulation of cortical networks that influence multiple cognitive domains. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Memory & Aging. PMID:25305570

  18. Radon exhalation rates of some granites used in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoli? Mladen D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address concern about radon exhalation in building material, radon exhalation rate was determined for different granites available on Serbian market. Radon exhalation rate, along with mass exhalation rate and effective radium content were determined by closed chamber method and active continuous radon measurement technique. For this research, special chambers were made and tested for back diffusion and leakage, and the radon concentrations measured were included in the calculation of radon exhalation. The radon exhalation rate ranged from 0.161 Bq/m2h to 0.576 Bq/m2h, the mass exhalation rate from 0.167 Bq/kgh to 0.678 Bq/kgh, while the effective radium content was found to be from 12.37 Bq/kg to 50.23 Bq/kg. The results indicate that the granites used in Serbia have a low level of radon exhalation.

  19. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhey, Peter; Morrill, Charles; Mensik, Fred

    1999-01-01

    The 1999 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by high spring flows and spill, low levels of debris, cool water temperatures, increased hatchery chinook numbers, and an overall decrease in numbers of smolts collected and transported. A total of 5,882,872 juvenile salmonids were collected at Lower Granite. Of these, 5,466,057 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 5,232,105 by barge and 233,952 by truck. An additional 339,398 fish were bypassed back to the river. A total of 117,609 salmonids were examined in daily samples. Nine research projects conducted by four agencies impacted a total of 440,810 smolts (7.5% of the total collected) of which 247,268 were PIT tagged and 572 were recorded as incidental mortalities.

  20. U-Pb and origen of the Uruana quartz syenite and Itapuranga alkali granite in Goias, central Brazil: Late Braziliano alkali-rich magmatism in the Anapolis-Itaucu complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brasilia Belt is part of a Brasiliano/Pan African orogen developed between the Amazon and Sao Francisco cratons (for a review see Pimentel et al. 2000 and Dardenne 2000). The stabilization of the belt occurred after the last metamorphic event at ca. 620±20 Ma. Until recently, important late- to post-orogenic Neoproterozoic granitic magmatism was recognized mostly within the limits of the Goias Magmatic Arc, in the western part of the orogen. Recent studies by Pimentel et al. (1999) and Fischel et al (1999), as well as some unpublished U-Pb SHRIMP geochronological data, have also shown that Neoproterozoic granites represent an important component of the Anapolis- Itaucu Complex, a high grade terrain exposed in the central part of the Brasilia Belt, in between metasediments (Araxa Group) of the internal part of the belt. In the northern part of this granulitic complex, two alkali rich intrusions, the Uruana quartz syenite and the Itapuranga alkali suite (Lacerda Filho and Oliveira 1995) form large bodies elongated in the E-W direction. Their age and tectonic significance has been the matter of continuous debate. In this study we present new conventional and SHRIMP U-Pb results as well as whole-rock Sm-Nd data for samples of these intrusions (au)

  1. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope studies of plutonic granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary deltaD values of the biotites and hornblendes in granitic batholiths are remarkably constant at about -50 to -85, identical to the values in regional metamorphic rocks, marine sediments and greenstones, and most weathering products in temperate climates. Therefore the primary water in these igneous rocks is probably not 'juvenile', but is ultimately derived by dehydration and/or partial melting of the lower crust or subducted lithosphere. Most granitic rocks have delta 18O = +7.0 to +10.0, probably indicating significant involvment of high-18O metasedimentary or altered volcanic rocks in the melting process; such an origin is demanded for many other granodiorites and tonalites that have delta 18O = +10 to +13. Gigantic meteoric-hydrothermal convective circulation systems were established in the epizonal portions of all batholiths, locally producing very low delta 18O values (particularly in feldspars) during subsolidus exchange. Some granitic plutons in such environments also were emplaced as low-18O magmas probably formed by melting or assimilation of hydrothermally altered roof rocks. However, the water/rock ratios were typically low enough that over wide areas the only evidence for meteoric water exchange in the batholiths is given by low D/H ratios (deltaK as low as -180); for example, because of latitudinal isotopic variations in meteoric waters, as one moves north through the Cordilleran batholiths of western North America an increasingly higher proportion of the granitic rocks have deltaD values lower than -120. The lowering of deltaD values commonly corelates with re-setting of K-Ar ages. (Auth.)

  2. In situ geomechanics: Climax granite, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in situ modulus of the Climax granite in the Spent Fuel Test (SFT-C) area of the Nevada Test Site was estimated using six different approaches. Our best estimate of field modulus as E/sub f/ = 26 GPa was obtained from a comparison of the various approaches. A best estimate of laboratory modulus acquired by comparing three different sources was E/sub l/ = 70 GPa. Therefore, the modulus reduction factor for the Climax granite appears to be E/sub f//E/sub l/ = 0.37. In turn, our estimate of in situ rock-mass deformability was used to back-calculate in situ values for the normal stiffness of the granite joints. Our analysis of former stress measurements by the US Geological Survey (USGS) shows that the horizontal stresses in the vicinity of SFT-C vary greatly with azimuth. An unexplained feature of the stresses at SFT-C is the fact that the vertical stress appears to be only 65 to 75% of the calculated lithostatic burden. From the three-dimensional stress ellipsoid at mid-length in the tunnels, assuming a plane strain condition, we were able to estimate an in situ Poisson's ratio of the rock mass as ? = 0.246. Two other techniques were applied in an attempt to measure the stresses around the SFT-C heater and canister drifts: the undercoring method and the borehole jack fracturing approach. The former technique appears to have given reasonable estimates of tangential stresses in the roof of the heater drifts; the latter appears to give low results for stresses in the pillars. Specific recommendations are made for future tests to further characterize the mechanical properties of the Climax granite and the in situ stresses at SFT-C

  3. Heat transfer experiment in a granite formation at Cornwall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment simulating a waste package was started in 1978 in Cornish granite. To obtain measurable temperature rises through large volumes of rock, an electrical heater at 50m depth was run for four years. The heater was then switched off and the cooling was monitored for another year. The results show that most of the heat transfer was by conduction but that some convection occurred and that temperatures can be predicted with some confidence

  4. Polishing Knowledge: A Study of Marble and Granite Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Simone De Bruim Babisk Mezadre; Monica de Fátima Bianco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to understand the work situations and highlight aspects of the knowledge invested by workers when performing marble and granite processing activities. The survey is qualitative and was based on the reality of a small industrial company that deals with processing activities. The case study was based on theoretical and analytical ergology tools by analyzing the organizational documents and safety and health standards that regulate activity. It involved...

  5. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program; 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhey, Peter; Witalis, Shirley; Morrill, Charles (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The 1997 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by high spring flows, extensive spill, cool spring and early summer water temperatures and comparatively low numbers of fish, particularly yearling chinook. The Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program is designed to provide a consistent, real-time database of fish passage and document the migrational characteristics of the many stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin.

  6. Migration of conservative and poorly sorbing tracers in granite fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of radionuclide migration experiments is being performed in natural fractures in quarried blocks of granite to support the validation of contaminant transport models. The experiments are performed in a dedicated facility at the Whiteshell Laboratories, the Large Block Radionuclide Migration Facility. This paper discusses results from experiments performed in a hydraulically characterized fracture. A particle tracking method using a variable aperture channel model has been used to model the transport behavior of 3H2O in the fracture

  7. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhey, Peter; Ross, Doug; Morrill, Charles (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1998-12-01

    The 1998 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by relatively moderate spring flows and spill, moderate levels of debris, cool spring, warm summer and fall water temperatures, and increased chinook numbers, particularly wild subyearling chinook collected and transported. The Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program is designed to provide a consistent, real-time database on fish passage and document the migrational characteristics of the many stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin.

  8. Residual granitic soil improvement for rammed earth construction

    OpenAIRE

    Cristelo, R.; Roma, R.; Fernandes, L.; Miranda, Tiago F. S.; Oliveira, Daniel V.; Silva, Rui André Martins

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the research developed to evaluate the performance of stabilised residual granitic soil from the north region of Portugal. It is part of a research project designed to investigate the possibility of using this soil for rammed earth construction. Since its reduced plasticity makes the use of lime less effective, and the increasing environmental concerns with cement production can no longer be ignored, the study was focused on binders made from alkaline activation of low ca...

  9. Abstracting audit data for lightweight intrusion detection

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    High speed of processing massive audit data is crucial for an anomaly Intrusion Detection System (IDS) to achieve real-time performance during the detection. Abstracting audit data is a potential solution to improve the efficiency of data processing. In this work, we propose two strategies of data abstraction in order to build a lightweight detection model. The first strategy is exemplar extraction and the second is attribute abstraction. Two clustering algorithms, Affinity Propagation (AP) as well as traditional k-means, are employed to extract the exemplars, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is employed to abstract important attributes (a.k.a. features) from the audit data. Real HTTP traffic data collected in our institute as well as KDD 1999 data are used to validate the two strategies of data abstraction. The extensive test results show that the process of exemplar extraction significantly improves the detection efficiency and has a better detection performance than PCA in data abstraction. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Coastal Marsh Monitoring for Persistent Saltwater Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Callie M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's work on the project that supports the Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA) Governors Action Plan to monitor the coastal wetlands for saltwater intrusion. The action items that relate to the task are: (1) Obtain information on projected relative sea level rise, subsidence, and storm vulnerability to help prioritize conservation projects, including restoration, enhancement, and acquisition, and (2) Develop and apply ecosystem models to forecast the habitat structure and succession following hurricane disturbance and changes in ecological functions and services that impact vital socio-economic aspects of coastal systems. The objectives of the program are to provide resource managers with remote sensing products that support ecosystem forecasting models requiring salinity and inundation data. Specifically, the proposed work supports the habitat-switching modules in the Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) model, which provides scientific evaluation for restoration management.

  11. Introduction To Intrusion Detection System Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Tewatia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Security of a network is always an important issue. With the continuously growing network the basic security such as firewall virus scanner is easily deceived by modern attackers who are experts in using software vulnerabilities to achieve their goals. For preventing such attacks we need even smarter security mechanism which act proactively and intelligently. Intrusion Detection System is the solution of such requirement. Many techniques have been used to implement IDS. These technique basically used in the detector part of IDS such as Neural Network Clustering Pattern Matching Rule Based Fuzzy Logic Genetic Algorithms and many more. To improve the performance of an IDS these approaches may be used in combination to build a hybrid IDS so that benefits of two o more approaches may be combined.

  12. Stress, intrusive imagery, and chronic distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, A

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of stress in the context of problems with its definition and sources of confusion regarding its usefulness and specificity. Stress can be defined as a negative emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological, and behavioral changes that are directed toward adaptation either by manipulating the situation to alter the stressor or by accommodating its effects. Chronic stress is more complex than most definitions suggest and is clearly not limited to situations in which stressors persist for long periods of time. Responses may habituate before a stressor disappears or may persist long beyond the physical presence of the stressor. This latter case, in which chronic stress and associated biobehavioral changes outlast their original cause, is considered in light of research at Three Mile Island and among Vietnam veterans. The role of intrusive images of the stressor or uncontrollable thoughts about it in maintaining stress is explored. PMID:2286178

  13. Stress, intrusive imagery, and chronic distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discusses the nature of stress in the context of problems with its definition and sources of confusion regarding its usefulness and specificity. Stress can be defined as a negative emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological, and behavioral changes that are directed toward adaptation either by manipulating the situation to alter the stressor or by accommodating its effects. Chronic stress is more complex than most definitions suggest and is clearly not limited to situations in which stressors persist for long periods of time. Responses may habituate before a stressor disappears or may persist long beyond the physical presence of the stressor. This latter case, in which chronic stress and associated biobehavioral changes outlast their original cause, is considered in light of research at Three Mile Island and among Vietnam veterans. The role of intrusive images of the stressor or uncontrollable thoughts about it in maintaining stress is explored

  14. Strategic Alert Throttling for Intrusion Detection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gianni, Tedesco

    2008-01-01

    Network intrusion detection systems are themselves becoming targets of attackers. Alert flood attacks may be used to conceal malicious activity by hiding it among a deluge of false alerts sent by the attacker. Although these types of attacks are very hard to stop completely, our aim is to present techniques that improve alert throughput and capacity to such an extent that the resources required to successfully mount the attack become prohibitive. The key idea presented is to combine a token bucket filter with a realtime correlation algorithm. The proposed algorithm throttles alert output from the IDS when an attack is detected. The attack graph used in the correlation algorithm is used to make sure that alerts crucial to forming strategies are not discarded by throttling.

  15. Techniques de débitmétrie polyphasique non intrusive. Revue bibliographique Non Intrusive Multiphase Flow Measurement Techniques. Bibliographic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch J.

    2006-01-01

    Cet article présente les différentes techniques de débitmétrie polyphasique non intrusive décrites dans la littérature du domaine public. Ces techniques sont considérées du point de vue de leur application dans le cadre de la production pétrolière sous-marine (mélange eau/huile/gaz). A partir d'une analyse des différentes méthodes physiques qui peuvent être utilisées, des perspectives d'avenir sont proposées. Several operations in the oil reservoir exploitation industry call for flowmeters...

  16. Radiometric study of three radioactive granites in the Canadian Shield: Elliot Lake, Ontario; Fort Smith, and Fury and Hecla, N.W.T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granitic rocks in three areas of the Canadian Shield have been studied with respect to their uranium and thorium contents. These rocks are all associated with various types of radioactive concentrations. The trends defined in the variations of uranium and thorium with their ratios reflect the amount or remobilization of uranium that has occurred within the plutons. An increase in the U/Th ratio with U indicates postmagmatic remobilization of U. A lack of variation indicates no such remobilization. An inverse correlation between U/Th ratio and Th indicates radioelement distributions that were at least partly governed by magmatic processes. The amount of postmagmatic remobilization that has taken place is indicative of favourability for epigenetic uranium mineralization within or near the intrusion. However, rocks that show a lack of remobilization may be important as a source of clastic mineralization provided that suitable accessory minerals are present. The relationships between radioelement concentrations and their ratios are detectable on airborne radiometric maps and profiles allowing the users some insight on the uranium potential of granitic terranes

  17. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480, 000 years, especially during cool inter-stadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12, 900 to 11, 700 years BP followed by a short (? 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11, 230 to 10, 900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had ?14C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12, 500 ± 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had ?14C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (Tisol) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low ?14C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at ? 10, 900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds on the continental slopes being draped in a thin veneer of mud. Their demise is attributed to a number of factors, including the direct loss of habitat due to high sedimentation that accompanied glacial meltwater pulses, together with rising temperatures that would have finally pervaded the deeper water of the Mediterranean following the onset of Holocene warming. (authors)

  18. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, Malcolm [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australian, Crawley, 6009, Western Australia (Australia); Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Taviani, Marco; Lopez Correa, Matthias; Remia, Alessandro [ISMAR-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Montagna, Paolo [LSCE, Av. de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, ISMAR-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Mortimer, Graham [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480, 000 years, especially during cool inter-stadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12, 900 to 11, 700 years BP followed by a short ({approx} 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11, 230 to 10, 900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had {Delta}{sup 14}C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12, 500 {+-} 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had {Delta}{sup 14}C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (T{sub isol}) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low {Delta}{sup 14}C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at {approx} 10, 900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds on the continental slopes being draped in a thin veneer of mud. Their demise is attributed to a number of factors, including the direct loss of habitat due to high sedimentation that accompanied glacial meltwater pulses, together with rising temperatures that would have finally pervaded the deeper water of the Mediterranean following the onset of Holocene warming. (authors)

  19. A Novel Cell Reckoning Intrusion against TOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjaneni Siva Lalitha1 , Prof.S.V.Achutha Rao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available TOR (The onion router is a low latency anonymous communication system for enabling online anonymity. TOR directs Internet traffic through a free, worldwide volunteer network consisting of more than three thousand relaysto conceal a user's location or usage from anyone conducting network surveillance or traffic analysis. Tor aims to conceal its users' identities and their network activity from surveillance and traffic analysis by separating identification and routing. It is an implementation of onion routing, which encrypts and then randomly bounces communications through a network of relays run by volunteers around the globe. Because the internet address of the sender and the recipient are not both in clear text at any hop along the way, anyone eavesdropping at any point along the communication channel cannot directly identify both ends. Furthermore, to the recipient it appears that the last Tor node (the exit node is the originator of the communication rather than the sender. Because of this TOR communication system, if an intruder is going to make any unauthenticated changes to system then it is not possible to track him back. In this paper we proposed a solution for this problem by using ‘Cell-Reckoning-Intrusion –Against TOR’. By the no of experiment on TOR we found that the size of IP packets in the Tor network can be very dynamic because a cell is an application concept and the IP layer may repack cells. In this attack, the attacker can embed a secret signal into the variation of cell counter of the target traffic. The embedded signal will be carried along with the target traffic and arrive at the malicious entry onion router. Then, an accomplice of the attacker at the malicious entry onion router will detect the embedded signal based on the received cells and confirm the communication relationship among users. We have implemented this intrusion against Tor, and our experimental data validate is highly effective and efficient.

  20. Study of the mineralization potential of the intrusives around Valis (Tarom-Iran)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mojtaba, Bahajroy; Saeed, Taki.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El área de este estudioá localizada en el noroeste de la zona centrán, específicamente en el oeste de la subzona de Alborz y al sur de la zona metalogénica de Tarom-Hashtjin. Las unidades de roca expuesta en esta área se clasifican generalmente como rocas ánicas del Eoceno (flujos de lava y piroclas [...] tos pertenecientes a la formación Karaj) y como cuerpos granitoides intrusivos del Oligoceno. Los cuerpos intrusivos en el área tienen una composición petrográfica de granito, sienita y monzonita mayormente metaluminosa. Las características duales de estas intrusiones (por ejemplo, el comportamiento de de elementos como Rb, P, Ga/Al, Y/Nb, K/Na, y Feo/Fe2O3, los índice de Rb/Nb, la proporción molar de los A/CNK y los diagramas ACF y A/CNK-Fe2O3+FeO), algunas de las cuales son consistentes con la índole I y otras con las índoles S y A, muestran que las rocas son granitoides híbridos y, en términos de orden tectónico, subyacen en la cadena WPG. De acuerdo con los índices Rb/Sr, Zr/Hf, K/Rb, los granitos fundieron la forma de los cuerpos sin desarrollarse completamente y sin registrar actividad magmática posterior, lo que llevó a la mineralización. Los índices Sm/Eu y Rb/Ba y el comportamiento del Rb, Ba y Sr al interior de los granitoides mencionados muestran que las rocas son similares al promedio de los granitoides no relacionados con los depósitos de Li, Be, Sn, W y Ta; estos se incluyen en el rango de granitoides estériles, pero son parcialemente fértiles en Cu. Abstract in english The study area is located in northwestern Iran in the central Iran zone, specifically the western Alborz sub-zone south of the Tarom-Hashtjin metallogenic zone. The exposed rock units in this area generally include Eocene volcanic rocks (lava flows and pyroclasts belonging to the Karaj formation) an [...] d Oligocene granitoid intrusive bodies. The intrusive bodies in the area have a petrographic composition of granite, syenite and monzonite and are mostly metaluminous. The dual characteristics of these intrusives (for example, the behavior of elements such as Rb, P, Ga/Al, Y/Nb, K/Na, and FeO/Fe2O3, the Rb/Nb ratios, the A/CNK molar ratios and the ACF and A/CNK-Fe2O3+FeO diagrams), some of which are consistent with the I nature and others with the S and A natures, show that the rocks are among hybrid granitoids and, in terms of the tectonic setting, lie within the WPG range. According to the Rb/Sr, Zr/Hf, K/Rb ratios, the granite melts that form the aforementioned bodies are not extremely evolved and have not undergone post magmatic activity, which would lead to mineralization. The Sm/Eu and Rb/Ba ratios and the behavior of Rb, Ba and Sr within the aforementioned granitoids show that the rocks are similar to average granitoids unrelated to Li, Be, Sn, W and Ta deposits; they fall within the range of barren granitoids but are partially fertile in Cu.

  1. Static and Dynamic Flexural Strength Anisotropy of Barre Granite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, F.; Xia, K.; Zuo, J. P.; Zhang, R.; Xu, N. W.

    2013-11-01

    Granite exhibits anisotropy due to pre-existing microcracks under tectonic loadings; and the mechanical property anisotropy such as flexural/tensile strength is vital to many rock engineering applications. In this paper, Barre Granite is studied to understand the flexural strength anisotropy under a wide range of loading rates using newly proposed semi-circular bend tests. Static tests are conducted with a MTS hydraulic servo-control testing machine and dynamic tests with a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. Six samples groups are fabricated with respect to the three principle directions of Barre granite. Pulse shaping technique is used in all dynamic SHPB tests to facilitate dynamic stress equilibrium. Finite element method is utilized to build up equations calculating the flexural tensile strength. For samples in the same orientation group, a loading rate dependence of the flexural tensile strength is observed. The measured flexural tensile strength is higher than the tensile strength measured using Brazilian disc method at given loading rate and this scenario has been rationalized using a non-local failure theory. The flexural tensile strength anisotropy features obvious dependence on the loading rates, the higher the loading rate, the less the anisotropy and this phenomenon may be explained considering the interaction of the preferentially oriented microcracks.

  2. Presence of radioactive minerals in ornamental granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we report on results of studies to determine the presence of radioactive minerals in ornamental granitic rocks used as revestiment, originated from several quarries in Brazil, predominantly those from the states of Espirito Santo and Minas Gerais. To develop this work, one hundred samples were collected from commercial stones in Belo Horizonte. In the study of the radioactive materials, techniques of autoradiography were used, as well as optical microscopy, diffractometry and chemical analysis (X-ray spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, neutronic activation, gravimetry and electron microanalysis) to determine the associated minerals and litotypes. Results obtained with autoradiographs of several samples show the shape, size and intensity of irregularly distributed dark spots which, when checked through an optical microscope and an electron microprobe, highlight mainly monazite, allanite and zircon. By using chemical analysis, concentrations of up to 30 ppm of uranium and 130 ppm of thorium were found, preferably associated to high concentrations of light rare earths in silicate rocks of granitic composition. In the future, further results about the ornamental granitic rocks with radioactive minerals will be applied, where possible implications to the environment and damages to the health due to contact with these rocks will be discussed. (author)

  3. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrill, Charles; Ross, Doug; Mensik, Fred

    2000-01-01

    The 2000 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by lower than average spring flows and spill, low levels of debris, cool water temperatures, increased unclipped yearling and subyearling chinook smolts, and 8,300,546 smolts collected and transported compared to 5,882,872 in 1999. With the continued release of unclipped supplementation chinook and steelhead above Lower Granite Dam, we can no longer accurately distinguish wild chinook, steelhead, and sockeye/kokanee in the sample. Although some table titles in this report still show ''wild'' column headings, the numbers in these columns for 1999 and 2000 include wild and unclipped hatchery origin smolts. The increases over previous years reflect the increased supplementation. A total of 8,300,546 juvenile salmonids were collected at Lower Granite Dam. Of these, 187,862 fish were bypassed back to the river and 7,950,648 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 7,778,853 by barge and 171,795 by truck. A total of 151,344 salmonids were examined in daily samples. Nine research projects conducted by four agencies impacted a total of 1,361,006 smolts (16.4% of the total collection).

  4. Geochemistry, age and origin of Perur granite, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The homophanous coarse-grained granite near Perur, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh ranges in composition from granite (normative) to granite-quartzmonzonite (chemical) and records a Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of 2549 ± 39 Ma. Variation observed in the major and trace element concentrations (SiO2) = 67.09 - 73.83%; Al2O3 = 12.76-14.51%; total iron 2.31-4.97%; MgO = 1.03-3.66%; Cr = 7-102 ppm; Rb = 169-223 ppm and Sr128-423 ppm) and the low CaO (less than 2%) in the granite suggest that it is a crustal remelting (CR) type granite formed by the anatectic remelting of an intermediate source rock. The high total REE (201.38-245.63 ppm), their well fractionated nature (LaN/YbN)= 17.83-22.32) and the negative Eu anomaly of the granite support that the source rock was intermediate in composition having hydroxyl bearing minerals like biotite and hornblende. The Rb-Sr whole rock age (2459 ± 39 Ma) of the granite is similar to that of Closepet, Lepakshi and Hyderabad granites suggesting that this granite has formed along with the other K-rich granites by extensive crustal remelting during the Archaen-Proterozoic Transition (APT). (author). 30 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. Permian ultrafelsic A-type granite from Besar Islands group, Johor, peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The granitic rocks of the peninsula have traditionally been divided into two provinces, i.e., Western and Eastern provinces, corresponding to S- and I-type granite respectively. The Western Province granite is characterised by megacrystic and coarse-grained biotite, tin-mineralised, continental collision granite, whereas, the Eastern Province granite is bimodal I-type dominated by granodiorite and associated gabbroic of arc type granite. This paper reports the occurrence of an A-type granite from peninsular Malaysia. The rocks occur in the Besar, Tengah, and Hujung islands located in the southeastern part of the peninsula. The granite is highly felsic with SiO2 ranging from 75.70% to 77.90% (differentiation index = 94.2-97.04). It is weakly peraluminous (average ACNK =1.02), has normative hypersthene (0.09-2.19%) and high alkali content (8.32-8.60%). The granites have many A-type characteristics, among them are shallow level of emplacement, high Ga, FeT/MgO and low P, Sr, Ti, CaO and Nb. Calculated zircon saturation temperatures for the Besar magma ranging from 793° to 806? is consistent with high temperature partial melting of a felsic infracrustal source which is taken as one of the mechanisms to produce A-type magma. The occurrence of the A-type granite can be related to the extensional back arc basin in the Indo-China terrane during the earliest Permian. (author)

  6. Permian ultrafelsic A-type granite from Besar Islands group, Johor, peninsular Malaysia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Azman A Ghani; Fatin Izzani Hazad; Azmiah Jamil; Quek Long Xiang; Wan Nur Atiqah Wan Ismail; Sun-Lin Chung; Yu-Ming Lai; Muhammad Hatta Roselee; Nur Islami; Kyaw Kyaw Nyein; Meor Hakif Amir Hassan; Mohd Farid Abu Bakar; Mohd Rozi Umor

    2014-12-01

    The granitic rocks of the peninsula have traditionally been divided into two provinces, i.e., Western and Eastern provinces, corresponding to S- and I-type granite respectively. The Western Province granite is characterised by megacrystic and coarse-grained biotite, tin-mineralised, continental collision granite, whereas, the Eastern Province granite is bimodal I-type dominated by granodiorite and associated gabbroic of arc type granite. This paper reports the occurrence of an A-type granite from peninsular Malaysia. The rocks occur in the Besar, Tengah, and Hujung islands located in the southeastern part of the peninsula. The granite is highly felsic with SiO2 ranging from 75.70% to 77.90% (differentiation index = 94.2–97.04). It is weakly peraluminous (average ACNK=1.02), has normative hypersthene (0.09–2.19%) and high alkali content (8.32–8.60%). The granites have many A-type characteristics, among them are shallow level of emplacement, high Ga, FeT/MgO and low P, Sr, Ti, CaO and Nb. Calculated zircon saturation temperatures for the Besar magma ranging from 793° to 806°C is consistent with high temperature partial melting of a felsic infracrustal source which is taken as one of the mechanisms to produce A-type magma. The occurrence of the A-type granite can be related to the extensional back arc basin in the Indo-China terrane during the earliest Permian.

  7. Mafic intrusions triggering eruptions in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmarsson, O.

    2012-04-01

    The last two eruptions in Iceland, Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Grímsvötn 2011, were both provoked by an intrusion of more mafic magma into pre-existing magmatic system. Injection into the latter volcano, which is located in the main rift-zone of the island, above the presumed centre of the mantle plume and is the most active volcano of Iceland, has been gradual since the last eruption in 2004. In contrast, at Eyjafjallajökull volcano, one of the least active volcano in Iceland and located at the southern part of a propagating rift-zone where extensional tectonics are poorly developed, mafic magma intrusion occurred over less than a year. Beneath Eyjafjallajökull, a silicic intrusion at approximately 6 km depth was recharged with mantle derived alkali basalt that was injected into residual rhyolite from the penultimate eruption in the years 1821-23. The resulting magma mingIing process was highly complex, but careful sampling of tephra during the entire eruption allows the dynamics of the mingling process to be unravelled. Short-lived disequilibria between the gaseous nuclide 210Po and the much less volatile nuclide 210Pb, suggest that basalt accumulated beneath the silicic intrusion over approximately 100 days, or from early January 2010 until the onset of the explosive summit eruption on 14 April. Due to the degassing, crystal fractionation modified the composition of the injected mafic magma producing evolved Fe-and Ti-rich basalt, similar in composition to that of the nearby Katla volcano. This evolved basalt was intruded into the liquid part of the silicic intrusion only a few hours before the onset of the explosive summit eruption. The short time between intrusion and eruption led to the production of very heterogeneous (of basaltic, intermediate and silicic composition) and fine-grained tephra during the first days of explosive eruption. The fine grained tephra resulted from combined effects of magma fragmentation due to degassing of stiff magma rich in microliths in the volcanic conduit and the thermal shock when the mingled magma came into contact with the ice-cold melt water. Two weeks later, a fresh recharge occurred when mantle derived basalt rose from the mantle/crust boundary during a day or two and brought quantity of sulphur as evidenced by the presence of sulphides in the tephra of 5 May. An important plume of SO2, increased plume height, the appearance of zoned olivine crystals with Fo-rich core similar to those of the earlier flank eruption , changing magma mingling end-member compositions and a small but significant inflation of short duration testify to this renewed magma recharge. Several other recharge events, although of less intensity, occurred until the end of the eruption around 22 May. The proportion of basaltic mixing end-member declined during the eruption and its exhaustion caused the eruption to stop. At Grímsvötn, a magma chamber with a closed-system behaviour, since the Laki eruption in 1783-84, has been inferred from very regular concentration increase of the incompatible element Th in an otherwise homogeneous qz-normative basalt measured in tephra from the last two centuries. The 2011 eruption was of short duration, or a week, but its eruption column rose higher than 20 km during the first hours and therefore penetrated into the stratosphere. Such forceful eruption has not been documented before at Grímsvötn volcano although the tephra record suggests several large explosive eruptions during Postglacial time. A significant emission of SO2 was remotely detected which testify to important degassing of the basaltic magma. A clear negative correlation is observed between the residual S concentration in the tephra glass and degree of microlite crystallisation. Moreover, disequilibrium crystallisation most likely occurred in the conduit and only shortly before magma quenching due to contact with the subglacial lake, since the ferromagnesian crystals dominate this late-stage crystallisation. Earlier gabbroic fractionation of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and rare olivine crystals led to mo

  8. Realistic computer network simulation for network intrusion detection dataset generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Garrett

    2015-05-01

    The KDD-99 Cup dataset is dead. While it can continue to be used as a toy example, the age of this dataset makes it all but useless for intrusion detection research and data mining. Many of the attacks used within the dataset are obsolete and do not reflect the features important for intrusion detection in today's networks. Creating a new dataset encompassing a large cross section of the attacks found on the Internet today could be useful, but would eventually fall to the same problem as the KDD-99 Cup; its usefulness would diminish after a period of time. To continue research into intrusion detection, the generation of new datasets needs to be as dynamic and as quick as the attacker. Simply examining existing network traffic and using domain experts such as intrusion analysts to label traffic is inefficient, expensive, and not scalable. The only viable methodology is simulation using technologies including virtualization, attack-toolsets such as Metasploit and Armitage, and sophisticated emulation of threat and user behavior. Simulating actual user behavior and network intrusion events dynamically not only allows researchers to vary scenarios quickly, but enables online testing of intrusion detection mechanisms by interacting with data as it is generated. As new threat behaviors are identified, they can be added to the simulation to make quicker determinations as to the effectiveness of existing and ongoing network intrusion technology, methodology and models.

  9. Network Intrusion Detection Model based on Fuzzy Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Long

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection is of great importance in the research field of information security in computer networks. In this paper, we concentrate on how to automatically detect the network intrusion behavior utilizing fuzzy support vector machine. After analyzing the related works of the proposed paper, we introduce the main characterics of fuzzy support vector machine, and demonstrate its formal description in detail. Next, the proposed intrusion detection system is organized as five modules, which are Data source, AAA protocol, FSVM module located in local computer, Guest computer and Terminals. Particularly, the intrusion detection module is constructed by four sections, which are data gathering section, data pre-processing section, intrusion detecting section and decision response section. Then, the intrusion detection algorithm based on fuzzy support vector machine is implemented by training process and testing process. Utilizing this algorithm, a sample in testing data can be judged whether it is belonged to network intrusion behavior. Finally, experimental results verify the effectiveness of our method comparing with other methods under different metric.

  10. A Frequency-Based Approach to Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Zhou

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on network security and intrusion detection strategies presents many challenging issues to both theoreticians and practitioners. Hackers apply an array of intrusion and exploit techniques to cause disruption of normal system operations, but on the defense, firewalls and intrusion detection systems (IDS are typically only effective in defending known intrusion types using their signatures, and are far less than mature when faced with novel attacks. In this paper, we adapt the frequency analysis techniques such as the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT used in signal processing to the design of intrusion detection algorithms. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the frequency-based detection strategy by running synthetic network intrusion data in simulated networks using the OPNET software. The simulation results indicate that the proposed intrusion detection strategy is effective in detecting anomalous traffic data that exhibit patterns over time, which include several types of DOS and probe attacks. The significance of this new strategy is that it does not depend on the prior knowledge of attack signatures, thus it has the potential to be a useful supplement to existing signature-based IDS and firewalls.

  11. Review of geomechanics data from French nuclear explosions in the Hoggar granite, with some comparisons to tests in US granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous unclassified reports on the French nuclear explosions in the Hoggar (1961-1966) were reviewed from the standpoint of geomechanics. The following aspects of the tests are summarized: spectral content of the tests compared to U.S. results; shock front positions with time; cavity radius as a function of yield, coupling, density of rock, rock shear strength, and overburden; radial pressure, tangential pressure and peak velocity as a function of distance and yield; pressure vs. time at various distances; mechanical properties of granite; scaling laws for acceleration, velocity and displacement as a function of yield and distance for all Hoggar shots; extent of tunnel damage as a function of distance and yield; time to collapse of chimney as a function of yield, or cavity radius; extent of granite crushing and disking as a function of distance and yield cavity height relation to cavity radius; faulting and jointing on the Taourirt Tan Afella massif; and influence of water content on cavity radius vs. yield. Whenever possible, these French data are compared to corresponding data obtained in the U.S. granite events Hard Hat, Shoal, and Piledriver. The following results emerge from the comparison: (1) agreement is found between the French and U.S. experience for: mechanical properties of the granites, rock damage due to the blast, and yield-scaled peak values of acceleration, velocity and displacement; and (2) lack of agreement exists for: cavity size, chminey height, and time to cavity collapse. Average spacing of rock joints also was about 5 times greater in the Hoggar

  12. Review of geomechanics data from French nuclear explosions in the Hoggar granite, with some comparisons to tests in US granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1983-05-01

    Numerous unclassified reports on the French nuclear explosions in the Hoggar (1961-1966) were reviewed from the standpoint of geomechanics. The following aspects of the tests are summarized: spectral content of the tests compared to U.S. results; shock front positions with time; cavity radius as a function of yield, coupling, density of rock, rock shear strength, and overburden; radial pressure, tangential pressure and peak velocity as a function of distance and yield; pressure vs. time at various distances; mechanical properties of granite; scaling laws for acceleration, velocity and displacement as a function of yield and distance for all Hoggar shots; extent of tunnel damage as a function of distance and yield; time to collapse of chimney as a function of yield, or cavity radius; extent of granite crushing and disking as a function of distance and yield cavity height relation to cavity radius; faulting and jointing on the Taourirt Tan Afella massif; and influence of water content on cavity radius vs. yield. Whenever possible, these French data are compared to corresponding data obtained in the U.S. granite events Hard Hat, Shoal, and Piledriver. The following results emerge from the comparison: (1) agreement is found between the French and U.S. experience for: mechanical properties of the granites, rock damage due to the blast, and yield-scaled peak values of acceleration, velocity and displacement; and (2) lack of agreement exists for: cavity size, chminey height, and time to cavity collapse. Average spacing of rock joints also was about 5 times greater in the Hoggar.

  13. First evidence for expressive neoproterozoic intraplated mafic rocks and magma mixing in post-collisional A-PA type granites, Southern Brazil: Geochemistry and U-Pb (zircon), Nd-Sr-18O(zircon) isotope investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New and recent geological investigations around Pien-Tijucas suture zone, between Luis Alves and Curitiba Microplates (Basei et al.2000) led to mapping of Palermo, Agudos do Sul and Rio Negro A-PA type Granites with expressive expositions of alkaline felsic ans mafic rocks and, associated mafic and felsic hybrid rocks. The suture zone is formed by subduction arc-related Pien-Mandirituba deformed calc-alkaline I-type granite belt and serpentinized supra subduction zone (SSZ) obducted mantle rocks with intrusive Neoproterozoic (650-630 Ma) very high Cr and Ni tholeitic gabbros. The Pien-Mandirituba calc-alkaline I-type Granite Belt is constituted by three main granite suites. The older emplaced pre-collisional suite is constituted by deformed to highly deformed amphibole and biotite-rich, magmatic epidote-absent quartz-monzodiorites and granodiorites formed between 620 and 610 Ma. The second sincollisional granite suite is constituted by deformed and slightly deformed low content amphibole-biotite-magmatic epidote-bearing, quartz-monzodiorites, granodiorites and leucogranodiorites emplaced between 605 and 595 Ma. The third, also sincollisional, granite suite is deformed to highly deformed biotite ± amphibole monzogranites. The deformation age of the three non-cogenetic granite suites of this granite belt is between 605-595 Ma. The granite rocks of the Pien-Mandirituba Granite Belt are meta-aluminous to slightly peraluminous, high K calc-alkaline, generally with high Ba, high Sr and low Rb contents. Palermo, Agudos do Sul and Rio Negro Granites are components of the expressive Neoproterozoic volcanic and plutonic alkaline-peralkaline Serra do Mar Suite (Kaul 1997), emplaced in extensional post-collisional and anorogenic settings along the central portion and northern border of the Luis Alves Microplate and southern border of the Curitiba Microplate. Magma mixing evidence is rare ou absent in the other components of the Serra do Mar volcanic and plutonic suite. The Palermo Granite, formed between 595-585 Ma, is mainly constituted by medium to coarse grained, non deformed A-type amphibole-biotite and biotite monzo-syenogranites, and subordinately slightly peralkaline (PA-type) quartz-monzonites/quartz-syenites with sodic amphibole and pyroxene, intraplated alkaline mafic rocks and associated felsic and mafic hybrid granite rocks. The Rio Negro Granite, formed between 595-585, Ma is mainly constituted by mafic and felsic hybrid granite rocks and associated alkaline mafic rocks and non deformed A-type biotite monzo-syenogranites. The peralkaline rocks are absent in the Rio Negro Granite. The A-type monzo-syenogranites of Palermo and Rio Negro and, A-type leucogranodiorites of Agudos do Sul Granite are high silica (SiO2 70-80%), aluminous (meta-aluminous to slightly peraluminous) with low Sr, low Ba, high Rb content and high Ga, Zr, Hf, Nb and Y contents and, high LREE and HREE with high Eu negative anomalies. The slightly peralkaline quartz-monzonites/quartz-syenites (SiO2 = 60-65 %) of Palermo Granite presents very low Sr, low Ba, high Rb, very high Zr, Hf and Y, and LREE and HREE enrichment with high Eu negative anomalies. The alkaline mafic rocks emplaced within Palermo and Rio Negro Granites forms, by mixing with the adjacent A-type monzo to syenogranites, a great variety of mafic (hybrid monzodiorites/hybrid monzogabbros, hybrid quartz-monzodiorites to hybrid quartz-monzonitos) and felsic (hybrid quartz-monzodiorites, hybrid quartz-monzonitos to hybrid monzogranitos) hybrid rocks. The mafic and felsic hybrid rocks are mainly characterised by the presence of typical mixing textures such as, quartz-ocelli with or without interstitial perthite mantled by pyroxene, amphibole and biotite, chaotic acicular apatite, rounded and elliptical mafic (biotite, amphibole/pyroxene) concentrations. The mixing textures are absent in the alkaline mafic rocks. The lithochemical and 18O isotope investigations on these hybrid rocks and the mixing components suggest no genetical links between monzo-syenogranites and alkaline mafic rocks (au)

  14. Intrusion detection in wireless ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    Presenting cutting-edge research, Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks explores the security aspects of the basic categories of wireless ad-hoc networks and related application areas. Focusing on intrusion detection systems (IDSs), it explains how to establish security solutions for the range of wireless networks, including mobile ad-hoc networks, hybrid wireless networks, and sensor networks.This edited volume reviews and analyzes state-of-the-art IDSs for various wireless ad-hoc networks. It includes case studies on honesty-based intrusion detection systems, cluster oriented-based

  15. Novel hybrid intrusion detection system for clustered wireless sensor network

    CERN Document Server

    Sedjelmaci, Hichem

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is regularly deployed in unattended and hostile environments. The WSN is vulnerable to security threats and susceptible to physical capture. Thus, it is necessary to use effective mechanisms to protect the network. It is widely known, that the intrusion detection is one of the most efficient security mechanisms to protect the network against malicious attacks or unauthorized access. In this paper, we propose a hybrid intrusion detection system for clustered WSN. Our intrusion framework uses a combination between the Anomaly Detection based on support vector machine (SVM) and the Misuse Detection. Experiments results show that most of routing attacks can be detected with low false alarm.

  16. Network Intrusion Detection Based on PSO-SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsheng Xiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve network intrusion detection precision, this paper proposed a network intrusion detection model based on simultaneous selecting features and parameters of support vector machine (SVM by particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. Firstly, the features and parameters of SVM are coded to particle, and then the PSO is used to find the  optimal features and SVM parameters by collaboration among particles, lastly, the performance of the model was tested by KDD Cup 99 data. Compared with other network models, the proposed model has reduced input features for SVM and has significantly improved the detection precision of network intrusion.

  17. Traumatic Intrusion of a Maxillary Canine Tooth: 3 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edstrom, Emily J; Smith, Mark M; Taney, Kendall; Smithson, Christopher W

    2015-01-01

    Of the six recognized types of tooth luxation injuries, intrusion generally carries the most guarded long-term prognosis due to the high risk of complications, including root resorption, ankylosis, marginal bone loss, and pulp canal obliteration or necrosis. The degree of traumatic intrusion and stage of root development affects the outcome and treatment planning. This report describes the clinical history, oral and radiographic examination findings, and rationale for surgical extraction in 2 dogs and 1 cat with traumatic intrusion of a maxillary canine tooth. PMID:26197689

  18. New Rb-Sr isotopic ages and geochemistry of granitic gneisses from southern Bastar: implications for crustal evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deformed gneisses from the southern Bastar craton yield Rb-Sr whole-rock ages of 2560 Ma and 2659 Ma with initial Sr ratios ranging between 0.70899 and 0.70726 respectively. The isotopic data are found to be scattered even at the outcrop scale which possibly indicate large-scale reworking of the gneisses during the period. The high initial Sr ratios that associate with scattering of the isotopic data reflect reworking of older gneisses. Geochemically, these gneisses are considered to be derived from an amphibolitic or basaltic protolith. The 2095 Ma (initial Sr ratio of 0.74312) old leucocratic granite intrusive into these gneisses represent early Proterozoic magmatic activity. Based on the available isotopic and geochemical data, it is suggested that the Bastar craton represents a polyphase, multicomponent terrain developed by repeated magmatism at a much earlier, probably during mid-Archaean, time and was extensively reworked during the time span between end-Archaean and early Proterozoic period. This reworking may be synchronous with coalescing of smaller crustal components possibly during the end-Archaean time. (author). 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Geochemistry of K2O-UTh elements of granites from eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of about 350 analytical results of K2O, Th, U of granites from Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Hennan, Shandong, Anhui, Jiangxi, Fujiang, Hubei and Guangdong province, Eastern China, a general rule of variation for these elements of the granites is summarized, and it is applied to discuss problems of geochemical type, distributive characteristic and petrogenetic significance of the granites. These granites can be divided into three types, e.g. normal, high-U and low-U. A distributive pattern is pointed out that normal and low-U types of granites are dominant in Northern China while normal and high-U types are large scale in Southern China. Three metamorphic materials, which are derived from igneous rock, sedimentary rock and weathered igneous rock and-or igneous graywacke of low compositional maturity, are considered respectively as source rocks of the three granites

  20. The EL abra stadial, a younger dryas equivalent in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Hammen, Thomas; Hooghiemstra, Henry

    A survey of radiocarbon-dated palynological, stratigraphical and glacio-morphological evidence from Colombia is presented showing a cold climatic fluctuation most likely between 10,900 and 10,100 BP, immediately preceding the initiation of the Holocene. This fluctuation, called the El Abra stadial, is characterized by lower temperatures and less precipitation, and occurs after the Late-Glacial Guantiva interstadial. Average annual temperature during the Guantiva interstadial may have been 2°C lower than today, and during the El Abra stadial from 4° to 6°C lower than today. The upper forest line during the El Abra stadial was some 400 to 500 m lower than during the Guantiva interstadial and some 600 to 800 m lower than today. The Guantiva interstadial-El Abra stadial-early Holocene sequence is radiocarbon dated by some 45 dates and evidence is shown from 14 areas, mostly located at high elevations (2000-4000 m) in the Eastern and Central Cordillera and in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, but some from the tropical low-lands. Although more precise dating of the boundaries is desirable, we interpret the Guantiva-El Abra climatic fluctuations as equivalents in time and climatic phenomena to the Allerød-Younger Dryas sequence in Europe.

  1. Ecuadorian Aquifer Studied for Marine Intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 2007, a Technical Cooperation Project called 'Characterization of Coastal Aquifers on the Santa Elena Peninsula' (ECU8026) was launched to better assess groundwater resources in the area and investigate whether aquifers in the Santa Elena area of southwestern Ecuador (see map above) are affected by marine intrusion. The Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral (ESPOL), Guayaquil, Ecuador, implemented the project in collaboration with other local institutes to uncover the impact of marine intrusion, if it exists, on the sustainability of this crucial water resource. Groundwater constitutes the main source of drinking water in the area, complemented by surface water resources derived from the Santa Elena reservoir, for the local population and approximately 80 000 tourists. Due to the semi-arid climate of the area, affected by the relatively cold Humboldt stream, the coastal zones are facing important deficits in fresh groundwater, surface water and vegetation. The traditional rural water supply based on shallow dug wells and rainwater infiltration ponds (locally known as albarradas) has therefore been gradually complemented by deeper boreholes. However, intensive pumping during the past decade has led to lowering water tables and an increase in salinity, leading to the abandonment of several boreholes. Dryness is particularly pronounced in the southern zone of the Santa Elena peninsula around the city of Salinas, where mean annual rainfall amount is only 112 mm, distributed between January and April, mean annual temperatures range between 17oC and 35oC, and mean annual potential evapotranspiration is higher than 1200 mm. In the peninsula's northern zone, the phenomenon of 'garuas' (low fog and drizzling rain) may account for a slightly more humid environment. Hydrogeological Settings. The principal coastal aquifer of the Santa Elena peninsula consists of the Tablazo formation, composed of Quaternary sandstones and conglomerates, covered by alluvial river deposits formed by unconsolidated sands, gravels and clays, and underlain by the impermeable Azucar formation. The unconfined alluvial sediments correspond to groundwater recharge zones and supply drinking water to northern zone communities (Olon, Manglaralto, Valdivia) through shallow wells within or near the river bed. More pronounced stream/ aquifer connections exist in the southern zone (rio Verde, Pechiche, Manantial, Atahualpa), where groundwaters are recharged by streams and vice versa. Hydrochemistry and Isotopes. Three sampling campaigns for hydrochemistry and isotope parameters in groundwaters were carried out over the last two years under Technical Cooperation Project ECU8026, involving rainfall, surface waters, and groundwaters of both the northern and southern zones of the Santa Elena peninsula. New hydrological and geochemical data have contributed to the development of a conceptual hydrogeological model of the area, illustrated by stable isotope data (figure top right). The Santa Elena area aquifers consists mainly of rapidly recharged waters of short residence times, resulting in a very dry southern zone, with particularly isotopically depleted precipitation between January and March. These isotopically lighter groundwaters are mixed along the Meteoric Water Line with groundwaters from the northern zone Tablazo formation aquifer, and along an evaporation line with groundwaters derived from water accumulated in infiltration ponds called 'albarradas' in the southern zone. Geothermal springs in the southern zone are indicated through pronounced deviations in oxygen-18 values. Elevated salinity in some samples within the Tablazo formation aquifer is accounted for by the marine origin of sediments; no marine intrusion has been detected at the examined sites. However, rapid infiltration and mixing within both Tablazo and alluvial formations may impact on potential contamination pathways and vulnerability of the aquifer. Regional Impact of Results. Regional water communities and services have been involved in sampling, field monitoring (see picture

  2. Laboratory experiments of salt water intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The problem of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers is dealt with by the proper setup of a sand-box device to develop laboratory experiments in a controlled environment. Saline intrusion is a problem of fundamental importance and affects the quality of both surface water and groundwater in coastal areas. In both cases the phenomenon may be linked to anthropogenic (construction of reservoirs, withdrawals, etc.) and/or natural (sea-level excursions, variability of river flows, etc.) changes. In recent years, the escalation of this problem has led to the development of specific projects and studies to identify possible countermeasures, typically consisting of underground barriers. Physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion problem, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of solutions to contain the salt wedge. In order to study and describe the evolution of the salt wedge, the effectiveness of underground barriers, and the distance from the coast of a withdrawal that guarantees a continuous supply of fresh water, a physical model has been realized at the University of Padova to represent the terminal part of a coastal aquifer. It consists of a laboratory flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 45 cm with glass beads with a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10~= 1.5. The material is homogeneous and characterized by a porosity of about 0.37 and by an hydraulic conductivity of about 1.8×10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank, continuously supplied by a pump, provides fresh water to recharge the aquifer, while the downstream tank, filled with salt water, simulates the sea. The volume of the downstream tank (~= 2 m3) is about five times the upstream one, so that density variations due to the incoming fresh water flow are negligible. The water level in the two tanks is continuously monitored by means of two level probes and is controlled by a couple of spillways placed in both the upstream and downstream tanks, ensuring a constant gradient during the tests. The flow rate spilled from the downstream tank is continuously measured so that it is possible to control the fulfillment of the stationary condition in the system. While we use food dye to mark saltwater to give an easy visual evidence of the salt wedge, the spatio-temporal evolution of the concentration is monitored during the experiment by using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). An electrode system specifically realized to be effective in the flume is used during the experiments to achieve electrical resistance measurements, later converted in concentrations through the calibration of a petrophysical law. The presentation describes the laboratory setup and the data achieved from the developed experiments compared with numerical simulations obtained by the SUTRA software.

  3. Seismic and gravity surveys over the concealed granite ridge at Bosworgy, Cornwall

    OpenAIRE

    Rollin, K.E.; O'Brien, C.F.; Tombs, J.M.C.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed gravity surveys around the margins of the Carnmenellis granite have identified several nearsurface granite ridges, including that drilled at Bosworgy. In an attempt to define the form of the granite ridge, two short reflection seismic lines were shot in 19 75. For various reasons the seismic results were disappointing and a further detailed gravity survey was carried out. This report describes the seismic results and an interpretation of available gravity d...

  4. Critical element ratio maps of granitic terrains for exploration of atomic minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper proposes a new type of geochemical map, named the 'Critical Element Ratio Map', involving K/Rb, Ba/Rb, and Rb/Sr ratios, to aid exploration programmes for atomic minerals in granitic terrains. Granitic rocks formed from highly evolved melts are favourable for hosting ore deposits of U, Th, Li, Be, Nb, Ta, Y, the rare-earth elements (REEs), Sn, W, and Cs. The characteristic geochemical features of this type of granite are low K/Rb and Ba/Rb ratios and high Rb/Sr ratios. The average K/Rb, Ba/Rb, and Rb/Sr ratios of high-calcium granitic rocks (tonalites, granodiorites, and leucogranodiorites) are 229, 8.18, and 0.25, and those for low-calcium granitic rocks (adamellites, granites, leucogranites, and alaskites) are 247, 2.35, and 1.70, respectively. In sharp contrast, the K/Rb, Ba/Rb, and Rb/Sr ratios of granitic rocks formed from highly evolved melts will be less than 100, less than 0.25, and more than 5, respectively. The paper also describes a simple, accurate, precise, rapid, and non-destructive method for determining K, Rb, Sr, and in granitic rocks by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRFS) and outlines the methodology for preparing 'Critical Element Ratio Maps' of granitic terrains. granite-hosted 'Rossing-Type' of uranium ore deposits are to be discovered in India, it will be possible only by launching an intensive programme for preparing 'Critical Element Ratio Maps' to identify granitic bodies characterized anomalously low K/Rb and Ba/Rb ratios and high Rb/Sr ratios within the large granitic terrains of Peninsular and Extra-Peninsular India. (author)

  5. REE in granites, topazes and fluorites of tungsten are Mongolian regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REE distribution in granites of different types as well as in fluorine minerals of accompanied tungsten deposits of tungsten-ore Mongolian regions has been considered. Evolution of REE distribution in the series melt-solution is traced on the basis of REE distribution in the series granites - magmatic topazes and fluorites in granites - hydrothermal topazes and fluorites of ore hydrothermal assemblages. Refs. 27, figs. 11, tabs. 4

  6. The generation, segregation, ascent and emplacement of granite magma: the migmatite-to-crustally-derived granite connection in thickened orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael

    1994-04-01

    Many granites result from anatexis of common crustal rock types and the segregation, aggregation, ascent and emplacement of the resultant magma. What then is the connection between migmatites, rocks which preserve evidence at outcrop-scale for the presence of former melt now frozen as granite, whether in situ or locally displaced with respect to the site of melting, and map-scale bodies of crustally-derived granite, clearly removed from the site of melting? Both water-rich volatile phase-present melting and volatile phase-absent dehydration melting can occur in the middle and lower crust, but dehydration melting that involves the decomposition of mica and amphibole likely is the more important process in the generation of plutonic volumes of magma with sufficient mobility to reach the upper crust. Both volatile phase-present and dehydration melting can occur in each of the two main types of orogenic belt, those that result from thickening before maximum temperatures are achieved (clockwise in P- T space) and those that result from heating prior to or concomitant with thickening (anticlockwise in P- T space). Depending upon the particular tectonic circumstances, the thermal perturbation to provide the heat necessary for crustal anatexis may be caused by internal radiogenic heat production in overthickened crust, intraplating/underplating of mantle-derived magma, an enhanced flux from the mantle, or some combination of these mechanisms. The tectonic environment to a large extent also controls the segregation, ascent and emplacement of granite magma. For example, at the present time a majority of convergent plate margins exhibit an oblique net displacement vector, and it is likely, therefore, that oblique convergence was important in the past. Retreating subduction boundaries will result in regional deformation of the overriding plate by horizontal extension or transtension in contrast to advancing subduction boundaries that will result in regional deformation of the overriding plate by horizontal shortening or transpression. Transpression can be considered as a zone of transcurrent shear accompanied by horizontal shortening across and vertical lengthening along the shear plane. It plays a vital role in overthickening of the crust, in structurally shuffling and thickening sedimentary basins, in assisting with the segregation of crustally-derived melts, and ultimately allowing for the ascent and emplacement of granite magma in extensional segments of the associated strike-slip system. Segregation of granite melt depends upon a number of factors that include how the liquid is distributed within the matrix of a partially melted rock and the viscosity of that liquid. The geometrical structure of partially molten rock is crucial to understanding its behavior. Migration of melt is a complex process that is achieved by compaction and buoyancy segregation, and flow into extensional and shear fractures and other dilatant sites. The driving force for segregation may be chemical or physical or a combination of both. In this review I stress the important role of deformation in enhancing segregation of melt. Magma buoyancy is a primary driving force for ascent, but diapirism no longer appears to be a viable mechanism. Rather, fracture-controlled mechanisms and deformation-enhanced ascent are considered to be of prime importance. Magma ascends in dykes to feed tabular batholiths that are constructed from hundreds of individual magma pulses due to magma ponding at roughly horizontal discontinuities in the upper crust. I emphasize the role of ductile shear zones and fault systems in the ascent and emplacement of magma. Many granites appear to have been constructed from sheets emplaced in transient dilational sites along transpressional strike-slip fault systems undergoing net contractional deformation. Emplacement is synkinematic, a void or cavity will not exist and filling at a suitable site occurs simultaneously with dilation. Rates of ascent are fast, consistent with a pulsed magma supply. Some examples cited in the literature of diapir

  7. Emplacement of the Lavadores granite (NW Portugal): U/Pb and AMS results

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, H. C. B.; Santovaia, Helena; Abreu, J; Oliveira, M.,; Noronha, F.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) and U-Pb geochronology, in zircon fractions, were carried out in a magnetite type-granite, the Lavadores granite, which is an example of a late to post-orogenic Variscan granite in northern Portugal (NW Iberian Peninsula). The U-Pb zircon analyses yield an age of 298 +/- 11 Ma that is considered to be the emplacement age of this granite and thus suggesting a post-tectonic emplacement. This is also supported by the magmatic nature of the m...

  8. Combining Naive Bayes and Decision Tree for Adaptive Intrusion Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Farid, Dewan Md; Rahman, Mohammad Zahidur; 10.5121/ijnsa.2010.2202

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new learning algorithm for adaptive network intrusion detection using naive Bayesian classifier and decision tree is presented, which performs balance detections and keeps false positives at acceptable level for different types of network attacks, and eliminates redundant attributes as well as contradictory examples from training data that make the detection model complex. The proposed algorithm also addresses some difficulties of data mining such as handling continuous attribute, dealing with missing attribute values, and reducing noise in training data. Due to the large volumes of security audit data as well as the complex and dynamic properties of intrusion behaviours, several data miningbased intrusion detection techniques have been applied to network-based traffic data and host-based data in the last decades. However, there remain various issues needed to be examined towards current intrusion detection systems (IDS). We tested the performance of our proposed algorithm with existing learn...

  9. NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION USING DATA MINING AND NETWORK BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Emam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection has become a critical component of network administration due to the vast number ofattacks persistently threaten our computers. Traditional intrusion detection systems are limited and donot provide a complete solution for the problem. They search for potential malicious activities on networktraffics; they sometimes succeed to find true security attacks and anomalies. However, in many cases,they fail to detect malicious behaviours (false negative or they fire alarms when nothing wrong in thenetwork (false positive. In addition, they require exhaustive manual processing and human expertinterference. Applying Data Mining (DM techniques on network traffic data is a promising solution thathelps develop better intrusion detection systems. Moreover, Network Behaviour Analysis (NBA is also aneffective approach for intrusion detection. In this paper, we discuss DM and NBA approaches for networkintrusion detection and suggest that a combination of both approaches has the potential to detectintrusions in networks more effectively.

  10. Intrusion resistant underground structure (IRUS) - safety assessment and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the safety goals, human exposure scenarios and critical groups, the syvac-nsure performance assessment code, groundwater pathway safety results, and inadvertent human intrusion of the IRUS. 2 tabs

  11. Some reflections on human intrusion into a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises some of the Swedish nuclear regulators' requirements and views related to intrusion into a repository for spent nuclear fuel, in the post-closure phase. The focus is however on experiences from the interaction with various stakeholders in the Swedish process for siting a repository. It is recognised that intrusion is not a major concern but that it is regularly raised in the debate, often in connection with issues related to retrievability. It is pointed out that more attention should be paid to the repository performance after an intrusion event, both in safety assessments and in communication with stakeholders, and not only address the immediate impacts to intruders. It is believed that international co-operation would be useful for developing methodologies for defining intrusion scenarios. (author)

  12. Towards Automated Intrusion Response: A PAMP - Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimiru Richard M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current Intrusion Detection Systems have mainly concentrated on detection ofintrusions with no mechanisms incorporated to respond to such intrusions. The major problem inautomating IDS responses has mainly been because currently IDS experience high false alarmswhich if automated would introduce denial of service or related problems. In this paper wepropose a mechanism that allows for some level of automation of intrusions response. Inparticular we emphasize that patterns exclusively associated with intrusions should be used asthe basis, thereby separating between the network connections that require further processing toestablish as to whether they are anomalous. We base our argument on the Human Immunesystem immune system and as such some biological overview of the same is presented. Finally,we demonstrate that our proposed approach incorporates most of the desired features that havefor long been considered advantageous from studies of the immune system.

  13. Novel Non-Intrusive Vibration Monitoring System for Turbopumps Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AI Signal Research, Inc. proposes to develop a Non-Intrusive Vibration Measurement System (NI-VMS) for turbopumps which will provide effective on-board/off-board...

  14. Novel Non-Intrusive Vibration Monitoring System for Turbopumps Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ASRI proposes to develop an advanced and commercially viable Non-Intrusive Vibration Monitoring System (NI-VMS) which can provide effective on-line/off-line engine...

  15. Statistical Quality Control Approaches to Network Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohitha Goonatilake

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study of network intrusion, much attention has been drawn to on-time detection of intrusion to safeguard public and private interest and to capture the law-breakers. Even though various methods have been found in literature, some situations warrant us to determine intrusions of network in real-time to prevent further undue harm to the computer network as and when they occur. This approach helps detect the intrusion and has a greater potential to apprehend the law-breaker. The purpose of this article is to formulate a method to this effect that is based on the statistical quality control techniques widely used in the manufacturing and production processes.

  16. Nuclear waste disposal facility intrusion: an archeologist's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scenario is presented for the intrusion of a shallow land burial site by archeologists from a future generation. A description is given for the potential widespread exposure and contamination of populations by recovered artifacts

  17. Effectiveness of Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) in Fast Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shafi, Muhammad Imran; Hayat, Sikandar; Sohail, Imran

    2010-01-01

    Computer systems are facing biggest threat in the form of malicious data which causing denial of service, information theft, financial and credibility loss etc. No defense technique has been proved successful in handling these threats. Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (IDPSs) being best of available solutions. These techniques are getting more and more attention. Although Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPSs) show a good level of success in detecting and preventing intrusion attempts to networks, they show a visible deficiency in their performance when they are employed on fast networks. In this paper we have presented a design including quantitative and qualitative methods to identify improvement areas in IPSs. Focus group is used for qualitative analysis and experiment is used for quantitative analysis. This paper also describes how to reduce the responding time for IPS when an intrusion occurs on network, and how can IPS be made to perform its tasks successfully without effecting network speed nega...

  18. Illusory recollection in older adults and younger adults under divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Erin I; Fernandes, Myra A

    2009-03-01

    The authors investigated the effect of divided attention, study-list repetition, and age on recollection and familiarity. Older and younger adults under full attention and younger adults under divided attention at study viewed word lists highly associated with a single unstudied word (critical lure) once or three times, and subsequently performed a remember-know recognition test. Younger adults made fewer false remember responses to critical lures from repeated study lists, whereas younger adults under divided attention and older adults both showed an increase with repetition. Findings suggest older adults' susceptibility to illusory memories is related to a deficit in available attention during encoding. PMID:19290753

  19. Cretaceous Gross Spitzkoppe and Klein Spitzkoppe stocks in Namibia: Topaz-bearing A-type granites related to continental rifting and mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, I.; Frindt, S.; Kandara, J.

    2007-08-01

    The anorogenic Damaraland intrusive complexes in Namibia belong to the bimodal Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province and comprise mafic, silicic and alkaline plutonic and volcanic rocks that were emplaced into the Neoproterozoic Damara orogenic belt at 124 to 137 Ma. The magmatism was related to the Tristan mantle plume and continental rifting that led to separation of South America from Africa. Silicic plutonic rocks are found in the Gross Spitzkoppe, Klein Spitzkoppe, Erongo, Brandberg, Messum, Cape Cross, and Paresis complexes. The Gross Spitzkoppe and Klein Spitzkoppe stocks consist of texturally distinct types of topaz-bearing biotite (siderophyllite-annite) granites with columbite, zircon, magnetite, and monazite as typical heavy accessory minerals. A bimodal magmatic association is indicated by synplutonic mafic dikes and magmatic mafic inclusions. The stocks have rims of layered aplite-pegmatite stockscheiders against the country rocks. Miarolitic cavities and pegmatite-lined druses with gem-quality topaz and beryl indicate vapor saturation, and hydrothermal activity has locally produced wolframite-bearing greisen. The Spitzkoppe granites are highly evolved, marginally peraluminous (A/CNK 0.95 to 1.09) and characterized by high SiO 2 (74.4 to 78.6 wt.%), Na 2O + K 2O (7.6 to 8.8 wt.%, with K 2O prevailing over Na 2O), F, Rb, and Ga, as well as low MgO, Ba, and Sr. The small but clear differences in REE patterns [(La/Yb) N in Gross Spitzkoppe 2.5 to 7.7 with mean at 4.4, in Klein Spitzkoppe 0.6 to 1.6 with mean at 0.9, more pronounced negative (Eu/Eu *) N anomaly in Klein Spitzkoppe] show that the granites of the Klein Spitzkoppe stock are slightly more evolved than those of the Gross Spitzkoppe stock. Overall, the granites exhibit A-type and within plate characteristics. Available O, Nd and Sr isotope data suggest that the silicic rocks of the anorogenic Damaraland complexes have mixed sources, with plume-related mantle magmas and two types of lower crustal sources (orogenic Damara basement and pre-Damara gneisses) as end members. The mantle component prevails in the metaluminous and peralkaline granites of the Brandberg complex, whereas Damara crustal rocks were dominant in the source of the cordierite-bearing peraluminous granodiorites and tourmaline-bearing granites of the Erongo complex. Pre-Damara gneisses are the main source component in the Paresis rhyolites. The Spitzkoppe and Cape Cross granites have both major mantle and crustal (Damara) sources. Although it is not possible to identify a unique petrogenetic process by which the Damaraland complexes formed, it is clear that the magmas formed in an extensional environment and that both mantle and crustal sources were involved in production of these magmas.

  20. The design about the intrusion defense system for IHEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of network technologies, limitations on traditional methods of network security protection are becoming more and more obvious. An individual network security product or the simple combination of several products can hardly complete the goal of keeping from hackers' intrusion. Therefore, on the basis of the analyses about the security problems of IHEPNET which is an open and scientific research network, the author designs an intrusion defense system especially for IHEPNET

  1. NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION USING DATA MINING AND NETWORK BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Emam; Ahmed Youssef

    2012-01-01

    Intrusion detection has become a critical component of network administration due to the vast number ofattacks persistently threaten our computers. Traditional intrusion detection systems are limited and donot provide a complete solution for the problem. They search for potential malicious activities on networktraffics; they sometimes succeed to find true security attacks and anomalies. However, in many cases,they fail to detect malicious behaviours (false negative) or they fire alarms when n...

  2. Viable Network Intrusion Detection in High-Performance Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Robin

    2007-01-01

    Network intrusion detection systems (NIDS) continuously monitor network traffic for malicious activity, raising alerts when they detect attacks. However, high-performance Gbps networks pose major challenges for these systems. Despite vendor promises, they often fail to work reliably in such environments. In this work, we set out to understand the trade-offs involved in network intrusion detection, and we mitigate the impact of their choice on operational security monitoring. We base our study...

  3. Research on Intrusion Detection and Response: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Peyman Kabiri; Ali Ghorbani

    2005-01-01

    With recent advances in network based technology and increased dependability of our every day life on this technology, assuring reliable operation of network based systems is very important. During recent years, number of attacks on networks has dramatically increased and consequently interest in network intrusion detection has increased among the researchers. This paper provides a review on current trends in intrusion detection together with a study on technologies implemented by some resear...

  4. RT-MOVICAB-IDS: Addressing Real-Time Intrusion Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Álvaro; Navarro Llácer, Martín; Corchado, Emilio; Julian Inglada, Vicente Javier

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a novel Hybrid Intelligent Intrusion Detection System (IDS) known as RT-MOVICABIDS that incorporates temporal control. One of its main goals is to facilitate real-time Intrusion Detection, as accurate and swift responses are crucial in this field, especially if automatic abortion mechanisms are running. The formulation of this hybrid IDS combines Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) within a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to detect intrusio...

  5. A Simulated Multiagent-Based Architecture for Intrusion Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Onashoga S. Adebukola; Ajayi O. Bamidele; Akinwale A. Taofik

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a Multiagent-based architecture for Intrusion Detection System (MIDS) is proposed to overcome the shortcoming of current Mobile Agent-based Intrusion Detection System. MIDS is divided into three major phases namely: Data gathering, Detection and the Response phases. The data gathering stage involves data collection based on the features in the distributed system and profiling. The data collection components are distributed on both host and network. Closed Pattern Mining (CPM) al...

  6. Research on Distributed Intrusion Detection System Based on Mobile Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Zhisong Hou; Zhou Yu; Wei Zheng; Xiangang Zuo

    2012-01-01

    For the problems of traditional intrusion detection system, a distributed intrusion detection system based on mobile agent was designed. In this paper, the internal function of mobile agent was divided in architecture view, and the optimal agent migration algorithm was researched to facilitate the agent collaborative processing. The communication manner and interactive processes were applied in the design. Furthermore, the traditional Boyer-Moore (BM) algorithm was improved. The simulation re...

  7. Intrusions in trauma and psychosis: information processing and phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, E. M.; Steel, C.; Peters, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Intrusions are common symptoms of both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and schizophrenia. Steel et al (2005) suggest that an information processing style characterized by weak trait contextual integration renders psychotic individuals vulnerable to intrusive experiences. This ‘contextual integration hypothesis’ was tested in individuals reporting anomalous experiences in the absence of a need-for-care. Methods: Twenty-six low schizotypes and twenty-three individuals repor...

  8. Sensitive Data Protection Based on Intrusion Tolerance in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Jingyu Wang; xuefeng Zheng; Dengliang Luo

    2011-01-01

    Service integration and supply on-demand coming from cloud computing can significantly improve the utilization of computing resources and reduce power consumption of per service, and effectively avoid the error of computing resources. However, cloud computing is still facing the problem of intrusion tolerance of the cloud computing platform and sensitive data of new enterprise data center. In order to address the problem of intrusion tolerance of cloud computing platform and sensitive data in...

  9. HYBRID ARCHITECTURE FOR DISTRIBUTED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM IN WIRELESS NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedeh Yasaman Rashida

    2013-01-01

    In order to the rapid growth of the network application, new kinds of network attacks are emerging endlessly. So it is critical to protect the networks from attackers and the Intrusion detection technology becomes popular. Therefore, it is necessary that this security concern must be articulate right from the beginning of the network design and deployment. The intrusion detection technology is the process of identifying network activity that can lead to a compromise of security po...

  10. Network intrusion detection system embedded on a smart sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Maciá Pérez, Francisco; Mora Gimeno, Francisco José; Marcos Jorquera, Diego; Gil Martínez-Abarca, Juan Antonio; Ramos Morillo, Héctor; Lorenzo Fonseca, Iren

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS) embedded in an Smart Sensor inspired device, under a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach, able to operate independently as an anomaly-based NIDS or integrated, transparently, in a Distributed Intrusion Detection System (DIDS). The proposal is innovative, because it combines the advantages of Smart Sensor approach and the subsequent offering of the NIDS functionality as a service with the SOA use in order to achieve their...

  11. Intrusive Thoughts Mediate the Association between Neuroticism and Cognitive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz, Elizabeth; Sliwinski, Martin J.; SMYTH, JOSHUA M.; Almeida, David M.; King, Heather A.

    2013-01-01

    Although research has established a negative association between trait neuroticism and cognition, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. We examined the tendency to experience intrusive thoughts and negative affect as potential mediators of the relationship between neuroticism and cognitive performance. We hypothesized that the tendency to experience intrusive thoughts reflects ineffective attentional control and would account for the relationship between neurot...

  12. Survey on Host and Network Based Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niva Das

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With invent of new technologies and devices, Intrusion has become an area of concern because of security issues, in the ever growing area of cyber-attack. An intrusion detection system (IDS is defined as a device or software application which monitors system or network activities for malicious activities or policy violations. It produces reports to a management station [1]. In this paper we are mainly focused on different IDS concepts based on Host and Network systems.

  13. Heinrich 0 at the Younger Dryas Termination Offshore Newfoundland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, C.; Andrews, J. T.; Jennings, A. E.; Bouloubassi, I.; Seidenkrantz, M. S.; Kuijpers, A.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

    2014-12-01

    The last deglaciation was marked by intervals of rapid climatic fluctuations accompanied by glacial advances and retreats along the eastern edge of the Laurentide ice sheet. The most severe of these events, the Younger Dryas cold reversal, was accompanied by the major detrital carbonate (DC) event generally referred to as "Heinrich event 0" (H0) in the westernmost and southern Labrador Sea. A detrital carbonate layer was observed in a high resolution marine sediment record from southern Newfoundland and the onset of the event was dated to 11,600 ± 70 cal. yrs. BP (local ?R = 140 yrs.). A variety of different proxies was applied to investigate the transport mechanisms for deposition of the layer and provenance of the carbonates. Elevated concentrations of dolomite and calcite based on quantitative X-ray diffraction measurements, combined with the presence of several mature petrogenic biomarkers limit the source of the H0 detrital input to Palaeozoic carbonate outcrops in north-eastern Canada. The event is attributed to the rapid ice retreat from the Hudson Strait directly following the warming at the onset of the Holocene. Based on additional proxy data published earlier from the same record, the event succeeded the early Holocene resumption of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), indicating that the Hudson Strait meltwater event had probably no significant impact on the AMOC. The detrital carbonate layer can be found in other marine sediment records along the Labrador Current pathway, from Hudson Strait to the Grand Banks and the so